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1

The nature of detrusor bladder neck dyssynergia in non-neurogenic bladder dysfunction.  

PubMed

There have been two major opinions on the pathology or nature of the bladder neck contracture. One is an organic fibrosis, and the other is an accentuated sympathetic nervous function, or detrusor bladder neck dyssynergia. The existence of active detrusor bladder neck dyssynergia in neurogenic bladder was reported in a urodynamical manner using microtip transducer catheters. However, it has not been confirmed whether or not detrusor bladder neck dyssynergia is responsible for bladder neck contracture in patient without neurogenic bladder. The present study was designed to determine by means of video urodynamic study whether or not bladder neck contracture would be of the same nature as detrusor bladder neck dyssynergia in non-neurogenic bladder subjects. The study included 32 male subjects of 16-84 years old (average 52.3): 17 bladder neck contracture subjects including 7 subjects associated with minimum complications (4 with trapped benign prostatic hyperplasia and 3 with incomplete neurological lesion) and 15 non-bladder neck contracture subjects (10 healthy volunteers, 2 chronic prostatitis, 3 prostatodynia). A 5-microtip transducer catheter was used to measure the pressure in the bladder and at the bladder neck, the external urethral sphincter and the bulbous urethra during voiding. Proper localization of the transducers was done with an image intensifier. Bladder outlet obstruction localized at the bladder neck (diameters smaller than 0.75 cm) on voiding cystourethrogram was defined as bladder neck contracture. Detrusor bladder neck dyssynergia was defined where pressures were higher at the level of bladder neck than in the bladder during detrusor contraction. An alpha-blocker, terazosin hydrochloride (0.5 mg, b.i.d., two weeks), was orally administered to subjects judged to have detrusor bladder neck dyssynergia by the above methods for the purpose of confirming whether detrusor bladder neck dyssynergia was really due to accentuated sympathetic nervous function. Detrusor bladder neck dyssynergia was found in seven cases with bladder neck contracture: 6 cases with bladder neck contracture with minimum complications and only 1 case with bladder neck contracture without complications (p < 0.01). Detrusor bladder neck dyssynergia was found at the beginning and ending of micturition, but not at maximum flow. In six cases with detrusor bladder neck dyssynergia, the condition disappeared after terazosin. In conclusion, detrusor bladder neck dyssynergia was not thought to be a major factor of voiding dysfunction in bladder neck contracture in non-neurogenic bladder. In the presence of sympathetic hyperactivity or in cases with increased number of alphareceptors, detrusor bladder neck dyssynergia occurs, being predominantly noted in trapped benign prostatic hyperplasia and neurological disorder patients. PMID:9406121

Yamanishi, T; Yasuda, K; Sakakibara, R; Hattori, T; Tojo, M; Ito, H

1997-10-13

2

Correlation of perineal ultrasound and lateral chain urethrocystography in the anatomical evaluation of the bladder neck.  

PubMed

Although perineal ultrasound has been widely used, no standard values have been published. In 52 women with urinary stress incontinence the following parameters were measured during resting and straining: a) with ultrasound: distance (Dy) between bladder neck and central line of the symphysis, distance (Dx) between bladder neck and lower border of the symphysis, and retrovesical angle beta; b) with urethrocystography (UCG): distance H between the bladder neck and the SCIPP line, inclination angle alpha and retrovesical angle beta. Dy and H correlated during resting ( r = 0.608; p<0.001) and straining ( r = 0.575; p<0.001). The distance Dy of 11 mm corresponded to a bladder neck position on the SQIPP line. A rotational descent was detectable when Dx increased from 13 mm (+/- 6.5) during resting to 16 mm (+/-7.8) during straining ( p=0.009). It was concluded that perineal ultrasound is valuable for the anatomical evaluation of the bladder neck. This is the first report to better define the position of the bladder based on ultrasonographic measurements. PMID:14676997

Troeger, Carolyn; Gugger, Monika; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Wight, Edward

2003-12-01

3

Bladder neck sparing in radical prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

The role of a bladder neck sparing (BNS) technique in radical prostatectomy (RP) remains controversial. The potential advantages of improved functional recovery must be weighed against oncological outcomes. We performed a literature review to evaluate the current knowledge regarding oncological and functional outcomes of BNS and bladder neck reconstruction (BNr) in RP. A systematic literature review using on-line medical databases was performed. A total of 33 papers were identified evaluating the use of BNS in open, laparoscopic and robotic-assisted RP. The majority were retrospective case series, with only one prospective, randomised, blinded study identified. The majority of papers reported no significant difference in oncological outcomes using a BNS or BNr technique, regardless of the surgical technique employed. Quoted positive surgical margin rates ranged from 6% to 32%. Early urinary continence (UC) rates were ranged from 36% to 100% at 1 month, with long-term UC rate reported at 84-100% at 12 months if the bladder neck (BN) was spared. BNS has been shown to improve early return of UC and long-term UC without compromising oncological outcomes. Anastomotic stricture rate is also lower when using a BNS technique. PMID:24235797

Smolski, Michal; Esler, Rachel C.; Turo, Rafal; Collins, Gerald N.; Oakley, Neil; Brough, Richard

2013-01-01

4

Bladder exstrophy: Comparison of anatomical bladder neck repair with innervation preserving sphincteroplasty versus Young-Dees-Leadbetter bladder neck reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate the outcome of innervation preserving sphincteroplasty along with anatomical bladder neck reconstruction (IPS-ABNR) compared to classic Young-Dees-Leadbetter (YDL) bladder neck reconstruction in exstrophy with insufficient bladder capacity requiring detubularized-ileocystoplasty. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male patients of exstrophy bladder who required ileocystoplasty from 2004 to 2010 were randomized into group A (n = 7) and group B (n = 9). After detubularized-ileocystoplasty with Mitrofanoff stoma and ureteric reimplantation in all, group A received YDL bladder neck repair while group B received IPS-ABNR repair through a midline scrotoperineal approach. Outcome measurement included operative and postoperative problems, continence, and upper tract status. Results: In group A, two had incompetent bladder neck with gross incontinence, while four had a dry interval of more than 3 h without the ability of voiding per urethra. In group B, seven patients had dry interval of more than 3 h with an ability of urethral voiding and midstream holding in five. Conclusions: Exstrophy patients requiring augmentation cystoplasty and repaired with IPS-ABNR can achieve dynamic bladder outlet resistance with adequate leak point pressure and ability to void voluntarily with midstream holding capability. The children had the satisfaction of voiding per urethra with ability to stop in midstream similar to that in normal children. PMID:23798810

Gupta, Archika; Kureel, Shiv Narain; Wakhlu, Ashish; Rawat, Jiledar

2013-01-01

5

Transurethral Incision of the Bladder Neck Using KTP in the Treatment of Bladder Neck Obstruction in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To study the results and complications of the potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP, green) laser during transurethral incision of the bladder neck in the treatment of female voiding dysfunction due to bladder neck obstruction. Methods: A total of 40 women (43–79 years of age) with obstruction were identified. Patients with neurogenic, traumatic, or iatrogenic causes of obstruction were excluded. Preoperative investigations included

Qiang Fu; Yue-Min Xu

2009-01-01

6

Incontinence, bladder neck mobility, and sphincter ruptures in primiparous women  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the function of the pelvic floor in primiparae before and during pregnancy with the status post partum concerning symptoms of incontinence, sphincter ruptures, bladder-neck mobility and the influence of the different modes of deliveries. Methods Questionnaire evaluating symptoms of urinary and anal incontinence in nulliparous women before and after delivery and correlating these symptoms with functional changes of the pelvic floor based on a careful gynaecologic examination as well as perineal and endoanal ultrasound. Results 112 women were included in our study and came for the first visit, 99 women returned for follow-up 6 months after childbirth. Stress and flatus incontinence significantly increased from before pregnancy (3 and 12%) to after childbirth (21 and 28%) in women with spontaneous delivery or vacuum extraction. No new symptoms occurred after c-section. There was no significant difference between the bladder neck position before and after delivery. The mobility of the bladder neck was significantly higher after vaginal delivery using a vacuum extraction compared to spontaneous delivery or c-section. The bladder neck in women with post partum urinary stress incontinence was significantly more mobile than in continent controls. The endoanal ultrasound detected seven occult sphincter defects without any correlation to symptoms of anal incontinence. Conclusion Several statistically significant changes of the pelvic floor after delivery were demonstrated. Spontaneous vaginal delivery or vacuum extraction increases the risk for stress or anal incontinence, delivery with vacuum extraction leads to higher bladder neck mobility and stress incontinent women have more mobile bladder necks than continent women. PMID:20696633

2010-01-01

7

Modified Transurethral Incision of the Bladder Neck Treating Primary Bladder Neck Obstruction in Young Men: A Method to Improve Voiding Function and to Preserve Antegrade Ejaculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the voiding function, ejaculation status and sexual function after the novel modification of transurethral incision of the bladder neck (TIBN) treating young men with primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO). Methods: Using a videourodynamic study, PBNO was diagnosed in 33 young men 27–50 years of age who presented with chronic lower urinary tract symptoms and low urinary flow.

Stephen Shei-Dei Yang; Yao-Chou Tsai; Jen-Jih Chen; Chung-Hsin Peng; Jui-Hsiang Hsieh; Chung Cheng Wang

2008-01-01

8

Urodynamic Evaluation after Endoscopic Modified Bladder Neck Suspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 45 simplified double-needle bladder neck suspensions for genuine stress incontinence were clinically and urodynamically evaluated pre- and postoperatively. After a mean follow-up of 26 months, the subjective cure rate was 82.2% and the objective cure rate was 86.6%. Comparison of the pre- and postoperative urodynamic parameters showed a significant change in the maximum urethral closure pressure, functional

T. Ahmet Serel; Mete Güngör

1999-01-01

9

Post-Radical-Prostatectomy Urinary Incontinence: The Management of Concomitant Bladder Neck Contracture  

PubMed Central

Urinary incontinence postradical prostatectomy is a common problem which adversely affects quality of life. Concomitant bladder neck contracture in the setting of postprostatectomy incontinence represents a challenging clinical problem. Postprostatectomy bladder neck contracture is frequently recurrent and makes surgical management of incontinence difficult. The aetiology of bladder neck contracture and what constitutes the optimum management strategy are controversial. Here we review the literature and also present our approach. PMID:22611382

King, Thomas; Almallah, Y. Zaki

2012-01-01

10

Emergency primary repair of grade V bladder neck injury complicating pelvic fracture  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a grade V bladder injury complicating an open-book pelvic fracture following a road traffic accident. The bladder neck injury was primarily repaired in the emergency setting of a poor-resourced area with successful outcome. The dangers of urinary extravasation are still to be considered of importance and we advocate and encourage immediate/emergency open intervention although it remains controversial to say the least in a lesser resourced healthcare set up. PMID:25076980

2014-01-01

11

Using transurethral Ho:YAG-laser resection to treat urethral stricture and bladder neck contracture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: Ho:YAG laser had been used to treat the common diseases of urinary system such as bladder cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia in our hospital. This study is to assess the efficacy and safety of transurethral Ho:YAG-laser resection to treat the urethral stricture and bladder neck contracture. Methods: From May 1997 to August 2004, 26 cases of urethral stricture and 33 cases of bladder neck contracture were treated by transurethral Ho:YAG-laser resection. These patients were followed up at regular intervals after operation. The uroflow rate of these patients was detected before and one-month after operation. The blood loss and the energy consumption of holmium-laser during the operation as well as the complications and curative effect after operation were observed. Results: The therapeutic effects were considered successful, with less bleeding and no severe complications. The Qmax of one month postoperation increased obviously than that of preoperation. Of the 59 cases, restenosis appeared in 11 cases (19%) with the symptoms of dysuria and weak urinary stream in 3-24 months respectively. Conclusions: The Ho:YAG-laser demonstrated good effect to treat the obstructive diseases of lower urinary tract such as urethral stricture and bladder neck contracture. It was safe, minimal invasive and easy to operate.

Bo, Juanjie; Dai, Shengguo; Huang, Xuyuan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Huiguo; Shi, Hongmin

2005-07-01

12

Modified four corner bladder neck suspension in anatomical stress incontinence with moderate cystocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and the short- and long-term results of the modified four corner bladder neck suspension\\u000a (FCBNS) procedure in the correction of type 2 stress urinary incontinence with moderate cystocele. We studied retrospectively\\u000a 26 consecutive patients who underwent modified FCBNS procedure during a 2-year period at our institution. The modifications\\u000a that were made were the distal

Ö. Atahan; Ö. Kayigil; A. Metin

1998-01-01

13

Sympathetic efferent pathways projecting to the bladder neck and proximal urethra in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sympathetic innervation of the rat bladder neck and proximal urethra (BN\\/PU) was investigated by measuring BN\\/PU pressure responses to electrical stimulation of a left lumbar splanchnic nerve (LSN) following consecutive transections of more distal nerves. L2–L6 LSN stimulation increased BN\\/PU pressure. BN\\/PU pressure responses did not change after section of the right hypogastric nerve (HGN) but significantly decreased after

Kazunori Kihara; William C de Groat

1997-01-01

14

The Musculature of the Bladder-neck of the Male in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Two muscles, one voluntary the other involuntary, and an inch or more apart, exist at the bladder-neck, both functioning as sphincters. This dual musculature is explained by the emergence of the ejaculatory ducts between them. If both these muscles are open when semen is discharged, secretion may escape into the bladder or to the exterior; also any urine in the bladder would flow out. The internal sphincter is usually tightly contracted during ejaculation. Instances are given in which the internal sphincter is paralysed or injured, e.g. after operation, in prostatic hypertrophy, and in certain nervous diseases. Two instances are reported of direct injury to this localized area, with the result, in all cases, that ejaculation failed. In prostatic hypertrophy the internal sphincter is dilated by the growing adenoma, and at operation it is further stretched and perhaps cut across. Continence then depends on the external sphincter. Two cases are reported in which the external sphincter had previously been paralysed, total incontinence resulting. Recent work on the trigonal muscle; its function in opening the internal sphincter. Influence of this muscle on prostatic enlargement. In central nervous disease the dilatation of the internal sphincter resulting in funnel-neck is very common. Series of cases of nervous disease examined in order to determine the frequency of this sign are reported. Other cases occurring apart from nervous disease are also reported. The part played by the sphincters in ejaculation is discussed and illustrated by reports of further cases of paralysis of the sphincter. It is shown that in the normal way the external sphincter weakens during coitus, and especially during ejaculation, but when the internal sphincter is paralysed no weakening is evident. Penile erection is associated with spasm of the internal sphincter, and spasm of the internal sphincter is produced by irritation, e.g. vesical stone may produce priapism. The varying types of adenoma bear different relationship to the internal sphincter. The view that submucosal glands give rise to prostatic enlargement is supported. The influence of prostatic enlargement on the internal sphincter is discussed. ImagesFig. 3 PMID:19990023

Macalpine, J. B.

1934-01-01

15

Unroofed Midline Prostate Cyst Misled Into a Stricture With Obliterative Bladder Neck Contracture Following a Laser Prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

We report on a case of a 67-year-old man who presented with persistent lower urinary tract symptoms following a potassium titanyl phosphate laser photoselective vaporization of prostate. Upon further diagnostic examinations were performed, he was noted to have an obliterative bladder neck contracture with an incidental, misleading, and rare presence of an unroofed midline anterior prostatic cyst presenting as a stricture. As we were presented with this case, it was imperative to address these complications of bladder neck contracture and incompletely ablated prostatic cyst. This report brings to light underestimated complicating factors in the urinary tract, and the diagnostic and therapeutic interventions we had undertaken to rectify the identified complications and improve patien's quality of life. The patient underwent internal urethrotomy, resection of prostatic cyst wall and transurethral resection of the prostate directed to improve his quality of life and prevent urinary retention. PMID:23610710

Diaz, Richilda Red; Lee, Joo Yong; Choi, Young Deuk

2013-01-01

16

Randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of Nd:YAG prostate ablation with or without KTP laser bladder neck incision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A randomized, double blind, power determined, prospective study compared patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia undergoing endoscopic laser ablation of prostate, ELAP, -- Group 1 -- to those with KTP bladder neck incision and ELAP -- Group 2. A dual wavelength Laserscope KPT/532TM laser was used with add/stat side-firing fibers. Post-operatively a urethral catheter was inserted, which was removed at 18 hours. Patients unable to void at this stage where then re-catheterized, discharged and readmitted two weeks later for catheter removal. Patients were followed up at three month intervals. Eighty eight patients were studied, pre-operatively there was no statistical difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in mean age, 68.0, 68.4 yrs; prostate size 28, 29 g; post void residual, PVR, 141, 126 ml; max flow rate, Qmax, 9.8, 9.4 ml/s; or AUA score 18.0, 20.4; respectively. Post-operatively 57% of Group 1 patients were able to void on catheter removal at 18 hours compared to 80% from Group 2; p less than 0.05, (chi) 2. After one month, two patients from Group 2 and one from Group 1 failed to void and required further surgery. At six months, data for Group 1 and 2 respectively: PVR equals 78.7, 61.4 ml, Qmax equals 16.2, 18.1 ml/s, AUA score equals 9.6, 6.38, p less than 0.005 for each. Group 2 had a significantly greater improvement in AUA7 score than Group 1.

Langley, Stephen; Gallegos, Christopher; Moisey, Clifford

1997-05-01

17

Bipolar plasma vaporization versus standard transurethral resection in secondary bladder neck sclerosis: a prospective, medium-term, randomized comparison  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This prospective, randomized, medium-term trial aimed to assess the efficiency, safety and postoperative results of bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) in comparison with monopolar transurethral resection (TUR) in cases of secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS). Methods: A total of 70 patients with BNS secondary to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP; 46 cases), open prostatectomy for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; 18 cases) and radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer (6 cases) were enrolled in the trial. The inclusion criteria consisted of maximum flow rate (Q max) <10 ml/s and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) >19. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after surgery by IPSS, quality of life score (QoL), Q max and postvoiding residual urinary volume (PVR). Results: The mean operation time (10.3 versus 14.9 minutes), catheterization period (0.75 versus 2.1 days) and hospital stay (1.1 versus 3.2 days) were significantly reduced in the BPV series. During the immediate postoperative follow up, recatheterization for acute urinary retention only occurred in the TUR series (5.7%). The medium-term retreatment requirements due to BNS recurrence were lower in the BPV study arm (2.8% versus 8.5%). At the 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months assessments, statistically similar parameters were found concerning the IPSS and QoL symptom scores, Q max and PVR values specific for the two therapeutic alternatives. Conclusions: BPV constitutes a valuable endoscopic treatment approach for secondary BNS. The method emphasized superior efficacy, a satisfactory safety profile and similar medium-term follow-up features when compared with standard TUR. PMID:23554842

Geavlete, Bogdan; Moldoveanu, Cristian; Iacoboaie, Catalin

2013-01-01

18

Bladder stones  

MedlinePLUS

Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Bladder stones are most often caused by another urinary system problem, such as: Bladder diverticulum Enlarged prostate Neurogenic bladder ...

19

An Immunohistochemical Analysis of a Newly Developed, Mouse Monoclonal p40 (BC28) Antibody in Lung, Bladder, Skin, Breast, Prostate, and Head and Neck Cancers.  

PubMed

Context.-Immunohistochemistry is important to the pathologist for accurate diagnosis of lung cancer. In recent studies, a rabbit polyclonal p40 (RPp40) antibody demonstrated equivalent staining versus anti-p63 in lung squamous cell carcinoma, and superior specificity because it stains a lesser percentage of lung adenocarcinoma. Objectives.-To develop an anti-p40 mouse monoclonal antibody (MMp40) for immunohistochemistry, and to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity in normal and neoplastic tissues, with emphasis on lung cancer. Design.-The MMp40 (BC28) antibody was developed and tested for specificity and sensitivity on normal (n = 34) and neoplastic tissues (n = 493). Staining of MMp40, p63, and RPp40 were directly compared in lung cancers, and MMp40 was evaluated in breast, bladder, skin, prostate, and head and neck cancers. Benign prostate glands and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia were also tested in a direct comparison of MMp40 versus p63. Results.-The MMp40 provided equivalent staining versus RPp40 and p63 in lung squamous cell carcinoma, but stained a lesser percentage of lung adenocarcinoma than p63 did. The MMp40 staining was observed in a greater percentage of urothelial carcinomas, squamous and basal cell skin cancers, and head and neck cancers of squamous cell origin. No breast-infiltrating ductal carcinomas or prostatic adenocarcinomas were stained. The MMp40 expression in basal cells of prostate glands and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia were almost identical to those of p63. Conclusion.-The MMp40 (BC28) monoclonal antibody is a high-quality screening antibody for determining squamous cell carcinoma in lung cancers, skin cancers of squamous or basal cell origin, squamous cell head and neck cancers, and urothelial carcinomas. PMID:24528495

Tacha, David; Bremer, Ryan; Haas, Thomas; Qi, Weiman

2014-10-01

20

Bipolar plasma vaporization versus monopolar TUR and "cold-knife" TUI in secondary bladder neck sclerosis - An evidence based, retrospective critical comparison in a single center clinical setting  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A long term, retrospective study was performed aiming to outline a critical comparison concerning the efficacy, safety and durability of the bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV), standard monopolar transurethral resection (TUR) and “cold-knife" “star" transurethral incision (TUI) in secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS) cases. Materials & Methods: Of the 126 patients included in the trial based on maximum flow rate (Qmax) below 10 mL/s and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) over 19, classical resection was performed in 46 cases, “cold-knife" TUI in 37 cases and bipolar vaporization in 43 patients. The evaluation protocol comprised IPSS, QoL (quality of life) score, Qmax and PVR (post-voiding residual urinary volume) assessment performed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after the initial intervention. Results: Significant intraoperative complications (capsular perforation – 8.7%; bleeding – 4.3%) occurred secondary to monopolar resection. “Star" TUI was the fastest technique, followed by plasma-button vaporization (7.2 and 11.4 versus 16.5 minutes). BPV and TUI patients benefitted from the shortest catheterization periods (0.75 and 1 versus 2.0 days) and hospital stays (1.0 and 1.25 versus 2.0 days). Immediate postoperative adverse events consisted of hematuria (6.5% of the TUR cases) and acute urinary retention (8.1% of the TUI group). Significantly higher long term BNS recurrence rates requiring re-treatment were established in the TUI (18.7%) and TUR (12.8%) series by comparison to BPV (5.4%). Among patients that completed the follow-up protocol, equivalent IPSS, QoL, Qmax and PVR features were determined in the 3 study arms. Conclusions: The plasma vaporization approach was confirmed as a successful match to conventional TUR and “cold-knife" TUI in terms of surgical safety profile, postoperative recovery, therapeutic durability and urodynamic and symptom score parameters. PMID:24653766

Moldoveanu, C; Geavlete, B; Jecu, M; Stanescu, F; Adou, L; Bulai, C; Ene, C; Geavlete, P

2014-01-01

21

Ascent/Descent Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ascent/Descent Software Suite has been used to support a variety of NASA Shuttle Program mission planning and analysis activities, such as range safety, on the Integrated Planning System (IPS) platform. The Ascent/Descent Software Suite, containing Ascent Flight Design (ASC)/Descent Flight Design (DESC) Configuration items (Cis), lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle ascent and entry modeling analysis and mission design, resides on IPS/Linux workstations. A list of tools in Navigation (NAV)/Prop Software Suite represents tool versions established during or after the IPS Equipment Rehost-3 project.

Brown, Charles; Andrew, Robert; Roe, Scott; Frye, Ronald; Harvey, Michael; Vu, Tuan; Balachandran, Krishnaiyer; Bly, Ben

2012-01-01

22

Descent Into Darkness  

E-print Network

DESCENT INTO DARKNE BY JOAN MARIE VERBA. edited by Ruth Berman proofreading: Kay Brown cover calligraphy by Joan Marie Verba Copyright (c) 1988 by Joan Marie Verba. Only original material within is covered by this copyright. DESCENT..., and Scott is the captain of engineering. The ENTERPRISE has been refitted with a variant of the multitronic computer, called the multiplex, and a full automation system is in place. Captain Adele Smetana, a student of DayStrom's, installed the computer...

Vreba, Joan Marie

1988-01-01

23

Bladder Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... can affect your bladder. Some common ones are Cystitis - inflammation of the bladder, often from an infection ... squeezes urine out at the wrong time Interstitial cystitis - a chronic problem that causes bladder pain and ...

24

Bladder cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder; Urothelial cancer ... In the United States, bladder cancer usually starts from the cells lining the bladder. These cells are called transitional cells. These tumors are classified by the way ...

25

Bladder Management  

MedlinePLUS

... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

26

Bladder Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

1993-01-01

27

Bladder cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) accounts for 90–95% of malignant tumours of the bladder in the UK. It is usually seen in elderly men and is particularly associated with smoking and exposure to industrial carcinogens. Most TCCs present with frank haematuria, although a minority are associated with urinary frequency and urgency. Diagnosis is made by direct visualization of the bladder by

Nicholas Munro; Peter Whelan

2006-01-01

28

Terminal Descent Sensor Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulcata software simulates the operation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) radar terminal descent sensor (TDS). The program models TDS radar antennas, RF hardware, and digital processing, as well as the physics of scattering from a coherent ground surface. This application is specific to this sensor and is flexible enough to handle end-to-end design validation. Sulcata is a high-fidelity simulation and is used for performance evaluation, anomaly resolution, and design validation. Within the trajectory frame, almost all internal vectors are represented in whatever coordinate system is used to represent platform position. The trajectory frame must be planet-fixed. The platform body frame is specified relative to arbitrary reference points relative to the platform (spacecraft or test vehicle). Its rotation is a function of time from the trajectory coordinate system specified via dynamics input (file for open loop, callback for closed loop). Orientation of the frame relative to the body is arbitrary, but constant over time. The TDS frame must have a constant rotation and translation from the platform body frame specified at run time. The DEM frame has an arbitrary, but time-constant, rotation and translation with respect to the simulation frame specified at run time. It has the same orientation as sigma0 frame, but is possibly translated. Surface sigma0 has the same arbitrary rotation and translation as DEM frame.

Chen, Curtis W.

2009-01-01

29

Bladder Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... a higher risk. Treatments for bladder cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biologic therapy. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to fight cancer. NIH: National Cancer Institute

30

Urinary Bladder  

MedlinePLUS

... Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Urinary System » Components of the Urinary System » Urinary Bladder Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life ...

31

Bladder exstrophy: An overview of the surgical management  

PubMed Central

Background: The surgical management of urinary bladder exstrophy is challenging. This paper describes the personal experience in a tertiary care hospital over a period exceeding a quarter of a century. Methods: During the period 1984-2010, 248 patients of the epispadias-exstrophy complex have been treated. The cases of classical bladder exstrophy (n = 210) form the basis of this paper. The stages/procedures used in the surgical reconstruction of bladder exstrophy included bladder closure with anterior abdominal wall reconstruction, bladder neck repair, ureteric reimplantation, epispadias repair and augmentation colocystoplasty in various combinations. Some of these patients had their initial operations done prior to 1984 or in other hospitals. Evaluation methods included, amongst others, clinical evaluation and urodynamic assessment. Eight patients opted out of treatment; 15 patients underwent permanent urinary diversion by either ureterosigmoidostomy or colon conduit. The remaining 187 patients were treated with bladder reconstruction, and of these, 132 patients have had at least one attempt at bladder neck reconstruction with 56 of these patients having undergone an augmentation colocystoplasty. Results: A total of 105 patients had socially acceptable continence: 57 from the bladder neck reconstruction group and 48 from the bladder augmentation group. Further attempts at continence surgery have been offered to the inadequately continent patients. Conclusions: Surgical management of bladder exstrophy demands patience and perseverance. It is possible to provide all patients with socially acceptable continence with bladder neck division and catheterizable continent stoma as the last resort. Urodynamic assessment has emerged as an essential tool in the follow-up evaluation of these patients. Anticholinergic medication with imipramine or oxybutinin is a useful adjunct in the overall management. PMID:21897565

Bhatnagar, Veereshwar

2011-01-01

32

Descent and descent groups in lovedu social structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic unit in Lovedu society is the extended family, the minimal descent group, of three, and occasionally four generations living together in a village under the control of the patriarch, or, after his death, of his son, the eldest in the chief house. It is a corporate group of considerable importance.An initial examination in this paper of situations in

Eileen Jensen Krige

1985-01-01

33

Neck Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Sex and Arthritis Neck Pain PRINT Download PDF Description Saying, “It’s a pain ... requires expensive or uncomfortable tests. What is neck pain? Acute strain may occur after sleeping in an ...

34

Stiff Neck  

MedlinePLUS

... infectious illness that can result in stiff neck, headache , and fever . What to Do If your child has a stiff or sore neck but no ... if symptoms persist Seek Medical Care If Your Child Has a Stiff Neck and: ... headache vomiting eye sensitivity to light a skin rash ...

35

Descent into theDescent into theDescent into theDescent into the Hell of VenusHell of VenusHell of VenusHell of Venus  

E-print Network

Descent into theDescent into theDescent into theDescent into the Hell of VenusHell of VenusHell of VenusHell of Venus Manuel AlfonsecaManuel AlfonsecaManuel AlfonsecaManuel Alfonseca #12;Manuel Alfonseca 2 #12;Descent into the Hell of Venus 3 DESCENT INTO THE HELL OF VENUS Manuel Alfonseca All Rights

Alfonseca, Manuel

36

Consert during the Philae Descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CONSERT experiment on board Rosetta and Philae is to perform the tomography of the 67P/CG comet nucleus measuring radio waves transmission from the Rosetta S/C to the Philae Lander and using the 67P nucleus rotation to cover different geometries. CONSERT will operate during the Philae descent. This geometry strongly differs from the "nominal" bistatic tomography where the orbiter is on the opposite side of the nucleus by regard to the lander. During the descent, CONSERT will measure direct wave propagating from orbiter to lander and waves reflected / scattered by the 67P surface and subsurface. This signal will provide information of the greatest interest for both scientific investigations of 67P and technical operations of Philae. The landing site position is known a priori with a large ellipse of dispersion due to uncertainties on the Rosetta velocity and Rosetta/Philae separation strength. This dispersion is increased by the difference between nominal and emergency separation strength. An accurate estimation of the landing position as soon as possible after landing is of the greatest interest to optimize Philae operation during FSS. So propagation delay of the direct and reflected waves measured by CONSERT will help to reconstruct the descent geometry in order to more precisely estimate the landing position. The reflected signal is determined by the surface properties: its dielectric permittivity, its roughness and layering. The signal power inversion will allow to map surface properties especially in the vicinity of the landing site. This paper details the measurement configuration. It presents the data retrieval based on Monte-Carlo simulation using Metropolis-Hastings algorithm and expected performances for both science and operations.

Herique, Alain; Berquin, Yann; Blazquez, Alejandro; Antoine Foulon, Marc; Hahnel, Ronny; Hegler, Sebastian; Jurado, Eric; Kofman, Wlodek; Plettemeier, Dirk; Rogez, Yves; Statz, Christoph; Zine, Sonia

2014-05-01

37

Descent theory for semiorthogonal decompositions  

SciTech Connect

We put forward a method for constructing semiorthogonal decompositions of the derived category of G-equivariant sheaves on a variety X under the assumption that the derived category of sheaves on X admits a semiorthogonal decomposition with components preserved by the action of the group G on X. This method is used to obtain semiorthogonal decompositions of equivariant derived categories for projective bundles and blow-ups with a smooth centre as well as for varieties with a full exceptional collection preserved by the group action. Our main technical tool is descent theory for derived categories. Bibliography: 12 titles.

Elagin, Alexei D

2012-05-31

38

Algorithm for Fuel-Conservative Airplane Descents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Federal Aviation Administration implementing automated, time-based metering form of air-traffic control (ATC) with profile-descent procedures for arrivals into terminal area. Measures provide fuel savings by matching arrival of airplanes to airport acceptance rate through time-control computations and allowing pilot to descend at his discretion from cruise altitude to designated metering-fix altitude in idle-thrust clean configuration. Airborne descent algorithm developed compatible with time-based metering and profile-descent procedures and designed to improve accuracy of delivering airplane during fuel-efficient descent to metering fix at time designated by the ATC system.

Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

1986-01-01

39

Isolated management of the aging neck.  

PubMed

The contour of the neck is a very important determinant of facial aesthetics. Precise knowledge of neck anatomy is essential for adequate planning and execution of this procedure. There are three anatomic and surgical planes involved in the management of the aging neck; the superficial plane (subcutaneous fat), the intermediate plane (platysma muscles and the fat between the two muscles), and the deep plane (subplatysmal fat, the anterior belly of the digastric muscles, and the submandibular glands). These planes need to be thoroughly evaluated in the preoperative assessment and dealt with according to each patient's needs. Even though this article focuses on isolated management of the aging neck, careful evaluation of the neck and its relationship to the lower third of the face is fundamental. If there is significant jowling and descent of the neck-face interface, an isolated neck-lift procedure will not address that problem and will lead to a suboptimal result. In these patients, a face and neck lift is a more appropriate operation. PMID:21037862

Mejia, Juan D; Nahai, Farzad R; Nahai, Foad; Momoh, Adeyiza O

2009-11-01

40

Stem Cell Therapy in Bladder Dysfunction: Where Are We? And Where Do We Have to Go?  

PubMed Central

To date, stem cell therapy for the bladder has been conducted mainly on an experimental basis in the areas of bladder dysfunction. The therapeutic efficacy of stem cells was originally thought to be derived from their ability to differentiate into various cell types. Studies about stem cell therapy for bladder dysfunction have been limited to an experimental basis and have been less focused than bladder regeneration. Bladder dysfunction was listed in MESH as “urinary bladder neck obstruction”, “urinary bladder, overactive”, and “urinary bladder, neurogenic”. Using those keywords, several articles were searched and studied. The bladder dysfunction model includes bladder outlet obstruction, cryoinjured, diabetes, ischemia, and spinal cord injury. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), and skeletal muscle derived stem cells (SkMSCs) are used for transplantation to treat bladder dysfunction. The main mechanisms of stem cells to reconstitute or restore bladder dysfunction are migration, differentiation, and paracrine effects. The aim of this study is to review the stem cell therapy for bladder dysfunction and to provide the status of stem cell therapy for bladder dysfunction. PMID:24151627

Lee, Sang-Rae; Song, Yun Seob; Lee, Hong Jun

2013-01-01

41

TCGA bladder cancer study reveals potential drug targets, similarities to several cancers  

Cancer.gov

Investigators with TCGA have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease. They also discovered that, at the molecular level, some subtypes of bladder cancer resemble subtypes of breast, head and neck and lung cancers, suggesting similar routes of development.

42

Predictability of Top of Descent Location for Operational Idle-Thrust Descents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the trajectory predictor and its uncertainty models, commercial flights executed idle-thrust descents at a specified descent speed, and the recorded data included the specified descent speed profile, aircraft weight, and the winds entered into the FMS as well as the radar data. The FMS computed the intended descent path assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and the controllers and pilots then endeavored to allow the FMS to fly the descent to the meter fix with minimal human intervention. The horizontal flight path, cruise and meter fix altitudes, and actual TOD location were extracted from the radar data. Using approximately 70 descents each in Boeing 757 and Airbus 319/320 aircraft, multiple regression estimated TOD location as a linear function of the available predictive factors. The cruise and meter fix altitudes, descent speed, and wind clearly improve goodness of fit. The aircraft weight improves fit for the Airbus descents but not for the B757. Except for a few statistical outliers, the residuals have absolute value less than 5 nmi. Thus, these predictive factors adequately explain the TOD location, which indicates the data do not include excessive noise.

Stell, Laurel L.

2010-01-01

43

[Fiddler's neck].  

PubMed

The fiddler's neck is an uncommon variant of acne mechanica in violinists and violists. It is a single firm red-brown dermal nodule usually on the left side of neck. This special form of acne mechanica represents a therapeutic challenge since the triggering mechanical factors persist, unless they can be corrected by changes in positioning or modifications of the chin pad. A 72-year-old woman who had played the violin since childhood presented with a red-brown nodule on her neck for 18 months. Cushioning provided no relief. Excision of the affected area with primary closure represented one therapeutic option. Further supportive measures include improved posture to reduce the pressure between skin and instrument and interposing a neck cloth. PMID:23989244

Knierim, C; Goertz, W; Reifenberger, J; Homey, B; Meller, S

2013-10-01

44

Managing Bladder Incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

... rev. 01 09, rev 07 13 PATIENT / FAMILY TEACHING SHEET Managing Bladder Incontinence What is bladder incontinence? ? ... medications can cause incontinence ? Skin irritation Other HPNA Teaching Sheets on are available at www.HPNA.org. ...

45

Feature Clustering for Accelerating Parallel Coordinate Descent  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate an approach for accelerating calculation of the regularization path for L1 sparse logistic regression problems. We show the benefit of feature clustering as a preconditioning step for parallel block-greedy coordinate descent algorithms.

Scherrer, Chad; Tewari, Ambuj; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Haglin, David J.

2012-12-06

46

Lunar descent using sequential engine shutdown  

E-print Network

The notion of sequential engine shutdown is introduced and its application to lunar descent is motivated. The concept calls for the utilization of multiple fixed thrust engines in place of a single continuously throttleable ...

Springmann, Philip N

2006-01-01

47

Descent relations in cubic superstring field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The descent relations between string field theory (SFT) vertices are characteristic relations of the operator formulation of SFT and they provide self-consistency of this theory. The descent relations langleV2|V1rangle and langleV3|V1rangle in the NS fermionic string field theory in the ? and discrete bases are established. Different regularizations and schemes of calculations are considered and relations between them are discussed.

Aref'eva, I. Y.; Gorbachev, R.; Medvedev, P. B.; Rychkov, D. V.

2008-01-01

48

Human factors by descent energy management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes some of the results of a human factors study of energy management during descent using standard aircraft displays. Discussions with pilots highlighted the practical constraints involved and the techniques (algorithms) used to accomplish the descent. The advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms are examined with respect to workload and their sensitivity to disturbances. Vertical navigation and flight performance computers are discussed in terms of the information needed for effective pilot monitoring and takeover

Curry, R. E.

1979-01-01

49

Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra  

MedlinePLUS

... urethra; Bruised bladder; Urethral injury; Bladder injury; Pelvic fracture; Urethral disruption ... is uncommon. Only about 8 - 10% of pelvic fractures lead to bladder injury. Because the bladder is ...

50

Mars Science Laboratory Rover and Descent Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this February 17, 2009, image, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover is attached to the spacecraft's descent stage. The image was taken inside the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

This is the way the spacecraft will look after it comes out of its protective aeroshell and is descending to the Martian surface in 2012. Here, the descent stage sits on top of the rover, with its eight main engines straddling the rover structure. The rover is the big white box below the descent stage. At this point, the rover lacks its appendages (robotic arm, mast and most wheels), as these elements are still being assembled and were not needed for space-simulation testing of the spacecraft in late 2008.

2009-01-01

51

Entry, Descent, and Landing With Propulsive Deceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet s moons atmospheres for entry, descent, and landing can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions.

Palaszewski, Bryan

2012-01-01

52

a perry descent conjugate gradient method with restricted spectrum ...  

E-print Network

liminary numerical results for a set of 720 unconstrained optimization ... Key words and phrases. large scale optimization, conjugate gradient method, descent property ...... and H. Zhang for CG DESCENT code and J. J. Moré for Matlab code

2011-05-09

53

Recursive descent parsing for Boolean grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recursive descent parsing method for the context-free grammars is extended for their generalization, Boolean grammars, which include explicit set-theoretic operations in the formalism of rules and which are formally defined by language equations. The algorithm is applicable to a subset of Boolean grammars. The complexity of a direct implementation varies between linear and exponential, while memoization keeps it down

Alexander Okhotin

2007-01-01

54

Research study: STS-1 Orbiter Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conversion of STS-1 orbiter descent data from AVE-SESAME contact programs to the REEDA system and the reduction of raw radiosonde data is summarized. A first difference program, contact data program, plot data program, and 30 second data program were developed. Six radiosonde soundings were taken. An example of the outputs of each of the programs is presented.

Hickey, J. S.

1981-01-01

55

Epitheliod Leiomyoma of the Bladder: An Unusual Case of Irritative and Obstructive Voiding Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Epitheloid leiomyoma is a very rare subtype of benign mesothelial tumors of the bladder. A 46-year-old female patient presented to our hospital with prolonged dysuria, frequency, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Bimanual examination revealed a mobile, round mass in bladder. There was a round hyperdense intravesical mass near bladder neck in computed tomography (CT) scan that was compatible with her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A well defined 3 × 4 centimeter mass was seen in superolateral part of bladder neck during cystoscopy. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and histopathologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid leiomyoma. The patient's followup was uneventful in a period of 2 years. Size and anatomic location of this tumor were major factors that affect on treatment. PMID:22701194

Kaviani, Ali; Razi, Abdollah; Mokhtarpour, Hooman; Mazloomfard, Mohammad Mohsen; Moeini, Aida; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

2012-01-01

56

Epitheliod leiomyoma of the bladder: an unusual case of irritative and obstructive voiding symptoms.  

PubMed

Epitheloid leiomyoma is a very rare subtype of benign mesothelial tumors of the bladder. A 46-year-old female patient presented to our hospital with prolonged dysuria, frequency, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Bimanual examination revealed a mobile, round mass in bladder. There was a round hyperdense intravesical mass near bladder neck in computed tomography (CT) scan that was compatible with her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A well defined 3 × 4 centimeter mass was seen in superolateral part of bladder neck during cystoscopy. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and histopathologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid leiomyoma. The patient's followup was uneventful in a period of 2 years. Size and anatomic location of this tumor were major factors that affect on treatment. PMID:22701194

Kaviani, Ali; Razi, Abdollah; Mokhtarpour, Hooman; Mazloomfard, Mohammad Mohsen; Moeini, Aida; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

2012-01-01

57

Accuracy and Factors Affecting the Outcome of Multi-Detector Computerized Tomography Urography for Bladder Tumors in the Clinical Setting  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector computerized tomography urography (MDCTU) for the detection of bladder tumors. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 143 patients who were scanned by use of 64-channel MDCTU and who underwent cystoscopy due to painless hematuria or a clinical suspicion of bladder tumor. We examined the accuracy of MDCTU for the detection of bladder tumors by comparing the results obtained by MDCTU with those obtained by cystoscopy. The associations between tumor characteristics, frequency of transurethral resection (TUR), and bladder volume and detectability of bladder tumors on MDCTU were also analyzed. Results Of 143 patients, 50 patients had a history of urothelial carcinomas. In these patients, the sensitivity and specificity of MDCTU were 60.0% and 80.0%, respectively. In 93 patients without previous urothelial carcinomas, the sensitivity and specificity of MDCTU were 86.7% and 96.8%, respectively. Falsely diagnosed cases had a smaller distended bladder volume (p=0.014) and a smaller tumor size (p=0.022) than did true diagnosed cases. The false-negative rate increased when the bladder tumor was located at the bladder neck. In the univariate analysis, the tumor location, size, frequency of TUR, bladder volume, and initial hematuria were associated with detectability by MDCTU (p<0.05). Conclusions To improve the accuracy of MDCTU for diagnosing bladder tumors, bladder filling is recommended. Thus, cystoscopy should be considered as a standard diagnostic tool for bladder tumors even in patients with normal MDCTU results, especially in the evaluation of recurrent, bladder neck-located, small, or sessile bladder tumors. PMID:21344025

Hwang, Eu Chang; Kim, Jun Seok; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung; Ryu, Soo Bang; Kim, Jin Woong; Wan, Lu Ji

2011-01-01

58

Portable Bladder Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Data from the National Population Health Survey indicate prevalence rates of urinary incontinence are 2.5% in women and 1.4 % in men in the general population. Prevalence of urinary incontinence is higher in women than men and prevalence increases with age. Identified risk factors for urinary incontinence include female gender, increasing age, urinary tract infections (UTI), poor mobility, dementia, smoking, obesity, consuming alcohol and caffeine beverages, physical activity, pregnancy, childbirth, forceps and vacuum-assisted births, episiotomy, abdominal resection for colorectal cancer, and hormone replacement therapy. For the purposes of this review, incontinence populations will be stratified into the following; the elderly, urology patients, postoperative patients, rehabilitation settings, and neurogenic bladder populations. Urinary incontinence is defined as any involuntary leakage of urine. Incontinence can be classified into diagnostic clinical types that are useful in planning evaluation and treatment. The major types of incontinence are stress (physical exertion), urge (overactive bladder), mixed (combined urge and stress urinary incontinence), reflex (neurological impairment of the central nervous system), overflow (leakage due to full bladder), continuous (urinary tract abnormalities), congenital incontinence, and transient incontinence (temporary incontinence). Postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, which is the amount of urine in the bladder immediately after urination, represents an important component in continence assessment and bladder management to provide quantitative feedback to the patient and continence care team regarding the effectiveness of the voiding technique. Although there is no standardized definition of normal PVR urine volume, measurements greater than 100 mL to 150 mL are considered an indication for urinary retention, requiring intermittent catheterization, whereas a PVR urine volume of 100 mL to 150 mL or less is generally considered an acceptable result of bladder training. Urinary retention has been associated with poor outcomes including UTI, bladder overdistension, and higher hospital mortality rates. The standard method of determining PVR urine volumes is intermittent catheterization, which is associated with increased risk of UTI, urethral trauma and discomfort. The Technology Being Reviewed Portable bladder ultrasound products are transportable ultrasound devices that use automated technology to register bladder volume digitally, including PVR volume, and provide three-dimensional images of the bladder. The main clinical use of portable bladder ultrasound is as a diagnostic aid. Health care professionals (primarily nurses) administer the device to measure PVR volume and prevent unnecessary catheterization. An adjunctive use of the bladder ultrasound device is to visualize the placement and removal of catheters. Also, portable bladder ultrasound products may improve the diagnosis and differentiation of urological problems and their management and treatment, including the establishment of voiding schedules, study of bladder biofeedback, fewer UTIs, and monitoring of potential urinary incontinence after surgery or trauma. Review Strategy To determine the effectiveness and clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound as reported in the published literature, the Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases. Nonsystematic reviews, nonhuman studies, case reports, letters, editorials, and comments were excluded. Summary of Findings Of the 4 included studies that examined the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound in the elderly population, all found the device to be acceptable. One study reported that the device underestimated catheterized bladder volume In patients with urology

2006-01-01

59

Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model  

SciTech Connect

The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

60

Neurogenic bladder simplified.  

PubMed

Neurogenic bladder dysfunction, if not properly diagnosed and treated, can lead to rapid deterioration of renal function by compromise of the upper urinary tracts. Two major categories of neurogenic bladder (detrusor hyperreflexia areflexia) have been discussed including the pathophysiology of the voiding dysfunction and the typical radiographic findings. Radiologists studying patients with suprasacral cord lesions should be aware of the causes, symptoms, and treatment of autonomic dysreflexia. Although video urodynamics is the state-of-the-art modality for evaluating complex or refractory neurogenic bladder, the practicing radiologist with an understanding of this condition can detect many radiographic changes in the lower urinary tract that suggest neurogenic dysfunction of various types. PMID:2024007

Amis, E S; Blaivas, J G

1991-05-01

61

Cecocystoplasty for bladder augmentation.  

PubMed

Augmentation of the bladder by cecocystoplasty has been studied in 37 patients during a 15-year period. The indications for an operation were a small contracted bladder secondary to tuberculosis in 31 cases, interstitial cystitis in 5 and carcinoma of the bladder in 1. Results were studied by the assessment of symptomatic improvement, the effect on renal function, urinary tract infection and the postoperative complications. Urodynamic studies also were done on 23 patients with tuberculosis of the renal tract and the results are discussed. Azotemia was not a contraindication to an operation but patients with enuresis or those who have evidence of psychiatric disturbance should be assessed carefully. PMID:7354508

Dounis, A; Abel, B J; Gow, J G

1980-02-01

62

Flat descent for Artin n-stacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove two flat descent statements for Artin n-stacks. We first show that an n-stack for the etale topology which is an Artin n-stack in the sense of HAGII, is also an n-stack for the fppf topology. Moreover, an n-stack for the fppf topology which possess a fppf n-atlas is an Artin n-stack (i.e. possesses a smooth n-atlas). We deduce

Bertrand Toen; Case Courrier; Eugene Bataillon

2009-01-01

63

Stochastic Gradient Descent Tricks Leon Bottou  

E-print Network

answer is y, and we choose a family F of functions fw(x) parametrized by a weight vector w. We seek the function f F that minimizes the loss Q(z, w) = (fw(x), y) averaged on the examples. Although we would like the empirical risk En(fw) using gradient descent (GD). Each iteration updates the weights w on the basis

Bottou, Léon

64

On Early Stopping in Gradient Descent Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study a family of gradient descent algorithms to approximate the regression function from reproducing kernel\\u000a Hilbert spaces (RKHSs), the family being characterized by a polynomial decreasing rate of step sizes (or learning rate). By\\u000a solving a bias-variance trade-off we obtain an early stopping rule and some\\u000a probabilistic upper bounds for the convergence of the algorithms. We

Yuan Yao; Lorenzo Rosasco; Andrea Caponnetto

2007-01-01

65

[A case of Noonan syndrome with neurogenic bladder].  

PubMed

We report a case of Noonan syndrome with neurogenic bladder. The patient was a 33-year-old man with a chief complaint of difficulty in urination, urinary frequency, and incontinence of urine. He had also various malformations, as deformities of the face, skull and hard palate, webbed neck, nail abnormality, edema of the lower extremities, contraction of visual field, deafness, malrotation of the intestine and so on. The case was diagnosed as Noonan syndrome because his karyotype of chromosome was 46, XY. Malformations of the urogenital organs were mild malrotation of bilateral kidneys, a right renal cyst, left cryptorchidism and pseudo phimosis. The uroflowmetrogram of the case showed a saw-like and flat pattern, with urination starting by tapping lower abdomen by himself. The cystometry and electromyogram of the external sphincter revealed neurogenic bladder with uninhibited contraction and detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia. This is the first case of Noonan syndrome with neurogenic bladder. PMID:1479762

Ohashi, H; Okuno, T; Mizuo, T

1992-11-01

66

Urinary Bladder Adenocarcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... channels. Healing begins with the pathologist’s diagnosis. Pathologists are core members of your patient care team. (continued from ... oncologists, radiologists and others. What kinds of treatments are ... most common treatment for urinary bladder adenocarcinoma is surgery, which ...

67

What Is Bladder Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... much less common than transitional cell (urothelial) cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma: In the United States, only about 1% to 2% of bladder cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Under a microscope, the cells look much like ...

68

Urinary Incontinence: Bladder Training  

MedlinePLUS

... a schedule that works for you. Keep in mind that bladder training can take 3 to 12 weeks. During your training program, your doctor may have you keep track of the number of urine leaks you have each day. This ...

69

Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... bladder area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

70

Bladder Cases - MP/H Rules  

Cancer.gov

Bladder Case 1 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY REPORT Surgical Pathology Report February 17, 2007 Specimen (s) received: Bladder Tumor Pre-operative Diagnosis: Bladder Cancer Post operative Diagnosis: Bladder Cancer Procedure: Cystoscopy, transurethral resection

71

System for Estimating Horizontal Velocity During Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The descent image motion estimation system (DIMES) is a system of hardware and software, designed for original use in estimating the horizontal velocity of a spacecraft descending toward a landing on Mars. The estimated horizontal velocity is used in generating rocket-firing commands to reduce the horizontal velocity as part of an overall control scheme to minimize the landing impact. DIMES can also be used for estimating the horizontal velocity of a remotely controlled or autonomous aircraft for purposes of navigation and control.

Johnson, Andrew; Cheng, Yang; Wilson, Reg; Goguen, Jay; Martin, Alejandro San; Leger, Chris; Matthies, Larry

2007-01-01

72

Genetics Home Reference: Bladder cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... with bladder cancer each year. What are the genetic changes related to bladder cancer? As with most ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

73

Questions about Neck Manipulation?  

MedlinePLUS

... to what they experience after some forms of exercise), headaches and tiredness. Some articles in the media ... A neck adjustment is a precise procedure, usually applied by hand, to the joints of the neck-- ...

74

Head and Neck Cancers  

MedlinePLUS

... Mendenhall WM, Mancuso AA, Amdur RJ, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the neck from an unknown head ... V, et al. Oral health and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and esophagus: results ...

75

Bladder cancer in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAge is now widely accepted as the greatest single risk factor for developing bladder cancer, and bladder cancer is considered as primarily a disease of the elderly. Because of the close link between age and incidence of bladder cancer, it can be expected that this disease will become an enormous challenge with the growth of an aging population in the

Shahrokh F. Shariat; Matthew Milowsky; Michael J. Droller

2009-01-01

76

General Information about Bladder Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... bladder cancer are due to high-grade disease. Squamous cell carcinoma : Cancer that begins in squamous cells , which are thin, flat cells that may form in the bladder after long-term infection or irritation. Adenocarcinoma : Cancer ... there is carcinoma in situ in other parts of the bladder. ...

77

African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES)  

PubMed Central

Objective To define differences in optic disc, retinal nerve fiber layer, and macular structure between healthy participants of African (AD) and European descent (ED) using quantitative imaging techniques in the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES). Methods Reliable images were obtained using stereoscopic photography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg retina tomography [HRT]), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for 648 healthy subjects in ADAGES. Findings were compared and adjusted for age, optic disc area, and reference plane height where appropriate. Results The AD participants had significantly greater optic disc area on HRT (2.06 mm2; P<.001) and OCT (2.47 mm2; P<.001) and a deeper HRT cup depth than the ED group (P<.001). Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was greater in the AD group except within the temporal region, where it was significantly thinner. Central macular thickness and volume were less in the AD group. Conclusions Most of the variations in optic nerve morphologic characteristics between the AD and ED groups are due to differences in disc area. However, differences remain in HRT cup depth, OCT macular thickness and volume, and OCT retinal nerve fiber layer thickness independent of these variables. These differences should be considered in the determination of disease status. PMID:20457974

Girkin, Christopher A.; Sample, Pamela A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Jain, Sonia; Bowd, Christopher; Becerra, Lida M.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Racette, Lyne; Dirkes, Keri A.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.

2010-01-01

78

Krylov Subspace Descent for Deep Learning  

E-print Network

In this paper, we propose a second order optimization method to learn models where both the dimensionality of the parameter space and the number of training samples is high. In our method, we construct on each iteration a Krylov subspace formed by the gradient and an approximation to the Hessian matrix, and then use a subset of the training data samples to optimize over this subspace. As with the Hessian Free (HF) method of [7], the Hessian matrix is never explicitly constructed, and is computed using a subset of data. In practice, as in HF, we typically use a positive definite substitute for the Hessian matrix such as the Gauss-Newton matrix. We investigate the effectiveness of our proposed method on deep neural networks, and compare its performance to widely used methods such as stochastic gradient descent, conjugate gradient descent and L-BFGS, and also to HF. Our method leads to faster convergence than either L-BFGS or HF, and generally performs better than either of them in cross-validation accuracy. It ...

Vinyals, Oriol

2011-01-01

79

Bladder exstrophy variants.  

PubMed

In the literature it is possible to find many case reports of bladder exstrophy variants, although a thorough classification with all possible associated malformations is not yet available. On the basis of a rare case observed at their Department, the authors studied the embryology of these conditions and their associated malformations. The purpose of this study is to review the literature currently available and suggest a classification for bladder exstrophy variants. Despite the rarity of these variants, surgeons need to know all possible associated malformations in order to have the most complete and correct clinical picture of their patients. PMID:17431375

Corroppolo, M; Zampieri, N; Pietrobelli, A; Giacomello, L; Camoglio, F S

2007-03-01

80

Robotic Anastomoses and Bladder Neck Reconstruction Following Radical Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the introduction of robotic-assisted technology, there has been a dramatic evolution of minimally invasive prostate cancer\\u000a surgery. Rapidly gaining popularity in both the United States and abroad, advantages of the robotic platform include enhanced\\u000a stereoscopic depth of field vision and dexterity facilitating precise suturing for reconstruction. In addition to the conventional\\u000a benefits of laparoscopy including reduced blood loss and

Marc C. Smaldone; Tina K. Schuster; Stephen V. Jackman

81

Teleconnection Mechanisms for Tropical Pacific Descent Anomalies during El Nino  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teleconnection mechanisms in relative descent zones are examined using the quasi-equilibrium tropical cir- culation model (QTCM). The regions of anomalous descent neighboring the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean during the 1997\\/98 El Nino are used as an example, and results are verified for three other El Nino warm events (1982, 1987, and

HUI S UA; NDJ. DAVID NEELIN

2002-01-01

82

RECURSIVE ASCENT-DESCENT PARSING R. Nigel Horspool  

E-print Network

RECURSIVE ASCENT-DESCENT PARSING R. Nigel Horspool Department of Computer Science, University-corner parsing was originally presented as a technique for generating a parser for the SLR1 class of grammars that subsumes the parsing methods known as recursive descent and recursive ascent hence the name recursive

Horspool, R. Nigel

83

Acculturation and Planning for College among Youth of Mexican Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined associations between acculturation, college planning, and college attendance in 410junior and senior high school students. Participants, of which three quarters were of Mexican descent and one quarter was of European descent, completed Cuellar; Harris, and Jasso's acculturation scale and a college-planning survey. Ten months later; 116 of the 148 participating seniors were interviewed to determine if they

Maria T. Hurtado; Mary Gauvain

1997-01-01

84

Bladder Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Bladder C670–C679 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12

85

Nanostructured bladder tissue replacements.  

PubMed

The interaction between cells or tissues and natural or synthetic materials which mimic the natural biological environment has been a matter of great interest in tissue engineering. In particular, surface properties of biomaterials (regardless of whether they are natural or synthetic) have been optimized using nanotechnology to improve interactions with cells for regenerative medicine applications. Specifically, in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated greater bladder tissue growth on polymeric surfaces with nanoscale to submicron surface features. Improved bladder cell responses on nanostructured polymers have been correlated to unique nanomaterial surface features leading to greater surface energy which influences initial protein interactions. Moreover, coupled with the observed greater in vitro and in vivo bladder cell adhesion as well as proliferation on nanostructured compared to conventional synthetic polymers, decreased calcium stone formation has also been measured. In this article, the importance of nanostructured biomaterial surface features for bladder tissue replacements are reviewed with thoughts on future directions for this emerging field. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2011 3 134-145 DOI: 10.1002/wnan.89 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:20730887

Chun, Young Wook; Lim, Hojean; Webster, Thomas J; Haberstroh, Karen M

2011-03-01

86

The Artificial Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial bladder should provide adequate urine storage, allow volitional complete evacuation of urine and preserve renal function. Moreover, its structure has to be biocompatible, resistant to urinary encrustation and tolerant to bacterial infection. Various solutions have been proposed over the years to achieve these multiple requirements. However, most of these solutions and their corresponding prototypes did not advance beyond

François Desgrandchamps; Donald P. Griffith

1999-01-01

87

Vision Based Approach for Entry Descent Landing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of art of the Entry Descent Landing Vision Based algorithms is summarized in this article. A common request for the future scientific missions is the exploitation of a precise landing approach and the EDL Vision based technique is a key method to reach this goal. The three general typologies of EDL Vision Based approach are described. On the basis of these techniques Thales Alenia Space Italy has developed an EDL Vision Based architecture. A detailed description of the architecture is given and, for each main task introduced, the selected algorithm, or the ones under evaluation are described and the obtained preliminary results are shown. A last paragraph briefly describes the EDL laboratory in Thales Alenia Space Turin premises.

Lanza, P.; Cometto, F.; Martelli, A.

2009-05-01

88

Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.

89

Distributed Control by Lagrangian Steepest Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Often adaptive, distributed control can be viewed as an iterated game between independent players. The coupling between the players mixed strategies, arising as the system evolves from one instant to the next, is determined by the system designer. Information theory tells us that the most likely joint strategy of the players, given a value of the expectation of the overall control objective function, is the minimizer of a function o the joint strategy. So the goal of the system designer is to speed evolution of the joint strategy to that Lagrangian mhimbhgpoint,lowerthe expectated value of the control objective function, and repeat Here we elaborate the theory of algorithms that do this using local descent procedures, and that thereby achieve efficient, adaptive, distributed control.

Wolpert, David H.; Bieniawski, Stefan

2004-01-01

90

Planetary entry, descent, and landing technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Martian meteorological lander (MML) is intended for landing on the Martian surface in order to monitor the atmosphere at landing point for one Martian year. MMLs shall become the basic elements of a global network of meteorological mini-landers, observing the dynamics of changes of the atmospheric parameters on the Red Planet. The MML main scientific tasks are as follows: (1) Study of vertical structure of the Martian atmosphere throughout the MML descent; (2) On-surface meteorological observations for one Martian year. One of the essential factors influencing the lander's design is its entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequence. During Phase A of the MML development, five different options for the lander's design were carefully analyzed. All of these options ensure the accomplishment of the above-mentioned scientific tasks with high effectiveness. CONCEPT A (conventional approach): Two lander options (with a parachute system + airbag and an inflatable airbrake + airbag) were analyzed. They are similar in terms of fulfilling braking phases and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. CONCEPT B (innovative approach): Three lander options were analyzed. The distinguishing feature is the presence of inflatable braking units (IBU) in their configurations. SELECTED OPTION (innovative approach): Incorporating a unique design approach and modern technologies, the selected option of the lander represents a combination of the options analyzed in the framework of Concept B study. Currently, the selected lander option undergoes systems testing (Phase D1). Several MMLs can be delivered to Mars in frameworks of various missions as primary or piggybacking payload: (1) USA-led "Mars Scout" (2007); (2) France-led "NetLander" (2007/2009); (3) Russia-led "Mars-Deimos-Phobos sample return" (2007); (4) Independent mission (currently under preliminary study); etc.

Pichkhadze, K.; Vorontsov, V.; Polyakov, A.; Ivankov, A.; Taalas, P.; Pellinen, R.; Harri, A.-M.; Linkin, V.

2003-04-01

91

Repair of Bladder Fistulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leakage of urine through an abnormal communication between the bladder and the vagina, or vesicovaginal fistula, can be one\\u000a of the more troubling disorders faced by women so afflicted. In some cultures, uncontrolled leakage of urine from the vagina\\u000a results in social ostracism (1,2). In others, women may simply be embarrassed and may view the condition as quite incapacitating. There

Mark J. Noble; Sandip Vasavada; Ian C. Lavery

92

Management of overactive bladder.  

PubMed

Many people are affected by urinary urgency, which can be highly bothersome. Urgency is the cornerstone symptom of overactive bladder (OAB), commonly occurring in conjunction with urinary frequency and nocturia. Once other medical causes of similar symptoms have been excluded, first-line OAB management comprises fluid intake advice and bladder training, supplemented by antimuscarinic drugs if necessary. Urodynamic confirmation of the diagnosis is required for OAB patients whose symptoms are refractory to first-line interventions. If patients are severely bothered by OAB despite optimization of medical treatment, they may proceed to invasive treatments, including neuromodulation, enterocystoplasty, detrusor myectomy, or urinary diversion. Our burgeoning understanding of the complex cellular, neural and integrative physiology of the bladder offers new insights into the causative mechanisms of OAB, and reasons why patients sometimes fail to respond to treatment. Study of sensory information pathways in the lower urinary tract has led to identification of the urothelium, afferent nerves and interstitial cells as key cellular elements in OAB. In-depth knowledge of the hierarchy of central nervous system control is lacking, but functional imaging is beginning to elucidate the challenges that lie ahead. New treatments under investigation include botulinum neurotoxin-A injection, oral ?(3)-adrenergic agonists, and novel modalities for nerve stimulation. The subjective nature of urinary urgency, the lack of animal models and the multifactorial pathophysiology of OAB present significant challenges to effective clinical management. PMID:20930868

Gulur, Dev M; Drake, Marcus J

2010-10-01

93

Normative values for testicular descent from infancy to adulthood.  

PubMed

Measurements of testicular descent and volume were performed on 100 newborns and 144 older children and adults. Mean values of testicular descent were determined for age as well as for Tanner pubertal stage, establishing normative values. We later used these normative values for testicular descent to evaluate subjects who had undergone treatment for cryptorchidism many years previously. These normative values are useful both for the evaluation and follow-up of cryptorchid, suboptimally descended, and retractile testes, as well as for the evaluation and follow-up of therapy, and may prove especially useful in the decision for therapeutic intervention with suboptimally descended testes. PMID:7903267

Sack, J; Reichman, B; Fix, A

1993-01-01

94

Curious foreign body in the bladder of an adolescent.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 14 year old boy who presented at our emergency department because of increasing alguria and dysuria one year after inserting a wire cable into his bladder for autoerotic purposes. Endoscopic transurethral removal of the foreign body proved to be impossible because the cable was of a stiff consistency and was trapped in scar tissue at the bladder neck. The foreign body therefore had to be extracted using a Pfannenstiel approach. Urethrocystoscopy and uroflow performed one week later were normal. Filiform intravesical foreign bodies can create particular challenges. Adequate diagnostic imaging, awareness of possible complications, and knowledge of the different available techniques are essential in planning safe extraction. PMID:23217915

De Bernardis, Gaston; Haecker, Frank-Martin

2012-12-01

95

Drug delivery device for bladder disorders  

E-print Network

Several pathologies associated with the bladder have wide impacts on society. Overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) are chronic urological conditions characterized by pain, ...

Lee, Heejin, 1976-

2009-01-01

96

Nerve Disease and Bladder Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development is supporting Collaborative Urological Research in Spinal Cord Injury, a program devoted to finding novel strategies to treat bladder ...

97

American Head and Neck Society  

MedlinePLUS

American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS History AHNS Leadership Past Presidents In Memory Professionalism & ... Convention Center/Sheraton Boston Presenting the Best of Head & Neck Surgery from Both a Clinical & Research Perspective learn ...

98

Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing simulation was created over the past two years to serve as the primary Crew Exploration Vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) design and analysis tool at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) simulation is a six degree-of-freedom tool with a unique design architecture which has a high level of flexibility. This paper describes the decision history and motivations that guided the creation of this simulation tool. The capabilities of the models within ANTARES are presented in detail. Special attention is given to features of the highly flexible GN&C architecture and the details of the implemented GN&C algorithms. ANTARES provides a foundation simulation for the Orion Project that has already been successfully used for requirements analysis, system definition analysis, and preliminary GN&C design analysis. ANTARES will find useful application in engineering analysis, mission operations, crew training, avionics-in-the-loop testing, etc. This paper focuses on the entry simulation aspect of ANTARES, which is part of a bigger simulation package supporting the entire mission profile of the Orion vehicle. The unique aspects of entry GN&C design are covered, including how the simulation is being used for Monte Carlo dispersion analysis and for support of linear stability analysis. Sample simulation output from ANTARES is presented in an appendix.

Hoelscher, Brian R.

2007-01-01

99

Distributed Method to Optimal Profile Descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current ground automation tools for Optimal Profile Descent (OPD) procedures utilize path stretching and speed profile change to maintain proper merging and spacing requirements at high traffic terminal area. However, low predictability of aircraft's vertical profile and path deviation during decent add uncertainty to computing estimated time of arrival, a key information that enables the ground control center to manage airspace traffic effectively. This paper uses an OPD procedure that is based on a constant flight path angle to increase the predictability of the vertical profile and defines an OPD optimization problem that uses both path stretching and speed profile change while largely maintaining the original OPD procedure. This problem minimizes the cumulative cost of performing OPD procedures for a group of aircraft by assigning a time cost function to each aircraft and a separation cost function to a pair of aircraft. The OPD optimization problem is then solved in a decentralized manner using dual decomposition techniques under inter-aircraft ADS-B mechanism. This method divides the optimization problem into more manageable sub-problems which are then distributed to the group of aircraft. Each aircraft solves its assigned sub-problem and communicate the solutions to other aircraft in an iterative process until an optimal solution is achieved thus decentralizing the computation of the optimization problem.

Kim, Geun I.

100

Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with bladder cancer risk.  

PubMed

Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 11 independent susceptibility loci associated with bladder cancer risk. To discover additional risk variants, we conducted a new GWAS of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with two independently published bladder cancer GWAS, resulting in a combined analysis of 6911 cases and 11 814 controls of European descent. TaqMan genotyping of 13 promising single nucleotide polymorphisms with P < 1 × 10(-5) was pursued in a follow-up set of 801 cases and 1307 controls. Two new loci achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs10936599 on 3q26.2 (P = 4.53 × 10(-9)) and rs907611 on 11p15.5 (P = 4.11 × 10(-8)). Two notable loci were also identified that approached genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 on 20p12.2 (P = 7.13 × 10(-7)) and rs4510656 on 6p22.3 (P = 6.98 × 10(-7)); these require further studies for confirmation. In conclusion, our study has identified new susceptibility alleles for bladder cancer risk that require fine-mapping and laboratory investigation, which could further understanding into the biological underpinnings of bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:24163127

Figueroa, Jonine D; Ye, Yuanqing; Siddiq, Afshan; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Cortessis, Victoria K; Kooperberg, Charles; Cussenot, Olivier; Benhamou, Simone; Prescott, Jennifer; Porru, Stefano; Dinney, Colin P; Malats, Núria; Baris, Dalsu; Purdue, Mark; Jacobs, Eric J; Albanes, Demetrius; Wang, Zhaoming; Deng, Xiang; Chung, Charles C; Tang, Wei; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ljungberg, Börje; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Travis, Ruth; Tjønneland, Anne; Brenan, Paul; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Riboli, Elio; Conti, David; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Stern, Mariana C; Pike, Malcolm C; Van Den Berg, David; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hohensee, Chancellor; Rodabough, Rebecca; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Roupret, Morgan; Comperat, Eva; Chen, Constance; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara; Carta, Angela; Pavanello, Sofia; Arici, Cecilia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Kamat, Ashish M; Lerner, Seth P; Barton Grossman, H; Lin, Jie; Gu, Jian; Pu, Xia; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdette, Laurie; Wheeler, William; Kogevinas, Manolis; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Johnson, Alison; Schned, Alan; Armenti, Karla R; Hosain, G M; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Ryan Diver, W; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Haiman, Chris A; Landi, Maria T; Caporaso, Neil; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Vineis, Paolo; Wu, Xifeng; Silverman, Debra T; Chanock, Stephen; Rothman, Nathaniel

2014-03-01

101

Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

Coopenbarger, Richard A.

2010-01-01

102

Challenge of Mars EDL (Entry, Descent, and Landing).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the some of the challenges of Martian atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) on the surface of Mars. It reviews some of the technological difficulties, and some solutions that are being developed for future unmanned m...

R. Sostaric

2010-01-01

103

Ascent/descent ancillary data production user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Product, also called the A/D BET because it contains a Best Estimate of the Trajectory (BET), is a collection of trajectory, attitude, and atmospheric related parameters computed for the ascent and descent phases of each Shuttle Mission. These computations are executed shortly after the event in a post-flight environment. A collection of several routines including some stand-alone routines constitute what is called the Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Production Program. A User's Guide for that program is given. It is intended to provide the reader with all the information necessary to generate an Ascent or a Descent Ancillary Data Product. It includes descriptions of the input data and output data for each routine, and contains explicit instructions on how to run each routine. A description of the final output product is given.

Brans, H. R.; Seacord, A. W., II; Ulmer, J. W.

1986-01-01

104

Promotion in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Aromatic amines, including 2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine, are known urinary bladder carcinogens in man and other species, but in rodents, aromatic amines and amides have usually induced liver tumors, occasionally also with tumors of the bladder and other tissues. Variations in organ specificity are related to differences in metabolism; for the production of bladder tumors, the rates of acetylation and deacetylation appear to be critical. Bladder specific carcinogens in rodents and other species have subsequently been identified, including N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) administered in the drinking water, N-[(4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]formamide (FANFT) in the diet and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) instilled intravesically. When low doses of several bladder carcinogens (BBN, FANFT, 2-acetylaminofluorene, and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine) are administered to rats, either simultaneously or sequentially, a synergistic effect is observed with respect to bladder carcinogenesis. In addition, a multistage carcinogenesis process has been demonstrated for the rat bladder using MNU or FANFT as initiators, and dietary sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, or tryptophan as promoters. Calculi (or pellets) appear to enhance the promotion process but are not necessary for it to occur. Recent studies also indicate that urine has a role in the promoting process. The urothelium normally has a very low mitotic rate. If mucosal proliferation is increased, such as during fetal development or during regeneration and repair of an ulcer, the bladder appears to be considerably more sensitive to the effects of promoting substances. For example, if sodium saccharin is administered to rats after ulceration of the bladder, even without prior administration of an initiator, bladder carcinoma develops. Under these conditions, the substance appears as a carcinogen. Human populations with increased bladder epithelial proliferation, such as fetus, infants, patients with bacterial cystitis or men with partially obstructive prostatism, may have increased susceptibility to the action of carcinogenic or promoting stimuli. PMID:6873031

Cohen, S M

1983-04-01

105

Optimization of aerobrake assisted descent trajectories at Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines considerations pertinent to the use and design of Martian aerobraking descent vehicles having lifting characteristics. It focuses on optimizing descent trajectories to maximize the cross range of an aerobrake vehicle which has a maximum lift-to-drag ratio of 1.2 and ballistic coefficient of 28 lb\\/sq ft. Cross range translates into the capability of the vehicle to reach desired

Michael Cupples; Jill Nordwall; Stephen Ledoux; Theron Ruff; Gordon Woodcock

1991-01-01

106

Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts and cerebellar tonsillar descent: short review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to analyze the association of cerebellar tonsillar descent and syringomyelia in patients with\\u000a posterior fossa arachnoid cysts. We reviewed the medical records of ten patients (mean, age 33; range, 24–49 years) diagnosed\\u000a with posterior fossa arachnoid cyst and tonsillar descent. Symptoms evolved over a mean of 12 months (range, 6 months to 3 years).\\u000a Syringomyelia was present in

Marcelo Galarza; Antonio López López-Guerrero; Juan F. Martínez-Lage

2010-01-01

107

Significance testing for direct identity-by-descent mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

summary Direct identity-by-descent mapping is a technique for narrowing down the location of the gene or genes responsible for a given genetic disease to small segments of the genome. The technique involves DNA comparisons between pairs of affected individuals. The data generated are in the form of matching segments of the genome, representing regions likely to be identical-by-descent (IBD). Regions

G. R. GRANT; E. MANDUCHI; V. G. CHEUNG; W. J. EWENS

1999-01-01

108

Testicular descent: INSL3, testosterone, genes and the intrauterine milieu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete testicular descent is a sign of, and a prerequisite for, normal testicular function in adult life. The process of testis descent is dependent on gubernacular growth and reorganization, which is regulated by the Leydig cell hormones insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and testosterone. Investigation of the role of INSL3 and its receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), has contributed substantially

Katharina M. Main; Jorma Toppari; Niels E. Skakkebæk; Katrine Bay

2011-01-01

109

Asymptotic Analysis of Numerical Steepest Descent with Path Approximations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a variant of the numerical method of steepest descent for oscillatory integrals by using a low-cost explicit polynomial\\u000a approximation of the paths of steepest descent. A loss of asymptotic order is observed, but in the most relevant cases the\\u000a overall asymptotic order remains higher than a truncated asymptotic expansion at similar computational effort. Theoretical\\u000a results based on number

Andreas Asheim; Daan Huybrechs

2010-01-01

110

Entry descent and landing systems for future missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2005, the Huygens probe, designed by Thales Alenia Space, France, successfully completed its entry and descent in Titan's atmosphere. In the frame of the Aurora Exploration Program, ESA has initiated industrial studies for the ExoMars mission. The Thales Alenia Space France-led consortium was awarded the contract for the design, development and manufacturing of the Entry and Descent System under Thales Alenia Space—Italy mission prime. Huygens and ExoMars constitute major European milestones in the field of atmospheric entry and descent. Eight out of the ten bodies larger than Mercury in the Solar System have a significant atmosphere to descent in, either to reach a solid surface, or to explore the atmosphere itself. The gained experience in Entry Descent and Landing design will enhance European industry capability to contribute to future planetary exploration missions. This paper assesses the different environments and conditions that Entry Descent and Landing Systems will meet. It discusses how Europe's Huygens and ExoMars experience will apply in such environments and identifies the critical technologies needed to complement it. It concludes on the elements of a roadmap for the related technological development.

Poncy, J.; Lebleu, D.; Arfi, P.; Schipper, A. M.

2010-07-01

111

Bladder stone causing renal failure.  

PubMed

We describe a 62-year-old man with a large bladder calculus causing bilateral ureteral obstruction. Diagnosis was delayed despite the patient's history of recurrent urinary infections. This case report illustrates the importance of radiological evaluation of patients presenting with recurrent urinary infections. To our knowledge, only three previous reports of bladder stone causing renal failure have been published. PMID:9322416

Sundaram, C P; Houshiar, A M; Reddy, P K

1997-09-01

112

A descent of the aurora over Lapland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very large statistical study (? 4 × 105 measurements) into the peak emission height of the aurora has shown that the aurora over Lapland descended significantly between 1996 and 2007. The study was performed using images from a network of ground-based all-sky cameras which form part of the MIRACLE (Magnetometers-Ionospheric Radar-All-sky Cameras Large Experiment) network, and are located at various observation stations across northern Finland and Sweden. The height of the aurora was first measured about a century ago. Since then, it has generally been assumed that the peak emission height of any particular auroral emission is constant for similar geomagnetic conditions. The present work was motivated by the need to improve estimates of the height of the aurora used to calculate other ionospheric and auroral properties, such as optical flow velocities and auroral arc widths. In recent years MIRACLE has produced approximately 105 images of the aurora per station per year. In order to analyse such a large number of images, a novel fast and automatic method was developed for finding the peak emission height of an auroral structure from a pair of all-sky camera images with overlapping fields of view. This method has been applied to all auroral images recorded by the MIRACLE intensified CCD cameras in operation between 1996 and 2007. Such a large data set allows the study of variations in the height of the aurora with time (yearly, monthly, hourly) and with solar and geomagnetic indices such as F10.7 and Kp. Results from the statistical study show that the peak emission height of green (557.7 nm, O1S - O1D transition) aurora over Lapland descended by about 10 km between 1996 and 2007. This descent occurred independently of the solar cycle, and is thought to be due to a cooling and contraction of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

Whiter, Daniel; Partamies, Noora

2014-05-01

113

Simple cyst of urinary bladder.  

PubMed

Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was followed by partial cystectomy; In case 2, the cyst was removed with the urachus using laparoscopic surgery. The patients recovered uneventfully and the histopathology showed cysts in subserous layer of urinary bladder. The bladder cyst should be distinguished from urachal tumor, and laparoscopic partial cystectomy is the preferred operative procedure. PMID:25125900

Bo, Yang

2014-07-01

114

Bladder cancer in nonsmokers.  

PubMed

Potential risk factors for bladder cancer were studied in a series of 76 male and 76 female bladder cancer cases and 238 male and 254 female controls who reported never having smoked. Risk factors included usual occupation, smoking by the spouse, sidestream smoke exposure at home and at work and in transportation, coffee drinking (caffeinated and decaffeinated), artificial sweetener use, body mass index, and a history of diabetes and high blood pressure. No association was found with spouse's smoking or reported sidestream smoke exposure, coffee drinking, artificial sweetener use, or a number of other variables; however, there was some indication that several occupations were overrepresented in the cases. A positive association was found with snuff use in women, but the numbers were small (three cases and one control). Restriction of the study to lifetime nonsmokers permitted the assessment of potential risk factors in the absence of potential confounding and interactive effects of smoking. The study had adequate statistical power to detect moderately small elevated risks due to the main factors examined. PMID:3942969

Kabat, G C; Dieck, G S; Wynder, E L

1986-01-15

115

NECK AND SHOULDER PAIN  

PubMed Central

Neck and shoulder pains are presenting or incidental symptoms in a large variety of conditions. There may be similarities in the anatomicophysiological mechanism of pain production and in the clinical picture in many of these conditions. Many of the vague and refractory cases of neck and shoulder pain and of migraine may be due to cervical disc disease. Scalenus anticus syndrome and cardiac disease can be diagnosed or differentiated from cervical disc syndrome only by thorough investigation. Proper treatment of neck and shoulder pain is dependent upon correct diagnosis through complete history, physical examination and laboratory tests, as described in this presentation. PMID:18131684

Fields, Albert; Hoesley, John

1949-01-01

116

Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) on the Mars Polar Lander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Descent Imager, or MARDI, experiment on the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) consists of a camera characterized by small physical size and mass (~6 × 6 × 12 cm, including baffle; <500 gm), low power requirements (<2.5 W, including power supply losses), and high science performance (1000 × 1000 pixel, low noise). The intent of the investigation is to acquire nested images over a range of resolutions, from 8 m/pixel to better than 1 cm/pixel, during the roughly 2 min it takes the MPL to descend from 8 km to the surface under parachute and rocket-powered deceleration. Observational goals will include studies of (1) surface morphology (e.g., nature and distribution of landforms indicating past and present environmental processes) (2) local and regional geography (e.g., context for other lander instruments: precise location, detailed local relief) and (3) relationships to features seen in orbiter data. To accomplish these goals, MARDI will collect three types of images. Four small images (256 × 256 pixels) will be acquired on 0.5 s centers beginning 0.3 s before MPL's heatshield is jettisoned. Sixteen full-frame images (1024 × 1024, circularly edited) will be acquired on 5.3 s centers thereafter. Just after backshell jettison but prior to the start of powered descent, a ``best final nonpowered descent image'' will be acquired. Five seconds after the start of powered descent, the camera will begin acquiring images on 4 s centers. Storage for as many as ten 800 × 800 pixel images is available during terminal descent. A number of spacecraft factors are likely to impact the quality of MARDI images, including substantial motion blur resulting from large rates of attitude variation during parachute descent and substantial rocket-engine-induced vibration during powered descent. In addition, the mounting location of the camera places the exhaust plume of the hydrazine engines prominently in the field of view.

Malin, M. C.; Caplinger, M. A.; Carr, M. H.; Squyres, S.; Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

2001-08-01

117

Design of automation tools for management of descent traffic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of an automated air traffic control system based on a hierarchy of advisory tools for controllers is described. Compatibility of the tools with the human controller, a key objective of the design, is achieved by a judicious selection of tasks to be automated and careful attention to the design of the controller system interface. The design comprises three interconnected subsystems referred to as the Traffic Management Advisor, the Descent Advisor, and the Final Approach Spacing Tool. Each of these subsystems provides a collection of tools for specific controller positions and tasks. This paper focuses primarily on the Descent Advisor which provides automation tools for managing descent traffic. The algorithms, automation modes, and graphical interfaces incorporated in the design are described. Information generated by the Descent Advisor tools is integrated into a plan view traffic display consisting of a high-resolution color monitor. Estimated arrival times of aircraft are presented graphically on a time line, which is also used interactively in combination with a mouse input device to select and schedule arrival times. Other graphical markers indicate the location of the fuel-optimum top-of-descent point and the predicted separation distances of aircraft at a designated time-control point. Computer generated advisories provide speed and descent clearances which the controller can issue to aircraft to help them arrive at the feeder gate at the scheduled times or with specified separation distances. Two types of horizontal guidance modes, selectable by the controller, provide markers for managing the horizontal flightpaths of aircraft under various conditions. The entire system consisting of descent advisor algorithm, a library of aircraft performance models, national airspace system data bases, and interactive display software has been implemented on a workstation made by Sun Microsystems, Inc. It is planned to use this configuration in operational evaluations at an en route center.

Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

1988-01-01

118

Neck dissections: radical to conservative  

PubMed Central

Background Neck dissection is an important surgical procedure for the management of metastatic nodal disease in the neck. The gold standard of neck nodal management has been the radical neck dissection. Any modification in the neck dissection is always compared with this standard. Over the last few decades, in order to alleviate the morbidity of radical neck dissection, several modifications and conservative procedures have been advocated. These procedures retain certain lymphatic or non-lymphatic structures and have been shown not to compromise oncological safety. Methods A literature search of the Medline was carried out for all articles on neck dissections. The articles were systematically reviewed to analyze and trace the evolution of neck dissection. These were then categorized to address the nomenclature, management of node positive and node negative neck including those who had received chemoradiation. Results The present article discusses the neck nodal nomenclature, the radical neck dissection, its modifications and migration to more conservative procedures and possible advances in the near future. Conclusion Radical neck dissection is now replaced with modified radical neck dissections in most situations. Attempts are being made to replace modified radical neck dissections with selective neck dissections for early node positivity. Sentinel node biopsy is being studied to address the issue of node negative neck. More conservative surgeries are likely to replace the 'radical' surgeries of bygone era. This process is facilitated by earlier detection of the disease and better understanding of cancer biology. PMID:15836786

Harish, K

2005-01-01

119

Primary multiple clear cell variant urothelial carcinomas of urinary bladder: a rare case report  

PubMed Central

Clear cell variant urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder was very rare. There were only 6 report articles included by Pubmed and total 8 cases had been described till now. All of the past reports described single tumor of urinary bladder, but multiple carcinomas had not been reported. Here we reported a 65-years-old Chinese man who complained of intermittent gross hematuria and odynuria for more than 2 months in January 2013. Only one cauliflower-like tumor was detected approximately in the left wall of the urinary bladder with cystoscopy and the biopsy specimen was diagnosed as “urothelial carcinoma, high grade”. However, three tumors were found in anterior wall (×2) near neck of urinary bladder and posterior wall (×1) of the urinary bladder during transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. Typical urothelial carcinoma with partial clear cell appearance made it difficult to make a precise pathological diagnosis and immunohistochemical stain helped to diagnose the case as clear cell variant urothelial carcinoma, but not metastasis of the renal cell carcinoma. Finally, computerized tomographic scanning confirmed that there was no primary tumor in the kidney. The clinical and pathological characteristic had not been identified for the limited reports. More work should be done to know this kind of tumor well for guiding clinical therapy. PMID:25031765

Zhang, Yutao; Huang, Jun; Feng, Hao; Tang, Yun

2014-01-01

120

Bladder Injury During Cesarean Delivery  

PubMed Central

Cesarean section is the most common surgery performed in the United States with over 30% of deliveries occurring via this route. This number is likely to increase given decreasing rates of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) and primary cesarean delivery on maternal request, which carries the inherent risk for intraoperative complications. Urologic injury is the most common injury at the time of either obstetric or gynecologic surgery, with the bladder being the most frequent organ damaged. Risk factors for bladder injury during cesarean section include previous cesarean delivery, adhesions, emergent cesarean delivery, and cesarean section performed at the time of the second stage of labor. Fortunately, most bladder injuries are recognized at the time of surgery, which is important, as quick recognition and repair are associated with a significant reduction in patient mortality. Although cesarean delivery is a cornerstone of obstetrics, there is a paucity of data in the literature either supporting or refuting specific techniques that are performed today. There is evidence to support double-layer closure of the hysterotomy, the routine use of adhesive barriers, and performing a Pfannenstiel skin incision versus a vertical midline subumbilical incision to decrease the risk for bladder injury during cesarean section. There is also no evidence that supports the creation of a bladder flap, although routinely performed during cesarean section, as a method to reduce the risk of bladder injury. Finally, more research is needed to determine if indwelling catheterization, exteriorization of the uterus, and methods to extend hysterotomy incision lead to bladder injury. PMID:24876830

Tarney, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

121

Head and Neck Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... effectiveness and the patient’s quality of life. Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA). Used on a localized tumor that ... you would like additional information about the latest areas of research regarding head and neck cancer, explore ...

122

Talar neck fractures.  

PubMed

Clinical management of talar neck fractures is complex and fraught with complications. As Gaius Julius Caesar stated: "The die is cast"; often the outcome of a talar neck fracture is determined at the time of injury. The authors believe, however, that better results can be achieved by following some simple guidelines. The authors advocate prompt and precise anatomic surgical reduction, preferring the medial approach with secondary anterolateral approach. Preservation of blood supply can be achieved by a thorough understanding of vascular pathways and efforts to stay within appropriate surgical intervals. The authors advocate bone grafting of medial neck comminution (if present) to prevent varus malalignment and rigid internal fixation to allow for joint mobilization postoperatively. These guidelines may seem simple, but when dealing with the complexity of talar neck fractures, the foot and ankle surgeon needs to focus and rely on easily grasped concepts to reduce poor outcomes. PMID:11465133

Berlet, G C; Lee, T H; Massa, E G

2001-01-01

123

[Diagnosis of neurogenic bladder dysfunction].  

PubMed

Patients with congenital and acquired neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to central and peripheral nervous lesions are significantly limited in their daily lives. The neurogenic dysfunction of the bladder and lower urinary tract are often misinterpreted and later fed to a diagnosis. Without therapy severe complications, including renal damage, could be the consequence in the follow up. Therefore, dedicated diagnostics have to be done to recognize the different disorders and to determine the specific therapy. For these patients a lifelong bladder monitoring and neuro-urological management is necessary. This article describes techniques of neuro-urological testings and the interpretation in case of neurogenic disorders. PMID:22331071

Kaufmann, A; Kurze, I

2012-02-01

124

A rare urinary bladder tumour.  

PubMed

This case report describes a 54-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with low back pain. During his workup, an incidental finding of a bladder mass was diagnosed. He underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour and the resulting pathology was consistent with extra nodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Presentation of MALT lymphoma in the urinary bladder is rare. This malignancy is more commonly found in the stomach. The prognosis for this rare tumour is excellent. Our patient showed no sign of recurrence with transurethral excision and radiation alone. PMID:24835803

Haddad-Lacle, Judella Edwina Maria; Haddad, Charles Joseph; Villas, Bruce

2014-01-01

125

Laser treatment of bladder hemangioma.  

PubMed

Bladder hemangiomas may occur singly or in association with systemic arteriovenous malformations. A total of 13 patients with bladder hemangiomas underwent treatment at this university. All patients had recurrent bleeding and neodymium:YAG laser energy was delivered endoscopically to the hemangioma. No treatment-related bleeding occurred in any patient, and all had a significant decrease in the frequency and intensity of bleeding episodes. Followup cystoscopic examinations have shown either complete eradication of the hemangioma or a marked decrease in size. Neodymium:YAG laser irradiation provides results superior to alternative therapy and is the preferred treatment for most patients with bladder hemangioma. PMID:2299718

Smith, J A

1990-02-01

126

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Bladder Tumor in a Patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare neoplasm described in several tissues and organs including genitourinary system, lung, head, and neck. The etiology of IMT is contentious, and whether it is a postinflammatory process or a true neoplasm remains controversial. To our knowledge, we report the first reported case of IMT of urinary bladder in a pediatric patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn (WHS). We also review the literature about patients with associated neoplasia. PMID:24024066

Marte, Antonio; Indolfi, Paolo; Ficociello, Carmine; Oreste, Matilde; Bottigliero, Gaetano; Gualdiero, Giovanna; Barone, Ciro; Vigliar, Elena; Indolfi, Cristiana; Casale, Fiorina

2013-01-01

127

Crew Procedures for Continuous Descent Arrivals Using Conventional Guidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents results from a simulation study which investigated the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures for conducting a descent through a busy terminal area, using conventional transport-category automation. This research was part of the Low Noise Flight Procedures (LNFP) element within the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project, that addressed development of flight guidance, and supporting pilot and Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures for low noise operations. The procedures and chart were designed to be easy to understand, and to make it easy for the crew to make changes via the Flight Management Computer Control-Display Unit (FMC-CDU) to accommodate changes from ATC. The test runs were intended to represent situations typical of what exists in many of today's terminal areas, including interruptions to the descent in the form of clearances issued by ATC.

Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Williams, David H.; Lewis, Elliot T,

2007-01-01

128

Overactive bladder: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Overactive bladder syndrome is a chronic condition that requires long-term management and is associated with a significant impairment in the quality of life of the individual as well as having an economic impact on healthcare. Behavioral interventions, along with lifestyle modifications, are effective, but medical management remains the mainstay of treatment. Challenges to improving the overactive bladder syndrome burden and outcomes include underdiagnosis, undertreatment and patient nonadherence to medication. Recent pharmacological advances, along with behavioral interventions, have helped to improve patient compliance. Healthcare providers should acknowledge the need for education regarding overactive bladder syndrome symptoms, its diagnosis and its management options. This article gives an overview of overactive bladder syndrome, its diagnosis and the different treatment options available, as well as discussing recent advances in the field. PMID:20187733

Vij, Monika; Robinson, Dudley; Cardozo, Linda

2010-03-01

129

The CNS and bladder dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The brain's role in the development and maintenance of bladder control is critical, although its precise role in patient-reported complaints such as urgency and urine leakage is unknown. Functional brain imaging studies have advanced our knowledge of brain activity during the micturition cycle, showing multiple neuronal circuits involved as parts of a ‘brain-bladder control network.’ Yet, new advances need to be made in order to incorporate this knowledge into existing models of neuroanatomy and of clinical syndromes of bladder dysfunction and related clinical practice. This short article explains why and how brain imaging methods are poised to achieve that goal and decode the role of the brain in widely prevalent clinical conditions related to bladder dysfunction. PMID:23091564

Holstege, Gert; Griffiths, Derek J.

2012-01-01

130

Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

131

Cloacal anomaly with bladder tumor  

PubMed Central

A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder occurring in a 36-year-old female with persistent cloacal anomaly who presented with frequency, urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection is reported. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with three dimensional reconstruction showed presence of bladder tumor and persistent cloaca. She underwent pelvic exenteration and wet colostomy. Histopathologic findings revealed locally advanced moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23956519

Seth, Amlesh; Ram, Ishwar

2013-01-01

132

Where is the neck?  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The alpha angle is the most used measurement to classify concavity of the femoral head-neck junction. It is not only used for treatment decisions for hip impingement, but also in cohort studies relating hip morphology and osteoarthritis. Alpha angle measurement requires identification of the femoral neck axis, the definition of which may vary between studies. The original “3-point method” uses 1 single point to construct the femoral neck axis, whereas the “anatomic method” uses multiple points and attempts to define the true anatomic neck axis. Depending on the method used, the alpha angle may or may not account for other morphological characteristics such as head-neck offset. Methods We compared 2 methods of alpha angle measurement (termed “anatomic” and “3-point”) in 59 cadaver femora and 83 cross-table lateral radiographs of asymptomatic subjects. Results were compared using Bland-Altman plots. Results Discrepancies of up to 13 degrees were seen between the methods. The 3-point method had an “equalizing effect” by disregarding femoral head position relative to the neck: in femora with high alpha angle, it resulted in lower values than anatomic measurement, and vice versa in femora with low alpha angles. Using the anatomic method, we derived a reference interval for the alpha angle in normal hips in the general population of 30–66 degrees. Interpretation We recommend the anatomic method because it also reflects the position of the femoral head on the neck. Consensus and standardization of technique of alpha angle measurement is warranted, not only for planar measurements but also for CT or MRI-based measurements. PMID:24650023

2014-01-01

133

Mars Smart Lander Simulations for Entry, Descent, and Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two primary simulations have been developed and are being updated for the Mars Smart Lander Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). The high fidelity engineering end-to-end EDL simulation that is based on NASA Langley's Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) and the end-to-end real-time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation testbed, which is based on NASA JPL's (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing (DSENDS). This paper presents the status of these Mars Smart Lander EDL end-to-end simulations at this time. Various models, capabilities, as well as validation and verification for these simulations are discussed.

Striepe, S. A.; Way, D. W.; Balaram, J.

2002-01-01

134

Flight Data Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Repository  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Daniel Winterhalter, NASA Engineering and Safety Center Chief Engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsor a 3-year effort to collect entry, descent, and landing material and to establish a NASA-wide archive to serve the material. The principle focus of this task was to identify entry, descent, and landing repository material that was at risk of being permanently lost due to damage, decay, and undocumented storage. To provide NASA-wide access to this material, a web-based digital archive was created. This document contains the outcome of the effort.

Martinez, Elmain M.; Winterhalter, Daniel

2012-01-01

135

Thermoelastic model for the descent of avalanches and landslides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wedge-shaped mass of snow or soil on a flat mountain slope is simulated in a connected formulation by a thermoelastic medium acted upon by gravity, a uniform surface load, and a heat flux. An exact solution of the problem of equilibrium of the mass is obtained. Two criteria for the descent of an avalanche or a landslide are derived from the conditions of impossibility of equilibrium. This result can be used to predict soil landslides and the descent of avalanches in the mountains.

Chernyshov, A. D.

2012-11-01

136

Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita

2010-01-01

137

A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities  

E-print Network

A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities Michael describes the problem and the choices of cost approximating mappings and merit functions. The taxonomy. Taxonomy, classification, nonlinear programs, variational inequalities, descent algo­ rithms, cost

Patriksson, Michael

138

Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Download PDF Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs This section has been ... and Neck Cancer - Diagnosis › f t g e + Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck ...

139

The overactive bladder progression to underactive bladder hypothesis.  

PubMed

The overactive bladder (OAB) is a well-known and common urologic condition. However, the apparent opposite syndrome to the OAB, the underactive bladder (UAB), remains an enigma. Underactive bladder syndrome is complex condition that shares symptoms with other prevalent urologic diagnoses. UAB is not a pure condition-it is not the result of any single factor, but rather, it is multifactorial. As a result, UAB may overlap with OAB, bladder outlet obstruction, or even occur with no symptoms or associated diseases. To make it yet more challenging, in the elderly, detrusor hyperreflexia/impaired contractility (DHIC) is a condition that has the pathological elements of both OAB and UAB and is also common. I hypothesize that UAB and OAB may not be an entirely separate disease entity. Instead, chronic untreated or treatment refractory OAB-due to neurological diseases such as diabetes, bladder outlet obstruction or aging sarcopenia and frailty-may progress to DHIC and, finally, UAB. The progression of OAB to UAB hypothesis suggests that early education, behavioral modification and medical treatment may alter and/or prevent progression to UAB. PMID:25238891

Chancellor, Michael B

2014-09-01

140

Simulation Results for Airborne Precision Spacing along Continuous Descent Arrivals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of a fast-time simulation experiment and a high-fidelity simulator validation with merging streams of aircraft flying Continuous Descent Arrivals through generic airspace to a runway at Dallas-Ft Worth. Aircraft made small speed adjustments based on an airborne-based spacing algorithm, so as to arrive at the threshold exactly at the assigned time interval behind their Traffic-To-Follow. The 40 aircraft were initialized at different altitudes and speeds on one of four different routes, and then merged at different points and altitudes while flying Continuous Descent Arrivals. This merging and spacing using flight deck equipment and procedures to augment or implement Air Traffic Management directives is called Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing, an important subset of a larger Airborne Precision Spacing functionality. This research indicates that Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing initiated while at cruise altitude and well prior to the Terminal Radar Approach Control entry can significantly contribute to the delivery of aircraft at a specified interval to the runway threshold with a high degree of accuracy and at a reduced pilot workload. Furthermore, previously documented work has shown that using a Continuous Descent Arrival instead of a traditional step-down descent can save fuel, reduce noise, and reduce emissions. Research into Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing is a cooperative effort between government and industry partners.

Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Baxley, Brian T.

2008-01-01

141

LANDER program manual: A lunar ascent and descent simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDER is a computer program used to predict the trajectory and flight performance of a spacecraft ascending or descending between a low lunar orbit of 15 to 500 nautical miles (nm) and the lunar surface. It is a three degree-of-freedom simulation which is used to analyze the translational motion of the vehicle during descent. Attitude dynamics and rotational motion are not considered. The program can be used to simulate either an ascent from the Moon or a descent to the Moon. For an ascent, the spacecraft is initialized at the lunar surface and accelerates vertically away from the ground at full thrust. When the local velocity becomes 30 ft/s, the vehicle turns downrange with a pitch-over maneuver and proceeds to fly a gravity turn until Main Engine Cutoff (MECO). The spacecraft then coasts until it reaches the requested holding orbit where it performs an orbital insertion burn. During a descent simulation, the lander begins in the holding orbit and performs a deorbit burn. It then coasts to pericynthion, where it reignites its engines and begins a gravity turn descent. When the local horizontal velocity becomes zero, the lander pitches up to a vertical orientation and begins to hover in search of a landing site. The lander hovers for a period of time specified by the user, and then lands.

1988-01-01

142

A mathematical model and descent algorithm for bilevel traffic management  

E-print Network

A mathematical model and descent algorithm for bilevel traffic management Michael Patriksson for strategic traffic management, formulated and analyzed as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints such traffic management actions as traffic signal setting, network design, and congestion pricing. The lower

Patriksson, Michael

143

A mathematical model and descent algorithm for bilevel traffic management  

E-print Network

A mathematical model and descent algorithm for bilevel traffic management Michael Patriksson and R management actions as traffic signal setting, network design, and congestion pricing. The lower-level problem, and representations of traffic flows and management actions in both link­route and link­node space. For this model, we

Patriksson, Michael

144

A Mathematical Model and Descent Algorithm for Bilevel Traffic Management  

E-print Network

A Mathematical Model and Descent Algorithm for Bilevel Traffic Management Michael Patriksson · R@math.chalmers.se · rtr@math.washington.edu We provide a new mathematical model for strategic traffic management types of control (upper-level) variables, which may be used to describe such traffic management actions

Patriksson, Michael

145

A random coordinate descent algorithm for optimization problems ...  

E-print Network

physical memory and enormous complexity of the gradient update can also be an obstacle for full ... main differences between all variants of coordinate descent methods consist of the criterion of ... We work in the space Rn composed of column vectors. For x, y ..... Based on Exercise 10.6 in [25] we state the following lemma:.

2013-02-06

146

Operation of CONSERT aboard Rosetta during the descent of Philae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study investigating the performance of using the CONSERT instrument aboard the Rosetta spacecraft as a radar sounder during the Separation-Descent-Landing (SDL) phase of the Rosetta mission. Gathering scientifically valuable data during this phase will support CONSERT's primary target, the reconstruction of the 3D permittivity distribution within the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, by providing a permittivity map of the surface around the landing site. Simulation results will show the performance of the instrument, using a realistic setup including the antenna characteristics of both orbiter and landing unit as well as a realistic orbitography for the descent phase. It will be shown that operating the CONSERT instrument will indeed provide very valuable data, thereby providing tremendous aid to the experiment's main objective. Furthermore, by including knowledge of the antenna characteristics, it is possible to calculate attitude and descent profile of the Philae lander during descent, using the data of the line-of-sight propagation path and the echoes reflected from the comet's surface.

Hegler, Sebastian; Statz, Christoph; Hahnel, Ronny; Plettemeier, Dirk; Herique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek

2013-12-01

147

Reference Airspeed Setting For Time Constrained Descent at Idle Thrust  

E-print Network

. CDO is defined as 'an aircraft operating technique aided by appropriate airspace and procedure design trajectory application where the air traffic controller will ask an aircraft to overfly a meter fix, this clearance is assumed to be given after the Top Of Descent (TOD) of the aircraft. The aircraft is assumed

Boyer, Edmond

148

Unsupervised Change Detection of Satellite Images Using Local Gradual Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel technique for unsupervised change detection of multitemporal satellite images using Gaussian mixture model (GMM), local gradual descent, and $k$ -means clustering. Data distribution of the difference image is first modeled by bimodal GMM with “changed” and “unchanged” components. The neighborhood data around each pixel form a sample and are modified by the so-called

Zeki Yetgin

2012-01-01

149

Self-Hatred in Americans of African Descent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of attempts to destigmatize themselves with the "black is beautiful" rhetoric, efforts by Americans of African descent to disavow their imputed inferiority have not been successful. The black is reacted to as a handicapped person by the white American. Whites look with disdain on black-white sexual relationships, black language, and…

Vontress, Clemmont E.

150

The Challenge of Mars EDL (Entry, Descent, and Landing)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the some of the challenges of Martian atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) on the surface of Mars. It reviews some of the technological difficulties, and some solutions that are being developed for future unmanned missions with larger payloads than previous landers, and ultimately human spacecraft landing.

Sostaric, Ronald

2010-01-01

151

Optical diffusion tomography by iterative-coordinate-descent  

E-print Network

- netic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. Furthermore, in an optical imaging application a hostOptical diffusion tomography by iterative- coordinate-descent optimization in a Bayesian framework. © 1999 Optical Society of America [S0740-3232(99)01410-6] OCIS codes: 100.3010, 100.3190, 100.6950, 170

152

Pregnant Women of Mexican Descent: Constructions of Motherhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research related to pregnancy outcomes has tended to have a bio-medical focus. More recent research has begun to explore possible social and cultural influences on birth outcomes. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 28 pregnant women of Mexican descent in the Texas\\/Mexico border region to begin to describe the social and cultural contexts of pregnancy of women of Mexican ancestry.

Faith W. Lucas

2010-01-01

153

Origin of INSL3-mediated testicular descent in therian mammals.  

PubMed

Testicular descent is a unique physiological adaptation found in therian mammals allowing optimal spermatogenesis below core body temperature. Recent studies show that INSL3, produced by Leydig cells, and its receptor LGR8 (RXFP2) are essential for mediating the transabdominal phase of testicular descent during early development. However, the origin and genetic basis for this physiological adaptation is not clear. Using syntenic mapping and the functional characterization of contemporary and resurrected relaxin family hormones, we show that derivation of INSL3-mediated testicular descent involved the duplication of an ancestral RLN3-like gene that encodes an indiscriminate ligand for LGR7 (RXFP1) and LGR8. This event was followed by acquisition of the LGR7-selective characteristics by a daughter gene (RLN3) prior to the evolution of the common ancestor of monotremes, marsupials, and placentals. A subsequent mutation of the other daughter gene (INSL3) occurred before the emergence of therian mammals, which then led to the derivation of the reciprocal LGR8-specific characteristics of INSL3. The stepwise evolution of these independent signaling pathways through gene duplication and subsequent divergence is consistent with Darwinian theory of selection and adaptation, and the temporal proximity suggests an association between these genetic events and the concurrent evolution of testicular descent in ancestral therian mammals. PMID:18463305

Park, Jae-Il; Semyonov, Jenia; Chang, Chia Lin; Yi, Wei; Warren, Wesley; Hsu, Sheau Yu Teddy

2008-06-01

154

Abuse against Women with Disabilities of Mexican Descent: Cultural Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although considerable attention has been focused on violence against women with disabilities, environmental and cultural factors that contribute to this violence have received limited attention. This paper examines violence against women of Mexican descent with disabilities. Recommendations are offered to researchers, educators, and service…

Graf, Noreen M.; Reed, Bruce J.; Sanchez, Rubi

2008-01-01

155

Are neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting at work risk factors for neck pain? Results of a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting.METHODSA prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured exposure data (video recordings) of neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting posture. Neck pain was assessed

G. A. M. Ariens; P. M. Bongers; M. Douwes; M. C. Miedema; W. E. Hoogendoorn; G van der Wal; L. M. Bouter; W van Mechelen

2001-01-01

156

Measurement of CPAS Main Parachute Rate of Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown. Flight test performance must be measured to a high degree of accuracy to ensure this requirement is met with the most efficient design possible. Although the design includes three CPAS Main parachutes, the requirement is that the system must not exceed 33 ft/s under two Main parachutes, should one of the Main parachutes fail. Therefore, several tests were conducted with clusters of two Mains. All of the steady-state rate of descent data are normalized to standard sea level conditions and checked against the limit. As the Orion design gains weight, the system is approaching this limit to within measurement precision. Parachute "breathing," cluster interactions, and atmospheric anomalies can cause the rate of descent to vary widely and lead to challenges in characterizing parachute terminal performance. An early test had contradictory rate of descent results from optical trajectory and Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS). A thorough analysis of the data sources and error propagation was conducted to determine the uncertainty in the trajectory. It was discovered that the Time Space Position Information (TSPI) from the optical tracking provided accurate position data. However, the velocity from TPSI must be computed via numerical differentiation, which is prone to large error. DGPS obtains position through pseudo-range calculations from multiple satellites and velocity through Doppler shift of the carrier frequency. Because the velocity from DGPS is a direct measurement, it is more accurate than TSPI velocity. To remedy the situation, a commercial off-the-shelf product that combines GPS and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was purchased to significantly improve rate of descent measurements. This had the added benefit of solving GPS dropouts during aircraft extraction. Statistical probability distributions for CPAS Main parachute rate of descent and drag coefficient were computed and plotted. Using test data, a terminal rate of descent at splashdown can be estimated as a function of canopy loading.

Ray, Eric S.

2011-01-01

157

Computations of diabatic descent in the stratospheric polar vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiation model, together with National Meteorological Center temperature observations, was used to compute daily net heating rates in the northern hemisphere (NH) for the Arctic late fall and winter periods of both 1988-1989 and 1991-1992 and in the southern hemisphere (SH) for the Antarctic fall and winters of 1987 and 1992. The heating rates were interpolated to potential temperature (theta) surfaces between 400 K and 2000 K and averaged within the polar vortex, the boundary of which was determined by the maximum gradient in potential vorticity. The averaged heating rates were used in a one-dimensional vortex interior descent model to compute the change in potential temperature with time of air parcels initialized at various theta values, as well as to compute the descent in log pressure coodinates. In the NH vortex, air parcels which were initialized at 18 km on November 1, descended about 6 km by March 21, while air initially at 25 km descended 9 km in the same time period. this represents an average descent rate in the lower stratosphere of 1.3 to 2 km per month. Air initialized at 50 km descended 27 km between November 1 and March 21. In the SH vortex, parcels initialized at 18 km on March 1, descended 3 km, while air at 25 km descended 5-7 km by the end of October. This is equivalent to an average descent in the lower stratosphere of 0.4 to 0.9 km per month during this 8-month period. Air initialized at 52 km descended 26-29 km between March 1 and October 31. In both the NH and the SH, computed descent rates increased markedly with height. The descent for the NH winter of 1992-1993 and the SH winter of 1992 computed with a three-dimensional trajectory model using the same radiation code was within 1 to 2 km of that calculated by the one-dimensional model, thus validating the vortex averaging procedure. The computed descent rates generally agree well with observations of long-lived tracers, thus validating the radiative transfer model.

Rosenfield, Joan E.; Newman, Paul A.; Schoeberl, Mark R.

1994-01-01

158

A healthy bladder: a consensus statement  

PubMed Central

A panel of experts in urology, urogynecology, nursing, and behavioral therapy convened in 2010 to discuss the importance of a healthy bladder on overall health. They determined that a consensus statement was necessary to raise awareness among the general public, healthcare providers, payors, and policymakers, with the goals of minimizing the impact of poor bladder health and stimulating primary prevention of bladder conditions. In this statement, ‘healthy’ bladder function is described, as well as internal and external factors that influence bladder health. It is suggested that primary prevention strategies should be aimed at providing education regarding normal lower urinary tract structures and functioning to the public, including patients and healthcare providers. This education may promote the achievement of optimal bladder health by increasing healthy bladder habits and behaviors, awareness of risk factors, healthcare seeking, and clinician engagement and reducing stigma and other barriers to treatment. Promoting optimal bladder health may reduce the personal, societal and economic impact of bladder conditions, including anxiety and depression and costs associated with conditions or diseases and their treatment. While adopting healthy bladder habits and behaviors and behaviors may improve or maintain bladder health, it is important to recognize that certain symptoms may indicate the presence of conditions that require medical attention; many bladder conditions are treatable with a range of options for most bladder conditions. Lastly, the authors propose clinical directives based on persuasive and convergent research to improve and maintain bladder health. The authors hope that this statement will lead to promotion and achievement of optimal bladder health, which may improve overall health and help minimize the effects of bladder conditions on the public, healthcare professionals, educators, employers, and payors. The advisors are in consensus regarding the recommendations for improving and maintaining bladder health presented herein. PMID:21923844

Lukacz, E S; Sampselle, C; Gray, M; MacDiarmid, S; Rosenberg, M; Ellsworth, P; Palmer, M H

2011-01-01

159

An orthotopic model of murine bladder cancer.  

PubMed

In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to create a burn injury. An electrocautery unit is used to deliver 2.5W to the exposed end of the wire, burning away extracellular layers and providing attachment sites for carcinoma cells that are delivered in suspension to the bladder through a subsequent catheterization. Cells remain in the bladder for 90 minutes, after which the catheters are removed and the bladders allowed to drain naturally. The development of tumor is monitored via ultrasound. Specific attention is paid to the catheterization technique in the accompanying video. PMID:21339722

Dobek, Georgina L; Godbey, W T

2011-01-01

160

An Orthotopic Model of Murine Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to create a burn injury. An electrocautery unit is used to deliver 2.5W to the exposed end of the wire, burning away extracellular layers and providing attachment sites for carcinoma cells that are delivered in suspension to the bladder through a subsequent catheterization. Cells remain in the bladder for 90 minutes, after which the catheters are removed and the bladders allowed to drain naturally. The development of tumor is monitored via ultrasound. Specific attention is paid to the catheterization technique in the accompanying video. PMID:21339722

Dobek, Georgina L.; Godbey, W. T.

2011-01-01

161

Endoscopic neck surgery  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic surgery in the neck was attempted in 1996 for performing parathyroidectomy. A similar surgical technique was used for performing thyroidectomy the following year. Most commonly reported endoscopic neck surgery studies in literature have been on thyroid and parathyroid glands. The approaches are divided into two types i.e., the total endoscopic approach using CO2 insufflation and the video-assisted approach without CO2 insufflation. The latter approach has been reported more often. The surgical access (port placements) may vary-the common sites are the neck, anterior chest wall, axilla, and periareolar region. The limiting factors are the size of the gland and malignancy. Few reports are available on endoscopic resection for early thyroid malignancy and cervical lymph node dissection. Endoscopic neck surgery has primarily evolved due to its cosmetic benefits and it has proved to be safe and feasible in suitable patients with thyroid and parathyroid pathologies. Application of this technique for approaching other cervical organs such as the submandibular gland and carotid artery are still in the early experimental phase. PMID:20668611

Chowbey, P K; Soni, Vandana; Khullar, R; Sharma, Anil; Baijal, M

2007-01-01

162

Predictors of outcome in bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Tumor stage and grade have largely been responsible for directing treatment algorithms in bladder cancer. However, the considerable heterogeneity of tumor biology in bladder cancer is incompletely characterized by stage and grade alone, and recent efforts to improve predictive models in bladder cancer may significantly improve accuracy and calibration. This article addresses how current nomograms and risk tables may be best used to individualize bladder cancer management. PMID:25361801

Eifler, John B; Barocas, Daniel A; Resnick, Matthew J

2014-11-01

163

The neck mass.  

PubMed

Many head and neck disease processes are manifest as neck masses. These conditions are treated by surgical excision except for some inflammatory masses, and often those too must be excised before a diagnosis can be made. The real question is when to excise the lesion to expedite treatment in the most cost-effective manner. In general, when signs of inflammation are associated with the mass, antibiotic treatment with short-term observation is acceptable. Persistence of the mass or an increase in mass size during observation mandates for their evaluation. Biopsy of a mass is considered for progressive growth, isolated nature or asymmetry of the mass, location (supraclavicular), development of symptoms associated with lymphoma (fever and hypertrophy of the spleen, liver, or Waldeyer's ring), or static size (if > 3 cm). In the adult patient, a complete head and neck physical examination is mandatory before biopsy. Needle biopsy of the neck mass is the current standard of care if no cause of the mass is found on examination. Identified benign cystic lesions or lymphomas indicate a need for excision, either as definitive treatment or for diagnostic reasons. If results of the needle biopsy are positive, equivocal, or even negative in the presence of a high index of suspicion for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma, an endoscopic examination is mandatory before open excision. If no discrete lesion is seen, guided biopsy of the upper aerodigestive tract is performed. Open biopsy of the mass should be accompanied by a frozen-section examination of the mass. A concomitant definitive neck dissection should be performed if the mass proves to be metastatic carcinoma. PMID:9927971

McGuirt, W F

1999-01-01

164

Bladder replacement in women: A new experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bladder replacement in women is a new experience. In this article the authors reviewed in a critical way the patho-physiological principles involved in the previous male bladder replacement techniques and the results achieved both leading to the recent experience of bladder replacement in women. The authors present the recent acquirements about pelvic surgical anatomy and postcystectomy oncological radicality in female,

M. Racioppi; A. D'Addessi; A. Alcini; E. Alcini

1997-01-01

165

Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to <95% of the prescribed dose. The dose distribution in the rectum and intestines was better with a 'partially empty' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm{sup 3} for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm{sup 3} for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with a 'partially empty' than with a 'full' bladder.

Majewski, Wojciech, E-mail: wmajewski1@poczta.onet.p [Department of Radiotherapy, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Wesolowska, Iwona [Department of Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy Planning, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Urbanczyk, Hubert [Department of Radiotherapy, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara [Department of Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy Planning, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Miszczyk, Leszek [Department of Radiotherapy, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland)

2009-12-01

166

Actinomycosis of the urinary bladder  

PubMed Central

Actinomycosis of the urinary bladder is a rare anaerobic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces isrealii. Initial diagnosis is often difficult and this disease is easily misdiagnosed as a urothelial or urachal tumour. The definitive diagnosis is usually made postoperatively via tissue pathology. We discuss a case of a 54-year-old male with a smoking history and a 2.5-week history of gross hematuria. Ultrasound, computed tomography and cystoscopy revealed a large inflammatory mass adherent to the right, anterior bladder wall, suggesting malignancy. Transurethral resection and histological pathology subsequently confirmed inflammatory urothelium and gram-positive bacteria consistent with actinomyces species. PMID:23914269

Huang, Chun; Al-Essawi, Turki

2013-01-01

167

Social stress induces changes in urinary bladder function, bladder NGF content, and generalized bladder inflammation in mice.  

PubMed

Social stress may play a role in urinary bladder dysfunction in humans, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In the present study, we explored changes in bladder function caused by social stress using mouse models of stress and increasing stress. In the stress paradigm, individual submissive FVB mice were exposed to C57BL/6 aggressor mice directly/indirectly for 1 h/day for 2 or 4 wk. Increased stress was induced by continuous, direct/indirect exposure of FVB mice to aggressor mice for 2 wk. Stressed FVB mice exhibited nonvoiding bladder contractions and a decrease in both micturition interval (increased voiding frequency) and bladder capacity compared with control animals. ELISAs demonstrated a significant increase in histamine protein expression with no change in nerve growth factor protein expression in the urinary bladder compared with controls. Unlike stressed mice, mice exposed to an increased stress paradigm exhibited increased bladder capacities and intermicturition intervals (decreased voiding frequency). Both histamine and nerve growth factor protein expression were significantly increased with increased stress compared with control bladders. The change in bladder function from increased voiding frequency to decreased voiding frequency with increased stress intensity suggests that changes in social stress-induced urinary bladder dysfunction are context and duration dependent. In addition, changes in the bladder inflammatory milieu with social stress may be important contributors to changes in urinary bladder function. PMID:25100077

Mingin, Gerald C; Peterson, Abbey; Erickson, Cuixia Shi; Nelson, Mark T; Vizzard, Margaret A

2014-10-01

168

Efficient sensor placement optimization using gradient descent and probabilistic coverage.  

PubMed

We are proposing an adaptation of the gradient descent method to optimize the position and orientation of sensors for the sensor placement problem. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the combination of gradient descent optimization with a realistic model, which considers both the topography of the environment and a set of sensors with directional probabilistic sensing. The performance of this approach is compared with two other black box optimization methods over area coverage and processing time. Results show that our proposed method produces competitive results on smaller maps and superior results on larger maps, while requiring much less computation than the other optimization methods to which it has been compared. PMID:25196164

Akbarzadeh, Vahab; Lévesque, Julien-Charles; Gagné, Christian; Parizeau, Marc

2014-01-01

169

Efficient Sensor Placement Optimization Using Gradient Descent and Probabilistic Coverage  

PubMed Central

We are proposing an adaptation of the gradient descent method to optimize the position and orientation of sensors for the sensor placement problem. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the combination of gradient descent optimization with a realistic model, which considers both the topography of the environment and a set of sensors with directional probabilistic sensing. The performance of this approach is compared with two other black box optimization methods over area coverage and processing time. Results show that our proposed method produces competitive results on smaller maps and superior results on larger maps, while requiring much less computation than the other optimization methods to which it has been compared. PMID:25196164

Akbarzadeh, Vahab; Levesque, Julien-Charles; Gagne, Christian; Parizeau, Marc

2014-01-01

170

Flight-Management Algorithm for Fuel-Conservative Descents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Federal Aviation Administration has developed an automated time-based metering form of air traffic control for arrivals into terminal area called local flow management/profile descent (LFM/PD). LFM/PD saves fuel by matching airplane arrival flow to airport acceptance rate through time-control computations and by allowing pilot to descend at his discretion from cruise altitude to metering fix in an idle-thrust, clean configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, speed brakes retracted).

Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.

1982-01-01

171

A Variable Neighbourhood Descent Algorithm for the Redundancy Allocation Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first known application of a meta-heuristic algorithm, variable neighbour- hood descent (VND), to the redundancy allocation problem (RAP). The RAP, a well-known NP-hard problem, has been the subject of much prior work, generally in a restricted form where each subsystem must consist of identical components. The newer meta-heuristic methods overcome this limitation and offer a practical

Yun-Chia Liang; Chia-Chuan Wu

172

A coordinate gradient descent method for ? 1 -regularized convex minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In applications such as signal processing and statistics, many problems involve finding sparse solutions to under-determined\\u000a linear systems of equations. These problems can be formulated as a structured nonsmooth optimization problems, i.e., the problem\\u000a of minimizing ?\\u000a 1-regularized linear least squares problems. In this paper, we propose a block coordinate gradient descent method (abbreviated\\u000a as CGD) to solve the more

Sangwoon Yun; Kim-Chuan Toh

2011-01-01

173

Directed Aerial Descent Behavior in African Canopy Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of neotropical ants direct their aerial descent toward tree trunks during a fall from the forest canopy. The\\u000a primary goal of this study was to determine if afrotropical arboreal ants exhibit similar gliding behavior. Ants were collected\\u000a from nine tree crowns in late secondary forest at a hydrocarbon extraction site near Gamba, Gabon. Of the 32 species tested,

S. P. Yanoviak; B. L. Fisher; A. Alonso

2008-01-01

174

Scaling Up Coordinate Descent Algorithms for Large ?1 Regularization Problems  

SciTech Connect

We present a generic framework for parallel coordinate descent (CD) algorithms that has as special cases the original sequential algorithms of Cyclic CD and Stochastic CD, as well as the recent parallel Shotgun algorithm of Bradley et al. We introduce two novel parallel algorithms that are also special cases---Thread-Greedy CD and Coloring-Based CD---and give performance measurements for an OpenMP implementation of these.

Scherrer, Chad; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tewari, Ambuj; Haglin, David J.

2012-07-03

175

Direct IBD mapping: identical-by-descent mapping without genotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct identical-by-descent (IBD) mapping is a technique, that combines genomic mismatch scanning (GMS) and DNA microarray technology, for mapping regions shared IBD between two individuals without locus-by-locus genotyping or sequencing. The lack of reagents has limited its widespread application. In particular, two key reagents have been limiting, 1) mismatch repair proteins MutS, L and H, and 2) genomic microarrays for

Denis Smirnov; Alan Bruzel; Michael Morley; Vivian G. Cheunga

2004-01-01

176

Free-falls and parachute descents in the standard atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed table of the standard equilibrium velocity and standard equilibrium time is presented for bodies falling in the standard atmosphere. This table gives the velocity at various altitudes and the time of fall from sea level to -4000 feet and from 80,000 feet to sea level. In addition to this standard table, there are given short tables and charts of an open-parachute descent and free-falls; the terminal velocity at sea level, and the variation of the weight-to-drag ratio (2w/cds)1/2 for various weight jumpers from 90 to 30 feet in open-parachute descent; and estimations of drag coefficients of silk and nylon parachutes. The table of standard equilibrium velocities and standard equilibrium times may be used directly for open-parachute descents, given the weight of the jumper, the diameter of the parachute, and the drag coefficient. For free-falls starting from horizontal flight, approximately 14 seconds must be added to the equilibrium time given in the table to obtain the total time to sea level. (author)

Webster, A P

1947-01-01

177

Data-Analysis System for Entry, Descent, and Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report describes the Entry Descent Landing Data Analysis (EDA), which is a system of signal-processing software and computer hardware for acquiring status data conveyed by multiple-frequency-shift-keying tone signals transmitted by a spacecraft during descent to the surface of a remote planet. The design of the EDA meets the challenge of processing weak, fluctuating signals that are Doppler-shifted by amounts that are only partly predictable. The software supports both real-time and post processing. The software performs fast-Fourier-transform integration, parallel frequency tracking with prediction, and mapping of detected tones to specific events. The use of backtrack and refinement parallel-processing threads helps to minimize data gaps. The design affords flexibility to enable division of a descent track into segments, within each of which the EDA is configured optimally for processing in the face of signal conditions and uncertainties. A dynamic-lock-state feature enables the detection of signals using minimum required computing power less when signals are steadily detected, more when signals fluctuate. At present, the hardware comprises eight dual-processor personal-computer modules and a server. The hardware is modular, making it possible to increase computing power by adding computers.

Pham, Timothy; Chang, Christine; Sartorius, Edgar; Finley, Susan; White, Leslie; Estabrook, Polly; Fort, David

2005-01-01

178

Factors Associated with Sleep Disturbance in Women of Mexican Descent  

PubMed Central

Aims The aims were to identify the most useful parameters of acculturation in relation to self reported sleep disturbance and describe risk factors for sleep disturbance in women of Mexican descent. Background Little is known about acculturation as a factor for poor sleep in the context of other personal factors such as income or sense of resilience or mastery for Latinas in the United States. Methods These personal factors were incorporated into a modification of the Conceptual Framework of Impaired Sleep to guide our secondary analysis of self-reported sleep disturbance. Cross sectional data from a convenience sample of 312 women of Mexican descent of childbearing age (21-40 years) located in an urban California community were collected and previously analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms and post traumatic stress disorder. The General Sleep Disturbance Scale (in English and Spanish) was used to assess sleep disturbance. Results Early socialization to the United States during childhood was the most useful acculturation parameter for understanding self reported sleep disturbance in this sample. In a multivariate regression analysis, three factors (higher acculturation, lower income, and higher depressive symptoms) were significant in accounting for 40% of the variance in sleep disturbance. Conclusion When low income Latinas of Mexican descent report sleep problems, clinicians should probe for environmental sleep factors associated with low income, such as noise, over-crowding, and exposure to trauma and violence, and refer the woman to psychotherapy and counselling rather than merely prescribe a sleep medication. PMID:22221152

Heilemann, MarySue V.; Choudhury, Shonali M.; Kury, Felix Salvador; Lee, Kathryn A.

2014-01-01

179

Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children of Middle Eastern Descent  

PubMed Central

Increasing rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are now seen in populations where it was once uncommon. The pattern of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent in Australia has never been reported. This study aimed to investigate the burden of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent at the Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCHR). The SCHR IBD database was used to identify patients of self-reported Middle Eastern ethnicity diagnosed between 1987 and 2011. Demographic, diagnosis, and management data was collected for all Middle Eastern children and an age and gender matched non-Middle Eastern IBD control group. Twenty-four patients of Middle Eastern descent were identified. Middle Eastern Crohn's disease patients had higher disease activity at diagnosis, higher use of thiopurines, and less restricted colonic disease than controls. Although there were limitations with this dataset, we estimated a higher prevalence of IBD in Middle Eastern children and they had a different disease phenotype and behavior compared to the control group, with less disease restricted to the colon and likely a more active disease course. PMID:24987422

Naidoo, Christina Mai Ying; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

180

Airborne Management of Traffic Conflicts in Descent With Arrival Constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying far-term air traffic management concepts that may increase operational efficiency through a redistribution of decisionmaking authority among airborne and ground-based elements of the air transportation system. One component of this research, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows trained pilots of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for traffic separation. Ground-based air traffic controllers would continue to separate traffic unequipped for autonomous operations and would issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To evaluate En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a human-in-the-loop experiment was jointly conducted by the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. In this experiment, test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve conflicts in cruise and descent, and to adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by test subject controllers. Simulators at NASA Langley were equipped with a prototype Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) flight deck toolset to assist pilots with conflict management and constraint compliance tasks. Results from the experiment are presented, focusing specifically on operations during the initial descent into the terminal area. Airborne conflict resolution performance in descent, conformance to traffic flow management constraints, and the effects of conflicting traffic on constraint conformance are all presented. Subjective data from subject pilots are also presented, showing perceived levels of workload, safety, and acceptability of autonomous arrival operations. Finally, potential AOP functionality enhancements are discussed along with suggestions to improve arrival procedures.

Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

2005-01-01

181

Chenopod salt bladders deter insect herbivores.  

PubMed

Trichomes on leaves and stems of certain chenopods (Chenopodiaceae) are modified with a greatly enlarged apical cell (a salt bladder), containing a huge central vacuole. These structures may aid in the extreme salt tolerance of many species by concentrating salts in the vacuole. Bladders eventually burst, covering the leaf in residue of bladder membranes and solid precipitates. The presence of this system in non-halophytic species suggests additional functions. I tested the novel hypothesis that these bladders have a defensive function against insect herbivores using choice, no choice, and field tests. Generalist insect herbivores preferred to feed on leaves without salt bladders in choice tests. In no choice tests, herbivores consumed less leaf matter with bladders. In a field test, leaves from which I had removed bladders suffered greater herbivory than adjacent leaves with bladders. Solutions containing bladders added to otherwise preferred leaves deterred herbivores, suggesting a water-soluble chemical component to the defense. This bladder system has a defensive function in at least four genera of chenopods. Salt bladders may be a structural defense, like spines or domatia, but also have a chemical defense component. PMID:24241642

LoPresti, E F

2014-03-01

182

Bladder cancer: new TUR techniques.  

PubMed

Transurethral resection of bladder tumours (TURBT) using a wire loop remains the gold-standard treatment for bladder tumours, but it is associated with unacceptably high early recurrence rates after first resection. Improvements to standard resection techniques and a range of optical and technological advances offer exciting possibilities for improving outcomes. Early second resection has been shown to reduce recurrence rates, and increase response to intravesical chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. It should be considered in most high-risk non-muscle invasive cancers (T1; G3; multifocal) being managed by bladder conservation. Newer energy sources, such as laser, may facilitate day case management of bladder tumours using local anaesthesia in select groups of patients. The novel technique of photodynamic diagnosis improves tumour detection, and quality of resection, and is likely to become the standard for initial tumour management. The traditional 'incise and scatter' resection technique goes against all oncological surgical principles. En-bloc resection of tumours would be far preferable and demands further development and evaluation. The technique of TURBT needs to evolve to allow first-time clearance of disease and low recurrence rates. PMID:19259684

Wilby, Daniel; Thomas, Kay; Ray, Eleanor; Chappell, Barnaby; O'Brien, Timothy

2009-06-01

183

Emulating a Fish Swim Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of New Hampshire and the University of New England are developing biologically relevant physics laboratories for their predominantly health science audiences. Buoyancy plays an important role in a variety of biological processes. We describe an inexpensive laboratory activity based on the Cartesian Diver that allows students to quantitatively emulate the swim bladder of a fish. Inflation of the

James Vesenka; Dawn Meredith; Jessica Bolker; Christopher Schubert; Gertrud Kraut

2009-01-01

184

Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near

Fred Mitlitsky; Blake Myers; Frank Magnotta

1998-01-01

185

Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lightweight, low permeability liner is described for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using tori

F. Mitlitsky; B. Myers; F. Magnotta

1998-01-01

186

Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. PMID:21941546

Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

2011-01-01

187

On-Line Learning Theory of Soft Committee Machines with Correlated Hidden Units —Steepest Gradient Descent and Natural Gradient Descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The permutation symmetry of the hidden units in multilayer perceptrons causes the saddle structure and plateaus of the learning dynamics in gradient learning methods. The correlation of the weight vectors of hidden units in a teacher network is thought to affect this saddle structure, resulting in a prolonged learning time, but this mechanism is still unclear. In this paper, we discuss it with regard to soft committee machines and on-line learning using statistical mechanics. Conventional gradient descent needs more time to break the symmetry as the correlation of the teacher weight vectors rises. On the other hand, no plateaus occur with natural gradient descent regardless of the correlation for the limit of a low learning rate. Analytical results support these dynamics around the saddle point.

Inoue, Masato; Park, Hyeyoung; Okada, Masato

2003-04-01

188

Synovial sarcoma in the neck.  

PubMed

Synovial sarcomas are very uncommon and highly malignant tumours. This uncommon malignant tumour of mesenchymal origin may rarely present in the neck. Since 1954, nearly 80 cases of synovial sarcoma, located in the head and neck region have been reported. Synovial sarcoma is most prevalent in adolescents and young adults between 15 and 40 years of age. In this report we present a case of synovial sarcoma in the neck of a 10-year-old patient. PMID:8390971

Onerci, M; Sarioglu, T; Gedikoglu, G; Hosal, S; Ruacan, S

1993-05-01

189

Neck Influence on Fission Paths  

SciTech Connect

The neck region generates a microscopic potential, derived in correlation with the necking region within the fission-like shape on the potential theory basis. The whole microscopic potential is of the two-center type, yielding the evolution of proton and neutron level schemes from one parent to two completely separated fragment nuclei. The shell corrections are calculated using the neck in single-particle levels. The total deformation energy is obtained from the macroscopic-microscopic method. As an application, dynamic calculation is performed for the fission of {sup 236}Pu, using the multidimensional minimization within the total space of deformation of two spheroids joined by a smoothed necking region.

Gherghescu, Radu A.; Poenaru, D. N. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), P O Box MG-6, RO 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

2008-01-24

190

COLLAGEN FIBER ALIGNMENT AND BIAXIAL MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PORCINE URINARY BLADDER DERIVED EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX  

PubMed Central

The collagen fiber alignment and biomechanical behavior of naturally occurring extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds are important considerations for the design of medical devices from these materials. Both should be considered in order to produce a device to meet tissue specific mechanical requirements (e.g., tendon vs. urinary bladder), and could ultimately affect the remodeling response in vivo. The present study evaluated the collagen fiber alignment and biaxial mechanical behavior of ECM scaffold material harvested from porcine urinary bladder tunica mucosa and basement membrane (together referred to as urinary bladder matrix (UBM)) and ECM harvested from urinary bladder submucosa (UBS). Since the preparation of UBM allows for control of the direction of delamination, the effect of the delamination method on the mechanical behavior of UBM was determined by delaminating the submucosa and other abluminal layers by scraping along the longitudinal axis of the bladder (apex to neck) (UBML) or along the circumferential direction (UBMC). The processing of UBS does not allow for similar directional control. UBML and UBS had similar collagen fiber distributions, with a preferred collagen fiber alignment along the longitudinal direction. UBMC showed a more homogenous collagen fiber orientation. All samples showed a stiffer mechanical behavior in the longitudinal direction. Despite similar collagen fiber distributions, UBML and UBS showed quite different mechanical behavior for the applied loading patterns with UBS showing a much more pronounced toe region. The mechanical behavior for UBMC in both directions was similar to the mechanical behavior of UBML. There are distinct differences in the mechanical behavior of different layers of ECM from the porcine urinary bladder, and the processing methods can substantially alter the mechanical behavior observed. PMID:18801572

Gilbert, Thomas W.; Wognum, Silvia; Joyce, Erinn M.; Freytes, Donald O.; Sacks, Michael S.; Badylak, Stephen F.

2008-01-01

191

Collagen fiber alignment and biaxial mechanical behavior of porcine urinary bladder derived extracellular matrix.  

PubMed

The collagen fiber alignment and biomechanical behavior of naturally occurring extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds are important considerations for the design of medical devices from these materials. Both should be considered in order to produce a device to meet tissue specific mechanical requirements (e.g., tendon vs. urinary bladder), and could ultimately affect the remodeling response in vivo. The present study evaluated the collagen fiber alignment and biaxial mechanical behavior of ECM scaffold material harvested from porcine urinary bladder tunica mucosa and basement membrane (together referred to as urinary bladder matrix (UBM)) and ECM harvested from urinary bladder submucosa (UBS). Since the preparation of UBM allows for control of the direction of delamination, the effect of the delamination method on the mechanical behavior of UBM was determined by delaminating the submucosa and other abluminal layers by scraping along the longitudinal axis of the bladder (apex to neck) (UBML) or along the circumferential direction (UBMC). The processing of UBS does not allow for similar directional control. UBML and UBS had similar collagen fiber distributions, with a preferred collagen fiber alignment along the longitudinal direction. UBMC showed a more homogenous collagen fiber orientation. All samples showed a stiffer mechanical behavior in the longitudinal direction. Despite similar collagen fiber distributions, UBML and UBS showed quite different mechanical behavior for the applied loading patterns with UBS showing a much more pronounced toe region. The mechanical behavior for UBMC in both directions was similar to the mechanical behavior of UBML. There are distinct differences in the mechanical behavior of different layers of ECM from the porcine urinary bladder, and the processing methods can substantially alter the mechanical behavior observed. PMID:18801572

Gilbert, Thomas W; Wognum, Silvia; Joyce, Erinn M; Freytes, Donald O; Sacks, Michael S; Badylak, Stephen F

2008-12-01

192

Genetic Variations rs11892031 and rs401681 Are Associated with Bladder Cancer Risk in a Chinese Population.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of genetic variants associated with risk of bladder cancer in populations of European descent. Here, we assessed association of two of these variants, rs11892031 (2q37.1 region) and rs401681 (5p15.33 region) in a Chinese case-control study, which included 367 bladder cancer cases and 420 controls. We found that the AC genotype of rs11892031 was associated with remarkably decreased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09-0.81; p = 0.019), compared with the AA genotype of rs11892031; and that CT/CC genotypes of rs401681 were associated with significantly increased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.10-2.91; p = 0.02), compared with the TT genotype of rs401681. We further conducted stratification analysis to examine the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11892031/rs401681 and tumor grade/stage. Results showed that heterogeneity in ORs of tumor categories was not significant for either rs11892031 or rs401681 (p > 0.05), indicating that the two SNPs seemingly do not associate with tumor grade and stage of bladder cancer in our study population. The present study suggests that the SNPs rs11892031 and rs401681 are associated with bladder cancer risk in a Chinese population. Future analyses will be conducted with more participants recruited in a case-control study. PMID:25347272

Zhang, Yu; Sun, Yan; Chen, Tao; Hu, Hailong; Xie, Wanqin; Qiao, Zhihui; Ding, Na; Xie, Linguo; Li, Sheng; Wang, Wenlong; Xing, Chen; Wang, Yihan; Qie, Yunkai; Wu, Changli

2014-01-01

193

Design of a randomised acupuncture trial on functional neck/shoulder stiffness with two placebo controls  

PubMed Central

Background Functional neck/shoulder stiffness is one of the most well-known indications for acupuncture treatment in Japan. There is little evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for functional neck/shoulder stiffness. Research using two different placebos may allow an efficient method to tease apart the components of real acupuncture from various kinds of ‘non-specific’ effects such as ritual with touch or ritual alone. Herein, we describe a protocol of an ongoing, single-centre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial which aims to assess whether, in functional neck/shoulder stiffness, acupuncture treatment with skin piercing has a specific effect over two types of placebo: skin-touching plus ritual or ritual alone. Methods Six acupuncturists and 400 patients with functional neck/shoulder stiffness are randomly assigned to four treatment groups: genuine acupuncture penetrating the skin, skin-touch placebo or no-touch placebo needles in a double-blind manner (practitioner-patient blinding) or no-treatment control group. Each acupuncturist applies a needle to each of four acupoints (Bladder10, Small Intestine14, Gallbladder21 and Bladder42) in the neck/shoulder to 50 patients. Before, immediately after and 24 hours after the treatment, patients are asked about the intensity of their neck/shoulder stiffness. After the treatment, practitioners and patients are asked to guess whether the treatment is “penetrating”, “skin-touch” or “no-touch” or to record “cannot identify the treatment”. Discussion In addition to intention-to-treat analysis, we will conduct subgroup analysis based on practitioners’ or patients’ guesses to discuss the efficacy and effectiveness of treatments with skin piercing and various placebo controls. The results of practitioner and patient blinding will be discussed. We believe this study will further distinguish the role of different components of acupuncture. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN76896018 PMID:25027157

2014-01-01

194

STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 5: Descent, cycle 3. Appendix C: Monte Carlo dispersion analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of three nonlinear the Monte Carlo dispersion analyses for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) Orbiter Descent Operational Flight Profile, Cycle 3 are presented. Fifty randomly selected simulation for the end of mission (EOM) descent, the abort once around (AOA) descent targeted line are steep target line, and the AOA descent targeted to the shallow target line are analyzed. These analyses compare the flight environment with system and operational constraints on the flight environment and in some cases use simplified system models as an aid in assessing the STS-1 descent flight profile. In addition, descent flight envelops are provided as a data base for use by system specialists to determine the flight readiness for STS-1. The results of these dispersion analyses supersede results of the dispersion analysis previously documented.

1980-01-01

195

Emulating a Fish Swim Bladder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of New Hampshire and the University of New England are developing biologically relevant physics laboratories for their predominantly health science audiences. Buoyancy plays an important role in a variety of biological processes. We describe an inexpensive laboratory activity based on the Cartesian Diver that allows students to quantitatively emulate the swim bladder of a fish. Inflation of the ``bladder'' is externally controlled through an external gas syringe or squeezing on the plastic water containment vessel (a 2L soda bottle). The students can accurately determine the volume of a ``fish'' at the point of neutral buoyancy by visual measurement of the trapped air pocket. A simple electronic gas pressure sensor allows the hydrostatic pressure on the fish to be analyzed simultaneously.

Vesenka, James; Meredith, Dawn; Bolker, Jessica; Schubert, Christopher; Kraut, Gertrud

2009-10-01

196

Ruptured urinary bladder attributable to urethral compression by a haematoma after vertebral fracture in a bull  

PubMed Central

Background In male cattle, rupture of the urinary bladder is usually associated with urethral obstruction by uroliths. Less common causes include urethral compression or stricture. This case report describes the findings in a young Limousion breeding bull with rupture of the urinary bladder because of urethral compression by a haematoma after coccygeal fracture. Case presentation The bull had been introduced into a 40-head Red-Holstein herd one week before being injured. One week after introduction to the herd, the bull had an acute onset of anorexia and he was referred to the clinic. There was marked abdominal distension, reduced skin turgor and enophthalmus. The serum concentration of urea and creatinine was increased. Ultrasonographic examination revealed severe ascites and abdominocentesis yielded clear yellow fluid with high urea and creatinine concentrations, which supported a diagnosis of uroperitoneum. The bull was euthanatized because of a poor prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed a comminuted fracture of the first two coccygeal vertebrae associated with a massive haematoma that obstructed entire pelvic cavity. The haematoma compressed the urethra thereby preventing outflow of urine, which resulted in a 5-cm tear ventrally at the neck of the bladder. It was assumed that the newly-introduced bull had sustained the vertebral fractures when he was mounted by a cow. Conclusions The present case study serves to expand the differential diagnosis of urinary bladder rupture. Therefore, in addition to obstructive urolithiasis, compression and stricture of the urethra might be considered in male cattle with uroperitoneum. PMID:24666697

2014-01-01

197

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 30–45% failure rate after radical cystoprostatectomy mandates that we explore and optimize multimodal therapy to achieve better disease control in these patients. Cisplatin-based multi-agent combination chemotherapy has been used with success in metastatic disease and has therefore also been introduced in patients with high-risk but non-metastatic bladder cancer. There is now convincing evidence that chemotherapy given pre-operatively can improve

Peter C. Black; Gordon A. Brown; H. Barton Grossman; Colin P. Dinney

2006-01-01

198

Urodynamic Assessment of Overactive Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Urodynamic studies (UDS) generate information about bladder function that, currently, no other testing can provide. Though\\u000a clearly not necessary to evaluate all lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), UDS can be useful when confronted with situations\\u000a in which the normal noninvasive parameters used to assess LUTS, such as questionnaires, flow rates, and postvoid residual\\u000a testing, are not helpful. There are a

Gary E. Lemack

199

Entry, Descent, and Landing for Human Mars Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most challenging aspects of a human mission to Mars is landing safely on the Martian surface. Mars has such low atmospheric density that decelerating large masses (tens of metric tons) requires methods that have not yet been demonstrated, and are not yet planned in future Mars missions. To identify the most promising options for Mars entry, descent, and landing, and to plan development of the needed technologies, NASA's Human Architecture Team (HAT) has refined candidate methods for emplacing needed elements of the human Mars exploration architecture (such as ascent vehicles and habitats) on the Mars surface. This paper explains the detailed, optimized simulations that have been developed to define the mass needed at Mars arrival to accomplish the entry, descent, and landing functions. Based on previous work, technology options for hypersonic deceleration include rigid, mid-L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) aeroshells, and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (IADs). The hypersonic IADs, or HIADs, are about 20% less massive than the rigid vehicles, but both have their technology development challenges. For the supersonic regime, supersonic retropropulsion (SRP) is an attractive option, since a propulsive stage must be carried for terminal descent and can be ignited at higher speeds. The use of SRP eliminates the need for an additional deceleration system, but SRP is at a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) in that the interacting plumes are not well-characterized, and their effect on vehicle stability has not been studied, to date. These architecture-level assessments have been used to define the key performance parameters and a technology development strategy for achieving the challenging mission of landing large payloads on Mars.

Munk, Michelle M.; DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.

2012-01-01

200

Powered Descent Guidance with General Thrust-Pointing Constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) algorithm and software for generating Mars pinpoint or precision landing guidance profiles has been enhanced to incorporate thrust-pointing constraints. Pointing constraints would typically be needed for onboard sensor and navigation systems that have specific field-of-view requirements to generate valid ground proximity and terrain-relative state measurements. The original PDG algorithm was designed to enforce both control and state constraints, including maximum and minimum thrust bounds, avoidance of the ground or descent within a glide slope cone, and maximum speed limits. The thrust-bound and thrust-pointing constraints within PDG are non-convex, which in general requires nonlinear optimization methods to generate solutions. The short duration of Mars powered descent requires guaranteed PDG convergence to a solution within a finite time; however, nonlinear optimization methods have no guarantees of convergence to the global optimal or convergence within finite computation time. A lossless convexification developed for the original PDG algorithm relaxed the non-convex thrust bound constraints. This relaxation was theoretically proven to provide valid and optimal solutions for the original, non-convex problem within a convex framework. As with the thrust bound constraint, a relaxation of the thrust-pointing constraint also provides a lossless convexification that ensures the enhanced relaxed PDG algorithm remains convex and retains validity for the original nonconvex problem. The enhanced PDG algorithm provides guidance profiles for pinpoint and precision landing that minimize fuel usage, minimize landing error to the target, and ensure satisfaction of all position and control constraints, including thrust bounds and now thrust-pointing constraints.

Carson, John M., III; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars

2013-01-01

201

An evaluation of descent strategies for TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigated were the effects on system throughput and fleet fuel usage of arrival aircraft utilizing three 4D RNAV descent strategies (cost optimal, clean-idle Mach/CAS and constant descent angle Mach/CAS), both individually and in combination, in an advanced air traffic control metering environment. Results are presented for all mixtures of arrival traffic consisting of three Boeing commercial jet types and for all combinations of the three descent strategies for a typical en route metering airport arrival distribution.

Izumi, K. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Groce, J. L.; Coote, M. A.

1986-01-01

202

Graham Greene's use of the christian concept of descent  

E-print Network

of wood in fi. re ('~, 'orl&s, I, 402-406) and to the diet of a sick person who must eat "fooa that is nourishing rather than delectable" (Works, I, 425). This concept of descent that z. esults in ascent to God involves paradoxes. The dazk night... "according to Saint Bernard and Saint Thomas" (Works& I, 435). The first step causes the soul to become sick; "?just as a sick man first of all loses his appetite and t. ste for all food, and nis colour changes, so li. kewise in this degree of love...

Love, Frances Ann C

2012-06-07

203

Guidance and Control During Direct-Descent Parabolic Reentry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of studies of four reentry guidance and control techniques for the energy management of vehicles returning to the earth at escape speeds are compared in this paper. The reentry trajectories are constrained to those of direct descent, that is, where the vehicle does not leave that portion of the atmosphere where useful aerodynamic forces are available after its initial entry. The guidance techniques compared are: (1) a piloted simulator study reference trajectory techniques; 2) An automatic controller using reference trajectory techniques; 3) A predictor system employing linear prediction (perturbation) techniques; and 4) A repetitive prediction system employing rapid-time computer techniques.

Foudriat, Edwin C.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

1961-01-01

204

Regularization Paths for Generalized Linear Models via Coordinate Descent.  

PubMed

We develop fast algorithms for estimation of generalized linear models with convex penalties. The models include linear regression, two-class logistic regression, and multinomial regression problems while the penalties include ?(1) (the lasso), ?(2) (ridge regression) and mixtures of the two (the elastic net). The algorithms use cyclical coordinate descent, computed along a regularization path. The methods can handle large problems and can also deal efficiently with sparse features. In comparative timings we find that the new algorithms are considerably faster than competing methods. PMID:20808728

Friedman, Jerome; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Rob

2010-01-01

205

Regularization Paths for Generalized Linear Models via Coordinate Descent  

PubMed Central

We develop fast algorithms for estimation of generalized linear models with convex penalties. The models include linear regression, two-class logistic regression, and multinomial regression problems while the penalties include ?1 (the lasso), ?2 (ridge regression) and mixtures of the two (the elastic net). The algorithms use cyclical coordinate descent, computed along a regularization path. The methods can handle large problems and can also deal efficiently with sparse features. In comparative timings we find that the new algorithms are considerably faster than competing methods. PMID:20808728

Friedman, Jerome; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Rob

2010-01-01

206

The design and reconstruction of the Viking Lander descent trajectories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of the Viking Mission is truly a major milestone in this country's planetary exploration program. This paper deals with the trajectory characteristics of the Viking Lander descent trajectories, beginning with the imposed requirements and constraints, the final preflight design based on the final hardware and operational capability, and ending with the actual performance achieved. A comparison between the predicted and actual trajectory characteristics is made to indicate the achieved accuracy and modeling fidelity. Also, estimates of the Martian environment derived from the entry-trajectory reconstruction process are presented.

Euler, E. A.; Adams, G. L.; Hopper, F. W.

1977-01-01

207

Double Gall Bladder—A Rare Entity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholecystectomy is the most commonly performed operation in surgery. Variations inanatomical disposition are not infrequent.\\u000a However variations in number of cystic ductand gall bladder is quiet rare. This poses a diagnostic and management problem\\u000a withcomplications during surgery and missed gall bladder being reported in world literature. We here by report a case of double\\u000a gall bladder with double cystic duct

Akhilesh Agarwal; Suranjan Haldar; Anshu Agarwal

2011-01-01

208

Treatment of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis by ultrasound-controlled bladder training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurogenic bladder dysfunction, the main cause of chronic urinary tract infections in multiple sclerosis (MS), is efficiently treated by bladder training with ultrasound control of the residual urine. However, the beneficial effects of bladder training in the hospital are often lost within a short time when the patient returns to his home. Reexamination at home of 97 MS patients with

K.-J. Christ; H. H. Kornhuber

1980-01-01

209

Head & Neck Cancer Care Program  

E-print Network

OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER PROGRAM THYROID AND PARATHYROID PROGRAM · Alexander Colevas, MD · Vasu Divi, MD · ChrisHead & Neck Cancer Care Program NONPROFITORG. U.S.POSTAGE PAID PALOALTO,CA PERMITNO.188900BlakeWilburDrive PaloAlto,CA94304 Starting February 24, 2014, the Head & Neck Cancer Care Program is moving to a new

Bogyo, Matthew

210

Mars Exploration Rover Terminal Descent Mission Modeling and Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of NASA's added reliance on simulation for successful interplanetary missions, the MER mission has developed a detailed EDL trajectory modeling and simulation. This paper summarizes how the MER EDL sequence of events are modeled, verification of the methods used, and the inputs. This simulation is built upon a multibody parachute trajectory simulation tool that has been developed in POST I1 that accurately simulates the trajectory of multiple vehicles in flight with interacting forces. In this model the parachute and the suspended bodies are treated as 6 Degree-of-Freedom (6 DOF) bodies. The terminal descent phase of the mission consists of several Entry, Descent, Landing (EDL) events, such as parachute deployment, heatshield separation, deployment of the lander from the backshell, deployment of the airbags, RAD firings, TIRS firings, etc. For an accurate, reliable simulation these events need to be modeled seamlessly and robustly so that the simulations will remain numerically stable during Monte-Carlo simulations. This paper also summarizes how the events have been modeled, the numerical issues, and modeling challenges.

Raiszadeh, Behzad; Queen, Eric M.

2004-01-01

211

The difficult neck in facelifting.  

PubMed

The management of the neck often presents the most challenging aspect of the facelift procedure. The aesthetic neck has a well-defined jaw line, a pleasing and adequate cervicomental angle, and visible definitions of the deeper lateral and midline structures, such as the sternocleidomastoid muscles and trachea. Several unfavorable anatomic characteristics will present that will compound the challenge. These characteristics are contrasted with ideal features and include the following: an excess of adipose tissue, an excess of either thin or thick inelastic skin, marked relaxation of the suspension structures of the neck with resultant platysma banding and jowling, and unfavorable skeletal features such as microgenia and hyoid malposition. These patients present for rhytidectomy with inadequate chin projection, an obtuse cervicomental angle, sagging skin, and a heavy neck. To maximize rhytidectomy results in these patients with difficult neck anatomy, special attention to the anatomy and application of recognized techniques in an individualized manner is recommended. This article reviews the issues encountered in the management of the difficult neck in facelifting, with special attention given to patients with a heavy neck. PMID:25076452

Fedok, Fred G; Chaikhoutdinov, Irina; Garritano, Frank

2014-08-01

212

Stamey endoscopic vesical neck suspension in female urinary stress incontinence: Results and changes in various urodynamic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 32 female patients with urinary stress incontinence who underwent a Stamey endoscopic bladder neck suspension were\\u000a clinically and urodynamically studied pre- and postoperatively. Complete cure was obtained in 78% of the patients and improvement\\u000a in 6%, the overall success rate being 84% for a mean follow-up of 11.1 months (range 6–19). Complications occurred in 22%\\u000a of the

A. Athanassopoulos; M. D. Melekos; M. Speakman; P. Perimenis; S. Markou; G. A. Barballas

1994-01-01

213

Adenocarcinoma in extrophy of the bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been 81 cases of carcinoma in extrophied bladder described previously. We describe another such case. It demonstrates the problem of early diagnosis of carcinoma in extrophy of the bladder and the therapeutic consequences of an early cystectomy. In accordance with current literature we illustrate the theories on oncogenesis, and review the cases previously published.

W. de Riese; H. Warmbold

1986-01-01

214

Gender and Smoking Related Bladder Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is growing evidence that, when smoking habits are compa- rable, women incur a higher risk of lung cancer than men. Because smok- ers are also at risk for bladder cancer, we investigated possible sex differences in the susceptibility to bladder cancer among smokers. Methods: A popula- tion-based, case-control study was con- ducted in Los Angeles, CA, involving 1514

J. Esteban Castelao; Jian-Min Yuan; Paul L. Skipper; Steven R. Tannenbaum; Manuela Gago-Dominguez; J. Slade Crowder; Ronald K. Ross; Mimi C. Yu

2001-01-01

215

Arylamine exposures and bladder cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure to arylamines in industrial settings was the first known cause of bladder cancer in humans. In the United States and many developed countries, these industrial dyes have been under strict government control for decades and are believed to contribute minimally to today’s population burden of bladder cancer in the West. The two other recognized, and potentially substantial sources

Mimi C Yu; Paul L Skipper; Steven R Tannenbaum; Kenneth K Chan; Ronald K Ross

2002-01-01

216

Hydroxyzine inhibits neurogenic bladder mast cell activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased numbers of activated mast cells have been documented close to substance P (SP) containing nerve endings in the bladders of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC), a painful, sterile bladder disorder occurring primarily in females. Many of these patients also suffer from allergies, but common antihistamines do not help. In line with the fact that IC symptoms worsen under stress,

P Minogiannis; M El-Mansoury; J. a Betances; G. R Sant; T. C Theoharides

1998-01-01

217

Adjunctive procedures to neck rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Rejuvenation of the neck often requires more than just a neck lift. Various steps and procedures exist to enhance the surgical technique or overall result. Fibrin sealants can be used to improve the recovery process and obviate the need for drain placement. Chin augmentation can be a critical part of creating a more refined neckline. Submandibular gland excision has been put forth as helpful to the overall aesthetic result. A low and anteriorly positioned hyoid bone creates an unattractive neckline that is difficult to treat. This article focuses on techniques beyond lifting and resurfacing that may enhance neck rejuvenation. PMID:24745385

Hamilton, Mark M; Chan, David

2014-05-01

218

Spectroscopic Imaging of Bladder Cancer  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of developing bladder cancer detection methods using intrinsic tissue optical properties is the focus of this investigation. In vitro experiments have been performed using polarized elastic light scattering in combination with tissue autofluorescence in the NIR spectral region under laser excitation in the green and red spectral regions. The experimental results obtained from a set of tissue specimens from 25 patients reveal the presence of optical fingerprint characteristics suitable for cancer detection with high contrast and accuracy. These photonic methods are compatible with existing endoscopic imaging modalities which make them suitable for in-vivo application.

Demos, S G; Gandour-Edwards, R; Ramsamooj, R; deVere White, R

2003-01-01

219

Chart of Galileo's atmospheric probe entry/descent events at Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chart titled GALILEO ENTRY/DESCENT EVENTS traces the atmospheric probe of the Galileo spacecraft into Jupiter's atmosphere. Entry/descent events are charted from pre-entry to completion of reference mission with altitude (vertical axis) and time (horizontal axis) indicated.

1989-01-01

220

Evidence of pudendal neuropathy in patients with perineal descent and chronic straining at stool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 17 women with chronic constipation, and abnormal perineal descent on straining at stool, there was more severe neurogenic damage to the external anal sphincter muscle and to its pudendal innervation in those patients with a long history than in those with a short history. These results suggest that recurrent trauma to the pudendal nerves can occur during perineal descent,

E S Kiff; P R Barnes; M Swash

1984-01-01

221

Lossless Convexification of Powered-Descent Guidance with Non-Convex Thrust Bound and Pointing Constraints  

E-print Network

an air-bag system or a powered-descent system (throttleable rockets that descend the lander). Landing with onboard guidance algo- rithms. Current guidance methods ensure a safe landing that avoids impact- efficient algorithms. The descent thrusters typically cannot Authors are with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Williams, Brian C.

222

Classifying Facial Expression with Radial Basis Function Netowrks, using Gradient Descent and K-means  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares methods of training radial basis function networks. We found RBF networks initialized by supervised clustering perform bet- ter than networks initialized by unsupervised clustering and improved with gradient descent. Gradient descent did not significantly improve the networks initialized by supervised clustering.

Neil Alldrin; Andrew Smith; Doug Turnbull

223

Miniature coherent velocimeter and altimeter (MCVA) for terminal descent control on lunar and planetary landers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the overall architecture of an Entry Descent and Landing (EDL) system may vary depending on specific mission requirementsw, measurements of the rate vector with respect to the surface is a primary requirement for the Terminal Descent Control (TDC) phase of any controlled lander.

Chang, Dan; Cardell, Greg; Szwaykowski, Piotr; Shaffat, Syed T.; Meras, Patrick

2005-01-01

224

Mitral annular descent velocity by tissue Doppler echocardiography as an index of global left ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitral annular descent has been described as an index of left ventricular (LV) systolic function, which is independent of endocardial definition. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging is a new technique that calculates and displays color-coded cardiac tissue velocities on-line. To evaluate mitral annular descent velocity as a rapid index of global LV function, we performed tissue Doppler imaging studies in 55

Vijay K. Gulati; William E. Katz; William P. Follansbee; John Gorcsan

1996-01-01

225

Descent of the hyoid in chimpanzees: evolution of face flattening and speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human supralaryngeal vocal tract develops to form a unique two-tube configuration with equally long horizontal and vertical cavities. This anatomy contributes greatly to the morphological foundations of human speech. It is believed to depend on the reduced growth of the palate and on the developmental descent of the larynx relative to the palate. Anatomically, the descent of the larynx

Takeshi Nishimura; Akichika Mikami; Juri Suzuki; Tetsuro Matsuzawa

2006-01-01

226

Evaluation of vertical profiles to design continuous descent approach procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current research focuses on predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA), which is among the key concepts of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The idle-thrust CDA is a fuel economical, noise and emission abatement procedure, but requires increased separation to accommodate for variability and uncertainties in vertical and speed profiles of arriving aircraft. Although a considerable amount of researches have been devoted to the estimation of potential benefits of the CDA, only few have attempted to explain the predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of CDA. The analytical equations derived using flight dynamics and Base of Aircraft and Data (BADA) Total Energy Model (TEM) in this research gives insight into dependency of vertical profile of CDA on various factors like wind speed and gradient, weight, aircraft type and configuration, thrust settings, atmospheric factors (deviation from ISA (DISA), pressure and density of the air) and descent speed profile. Application of the derived equations to idle-thrust CDA gives an insight into sensitivity of its vertical profile to multiple factors. This suggests fixed geometric flight path angle (FPA) CDA has higher degree of predictability and lesser variability at the cost of non-idle and low thrust engine settings. However, with optimized design this impact can be overall minimized. The CDA simulations were performed using Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) based on radar-track and aircraft type data (BADA) of the real air-traffic to some of the busiest airports in the USA (ATL, SFO and New York Metroplex (JFK, EWR and LGA)). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA shows 1) mean geometric FPAs derived from various simulated vertical profiles are consistently shallower than 3° glideslope angle and 2) high level of variability in vertical profiles of idle-thrust CDA even in absence of uncertainties in external factors. Analysis from operational feasibility perspective suggests that two key features of the performance based Flight Management System (FMS) i.e. required time of arrival (RTA) and geometric descent path would help in reduction of unpredictability associated with arrival time and vertical profile of aircraft guided by the FMS coupled with auto-pilot (AP) and auto-throttle (AT). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA also suggests that for procedure design window type, 'AT or above' and 'AT or below' altitude and FPA constraints are more realistic and useful compared to obsolete 'AT' type altitude constraint.

Pradeep, Priyank

227

Urinary bladder lesions in bovine enzootic haematuria.  

PubMed

In cattle, bracken fern chronic toxicity is characterized by the presence of multiple tumours in the bladder (bovine enzootic haematuria). From October 1999 to March 2003, 433 urinary bladders with macroscopical lesions were collected in the slaughterhouse of São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal), an endemic area where Pteridium aquilinum infestation in pastures is high. Bladder lesions were divided into three main categories (inflammatory lesions, non-neoplastic epithelial abnormalities and tumours) and described in detail. In some cases, neoplastic growth was confined to a single site, but in most cases multiple tumours developed within the same bladder. Epithelial tumours alone were present in 51.2% of the affected bladders, mesenchymal tumours alone in 17.4%, and both epithelial and mesenchymal tumours in the remaining 31.4%. The large number of tumours examined (870) revealed new categories not yet included in other veterinary classification systems, namely, inverted papilloma, papillary neoplasm of apparent low malignant potential, and haemangioendothelioma. PMID:16714029

Carvalho, T; Pinto, C; Peleteiro, M C

2006-05-01

228

Pathogenesis of human urinary bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of bladder cancer is being analyzed at several levels of biological organization, i.e., population groups, individual whole animal, tissue, cell, molecule, etc. Each of these levels provides opportunities for mechanistic studies. Yet the integration of these several levels into a cohesive fabric is incomplete. From a clinical point of view, the following seem of importance to human bladder cancer pathogenesis. The initiation, promotion, and progression of bladder cancer involves several factors acting concurrently or sequentially. These factors appear to be naturally occurring or synthetically created chemicals present in the external environment. Human exposures to these agents may begin in utero, and varying, dynamic qualitative and quantitative exposure patterns continue through developmental and adult life. Apparent latent periods of development of clinical bladder cancer may be as short as one, or as long as 50 years or more. Individuals may exhibit differential susceptibility to vesical carcinogens, perhaps through phenotypic differences in quantitative biotransformation routes. Differences in bladder epithelial cell susceptibilities probably also occur, as well as varying local tissue and generalized resistance to neoplasia formation. Older individuals do not appear to be more resistant to bladder carcinogenesis. A number of animal model systems have been developed for the study of the in vivo, cellular, and molecular pathogenesis of bladder cancer. These models replicate many of the known salient features of human bladder cancer. Through use of appropriate whole animal models in conjunction with investigations of human and animal bladder cells and tissues in culture, controlled mechanistic and quantitative studies of bladder cancer pathogenesis should rapidly develop. PMID:6832092

Bryan, George T.

1983-01-01

229

RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry. 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth's atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. 'Mini-1' category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, V (m/s): re-entry velocity and ? (deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet ('Mini-1' category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being VSOL = 5268 m/s. Using the basic pre-defined parameters for MetNet-type of lander in Earth atmosphere, we get the optimal angle of ? = -3.06 degrees for Earth re-entry. 3. Payload Mass for Earth Entry DV One of the key elements in Earth entry lander is the amount of available payload mass. The payload mass depends on, e.g., the lander size, landing type (soil or water), heat shield durability and additional landing gear. The payload mass will have an impact to the center of gravity of the lander. The payload with a 'low' CoG (compared the the lander structure) has a larger tolerance than the payload with 'high' CoG. In cases where payload CoG causes instability, the extra balance mass can be used to adjust CoG. This balance mass will reduce the available payload mass. A major limitation for payload mass is the heat shielding. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 263255. References [1] http://ritd.fmi.fi

Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Koryanov, Vsevolod; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valery; Martynov, Maxim; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Viktor; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero

2014-05-01

230

Overview of the Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing System Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Phoenix Mars Lander began its journey to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida in August 2007, but its journey to the launch pad began many years earlier in 1997 as NASA s Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. In the intervening years, the entry, descent and landing (EDL) system architecture went through a series of changes, resulting in the system flown to the surface of Mars on May 25th, 2008. Some changes, such as entry velocity and landing site elevation, were the result of differences in mission design. Other changes, including the removal of hypersonic guidance, the reformulation of the parachute deployment algorithm, and the addition of the backshell avoidance maneuver, were driven by constant efforts to augment system robustness. An overview of the Phoenix EDL system architecture is presented along with rationales driving these architectural changes.

Grover, Myron R., III; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Desai, Prasun N.

2008-01-01

231

RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract A new generation of in?atable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) or Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth’s atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth’s atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. “Mini-1” category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: - qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, - Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, - m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, - V (m/s): re-entry velocity and - theta(deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet (“Mini-1” category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being VSOL = 5268 m/s. Using the basic pre-defined parameters for MetNet-type of lander in Earth atmosphere, we get the optimal angle of = -3.06 degrees for Earth re-entry. 3. Payload Mass for Earth Entry DV One of the key elements in Earth entry lander is the amount of available payload mass. The payload mass depends on, e.g., the lander size, landing type (soil or water), heat shield durability and additional landing gear. The payload mass will have an impact to the center of gravity of the lander. The payload with a “low” CoG (compared the the lander structure) has a larger tolerance than the payload with “high” CoG. In cases where payload CoG causes instability, the extra balance mass can be used to adjust CoG. This balance mass will reduce the available payload mass. A major limitation for payload mass is the heat shielding. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 263255. References [1] http://ritd.fmi.fi

Heilimo, Jyri; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Martynov, Maxim; Schmidt, Walter; Harri, Ari-Matti; Vsevolod Koryanov, D.; Kazakovtcev, Victor; Haukka, Harri; Arruego, Ignacio; Finchenko, Valery; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrei; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero

232

Gradient descent learning in and out of equilibrium  

SciTech Connect

Relations between the off thermal equilibrium dynamical process of on-line learning and the thermally equilibrated off-line learning are studied for potential gradient descent learning. The approach of Opper to study on-line Bayesian algorithms is used for potential based or maximum likelihood learning. We look at the on-line learning algorithm that best approximates the off-line algorithm in the sense of least Kullback-Leibler information loss. The closest on-line algorithm works by updating the weights along the gradient of an effective potential, which is different from the parent off-line potential. A few examples are analyzed and the origin of the potential annealing is discussed.

Caticha, Nestor; Araujo de Oliveira, Evaldo

2001-06-01

233

Scientific basis of testicular descent and management implications for cryptorchidism.  

PubMed

Cryptorchidism occurs in about 1% of boys, but has a raised incidence in those with deficiencies of androgen function. Greater knowledge of fetal-maternal endocrinology and related experimental work has provided evidence that fetal testicular endocrine function is vital in descent of the gonad. The therapeutic use of hCG has, however, been disappointing, and its role is confined to helping to distinguish the retractile from the undescended testis. Cryptorchidism is commonly associated with congenital pathological defects such as ductal abnormalities, and others (including interstitial fibrosis and a reduction in germ cells) develop after 1-2 years, while later these patients are at greater risk of carcinoma in situ and germ cell cancer. The demonstration of the early pathological changes has recently dictated much earlier surgical correction, but long-term follow-up is needed to prove clinical benefit from this practice. PMID:7910032

Kiely, E A

1994-01-01

234

Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions.

Prakash, Ravi; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Devin, M. Kipp; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Steltzner, Adam D.; Way, David W.

2008-01-01

235

Mars Exploration Rovers Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rover mission successfully landed two rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" on Mars on January 4th and 25th of 2004, respectively. The trajectory analysis performed to define the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) scenario is described. The entry requirements and constraints are presented, as well as uncertainties used in a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis to statistically assess the robustness of the entry design to off-nominal conditions. In the analysis, six-degree-of-freedom and three-degree-of-freedom trajectory results are compared to assess the entry characteristics of the capsule. Comparison of the preentry results to preliminary post-landing reconstruction data shows that all EDL parameters were within the requirements. In addition, the final landing position for both "Spirit" and "Opportunity" were within 15 km of the predicted landing location.

Desai, Prasun N.; Knocke, Philip C.

2004-01-01

236

Mars Exploration Rover: Launch, Cruise, Entry, Descent, and Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rover Project was an ambitious effort to land two highly capable rovers on Mars and concurrently explore the Martian surface for three months each. Launched in June and July of 2003, cruise operations were conducted through January 4, 2004 with the first landing, followed by the second landing on January 25. The prime mission for the second rover ended on April 27, 2004. This paper will provide an overview of the launch, cruise, and landing phases of the mission, including the engineering and science objectives and challenges involved in the selection and targeting of the landing sites, as well as the excitement and challenges of atmospheric entry, descent and landing execution.

Erickson, James K.; Manning, Robert M.; Adler, M.

2004-01-01

237

[Bladder tumors in young patients].  

PubMed

Bladder tumours classically affect the elderly, but can also occur in young adults. The authors studied the prognosis of these tumours in patients under the age of 40. In their experience, these tumours represent 3.27% of all bladder tumours. 26 patients with a mean age of 34 years (20-40 years), 8 under the age of 30, were studied. There was a marked male predominance (23 males, 3 females). The tumour was a transitional cell carcinoma in 25 cases and a squamous cell carcinoma in 1 case. It was superficial in 11 cases and invasive in 15 cases. Transurethral resection and cystectomy were performed in 9 cases of superficial tumours and 11 cases of invasive tumours, respectively. In the group of superficial tumours, a favourable course was observed in 7 cases, with 3 cases of recurrence and 1 case of progression. In the group of invasive tumours, a favourable course was observed in 6 cases, recurrence was observed in 2 cases and 5 patients died. Superficial tumours therefore have a better prognosis in subjects under the age of 30. Invasive tumours are more frequent and often advanced, suggesting a marked potential for progression. Their prognosis depends on tumour stage, and is not correlated with age. PMID:9533150

Aboutaieb, R; Dakir, M; Sarrf, I; el Moussaoui, A; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Meziane, F; Benjelloun, S

1998-02-01

238

Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18)(q21: 21). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment. PMID:24511310

Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

2014-01-01

239

Head and Neck Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Head and neck cancer (HNC) represents a broad spectrum of diseases that involves the nasal and oropharyngeal cavities, the\\u000a paranasal sinuses, the major and minor salivary glands, the larynx and the lymphatic tissues of the neck. The world-wide yearly\\u000a incidence exceeds over half a million cases. Tobacco (smoking and smokeless) and alcohol use are the principal risk factors,\\u000a however, a

Fausto Chiesa; Angelo Ostuni; Roberto Grigolato; Luca Calabrese

240

A Non-Invasive Bladder Sensory Test Supports a Role for Dysmenorrhea Increasing Bladder Noxious Mechanosensitivity  

PubMed Central

Objective Catheterization to measure bladder sensitivity is aversive and hinders human participation in visceral sensory research. Therefore, we sought to characterize the reliability of sonographically-estimated female bladder sensory thresholds. To demonstrate this technique’s usefulness, we examined the effects of self-reported dysmenorrhea on bladder pain thresholds. Methods Bladder sensory threshold volumes were determined during provoked natural diuresis in 49 healthy women (mean age 24 ± 8) using three-dimensional ultrasound. Cystometric thresholds (Vfs – first sensation, Vfu – first urge, Vmt – maximum tolerance) were quantified and related to bladder urgency and pain. We estimated reliability (one-week retest and interrater). Self-reported menstrual pain was examined in relationship to bladder pain, urgency and volume thresholds. Results Average bladder sensory thresholds (mLs) were Vfs (160±100), Vfu (310±130), and Vmt (500±180). Interrater reliability ranged from 0.97–0.99. One-week retest reliability was Vmt = 0.76 (95% CI 0.64–0.88), Vfs = 0.62 (95% CI 0.44–0.80), and Vfu = 0.63, (95% CI 0.47–0.80). Bladder filling rate correlated with all thresholds (r = 0.53–0.64, p < 0.0001). Women with moderate to severe dysmenorrhea pain had increased bladder pain and urgency at Vfs and increased pain at Vfu (p’s < 0.05). In contrast, dysmenorrhea pain was unrelated to bladder capacity. Discussion Sonographic estimates of bladder sensory thresholds were reproducible and reliable. In these healthy volunteers, dysmenorrhea was associated with increased bladder pain and urgency during filling but unrelated to capacity. Plausibly, dysmenorrhea sufferers may exhibit enhanced visceral mechanosensitivity, increasing their risk to develop chronic bladder pain syndromes. PMID:23370073

TU, Frank F.; EPSTEIN, Aliza E.; POZOLO, Kristen E.; SEXTON, Debra L.; MELNYK, Alexandra I.; HELLMAN, Kevin M.

2012-01-01

241

Thrombomodulin expression regulates tumorigenesis in bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of potential tumor markers will help improve therapeutic planning and patient management. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a sensitive urothelial marker. TM was reported to be one of the endogenous anti-metastatic factors and has diagnostic and prognostic values for the progression of carcinoma. In the present study, we examine the role of TM in bladder cancer. Methods We studied the role of TM in tumor behavior and related signaling pathways in vitro using the human bladder cancer cell lines HT1376, HT1197, J82 and T24, and in vivo using animal models. We also selected clinical specimens from 100 patients with bladder cancer for immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the predictive capacity of TM in tumor invasiveness. Results The data revealed that positive immunoreactivity for TM was inversely correlated with clinical stage and DNA methyltransferase 1 immunoreactivity. Decreased TM expression could predict the aggressive tumor growth and advanced clinical stage in bladder cancer. When TM was inhibited, tumor growth rate and invasion ability were augmented in vitro and in vivo. The underlying changes included increased cell proliferation, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of NF-?B activation significantly increased TM expression and attenuated tumor aggressiveness in bladder cancer. Conclusions TM plays an important role in bladder cancer tumor aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo and is a clinically significant predictor that may represent a suitable therapeutic target for bladder cancer. PMID:24886404

2014-01-01

242

ANALYSIS OF BLADDER HISTOLOGY AND URODYNAMICS IN FEMALE RATS SUBMITTED TO BLADDER RECONSTRUCTION WITH RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Bladder histology and measures of maximal bladder pressure and maximal bladder volume during urinary loss in female rats submitted to bladder reconstruction with a myoperitoneal flap of rectus abdominis muscle were studied. Materials and Methods: Fifty female adult Wistar rats were studied, separated in 5 groups: Group 1 (immediate): submitted to laparotomy, cystostomy, and cystometry; Group 2 (sham): submit-

MAURÍCIO HACHUL; ANTÔNIO MACEDO JR.; MIGUEL SROUGI

243

Chromosomal Numerical Aberrations Detected by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization on Bladder Washings from Patients with Bladder Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Previous studies on touch biopsy specimens have determined numerical or structural changes involving many different chromosomes in bladder cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay in bladder washings as an objective technique to detect chromosomal numerical aberrations in bladder cancer. The main advantages of bladder washings are that

Alessandro Marano; Yi Pan; Chunde Li; Arcangelo Pagliarulo; Göran Elmberger; Bernhard Tribukait; Peter Ekman; Ulf Bergerheim

2000-01-01

244

BLADDER  

Cancer.gov

The Est. Annual PC is the Estimated Annual Percent Change (EAPC) over the time interval. SEER Program. NCHS public use tape. The EAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). The EAPC for 1991-95 is significantly different from the EAPC for

245

Long-term culture of porcine bladder epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Epithelial cells from normal pig bladders proliferated when cocultured with lethally irradiated feeder cells of the LA7 rat\\u000a mammary tumor line. When the bladder cells and feeders were plated together at a confluent density, the bladder cells proliferated\\u000a as the feeder cells died, resulting in a confluent culture of bladder cells. The bladder cells were successfully subcultured\\u000a by plating with

Ursula K. Ehmann; Martha K. Terris

2002-01-01

246

Bladder cancer: detection, prevention, and therapeutics.  

PubMed

Bladder cancer is primarily a disease of middle-aged men with a history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Work continues on the development of effective screening methods. Prevention is the magic key in society's attempt to manage this disease. Public awareness campaigns on the hazards of smoking should include information on smoking's link to bladder cancer. Workers in high-risk industries should be made aware of the risk and practice good work habits. In industries where workers handle known bladder carcinogens, protective clothing should be worn. Yet to be determined are benefits gained by reducing the intake of coffee or artificial sweeteners. PMID:2750671

Burnham, N

1989-06-01

247

Advances in bladder cancer imaging  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to review the imaging techniques that have changed and are anticipated to change bladder cancer evaluation. The use of multidetector 64-slice computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remain standard staging modalities. The development of functional imaging such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT allows characterization of tumor physiology and potential genotypic activity, to help stratify and inform future patient management. They open up the possibility of tumor mapping and individualized treatment solutions, permitting early identification of response and allowing timely change in treatment. Further validation of these methods is required however, and at present they are used in conjunction with, rather than as an alternative to, conventional imaging techniques. PMID:23574966

2013-01-01

248

Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: Can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. Results: A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 Sd = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. Conclusions: This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations.

Stam, Marcel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: m.stam@rther.umcn.nl; Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Vight, Lisette P. van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kaanders, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Visser, Andries G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2006-06-01

249

Trimodality Therapy for Bladder Preservation in the Elderly Population with Invasive Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is considered as primarily a disease of the elderly, typically aged in their 70s or 80s and often with associated medical comorbidities. Unfortunately, fewer elderly patients receive radical treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) that their younger counterparts. Over the last decades, several studies have shown that the use of trimodality therapy consisting of transurethral bladder resection followed by concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy results in comparable outcomes to radical cystectomy, considered the gold standard for this disease. In this review, we revised the literature on bladder-preservation treatments using the trimodality approach in the elderly population with MIBC. PMID:25140295

Turgeon, Guy-Anne; Souhami, Luis

2014-01-01

250

Extensive xanthogranulomatous cystitis mimicking bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Xanthogranulomatous cystitis (XC) is a rare benign disease of unknown etiology. A 39-year-old female presented with 2 month history of urgency, dysuria, lower abdominal mass. On physical examination a hard hypogastric mass was present fixed to the rectus muscle. Computerized tomography (CT) abdomen showed heterogeneous enhancing mass arising from the anterior bladder wall with infiltration of the overlying parietal wall. Cystoscopy revealed extensive growth involving the entire wall of the bladder. A biopsy showed cystitis with focal areas suggestive of urothelial neoplasia of unknown malignant potential. Suspecting bladder cancer, we proceeded with radical cystectomy with ileal conduit. Histopathology revealed cystitis cystica with XC of the entire bladder. This is, to our knowledge, the first time that a case has been found to be so extensive with infiltration of the parietal wall and second time that radical cystectomy has been performed for XC. PMID:25371622

Ali, Amir M; Nelvigi, Girish G; Keshavaiah, Venkatesh Garageshwara; Ratkal, Chandrashekar S

2014-10-01

251

Fuel Bladder Replacement-South Pole  

NSF Publications Database

... supply of fuel, especially during the austral winter months. The existing fuel storage system ... s fuel arch; 3. Replace the existing bladders with double-walled, steel tanks placed within the fuel ...

252

Asymptomatic Bladder Metastasis from Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common nondermatologic cancer in women. Common metastatic sites include lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bone. Metastases to the bladder are extremely rare, with all reported cases presenting with urinary symptoms. Case Report. Herein, we report the first case of completely asymptomatic bladder metastasis from breast cancer, occasionally revealed, 98 months after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, by a follow-up computed tomography scanning showing thickening of left bladder wall and grade II left hydronephrosis. A positive staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Discussion. The reported case confirms that bladder metastases from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor and, for the first time, points out they can be asymptomatic. Conclusion. Such data support the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected. PMID:24716084

Di Fino, Giuseppe; Massenio, Paolo; Ruocco, Nicola; Bufo, Pantaleo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

253

Marital status and survival following bladder cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Marital status has been implicated as a prognostic factor in bladder cancer survival. However, few studies have explored potential mechanisms through which this might occur.Methods:The study identified 19 982 bladder cancer patients from the SEER-Medicare database (1992–8) and constructed sex-specific Cox proportional hazard models to assess the relation between marital status and 5-year survival, while sequentially adding covariates to test

G Dabral Datta; B A Neville; I Kawachi; N S Datta; C C Earle

2009-01-01

254

Localized and locally advanced bladder cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Localized and locally advanced bladder cancer represents a heterogeneous spectrum of diseases with different biologic and\\u000a clinical behavior. It varies with respect to invasive potential, propensity for metastases, and sensitivity to chemotherapy.\\u000a Although several significant surgical advances have been made over the past 20 years in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder\\u000a cancer, resulting in decreases in perioperative morbidity and

Fabio Calabrò; Cora N. Sternberg

2002-01-01

255

Genetic Marker Identified for Aggressive Bladder Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers led by Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Ph.D., in DCEG's Laboratory of Translational Genomics, have identified the first genetic variant associated with risk of aggressive bladder cancer. The variant, rs7257330, is in the promoter region of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes for cyclin E protein, a cell cycle regulator. This result comes from a fine-mapping analysis of data from two bladder cancer genome-wide association studies and functional studies.

256

Overactive Bladder and Pain: Management Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overactive bladder associated with pain (ie, interstitial cystitis\\/bladder pain syndrome [IC\\/BPS]) is a prevalent condition\\u000a that can be very difficult to diagnose and even more difficult to treat. In this paper, we review the studied therapies for\\u000a IC\\/BPS, including non–medication-based therapies, oral and intravesical-based medications, and surgical treatments for interstitial\\u000a cystitis. We also review an approach to the treatment of

Bhavin N. Patel; Robert J. Evans

2010-01-01

257

Two cases of double gall bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comments And Summary  When a clinical diagnosis of a diseased gall bladder has not been verified by cholecystography, the following theoretical\\u000a possibilities might occur: In the first situation, operation reveals a diseased gall bladder which is removed; an anomaly\\u000a is not thought of; a supernumerary viscus may still be present, and may be entirely overlooked. If the accessory organ should\\u000a be

Meyer Golob; John L. Kantor

1942-01-01

258

Inguinal Bladder Hernia: Four Case Analyses  

PubMed Central

A study of four cases presenting as inguinal bladder hernia was performed based on a review of the clinical presentation, circumstances of diagnostics, and surgical management. The mean age of patients was 66.5 years. Presenting symptoms included lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS; three cases) and decrease in scrotal size after voiding (one case). The diagnostic circumstances were incidental finding during investigation for urethral stricture (one case), preoperative discovery on the basis of decrease in scrotal size after voiding (one case), perioperative discovery during standard herniorrhaphy (one case), and peritoneal effusion secondary to bladder injury in the early postoperative period. All patients were managed successfully by replacement of the bladder in its original position and inguinal herniorrhaphy, the Lichtenstein technique (two cases), Shouldice repair (one case), or modified Bassini repair (one case) through the same inguinal incision. For one patient, bladder injury was diagnosed at the time of inguinal herniorrhaphy and repair was promptly made. For another, bladder injury was discovered only at surgical abdominal exploration. Surgical repair led to the resolution of signs and urologic symptoms in all but one patient who needed medical therapy for residual LUTS. An awareness of this possibility on the part of general surgeons should guide preoperative evaluation and therapy appropriately. Even if the preoperative diagnosis is missed, a perioperative diagnosis is crucial to avoid bladder injury during surgery. PMID:23671403

Moufid, Kamal; Touiti, Driss; Mohamed, Lezrek

2013-01-01

259

Inguinal bladder hernia: four case analyses.  

PubMed

A study of four cases presenting as inguinal bladder hernia was performed based on a review of the clinical presentation, circumstances of diagnostics, and surgical management. The mean age of patients was 66.5 years. Presenting symptoms included lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS; three cases) and decrease in scrotal size after voiding (one case). The diagnostic circumstances were incidental finding during investigation for urethral stricture (one case), preoperative discovery on the basis of decrease in scrotal size after voiding (one case), perioperative discovery during standard herniorrhaphy (one case), and peritoneal effusion secondary to bladder injury in the early postoperative period. All patients were managed successfully by replacement of the bladder in its original position and inguinal herniorrhaphy, the Lichtenstein technique (two cases), Shouldice repair (one case), or modified Bassini repair (one case) through the same inguinal incision. For one patient, bladder injury was diagnosed at the time of inguinal herniorrhaphy and repair was promptly made. For another, bladder injury was discovered only at surgical abdominal exploration. Surgical repair led to the resolution of signs and urologic symptoms in all but one patient who needed medical therapy for residual LUTS. An awareness of this possibility on the part of general surgeons should guide preoperative evaluation and therapy appropriately. Even if the preoperative diagnosis is missed, a perioperative diagnosis is crucial to avoid bladder injury during surgery. PMID:23671403

Moufid, Kamal; Touiti, Driss; Mohamed, Lezrek

2013-01-01

260

Preliminary Study of a Model Rotor in Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within a program designed to develop experimental techniques for measuring the trajectory and structure of vortices trailing from the tips of rotor blades, the present preliminary study focuses on a method for quantifying the trajectory of the trailing vortex during descent flight conditions. This study also presents rotor loads and blade surface pressures for a range of tip-path plane angles and Mach numbers. Blade pressures near the leading edge and along the outer radius are compared with data obtained on the same model rotor, but in open jet facilities. A triangulation procedure based on two directable laser-light sheets, each containing an embedded reference, proved effective in defining the spatial coordinates of the trailing vortex. When interrogating a cross section of the flow that contains several trailing vortices, the greatest clarity was found to result when the flow is uniformly seeded. Surface pressure responses during blade-vortex interactions appeared equally sensitive near the leading edge and along the outer portion of the blade, but diminished rapidly as the distance along the blade chord increased. The pressure response was virtually independent of whether the tip-path plane angle was obtained through shaft tilt or cyclic pitch. Although the shape and frequency of the pressure perturbations on the advancing blade during blade-vortex interaction are similar to those obtained in open-jet facilities, the angle of the tip-path plane may need to be lower than the range covered in this study.

McAlister, K. W.; Tung, C.; Sharpe, D. L.; Huang, S.; Hendley, E. M.

2000-01-01

261

Engineering description of the ascent/descent bet product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ascent/Descent output product is produced in the OPIP routine from three files which constitute its input. One of these, OPIP.IN, contains mission specific parameters. Meteorological data, such as atmospheric wind velocities, temperatures, and density, are obtained from the second file, the Corrected Meteorological Data File (METDATA). The third file is the TRJATTDATA file which contains the time-tagged state vectors that combine trajectory information from the Best Estimate of Trajectory (BET) filter, LBRET5, and Best Estimate of Attitude (BEA) derived from IMU telemetry. Each term in the two output data files (BETDATA and the Navigation Block, or NAVBLK) are defined. The description of the BETDATA file includes an outline of the algorithm used to calculate each term. To facilitate describing the algorithms, a nomenclature is defined. The description of the nomenclature includes a definition of the coordinate systems used. The NAVBLK file contains navigation input parameters. Each term in NAVBLK is defined and its source is listed. The production of NAVBLK requires only two computational algorithms. These two algorithms, which compute the terms DELTA and RSUBO, are described. Finally, the distribution of data in the NAVBLK records is listed.

Seacord, A. W., II

1986-01-01

262

Development of a Mars Airplane Entry, Descent, and Flight Trajectory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An entry, descent, and flight (EDF) trajectory profile for a Mars airplane mission is defined as consisting of the following elements: ballistic entry of an aeroshell; supersonic deployment of a decelerator parachute; subsonic release of a heat shield; release, unfolding, and orientation of an airplane to flight attitude; and execution of a pull up maneuver to achieve trimmed, horizontal flight. Using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) a trajectory optimization problem was formulated. Model data representative of a specific Mars airplane configuration, current models of the Mars surface topography and atmosphere, and current estimates of the interplanetary trajectory, were incorporated into the analysis. The goal is to develop an EDF trajectory to maximize the surface-relative altitude of the airplane at the end of a pull up maneuver, while subject to the mission design constraints. The trajectory performance was evaluated for three potential mission sites and was found to be site-sensitive. The trajectory performance, examined for sensitivity to a number of design and constraint variables, was found to be most sensitive to airplane mass, aerodynamic performance characteristics, and the pull up Mach constraint. Based on the results of this sensitivity study, an airplane-drag optimized trajectory was developed that showed a significant performance improvement.

Murray, James E.; Tartabini, Paul V.

2001-01-01

263

Cortical network functional connectivity in the descent to sleep.  

PubMed

Descent into sleep is accompanied by disengagement of the conscious brain from the external world. It follows that this process should be associated with reduced neural activity in regions of the brain known to mediate interaction with the environment. We examined blood oxygen dependent (BOLD) signal functional connectivity using conventional seed-based analyses in 3 primary sensory and 3 association networks as normal young adults transitioned from wakefulness to light sleep while lying immobile in the bore of a magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Functional connectivity was maintained in each network throughout all examined states of arousal. Indeed, correlations within the dorsal attention network modestly but significantly increased during light sleep compared to wakefulness. Moreover, our data suggest that neuronally mediated BOLD signal variance generally increases in light sleep. These results do not support the view that ongoing BOLD fluctuations primarily reflect unconstrained cognition. Rather, accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations reflect processes that maintain the integrity of functional systems in the brain. PMID:19255447

Larson-Prior, Linda J; Zempel, John M; Nolan, Tracy S; Prior, Fred W; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E

2009-03-17

264

Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions. Thus, there are many design challenges that must be solved for the mission to be successful. Several pieces of the EDL design are technological firsts, such as guided entry and precision landing on another planet, as well as the entire Sky Crane maneuver. This paper discusses the MSL EDL architecture and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

Steltzner, Adam D.; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Kipp, Devin M.; Lorenzoni, Leila V.; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Prakash, Ravi; Way, David W.

2010-01-01

265

Direct Temperature Measurements during Netlander Descent on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design for a platinum thermoresistance temperature sensor has been developed and tested in Earth's atmosphere and stratosphere. It will be one of the sensors equipping the scientific package ATMIS (Atmospheric and Meteorology Instrument System), which will be devoted to the measurement of the meteorological parameters during both the entry/descent phase and the surface phase, aboard the Netlanders. In particular vertical profiles of temperature, density and pressure will allow the resolution of vertical gradients to investigate the atmospheric structure and dynamics. In view of the future missions to Mars, Netlander represents a unique chance to increase significantly the climate record both in time and in space, doubling the current knowledge of the atmospheric parameters. Furthermore is the only opportunity to conduct direct measurement of temperature and pressure (outside the boundary layer of the airbags used for the landing). The temperature sensor proposed is a platinum thermoresistance, enhancement of HASI TEM (Cassini/Huygens Mission); a substantial improvement of the performances, i.e. a faster dynamic response, has been obtained. Two different prototypes of new design sensor have been built, laboratory test are proceeding and the second one has been already flown aboard a stratospheric balloon.

Colombatti, G.; Angrilli, F.; Ferri, F.; Francesconi, A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Lion Stoppato, P. F.; Saggi, B.

1999-09-01

266

Physics-based Entry, Descent and Landing Risk Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A physics-based risk model was developed to assess the risk associated with thermal protection system failures during the entry, descent and landing phase of a manned spacecraft mission. In the model, entry trajectories were computed using a three-degree-of-freedom trajectory tool, the aerothermodynamic heating environment was computed using an engineering-level computational tool and the thermal response of the TPS material was modeled using a one-dimensional thermal response tool. The model was capable of modeling the effect of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact damage on the TPS thermal response. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the effects of uncertainties in the vehicle state at Entry Interface, aerothermodynamic heating and material properties on the performance of the TPS design. The failure criterion was set as a temperature limit at the bondline between the TPS and the underlying structure. Both direct computation and response surface approaches were used to compute the risk. The model was applied to a generic manned space capsule design. The effect of material property uncertainty and MMOD damage on risk of failure were analyzed. A comparison of the direct computation and response surface approach was undertaken.

Gee, Ken; Huynh, Loc C.; Manning, Ted

2014-01-01

267

Evolution and ecology of directed aerial descent in arboreal ants.  

PubMed

Directed aerial descent (DAD) is used by a variety of arboreal animals to escape predators, to remain in the canopy, and to access resources. Here, we build upon the discovery of DAD in ants of tropical canopies by summarizing its known phylogenetic distribution among ant genera, and within both the subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae and the genus Cephalotes. DAD has multiple evolutionary origins in ants, occurring independently in numerous genera in the subfamilies Myrmicinae, Formicinae, and Pseudomyrmecinae. Ablation experiments and video recordings of ants in a vertical wind tunnel showed that DAD in Cephalotes atratus is achieved via postural changes, specifically orientation of the legs and gaster. The occurrence of DAD in Formicinae indicates that the presence of a postpetiole is not essential for the behavior. Evidence to date indicates that gliding behavior is accomplished by visual targeting mediated by the compound eyes, and is restricted to diurnally active ants that nest in trees. Occlusion of ocelli in Pseudomyrmex gracilis workers had no effect on their success or performance in gliding. Experimental assessment of the fate of ants that fall to the understory showed that ants landing in water are 15 times more likely to suffer lethal attacks than are ants landing in leaf litter. Variation in both the aerodynamic mechanisms and selective advantages of DAD merits further study given the broad taxonomic diversity of arboreal ants that engage in this intriguing form of flight. PMID:21562023

Yanoviak, Stephen P; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

2011-12-01

268

HLA Type Inference via Haplotypes Identical by Descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes play a major role in adaptive immune response and are used to differentiate self antigens from non self ones. HLA genes are hyper variable with nearly every locus harboring over a dozen alleles. This variation plays an important role in susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases and needs to be matched on for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, HLA typing by serological methods is time consuming and expensive compared to high throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data. We present a new computational method to infer per-locus HLA types using shared segments Identical By Descent (IBD), inferred from SNP genotype data. IBD information is modeled as graph where shared haplotypes are explored among clusters of individuals with known and unknown HLA types to identify the latter. We analyze performance of the method in a previously typed subset of the HapMap population, achieving accuracy of 96% in HLA-A, 94% in HLA-B, 95% in HLA-C, 77% in HLA-DR1, 93% in HLA-DQA1 and 90% in HLA-DQB1 genes. We compare our method to a tag SNP based approach and demonstrate higher sensitivity and specificity. Our method demonstrates the power of using shared haplotype segments for large-scale imputation at the HLA locus.

Setty, Manu N.; Gusev, Alexander; Pe'Er, Itsik

269

Evaluation of bladder microvasculature with high resolution photoacoustic imaging  

PubMed Central

We explored the potential of an emerging laser-based technology, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), for bladder cancer diagnosis through high resolution imaging of microvasculature in the bladder tissues. Imaging results from ex vivo canine bladders demonstrated the excellent ability of PAI in mapping three-dimensional microvasculature in optically scattering bladder tissues. By comparing the results from human bladder specimens affected by cancer to those from the normal control, the feasibility of PAI in differentiate malignant from benign bladder tissues was also explored. The distinctive morphometric characteristics of tumor microvasculature can be seen in the images from cancer samples, suggesting that PAI may allow in vivo assessment of neoangiogenesis that is closely associated with bladder cancer generation and progression. By presenting subsurface morphological and physiological information in bladder tissues, PAI, when performed in a similar way as in conventional endoscopy, provides an opportunity for improved diagnosis, staging and treatment guidance of bladder cancer. PMID:22179893

Xie, Zhixing; Roberts, William; Carson, Paul; Liu, Xiaojun; Tao, Chao; Wang, Xueding

2013-01-01

270

Evaluation of bladder microvasculature with high-resolution photoacoustic imaging.  

PubMed

We explored the potential of an emerging laser-based technology, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), for bladder cancer diagnosis through high-resolution imaging of microvasculature in the bladder tissues. Imaging results from ex vivo canine bladders demonstrated the excellent ability of PAI in mapping three-dimensional microvasculature in optically scattering bladder tissues. By comparing the results from human bladder specimens affected by cancer to those from the normal control, the feasibility of PAI to differentiate malignant from benign bladder tissues was also explored. The distinctive morphometric characteristics of tumor microvasculature can be seen in the images from cancer samples, suggesting that PAI may allow in vivo assessment of neoangiogenesis that is closely associated with bladder cancer generation and progression. By presenting subsurface morphological and physiological information in bladder tissues, PAI, when performed in a similar way as in conventional endoscopy, provides an opportunity for improved diagnosis, staging, and treatment guidance of bladder cancer. PMID:22179893

Xie, Zhixing; Roberts, William; Carson, Paul; Liu, Xiaojun; Tao, Chao; Wang, Xueding

2011-12-15

271

User's manual for a fuel-conservative descent planning algorithm implemented on a small programmable calculator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. An explanation and examples of how the algorithm is used, as well as a detailed flow chart and listing of the algorithm are contained.

Vicroy, D. D.

1984-01-01

272

A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities  

E-print Network

A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and the choices of cost approximating mappings and merit functions. The* * taxonomy is illustrated on classical algorithms and is utilized to interrelate known alg* *orithm frameworks. Keywords. Taxonomy

Patriksson, Michael

273

Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Technology Investments Within NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate has several investments in entry, descent and landing technologies, across its nine programs. This presentation will give a top-level view of the various investments.

Munk, M. M.

2014-06-01

274

Atmospheric Properties Reconstruction from the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data acquired during the entry, descent and landing of the Mars Science Laboratory were used to reconstruct the atmospheric profiles for density, pressure and temperature with excellent vertical resolution and extent.

Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Withers, P.

2014-07-01

275

A conflict analysis of 4D descent strategies in a metered, multiple-arrival route environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conflict analysis was performed on multiple arrival traffic at a typical metered airport. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to simulate arrival operations using Denver Stapleton's arrival route structure. Sensitivities of conflict performance to three different 4-D descent strategies (clear-idle Mach/Constant AirSpeed (CAS), constant descent angle Mach/CAS and energy optimal) were examined for three traffic mixes represented by those found at Denver Stapleton, John F. Kennedy and typical en route metering (ERM) airports. The Monte Carlo technique was used to generate simulation entry point times. Analysis results indicate that the clean-idle descent strategy offers the best compromise in overall performance. Performance measures primarily include susceptibility to conflict and conflict severity. Fuel usage performance is extrapolated from previous descent strategy studies.

Izumi, K. H.; Harris, C. S.

1990-01-01

276

49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid Dummy 50th Percentile Male § 572.113 Neck assembly. The head/neck assembly consists of the parts...

2011-10-01

277

Initial conformation of kinesin's neck linker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How ATP binding initiates the docking process of kinesin's neck linker is a key question in understanding kinesin mechanisms. By exploiting a molecular dynamics method, we investigate the initial conformation of kinesin's neck linker in its docking process. We find that, in the initial conformation, the neck linker has interactions with ?0 and forms a ‘cover-neck bundle’ structure with ?0. From this initial structure, the formation of extra turns and the docking of the cover-neck bundle structure can be achieved. The motor head provides a forward force on the initial cover-neck bundle structure through ATP-induced rotation. This force, together with the hydrophobic interaction of ILE327 with the hydrophobic pocket on the motor head, drives the formation of the extra turn and initiates the neck linker docking process. Based on these findings, a pathway from ATP binding-induced motor head rotation to neck linker docking is proposed.

Geng, Yi-Zhao; Ji, Qing; Liu, Shu-Xia; Yan, Shi-Wei

2014-10-01

278

Pseudopathologic fracture of the femoral neck  

SciTech Connect

We have seen two cases of traumatic subcapital fractures of the femoral neck which resembled pathologic fractures on plain radiography. We have named this entity pseudopathologic fracture of the femoral neck and offer suggestions for why it occurs.

Pope, T.L. Jr.; Keats, T.E.; Goldner, R.; Stelling, C.B.; Logan, M.

1981-11-01

279

HEAD AND NECK CANCER 12. HEAD AND NECK CANCER  

E-print Network

malignant neoplasms, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, in women and 4.0% in men (Table 12.1). The average excluding non-melanoma skin cancer 1.6% 4.0% 1.5% 3.9% 1.9% 4.3% average number of new cases per year 170HEAD AND NECK CANCER 105

Paxton, Anthony T.

280

Vision-Aided Inertial Navigation for Spacecraft Entry, Descent, and Landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the vision-aided inertial navigation (VISINAV) algorithm that enables precision planetary landing. The vision front-end of the VISINAV system extracts 2-D-to-3-D correspondences between descent images and a surface map (mapped landmarks), as well as 2-D-to-2-D feature tracks through a sequence of descent images (opportunistic features). An extended Kalman filter (EKF) tightly integrates both types of visual

Anastasios I. Mourikis; Nikolas Trawny; Stergios I. Roumeliotis; Andrew Edie Johnson; Adnan Ansar; Larry Matthies

2009-01-01

281

Analysis of Flight Management System Predictions of Idle-Thrust Descents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the predictor and its uncertainty models, descents from cruise to the meter fix were executed using vertical navigation in a B737-700 simulator and a B777-200 simulator, both with commercial FMSs. For both aircraft types, the FMS computed the intended descent path for a specified speed profile assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and then it controlled the avionics without human intervention. The test matrix varied aircraft weight, descent speed, and wind conditions. The first analysis in this paper determined the effect of the test matrix parameters on the FMS computation of TOD location, and it compared the results to those for the current ground predictor in the Efficient Descent Advisor (EDA). The second analysis was similar but considered the time to fly a specified distance to the meter fix. The effects of the test matrix variables together with the accuracy requirements for the predictor will determine the allowable error for the predictor inputs. For the B737, the EDA prediction of meter fix crossing time agreed well with the FMS; but its prediction of TOD location probably was not sufficiently accurate to enable idle-thrust descents in congested airspace, even though the FMS and EDA gave similar shapes for TOD location as a function of the test matrix variables. For the B777, the FMS and EDA gave different shapes for the TOD location function, and the EDA prediction of the TOD location is not accurate enough to fully enable the concept. Furthermore, the differences between the FMS and EDA predictions of meter fix crossing time for the B777 indicated that at least one of them was not sufficiently accurate.

Stell, Laurel

2010-01-01

282

What I need to know about Bladder Control for WomenBladder Control for Women  

E-print Network

common in women. Many women leak urine when they exercise, laugh hard, cough, or sneeze. Often women leak urine when they are pregnant or after they have given birth. Women who have stopped havingWhat I need to know about Bladder Control for WomenBladder Control for Women NATIONAL INSTITUTES

Baker, Chris I.

283

Reproducibility of the bladder shape and bladder shape changes during filling  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of high precision radiotherapy to the bladder region is limited by bladder motion and volume changes. In the near future, we plan to begin treatment delivery of bladder cancer patients with the acquisition of a cone beam CT image on which the complete bladder will be semi-automatically localized. Subsequently, a bladder shape model that was developed in a previous study will be used for bladder localization and for the prediction of shape changes in the time interval between acquisition and beam delivery. For such predictions, knowledge about urinary inflow rate is required. Therefore, a series of MR images was acquired over 1 h with time intervals of 10 min for 18 healthy volunteers. To gain insight in the reproducibility of the bladder shape over longer periods of time, two additional MRI series were recorded for 10 of the volunteers. To a good approximation, the bladder volume increased linearly in time for all individuals. Despite receiving drinking instructions, we found a large variation in the inflow rate between individuals, ranging from 2.1 to 15 cc/min (mean value: 9{+-}3 cc/min). In contrast, the intravolunteer variation was much smaller, with a mean standard deviation (SD) of 0.4 cc/min. The inflow rate was linearly correlated with age (negative slope). To study the reproducibility of the bladder shape, we compared bladder shapes of equal volume. For all individuals, the caudal part of the bladder was the most reproducible (variations<0.3 cm in all cases). The cranial and posterior parts of the bladder was much less reproducible, with local SD values up to {approx}1.2 cm for bladders with a volume of 200 cc. These large long-term variations were primarily caused by changes in position and filling of the small bowel and rectum. However, for short time intervals, the rectal filling was (nearly) constant. Therefore, the reproducibility of urinary inflow, combined with the previously developed shape model gives us an excellent tool to predict short-term shape changes. We intend to use this tool for further improvement of image-guided radiotherapy for bladder cancer patients.

Lotz, Heidi T.; Herk, Marcel van; Betgen, Anja; Pos, Floris; Lebesque, Joos V.; Remeijer, Peter [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2005-08-15

284

A customized head and neck support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To describe a customized head and neck immobilization system for patients receiving radiotherapy including a head support that conforms to the posterior contour of the head and neck.Methods: The system includes a customized headrest to support the posterior head and neck. This is fixed to a thermoplastic face mask that molds to the anterior head\\/face contours. The shape of

Gunilla C. Bentel; Lawrence B. Marks; George W. Sherouse; David P. Spencer

1995-01-01

285

Cone Beam CT Imaging Analysis of Interfractional Variations in Bladder Volume and Position During Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify daily bladder size and position variations during bladder cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten bladder cancer patients underwent daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging of the bladder during radiotherapy. Bladder and planning target volumes (bladder/PTV) from CBCT and planning CT scans were compared with respect to bladder center-of-mass shifts in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z (superior-inferior) coordinates, bladder/PTV size, bladder/PTV margin positions, overlapping areas, and mutually exclusive regions. Results: A total of 262 CBCT images were obtained from 10 bladder cancer patients. Bladder center of mass shifted most in the y coordinate (mean, -0.32 cm). The anterior bladder wall shifted the most (mean, -0.58 cm). Mean ratios of CBCT-derived bladder and PTV volumes to planning CT-derived counterparts were 0.83 and 0.88. The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume (+- standard deviation [SD]) outside the planning CT counterpart was 29.24 cm{sup 3} (SD, 29.71 cm{sup 3}). The mean planning CT-derived bladder volume outside the CBCT counterpart was 47.74 cm{sup 3} (SD, 21.64 cm{sup 3}). The mean CBCT PTV outside the planning CT-derived PTV was 47.35 cm{sup 3} (SD, 36.51 cm{sup 3}). The mean planning CT-derived PTV outside the CBCT-derived PTV was 93.16 cm{sup 3} (SD, 50.21). The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume outside the planning PTV was 2.41 cm{sup 3} (SD, 3.97 cm{sup 3}). CBCT bladder/ PTV volumes significantly differed from planning CT counterparts (p = 0.047). Conclusions: Significant variations in bladder and PTV volume and position occurred in patients in this trial.

Yee, Don, E-mail: dony@ualberta.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Parliament, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Rathee, Satyapal [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Ghosh, Sunita [Department of Experimental Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Ko, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Murray, Brad [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

2010-03-15

286

Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels  

DOEpatents

A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

Mitlitsky, Fred (1125 Canton Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Myers, Blake (4650 Almond Cir., Livermore, CA 94550); Magnotta, Frank (1206 Bacon Way, Lafayette, CA 94549)

1998-01-01

287

Head and Neck Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Head and Neck Steering Committee (HNSC) was established in 2007. The HNSC is currently composed of the Steering Committee and three task forces. Members of HNSC include committee co-chairs, representatives from the Cooperative Groups, Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPOREs), community oncologists, biostatisticians, pathologists, patient advocates, and NCI staff.

288

Atmospheric Environments for Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific measurements of atmospheric properties have been made by a wide variety of planetary flyby missions, orbiters, and landers. Although landers can make in-situ observations of near-surface atmospheric conditions (and can collect atmospheric data during their entry phase), the vast majority of data on planetary atmospheres has been collected by remote sensing techniques from flyby and orbiter spacecraft (and to some extent by Earth-based remote sensing). Many of these remote sensing observations (made over a variety of spectral ranges), consist of vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature as a function of atmospheric pressure level. While these measurements are of great interest to atmospheric scientists and modelers of planetary atmospheres, the primary interest for engineers designing entry descent and landing (EDL) systems is information about atmospheric density as a function of geometric altitude. Fortunately, as described in in this paper, it is possible to use a combination of the gas-law relation and the hydrostatic balance relation to convert temperature-versus-pressure, scientific observations into density-versus-altitude data for use in engineering applications. The following section provides a brief introduction to atmospheric thermodynamics, as well as constituents, and winds for EDL. It also gives methodology for using atmospheric information to do "back-of-the-envelope" calculations of various EDL aeroheating parameters, including peak deceleration rate ("g-load"), peak convective heat rate. and total heat load on EDL spacecraft thermal protection systems. Brief information is also provided about atmospheric variations and perturbations for EDL guidance and control issues, and atmospheric issues for EDL parachute systems. Subsequent sections give details of the atmospheric environments for five destinations for possible EDL missions: Venus. Earth. Mars, Saturn, and Titan. Specific atmospheric information is provided for these destinations, and example results are presented for the "back-of-the-envelope" calculations mentioned above.

Justus, Carl G.; Braun, Robert D.

2007-01-01

289

Pharmacogenomics of warfarin in populations of African descent  

PubMed Central

Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant worldwide despite its narrow therapeutic index and the notorious inter- and intra-individual variability in dose required for the target clinical effect. Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms are major determinants of warfarin pharmacokinetic and dynamics and included in several warfarin dosing algorithms. This review focuses on warfarin pharmacogenomics in sub-Saharan peoples, African Americans and admixed Brazilians. These ‘Black’ populations differ in several aspects, notably their extent of recent admixture with Europeans, a factor which impacts on the frequency distribution of pharmacogenomic polymorphisms relevant to warfarin dose requirement for the target clinical effect. Whereas a small number of polymorphisms in VKORC1 (3673G > A, rs9923231), CYP2C9 (alleles *2 and *3, rs1799853 and rs1057910, respectively) and arguably CYP4F2 (rs2108622), may capture most of the pharmacogenomic influence on warfarin dose variance in White populations, additional polymorphisms in these, and in other, genes (e.g. CALU rs339097) increase the predictive power of pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithms in the Black populations examined. A personalized strategy for initiation of warfarin therapy, allowing for improved safety and cost-effectiveness for populations of African descent must take into account their pharmacogenomic diversity, as well as socio-economical, cultural and medical factors. Accounting for this heterogeneity in algorithms that are ‘friendly’ enough to be adopted by warfarin prescribers worldwide requires gathering information from trials at different population levels, but demands also a critical appraisal of racial/ethnic labels that are commonly used in the clinical pharmacology literature but do not accurately reflect genetic ancestry and population diversity. PMID:22676711

Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Botton, Mariana R

2013-01-01

290

Cyclic coordinate descent: A robotics algorithm for protein loop closure  

PubMed Central

In protein structure prediction, it is often the case that a protein segment must be adjusted to connect two fixed segments. This occurs during loop structure prediction in homology modeling as well as in ab initio structure prediction. Several algorithms for this purpose are based on the inverse Jacobian of the distance constraints with respect to dihedral angle degrees of freedom. These algorithms are sometimes unstable and fail to converge. We present an algorithm developed originally for inverse kinematics applications in robotics. In robotics, an end effector in the form of a robot hand must reach for an object in space by altering adjustable joint angles and arm lengths. In loop prediction, dihedral angles must be adjusted to move the C-terminal residue of a segment to superimpose on a fixed anchor residue in the protein structure. The algorithm, referred to as cyclic coordinate descent or CCD, involves adjusting one dihedral angle at a time to minimize the sum of the squared distances between three backbone atoms of the moving C-terminal anchor and the corresponding atoms in the fixed C-terminal anchor. The result is an equation in one variable for the proposed change in each dihedral. The algorithm proceeds iteratively through all of the adjustable dihedral angles from the N-terminal to the C-terminal end of the loop. CCD is suitable as a component of loop prediction methods that generate large numbers of trial structures. It succeeds in closing loops in a large test set 99.79% of the time, and fails occasionally only for short, highly extended loops. It is very fast, closing loops of length 8 in 0.037 sec on average. PMID:12717019

Canutescu, Adrian A.; Dunbrack, Roland L.

2003-01-01

291

Noninvasive Electromagnetic Detection of Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Normal and neoplastic human tissues have different electromagnetic properties. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive electromagnetic detection of bladder cancer (BC) by the tissue-resonance interaction method (TRIM-prob). Patients and Methods. Consecutive patients were referred for cystoscopy because of (i) microscopic or gross hematuria and/or irritative voiding symptoms and (ii) bladder ultrasounds and urinary cytology findings negative or just suspicious of malignancy. Patients were first submitted to TRIM-prob bladder scanning by a single investigator and then to cystoscopy by another investigator blind to TRIM-prob data. Results. In 125 evaluated patients cystoscopy was positive for BC in 47 and negative in the remaining 78; conversely, TRIM-prob bladder scanning was positive for BC in 53 and negative in 72. In particular, TRIM-prob scanning yielded 7 false positives and only one false negative; therefore, its overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 97.9%, 89.9%, 86.8%, 98.6%, and 93.6%, respectively. Conclusions. TRIM-prob bladder scanning was a simple and quite accurate method for non-invasive electromagnetic detection of BC. If the elevated positive and negative predictive values will be replicated in further well-designed studies, it could be used to screen asymptomatic patients at high risk of BC. PMID:24563795

Cormio, Luigi; Vedruccio, Clarbruno; Leucci, Giorgio; Massenio, Paolo; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Vincenzo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

292

MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

293

Spontaneous Perforation of Augmented Bladder after Exstrophy Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with spontaneous perforation of an augmented bladder following exstrophy repair is presented. Apart from the clinical presentation the various causes for augmented bladder perforation are discussed and the literature reviewed.

Stefan Möllhoff; Mark Goepel; Axel Bex

1991-01-01

294

Spontaneous perforation of augmented bladder after exstrophy repair.  

PubMed

A patient with spontaneous perforation of an augmented bladder following exstrophy repair is presented. Apart from the clinical presentation the various causes for augmented bladder perforation are discussed and the literature reviewed. PMID:1771708

Möllhoff, S; Goepel, M; Bex, A

1991-01-01

295

Shake rattle and roll: the bony labyrinth and aerial descent in squamates.  

PubMed

Controlled aerial descent has evolved many times independently in vertebrates. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are unusual in that respect due to the large number of independent origins of the evolution of this behavior. Although some squamates such as flying geckos of the genus Ptychozoon and the flying dragons of the genus Draco show obvious adaptations including skin flaps or enlarged ribs allowing them to increase their surface area and slow down their descent, many others appear unspecialized. Yet, specializations can be expected at the level of the sensory and neural systems allowing animals to maintain stability during controlled aerial descent. The vestibular system is a likely candidate given that it is an acceleration detector and is well-suited to detect changes in pitch, roll and yaw. Here we use conventional and synchrotron ?CT scans to quantify the morphology of the vestibular system in squamates able to perform controlled aerial descent compared to species characterized by a terrestrial or climbing life style. Our results show the presence of a strong phylogenetic signal in the data with the vestibular system in species from the same family being morphologically similar. However, both our shape analysis and an analysis of the dimensions of the vestibular system showed clear differences among animals with different life-styles. Species able to perform a controlled aerial descent differed in the position and shape of the inner ear, especially of the posterior ampulla. Given the limited stability of squamates against roll and the fact that the posterior ampulla is tuned to changes in roll this suggests an adaptive evolution of the vestibular system in squamates using controlled aerial descent. Future studies testing for similar differences in other groups of vertebrates known to use controlled aerial descent are needed to test the generality of this observation. PMID:21700578

Boistel, Renaud; Herrel, Anthony; Lebrun, Renaud; Daghfous, Gheylen; Tafforeau, Paul; Losos, Jonathan B; Vanhooydonck, Bieke

2011-12-01

296

COX Inhibitors and Overactive Bladder: The Potential for Future Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies spanning four decades suggest that prostaglandins (PGs) are synthesized at high levels within the bladder by cyclooxygenase\\u000a (COX)-1 and COX-2 and that PG biosynthesis during bladder filling provides a non-neuronal vesicular volume signal. Evidence\\u000a is presented that interstitial cells of Cajal within the bladder seem to play a key role in PG biosynthesis, that bladder\\u000a PG concentration is a

Paul H. Ratz; John E. Speich; Adam P. Klausner

2010-01-01

297

Factors responsible for successful primary closure in bladder exstrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the important factors for successful primary closure in staged reconstruction of bladder exstrophy, 25 patients\\u000a (18 males, 7 females) underwent primary bladder closure during the years 1993–1997. Twenty-one were more than 72?h old; all\\u000a of these underwent bilateral posterior iliac osteotomies followed by primary bladder closure during the same anesthetic. Bladder\\u000a closure was done in a double layer.

Laxmikant S. Kasat; S. S. Borwankar

2000-01-01

298

[Animal experiment aspects of bladder cancer].  

PubMed

Many aspects of bladder cancer remain obscure under clinical conditions. The natural course of the illness is seldom known in human patients, in whom only the treated natural history is subject to investigation. Cancer research in animals can complement clinical investigations. The following experimental set-ups are of importance; chemically induced bladder cancer; transplantation of human urothelial carcinoma in immunodeficient nude mice (xenograft model); transplantation of clinically induced bladder cancer in syngenetic animals (syngenetic model). These models are used for tumour induction and the development of immunotherapy, chemotherapy and new techniques. The extrapolation of these experimental results to clinical situations is being discussed. Some experimental results are of interest for practising urologists, e.g. increased incidence of tumour development in dilated upper urinary tract or in the bowel segment after urinary diversion; new therapeutic approaches such as breakdown of multidrug resistance to chemotherapy or administration of photodynamic therapy; planning of intravesical therapy relating to aspects of cell proliferation. PMID:1871936

Recker, F; Otto, T

1991-05-01

299

A new paradigm in chronic bladder pain.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The concept of visceral pain has moved from organ-centered disease to a conceptualization based on pathophysiological mechanisms, integrating psychosocial and sexual dimensions. The terms painful bladder syndrome and bladder pain syndrome have been coined to include all patients with bladder pain. There is substantial overlap between IC/BPS and other pelvic/abdominal pain syndromes IC/BPS is likely to be underdiagnosed and undertreated in both men and women IC/BPS requires a multidisciplinary team approach toward management. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 2, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. Paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the website: http://www.paineurope.com at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication. PMID:25348226

Wesselmann, Ursula

2014-12-01

300

Human papillomavirus and schistosomiasis associated bladder cancer.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To determine the human papillomavirus DNA status of schistosomal associated squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in South Africa. METHODS: Twenty five archival samples of bladder squamous cell carcinoma associated with Schistosoma haematobium were subjected to non-isotopic in situ hybridisation and the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of human papillomavirus 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, and 33 genotypes. RESULTS: Using these two techniques, none of the 25 cases was shown to harbour human papillomavirus DNA. CONCLUSIONS: This study abrogates the role of human papillomavirus in schistosoma associated bladder carcinoma in South Africa. It is suggested that other factors including nitrosamine exposure, p53 mutation, and additional unknown chromosomal events play a major role in the development of this parasite associated neoplasm. PMID:9292149

Cooper, K.; Haffajee, Z.; Taylor, L.

1997-01-01

301

Epidermal growth factor receptor and bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is a disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality. The two main forms of treatment for this disease include radical cystectomy and radical radiotherapy, but five year survival after treatment remains low at 40%. Many clinical and molecular risk factors have been shown to be associated with poor prognosis. One such factor is the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed by many epithelial tumours, including bladder cancers. There are several methods of inhibiting the activity of EGFR and it may be that use of an anti-EGFR therapy, in combination with more conventional treatment, provides a method of improving the prognosis for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. PMID:12415079

Colquhoun, A; Mellon, J

2002-01-01

302

Progress in Personalizing Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Platinum-based chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer. However, there are currently no methods to predict chemotherapy response in this disease setting. A better understanding of the biology of bladder cancer has led to developments of molecular biomarkers that may help guide clinical decision making. These biomarkers, while promising, have not yet been validated in prospective trials and are not ready for clinical applications. As alkylating agents, platinum drugs kill cancer cells mainly through induction of DNA damage. A microdosing approach is currently being tested to determine if chemoresistance can be identified by measuring platinum-induced DNA damage using highly sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry technology. The hope is that these emerging strategies will help pave the road towards personalized therapy in advanced bladder cancer. PMID:22400017

Chang, James S.; Lara, Primo N.; Pan, Chong-Xian

2012-01-01

303

Surgical Management of Infiltrating Bladder Cancer in Elderly Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To review the surgical therapeutic options in elderly patients with infiltrating bladder cancer.Methods: A review of the literature relevant to cystectomy and transurethral resection for infiltrating bladder cancer in elderly patients was conducted using Medline Services.Results: Thanks to progress in anaesthesia, intensive care and surgery, cystectomy now forms part of the classical treatments for bladder cancer in elderly patients,

Michaël Peyromaure; Florent Guerin; Bernard Debre; Marc Zerbib

2004-01-01

304

A rare case of solitary fibrous tumour of the bladder  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumour of the bladder is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm with a favourable prognosis. Its symptoms are usually secondary to obstructive symptoms rather than hematuria or other findings typical of other bladder neoplasms. We describe a case of solitary fibrous tumour of the bladder and review the literature. PMID:25210562

Otta, Renan Javier; Acosta, Marco Antonio; Gordillo, Carlos

2014-01-01

305

Molecular markers in bladder cancer: A critical appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of both primary and recurrent bladder tumors currently relies upon the urine cytology and cystoscopy. Neither of these diagnostic tools is completely accurate. Prognostication of bladder cancer is largely based on pathologic tumor grade and stage. Over the past 2 decades, there is accumulating evidence that like many other cancers, bladder cancer, too, has a distinct molecular signature

Badrinath R. Konety

2006-01-01

306

Surgical treatment of the atonic bladder (“vesical cap”)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As demonstrated in animal experiments and in five patients with atonic bladders, “vesical cap” surgery causally solves detrusor impairment by functionally reinforcing it with a vital muscle layer from an ileal seromuscular flap. All other genuine components of the bladder are kept intact, which is very beneficial for bladder function.

J. Mrfiz; J. Michek; M. Sutory; P. Zerhau

1992-01-01

307

Prevalence and burden of overactive bladder in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: the National Overactive BLadder Evaluation (NOBLE) Program was initiated to better understand the prevalence and burden of overactive bladder in a broad spectrum of the United States population. Objective: to estimate the prevalence of overactive bladder with and without urge incontinence in the US, assess variation in prevalence by sex and other factors, and measure individual burden. Design: US

W. F. Stewart; J. Van Rooyen; G. Cundiff; P. Abrams; A. Herzog; R. Corey; T. Hunt; A. Wein

2003-01-01

308

Production of Mouse Urinary Bladder Carcinomas by Sodium Cyclamate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium cyclamate was suspended in cholesterol pellets that were surgically implanted in the urinary bladders of mice. In duplicate experiments, incidences of mouse bladder carcinomas observed in animals exposed to these pellets were 78 and 61 percent compared with incidences of 13 and 12 percent in control mice exposed to pellets of pure cholesterol. The exposure of the mouse bladder

George T. Bryan; Erdogan Erturk

1970-01-01

309

Genital and Urinary Tract Diseases and Bladder Cancer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between selected urinary tract and genital diseases and the risk of bladder cancer »as analyzed using data from a case- control study of 364 cases of bladder cancer and 447 controls hospitalized for acute, nonneoplastic, nongenital tract conditions, unrelated to known or suspected risk factors for bladder cancer. Cystitis was reported by 20% of the cases and 8%

Carlo La Vecchia; Eva Negri; Barbara D'Avanzo; Renzo Savoldelli; Silvia Franceschi

1991-01-01

310

Can cytomorphometry replace histomorphometry for grading of bladder tumours?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytomorphometry, using various cytopreparatory techniques on bladder washings and histomorphometry on the resected bladder tumours, was used in an attempt to answer the question: Can cytomorphometry replace histomorphometry for grading of bladder tumours? For the analysis of quantitative data, a probit model was used. Three out of the four cytomorphometric methods provided data supportive to the histomorphometry Using one of

H. G. Poel; M. E. Boon; L. P. Kok; J. Tolboom; B. Meulen; E. C. M. Ooms

1988-01-01

311

Aerodynamics of Reentry Vehicle Clipper at Descent Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From Gagarin spacecraft to reusable orbiter Buran, RSC Energia has traveled a long way in the search for the most optimal and, which is no less important, the most reliable spacecraft for manned space flight. During the forty years of space exploration, in cooperation with a broad base of subcontractors, a number of problems have been solved which assure a safe long stay in space. Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft were replaced with Soyuz supporting a crew of three. During missions to a space station, it provides crew rescue capability in case of a space station emergency at all times (the spacecraft life is 200 days).The latest modification of Soyuz spacecraft -Soyuz TMA -in contrast to its predecessors, allows to become a space flight participant to a person of virtually any anthropometric parameters with a mass of 50 to 95 kg capable of withstanding up to 6 g load during descent. At present, Soyuz TMA spacecraft are the state-of-the-art, reliable and only means of the ISS crew delivery, in-flight support and return. Introduced on the basis of many years of experience in operation of manned spacecraft were not only the principles of deep redundancy of on-board systems and equipment, but, to assure the main task of the spacecraft -the crew return to Earth -the principles of functional redundancy. That is, vital operations can be performed by different systems based on different physical principles. The emergency escape system that was developed is the only one in the world that provides crew rescue in case of LV failure at any phase in its flight. Several generations of space stations that have been developed have broadened, virtually beyond all limits, capabilities of man in space. The docking system developed at RSC Energia allowed not only to dock spacecraft in space, but also to construct in orbit various complex space systems. These include large space stations, and may include in the future the in-orbit construction of systems for the exploration of the Moon and Mars.. Logistics spacecraft Progress have been flying regularly since 1978. The tasks of these unmanned spacecraft include supplying the space station with all the necessities for long-duration missions, such as propellant for the space station propulsion system, crew life support consumables, scientific equipment for conducting experiments. Various modifications of the spacecraft have expanded the space station capabilities. 1988 saw the first, and, much to our regret, the last flight of the reusable orbiter Buran.. Buran could deliver to orbit up to 30 tons of cargo, return 20 tons to Earth and have a crew of up to 10. However, due to our country's economic situation the project was suspended.

Semenov, Yu. P.; Reshetin, A. G.; Dyadkin, A. A.; Petrov, N. K.; Simakova, T. V.; Tokarev, V. A.

2005-02-01

312

Telocytes subtypes in human urinary bladder.  

PubMed

Urinary bladder voiding is a complex mechanism depending upon interplay among detrusor, urothelium, sensory and motor neurons and connective tissue cells. The identity of some of the latter cells is still controversial. We presently attempted to clarify their phenotype(s) in the human urinary bladder by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunohistochemistry. At this latter aim, we used CD34, PDGFR?, ?SMA, c-Kit and calreticulin antibodies. Both, TEM and immunohistochemistry, showed cells that, sharing several telocyte (TC) characteristics, we identified as TC; these cells, however, differed from each other in some ultrastructural features and immunolabelling according to their location. PDGFR?/calret-positive, CD34/c-Kit-negative TC were located in the sub-urothelium and distinct in two subtypes whether, similarly to myofibroblasts, they were ?SMA-positive and had attachment plaques. The sub-urothelial TC formed a mixed network with myofibroblasts and were close to numerous nerve endings, many of which nNOS-positive. A third TC subtype, PDGFR?/?SMA/c-Kit-negative, CD34/calret-positive, ultrastructurally typical, was located in the submucosa and detrusor. Briefly, in the human bladder, we found three TC subtypes. Each subtype likely forms a network building a 3-D scaffold able to follow the bladder wall distension and relaxation and avoiding anomalous wall deformation. The TC located in the sub-urothelium, a region considered a sort of sensory system for the micturition reflex, as forming a network with myofibroblasts, possessing specialized junctions with extracellular matrix and being close to nerve endings, might have a role in bladder reflexes. In conclusions, the urinary bladder contains peculiar TC able to adapt their morphology to the organ activity. PMID:25139461

Vannucchi, Maria-Giuliana; Traini, Chiara; Guasti, Daniele; Giulio, Del Popolo; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta

2014-10-01

313

Prompt diagnosis key in bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Bladder cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer involving the urinary tract and is the seventh most common cancer in the UK. Delayed diagnosis is associated with high-grade muscle invasive disease which has the potential to progress rapidly, metastasise and is often fatal. Urothelial cancer (transitional cell carcinoma) is the predominant histological subtype in Europe, where it accounts for 90% of all bladder cancers. Haematuria, which is typically intermittent, frank, painless and at times present throughout micturition, is the classical and most common presentation of bladder cancer. However, irritative symptoms such as dysuria, urgency, urge incontinence and frequency as well as obstructive symptoms can also be experienced. Fatigue; weight loss; anorexia; renal failure; respiratory symptoms and a suprapubic palpable mass are usually signs of advanced or metastatic malignancy. Cigarette smokers have up to four times the risk of bladder cancer compared with non-smokers. Other risk factors include: exposure to aniline dyes; use of cyclophosphamide; history of pelvic radiation; exposure to chemical carcinogens associated with certain industries; spinal cord injuries requiring long-term indwelling catheters; type 2 diabetes treated with pioglitazone and condylomata acuminata. Frank haematuria has a high diagnostic yield for malignancies involving the urinary tract and initial routine tests should be directed towards identifying a variety of potential non-malignant causes. A thorough physical examination should be undertaken to identify evidence of bleeding diathesis and metastatic malignancy. Suggested laboratory investigations include FBC, coagulation, creatinine and PSA. The diagnosis of bladder cancer is based on urine cytology, cystoscopy and pathological assessment of the bladder biopsy. PMID:24617100

DeSouza, Karen; Chowdhury, Simon; Hughes, Simon

2014-01-01

314

Smoking intensity predicts seriousness of bladder cancer  

Cancer.gov

Smoking not only causes bladder cancer — it also affects its course, in that people who smoke more have greater likelihood of developing more aggressive and deadly disease. That is one of the conclusions of a new study published online in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society. The study, conducted by researchers with the University of Miami’s Miller School of Medicine and the Keck School of Medicine of USC (home of the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center) also found that a panel of bladder cancer markers can predict which particular cases are at the highest risk for a fatal outcome.

315

[A case of myxofibrosarcoma of the bladder].  

PubMed

A 43-year-old woman presented to our hospital with the chief complaints of gross hematuria and dysuria. Cystoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor on the dome of the bladder and large blood clots. Computed tomography demonstrated no findings of distant metastasis. Following transurethral resection of the tumor, the tumor was histologically diagnosed as myxofibrosarcoma with muscular invasion, and partial cystectomy was performed in September 2009. There has been no evidence of recurrence or metastasis for 24 months postoperatively. In addition, the Japanese literature on myxofibrosarcoma of the bladder was reviewed and discussed. PMID:22874509

Katayama, Kinzo; Fukumoto, Ryo; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Matsuoka, Akira; Fujimoto, Nobumasa; Koide, Takuo; Kasugai, Tutomu

2012-06-01

316

A magnetic mass within the bladder.  

PubMed

A search of the literature finds that there have been many case reports documenting a wide array of objects found within the bladder, ranging from magnets and paper clips to telephone and aluminum wire. The goal of treatment is to remove the object quickly, using the least invasive method possible. Therefore, the ideal treatment is removal through endoscopic means; however, in some cases, the size, mobility and shape of the foreign body can prevent its removal endoscopically and more invasive means must be employed. We present a case of a patient who inserted 150 magnetic spherical beads into his bladder. PMID:24128840

Alyami, Fahad; Himmelman, Jeffrey; Whelan, Thomas

2013-10-01

317

Tracer-Based Determination of Vortex Descent in the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed analysis of available in situ and remotely sensed N2O and CH4 data measured in the 1999-2000 winter Arctic vortex has been performed in order to quantify the temporal evolution of vortex descent. Differences in potential temperature (theta) among balloon and aircraft vertical profiles (an average of 19-23 K on a given N2O or CH4 isopleth) indicated significant vortex inhomogeneity in late fall as compared with late winter profiles. A composite fall vortex profile was constructed for November 26, 1999, whose error bars encompassed the observed variability. High-latitude, extravortex profiles measured in different years and seasons revealed substantial variability in N2O and CH4 on theta surfaces, but all were clearly distinguishable from the first vortex profiles measured in late fall 1999. From these extravortex-vortex differences, we inferred descent prior to November 26: 397+/-15 K (1sigma) at 30 ppbv N2O and 640 ppbv CH4, and 28+/-13 K above 200 ppbv N2O and 1280 ppbv CH4. Changes in theta were determined on five N2O and CH4 isopleths from November 26 through March 12, and descent rates were calculated on each N2O isopleth for several time intervals. The maximum descent rates were seen between November 26 and January 27: 0.82+/-0.20 K/day averaged over 50-250 ppbv N2O. By late winter (February 26-March 12), the average rate had decreased to 0.10+/-0.25 K/day. Descent rates also decreased with increasing N2O; the winter average (November 26-March 5) descent rate varied from 0.75+/-0.10 K/day at 50 ppbv to 0.40+/-0.11 K/day at 250 ppbv. Comparison of these results with observations and models of descent in prior years showed very good overall agreement. Two models of the 1999-2000 vortex descent, SLIMCAT and REPROBUS, despite theta offsets with respect to observed profiles of up to 20 K on most tracer isopleths, produced descent rates that agreed very favorably with the inferred rates from observation.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-Juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Hurst, Dale F.; Elkins, James W.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Herman, Robert L.; Webster, Christopher R.

2001-01-01

318

Initial evaluation of the new urinary bladder cancer rapid test in the detection of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the new noninvasive urinary bladder cancer (UBC) rapid test in selected urine voided samples for the detection of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder, and to assess the differential sensitivity of the biomarker regarding the most relevant histologic and clinical parameters of bladder cancer.Methods. Two hundred sixty-seven subjects were entered into the

Marta Sánchez-Carbayo; Enrique Herrero; Julián Megías; Antonio Mira; Federico Soria

1999-01-01

319

Endometriosis of the Bladder as a Cause of Obstructive Uropathy  

PubMed Central

A 47-year-old woman (gravida 1, para 1) with menorrhagia and pelvic pain was found to have an enlarged fibroid uterus and bladder mass on ultrasonographic imaging. The patient underwent an abdominal supracervical hysterectomy and transurethral bladder mass resection. Histopathologic findings revealed leiomyoma uteri, intramural adenomyosis, and bladder endometriosis. Most case series of bladder endometriosis include women that present with urinary symptoms. This is a rare case of obstructive uropathy secondary to bladder endometriosis in a patient without any urinary signs or symptoms. PMID:24960507

Gomez, Nadia A.; Lamvu, Georgine M.

2014-01-01

320

Malignant melanoma of the bladder: A case report  

PubMed Central

Primary malignant melanoma of the bladder is very rare. Rather than being a primary lesion, malignant melanomas of the bladder are more commonly metastatic lesions. The histopathological appearance largely does not differ from that of melanoma at other body sites. It is often difficult to discriminate whether a bladder melanoma is primary or metastatic. Therefore, a careful review of histological features and performing necessary immunohistochemical staining procedures for S-100 protein and HMB-45 are very important in achieving a correct diagnosis. We report a case of hypomelanotic malignant melanoma of the bladder. Despite the variety of therapies available for primary melanomas of the bladder, the prognosis is still poor. PMID:24454603

Sayar, Hamide; Erdogan, Seyda; Adamhasan, Fulya; Gurbuz, Esma; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

2014-01-01

321

Discordance Between Preoperative and Postoperative Bladder Cancer Location: Implications for Partial-Bladder Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: There is strong interest in partial-bladder radiation whether as a boost or definitive therapy to limit long-term toxicity. It is unclear that a standard preoperative examination can accurately identify all sites of disease within the bladder. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between preoperative localization of bladder tumors with postoperative findings to facilitate partial-bladder radiation techniques when appropriate. Methods and Materials: We examined patients with clinically staged T1-T4 invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or TCC with variant histology with no history of radiation or partial cystectomy undergoing radical cystectomy. Patients were scored as “under-detected” if a bladder site was involved with invasive disease (?T1) at the time of cystectomy, but not identified preoperatively. Patients were additionally scored as “widely under-detected” if they had postoperative lesions that were not identified preoperatively in a given site, nor in any adjacent site. Rates of under-detected and widely under-detected lesions, as well as univariate and multivariate association between clinical variables and under-detection, were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: Among 222 patients, 96% (213/222) had at least 1 area of discordance. Fifty-eight percent of patients were under-detected in at least 1 location, whereas 12% were widely under-detected. Among 24 patients with a single site of disease on preoperative evaluation, 21/24 (88%) had at least 1 under-detected lesion and 14/24 (58%) were widely under-detected. On multivariate analysis, only solitary site of preoperative disease was associated with increased levels of under-detection of invasive disease (OR = 4.161, 95% CI, 1.368-12.657). Conclusion: Our study shows a stark discordance between preoperative and postoperative localization of bladder tumors. From a clinical perspective, incomplete localization of all sites of disease within the bladder may lead to marginal misses when a partial-bladder technique is used.

Goldsmith, Benjamin; Tucker, Kai; Conway, Robert Greg; He, Jiwei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzzo, Thomas [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Malkowicz, S. Bruce [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John, E-mail: christojo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

2013-03-01

322

Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.

2013-01-01

323

Preliminary assessment of the Mars Science Laboratory entry, descent, and landing simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed inside Gale Crater. This landing was the seventh successful landing and fourth rover to be delivered to Mars. Weighing nearly one metric ton, Curiosity is the largest and most complex rover ever sent to investigate another planet. Safely landing such a large payload required an innovative Entry, Descent, and Landing system, which included the first guided entry at Mars, the largest supersonic parachute ever flown at Mars, and the novel Sky Crane landing system. A complete, end-to-end, six degree-of-freedom, multi-body computer simulation of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing sequence was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. In-flight data gathered during the successful landing is compared to pre-flight statistical distributions, predicted by the simulation. These comparisons provide insight into both the accuracy of the simulation and the overall performance of the Entry, Descent, and Landing system.

Way, David W.

324

Somatic mutation of PTEN in bladder carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The tumour suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC1, which is mutated or homozygously deleted in glioma, breast and prostate cancer, is mapped to a region of 10q which shows loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in bladder cancer. We screened 123 bladder tumours for LOH in the region of PTEN. In 53 informative muscle invasive tumours (? pT2), allele loss was detected in 13 (24.5%) and allelic imbalance in four tumours (overall frequency 32%). LOH was found in four of 60 (6.6%) informative, non-invasive tumours (pTa/pT1). We screened 63 muscle invasive tumours for PTEN mutations by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and for homozygous deletion by duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two homozygous deletions were identified but no mutations. Of 15 bladder tumour cell lines analysed, three showed homozygous deletion of all or part of the PTEN gene, but none had mutations detectable by SSCP analysis. Our results indicate that PTEN is involved in the development of some bladder tumours. The low frequency of mutation of the retained allele in tumours with 10q23 LOH suggests that there may be another predominant mechanism of inactivation of the second allele, for example small intragenic deletions, that hemizygosity may be sufficient for phenotypic effect, or that there is another target gene at 10q23. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10360673

Aveyard, J S; Skilleter, A; Habuchi, T; Knowles, M A

1999-01-01

325

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection after bladder augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To examine the incidence of postoperative ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections in patients after augmentation cystoplasty.Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 21 patients with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt who had bladder augmentation (18 ileal and 3 ileocecal) with attention to the preoperative urine culture, perioperative antibiotics, and the length of time drains were maintained. The abdominal end of all shunts was

Kirk Pinto; Gerald R Jerkins; H. Norman Noe

1999-01-01

326

Combination Therapy for Invasive Bladder Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this clinical trial, patients with invasive bladder cancer who are not suitable for cystectomy will be treated with the drug paclitaxel and daily radiation therapy. Additionally, patients whose tumors test positive for a protein called HER2 will be treated with the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin).

327

Imaging of adenomyomatosis of the gall bladder.  

PubMed

Adenomyomatosis is a relatively common abnormality of the gall bladder, with a reported incidence of between 2.8 and 5%. Although mainly confined to the adult study group, a number of cases have been reported in the paediatric study group. It is characterized pathologically by excessive proliferation of the surface epithelium and hypertrophy of the muscularis propria of the gall bladder wall, with invagination of the mucosa into the thickened muscularis forming the so-called 'Rokitansky-Aschoff' sinuses. The condition is usually asymptomatic and is often diagnosed as an incidental finding on abdominal imaging. The radiological diagnosis is largely dependent on the visualization of the characteristic Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. As the condition is usually asymptomatic, the importance of making a correct diagnosis is to prevent misinterpretation of other gall bladder conditions such as gall bladder cancer, leading to incorrect treatment. In the past, oral cholecystography was the main imaging method used to make this diagnosis. In most institutions, oral cholecystography is no longer carried out, and the diagnosis is now more commonly seen on cross-sectional imaging. In this review article, we describe the manifestations of adenomyomatosis on the various imaging methods, with an emphasis on more modern techniques such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. A brief section on oral cholecystography to aid readers familiar with this technique in understanding the comparable imaging features on more modern imaging techniques is included. PMID:18373800

Stunell, H; Buckley, O; Geoghegan, T; O'Brien, J; Ward, E; Torreggiani, W

2008-04-01

328

p53 mutations in urinary bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

We have screened for mutations in exons 5–8 of the p53 gene in a series consisting of 189 patients with urinary bladder neoplasms. 82 (44%) neoplasms were lowly malignant (Ta, G1–G2a) and 106 (56%) were highly malignant (G2b–G4 or ?T1). Only one mutation was in a lowly malignant urinary bladder neoplasm, in total we found p53 mutations in 26 (14%) of the 189 patients. 30% of the samples had loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for one or both of the p53 exogenic (CA)n repeat and the p53 intragenic (AAAAT)n repeat markers. 31 samples (21%) showed LOH but were not mutated, suggesting other mechanisms inactivating p53 than mutations. 4 mutations were found at codon 280 and 2 mutations were found at codon 285, 2 previously reported hot spots for urinary bladder cancer. The study indicate a boundary between G2a and G2b tumours concerning the occurrence of genetic events affecting p53 function; moderately differentiated (G2) urinary bladder neoplasms probably are genetically heterogeneous which supports the suggestion that they should not be grouped together but instead, for example, be categorized as either lowly or highly malignant. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11384101

Berggren, P; Steineck, G; Adolfsson, J; Hansson, J; Jansson, O; Larsson, P; Sandstedt, B; Wijkstrom, H; Hemminki, K

2001-01-01

329

How frequent are overactive bladder symptoms in women with urodynamic verification of an overactive bladder?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the relationship between overactive bladder symptoms and urodynamic verification of overactive bladder. Material and Methods Between June 2011 and November 2011, 159 patients underwent urodynamics (UDS) at our urogynecology unit in the Ege University Hospital. Of these, 95 patients who complained of urgency, did not have any overt neurological diseases, bladder outlet obstruction and did not take any medication affecting the lower urinary tract function were evaluated. SPSS (ver. 15.0) was used to evaluate the data and the chi-square test and t test for independent samples were used for analysis. Results The mean age was found to be 54.5±12. Frequency was the most frequent symptom in women with overactive bladder (OAB) (82.1%), nocturia (57.8%) and (57.8%) urgency urinary incontinence followed in frequency. Detrusor over activity incidence was found to be 38.9%. There was no significant relationship between the presence of detrusor over activity (DOA) and OAB symptoms. Leak at urodynamics was found in 46.3% and there is no significant association with detrusor overactivity. Total bladder capacity was found to be significantly lower in women who had DOA (p=0.000). Conclusion It appears that overactive bladder symptoms do not predict detrusor over activity. Urodynamic investigation is not mandatory in the initial management of women with only OAB symptoms. PMID:24592016

Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Ergeno?lu, Mete Ahmet; Meseri, Reci; A?kar, Niyazi; ?til, ?smail Mete

2012-01-01

330

Assessment of local structural disorders of the bladder wall in partial bladder outlet obstruction using polarized light imaging  

PubMed Central

Partial bladder outlet obstruction causes prominent morphological changes in the bladder wall, which leads to bladder dysfunction. In this paper, we demonstrate that polarized light imaging can be used to identify the location of obstruction induced structural changes that other imaging modalities fail to detect. We induced 2-week and 6-week partial outlet obstruction in rats, harvested obstructed bladders, then measured their retardances while distended to high pressures and compared them to controls. Our results show that the retardance of the central part of the ventral side (above the ureters) closer to the urethra can be used as a potential metric of the distending bladder obstruction. PMID:24575354

Alali, Sanaz; Aitken, Karen J.; Schröder, Annette; Gribble, Adam; Bagli, Darius J.; Vitkin, I. Alex

2014-01-01

331

Complications/sequelae of neck rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Neck lift surgery performed in isolation or in conjunction with a facelift provides a more youthful cervicomental angle. Complications related to neck lift surgery vary from contour irregularities that may improve with time or conservative measures,to contour irregularities that persist and may benefit from delayed surgical intervention, to expanding hematomas that require immediate surgical intervention. This article reviews complications of neck lift surgery and their etiologies, methods to minimize the incidence of these complications, and management. PMID:24745390

Batniji, Rami K

2014-05-01

332

Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Class Simulation Overview and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and exploration or human-scale missions. The year one exploration class mission activity considered technologies capable of delivering a 40-mt payload. This paper provides an overview of the exploration class mission study, including technologies considered, models developed and initial simulation results from the EDL-SA year one effort.

DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

2010-01-01

333

Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the Study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

Zang, Thomas A.; Dwyer-Cianciolo, Alicia M.; Kinney, David J.; Howard, Austin R.; Chen, George T.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Westhelle, Carlos H.

2010-01-01

334

[Intravesical chemotherapy of superficial bladder tumors].  

PubMed

It has been reported that the intravesical instillation therapy had response rates ranging from 60 to 70% for bladder cancer and we could expect its significant efficacy, in terms of clinical benefits with quick response and lower medical cost, in patients of superficial and papillary peduncular tumors with multiple diseases and in diameter of maximum 1 cm. The intravesical instillation should be performed 2-3 times/week and within 2-3 weeks for the purpose to reach the clinical objectives. In order to enhance the efficacy of the intravesical instillation therapy, combined use of multiple anticancer agents or multidisciplinary treatments have been tried, in combination with systemic administration, radiotherapy, hyperthermia and hydro pressure therapy, which obtained remarkable clinical results. However, a comparative study has never been carried out among these treatments. It's a practical treatment that the intravesical instillation is given as an adjuvant therapy after TUR. In case of prophylactic purpose, the frequency and the period are still under discussion on the administration of the drugs. These is no clear idea yet which is optimal, a short period of administration for 1-2 weeks or a longer period for 2-5 years. Adriamycin and mitomycin-C have been commonly used for the intravesical instillation therapy of bladder cancer. BCG has recently had a good clinical response not only for therapeutic purpose of carcinoma in site but also for the prophylactic purpose with its intravesical instillation. Many studies indicated that the intravesical instillation therapy alone could not inhibit recurrence of bladder cancer under the current situation when the incidence of tumor and mechanism of recurrence are not yet clarified completely in epidemiological points of view. For improvement of treatment of bladder cancer, further fundamental studies must be developed and also a randomized trial is clinically needed, taking in consideration backgrounds of the patients, for evaluation of efficacy of bladder cancer treatment. PMID:2645832

Matsumura, Y

1989-02-01

335

Variations of urinary bladder and the urogenital fatty fascial compartment with different filling of the bladder are notable factors relevant to hernia repair-related bladder injury.  

PubMed

The present study investigated bladder and urogenital fatty fascial compartment (UFFC) variations during bladder filling in an attempt to identify other possible causes of hernia repair-related bladder injury besides mesh migration. The study included 30 patients scheduled for abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan for nonhernia diseases. Sixty-four-slice CT scan was performed immediately after urination and no more than 30 minutes later. Three-dimensional images were constructed by two independent experienced readers. The empty bladder was triangular in shape, narrow in the front and broad in the rear. Its vertex deviated from midline of the abdominal wall in 11 cases (36.7%).With normal filling, it appeared as an irregular oval shape. Only two cases (6.7%) of empty bladder extended inside Hesselbach's triangle. However, this area was occupied to some extent in all cases during bladder filling (P = 0.003). The UFFC formed a molar-like structure in cross-section. In three dimensions, it appeared as an inverted V-shaped structure from the front. In the lateral view it appeared as a spoon that contained the bladder. UFFC volume increased from 61.85 ± 6.23 to 139.23 ± 5.29 cm(3) with bladder filling (P < 0.0001). The UFFC can be clearly identified by CT scanning or three-dimensional reconstruction. The considerable spatial variation of the UFFC and movement and deformation of the mesh within this area may be related to bladder injury. PMID:23336656

Jiang, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Dong-Ye; Lai, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Quan-Bo; Zhang, Yu-Chao; Yang, Bin; Chen, Shuang

2013-02-01

336

Basic Surgical Techniques in the Göttingen Minipig: Intubation, Bladder Catheterization, Femoral Vessel Catheterization, and Transcardial Perfusion  

PubMed Central

The emergence of the Göttingen minipig in research of topics such as neuroscience, toxicology, diabetes, obesity, and experimental surgery reflects the close resemblance of these animals to human anatomy and physiology 1-6.The size of the Göttingen minipig permits the use of surgical equipment and advanced imaging modalities similar to those used in humans 6-8. The aim of this instructional video is to increase the awareness on the value of minipigs in biomedical research, by demonstrating how to perform tracheal intubation, transurethral bladder catheterization, femoral artery and vein catheterization, as well as transcardial perfusion. Endotracheal Intubation should be performed whenever a minipig undergoes general anesthesia, because it maintains a patent airway, permits assisted ventilation and protects the airways from aspirates. Transurethral bladder catheterization can provide useful information about about hydration state as well as renal and cardiovascular function during long surgical procedures. Furthermore, urinary catheterization can prevent contamination of delicate medico-technical equipment and painful bladder extension which may harm the animal and unnecessarily influence the experiment due to increased vagal tone and altered physiological parameters. Arterial and venous catheterization is useful for obtaining repeated blood samples and monitoring various physiological parameters. Catheterization of femoral vessels is preferable to catheterization of the neck vessels for ease of access, when performing experiments involving frame-based stereotaxic neurosurgery and brain imaging. When performing vessel catheterization in survival studies, strict aseptic technique must be employed to avoid infections6. Transcardial perfusion is the most effective fixation method, and yields preeminent results when preparing minipig organs for histology and histochemistry2,9. For more information about anesthesia, surgery and experimental techniques in swine in general we refer to Swindle 2007. Supplementary information about premedication and induction of anesthesia, assisted ventilation, analgesia, pre- and postoperative care of Göttingen minipigs are available via the internet at http://www.minipigs.com10. For extensive information about porcine anatomy we refer to Nickel et al. Vol. 1-511. PMID:21730947

Ettrup, Kaare S.; Glud, Andreas N.; Orlowski, Dariusz; Fitting, Lise M.; Meier, Kaare; Soerensen, Jens Christian; Bjarkam, Carsten R.; Alstrup, Aage K. Olsen

2011-01-01

337

14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...  

...oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with...oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with...passenger cabin occupants. (3) For first-aid treatment of occupants who for...

2014-01-01

338

Erythromycin induces supranormal gall bladder contraction in diabetic autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

Gall bladder motor function is impaired in some patients with diabetes. It has been suggested that the abnormalities of gall bladder motility are confined to those patients with autonomic neuropathy. Erythromycin, a motilin receptor agonist, causes gall bladder contraction in both normal subjects and patients with gall stones with impaired gall bladder emptying. The effect of erythromycin on gall bladder motility in seven patients with diabetes with an autonomic neuropathy, six patients with diabetes without autonomic neuropathy, and 17 normal subjects was studied using ultrasound. There was no significant difference in gall bladder fasting volume between the three groups, but the patients with diabetes with autonomic neuropathy had impaired postprandial gall bladder emptying compared with normal subjects (percentage emptied (SEM) 40 (10.3)% v 64 (2.8)%, p < 0.01) and those with autonomic neuropathy (48 (7.7)%, NS). Erythromycin produced a dramatic reduction in gall bladder fasting volume in patients with diabetes with an autonomic neuropathy, compared with either normal subjects or patients with diabetes without autonomic neuropathy (percentage reduction 62 (4.6)% in patients with autonomic neuropathy, v 37 (17.6)% in those without autonomic neuropathy, and 26 (7.3)% in the normal subjects, (p < 0.02) and returned gall bladder emptying to normal in all patients with impaired emptying. The pronounced effect of erythromycin in diabetic autonomic neuropathy suggests denervation supersensitivity and that the action of erythromycin on the gall bladder is neurally modulated. PMID:8174966

Catnach, S M; Ballinger, A B; Stevens, M; Fairclough, P D; Trembath, R C; Drury, P L; Watkins, P J

1993-01-01

339

Home monitoring of bladder pressure in pediatric patients with spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with spins bifida who can not empty their bladder are at high risk for developing kidney dysfunction due to high bladder pressures. Currently, because of the high cost of a cystometrogram (CMG), a filling bladder pressure-volume curve, bladder pressure monitoring is not performed very frequently. Therefore, we have developed a simple method of measuring bladder pressures at home in

M. S. Damaser; Greg J. Andros; James S. Walter; Lisa Schlehahn; Kim Brzezinski; John S. Wheeler; David A. Hatch

1997-01-01

340

Bladder Cancer: A Simple Model Becomes Complex  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in developed countries and it is also characterized by a high number of recurrences. Despite this, several authors in the past reported that only two altered molecular pathways may genetically explain all cases of bladder cancer: one involving the FGFR3 gene, and the other involving the TP53 gene. Mutations in any of these two genes are usually predictive of the malignancy final outcome. This cancer may also be further classified as low-grade tumors, which is always papillary and in most cases superficial, and high-grade tumors, not necessarily papillary and often invasive. This simple way of considering this pathology has strongly changed in the last few years, with the development of genome-wide studies on expression profiling and the discovery of small non-coding RNA affecting gene expression. An easy search in the OMIM (On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database using “bladder cancer” as a query reveals that genes in some way connected to this pathology are approximately 150, and some authors report that altered gene expression (up- or down-regulation) in this disease may involve up to 500 coding sequences for low-grade tumors and up to 2300 for high-grade tumors. In many clinical cases, mutations inside the coding sequences of the above mentioned two genes were not found, but their expression changed; this indicates that also epigenetic modifications may play an important role in its development. Indeed, several reports were published about genome-wide methylation in these neoplastic tissues, and an increasing number of small non-coding RNA are either up- or down-regulated in bladder cancer, indicating that impaired gene expression may also pass through these metabolic pathways. Taken together, these data reveal that bladder cancer is far to be considered a simple model of malignancy. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in the genome-wide analysis of bladder cancer, and analyse non-genetic, genetic and epigenetic factors causing extensive gene mis-regulation in malignant cells. PMID:23372425

Pierro, Giovanni Battista Di; Gulia, Caterina; Cristini, Cristiano; Fraietta, Giorgio; Marini, Lorenzo; Grande, Pietro; Gentile, Vincenzo; Piergentili, Roberto

2012-01-01

341

A molecular signature of an arrest of descent in human parturition  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was undertaken to identify the molecular basis of an arrest of descent. Study Design Human myometrium was obtained from women in term labor (TL; n=29) and arrest of descent (AODes, n=21). Gene expression was characterized using Illumina® HumanHT-12 microarrays. A moderated t-test and false discovery rate adjustment were applied for analysis. Confirmatory qRT-PCR and immunoblot was performed in an independent sample set. Results 400 genes were differentially expressed between women with an AODes compared to those with TL. Gene Ontology analysis indicated enrichment of biological processes and molecular functions related to inflammation and muscle function. Impacted pathways included inflammation and the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of HIF1A, IL-6, and PTGS2 in AODES was confirmed. Conclusion We have identified a stereotypic pattern of gene expression in the myometrium of women with an arrest of descent. This represents the first study examining the molecular basis of an arrest of descent using a genome-wide approach. PMID:21284969

MITTAL, Pooja; ROMERO, Roberto; TARCA, Adi L.; DRAGHICI, Sorin; NHAN-CHANG, Chia-Ling; CHAIWORAPONGSA, Tinnakorn; HOTRA, John; GOMEZ, Ricardo; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; LEE, Deug-Chan; KIM, Chong Jai; HASSAN, Sonia S.

2010-01-01

342

Access to Health Care Among Latinos of Mexican Descent in "Colonias" in Two Texas Counties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical to resolving the problem of health disparities among Latinos is examining the needs within ethnic subpopulations. This paper focused on the unique challenges encountered by one ethnic subpopulation -- Latinos of Mexican descent living in colonias. Findings reaffirm the importance of looking within ethnic subpopulations to understand the…

Ortiz, Larry; Arizmendi, Lydia; Cornelius, Llewellyn J.

2004-01-01

343

Model reference adaptive control of a maglev system with stable maximum descent criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model-reference adaptive controller (MRC) design framework for magnetically suspended vehicles (maglev) using the criterion of stable maximum descent. The adaptation algorithm is constrained to reduce the airgap error between the reference model and the actual system. The explicit relationship between the parameters of the performance criterion (function of the airgap error and its derivative) and the

P. K. Sinha; Alexandre N. Pechev

1999-01-01

344

Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.

2014-01-01

345

Education by Any Means Necessary: Peoples of African Descent and Community-Based Pedagogical Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how and why peoples of African descent access and utilize community-based pedagogical spaces that exist outside schools. Employing a theoretical framework that fuses historical methodology and border-crossing theory, the researchers review existing scholarship and primary documents to present an historical examination of how…

Douglas, Ty-Ron Michael; Peck, Craig

2013-01-01

346

Localization of Mars rovers using descent and surface-based image data  

E-print Network

image data. The Mars Pathfinder Mission in 1997 clearly demonstrated the importance of mobility systems and Golombek, 1998; Golombek et al., 1997]. In the planned 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission two roversLocalization of Mars rovers using descent and surface-based image data Rongxing Li, Fei Ma

Olson, Clark F.

347

P-packSVM: Parallel Primal grAdient desCent Kernel SVM  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is an extreme challenge to produce a nonlinear SVM classifier on very large scale data. In this paper we describe a novel P-packSVM algorithm that can solve the support vector machine (SVM) optimization problem with an arbitrary kernel. This algorithm embraces the best known stochastic gradient descent method to optimize the primal objective, and has 1\\/¿ dependency in complexity

Zeyuan Allen Zhu; Weizhu Chen; Gang Wang; Chenguang Zhu; Zheng Chen

2009-01-01

348

Flight test and ISS application of the Inflatable Reentry and Descent Technology (IRDT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Inflatable Reentry and Descent Technology (IRDT) is an innovative light weight entry technology using an inflatable heatshield. The technology was originally developed by Lavochkin \\/ Babakin Space Center for the Mars-96 mission. Together with the European Space Agency, Astrium and the International Science and Technology Center the technology was further developed and tested in a first Earth renetry test

D. Vennemann; L. Marraffa; K. Pitchadze; S. Alexsaschkin

2002-01-01

349

Iron deficiency anaemia in women of south Asian descent: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Menorrhagia is thought to be the commonest cause of iron deficiency anaemia in women of reproductive age living in Britain. However, it has been suggested that the high prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in women of South Asian descent living in Britain is due to religious and cultural restrictions on certain foods. While lack of iron in the diet,

Alison Chapple

1998-01-01

350

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Entry, DEscEnt, anD LanDing  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Entry, DEscEnt, anD LanDing roaDmap Technology Area of fourteen technology area roadmaps, recommending the overall technology investment strategy of future advances possible in these areas, NASA plans updates to its integrated technology roadmap

Waliser, Duane E.

351

The Gods Must Be Crazy: The Denial of Descent in Academic Scholarship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expands the literature of discontent with academic scholarship by showing how malaise is grounded metaphorically in the uncritical celebration of "up" and the vilification of "down." Historicizes these metaphors through classical Greek poetry and philosophy to rediscover how flowing back and forth between Apollonian upness and Dionysian descent

Hocker Rushing, Janice; Frentz, Thomas S.

1999-01-01

352

A Fast Active Set Block Coordinate Descent Algorithm for l1 ...  

E-print Network

real-world problems (e.g. signal and image processing, compressive sensing, ... In [23], some ideas on how to speed up their Block Coordinate Descent .... Let xk ? IRn and i ? {1,...,n} be an index estimated active by our estimate, that is,.

2014-03-11

353

Impact of multiple submarine channels on the descent of dense water at high latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model is applied to examine the impact of multiple submarine channels (<10 km across, <100 m deep), common to most continental margins of the ocean, on the descent of dense water at high latitudes. The model consists of an ocean bottom layer of constant height that follows variable bottom topography under constant vertical grid spacing. An

Jochen Kämpf

2000-01-01

354

The Role of Educational Background, Activity, and Past Experiences in Mexican-Descent Families' Science Conversations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies investigated science conversations between Mexican-descent parents and children during a visit to a children's museum and at home after a family science workshop. Although more-educated parents gave more explanations about science in the museum, all families engaged in causal conversations, especially at home. (Contains 42 references.)…

Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Callanan, Maureen A.; Alba-Speyer, Consuelo; Sandoval, Leticia

2002-01-01

355

Identity by Descent Genome Segmentation Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Distributions  

E-print Network

are made for the mutation rate in the human genome. Introduction High throughput genome sequence analysis-uniform. This finding is striking because SNPs are thought to arise by a mutation process that occurs with approximately to be identical by descent (IBD). The age of the last common ancestor for a segment is Copyright © 1999, American

Rouchka, Eric

356

Bulk chemical trends at arc volcanoes are not liquid lines of descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the magmatic output of arc volcanoes defines clear chemical trends, the compositional sequence of eruption is often chaotic. At best, support for the concept of progressive evolution by fractionation\\/assimilation in a central chamber is ambiguous. Rather than defining a liquid line of descent, we suggest that chemical trends in arc systems are populated by discrete magma batches. These have

John C. Eichelberger; Pavel E. Izbekov; Brandon L. Browne

2006-01-01

357

The behavior of epididymis, processus vaginalis and testicular descent in cryptorchid boys treated with buserelin.  

PubMed

This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study was initiated to analyze the behavior of epididymis, processus vaginalis and testicular descent in cryptorchid boys treated with a low dose (20 micrograms) of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (Buserelin), administered daily, as a nasal spray, for a short period (28 days). Fifty-nine true cryptorchid boys were randomly assigned to 3 groups: buserelin treatment [22], surgical treatment [18] or placebo control group [19]. The 3 groups of patients were similar before treatment in regard to testicular position, chronological and bone age, height and weight, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, penile size and the volume of the contralateral descended testis. None of the patients had retractile testes. Buserelin significantly induced testicular descent compared to the boys treated with a placebo (P < 0.01). A normal epididymis was found more often in boys with successful descent (P < 0.003). A closed processus vaginalis was also more frequently observed in the group treated with buserelin than in surgically treated one (P < 0.05). In conclusion, buserelin was capable of inducing testicular descent besides provoking further development of the epididymis and closing the processus vaginalis. PMID:8101813

Bica, D T; Hadziselimovic, F

1993-01-01

358

A concept for the entry, descent, and landing of high-mass payloads at Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The architecture concepts and aggressive science objectives for the next phases of Mars exploration will require landed masses an order of magnitude or greater than any Mars mission previously planned or flown. Additional studies have shown the requirements for missions more ambitious than the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (?900kg payload mass) to extend beyond the capabilities of Viking-heritage entry, descent,

Ashley M. Korzun; Gregory F. Dubos; Curtis K. Iwata; Benjamin A. Stahl; John J. Quicksall

2010-01-01

359

TITAN WIND EFFECTS ON THE DESCENT TRAJECTORY OF THE ESA HUYGENS PROBE B. Kazeminejad1  

E-print Network

1 TITAN WIND EFFECTS ON THE DESCENT TRAJECTORY OF THE ESA HUYGENS PROBE B. Kazeminejad1 , J/Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. The Cassini/Huygens spacecraft was launched on 15 October 1997 and enter the atmosphere of Titan on 14 January 2005. A recently discovered design flaw in the Huygens radio

Atkinson, David H.

360

Artist concept titled 'STS-30 Descent over California' produced by Rockwell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rockwell International (RI) supplied artist concept titled 'STS-30 Descent over California' shows Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, approach to Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. Annotated ground track map identifies major events in landing sequence starting at the initiation of tactical air navigation (TACAN) updating and touch down minus (-) 10 minutes.

1989-01-01

361

DEVELOPMENT AND INITIAL FIELD EVALUATION OF FLIGHT DECK PROCEDURES FOR FLYING CTAS DESCENT CLEARANCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) is a new computer-based system that will assist air traffic controllers in the management of arrival traffic. The Descent Advisor (DA), a major component of CTAS, uses an algorithm to predict flight trajectories and arrival times based on an aircraft's cruise airspeed, current air traffic, current atmospheric conditions, type-specific aircraft performance data and airline

Patricia Cashion; Michael Feary; Tsuyoshi Goka; Holly Graham; Everett Palmer; Nancy Smith

1995-01-01

362

DSENDS -A High-Fidelity Dynamics and Spacecraft Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface Landing12  

E-print Network

+1 (818) 354-6770 balaram@jpl.nasa.gov 1 0-7803-7231-X/01/$10.00/© 2002 IEEE 2 IEEEAC paper #302, Updated October 1, 2001 Abstract--The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is developing a high, DSENDS (Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing), is an EDL-specific extension of a JPL

363

Stochastic parallel gradient descent based adaptive optics used for a high contrast imaging coronagraph  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive optics (AO) system based on a stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is proposed to reduce the speckle noises in the optical system of a stellar coronagraph in order to further improve the contrast. The principle of the SPGD algorithm is described briefly and a metric suitable for point source imaging optimization is given. The feasibility and good

Bing Dong; De-Qing Ren; Xi Zhang

2011-01-01

364

Qualitative Research with an Understudied Population: In-Depth Interviews with Women of Mexican Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based qualitative research offers advantages for study of populations that are understudied and not well understood, but qualitative methodology presents major challenges. This article examines some of these challenges, illustrated by a study of pregnancy and childbearing among women of Mexican descent. Issues addressed in this article include culture and gender relevance, access to the population, representativeness, skilled interviewers, trust

Margaret Sherrard Sherraden; Rossana E. Barrera

1995-01-01

365

CS 3EA3: Example Haskell Code for Recursive Descent Parsing Wolfram Kahl  

E-print Network

CS 3EA3: Example Haskell Code for Recursive Descent Parsing Wolfram Kahl September 17, 2009 The module Data.Char provides us with the functions isDigit, isLetter, and ord :: Char Int. module ExprParse parsing: Expr ::= Term + Expr | Term Term ::= Factor * Term | Factor Factor ::= Number | Identifier

Carette, Jacques

366

A Terminal Descent Sensor Trade Study Overview for the Orion Landing and Recovery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This trade study was conducted as a part of the Orion Landing System Advanced Development Project to determine possible Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS) architectures that could be used for a rocket assisted landing system. Several technologies were considered for the Orion TDS including radar, lidar, GPS applications, mechanical sensors, and gamma ray altimetry.

Dunn, Catherine; Prakash, Ravi

2008-01-01

367

Inference of Identity-by-Descent in Sib Pairs: Analysis with and without Linkage Disequilibrium  

E-print Network

Inference of Identity-by-Descent in Sib Pairs: Analysis with and without Linkage Disequilibrium Report Number 519 September, 2007. 1 #12;Abstract In gene mapping, after an initial genome-wide linkage genotyping, however, introduces linkage disequilibrium (LD). Traditional linkage analysis assuming no LD

Washington at Seattle, University of

368

Plasmacytomas of the head and neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmacytomas are rare tumors that often appear in the head and neck region and are characterized by a monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. On both clinical presentation and pathologic examination these tumors may be confused with more common tumors of the head and neck. The purpose of this article is to review our experience with these rare neoplasms, with emphasis

FRANK R. MILLER; PIERRE LAVERTU; JOHN R. WANAMAKER; JOSEPH BONAFEDE; BENJAMIN G. WOOD

1998-01-01

369

Use of Gold in Head and Neck  

E-print Network

Use of Gold in Head and Neck Cancer Treatments Q & A with Dr. Frank McCormick UCSF Helen Diller in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at UCSF, is working on several techniques to use gold nanoparticles to improve the identification of cancer. "Gold is very interesting because it has extraordinary

Walter, Peter

370

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Most head and neck cancers begin in the moist, mucus membranes lining the inside of the mouth, nose and throat. These membranes are made up of squamous cells and the head and neck cancers that grow in these cells are called squamous cell carcinomas.

371

Chronic neck pain and masticatory dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic nonspecific neck pain is a common problem in rheumatology and may resist conventional treatment. Pathophysiological links exist between the cervical spine and masticatory system. Occlusal disorders may cause neck pain and may respond to dental treatment. The estimated prevalence of occlusal disorders is about 45%, with half the cases being due to functional factors. Minor repeated masticatory dysfunction (MD)

Jean-François Catanzariti; Thierry Debuse; Bernard Duquesnoy

2005-01-01

372

Postoperative hypertension following radical neck dissection  

PubMed Central

Baroreflex failure results in wide excursions of blood pressure and heart rate. We report two cases that developed severe postoperative hypertension after radical neck dissection. Carotid sinus denervation during neck dissection may be the cause of the reflex hypertension once general anesthesia-induced vasodilatation has ended. PMID:22345960

Prakash, Smita; Rapsang, Amy; Kumar, Suresh S; Bhatia, Parminder S; Gogia, Anoop R

2012-01-01

373

Inter-Vertebral Flexibility of the Ostrich Neck: Implications for Estimating Sauropod Neck Flexibility  

PubMed Central

The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus). The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50). This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data. PMID:23967284

Cobley, Matthew J.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Barrett, Paul M.

2013-01-01

374

Is elective neck dissection indicated during salvage surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma?  

PubMed

Among patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with a negative neck who are initially treated with (chemo)radiotherapy, a number of cases will recur locally without obvious neck recurrence. There is little information available as to the most efficacious management of the neck in these cases. We have reviewed the literature to see what conclusions can be drawn from previous reports. We conducted a bibliography search on MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Studies published in the English language and those on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx were included. Data related to neck management were extracted from the articles. Twelve studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Five studies reported only one treatment plan (either neck dissection or observation), while the others compared neck dissection to observation. The rate of occult metastases ranged from 3.4 to 12 %. The studies included a variable distribution of primary sites and stages of the recurrent primary tumors. The risk of occult neck node metastasis in a clinically rN0 patient correlated with tumor site and T stage. Observation of the neck can be suggested for patients with T1-2 glottic tumors, who recurred with less advanced tumors (rT1-2). For patients with more advanced laryngeal recurrences or recurrence at other high-risk sites, neck dissection could be considered for the rN0 patient, particularly if the neck was not included in the previous radiation fields. PMID:24515917

Sanabria, Alvaro; Silver, Carl E; Olsen, Kerry D; Medina, Jesus E; Hamoir, Marc; Paleri, Vinidh; Mondin, Vanni; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Rodrigo, Juan P; Suárez, Carlos; Boedeker, Carsten C; Hinni, Michael L; Kowalski, Luiz P; Teymoortash, Afshin; Werner, Jochen A; Takes, Robert P; Ferlito, Alfio

2014-12-01

375

Urinary bladder distention evoked visceromotor responses as a model for bladder pain in mice.  

PubMed

Approximately 3-8 million people in the United States suffer from interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a debilitating condition characterized by increased urgency and frequency of urination, as well as nocturia and general pelvic pain, especially upon bladder filling or voiding. Despite years of research, the cause of IC/BPS remains elusive and treatment strategies are unable to provide complete relief to patients. In order to study nervous system contributions to the condition, many animal models have been developed to mimic the pain and symptoms associated with IC/BPS. One such murine model is urinary bladder distension (UBD). In this model, compressed air of a specific pressure is delivered to the bladder of a lightly anesthetized animal over a set period of time. Throughout the procedure, wires in the superior oblique abdominal muscles record electrical activity from the muscle. This activity is known as the visceromotor response (VMR) and is a reliable and reproducible measure of nociception. Here, we describe the steps necessary to perform this technique in mice including surgical manipulations, physiological recording, and data analysis. With the use of this model, the coordination between primary sensory neurons, spinal cord secondary afferents, and higher central nervous system areas involved in bladder pain can be unraveled. This basic science knowledge can then be clinically translated to treat patients suffering from IC/BPS. PMID:24798516

Sadler, Katelyn E; Stratton, Jarred M; Kolber, Benedict J

2014-01-01

376

Common theme for drugs effective in overactive bladder treatment: inhibition of afferent signaling from the bladder.  

PubMed

The overactive bladder syndrome and detrusor overactivity are conditions that can have major effects on quality of life and social functioning. Antimuscarinic drugs are still first-line treatment. These drugs often have good initial response rates, but adverse effects and decreasing efficacy cause long-term compliance problems, and alternatives are needed. The recognition of the functional contribution of the urothelium/suburothelium, the autonomous detrusor muscle activity during bladder filling and the diversity of nerve transmitters involved has sparked interest in both peripheral and central modulation of overactive bladder syndrome/detrusor overactivity pathophysiology. Three drugs recently approved for treatment of overactive bladder syndrome/detrusor overactivity (mirabegron, tadalafil and onabotulinum toxin A), representing different pharmacological mechanisms; that is, ?-adrenoceptor agonism, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition, and inhibition of nerve release of efferent and afferent transmitters, all seem to have one effect in common: inhibition of the afferent nervous activity generated by the bladder during filling. In the present review, the different mechanisms forming the pharmacological basis for the use of these drugs are discussed. PMID:23072271

Hood, Brandy; Andersson, Karl-Erik

2013-01-01

377

Common theme for drugs effective in overactive bladder treatment: Inhibition of afferent signaling from the bladder  

PubMed Central

The overactive bladder syndrome and detrusor overactivity are conditions that can have major effects on quality of life and social functioning. Antimuscarinic drugs are still first-line treatment. These drugs often have good initial response rates, but adverse effects and decreasing efficacy cause long-term compliance problems, and alternatives are needed. The recognition of the functional contribution of the urothelium/suburothelium, the autonomous detrusor muscle activity during bladder filling and the diversity of nerve transmitters involved has sparked interest in both peripheral and central modulation of overactive bladder syndrome/detrusor overactivity pathophysiology. Three drugs recently approved for treatment of overactive bladder syndrome/detrusor overactivity (mirabegron, tadalafil and onabotulinum toxin A), representing different pharmacological mechanisms; that is, ?-adrenoceptor agonism, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition, and inhibition of nerve release of efferent and afferent transmitters, all seem to have one effect in common: inhibition of the afferent nervous activity generated by the bladder during filling. In the present review, the different mechanisms forming the pharmacological basis for the use of these drugs are discussed. PMID:23072271

Hood, Brandy; Andersson, Karl-Erik

2013-01-01

378

Combined bladder exstrophy and epispadias repair  

PubMed Central

A 2-year-old male child of exstrophy-epispadias complex presented to us. He had not received any treatment at the time of presentation. It was decided to perform a combined bladder exstrophy and epispadias repair under general anaesthesia. There was a wide diastasis of symphysis pubis, it was decided to perform a bilateral anterior innominate and vertical iliac osteotomy. The bladder was closed in two layers. The urethroplasty and penile reconstruction was done by modified Cantwell–Ransley repair. At the completion of procedure to prevent distraction of pubis, the baby was strapped using elastoplast bandage. The child had a very good cosmetic outcome, good pubic and rectus muscle approximation. On clamping the suprapubic catheter, the patient started passing urine per urethrally and there was a small penopubic fistula. Thereafter the suprapubic catheter was removed. The urine culture was sterile and the patient was discharged on prophylactic antibiotics. The patient is due for follow-up. PMID:22679150

Chaudhary, Ranjit; Apte, Ashwin; Mehta, Rajkumar; Varshney, Atul; Singh, Kulwant; Jain, Nidhi; Biswas, Rakesh

2011-01-01

379

Lipomatous congenital melanocytic nevus presenting as a neck mass in a young adult.  

PubMed

Congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) is a melanocytic proliferation that has its onset at birth or shortly thereafter and shows characteristic histopathologic features including symmetric proliferation of benign melanocytes, extension of nevus cells into the deep reticular dermis and subcutis, maturation of melanocytes with descent, tracking of melanocytes around and within adnexal structures, vessels, or nerves and splaying of collagen bundles by nevus cells arranged in single rows or cords. We report the case of a 34 year old previously healthy woman who presented with a progressively enlarging soft tissue mass in the right neck and back adjacent to a medium sized CMN. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple lipomatous masses within the soft tissues of the posterior superficial neck. Subsequent excision of the soft tissue mass showed a well circumscribed lipomatous lesion with diffuse infiltration by benign appearing melanocytes within the fat lobules. Excision of the mass was not accompanied by overlying skin and, thus, posed a diagnostic challenge. Sudden increase in the size of a CMN is worrisome for the development of a melanoma, however, this lesion lacked significant cytologic atypia and mitotic figures, and had a low proliferative index by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. This case serves to illustrate the initial diagnostic dilemma as well as the plasticity of the neural crest cells. PMID:23649716

Patel, Kalyani R; Chernock, Rebecca; Lewis, James S; Raptis, Constantine A; Al Gilani, Maha; Dehner, Louis P

2013-12-01

380

Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type: a rare case  

PubMed Central

Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare disease. It occurs in 0.5–2% of all bladder cancers and is discussed as the malignant counterpart of nephrogenic adenomas. We report a 46-year-old white female presented with gross hematuria for clinical examination. Histopathology revealed pT2, Pn1, L1, G2 adenocarcinoma of the bladder and carcinoma in situ according to the TNM classification. Computed tomography scan diagnostic was unremarkable. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder should be treated vigorously and without time delay. Only 7 cases of adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder (mesonephroid) have been described until now. We present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type that early diagnosed and till now 3 months after the cystectomy without symptoms and without complications. PMID:23772302

Abbas, Mahmoud; Kramer, Mario W.; Wolters, Mathias; Herrman, Thomas R.W.; Becker, Jan U.; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich

2013-01-01

381

Cognitive bladder training in the community.  

PubMed

Following a study trip sponsored through a Cow & Gate scholarship award, the author of this article introduced a cognitive bladder training programme for children with daytime wetting problems. This article looks at how the programme was introduced and describes the components of the programme including educational tools, motivation and bio-feedback. As a result of the programme district-wide, multidisciplinary management guidelines have been introduced. PMID:9165900

Rogers, J

1997-04-16

382

[Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours of the bladder].  

PubMed

The inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the bladder is a rare benign affection that interests mainly young adults. Its etiopathogeny remains unknown, but its tumoral origin was evocated recently by Griffin (1999), incriminating a chromosomic abnormality involving the ALK gene. We will discuss the etiopathogenic, anatopathological and therapeutical aspects of this lesion for which the diagnosis is histological and the treatment remains conservative with a good prognosis. PMID:15751423

Dakir, Mohamed; Taha, Abdellatif; Attar, Hicham; Sarf, Ismail; Aboutaib, Rachid; Moussaoui, Ali; Meziane, Fathi

2004-12-01

383

Traumatic dislocation of testes and bladder rupture.  

PubMed

Traumatic dislocation of the testes with bladder rupture occurred in 2 multiply injured patients with pelvic fracture. One had a history of retractile testes and the other of previous testicular dislocation. Surgical correction was performed after closed reduction failed. These injuries must be recognized and treated promptly to maximize the likelihood of testicular salvage. If early intervention is not possible, duplex ultrasonography and pulsed Doppler analysis are the optional valuative studies. PMID:1466102

Lee, J Y; Cass, A S; Streitz, J M

1992-12-01

384

Androgen Receptor and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Neurons of the Genitofemoral Nerve During Testicular Descent Induced with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Low levels of circulating testosterone during testis descent cause cryptorchidism in humans and rats. Treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) induces testis descent by stimulating production of testosterone (T). Neurons of genitofemoral nerve (GFN), which innervate testicular gubernaculum, may play a role in testis descent.Methods. In the current study, putative correlations were made between T and GFN motor and

Rosa Mar??a Vigueras; Norma Moreno-Mendoza; Gabriela Reyes; Horacio Merchant-Larios

2003-01-01

385

Concomitant urethral triplication, bladder, and colon duplication.  

PubMed

The concomitant presence of urethral triplication and caudal duplication is extremely rare with no previous reported cases. We report a case of urethral triplication associated with bladder, sigmoid, and rectum duplication. The patient was initially referred with a history of fecaluria and recurrent urinary tract infection. Physical examination revealed 2 meatal opening on the glans penis. Further investigation revealed three distinct urinary streams, two terminating on the glans penis, and one in the rectum in voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. Computed tomography demonstrated the bladder divided into two compartments by a complete sagittal septum. The patient was managed by the excision of the rectal ending urethra and removal of the bladder sagittal septum during which, two sigmoidal and rectal segments (the right one filled with fecal) were revealed. The right sigmoid and rectum was resected. The two ventral urethras were kept intact. The postoperative course was uneventful. At his 4 month readmission for colostomy closure, the patient reported good urethral voiding with no complication and recurrence of urinary tract infection and the colostomy was closed with no major complication. PMID:21547464

Tourchi, Ali; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Khakpour, Mahshid; Mohammadi Nejad, Payam; Mousavian, Amir-Abbas; Kalantary, Mahdi

2012-02-01

386

Bladder Rupture following Conversion to Enteric Drainage after Pancreatic Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Complications associated with bladder-drained pancreatic transplant are not uncommon and include urinary tract infections and reflux pancreatitis. Bladder rupture with peritoneal leak is a rare complication after pancreatic transplantation and can present as an acute abdomen with rapidly deteriorating renal function. We describe the first case of a urine leak into the peritoneal cavity occurring after conversion from bladder to enteric drainage. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose such a complication. PMID:23197947

Srivastava, Vikas; Passaris, George; Juneja, Rajiv; Siddins, Mark; Barbara, Jeffrey A.J.

2012-01-01

387

Pancreatic bladder or double gallbladder draining into pancreatic duct?  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We report a case of pancreatic bladder which could also be interpreted as double gallbladder draining into the pancreatic\\u000a duct. A 6-year-old Japanese boy underwent a cholecystectomy of the smaller bladder under the diagnosis of duplication of the\\u000a gallbladder, leaving the normal gallbladder and an unremarkable biliary ductal system. The smaller bladder was histologically\\u000a similar to the gallbladder tissue.

Toshimitsu Ishibashi; Hideo Nagai; Toshihiko Yasuda; Yoshikazu Yasuda; Kogoro Kasahara; Kyotaro Kanazawa

1999-01-01

388

Frequent truncating mutations of STAG2 in bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Here we report the discovery of truncating mutations of the gene encoding the cohesin subunit STAG2, which regulates sister chromatid cohesion and segregation, in 36% of papillary non-invasive urothelial carcinomas and 16% of invasive urothelial carcinomas of the bladder. Our studies suggest that STAG2 plays a role in controlling chromosome number but not proliferation of bladder cancer cells. These findings identify STAG2 as among the most commonly mutated genes in bladder cancer discovered to date. PMID:24121789

Solomon, David A.; Kim, Jung-Sik; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Wang, Zeng-Feng; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Ozawa, Tomoko; Gerard, Julia; Zhuang, DaZhong; Zhang, Shizhen; Navai, Neema; Siefker-Radtker, Arleen; Phillips, Joanna J.; Robinson, Brian D.; Rubin, Mark A.; Volkmer, Bjorn; Hautmann, Richard; Kufer, Rainer; Hogendoorn, Pancras C. W.; Netto, George; Theodorescu, Dan; James, C. David; Czerniak, Bogdan; Miettinen, Markku; Waldman, Todd

2013-01-01

389

Impact of gender on bladder cancer incidence, staging, and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  While patient gender is an important factor in the clinical decision-making for the management of bladder cancer, there are\\u000a minimal evidence-based recommendations to guide health care professionals. Recent epidemiologic and translational research\\u000a has shed some light on the complex relationship between gender and bladder cancer. Our aim was to review the literature on\\u000a the effect of gender on bladder cancer

Harun Fajkovic; Joshua A. Halpern; Eugene K. Cha; Atessa Bahadori; Thomas F. Chromecki; Pierre I. Karakiewicz; Eckart Breinl; Axel S Merseburger; Shahrokh F. Shariat

390

Chemotherapy and targeted therapy for gall bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Gall bladder cancer is a common cancer in the Ganges belt of North-eastern India. In view of incidental diagnosis of gall bladder cancer by physicians and surgeons, the treatment is not optimised. Most patients present in advanced stages and surgery remains the only option to cure. This review highlights the current evidence in advances in systemic therapy of gall bladder cancer. PMID:25114467

Sirohi, Bhawna; Singh, Ashish; Jagannath, P; Shrikhande, Shailesh V

2014-06-01

391

Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Relation to Bladder Cancer Risk - The Shanghai Bladder Cancer Study  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) contains tobacco carcinogens. Hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) are important isoenzymes in activation and detoxification, respectively, of tobacco carcinogens. Data on ETS and bladder cancer risk are sparse. Methods We examined the effects of ETS alone and combined with NAT2/CYP1A2 on bladder cancer risk among lifelong-nonsmokers in a case-control study involving 195 patients and 261 controls in Shanghai, China. A comprehensive history of ETS exposure was determined through in-person interviews while CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotypes by a caffeine-based urinary assay. Results ETS exposure was related to an overall statistically non-significant 38% increased bladder cancer risk. The risk increased with increasing number of cigarettes smoked by household members or number of hours per day at workplace where coworkers smoked. Compared with no ETS exposure, subjects living with smoking parents during childhood had an OR of 2.43 (95% CI=0.99–5.96) for bladder cancer. When all ETS sources were combined, the risk increased with increasing total ETS score (Ptrend = 0.03). The OR for high versus nil ETS exposure was 3.00 (95% CI =1.24–7.26). The increased risk with ETS was mainly seen among individuals possessing a CYP1A2 high efficiency and/or a NAT2 slow acetylation phenotype (Ptrend = 0.04). Conclusions ETS was associated with an increased bladder cancer risk for lifelong-nonsmokers. The association was stronger for people possessing the at-risk phenotypes of CYP1A2 and/or NAT2. Impact Reducing exposure to ETS for children and genetically more susceptible individuals could be more effective for bladder cancer prevention. PMID:21056942

Tao, Li; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wang, Renwei; Nelson, Heather H.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Chan, Kenneth; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min

2010-01-01

392

Bladder endometriosis, a remarkable resemblance in a monozygotic twin  

PubMed Central

It is known for many years that heritability plays a role in the development of endometriosis in many patients. Deep endometriosis of the bladder is a rare presentation of the disease and bladder endometriosis was not reported in monozygotic twin studies so far. Since monozygotic twins share the same genes, concordance and differences in presentation of endometriosis may help to discriminate between genetic and environmental determinants. The remarkable resemblance in the presentation of bladder endometriosis in this monozygotic twin seems to indicate that genetic factors are of importance in the arising of deep endometriosis in the bladder too. PMID:21125001

2009-01-01

393

Delayed Presentation of Traumatic Intraperitoneal Rupture of Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Blunt injury of the urinary bladder is well known and usually associates pelvic fractures. Isolated bladder injury is a rare condition and on the other hand, delayed bladder perforation is an extremely rare entity. Herein, we described an unusual case of isolated delayed intraperitoneal bladder rupture that occurred on the third post injury day in a young male in the absence of free intraperitoneal fluid and pelvic fracture. The diagnostic workup, course and the need for surgical repair of the injury is presented. PMID:23259148

Alhamzawi, Hazim H.; Abdelrahman, Husham M.; Abdelrahman, Khalid M.; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Latifi, Rifat

2012-01-01

394

Biomarkers for bladder cancer management: present and future  

PubMed Central

Accurate and sensitive detection of bladder cancer is critical to diagnose this deadly disease at an early stage, estimate prognosis, predict response to treatment, and monitor recurrence. In past years, laboratory diagnosis and surveillance of urinary bladder cancer have improved significantly. Although urine cytology remains the gold standard test, many new urinary biomarkers have been identified. Furthermore, recent advances in genomic studies of bladder cancer have helped to refine our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, the biological basis for outcome disparities, and to inform more efficient treatment and surveillance strategies. In this article, the established diagnostic tests, newly identified biomarkers and genomic landscape of bladder cancer will be reviewed. PMID:25374904

Ye, Fei; Wang, Li; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; McBride, Russell; Galsky, Matthew D; Zhu, Jun; Boffetta, Paolo; Zhang, David Y; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

2014-01-01

395

Initial evaluation of whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy after intravesical ALA sensitization for carcinoma in situ of the bladder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder is a treacherous entity, that will develop into invasive cancer. Early treatment is mandatory in order to prevent progression. When conservative measures, such as Bacillus Calmette Querin (BCG) instillations have failed, radical cystectomy and urinary diversion is recommended. Whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Photofrin II has been shown to be effective in eradicating carcinoma in situ, but often resulted in bladder shrinking. We wanted to evaluate the effects of PDT after aminolevulinic acid (ALA) sensitization. Six patients with refractory carcinoma in situ of the bladder were treated with whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy, after intravesical sensitization with aminolevulinic acid. The total light dose (scattered plus non scattered) was 75 J/cm2. No skin sensitization occurred, nor loss of bladder capacity. One patient did not respond and was successfully treated with BCG. Another patient developed distant metastases. Carcinoma in situ was completely absent after 3 months in four patients (66%).

D'Hallewin, Marie-Ange; Star, Willem M.; Baert, Luc

1997-12-01

396

Proteomics Analysis of Bladder Cancer Exosomes*  

PubMed Central

Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles, secreted by various cell types, present in biological fluids that are particularly rich in membrane proteins. Ex vivo analysis of exosomes may provide biomarker discovery platforms and form non-invasive tools for disease diagnosis and monitoring. These vesicles have never before been studied in the context of bladder cancer, a major malignancy of the urological tract. We present the first proteomics analysis of bladder cancer cell exosomes. Using ultracentrifugation on a sucrose cushion, exosomes were highly purified from cultured HT1376 bladder cancer cells and verified as low in contaminants by Western blotting and flow cytometry of exosome-coated beads. Solubilization in a buffer containing SDS and DTT was essential for achieving proteomics analysis using an LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS approach. We report 353 high quality identifications with 72 proteins not previously identified by other human exosome proteomics studies. Overrepresentation analysis to compare this data set with previous exosome proteomics studies (using the ExoCarta database) revealed that the proteome was consistent with that of various exosomes with particular overlap with exosomes of carcinoma origin. Interrogating the Gene Ontology database highlighted a strong association of this proteome with carcinoma of bladder and other sites. The data also highlighted how homology among human leukocyte antigen haplotypes may confound MASCOT designation of major histocompatability complex Class I nomenclature, requiring data from PCR-based human leukocyte antigen haplotyping to clarify anomalous identifications. Validation of 18 MS protein identifications (including basigin, galectin-3, trophoblast glycoprotein (5T4), and others) was performed by a combination of Western blotting, flotation on linear sucrose gradients, and flow cytometry, confirming their exosomal expression. Some were confirmed positive on urinary exosomes from a bladder cancer patient. In summary, the exosome proteomics data set presented is of unrivaled quality. The data will aid in the development of urine exosome-based clinical tools for monitoring disease and will inform follow-up studies into varied aspects of exosome manufacture and function. PMID:20224111

Welton, Joanne L.; Khanna, Sanjay; Giles, Peter J.; Brennan, Paul; Brewis, Ian A.; Staffurth, John; Mason, Malcolm D.; Clayton, Aled

2010-01-01

397

Pelvic lipomatosis: Bladder sparing extirpation of pelvic mass to relieve bladder storage dysfunction symptoms and pelvic pain  

PubMed Central

Pelvic lipomatosis is a rare benign disease, associated with overgrowth of fat in the perivesical and perirectal area. It is of unknown etiology. We describe a 45–year–old male with pelvic lipomatosis causing bladder storage dysfunction symptoms and pelvic pain that affected his quality of life. Surgical excision of the pelvic mass with bladder preservation was performed. After surgery, the patient had a marked improvement in his quality of life, with resolution of bladder storage dysfunction symptoms and pelvic pain.

Ali, Ahmed; Swain, Sanjaya

2014-01-01

398

Local flow management/profile descent algorithm. Fuel-efficient, time-controlled profiles for the NASA TSRV airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Local Flow Management/Profile Descent (LFM/PD) algorithm designed for the NASA Transport System Research Vehicle program is described. The algorithm provides fuel-efficient altitude and airspeed profiles consistent with ATC restrictions in a time-based metering environment over a fixed ground track. The model design constraints include accommodation of both published profile descent procedures and unpublished profile descents, incorporation of fuel efficiency as a flight profile criterion, operation within the performance capabilities of the Boeing 737-100 airplane with JT8D-7 engines, and conformity to standard air traffic navigation and control procedures. Holding and path stretching capabilities are included for long delay situations.

Groce, J. L.; Izumi, K. H.; Markham, C. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Thompson, J. L.

1986-01-01

399

Cancers of the head and neck  

SciTech Connect

The information in this text demonstrates the marked progress being made in the treatment of head and neck cancer, diseases which are among the most morbid in all medicine. New and promising surgical and radiotherapeutic techniques are discussed, including brachytherapy, hyperthermia, laser therapy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The timing of chemotherapy and the future rate of biologic modifiers and immune therapy are included. Innovative and creative surgical techniques geared towards improving the quality of life for head and neck patients are described. A final section of the volume covers other management problems including rhabdomyosarcoma and lymphomas of extranodal head and neck sites.

Jacobs, C. (Ed.)

1987-01-01

400

Microbiologic investigations for head and neck infections.  

PubMed

A variety of methods, including direct examination of stained smears, antigen detection, routine and special cultures, and histopathologic evaluation are available for investigation of head and neck infections. Newer rapid molecular techniques with increased sensitivity and specificity are becoming available at many centers. Evaluation of specific causes in head and neck infections is complicated by the tendency for polymicrobial infections, difficulty in obtaining adequate specimens, and the presence of a diverse endogenous microflora at various mucosal sites that also can include true pathogens. These aspects of laboratory investigation for head and neck infections are reviewed in this article. PMID:17561072

Roscoe, Diane L; Hoang, Linda

2007-06-01

401

Pathology Case Study: Anterior Cervical Neck Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a head & neck pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male has an increasing neck mass with a choking feeling. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.

Schubert, Eric

2007-08-31

402

Molecular markers in bladder cancer: a critical appraisal.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of both primary and recurrent bladder tumors currently relies upon the urine cytology and cystoscopy. Neither of these diagnostic tools is completely accurate. Prognostication of bladder cancer is largely based on pathologic tumor grade and stage. Over the past 2 decades, there is accumulating evidence that like many other cancers, bladder cancer, too, has a distinct molecular signature that separates it from other cancers and normal bladder tissue. Bladder tumors of different grades and stages even possess unique, and specific genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Although recognition of several of these molecular alterations is possible by analyzing tumor tissue, urine, and serum samples, few if any of these "molecular markers" for bladder cancer are widely used in clinical practice. These markers include some that can be applied during the diagnostic work-up of symptoms (e.g., hematuria), those under surveillance for recurrence of superficial disease and forecasting long-term prognosis, or response to chemotherapy. In this review of molecular markers for bladder cancer, effectiveness of markers in each of these categories that are identifiable in the urine of patients with bladder cancer was examined. Many of the diagnostic markers appear to hold an advantage over urine cytology in terms of sensitivity, especially for the detection of low-grade superficial tumors. However, most markers tend to be less specific than cytology, yielding more false-positives. This result is more commonly observed in patients with concurrent bladder inflammation or other benign bladder conditions. Although there are several candidate markers for assessing prognosis or response to chemotherapy, studies of large patient populations are lacking. Further studies involving larger numbers of patients are required to determine their accuracy and widespread applicability in guiding treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:16818187

Konety, Badrinath R

2006-01-01

403

Supraomohyoid neck dissection in cancer of the oral cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In oral cavity cancer, supraomohyoid neck dissection (SOHND) is becoming more popular for patients with N0 and N1 disease in the neck. The aim of this study was to assess the value of this surgical procedure.Methods: The study included 237 previously untreated patients with oral cavity cancer. The neck treatment consisted of SOHND or functional neck dissection (FND). One

Claire Majoufre; Alain Faucher; Carine Laroche; Camille De Bonfils; François Siberchicot; Jean-Louis Renaud-Salis; Jacques Pinsolle

1999-01-01

404

Evaluation of document location during computer use in terms of neck muscle activity and neck movement.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the impact on neck movement and muscle activity of placing documents in three commonly used locations: in-line, flat desktop left of the keyboard and laterally placed level with the computer screen. Neck excursion during three standard head movements between the computer monitor and each document location and neck extensor and upper trapezius muscle activity during a 5 min typing task for each of the document locations was measured in 20 healthy participants. Results indicated that muscle activity and neck flexion were least when documents were placed laterally suggesting it may be the optimal location. The desktop option produced both the greatest neck movement and muscle activity in all muscle groups. The in-line document location required significantly more neck flexion but less lateral flexion and rotation than the laterally placed document. Evaluation of other holders is needed to guide decision making for this commonly used office equipment. PMID:24182889

Goostrey, Sonya; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina

2014-05-01

405

Elective modified neck dissection for treatment of the clinically negative (N0) neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Radical neck dissection was the dominant surgical procedure for treatment of metastatic head and neck cancer in the cervical\\u000a lymph nodes for much of the 20th century. Proponents of radical neck dissection, such as George Crile, Sr. [1] and Hayes Martin [2], maintained the Halsteadian principle that oncologically sound surgical management of metastasis requires en bloc resection\\u000a of lymph nodes

David L. Callender; Randal S. Weber

406

Minimum-fuel turning climbout and descent guidance of transport jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complete flightpath optimization problem for minimum fuel consumption from takeoff to landing including the initial and final turns from and to the runway heading is solved. However, only the initial and final segments which contain the turns are treated, since the straight-line climbout, cruise, and descent problems have already been solved. The paths are derived by generating fields of extremals, using the necessary conditions of optimal control together with singular arcs and state constraints. Results show that the speed profiles for straight flight and turning flight are essentially identical except for the final horizontal accelerating or decelerating turns. The optimal turns require no abrupt maneuvers, and an approximation of the optimal turns could be easily integrated with present straight-line climb-cruise-descent fuel-optimization algorithms. Climbout at the optimal IAS rather than the 250-knot terminal-area speed limit would save 36 lb of fuel for the 727-100 aircraft.

Neuman, F.; Kreindler, E.

1983-01-01

407

Assessment of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed inside Gale Crater. This landing was only the seventh successful landing and fourth rover to be delivered to Mars. Weighing nearly one metric ton, Curiosity is the largest and most complex rover ever sent to investigate another planet. Safely landing such a large payload required an innovative Entry, Descent, and Landing system, which included the first guided entry at Mars, the largest supersonic parachute ever flown at Mars, and a novel and untested Sky Crane landing system. A complete, end-to-end, six degree-of-freedom, multi-body computer simulation of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing sequence was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. In-flight data gathered during the successful landing is compared to pre-flight statistical distributions, predicted by the simulation. These comparisons provide insight into both the accuracy of the simulation and the overall performance of the vehicle.

Way, David W.; Davis, J. L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.

2013-01-01

408

Preliminary Assessment of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed inside Gale Crater. This landing was only the seventh successful landing and fourth rover to be delivered to Mars. Weighing nearly one metric ton, Curiosity is the largest and most complex rover ever sent to investigate another planet. Safely landing such a large payload required an innovative Entry, Descent, and Landing system, which included the first guided entry at Mars, the largest supersonic parachute ever flown at Mars, and a novel and untested Sky Crane landing system. A complete, end-to-end, six degree-of-freedom, multibody computer simulation of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing sequence was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. In-flight data gathered during the successful landing is compared to pre-flight statistical distributions, predicted by the simulation. These comparisons provide insight into both the accuracy of the simulation and the overall performance of the vehicle.

Way, David W.

2013-01-01

409

Capture Conditions for Merging Trajectory Segments to Model Realistic Aircraft Descents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A typical commercial aircraft trajectory consists of a series of flight segments. An aircraft switches from one segment to another when certain specified variables reach their desired values. Trajectory synthesis for air traffic control automation must be consistent with practical pilot procedures. We examine capture conditions for merging trajectory segments to model commercial aircraft descent in trajectory synthesis. These conditions translate into bounds on measurements of atmospheric wind, pressure, and temperature. They also define ranges of thrust and drag feasible for a descent trajectory. Capture conditions are derived for the Center-TRACON Automation System developed at NASA Ames Research Center for automated air traffic control. Various uses of capture conditions are discussed. A Boeing 727-200 aircraft is used to provide numerical examples of capture conditions.

Zhao, Yiyuan; Slattery, Rhonda A.

1996-01-01

410

Post2 End-to-End Descent and Landing Simulation for ALHAT Design Analysis Cycle 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ALHAT project is an agency-level program involving NASA centers, academia, and industry, with a primary goal to develop a safe, autonomous, precision-landing system for robotic and crew-piloted lunar and planetary descent vehicles. POST2 is used as the 6DOF descent and landing trajectory simulation for determining integrated system performance of ALHAT landing-system models and lunar environment models. This paper presents updates in the development of the ALHAT POST2 simulation, as well as preliminary system performance analysis for ALDAC-2 used for the testing and assessment of ALHAT system models. The ALDAC-2 POST2 Monte Carlo simulation results have been generated and focus on HRN model performance with the fully integrated system, as well performance improvements of AGNC and TSAR model since the previous design analysis cycle

Davis, Jody L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Johnson, Andrew E.; Paschall, Stephen C., II

2010-01-01

411

Multibody Modeling and Simulation for the Mars Phoenix Lander Entry, Descent and Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-body flight simulation for the Phoenix Mars Lander has been developed that includes high fidelity six degree-of-freedom rigid-body models for the parachute and lander system. The simulation provides attitude and rate history predictions of all bodies throughout the flight, as well as loads on each of the connecting lines. In so doing, a realistic behavior of the descending parachute/lander system dynamics can be simulated that allows assessment of the Phoenix descent performance and identification of potential sensitivities for landing. This simulation provides a complete end-to-end capability of modeling the entire entry, descent, and landing sequence for the mission. Time histories of the parachute and lander aerodynamic angles are presented. The response of the lander system to various wind models and wind shears is shown to be acceptable. Monte Carlo simulation results are also presented.

Queen, Eric M.; Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.

2008-01-01

412

Treatment for Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this clinical trial, researchers seek to determine if giving concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy to patients with inoperable, recurrent head and neck cancer who were treated initially with radiation therapy will improve survival rates for these patients.

413

Head and neck mucosal melanoma: a review.  

PubMed

Head and neck mucosal melanoma (MM) is an aggressive and rare neoplasm of melanocytic origin. To date, few retrospective series and case reports have been reported on MM. This article reviews the current evidence on head and neck MM and the molecular pathways that mediate the pathogenesis of this disease. Head and neck MM accounts for 0.7%-3.8% of all melanomas and involve (in decreasing order of frequency) the sinonasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus. Although many studies have examined MM of the head and neck and the underlying molecular pathways, individual genetic and molecular alterations were less investigated. Further studies are needed to complement existing data and to increase our understanding of melanocytes tumorigenesis. PMID:24423929

Lourenço, Silvia V; Fernandes, Juliana D; Hsieh, Ricardo; Coutinho-Camillo, Claudia M; Bologna, Sheyla; Sangueza, Martin; Nico, Marcello M S

2014-07-01

414

Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for head and neck cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

415

Complications Following Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

ContextThe incidence of bladder cancer increases with advancing age. Considering the increasing life expectancy and the increasing proportion of elderly people in the general population, radical cystectomy will be considered for a growing number of elderly patients who suffer from muscle-invasive or recurrent bladder cancer.

Michael Froehner; Maurizio A. Brausi; Harry W. Herr; Giovanni Muto; Urs E. Studer

2009-01-01

416

Chemotherapy for bladder cancer in patients with impaired renal function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoma of the bladder is a common, chemosensitive malignancy. The value of chemotherapy for transitional cell carcinoma (the commonest malignant bladder histology in the developed world) has been demonstrated in both the palliative and the neoadjuvant settings, with survival benefits in both scenarios being achieved with cisplatin-based regimens. Conventional drug treatment is, therefore, dependent on adequate renal function, but renal

Steve Nicholson

2011-01-01

417

Treatment outcome following radiotherapy in elderly patients with bladder cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: The optimal treatment of elderly patients with bladder cancer is not established. This study aimed to evaluate prognostic variables for survival and morbidity, which may be important for treatment strategy.Material and methods: The medical records of 94 patients aged ? 75 years receiving curatively intended radiotherapy for bladder cancer were reviewed retrospectively.Results: Median age was 78 years

Lisa Sengeløv; Søren Klintorp; Hanne Havsteen; Claus Kamby; Susanne L. Hansen; Hans von der Maase

1997-01-01

418

Carbon Dioxide Production and Sodium Transport by the Toad Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN order to investigate further the relationship of cellular metabolism to active ion transport, we have correlated carbon dioxide production with sodium transport by the urinary bladder of the toad, Bufo marinus, in vitro. The toad bladder was mounted so as to separate the two halves of a glass chamber, and each side was bathed with a phosphate Ringer's solution

Roy H. Maffly; Cecil H. Coggins

1965-01-01

419

Acute Renal Failure after Consumption of Fish Gall Bladder  

PubMed Central

A case of acute renal failure after consumption of fish gall bladder as traditional medical remedy is reported. The patient fully recovered with conservative treatment. The risk of acute kidney failure and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following ingestion of fish gall bladder is highlighted. PMID:24829840

Yu Yao, Bian

2014-01-01

420

Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: definition, treatment and future efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of patients with high-risk bladder cancer is important for the timely and appropriate treatment of this lethal disease. The understanding of the natural history of bladder cancer has improved; however, the criteria used to define high-risk disease and the relevant treatment strategies have remained the same for the past several decades, despite multiple large, randomized, prospective clinical trials

Sandip M. Prasad; G. Joel DeCastro; Gary D. Steinberg

2011-01-01

421

ORIGINAL PAPER Biophysical Characterization of Bladder Cancer Cells  

E-print Network

in the United States alone were diagnosed in 2012 with carcinoma of the urinary bladder [1]. Histopathologically in bladder cancer research. These two cell lines are known to exhibit dif- ferent human leukocyte antigen profiles [6], growth and migration characteristics [7], receptor expressions, mor- phological features [2

Sun, Yu

422

Arsenic-Related Chromosomal Alterations in Bladder Cancer  

E-print Network

Arsenic-Related Chromosomal Alterations in Bladder Cancer Lee E. Moore, Allan H. Smith, Clarence of arsenic in drinking water is a strong risk factor for several forms of cancer, including bladder cancer. It is not known whether arsenic-related cancers are genetically simi- lar to cancers in unexposed individuals

California at Berkeley, University of

423

Bladder emptying by intermittent electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persons with a suprasacral spinal cord injury cannot empty their bladder voluntarily. Bladder emptying can be restored by intermittent electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots (SR) to cause bladder contraction. However, this therapy requires sensory nerve transection to prevent dyssynergic contraction of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). Stimulation of the compound pudendal nerve trunk (PN) activates spinal micturition circuitry, leading to a reflex bladder contraction without a reflex EUS contraction. The present study determined if PN stimulation could produce bladder emptying without nerve transection in cats anesthetized with ?-chloralose. With all nerves intact, intermittent PN stimulation emptied the bladder (64 ± 14% of initial volume, n = 37 across six cats) more effectively than either distention-evoked micturition (40 ± 19%, p < 0.001, n = 27 across six cats) or bilateral intermittent SR stimulation (25 ± 23%, p < 0.005, n = 4 across two cats). After bilateral transection of the nerves innervating the urethral sphincter, intermittent SR stimulation voided 79 ± 17% (n = 12 across three cats), comparable to clinical results obtained with SR stimulation. Voiding via intermittent PN stimulation did not increase after neurotomy (p > 0.10), indicating that PN stimulation was not limited by bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. Intermittent PN stimulation holds promise for restoring bladder emptying following spinal injury without requiring nerve transection.

Boggs, Joseph W.; Wenzel, Brian J.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Grill, Warren M.

2006-03-01

424

Bladder endothelin-1 receptor binding of bosentan and ambrisentan.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to characterize bladder endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor binding of clinically used ET-1 receptor antagonists by using [(125)I]ET-1. The inhibition of specific [(125)I]ET-1 binding was measured in the presence of ET-1 and its receptor antagonists. Specific binding of [(125)I]ET-1 in rat bladder was saturable and of high affinity, which characterized selective labeling of bladder ET-1 receptors. ET-1, bosentan, ambrisentan, and CI-1020 inhibited specific [(125)I]ET-1 binding in a concentration-dependent manner at nanomolar ranges of IC50. Nonlinear least squares regression analysis revealed the presence of high- and low-affinity ET-1 receptor sites for ambrisentan and CI-1020. Bosentan and ambrisentan significantly increased the dissociation constant for bladder [(125)I]ET-1 binding without affecting maximal number of binding sites (Bmax). Thus, bosentan and ambrisentan seem to bind to bladder ET-1 receptor in a competitive and reversible manner. Oral administration of bosentan caused a dose-dependent decrease in Bmax for bladder [(125)I]ET-1 binding, suggesting significant binding of bladder ET-1 receptors in vivo. A significant amount of pharmacologically relevant ET-1 receptors may exist in the bladder. These receptors may be implicated in the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract symptoms and may also be promising targets for the development of therapeutic agents. PMID:24389822

Osano, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Yoshinari; Hayashi, Hideki; Itoh, Kunihiko; Okura, Takashi; Deguchi, Yoshiharu; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

2014-01-01

425

Committee Opinion No. 604: OnabotulinumtoxinA and the bladder.  

PubMed

In January 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the use of onabotulinumtoxinA (also known as Botox A) for the treatment of overactive bladder, thus providing another treatment option for women. Symptoms of overactive bladder have been shown to significantly improve after onabotulinumtoxinA injections compared with no intervention, placebo, pharmacological treatments, and bladder instillation technique. Before considering medical or surgical treatment, all patients in whom overactive bladder is diagnosed should receive instruction in behavioral techniques (eg, bladder retraining drills and timed voids), fluid management, or pelvic muscle exercises with or without physical therapy. Intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA may be a second-line treatment option for overactive bladder in appropriate patients, and consideration of its use requires shared decision making between the patient and health care provider. Patients who are candidates for onabotulinumtoxinA injections into the bladder should be counseled about its risks and possible postprocedure adverse events, including the risk of postprocedure urinary retention, urinary tract infections, hematuria, pain, and transient body weakness. Health care providers who perform onabotulinumtoxinA injections must have appropriate training and experience in treating women with pelvic floor disorders, operative cystoscopy privileges, and the ability to diagnose and manage any adverse outcomes after onabotulinumtoxinA injections into the bladder. PMID:24848923

2014-06-01

426

Committee opinion: onabotulinumtoxinA and the bladder.  

PubMed

In January 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of onabotulinumtoxinA (also known as Botox A) for the treatment of overactive bladder, thus providing another treatment option for women. Symptoms of overactive bladder have been shown to significantly improve after onabotulinumtoxinA injections compared with no intervention, placebo, pharmacological treatments, and bladder instillation technique. Before considering medical or surgical treatment, all patients in whom overactive bladder is diagnosed should receive instruction in behavioral techniques (eg, bladder retraining drills and timed voids), fluid management, or pelvic muscle exercises with or without physical therapy. Intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA may be a second-line treatment option for overactive bladder in appropriate patients, and consideration of its use requires shared decision making between the patient and health care provider. Patients who are candidates for onabotulinumtoxinA injections into the bladder should be counseled about its risks and possible postprocedure adverse events, including the risk of postprocedure urinary retention, urinary tract infections, hematuria, pain, and transient body weakness. Health care providers who perform onabotulinumtoxinA injections must have appropriate training and experience in treating women with pelvic floor disorders, operative cystoscopy privileges, and the ability to diagnose and manage any adverse outcomes after onabotulinumtoxinA injections into the bladder. PMID:25181372

2014-01-01

427

Mechanisms of Disease: the epidemiology of bladder cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality from bladder cancer has shown downward trends over the last 2 decades in several western European countries (albeit 10–15 years later than similar trends in the US), but is still increasing in some eastern European countries. Tobacco smoking and occupational exposure to aromatic amines are the two major established environmental risk factors for bladder cancer. Controlling exposure to these

Cristina Bosetti; Eva Negri; Matteo Malvezzi; Carlo La Vecchia; Claudio Pelucchi

2006-01-01

428

X-ray volume imaging in bladder radiotherapy verification  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the clinical utility of X-ray volume imaging (XVI) for verification of bladder radiotherapy and to quantify geometric error in bladder radiotherapy delivery. Methods and Materials: Twenty subjects undergoing conformal bladder radiotherapy were recruited. X-ray volume images and electronic portal images (EPIs) were acquired for the first 5 fractions and then once weekly. X-ray volume images were co-registered with the planning computed tomography scan and clinical target volume coverage assessed in three dimensions (3D). Interfraction bladder volume change was described by quantifying changes in bladder volume with time. Bony setup errors were compared from both XVI and EPI. Results: The bladder boundary was clearly visible on coronal XVI views in nearly all images, allowing accurate 3D treatment verification. In 93.5% of imaged fractions, the clinical target volume was within the planning target volume. Most subjects displayed consistent bladder volumes, but 25% displayed changes that could be predicted from the first three XVIs. Bony setup errors were similar whether calculated from XVI or EPI. Conclusions: Coronal XVI can be used to verify 3D bladder radiotherapy delivery. Image-guided interventions to reduce geographic miss and normal tissue toxicity are feasible with this technology.

Henry, Ann M. [Academic Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: amhenry@doctors.net.uk; Stratford, Julia [Wade Centre for Radiotherapy Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); McCarthy, Claire [Wade Centre for Radiotherapy Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Davies, Julie [Wade Centre for Radiotherapy Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sykes, Jonathan R. [Developing Technology Group, North Western Medical Physics, Manchester (United Kingdom); Amer, Ali [Developing Technology Group, North Western Medical Physics, Manchester (United Kingdom); Marchant, Tom [Developing Technology Group, North Western Medical Physics, Manchester (United Kingdom); Cowan, Richard [Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Wylie, James [Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Logue, John [Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Livsey, Jacqueline [Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Khoo, Vincent S. [Academic Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Moore, Chris [Developing Technology Group, North Western Medical Physics, Manchester (United Kingdom); Price, Pat [Academic Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

2006-03-15

429

An improved bladder for pump control during ECMO procedures.  

PubMed

A new inline reservoir called the Better-Bladder, now FDA-cleared for long term use, overcomes some disadvantages of the silicone bladder and bladder box used in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits. The Better-Bladder provides compliance in the venous line and allows for noninvasive pressure measurements. Both features are useful for controlling pump speed as a function of venous line pressure. Bench tests showed that the Better-Bladder measures pressure noninvasively within +/- 4% of invasive (i.e., liquid contacting) pressure measurements in a range from -200 to +500 mmHg and at temperatures from 10 degrees C to 37 degrees C. After 60 days, the error in noninvasive pressure measurement with the Better-Bladder was less than +/- 3%. The Better-Bladder withstood pressurization to 1700 mmHg for ten days without leaking or failing in other ways. The advantages of the Better Bladder, along with its accuracy and durability, suggest its use for short and long term pumping applications. PMID:10724648

Tamari, Y; Lee-Sensiba, K; King, S; Hall, M H

1999-06-01

430

Estimation of bladder volume from afferent neural activity.  

PubMed

Refractive urinary dysfunction in individuals suffering from neurogenic bladder syndrome can be treated with implanted neurostimulators that restore, to some degree, the control of the urinary bladder. A sensor capable of relaying feedback from bladder activity to the implanted neurostimulator is required to implement a closed-loop system to improve overall implant efficacy and minimize deleterious effects to neural tissue caused by continuous electrical stimulation. In this paper, we present a method that allows real-time estimation of bladder volume from the primary afferent activity of bladder mechanoreceptors. Our method was validated with data acquired from anesthetized rats in acute experiments. It was possible to qualitatively estimate three states of bladder fullness in 100% of trials when the recorded afferent activity exhibited a Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.6 or better. Furthermore, we could quantitatively estimate bladder volume, and also its pressure, using timeframes of properly chosen duration. The mean volume estimation error was 5.8 ±3.1%. Our results also demonstrate that it is possible to quantify both phasic and tonic bladder responses during slow filling and isovolumetric measurements, respectively. PMID:23771346

Mendez, Arnaldo; Sawan, Mohamad; Minagawa, Tomonori; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

2013-09-01

431

The Detrusor Muscle: An Innocent Victim of Bladder Outlet Obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is considered a frequent cause of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and lower urinary tract symp- toms (LUTS), although the physiopathologic mechanism through which BPH causes LUTS is not clear. Several morphologic and functional modifications of the bladder detrusor have been described in patients with BPH and could play a direct role in determining symptoms. The

Vincenzo Mirone; Ciro Imbimbo; Nicola Longo; Ferdinando Fusco

2007-01-01

432

Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is the commonest malignancy of the urinary tract. In this review, we look at the latest developments in the diagnosis and management of this condition. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the most important tools in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer. Various alternatives have been investigated, either to reduce the frequency of cystoscopy, or improve its sensitivity for detection of tumors. These include urine-based markers and point-of-care tests. Narrow-band imaging and photodynamic diagnosis/blue-light cystoscopy have shown promise in improving detection and reducing recurrence of bladder tumors, by improving the completion of bladder resection when compared with standard resection in white light. The majority of patients with a new diagnosis of bladder cancer have non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, which requires adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. Recent developments in post-resection intravesical regimens are discussed. For patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, both laparoscopic radical cystectomy and robot-assisted radical cystectomy have been shown to reduce peri-operative morbidity, while being oncologically equivalent to open radical cystectomy in the medium term. Bladder-preserving strategies entail resection and chemoradiation, and in selected patients give equivalent results to surgery. The development, advantages, and disadvantages of these newer approaches are also discussed. PMID:23327481

2013-01-01

433

Mast Cell Activation in Sterile Bladder and Prostate Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterile inflammation of the bladder has often been associated with interstitial cystitis (IC), a urologic condition of unknown etiology, predominantly affecting young and middle-aged females, for which no effective therapy is known. Recent reports have indicated that IC is associated with an increased number of bladder mast cells. Here we report the case of a middle-aged man with chronic sterile

T. C. Theoharides; N. Flaris; C. T. Cronin; A. Ucci; E. Meares

1990-01-01

434

Natural Gradient Descent for Training Stochastic Complex-Valued Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the natural gradient descent method for the multilayer stochastic complex-valued neural networks is considered, and the natural gradient is given for a single stochastic complex-valued neuron as an example. Since the space of the learnable parameters of stochastic complex-valued neural networks is not the Euclidean space but a curved manifold, the complex-valued natural gradient method is expected

Tohru Nitta

2014-01-01

435

Entry, Descent, and Landing Aerothermodynamics: NASA Langley Experimental Capabilities and Contributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of recent research, development, testing and evaluation activities related to entry, descent and landing that have been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. An overview of the test facilities, model development and fabrication capabilities, and instrumentation and measurement techniques employed in this work is provided. Contributions to hypersonic/supersonic flight and planetary exploration programs are detailed, as are fundamental research and development activities.

Hollis, Brian R.; Berger, Karen T.; Berry, Scott A.; Bruckmann, Gregory J.; Buck, Gregory M.; DiFulvio, Michael; Horvath, Thomas J.; Liechty, Derek S.; Merski, N. Ronald; Murphy, Kelly J.; Rufer, Shann J.; Schoenenberger, Mark

2014-01-01

436

Aerodynamic design of a descent vehicle in the Martian atmosphere under the exomars project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper considers mathematical support for calculation of the aerodynamics and flight trajectory of descent vehicles (DV) during entry into the Martian atmosphere. The study of aerodynamics of a segmental and conical DV is given under various reentry conditions. The paper presents comparison of computational results of the aerodynamic properties of the DV of the ExoMars project with wind tunnel test data of DV models.

Golomazov, M. M.; Finchenko, V. S.

2014-12-01

437

STS-35 Pilot Gardner with descent checklist on OV-102's forward flight deck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-35 Pilot Guy S. Gardner, wearing his launch and entry suit (LES), reviews descent checklist while at the pilots station on the forward flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Crewmembers are conducting procedures related to the final stages of the mission and the landing sequence. Silhouetted in forward windows W4 and W5 are the head up display (HUD), flight mirror assembly, and a drinking water bag with straw.

1990-01-01

438

Chang’E-2 satellite asymmetric-descent orbit control technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

To accomplish high-resolution imaging of the preselected landing area, it was necessary for the Chang’E-2 mission to perform\\u000a orbital maneuvering on the far side of the moon to meet the conditional height requirement of the imaging area. Engine shutdown\\u000a would be executed invisibly on the back side of the moon if the descent maneuver mode opposite to the target perilune

JianLiang Zhou; Yong Liu; DeYun Peng; FengCai Zhao

2011-01-01

439

Strong refraction near the Venus surface - Effects observed by descent probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The telemetry signals from Pioneer Venus probes indicated the strong downward refraction of radio waves. As the probes descended, the strength of the direct signal decreased because of absorption and refractive defocusing. During the last 30 km of descent there was a second measured component in addition to the direct signal. Strong atmospheric reaction is important in strengthening echoes that are scattered toward the earth. Such surface-reflected signals are good indicators of horizontal winds.

Croft, T. A.

1982-01-01

440

Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Children of Mexican Descent: Results of a Binational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of childhood obesity is high among young children of Mexican origin in the United States, however, the determinants\\u000a are poorly understood. We conducted a binational study with a sample from California (CA) and Mexico (MX), to identify and\\u000a compare the most important factors associated with overweight and obesity among children of Mexican descent. Significantly\\u000a more children were classified

Lisa G. Rosas; Sylvia Guendelman; Kim Harley; Lia C. H. Fernald; Lynnette Neufeld; Fabiola Mejia; Brenda Eskenazi

2011-01-01

441

Segmented assimilation theory and perinatal health disparities among women of Mexican descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A higher prevalence of infant low birth weight (<2500g) has been observed among more acculturated mothers of Mexican descent living in the U.S. when compared to their less acculturated counterparts. Tests of the “acculturation hypothesis” have established that disparities in certain risks for low birth weight exist between subgroups of women of Mexican-origin. However, disparities observed by neighborhood of residence

Michelle A. Johnson; Kristen S. Marchi

2009-01-01

442

Biological effects of fuel and exhaust components from spacecraft descent engines employing hydrazine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of the products of the Viking terminal descent engine fuel upon possible extraterrestrial life at the Martian landing site is examined. The effects of the engine exhaust, the hydrazine fuel, and the breakdown products of the latter on terrestrial microorganisms have been studied. The results indicate that the gaseous exhaust products would probably not be hazardous to microorganisms, but that liquid hydrazine would be lethal.

Lehwalt, M. E.; Woeller, F. H.; Oyama, V. I.

1973-01-01

443

Aerosol and Cloud Properties at the Huygens Entry Site as Derived from the Descent Imager/Spectral  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Huygens Probe descended through Titan s atmosphere on January 14, 2005. The Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) instrument made optical measurements which constrain the nature and vertical distribution and of the aerosols in the atmosphere.

Doose, L. R.; Engel, S.; Tomasko, M. G.; Dafoe, L. E.; West, R.; Lemmon, M.

2005-01-01

444

25 CFR 18.104 - May a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent...  

...a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent of trust...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE TRIBAL PROBATE CODES Approval of Tribal Probate Codes § 18.104 May a tribe include provisions...

2014-04-01

445

25 CFR 18.104 - May a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent of trust...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE TRIBAL PROBATE CODES Approval of Tribal Probate Codes § 18.104 May a tribe include provisions...

2012-04-01

446

25 CFR 18.104 - May a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent of trust...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE TRIBAL PROBATE CODES Approval of Tribal Probate Codes § 18.104 May a tribe include provisions...

2013-04-01

447

25 CFR 18.104 - May a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent of trust...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE TRIBAL PROBATE CODES Approval of Tribal Probate Codes § 18.104 May a tribe include provisions...

2011-04-01

448

25 CFR 18.104 - May a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent of trust...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE TRIBAL PROBATE CODES Approval of Tribal Probate Codes § 18.104 May a tribe include provisions...

2010-04-01

449

A Tribute to Italian Physiologists of Jewish Descent Evicted During the Persecution Ordered by the Fascist Regime in 1938  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The present report commemorates the persecution of five renown Italian physiologists of Jewish descent that lost their chairs in medical schools because of the anti-semitic policies of the fascist regime.

Ermanno Manni (Catholic University Institute of Human Physiology, School of Medicine)

2007-06-01

450

Bladder cancer: innovative approaches beyond the diagnosis.  

PubMed

Bladder carcinoma (BC) is the most common urinary malignant tumor. In the light of the unsuccessful current therapies and their side effects, new pharmacological strategies are needed. In addition to the well known therapeutic possibilities described in the first section, we focused our attention on very recent and innovative tools to approach this target (new drug candidates from epigenetic modulators to endothelin receptor inhibitors, improved technological formulations, active principles from plants, and dietary components). Then, in the last paragraph, we analyzed the etiology of recurrent BC, with particular attention to cellular microenvironment. In fact, the incidence of recurrence is up to 90%, and 25% of tumours show progression towards invasiveness. PMID:24606498

Piergentili, R; Carradori, S; Gulia, C; De Monte, C; Cristini, C; Grande, P; Santini, E; Gentile, V; Di Pierro, G B

2014-01-01

451

Laparoscopic transperitoneal bladder diverticulectomy: surgical technique.  

PubMed

A large bladder diverticulum causing poor emptying in an 84-year-old man was removed laparoscopically in a 6.5-h operation. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the third postoperative day, having had minimal analgesic requirements. A Council catheter and stylet in the diverticulum greatly facilitated identification of the sac with the laparoscope. Difficulties with intracorporeal knot tying were avoided by using the Lapra-Ty system. Experienced laparoscopic surgeons may find this method of diverticulectomy valuable. With experience, the operating time should be reduced. PMID:7612940

Jarrett, T W; Pardalidis, N P; Sweetser, P; Badlani, G H; Smith, A D

1995-04-01

452

Pathology Case Study: Bladder Outlet Obstruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a genitourinary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 84-year-old man has a bladder outlet obstruction. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Chung, Wen-Wei

2009-08-21

453

Rehabilitation of head and neck cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Patients who are treated for head and neck cancer can present with some of the most significant posttreatment morbidity of\\u000a any cancer group [1–29]. Their eating, talking, respiration, and cosmesis can all be significantly altered by their treatment.\\u000a All these effects may be quite visible and may interfere with socialization and employment. Therefore, rehabilitation for\\u000a head and neck cancer patients

Jeri A. Logemann

454

Acupuncture for patients with chronic neck pain.  

PubMed

Acupuncture is widely used by patients with neck pain, but there is a lack of information about its effectiveness in routine medical care. The aim was to investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture in addition to routine care in patients with chronic neck pain compared to treatment with routine care alone. We performed a randomized controlled multicentre trial plus non-randomized cohort in general practices in Germany. 14,161 patients with chronic neck pain (duration >6 months). Patients were randomly allocated to an acupuncture group or a control group receiving no acupuncture. Patients in the acupuncture group received up to 15 acupuncture sessions over three months. Patients who did not consent to randomization received acupuncture treatment. All subjects were allowed to receive usual medical care in addition to study treatment. Neck pain and disability (NPAD Scale by Wheeler) after three months. Of 14,161 patients (mean age 50.9+/-13.1 years, 68% female) 1880 were randomized to acupuncture and 1886 to control, and 10,395 included into the non-randomized acupuncture group. At three months, neck pain and disability improved by 16.2 (SE: 0.4) to 38.3 (SE: 0.4); and by 3.9 (SE: 0.4) to 50.5 (SE: 0.4), difference 12.3 (p<0.001) in the acupuncture and control group, respectively. Treatment success was essentially maintained through six months. Non-randomized patients had more severe symptoms at baseline and showed higher neck pain and disability improvement compared to randomized patients. Treatment with acupuncture added to routine care in patients with chronic neck pain was associated with improvements in neck pain and disability compared to treatment with routine care alone. PMID:16781068

Witt, Claudia M; Jena, Susanne; Brinkhaus, Benno; Liecker, Bodo; Wegscheider, Karl; Willich, Stefan N

2006-11-01

455

Neck and back pain in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Surgical intervention for neck and back pain in elderly patients without significant comorbidities can significantly improve\\u000a a patient’s symptoms and quality of life when more conservative therapies fail. Current spine literature strongly supports\\u000a the paradigm of treating elderly patients with stable, chronic neck or back pain with conservative therapies first in order\\u000a to optimize the risks and benefits of

Steven N. Kalkanis; Lawrence Borges

2001-01-01

456

The concept of peripheral modulation of bladder sensation  

PubMed Central

It is recognized that, as the bladder fills, there is a corresponding increase in sensation. This awareness of the volume in the bladder is then used in a complex decision making process to determine if there is a need to void. It is also part of everyday experience that, when the bladder is full and sensations strong, these sensations can be suppressed and the desire to void postponed. The obvious explanation for such altered perceptions is that they occur centrally. However, this may not be the only mechanism. There are data to suggest that descending neural influences and local factors might regulate the sensitivity of the systems within the bladder wall generating afferent activity. Specifically, evidence is accumulating to suggest that the motor-sensory system within the bladder wall is influenced in this way. The motor-sensory system, first described over 100 years ago, appears to be a key component in the afferent outflow, the afferent “noise,” generated within the bladder wall. However, the presence and possible importance of this complex system in the generation of bladder sensation has been overlooked in recent years. As the bladder fills the motor activity increases, driven by cholinergic inputs and modulated, possibly, by sympathetic inputs. In this way information on bladder volume can be transmitted to the CNS. It can be argued that the ability to alter the sensitivity of the mechanisms generating the motor component of this motor-sensory system represents a possible indirect way to influence afferent activity and so the perception of bladder volume centrally. Furthermore, it is emerging that the apparent modulation of sensation by drugs to alleviate the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), the anti-cholinergics and the new generation of drugs the ?3 sympathomimetics, may be the result of their ability to modulate the motor component of the motor sensory system. The possibility of controlling sensation, physiologically and pharmacologically, by influencing afferent firing at its point of origin is a “new” concept in bladder physiology. It is one that deserves careful consideration as it might have wider implications for our understanding of bladder pathology and in the development of new therapeutic drugs. In this overview, evidence for the concept peripheral modulation of bladder afferent outflow is explored. PMID:23917648