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1

Bladder Neck Closure for Treating Pediatric Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims of Study: In order to evaluate the effects of bladder neck closure (BNC) for treatment of pediatric incontinence, on the quality of life of those children, we reviewed the files of 17 children who underwent this procedure during the last 5 years. Information on previous surgery before BNC, continence and complications after BNC and patient satisfaction are gathered.Material and

P. Hoebeke; P. De Kuyper; H. Goeminne; E. Van Laecke; K. Everaert

2000-01-01

2

Bladder exstrophy: Comparison of anatomical bladder neck repair with innervation preserving sphincteroplasty versus Young-Dees-Leadbetter bladder neck reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate the outcome of innervation preserving sphincteroplasty along with anatomical bladder neck reconstruction (IPS-ABNR) compared to classic Young-Dees-Leadbetter (YDL) bladder neck reconstruction in exstrophy with insufficient bladder capacity requiring detubularized-ileocystoplasty. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male patients of exstrophy bladder who required ileocystoplasty from 2004 to 2010 were randomized into group A (n = 7) and group B (n = 9). After detubularized-ileocystoplasty with Mitrofanoff stoma and ureteric reimplantation in all, group A received YDL bladder neck repair while group B received IPS-ABNR repair through a midline scrotoperineal approach. Outcome measurement included operative and postoperative problems, continence, and upper tract status. Results: In group A, two had incompetent bladder neck with gross incontinence, while four had a dry interval of more than 3 h without the ability of voiding per urethra. In group B, seven patients had dry interval of more than 3 h with an ability of urethral voiding and midstream holding in five. Conclusions: Exstrophy patients requiring augmentation cystoplasty and repaired with IPS-ABNR can achieve dynamic bladder outlet resistance with adequate leak point pressure and ability to void voluntarily with midstream holding capability. The children had the satisfaction of voiding per urethra with ability to stop in midstream similar to that in normal children.

Gupta, Archika; Kureel, Shiv Narain; Wakhlu, Ashish; Rawat, Jiledar

2013-01-01

3

Role of autologous bladder-neck slings: a urogynecology perspective.  

PubMed

The concept of the autologous pubovaginal sling involves supporting the proximal urethra and bladder neck with a piece of graft material, achieving continence either by providing a direct compressive force on the urethra/bladder outlet or by reestablishing a reinforcing platform or hammock against which the urethra is compressed during transmission of increased abdominal pressure. Pubovaginal slings using a biological sling material (whether autologous, allograft, or xenograft) can be used successfully to manage primary or recurrent stress incontinence. This article addresses the indications for the use of an autologous bladder-neck sling, describes the surgical techniques, and discusses outcomes and technical considerations. PMID:22877713

Zoorob, Dani; Karram, Mickey

2012-08-01

4

Ureteral reimplantation before bladder neck plasty in the reconstruction of bladder exstrophy: indications and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesAfter initial closure, all exstrophy patients have vesicoureteral reflux. This reflux is usually managed with antimicrobial prophylaxis, surveillance, and ureteral reimplantation concurrent with bladder neck plasty. Patients with recurrent urinary tract infections or worsening hydronephrosis may require earlier correction of reflux. This subset of patients was reviewed to determine the ability to correct reflux adequately, the difficulty with subsequent bladder

Ranjiv Mathews; J. Slade Hubbard; John P Gearhart

2003-01-01

5

A MODIFICATION FOR BLADDER NECK RECONSTRUCTION IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH EXSTROPHY AND INCONTINENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe present a modification of bladder neck reconstruction which resulted in improved continence and voiding compared to other techniques of bladder neck repairs in patients with exstrophy and complete incontinence.

SAVAS DEMIRBILEK; HALIL FARUK ATAYURT

1999-01-01

6

Virus Analysis in Head and Neck and Bladder Cancers - Michael Parfenov, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Virus Analysis in Head and Neck and Bladder Cancers - Michael Parfenov Virus Analysis in Head and Neck and Bladder Cancers - Michael Parfenov, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You will need Adobe Flash

7

Primary Bladder Neck Obstruction in Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) is a condition in which the bladder neck does not open appropriately or completely during voiding. Although the true prevalence of PBNO is difficult to ascertain, studies in both men and women with voiding dysfunction demonstrate a marked prevalence of the condition. Symptoms caused by PBNO include storage symptoms (frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, nocturia) and voiding symptoms (decreased force of stream, hesitancy, incomplete emptying). There are multiple theories as to the etiology of PBNO, including muscular and neurologic dysfunction and fibrosis. The diagnosis of PBNO can be made precisely with videourodynamics, urodynamic testing with simultaneous pressure-flow measurement, and visualization of the bladder neck during voiding. Treatments vary from watchful waiting to medical therapy to surgery, depending on the severity of symptoms, urodynamic findings, and response to therapy. This article reviews the current state of the art with respect to the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of PBNO.

Nitti, Victor W

2005-01-01

8

Functional bladder neck obstruction in females--a revisit.  

PubMed

Functional bladder neck obstruction is supposed to be nonexistent or a very rare clinical disorder. In the past two and a half years, detailed synchronous, video pressure flow EMG studies were done in all the female patients who had evidence of obstructed voiding, poor flow and acute or chronic retention. The subjects of this study are nine females who had high sustained detrusor pressure, high opening pressure, low uroflow and silent sphincter during pressure-flow EMG study. A simultaneous urovideo recording showed either a closed bladder neck, inadequate funneling, intermittent or improper opening during voiding (when Pdet was high and sustained). These patients did not have any anatomical urethral obstruction, neurogenic disorder or systemic disease (like diabetes) affecting voiding. This stringent criteria of functional bladder neck obstruction was observed in nine patients. Five patients had acute or chronic retention and three patients had varying degree of renal failure. Initially all patients were managed by clean intermittent self catheterisation (CIC). Alpha blockers were empirically tried in six patients and had shown variable results. Bladder neck incision (BNI) was performed in two patients with rewarding success. PMID:1687802

Kumar, A; Mishra, V K; Kapoor, R; Dalela, D; Bhandari, M

1991-12-01

9

Surgical correction of bladder neck contracture following prostate cancer treatment.  

PubMed

The surgical and non-surgical treatment of localised prostate cancer may be complicated by bladder neck contractures, prostatic urethral stenoses and bulbomembranous urethral strictures. In general, such complications following radical prostatectomy are less extensive, easier to treat and associated with a better outcome and more rapid recovery than the same complications following radiotherapy, high-intensity focussed ultrasound and cryotherapy. Treatment options range from minimally invasive endoscopic procedures to more complex and specialised open surgical reconstruction.In this chapter the surgical management of bladder neck contractures following the treatment of prostate cancer is described together with the management of prostatic urethral stenoses and bulbomembranous urethral strictures, given the difficulty in distinguishing them from one another clinically. PMID:24531675

Bugeja, Simon; Andrich, Daniela E; Mundy, Anthony R

2014-01-01

10

Efficacy of Polydimethylsiloxane Injection to the Bladder Neck and Leaking Diverting Stoma for Urinary Continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAchieving urinary continence is a major goal in the treatment of patients with bladder exstrophy\\/epispadias, spinal dysraphism and other urological disorders. Endoscopic injection of bulking materials is an evolving, minimally invasive procedure that provides an attractive alternative to open bladder surgery to increase outlet resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of bladder outlet (bladder neck and diverting stoma) polydimethylsiloxane injection (BOMI)

SAREL HALACHMI; WALID FARHAT; PETER METCALFE; DARIUS J. BAGLI; GORDON A. McLORIE; ANTOINE E. KHOURY

2004-01-01

11

Role of the pelvic floor in Bladder neck opening and closure II: Vagina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to examine the role of vaginal stretching during bladder neck opening and closure. The study group\\u000a comprised 12 patients with GSI and 4 controls. The position of the bladder neck relative to the vagina was assessed in the\\u000a resting, straining and ‘squeezing’ positions using video-radiological studies. Radio-opaque dye was instilled into the bladder,\\u000a vagina,

P. E. Papa Petros; U. Ulmsten

1997-01-01

12

[Chronic urinary retention in women caused by primary bladder neck obstruction : report of two cases treated successfully with transurethral resection of bladder neck].  

PubMed

A 60-year-old female was referred to our hospital for the treatment of chronic urinary retention which had compelled her to continue clean intermittent self catheterization (CIC) for several years. After further examination including physical examinations, urodynamic study, cystography, and urethrocystoscopy, she was diagnosed with primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO). Transurethral resection of the bladder neck (TURBN) was performed to relieve the bladder outlet obstruction and she was free from CIC thereafter. Another 61-year-old female on CIC was also referred to our hospital and diagnosed with PBNO through detailed examinations including urodynamics. She was also successfully relieved of CIC after TURBN. Primary bladder neck obstruction is a condition which can be effectively treated by a less-invasive procedure when properly diagnosed by urodynamic examination. Urologists must keep this rare condition in mind as a possible cause of chronic urinary retention in women. PMID:23412123

Momose, Hitoshi; Hoshiyama, Fumiaki; Morizawa, Yosuke; Toyoshima, Yuta; Takada, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Ken; Oyama, Nobuo; Okada, Noboru

2013-01-01

13

Effect of alfuzosin on female primary bladder neck obstruction.  

PubMed

Our objective was to assess the effect of the selective alpha(1)-blocker alfuzosin on urodynamic parameters and quality of life in female patients with primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO). Twenty-five women identified as having PBNO were included in the study. After the initial assessment of urodynamic parameters and bother score index, all patients were treated with alfuzosin 5 mg twice daily for 8 weeks. After this period of time, the patients were reassessed with the same methodology as pretreatment. Symptoms subjectively improved, and patients' satisfaction significantly increased in 64% of the patients (16 out of 25). Most urodynamic parameters were also significantly improved after treatment with alfuzosin. Alfuzosin significantly improved urodynamic parameters and alleviated bother score in almost two thirds of patients with PBNO and can be an effective first-line treatment of this situation. PMID:18982236

Athanasopoulos, A; Gyftopoulos, K; Giannitsas, K; Perimenis, P

2009-02-01

14

Bladder neck closure and suprapubic catheter placement as definitive management of neurogenic bladder  

PubMed Central

Objective Surgical management for neurogenic bladder may require abandonment of the native urethra due to intractable urinary incontinence, irreparable urethral erosion, severe scarring from previous transurethral procedures, or urethrocutaneous fistula. In these patients, bladder neck closure (BNC) excludes the native urethra and provides continence while preserving the antireflux mechanism of the native ureters. This procedure is commonly combined with ileovesicostomy or continent catheterizable stoma, with or without augmentation enterocystoplasty. Alternatively, BNC can be paired with suprapubic catheter diversion. This strategy does not require a bowel segment, resulting in shorter operative times and less opportunity for bowel-related morbidity. The study purpose is to examine preoperative characteristics, indications, complications, and long-term maintenance of renal function of BNC patients. Methods A retrospective review of medical records of 35 patients who underwent BNC with suprapubic catheter placement from 1998 to 2007 by a single surgeon (LKL) was completed. Results Neurogenic bladder was attributable to spinal cord injury in 71%, 23% had multiple sclerosis, and 9% had cerebrovascular accident. Indications for BNC included severe urethral erosion in 80%, decubitus ulcer exacerbated by urinary incontinence in 34%, urethrocutaneous fistula in 11%, and other indications in 9%. The overall complication rate was 17%. All but two patients were continent at follow-up. Forty-nine per cent of patients had imaging available for review, none of which showed deterioration of the upper tracts. Conclusions Our results suggest that BNC in conjunction with suprapubic catheter diversion provides an excellent chance at urethral continence with a reasonable complication rate.

Colli, Janet; Lloyd, L. Keith

2011-01-01

15

Transurethral marking incision of the bladder neck: a helpful technique in robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy involving post-transurethral resection of the prostate and cancers protruding into the bladder neck  

PubMed Central

Background Bladder neck transection is one of the most difficult procedures for robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP), particularly in patients who have undergone previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P), and in those with large median lobes or prostate cancer protruding into the bladder neck. To ensure negative surgical margins and safely preserve the ureteral orifices during bladder neck transection, we propose the use of the transurethral resectoscope for making the incision in the bladder neck before initiating RALP. Thus, we developed a technique for bladder neck transection to facilitate this operation in such patients. Case presentation Two Japanese men, aged 61 and 63 years, who were diagnosed with prostate cancer, received a transurethral marking incision of the bladder neck before starting RALP; prostate cancer developed in one patient after TUR-P and the other patient had cancer protruding into the bladder neck. A transurethral resectoscope was used to closely observe the ureteral orifices and bladder necks; the bladder necks were marked to indicate the depth from the mucosa to the muscular layer. During the RALP, the bladder necks were dissected to indicate the depth of the marking incision. The surgical margins were negative and perioperative complications did not occur. The Foley catheters were removed on postoperative day 6, according to the usual protocol. No urinary leakage from the anastomosis sites was observed. Conclusion This technique, involving the use of an ordinary transurethral resectoscope, may be an easy procedure to ensure negative surgical margins, safely preserve the ureteral orifices, avoid increasing the bladder neck diameter, and achieve a good quality vesicourethral anastomosis that prevents the risk of suture-related tissue tears.

2013-01-01

16

Is Concomitant Bladder Neck Reconstruction Necessary in Neurogenic Incontinent Patients Who Undergo Augmentation Cystoplasty?  

PubMed Central

Purpose In patients with neurogenic bladder due to spinal cord injury or disease who undergo augmentation cystoplasty (AC) for not only bladder dysfunction but also sphincteric incontinence, the need for concomitant bladder neck reconstruction at the time of AC has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether concomitant bladder neck reconstruction is necessary when performing AC. Materials and Methods We retrospectively investigated 35 patients who underwent AC from January 2006 to September 2010. Medical history, preoperative and postoperative fluoroscopic urodynamic study (FUDS) parameters, and responses to an incontinence questionnaire (ICIQ Korean version) were reviewed. Results A final analysis was performed on 17 patients (9 male, 8 female) who were diagnosed with sphincteric incontinence. Continence status, the number of pads used, and the bother score were significantly improved postoperatively in this subpopulation. Preoperatively, all patients used pads, and the average daily number was 2.2 (median; range 0 to 6). Postoperatively, the number of pads used decreased significantly to 0.9 (median; range 0 to 3) pads a day (p=0.002). Urodynamic parameters including bladder capacity, compliance, involuntary detrusor contraction, and bladder neck incompetence proven by FUDS were also significantly improved. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that both objective urodynamic parameters and subjective incontinence symptoms improved significantly after the completion of AC as a single procedure in patients with sphincteric incompetence. This implies that anti-incontinence bladder outlet surgery does not have to be performed simultaneously and can be considered later as a staged operation.

Lee, Hahn Ey; Bae, Jungbum; Oh, Jin-Kyu

2013-01-01

17

Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000?mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male.

Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahallal, Youness; Mellas, Soufiane; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

2012-01-01

18

Emergency primary repair of grade V bladder neck injury complicating pelvic fracture  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a grade V bladder injury complicating an open-book pelvic fracture following a road traffic accident. The bladder neck injury was primarily repaired in the emergency setting of a poor-resourced area with successful outcome. The dangers of urinary extravasation are still to be considered of importance and we advocate and encourage immediate/emergency open intervention although it remains controversial to say the least in a lesser resourced healthcare set up.

2014-01-01

19

Underlying mechanisms involved in progesterone-induced relaxation to the pig bladder neck.  

PubMed

Progesterone increases bladder capacity and improves the bladder compliance by its relaxant action on the detrusor. A poor information, however, exists concerning to the role of this steroid hormone on the bladder outflow region contractility. This study investigates the progesterone-induced action on the smooth muscle tension of the pig bladder neck. To this aim, urothelium-denuded bladder neck strips were mounted in myographs for isometric force recordings and for simultaneous measurements of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and tension. On phenylephrine (PhE)-precontracted strips, progesterone produced concentration-dependent relaxations only at high pharmacological concentrations. The blockade of progesterone receptors, nitric oxide (NO) synthase, guanylyl cyclase, large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) or ATP-dependent K(+) (KATP) channels reduced the progesterone relaxations. The presence of the urothelium and the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), intermediate- and small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels failed to modify these responses. In Ca(2+)-free potassium rich physiological saline solution, progesterone inhibited the contraction to CaCl2 and to the L-type voltage-operated Ca(2+) (VOC) channel activator BAY-K 8644. Relaxation induced by progesterone was accompanied by simultaneous decreases in smooth muscle [Ca(2+)]i. These results suggest that progesterone promotes relaxation of pig bladder neck through smooth muscle progesterone receptors via cGMP/NO pathway and involving the activation of BKCa and KATP channels and inhibition of the extracellular Ca(2+) entry through L-type VOC channels. PMID:24296318

Fernandes, Vítor S; Ribeiro, Ana S F; Martínez-Sáenz, Ana; Blaha, Igor; Serrano-Margüello, Daniel; Recio, Paz; Martínez, Ana Cristina; Bustamante, Salvador; Vázquez-Alba, David; Carballido, Joaquín; García-Sacristán, Albino; Hernández, Medardo

2014-01-15

20

Burch Colposuspension versus Stamey Endoscopic Bladder Neck Suspension: A Urodynamic Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 51 consecutive female patients with genuine stress incontinence who underwent a Burch or Stamey operation were clinically and urodynamically evaluated preoperatively at least 8 months postoperatively. Our study group consisted of 27 women who underwent the Burch colposuspension and 24 who had the Stamey endoscopic bladder neck suspension. The urodynamic parameters which were studied pre- and postoperatively

A. Athanassopoulos; G. Barbalias

1996-01-01

21

Using transurethral Ho:YAG-laser resection to treat urethral stricture and bladder neck contracture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: Ho:YAG laser had been used to treat the common diseases of urinary system such as bladder cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia in our hospital. This study is to assess the efficacy and safety of transurethral Ho:YAG-laser resection to treat the urethral stricture and bladder neck contracture. Methods: From May 1997 to August 2004, 26 cases of urethral stricture and 33 cases of bladder neck contracture were treated by transurethral Ho:YAG-laser resection. These patients were followed up at regular intervals after operation. The uroflow rate of these patients was detected before and one-month after operation. The blood loss and the energy consumption of holmium-laser during the operation as well as the complications and curative effect after operation were observed. Results: The therapeutic effects were considered successful, with less bleeding and no severe complications. The Qmax of one month postoperation increased obviously than that of preoperation. Of the 59 cases, restenosis appeared in 11 cases (19%) with the symptoms of dysuria and weak urinary stream in 3-24 months respectively. Conclusions: The Ho:YAG-laser demonstrated good effect to treat the obstructive diseases of lower urinary tract such as urethral stricture and bladder neck contracture. It was safe, minimal invasive and easy to operate.

Bo, Juanjie; Dai, Shengguo; Huang, Xuyuan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Huiguo; Shi, Hongmin

2005-07-01

22

Submucosal Bladder Neck Injections of Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linked Bovine Collagen for the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Patients with the Exstrophy\\/Epispadias Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 7 years 19 patients underwent 33 transurethral injections of glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen into the bladder neck for stress incontinence. Of the 15 patients 14 have classic bladder exstrophy, 3 have complete male epispadias and 2 have cloacal exstrophy. The procedure was performed after a Young-Dees-Leadbetter bladder neck reconstruction in 15 patients and before it in 4.

Jacob Ben-Chaim; Robert D. Jeffs; Dennis S. Peppas; John P. Gearhart

1995-01-01

23

Burch colposuspension versus stamey endoscopic bladder neck suspension: a urodynamic appraisal.  

PubMed

A total of 51 consecutive female patients with genuine stress incontinence who underwent a Burch or Stamey operation were clinically and urodynamically evaluated preoperatively at least 8 months postoperatively. Our study group consisted of 27 women who underwent the Burch colposuspension and 24 who had the Stamey endoscopic bladder neck suspension. The urodynamic parameters which were studied pre- and postoperatively were the maximum flow rate (Qmax), the residual urine (Vres), the first sensation (FS), the bladder capacity (BC), the maximum vesical pressure (Pves max), the detrusor pressure at maximum flow (Pdet/Qmax), the functional urethral length (Lfun) and the maximum closure pressure (Pclos max). The successful results of the operations were 89% for Burch and 83% for the Stamey procedure. As for differing objective urodynamic findings, the Qmax, Pclos max, Vres and Lfun for both groups were the only parameters which showed statistically significant difference after surgery. The statistical comparison of the postoperative urodynamic parameters of the two operative techniques showed that Lfun, Pves max and Pclos max had difference in favor of Burch colposuspension. There were not statistical differences in the other studied parameters. In conclusion, according to the differentiation in the values of Pclos max, Lfun and Pves max, the Burch technique seems to result in a higher increase of patient's urethral resistance. PMID:8903550

Athanassopoulos, A; Barbalias, G

1996-01-01

24

Bladder exstrophy repair  

MedlinePLUS

... is inside out and sticks out of the abdominal wall. The pelvic bones are also separated. ... first surgery separates the exposed bladder from the abdomen wall and closes the bladder. The bladder neck and ...

25

Influence of bladder neck suspension stitches on early continence after radical prostatectomy: a prospective randomized study of 180 patients  

PubMed Central

Several techniques have been introduced to improve early postoperative continence. In this study, we evaluated the impact of bladder neck (vesicourethral anastomosis) suspension on the outcome of extraperitoneal endoscopic radical prostatectomy (EERPE). In this research, a total of 180 patients underwent EERPE. Group 1 included patients who underwent nerve-sparing EERPE (nsEERPE) (n=45), and Group 2 included patients who underwent nsEERPE with bladder neck suspension (BNS, n=45). Groups 3 (n=45) and 4 (n=45) included patients who received EERPE and EERPE with BNS, respectively. Patients were randomly assigned to receive BNS with their nsEERPE or EERPE procedure. Perioperative parameters were recorded, and continence was evaluated by determining the number and weight of absorbent pads (pad weighing test) on the second day after catheter removal and by a questionnaire 3 months postoperatively. Two days after catheter removal, 11.1% of Group 1, 11.1% of Group 2, 4.4% of Group 3 and 8.9% of Group 4 were continent. The average urine loss was 80.4, 70.1, 325.0 and 291.3 g for the each of these groups, respectively. At 3 months, 76.5% of Group 1 and 81.3% of Group 2 were continent. The continence figures for Group 3 and 4 were 48.5% and 43.8%, respectively. Similar overall rates were observed in all groups. In conclusion, although there are controversial reports in the literature, early continence was never observed to be significantly higher in the BNS groups when compared with the non-BNS groups, regardless of the EERPE technique performed.

Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Nicolaus, Martin; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Do, Minh; Dietel, Anja; Hafner, Tim; Sakellaropoulos, George; Hicks, James; Nikoleishvili, David; Liatsikos, Evangelos

2011-01-01

26

COMBINED BLADDER CLOSURE AND EPISPADIAS REPAIR IN THE RECONSTRUCTION OF BLADDER EXSTROPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeChildren with bladder exstrophy in whom initial closure fails are less likely to achieve adequate bladder capacity for later bladder neck reconstruction and continence. Repeat bladder closure may be combined with epispadias repair as initial management, decreasing the need for repeat anesthesia as well as providing increased outlet resistance to permit bladder growth in preparation for later bladder neck reconstruction.

JOHN P. GEARHART; RANJIV MATHEWS; SIAN TAYLOR; ROBERT D. JEFFS

1998-01-01

27

Treatment of Urethral/Bladder Neck Stricture After High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Prostate Cancer With Holmium: Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet Laser  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Holmium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) laser for the treatment of urethral/bladder neck strictures after high-intensity focused ultrasound for prostate cancer. Methods Between February 2007 and July 2010, Holmium: YAG laser urethrotomies were performed in eleven patients for bladder neck strictures or prostatic urethral strictures. The laser was used with a 550-µm fiber at 2 J and frequency 30 to 50 Hz. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed for medical history, perioperative and postoperative data, uroflowmetry, International Prostate Symptoms Score/quality of life, and stricture recurrence. Results At a median follow-up of 12.0 months (range, 4 to 35 months), the mean postoperative maximal flow rate and residual volume were improved significantly (P<0.05). The mean postoperative total, voiding and quality of life of international prostate symptom score were improved significantly (P<0.05). Of the 11 patients, 7 patients required one treatment, 4 patients two treatment, and 1 patients three treatment. 2 patients who had a documented urinary incontinence prior to the laser treatment subsequently required artificial urinary sphincter implantation and reported satisfaction without developing any recurrent strictures or artificial urinary sphincter erosion. All patients exhibited well-healed strictures and could void without difficulty. Conclusions Holmium: YAG laser therapy represents a safe, effective and minimally invasive treatment for urethral/bladder neck strictures occurring secondary to high-intensity focused ultrasound for prostate cancer.

Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Tae Heon; Lee, Hyo Serk; Chung, Jin Woo; Lee, Ha Na

2013-01-01

28

Randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of Nd:YAG prostate ablation with or without KTP laser bladder neck incision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A randomized, double blind, power determined, prospective study compared patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia undergoing endoscopic laser ablation of prostate, ELAP, -- Group 1 -- to those with KTP bladder neck incision and ELAP -- Group 2. A dual wavelength Laserscope KPT/532TM laser was used with add/stat side-firing fibers. Post-operatively a urethral catheter was inserted, which was removed at 18 hours. Patients unable to void at this stage where then re-catheterized, discharged and readmitted two weeks later for catheter removal. Patients were followed up at three month intervals. Eighty eight patients were studied, pre-operatively there was no statistical difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in mean age, 68.0, 68.4 yrs; prostate size 28, 29 g; post void residual, PVR, 141, 126 ml; max flow rate, Qmax, 9.8, 9.4 ml/s; or AUA score 18.0, 20.4; respectively. Post-operatively 57% of Group 1 patients were able to void on catheter removal at 18 hours compared to 80% from Group 2; p less than 0.05, (chi) 2. After one month, two patients from Group 2 and one from Group 1 failed to void and required further surgery. At six months, data for Group 1 and 2 respectively: PVR equals 78.7, 61.4 ml, Qmax equals 16.2, 18.1 ml/s, AUA score equals 9.6, 6.38, p less than 0.005 for each. Group 2 had a significantly greater improvement in AUA7 score than Group 1.

Langley, Stephen; Gallegos, Christopher; Moisey, Clifford

1997-05-01

29

Defining the role of the bladder-neck sling in the surgical treatment of urinary incontinence in children with neurogenic incontinence.  

PubMed

Patient selection for the creation of a fascial sling procedure to increase outlet resistance has been somewhat controversial. We review our experience with the fascial sling technique and report our patient selection process. Since 1991, 30 patients, including 6 males and 24 females aged 4-20 years (mean 10 years), underwent a rectus fascial sling procedure as part of their reconstructive efforts for continence. The underlying cause of incontinence was neurogenic in 28 patients. All males were prepubertal. Videourodynamics were performed in all patients preoperatively. Criteria for enhancement of bladder-outlet resistance included a detrusor leak-point pressure (LPPd) of < 50 cmH2O; a stress leak-point pressure (LPPs) of < 100 cmH2O; an open bladder neck, irrespective of LPP, and clinical evidence of stress incontinence, irrespective of videourodynamic parameters. Technical aspects of the procedure are discussed. Augmentation cystoplasty was performed in 29 patients with poor bladder compliance. In 18 patients a catheterizable stoma was also created. The period of follow-up currently ranges from 2 to 70 (mean 37) months. In all, 28 patients (93%) became continent and 2 female patients remain incontinent with a low LPP. All patients are on clean intermittent catheterization (CIC); 12 patients (40%) are catheterizing per urethra without difficulty. All prepubertal males are completely dry. The fascial sling repair has many advantages over other methods for increasing outlet resistance, including simplicity of technique, effectiveness, minimal likelihood of erosion, and low cost. PMID:9775429

Gosalbez, R; Castellan, M

1998-01-01

30

Duplicate bladder exstrophy: a unique approach to initial repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To describe a unique approach to the management of duplicate bladder exstrophy combining initial bladder closure and epispadias repair. Bladder exstrophy has been successfully managed by staged surgical repair with early bladder closure, subsequent epispadias repair, and, finally, bladder neck reconstruction. Duplicate bladder exstrophy is a rare variant of the exstrophy complex with fewer than 20 cases reported.Methods. A

Michael D Fabrizio; Stephen E Strup; R. Bruce Filmer; John Noseworthy; John P Gearhart

1999-01-01

31

Evaluation of Smooth Muscle and Collagen Subtypes in Normal Newborns and Those With Bladder Exstrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeMany patients who undergo bladder exstrophy closure as newborns, subsequent epispadias repair and later bladder neck reconstruction become completely continent yet complications can occur. After successful initial exstrophy closure and later epispadias repair some patients may fail to gain sufficient capacity for bladder neck reconstruction or satisfactory capacity and continence after bladder neck reconstruction. In an attempt to understand the

Benjamin R. Lee; Elizabeth J. Perlman; Alan W. Partin; Robert D. Jeffs; John P. Gearhart

1996-01-01

32

Bipolar plasma vaporization versus monopolar TUR and "cold-knife" TUI in secondary bladder neck sclerosis - An evidence based, retrospective critical comparison in a single center clinical setting  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A long term, retrospective study was performed aiming to outline a critical comparison concerning the efficacy, safety and durability of the bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV), standard monopolar transurethral resection (TUR) and “cold-knife" “star" transurethral incision (TUI) in secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS) cases. Materials & Methods: Of the 126 patients included in the trial based on maximum flow rate (Qmax) below 10 mL/s and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) over 19, classical resection was performed in 46 cases, “cold-knife" TUI in 37 cases and bipolar vaporization in 43 patients. The evaluation protocol comprised IPSS, QoL (quality of life) score, Qmax and PVR (post-voiding residual urinary volume) assessment performed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after the initial intervention. Results: Significant intraoperative complications (capsular perforation – 8.7%; bleeding – 4.3%) occurred secondary to monopolar resection. “Star" TUI was the fastest technique, followed by plasma-button vaporization (7.2 and 11.4 versus 16.5 minutes). BPV and TUI patients benefitted from the shortest catheterization periods (0.75 and 1 versus 2.0 days) and hospital stays (1.0 and 1.25 versus 2.0 days). Immediate postoperative adverse events consisted of hematuria (6.5% of the TUR cases) and acute urinary retention (8.1% of the TUI group). Significantly higher long term BNS recurrence rates requiring re-treatment were established in the TUI (18.7%) and TUR (12.8%) series by comparison to BPV (5.4%). Among patients that completed the follow-up protocol, equivalent IPSS, QoL, Qmax and PVR features were determined in the 3 study arms. Conclusions: The plasma vaporization approach was confirmed as a successful match to conventional TUR and “cold-knife" TUI in terms of surgical safety profile, postoperative recovery, therapeutic durability and urodynamic and symptom score parameters.

Moldoveanu, C; Geavlete, B; Jecu, M; Stanescu, F; Adou, L; Bulai, C; Ene, C; Geavlete, P

2014-01-01

33

Bladder Diary  

MedlinePLUS

... Videos » Glossary » Pelvic Floor Dialogues » Additional Patient Resources Bladder Diary This is a very helpful tool to keep track of your bladder’s behavior. Many urinary issues develop slowly, over time. ...

34

Bladder cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder; Urothelial cancer ... In the United States, bladder cancers usually start from the cells lining the bladder (called transitional cells). These tumors are classified based on the way they grow: ...

35

Bladder Management  

MedlinePLUS

... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

36

Bladder Exstrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... rectum are contained within tissue called the cloacal membrane. The rectum then separates from the bladder, and ... midline over the primitive bladder fails the cloacal membrane may rupture, creating an exstrophied bladder. The exact ...

37

Overactive Bladder  

MedlinePLUS

Overactive bladder is a condition in which the bladder squeezes urine out at the wrong time. You may have overactive bladder if you have two or more of these ... You also may have incontinence, a loss of bladder control. Nerve problems, too much fluid, or too ...

38

Adult urinary bladder rhabdomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

Rhabdomyosarcomas, malignant neoplasms exhibiting skeletal muscle differentiation, are the most common childhood sarcomas and most commonly arise in the head-and-neck region. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas of the genitourinary tract also occur in children, but are distinctly uncommon in adults. We report a case of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the bladder of a 39-year-old woman who presented with urgency, frequency, and gross hematuria. PMID:18400279

Childs, Lane; Hull, David; Bostwick, David G

2008-10-01

39

Terminal Descent Sensor Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulcata software simulates the operation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) radar terminal descent sensor (TDS). The program models TDS radar antennas, RF hardware, and digital processing, as well as the physics of scattering from a coherent ground surface. This application is specific to this sensor and is flexible enough to handle end-to-end design validation. Sulcata is a high-fidelity simulation and is used for performance evaluation, anomaly resolution, and design validation. Within the trajectory frame, almost all internal vectors are represented in whatever coordinate system is used to represent platform position. The trajectory frame must be planet-fixed. The platform body frame is specified relative to arbitrary reference points relative to the platform (spacecraft or test vehicle). Its rotation is a function of time from the trajectory coordinate system specified via dynamics input (file for open loop, callback for closed loop). Orientation of the frame relative to the body is arbitrary, but constant over time. The TDS frame must have a constant rotation and translation from the platform body frame specified at run time. The DEM frame has an arbitrary, but time-constant, rotation and translation with respect to the simulation frame specified at run time. It has the same orientation as sigma0 frame, but is possibly translated. Surface sigma0 has the same arbitrary rotation and translation as DEM frame.

Chen, Curtis W.

2009-01-01

40

Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Last Updated: April 01, 2013 What is urothelial bladder cancer? Urothelial bladder cancer is the most common type of bladder cancer.  The bladder is a hollow

41

Bladder Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... bladder cancer or who are older, white, or male have a higher risk. Treatments for bladder cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biologic therapy. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to fight cancer. NIH: National Cancer Institute

42

Mars Science Laboratory's Descent Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This portion of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, called the descent stage, does its main work during the final few minutes before touchdown on Mars.

The descent stage will provide rocket-powered deceleration for a phase of the arrival at Mars after the phases using the heat shield and parachute. When it nears the surface, the descent stage will lower the rover on a bridle the rest of the way to the ground.

The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft is being assembled and tested for launch in 2011.

This image was taken at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., which manages the Mars Science Laboratory Mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2008-01-01

43

Neck pain  

MedlinePLUS

Pain - neck; Neck stiffness ... this as having a stiff neck. If neck pain involves nerves, you may feel numbness, tingling, or ... A common cause of neck pain is muscle strain or tension. Usually, ... Such activities include: Bending over a desk for hours Poor ...

44

EXOMARS Descent Module GNC Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ExoMars mission is the first ESA led robotic mission of the Aurora Programme and combines technology development with investigations of major scientific interest. Italy is by far the major contributor to the mission through the strong support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). ExoMars will search for traces of past and present life, characterize the Mars geochemistry and water distribution, improve the knowledge of the Mars environment and geophysics, and identify possible surface hazards to future human exploration missions. ExoMars will also validate the technology for safe Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) of a large size Descent Module (DM) carrying a Rover with medium range surface mobility and the access to subsurface. The ExoMars project is presently undergoing its Phase B1 with Thales Alenia Space-Italia as Industrial Prime Contractor. Additionally, as Descent Module responsible, a dedicated simulation tool is under development in Thales Alenia Space-Italia, Turin site, for the end-to-end design and validation / verification of the DM Entry Descent and Landing.

Portigliotti, S.; Capuano, M.; Montagna, M.; Martella, P.; Venditto, P.

2007-08-01

45

Neurogenic Bladder  

PubMed Central

Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

Dorsher, Peter T.; McIntosh, Peter M.

2012-01-01

46

The descent of testis and reason for failed descent.  

PubMed

Although an enormous number of theories have been proposed to explain the descent of testis, none has provided a satisfactory explanation that covers the whole spectrum. Recent evidence suggests a hitherto unrecognized mechanism. This novel explanation precisely defihes all of the factors proven to be involved in the process, and links the features associated with normal or failed descent. The gubernaculum gives rise to both smooth and striated muscles. The testis is descended through the processus vaginalis via the propulsive force generated by the muscles. Propulsion describes the risk of torsion. Failure in descent in associated with a diminution in smooth muscle content, and a decrease in sympathetic tonus that depends on androgens. Alterations in G-protein linked signaling due to differences in primary messengers resulting from changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic tonuses provide the basis for blunting of testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and the decrease in fertility, but also for the increase in the risk of malignancy. PMID:15499793

Tanyel, F Cahit

2004-01-01

47

Bladder Coding Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

Coding Guidelines BLADDER C670–C679 Primary Site C670 Trigone of bladder Base of bladder Floor Below interureteric ridge (interureteric crest, or interureteric fold) C671 Dome of bladder Vertex Roof Vault C672 Lateral wall of bladder

48

Bladder Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

1993-01-01

49

Principal components: A descent algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A descent procedure is proposed for the search of low-dimensional subspaces of a high-dimensional space that satisfy an optimality criterion. Specifically, the procedure is applied to finding the subspace spanned by the first m singular components of an n-dimensional dataset. The procedure minimizes the associated cost function through a series of orthogonal transformations, each represented economically as the exponential of a skew-symmetric matrix drawn from a low-dimensional space.

Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Tabak, Esteban G.

2014-06-01

50

Bladder outlet obstruction in women: functional causes.  

PubMed

Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women has received less focus in the past, as compared with BOO in men; however, more recently, studies have further examined BOO and voiding dysfunction in women to define the various etiologies, diagnostic criteria, and treatment strategies. The differential diagnosis in women is broad and includes anatomic, neurologic, and functional etiologies. This review focuses on the functional etiologies, including dysfunctional voiding, Fowler's syndrome, and primary bladder neck obstruction in adult women. PMID:25059639

King, Ashley B; Goldman, Howard B

2014-09-01

51

Bladder preservation in adult classic exstrophy: early results of four patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To report our experience with the treatment of classic exstrophy of the bladder in a small series of adult patients using ileocystoplasty, bladder neck reconstruction, and abdominal wall closure with flaps. The presentation of exstrophy of the bladder in adulthood is rare. The problems encountered include difficulty in abdominal closure, malignant potential, and upper tract dysfunction. The treatment of

Hemant R Pathak; Ramesh Mahajan; N. Imdad Ali; Sanjeev Kaul; Mukund G Andankar

2001-01-01

52

Consert during the Philae Descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CONSERT experiment on board Rosetta and Philae is to perform the tomography of the 67P/CG comet nucleus measuring radio waves transmission from the Rosetta S/C to the Philae Lander and using the 67P nucleus rotation to cover different geometries. CONSERT will operate during the Philae descent. This geometry strongly differs from the "nominal" bistatic tomography where the orbiter is on the opposite side of the nucleus by regard to the lander. During the descent, CONSERT will measure direct wave propagating from orbiter to lander and waves reflected / scattered by the 67P surface and subsurface. This signal will provide information of the greatest interest for both scientific investigations of 67P and technical operations of Philae. The landing site position is known a priori with a large ellipse of dispersion due to uncertainties on the Rosetta velocity and Rosetta/Philae separation strength. This dispersion is increased by the difference between nominal and emergency separation strength. An accurate estimation of the landing position as soon as possible after landing is of the greatest interest to optimize Philae operation during FSS. So propagation delay of the direct and reflected waves measured by CONSERT will help to reconstruct the descent geometry in order to more precisely estimate the landing position. The reflected signal is determined by the surface properties: its dielectric permittivity, its roughness and layering. The signal power inversion will allow to map surface properties especially in the vicinity of the landing site. This paper details the measurement configuration. It presents the data retrieval based on Monte-Carlo simulation using Metropolis-Hastings algorithm and expected performances for both science and operations.

Herique, Alain; Berquin, Yann; Blazquez, Alejandro; Antoine Foulon, Marc; Hahnel, Ronny; Hegler, Sebastian; Jurado, Eric; Kofman, Wlodek; Plettemeier, Dirk; Rogez, Yves; Statz, Christoph; Zine, Sonia

2014-05-01

53

Bladder Retraining  

MedlinePLUS

... team will encourage your success with bladder retraining methods and can help you stay with the program. Or, ask your healthcare provider for written instructions to explain the best approach for you ...

54

Daily Bladder Diary  

MedlinePLUS

... Bladder Control for Women : Daily Bladder Diary Daily Bladder Diary The following links are to pages that ... printer so that you have copies of the bladder diary. If you have Adobe's® Acrobat® Reader Software , ...

55

Around Solomon’s Descent Algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study different problems related to the Solomon’s descent algebra ?(W) of a finite Coxeter group (W,S): positive elements, morphisms between descent algebras, Loewy length... One of the main result is that, if W is irreducible and if the longest element is central, then the Loewy length of ?(W) is equal to .

C. Bonnafé; Götz Pfeiffer

2008-01-01

56

Correlation as Probability of Common Descent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One interpretation of the Pearson product-moment correlation ("r"), correlation as the probability of originating from common descent, important to the genetic measurement of inbreeding, is examined. The conditions under which "r" can be interpreted as the probability of "identity by descent" are specified, and the possibility of generalizing this…

Falk, Ruma; Well, Arnold D.

1996-01-01

57

Descent advisor preliminary field test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional- and flight-management-system-equipped jet transports, to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 sec late with a standard deviation of 13.1 sec. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

1995-01-01

58

Electrical Stimulation of the Urethra Evokes Bladder Contractions in a Woman With Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: Electrical stimulation of pudendal urethral afferents generates coordinated micturition in animals and bladder contractions in men after spinal cord injury (SCI), but there is no evidence of an analogous excitatory urethra-spinal-bladder reflex in women. The objective of this study was to determine whether electrical stimulation of the urethra could evoke bladder contractions in a woman with SCI. Case Report: A 38-year-old woman with a C6 ASIA A SCI who managed her bladder with clean intermittent catheterization and oxybutynin demonstrated neurogenic detrusor overactivity on urodynamics. Oxybutynin was discontinued 2 days prior to urodynamic testing with a custom 12F balloon catheter mounted with ring-shaped electrodes located in the bladder neck, mid urethra, and distal urethra. The inflated balloon was placed against the bladder neck to stabilize the catheter electrodes in place along the urethra. However, the balloon limited emptying during contractions. Urodynamics were performed at a filling rate of 25 mL/minute until a distention-evoked bladder contraction was observed. The urethra was stimulated over a range of bladder volumes and stimulus parameters to determine whether electrical stimulation could evoke a bladder contraction. Findings: Electrical stimulation via urethral electrodes evoked bladder contractions that were dependent on bladder volume (>70% capacity) and the intensity of stimulation. Conclusions: This is the first report of an excitatory urethra-spinal-bladder reflex in a woman with SCI. Future studies will determine whether this reflex can produce bladder emptying.

Kennelly, Michael J; Arena, Kimberly C; Shaffer, Nell; Bennett, Maria E; Grill, Warren M; Grill, Julie H; Boggs, Joseph W

2010-01-01

59

Artist's rendering of Descent to Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Descent to Lunar Surface: The Commander and Lunar Module Pilot transfer to the IM, separate it from the Command and Service Module, and fire the IM descent engine to land on the Moon. After checking out the spacecraft and eating and resting, the Commander climbs down the ladder and places his left foot on the Moon while his right foot is inside the Lunar Module landing pad.

1969-01-01

60

Descent relations in cubic superstring field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The descent relations between string field theory (SFT) vertices are characteristic relations of the operator formulation of SFT and they provide self-consistency of this theory. The descent relations langleV2|V1rangle and langleV3|V1rangle in the NS fermionic string field theory in the ? and discrete bases are established. Different regularizations and schemes of calculations are considered and relations between them are discussed.

Aref'eva, I. Y.; Gorbachev, R.; Medvedev, P. B.; Rychkov, D. V.

2008-01-01

61

Detailed Guide: Bladder Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Bladder Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » View Overview Guide » ... the topics below to get started. What Is Bladder Cancer? What is cancer? What is bladder cancer? ...

62

Urinary Incontinence: Bladder Training  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Urinary Incontinence | Bladder Training for Urinary Incontinence What is bladder training? Bladder training is a way of learning to manage urinary incontinence. It is generally used ...

63

Bladder Augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   This paper reviews bladder augmentation, which has been proved to be an effective way of providing a well functioning urine\\u000a reservoir that protects the upper urinary tract and allows patients to have a good quality of life. Good results have been\\u000a achieved with the use of all types of bowel segments. Lifetime follow-up and recognition of the complications is

A. Cranidis; G. Nestoridis

2000-01-01

64

Reference energy-altitude descent guidance: Simulator evaluation. [aircraft descent and fuel conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Descent guidance was developed to provide a pilot with information to ake a fuel-conservative descent and cross a designated geographical waypoint at a preselected altitude and airspeed. The guidance was designed to reduce fuel usage during the descent and reduce the mental work load associated with planning a fuel-conservative descent. A piloted simulation was conducted to evaluate the operational use of this guidance concept. The results of the simulation tests show that the use of the guidance reduced fuel consumption and mental work load during the descent. Use of the guidance also decreased the airspeed error, but had no effect on the altitude error when the designated waypoint was crossed. Physical work load increased with the use of the guidance, but remained well within acceptable levels. The pilots found the guidance easy to use as presented and reported that it would be useful in an operational environment.

Abbot, K. H.; Knox, C. E.

1985-01-01

65

Distended bladder presenting with constipation and venous obstruction: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction A distended urinary bladder has been known to cause venous obstruction or rarely bowel obstruction. We report the first case in the literature in which urinary bladder distension presented with both venous obstruction and constipation. This is an unusual presentation of urinary bladder distension and serves to broaden our differential diagnoses for a patient with clinical venous obstruction. Case presentation An 83-year-old man of African descent presented with constipation and bilateral lower limb edema. A huge abdominal mass was evident which was a large, distended urinary bladder confirmed by computed tomography. Promptly after urethral catheterization, both constipation and lower limb edema resolved. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge distended urinary bladder causing both constipation and lower limb edema has never previously been reported. Analysis of the literature revealed several factors resulting in the patient's presentation. A high level of suspicion for urinary bladder distension must be maintained for prompt diagnosis and to avoid improper management.

2012-01-01

66

Mars Science Laboratory Rover and Descent Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this February 17, 2009, image, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover is attached to the spacecraft's descent stage. The image was taken inside the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

This is the way the spacecraft will look after it comes out of its protective aeroshell and is descending to the Martian surface in 2012. Here, the descent stage sits on top of the rover, with its eight main engines straddling the rover structure. The rover is the big white box below the descent stage. At this point, the rover lacks its appendages (robotic arm, mast and most wheels), as these elements are still being assembled and were not needed for space-simulation testing of the spacecraft in late 2008.

2009-01-01

67

Assessment of GPS radiosonde descent data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiosondes are widely used to obtain basic meteorological parameters such as pressure (P), temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and horizontal winds during the balloon ascent up to the altitude of balloon burst, usually ~ 32-35 km. Data from the radiosondes released from Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), a tropical station in India, have been collected during the ascent and during the descent as well without attaching any parachute or its equivalent since the year 2008. In the present study an attempt has been made to characterize the radiosonde descent data with the main objective of exploring its usefulness and reliability for scientific purposes. We compared the data obtained during ascent and descent phases of the same sounding. The mean differences in T, RH and horizontal winds between ascent and descent data are found to be small and are sometimes even within the uncertainty of the measurements and/or expected diurnal variation itself. The very good consistency observed between the ascent and the descent data shows that one more profile of the meteorological parameters can be constructed within 3 h of time of balloon launch practically at no additional cost. Further checks are done by utilizing the 3-hourly radiosonde observations collected during the Tropical Tropopause Dynamics campaigns conducted at Gadanki. In the process of checking the consistency between the radiosonde ascent and descent data, several new findings are arrived at and are reported in this study. In general, it has taken more than half an hour for the balloon to reach the ground from the burst altitude. It is also observed that the fall velocity is close to 10 m s-1 near the surface. Finally, it is suggested to record the observations also when the balloon is descending as this information is useful for scientific purposes.

Venkat Ratnam, M.; Pravallika, N.; Babu, S. Ravindra; Basha, G.; Pramitha, M.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.

2014-04-01

68

TCGA bladder cancer study reveals potential drug targets, similarities to several cancers  

Cancer.gov

Investigators with TCGA have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease. They also discovered that, at the molecular level, some subtypes of bladder cancer resemble subtypes of breast, head and neck and lung cancers, suggesting similar routes of development.

69

Determinants of continence in the bladder exstrophy population: predictors of success?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives.To delineate factors that may predict eventual urinary continence after bladder neck reconstruction (BNR) in the bladder exstrophy population.Methods.The records of 65 patients who underwent all phases of bladder exstrophy reconstruction at our institution between 1975 and 1997 with greater than 1-year follow-up were reviewed and data analyzed.Results.Fifty patients (77%) are continent day and night and voiding per urethra without

David Y Chan; Robert D Jeffs; John P Gearhart

2001-01-01

70

Convergence Properties of Gradient Descent Noise Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gradient descent noise reduction is a technique that attempts to recover the true signal, or trajectory, from noisy observations of a non-lin ear dynamical system for which the dynamics are known. This paper provides the first ri gorous proof that the algorithm will recover the original trajectory for a broad c lass of dynamical sys- tems under certain conditions. The

David Ridout; Kevin Judd

71

Ka-Band Radar Terminal Descent Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The terminal descent sensor (TDS) is a radar altimeter/velocimeter that improves the accuracy of velocity sensing by more than an order of magnitude when compared to existing sensors. The TDS is designed for the safe planetary landing of payloads, and may be used in helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft requiring high-accuracy velocity sensing

Pollard, Brian; Berkun, Andrew; Tope, Michael; Andricos, Constantine; Okonek, Joseph; Lou, Yunling

2007-01-01

72

Research study: STS-1 Orbiter Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conversion of STS-1 orbiter descent data from AVE-SESAME contact programs to the REEDA system and the reduction of raw radiosonde data is summarized. A first difference program, contact data program, plot data program, and 30 second data program were developed. Six radiosonde soundings were taken. An example of the outputs of each of the programs is presented.

Hickey, J. S.

1981-01-01

73

An extended descent framework for variational inequalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a very general descent framework for solving asymmetric, monotone variational inequalities. We introduce two classes of differentiable merit functions and the associated global convergence frameworks which include, as special instances, the projection, Newton, quasi-Newton, linear Jacobi, and nonlinear methods. The generic algorithm is very flexible and consequently well suited for exploiting any particular structure of

D. L. Zhu; P. Marcotte

1994-01-01

74

Overview of Neck Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... and Back) > Overview of Neck Pain Overview of Neck Pain Page Content Developing a Program That's Right for ... or activity? What Kinds of Problems Might Cause Neck Pain? Treatment for any neck condition is recommended as ...

75

Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions...

R. A. Coopenbarger

2010-01-01

76

The Mars Exploration Rovers Descent Image Motion Estimation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descent image motion estimation system is the first machine-vision system for estimating lander velocity during planetary descent. Composed of sensors and software, DIMES features a descent imager, a radar altimeter, an inertial-measurement unit, and an algorithm for combining sensor measurements to estimate horizontal velocity - the speed across the planet's surface the lander travels as it descends. Although the sensors

Yang Cheng; Jay Goguen; Andrew Edie Johnson; Chris Leger; Larry Matthies; A. Miguel San Martin; Reg G. Willson

2004-01-01

77

A Quiver Presentation for Solomon's Descent Algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The descent algebra $\\\\Sigma(W)$ is a subalgebra of the group algebra $\\\\Q W$\\u000aof a finite Coxeter group $W$, which supports a homomorphism with nilpotent\\u000akernel and commutative image in the character ring of $W$. Thus $\\\\Sigma(W)$ is\\u000aa basic algebra, and as such it has a presentation as a quiver with relations.\\u000aHere we construct $\\\\Sigma(W)$ as a quotient

OTZ PFEIFFER

2007-01-01

78

BALLUTE ENTRY, DESCENT AND LANDING ON TRITON  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ballute for entry and descent has been evaluated for the moon Triton of the planet Neptune. A spherical ballute was evaluated, with a surface density of 10 g\\/m 2 of Kapton that is capable of peak temperatures up to 500°C, radiating on both sides with emissivity of 0.8. An acceptably wide entry corridor was found for deceleration at moderate

Angus McRonald

2006-01-01

79

A gentle Hessian for efficient gradient descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several second-order optimization methods for gradient descent algorithms have been proposed over the years, but they usually need to compute the inverse of the Hessian of the cost function (or an approximation of this inverse) during training. In most cases, this leads to an O(n2) cost in time and space per iteration, where n is the number of parameters, which

Ronan Collobert; Samy Bengio

2004-01-01

80

Simulating Descent and Landing of a Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent, and Surface landing (DSENDS) software performs high-fidelity simulation of the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of a spacecraft into the atmosphere and onto the surface of a planet or a smaller body. DSENDS is an extension of the DShell and DARTS programs, which afford capabilities for mathematical modeling of the dynamics of a spacecraft as a whole and of its instruments, actuators, and other subsystems. DSENDS enables the modeling (including real-time simulation) of flight-train elements and all spacecraft responses during various phases of EDL. DSENDS provides high-fidelity models of the aerodynamics of entry bodies and parachutes plus supporting models of atmospheres. Terrain and real-time responses of terrain-imaging radar and lidar instruments can also be modeled. The program includes modules for simulation of guidance, navigation, hypersonic steering, and powered descent. Automated state-machine-driven model switching is used to represent spacecraft separations and reconfigurations. Models for computing landing contact and impact forces are expected to be added. DSENDS can be used as a stand-alone program or incorporated into a larger program that simulates operations in real time.

Balaram, J.; Jain, Abhinandan; Martin, Bryan; Lim, Christopher; Henriquez, David; McMahon, Elihu; Sohl, Garrett; Banerjee, Pranab; Steele, Robert; Bentley, Timothy

2005-01-01

81

Bladder function - neurological control  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... with urine, sensory nerves send impulses to the brain indicating that the bladder is full. The sensory ... cord to relay this information. In turn, the brain sends impulses back to the bladder instructing the ...

82

Bladder Outlet Obstruction Secondary to a Brunn's Cyst  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bladder outlet obstruction in younger men is often secondary to urethral stricture disease. In the older population it is often a result of benign prostatic hypertrophy. Materials and Methods We describe the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of a rare case of a Brunn's cyst causing bladder outlet obstruction in a 43-year-old male who was evaluated for obstructive urinary complaints. Results Ultrasound and cystoscopy revealed a cystic lesion at the bladder neck. Transurethral unroofing of the cyst resulted in resolution of the obstructive symptoms and resumption of normal voiding. Final pathology revealed a cystic structure with predominately denuded urothelium with multiple submucosal cystically dilated von Brunn's nests, most consistent with a Brunn's cyst. A search of the literate reveals only one similar case. Conclusions We present the rare case of a Brunn's cyst causing bladder outlet obstruction in a young man.

Grimsby, Gwen M.; Tyson, Mark D.; Salevitz, Bernard; Smith, Maxwell L.; Castle, Erik P.

2012-01-01

83

Neck Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... tendons, ligaments, or nerves - can cause neck problems. Neck pain is very common. Pain may also come from ... upper arms. Muscle strain or tension often causes neck pain. The problem is usually overuse, such as from ...

84

System for Estimating Horizontal Velocity During Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The descent image motion estimation system (DIMES) is a system of hardware and software, designed for original use in estimating the horizontal velocity of a spacecraft descending toward a landing on Mars. The estimated horizontal velocity is used in generating rocket-firing commands to reduce the horizontal velocity as part of an overall control scheme to minimize the landing impact. DIMES can also be used for estimating the horizontal velocity of a remotely controlled or autonomous aircraft for purposes of navigation and control.

Johnson, Andrew; Cheng, Yang; Wilson, Reg; Goguen, Jay; Martin, Alejandro San; Leger, Chris; Matthies, Larry

2007-01-01

85

Algorithm 851: CG_DESCENT, a conjugate gradient method with guaranteed descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a new nonlinear conjugate gradient scheme was developed which satisfies the descent condition gTkdk ? ?7\\/8 ‖gk‖2 and which is globally convergent whenever the line search fulfills the Wolfe conditions. This article studies the convergence behavior of the algorithm; extensive numerical tests and comparisons with other methods for large-scale unconstrained optimization are given.

William W. Hager; Hongchao Zhang

2006-01-01

86

Comparison of musculoskeletal anatomic relationships, determined by magnetic resonance imaging, in postpubertal female patients with and without classic bladder exstrophy  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize pelvic musculoskeletal anatomy in postpubertal females with classic bladder exstrophy, and to compare this with females without bladder exstrophy. Patients and Methods The authors reviewed the medical records of all females in our institutional review board-approved bladder exstrophy database of 1078 patients and identified those with classic bladder exstrophy who underwent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after the age of 12 years. Indications for MRI included haematuria, adnexal lesion, perineal fistula, non-pelvic cancer staging, abdominal wall hernia and vaginal stenosis. Age- and race-matched female patients without exstrophy who underwent MRI evaluation for similar indications were included for comparison. The MRI protocol included axial, sagittal and coronal T1- and/or T2-weighted imaging. Results The study included 30 patients with a median (range) age of 22.5 (12--55) years at time of MRI. Ten patients had bladder exstrophy while 20 control patients did not. A smaller percentage of levator ani was located in the anterior compartment of the pelvis in patients with bladder exstrophy compared with controls. The iliac wing angle, puborectalis angle, ileococcygeous angle, levator ani width, symphyseal diastasis, erectile body diastasis, posterior bladder neck distance and posterior anal distance was greater in patients with bladder exstrophy than in those without. The ischial angle and obturator internus angle were narrower in patients with bladder exstrophy than in those without, and there was no significant difference between levator ani surface area, sacral anal angle, sacral bladder neck angle and bladder neck erectile body distance between the two patient groups. Conclusions In postpubertal females with bladder exstrophy, significant deviations from normal pelvimetry exist, including posterior location of the majority of the levator ani muscle, a wider ileococcygeous angle and a wider symphyseal diastasis. These differences are similar to those described in previous comparisons of younger children with bladder exstrophy and control children.

Anusionwu, Ifeanyi; Tekes, Aylin; Stec, Andrew A.; Gearhart, John P.; Wright, E. James

2012-01-01

87

Obstructive ejaculatory duct calculi in a patient with bladder augmentation and myelomeningocele.  

PubMed

Symptomatic ejaculatory duct (ED) calculi, typically composed of uric acid, carbonate apatite and calcium phosphate, or calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite, are rare occurrences. We report a case of bilateral, large ED calculi in a patient with spina bifida myelomeningocele and an augmented neurogenic bladder. A 25-year-old Caucasian male, not compliant with his urological management, presented with abdominal pain, difficulty in self-catheterization, nausea and vomiting. Two of eight large struvite calculi, which blocked the urethra, were identified at the right ED. After endoscopic calculi removal, further management included bladder irrigation and infection control modalities. This case highlights the importance of clean intermittent catheterization, bladder irrigation, and routine urologic management necessary for patients with myelodysplasia and neurogenic bladder. It is the first recorded case to demonstrate the augmented bladder as an initiator of ejaculatory duct calculi in patients with an open bladder neck and spastic external sphincter. PMID:20970384

Gor, Ronak A; Woodhouse, Christopher R J; Schober, Justine M

2011-04-01

88

Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model  

SciTech Connect

The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

89

25 CFR 11.711 - Descent and distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Descent and distribution. 11.711 Section 11.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.711 Descent and distribution. (a) The court shall distribute the estate...

2011-04-01

90

Epitheliod leiomyoma of the bladder: an unusual case of irritative and obstructive voiding symptoms.  

PubMed

Epitheloid leiomyoma is a very rare subtype of benign mesothelial tumors of the bladder. A 46-year-old female patient presented to our hospital with prolonged dysuria, frequency, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Bimanual examination revealed a mobile, round mass in bladder. There was a round hyperdense intravesical mass near bladder neck in computed tomography (CT) scan that was compatible with her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A well defined 3 × 4 centimeter mass was seen in superolateral part of bladder neck during cystoscopy. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and histopathologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid leiomyoma. The patient's followup was uneventful in a period of 2 years. Size and anatomic location of this tumor were major factors that affect on treatment. PMID:22701194

Kaviani, Ali; Razi, Abdollah; Mokhtarpour, Hooman; Mazloomfard, Mohammad Mohsen; Moeini, Aida; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

2012-01-01

91

Epitheliod Leiomyoma of the Bladder: An Unusual Case of Irritative and Obstructive Voiding Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Epitheloid leiomyoma is a very rare subtype of benign mesothelial tumors of the bladder. A 46-year-old female patient presented to our hospital with prolonged dysuria, frequency, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Bimanual examination revealed a mobile, round mass in bladder. There was a round hyperdense intravesical mass near bladder neck in computed tomography (CT) scan that was compatible with her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A well defined 3 × 4 centimeter mass was seen in superolateral part of bladder neck during cystoscopy. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and histopathologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid leiomyoma. The patient's followup was uneventful in a period of 2 years. Size and anatomic location of this tumor were major factors that affect on treatment.

Kaviani, Ali; Razi, Abdollah; Mokhtarpour, Hooman; Mazloomfard, Mohammad Mohsen; Moeini, Aida; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

2012-01-01

92

Distributed Control by Lagrangian Steepest Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Often adaptive, distributed control can be viewed as an iterated game between independent players. The coupling between the players mixed strategies, arising as the system evolves from one instant to the next, is determined by the system designer. Information theory tells us that the most likely joint strategy of the players, given a value of the expectation of the overall control objective function, is the minimizer of a function o the joint strategy. So the goal of the system designer is to speed evolution of the joint strategy to that Lagrangian mhimbhgpoint,lowerthe expectated value of the control objective function, and repeat Here we elaborate the theory of algorithms that do this using local descent procedures, and that thereby achieve efficient, adaptive, distributed control.

Wolpert, David H.; Bieniawski, Stefan

2004-01-01

93

Planetary entry, descent, and landing technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Martian meteorological lander (MML) is intended for landing on the Martian surface in order to monitor the atmosphere at landing point for one Martian year. MMLs shall become the basic elements of a global network of meteorological mini-landers, observing the dynamics of changes of the atmospheric parameters on the Red Planet. The MML main scientific tasks are as follows: (1) Study of vertical structure of the Martian atmosphere throughout the MML descent; (2) On-surface meteorological observations for one Martian year. One of the essential factors influencing the lander's design is its entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequence. During Phase A of the MML development, five different options for the lander's design were carefully analyzed. All of these options ensure the accomplishment of the above-mentioned scientific tasks with high effectiveness. CONCEPT A (conventional approach): Two lander options (with a parachute system + airbag and an inflatable airbrake + airbag) were analyzed. They are similar in terms of fulfilling braking phases and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. CONCEPT B (innovative approach): Three lander options were analyzed. The distinguishing feature is the presence of inflatable braking units (IBU) in their configurations. SELECTED OPTION (innovative approach): Incorporating a unique design approach and modern technologies, the selected option of the lander represents a combination of the options analyzed in the framework of Concept B study. Currently, the selected lander option undergoes systems testing (Phase D1). Several MMLs can be delivered to Mars in frameworks of various missions as primary or piggybacking payload: (1) USA-led "Mars Scout" (2007); (2) France-led "NetLander" (2007/2009); (3) Russia-led "Mars-Deimos-Phobos sample return" (2007); (4) Independent mission (currently under preliminary study); etc.

Pichkhadze, K.; Vorontsov, V.; Polyakov, A.; Ivankov, A.; Taalas, P.; Pellinen, R.; Harri, A.-M.; Linkin, V.

2003-04-01

94

Bridle Device in Mars Science Laboratory Descent Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of a portion of the descent stage of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory shows two of the stage's three spherical fuel tanks flanking the bridle device assembly. The photograph was taken in early October 2008 from the center of the descent stage looking outward. The top of the descent stage is toward the top of the image.

The bridle device assembly is about two-thirds of a meter, or 2 feet, from top to bottom, and has two main parts. The cylinder on the top is the descent brake. The conical-shaped mechanism below that is the bridle assembly, including a spool of nylon and Vectran cords that will be attached to the rover.

When pyrotechnic bolts fire to sever the rigid connection between the rover and the descent stage, gravity will pull the tethered rover away from the descent stage. The bridle or tether, attached to three points on the rover, will unspool from the bridle assembly, beginning from the larger-diameter portion. The rotation rate of the assembly, hence the descent rate of the rover, will be governed by the descent brake. Inside the housing of that brake are gear boxes and banks of mechanical resistors engineered to prevent the bridle from spooling out too quickly or too slowly. The length of the bridle will allow the rover to be lowered about 7.5 meters (25 feet) while still tethered to the descent stage.

The Starsys division of SpaceDev Inc., Poway, Calif., provided the descent brake. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., built the bridle assembly. Vectran is a product of Kuraray Co. Ltd., Tokyo. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

2008-01-01

95

[Bladder cancer radiotherapy margins].  

PubMed

Radical cystectomy is the gold standard treatment of invasive bladder carcinoma, but conservative treatment is a serious option for selected patients. It comprises a transurethral resection, as complete as possible, before a radiation therapy of the whole bladder and pelvis, with a concomitant chemotherapy. Bladder wall movements during the treatment course lead to the use of wide margins to cover the clinical target volume. Planning target volume margins must be anisotropic to correspond to the mobility of each bladder zone: 10mm in the inferior portion, 15 mm in lateral directions, and 20 to 25 mm in anterior and superior directions. The development of image-guided radiotherapy and adaptative radiotherapy should lead to a reduction of these margins. Besides, partial bladder radiotherapy is showing encouraging results, by reducing the clinical target volume in well-selected patients. PMID:23969246

Régnier, É; Nguyen, T D; Beckendorf, V; Lagrange, J-L

2013-10-01

96

Local Search for Multiobjective Function Optimization: Pareto Descent Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many real-world problems entail multiple conflicting objectives, which makes multiobjective optimization an important subject. Much attention has been paid to Genetic Algorithm (GA) as a potent multiobjective optimization method, and the effectiveness of its hybridization with local search (LS) has recently been reported in the literature. However, there have been a relatively small number of studies on LS methods for multiobjective function optimization. Although each of the existing LS methods has some strong points, they have respective drawbacks such as high computational cost and inefficiency of improving objective functions. Hence, a more effective and efficient LS method is being sought, which can be used to enhance the performance of the hybridization. Pareto descent directions are defined in this paper as descent directions to which no other descent directions are superior in improving all objective functions. Moving solutions in such directions is expected to maximally improve all objective functions simultaneously. This paper proposes a new LS method, Pareto Descent Method (PDM), which finds Pareto descent directions and moves solutions in such directions. In the case part or all of them are infeasible, it finds feasible Pareto descent directions or descent directions as necessary and moves solutions in these directions. PDM finds these directions by solving linear programming problems. Thus, it is computationally inexpensive. Experiments have shown that PDM is superior to existing methods.

Harada, Ken; Sakuma, Jun; Ikeda, Kokolo; Ono, Isao; Kobayashi, Shigenobu

97

Surface erosion caused on Mars from Viking descent engine plume  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the Martian landings the descent engine plumes on Viking Lander 1 (VL-1) and Viking Lander 2 (VL-2) eroded the Martian surface materials. This had been anticipated and investigated both analytically and experimentally during the design phase of the Viking spacecraft. This paper presents data on erosion obtained during the tests of the Viking descent engine and the evidence for erosion by the descent engines of VL-1 and VL-2 on Mars. From these and other results, it is concluded that there are four distinct surface materials on Mars: (1) drift material, (2) crusty to cloddy material, (3) blocky material, and (4) rock. ?? 1980 D. Reidel Publishing Co.

Hutton, R. E.; Moore, H. J.; Scott, R. F.; Shorthill, R. W.; Spitzer, C. R.

1980-01-01

98

Portable Bladder Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Data from the National Population Health Survey indicate prevalence rates of urinary incontinence are 2.5% in women and 1.4 % in men in the general population. Prevalence of urinary incontinence is higher in women than men and prevalence increases with age. Identified risk factors for urinary incontinence include female gender, increasing age, urinary tract infections (UTI), poor mobility, dementia, smoking, obesity, consuming alcohol and caffeine beverages, physical activity, pregnancy, childbirth, forceps and vacuum-assisted births, episiotomy, abdominal resection for colorectal cancer, and hormone replacement therapy. For the purposes of this review, incontinence populations will be stratified into the following; the elderly, urology patients, postoperative patients, rehabilitation settings, and neurogenic bladder populations. Urinary incontinence is defined as any involuntary leakage of urine. Incontinence can be classified into diagnostic clinical types that are useful in planning evaluation and treatment. The major types of incontinence are stress (physical exertion), urge (overactive bladder), mixed (combined urge and stress urinary incontinence), reflex (neurological impairment of the central nervous system), overflow (leakage due to full bladder), continuous (urinary tract abnormalities), congenital incontinence, and transient incontinence (temporary incontinence). Postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, which is the amount of urine in the bladder immediately after urination, represents an important component in continence assessment and bladder management to provide quantitative feedback to the patient and continence care team regarding the effectiveness of the voiding technique. Although there is no standardized definition of normal PVR urine volume, measurements greater than 100 mL to 150 mL are considered an indication for urinary retention, requiring intermittent catheterization, whereas a PVR urine volume of 100 mL to 150 mL or less is generally considered an acceptable result of bladder training. Urinary retention has been associated with poor outcomes including UTI, bladder overdistension, and higher hospital mortality rates. The standard method of determining PVR urine volumes is intermittent catheterization, which is associated with increased risk of UTI, urethral trauma and discomfort. The Technology Being Reviewed Portable bladder ultrasound products are transportable ultrasound devices that use automated technology to register bladder volume digitally, including PVR volume, and provide three-dimensional images of the bladder. The main clinical use of portable bladder ultrasound is as a diagnostic aid. Health care professionals (primarily nurses) administer the device to measure PVR volume and prevent unnecessary catheterization. An adjunctive use of the bladder ultrasound device is to visualize the placement and removal of catheters. Also, portable bladder ultrasound products may improve the diagnosis and differentiation of urological problems and their management and treatment, including the establishment of voiding schedules, study of bladder biofeedback, fewer UTIs, and monitoring of potential urinary incontinence after surgery or trauma. Review Strategy To determine the effectiveness and clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound as reported in the published literature, the Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases. Nonsystematic reviews, nonhuman studies, case reports, letters, editorials, and comments were excluded. Summary of Findings Of the 4 included studies that examined the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound in the elderly population, all found the device to be acceptable. One study reported that the device underestimated catheterized bladder volume In patients with urology

2006-01-01

99

Paget's disease of the vulva with bladder invasion: a case report.  

PubMed

Tumor excision and dermal-flap skin graft operations were performed on a 72-year-old woman diagnosed with extramammary Paget's disease at our hospital in August 2001. Paget cells were identified in the external urethral meatus even though nine local excisions of recurrent tumors had been performed. She was suffered from severe vesical pain from May 2007. Urine cytology was class V and physical examination revealed redness in external urethral meatus. Pelvic MRI did not show apparent lymph node swelling and the endoscopic multiple biopsies performed at multiple bladder mucosa and distal urethra. Pathological diagnosis of the endoscopic biopsy showed multiple Paget cells from urethra, posterior and bilateral lateral wall, and bladder neck. Because Paget's disease may infiltrate bladder mucosa and cause severe vesical pain due to bladder invasion, total cystorethrectomy, ileal conduit, and external skin excision were performed. Pathological findings were continuous infiltration of Paget cells from external urethral meatus to bladder mucosa. PMID:22113464

Inoue, Shogo; Shiina, Hiroaki; Igawa, Mikio

2012-05-01

100

Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing simulation was created over the past two years to serve as the primary Crew Exploration Vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) design and analysis tool at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) simulation is a six degree-of-freedom tool with a unique design architecture which has a high level of flexibility. This paper describes the decision history and motivations that guided the creation of this simulation tool. The capabilities of the models within ANTARES are presented in detail. Special attention is given to features of the highly flexible GN&C architecture and the details of the implemented GN&C algorithms. ANTARES provides a foundation simulation for the Orion Project that has already been successfully used for requirements analysis, system definition analysis, and preliminary GN&C design analysis. ANTARES will find useful application in engineering analysis, mission operations, crew training, avionics-in-the-loop testing, etc. This paper focuses on the entry simulation aspect of ANTARES, which is part of a bigger simulation package supporting the entire mission profile of the Orion vehicle. The unique aspects of entry GN&C design are covered, including how the simulation is being used for Monte Carlo dispersion analysis and for support of linear stability analysis. Sample simulation output from ANTARES is presented in an appendix.

Hoelscher, Brian R.

2007-01-01

101

A retrospective study of prostate cancer cases mimicking urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate cancer (PCa) originating from the prostate base may intrude into the urinary bladder and may be misdiagnosed as bladder cancer. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinic data on PCa cases which were initially misdiagnosed as bladder cancer in order to identify diagnostic methods that would allow a better differential diagnosis for PCa. Methods Out of a total of 455 patients treated for PCa at our hospital between April 2003 and June 2011, 14 patients (3.1%) had been initially misdiagnosed as urinary bladder urothelial cell carcinoma. The clinical data on these 14 cases was retrieved and analyzed. Results Of the 14 patients, 11 patients were eventually diagnosed with PCa after MRI examination, and seven out of these had PCa with bladder neck invasion. Prostate needle biopsy or transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) revealed that all 14 patients had adenocarcinoma of prostate with Gleason scores ranging from 7 to 9. Nine patients received TURP for hematuria or lower urinary tract blockage. The mean follow-up was 37 months, during which six patients survived. Conclusions As clinical presentation and in emergency settings, prostate cancer originating from the prostate base can be confused with bladder cancer originating from the neck or the triangle region of the urinary bladder. Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and digital rectal examination, in combination with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), MRI, and prostate needle biopsy are valuable tools for definitive differential diagnosis of the basal prostate cancer.

2013-01-01

102

Kruppel-like factor 5 is Required for Formation and Differentiation of the Bladder Urothelium  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Kruppel-like transcription factor 5 (Klf5) was detected in the developing and mature murine bladder urothelium. Herein we report a critical role of KLF5 in the formation and terminal differentiation of the urothelium. The ShhGfpCre transgene was used to delete the Klf5floxed alleles from bladder epithelial cells causing prenatal hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and vesicoureteric reflux. The bladder urothelium failed to stratify and did not express terminal differentiation markers characteristic of basal, intermediate, and umbrella cells including keratins 20, 14, and 5, and the uroplakins. The effects of Klf5 deletion were unique to the developing bladder epithelium since maturation of the epithelium comprising the bladder neck and urethra were unaffected by the lack of KLF5. mRNA analysis identified reductions in Ppar?, Grhl3, Elf3, and Ovol1expression in Klf5 deficient fetal bladders supporting their participation in a transcriptional network regulating bladder urothelial differentiation. KLF5 regulated expression of the mGrhl3 promoter in transient transfection assays. The absence of urothelial Klf5 altered epithelial-mesenchymal signaling leading to the formation of an ectopic alpha smooth muscle actin positive layer of cells subjacent to the epithelium and a thinner detrusor muscle that was not attributable to disruption of SHH signaling, a known mediator of detrusor morphogenesis. Deletion of Klf5 from the developing bladder urothelium blocked epithelial cell differentiation, impaired bladder morphogenesis and function causing hydroureter and hydronephrosis at birth.

Bell, Sheila. M.; Zhang, Liqian; Mendell, Angela; Xu, Yan; Haitchi, Hans Michael; Lessard, James L.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

2011-01-01

103

Bladder operated robotic joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is a robotic joint which is operated by inflatable bladders and which can be used in applications where it is desired to move or hold an object. A support block supports an elongated plate to which is pivotally attached a finger. A tension strip passes over a lever attached to the finger and is attached at its ends to the support block on opposite sides of the plate. Bladders positioned between the plate and the tension strip on opposite sides of the plate can be inflated by pumps to pivot the finger, with one of the bladders being inflated while the other is being deflated.

Robertson, Glen A. (inventor)

1993-01-01

104

Painful Bladder Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Painful bladder syndrome\\/interstitial cystitis (PBS\\/IC), also known as bladder pain syndrome (BPS\\/IC), is primarily based\\u000a on symptoms of urgency, frequency, and pain in the bladder and\\/or pelvis. Its etiology is not known and clinical characteristics\\u000a vary among patients. Early recognition of BPS\\/IC is very important because the symptoms are quite disabling, affecting quality\\u000a of life and resulting in patients being

Mauro Cervigni; Franca Natale; Albert Mako; Loredana Nasta

105

Metabolomics and bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of bladder cancer is primarily made based on clinical presentation and then by direct visualization with cystoscopy. Despite the massive investments recently made to identify urinary-based assays that are able to diagnosis urothelial carcinoma, urine cytology and cystoscopy still remain the gold standard. Recently proof of principle studies have shown that noninvasive urine-based metabolomics, using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), may be able to accurately diagnosis bladder cancer. This review discusses the published studies investigating metabolomics and bladder cancer and the future potential of this developing field. PMID:21930087

Hyndman, Matthew E; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

2011-01-01

106

Head and Neck Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the neck. Most begin in the moist tissues that line the mouth, nose and throat. Symptoms include A lump or sore that ...

107

Titan Explorer Entry, Descent and Landing Trajectory Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Titan Explorer mission concept includes an orbiter, entry probe and inflatable airship designed to take remote and in-situ measurements of Titan's atmosphere. A modified entry, descent and landing trajectory at Titan that incorporates mid-air airship ...

J. L. Fisher M. K. Lockwood R. E. Lindberg

2006-01-01

108

14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Performance: Uncontrolled descent. 31.19 Section 31.19 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.19 Performance: Uncontrolled...

2010-01-01

109

14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Performance: Uncontrolled descent. 31.19 Section 31.19 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.19 Performance: Uncontrolled...

2009-01-01

110

Descent Stage of Mars Science Laboratory During Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from early October 2008 shows personnel working on the descent stage of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory inside the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

The descent stage will provide rocket-powered deceleration for a phase of the arrival at Mars after the phases using the heat shield and parachute. When it nears the surface, the descent stage will lower the rover on a bridle the rest of the way to the ground. The larger three of the orange spheres in the descent stage are fuel tanks. The smaller two are tanks for pressurant gas used for pushing the fuel to the rocket engines.

JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

2008-01-01

111

Ascent/descent ancillary data production user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Product, also called the A/D BET because it contains a Best Estimate of the Trajectory (BET), is a collection of trajectory, attitude, and atmospheric related parameters computed for the ascent and descent phases of each Shuttle Mission. These computations are executed shortly after the event in a post-flight environment. A collection of several routines including some stand-alone routines constitute what is called the Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Production Program. A User's Guide for that program is given. It is intended to provide the reader with all the information necessary to generate an Ascent or a Descent Ancillary Data Product. It includes descriptions of the input data and output data for each routine, and contains explicit instructions on how to run each routine. A description of the final output product is given.

Brans, H. R.; Seacord, A. W., II; Ulmer, J. W.

1986-01-01

112

Mathematica (Trademark) and the Method of Steepest Descents. Part 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mathematica is a symbolic manipulator with graphical capabilities. During the fall 1990 semester, I used Mathematica on my NeXT workstation to create graphics for teaching the method of steepest descents. This required level curve plots and surface plots ...

N. Bleistein

1992-01-01

113

Thermal control for planetary probes. [during descent phase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control of planetary probes during the descent phase of a mission is examined. Emphasis was placed on the problems of atmospheric uncertainties to be encountered by the probes, insulation performance, and equipment temperature limits.

Mcmordie, R.

1974-01-01

114

A general descent framework for the monotone variational inequality problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for descent algorithms that solve the monotone variational inequalityproblem V IP v which consists in finding a solution v2\\\\Omegav which satisfies s(v)T(u \\\\Gamma v) 0, for allu2\\\\Omegav . This unified framework includes, as special cases, some well known iterative methodsand equivalent optimization formulations. A descent method is developed for an equivalentgeneral optimization formulation and a proof

Jia Hao Wu; Michael Florian; Patrice Marcotte

1993-01-01

115

Air-Traffic Controllers Evaluate The Descent Advisor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes study of Descent Advisor algorithm: software automation aid intended to assist air-traffic controllers in spacing traffic and meeting specified times or arrival. Based partly on mathematical models of weather conditions and performances of aircraft, it generates suggested clearances, including top-of-descent points and speed-profile data to attain objectives. Study focused on operational characteristics with specific attention to how it can be used for prediction, spacing, and metering.

Tobias, Leonard; Volckers, Uwe; Erzberger, Heinz

1992-01-01

116

Testicular descent: INSL3, testosterone, genes and the intrauterine milieu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete testicular descent is a sign of, and a prerequisite for, normal testicular function in adult life. The process of testis descent is dependent on gubernacular growth and reorganization, which is regulated by the Leydig cell hormones insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and testosterone. Investigation of the role of INSL3 and its receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), has contributed substantially

Katharina M. Main; Jorma Toppari; Niels E. Skakkebæk; Katrine Bay

2011-01-01

117

Robotic Bladder Joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliable, lightweight robotic joint suitable for variety of applications, actuated hydraulically, without need for heavy mechanical cylinders or gears on joint itself. Includes two members; first member rotates about pin at end of second member. Includes cam, over which tension line stretched. Ends of tension line anchored at end of second member opposite end that holds pin. Bladder placed on each side of second member, squeezed between second member and tension line. Pressures and/or amounts of fluid in bladders controlled by use of conventional equipment like pumps, valves, and reservoirs. Bladder on one side inflated more than on other side; greater inflation on one side causes greater stretching of tension line on that side. Greater tension pulls on cam, turning first member toward that side. Angle of joint controlled by controlling differential inflation of two bladders.

Robertson, Glen A.

1995-01-01

118

Giant bladder diverticulum.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 73-year-old man affected by progressive and painful abdominal distension and paresthesia/hypoesthesia at the left leg. US and CT-scan revealed the presence in the left retroperitoneum of a large cystic mass without parietal thickening or enhancement after contrast injection. This mass disappeared after positioning a vesical Foley's catheter and a retrograde cystography confirmed the suspected diagnosis of a large bladder diverticulum due to a severe prostatic hypertrophy; the patient underwent an open diverticulectomy and endoscopic prostatic resection. Bladder diverticula can occasionally appear as complex pelvic masses not obviously connected to the bladder, eventually leading to diagnostic confusion; while small size diverticulum resolves with relief of bladder outlet obstruction, open or laparoscopic diverticulectomy is needed in large size diverticulum if symptomatic, even considering the possible tumor harboring. PMID:21229344

Tortorelli, Antonio Pio; Rosa, Fausto; Papa, Valerio; Alfieri, Sergio; Doglietto, Giovanni Battista

2011-03-01

119

What Is Bladder Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... much less common than transitional cell (urothelial) cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma: In the United States, only about 1% to 2% of bladder cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Under a microscope, the cells look much like ...

120

Urinary Bladder Adenocarcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... in order to assist in making treatment decisions. Lymphatic: Relating to lymph glands or their channels. Healing ... has involved the muscle wall of the bladder, lymphatic or blood vessels, and if it has spread ...

121

Managing Bladder Incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

... and dignity ? Avoid fluids or foods that contain caffeine (soft drinks, coffee, tea or chocolate) ? Avoid alcohol as it can over stimulate the bladder ? Ask your nurse about ? Exercises that can help develop more control ? Medications that ...

122

Effects of flutamide and finasteride on rat testicular descent.  

PubMed

The endocrine control of descent of the testis in mammalian species is poorly understood. The androgen dependency of testicular descent was studied in the rat using an antiandrogen (flutamide) and an inhibitor of the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase (finasteride). Androgen receptor blockade inhibited testicular descent more effectively than inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase activity. Moreover, its inhibitory effect was limited to the outgrowth phase of the gubernaculum testis, particularly the earliest stages of outgrowth. Gubernacular size was also significantly reduced in fetuses exposed to flutamide during the outgrowth period. In contrast, androgen receptor blockade or 5 alpha-reductase inhibition applied after the initiation of gubernacular outgrowth or during the regression phase did not affect testicular descent. Successful inhibition of the development of epididymis and vas by prenatal flutamide did not correlate with ipsilateral testicular maldescent, suggesting that an intact epididymis is not required for descent of the testis. Plasma androgen assays confirmed significant inhibition of dihydrotestosterone formation in finasteride-treated rats. These data suggest that androgens, primarily testosterone, are required during the early phases of gubernacular outgrowth for subsequent successful completion of testicular descent. PMID:1677329

Spencer, J R; Torrado, T; Sanchez, R S; Vaughan, E D; Imperato-McGinley, J

1991-08-01

123

A descent of the aurora over Lapland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very large statistical study (? 4 × 105 measurements) into the peak emission height of the aurora has shown that the aurora over Lapland descended significantly between 1996 and 2007. The study was performed using images from a network of ground-based all-sky cameras which form part of the MIRACLE (Magnetometers-Ionospheric Radar-All-sky Cameras Large Experiment) network, and are located at various observation stations across northern Finland and Sweden. The height of the aurora was first measured about a century ago. Since then, it has generally been assumed that the peak emission height of any particular auroral emission is constant for similar geomagnetic conditions. The present work was motivated by the need to improve estimates of the height of the aurora used to calculate other ionospheric and auroral properties, such as optical flow velocities and auroral arc widths. In recent years MIRACLE has produced approximately 105 images of the aurora per station per year. In order to analyse such a large number of images, a novel fast and automatic method was developed for finding the peak emission height of an auroral structure from a pair of all-sky camera images with overlapping fields of view. This method has been applied to all auroral images recorded by the MIRACLE intensified CCD cameras in operation between 1996 and 2007. Such a large data set allows the study of variations in the height of the aurora with time (yearly, monthly, hourly) and with solar and geomagnetic indices such as F10.7 and Kp. Results from the statistical study show that the peak emission height of green (557.7 nm, O1S - O1D transition) aurora over Lapland descended by about 10 km between 1996 and 2007. This descent occurred independently of the solar cycle, and is thought to be due to a cooling and contraction of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

Whiter, Daniel; Partamies, Noora

2014-05-01

124

The Other Bladder Syndrome: Underactive Bladder  

PubMed Central

Detrusor underactivity, or underactive bladder (UAB), is defined as a contraction of reduced strength and/or duration resulting in prolonged bladder emptying and/or a failure to achieve complete bladder emptying within a normal time span. UAB can be observed in many neurologic conditions and myogenic failure. Diabetic cystopathy is the most important and inevitable disease developing from UAB, and can occur silently and early in the disease course. Careful neurologic and urodynamic examinations are necessary for the diagnosis of UAB. Proper management is focused on prevention of upper tract damage, avoidance of overdistension, and reduction of residual urine. Scheduled voiding, double voiding, al-blockers, and intermittent self-catheterization are the typical conservative treatment options. Sacral nerve stimulation may be an effective treatment option for UAB. New concepts such as stem cell therapy and neurotrophic gene therapy are being explored. Other new agents for UAB that act on prostaglandin E2 and EP2 receptors are currently under development. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries that have a pipeline in urology and women’s health may want to consider UAB as a potential target condition. Scientific counsel and review of the current pharmaceutical portfolio may uncover agents, including those in other therapeutic fields, that may benefit the management of UAB.

Miyazato, Minoru; Yoshimura, Naoki; Chancellor, Michael B

2013-01-01

125

Spontaneous Bladder Perforation in an Infant Neurogenic Bladder: Laparoscopic Management  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous bladder perforation is an uncommon event in childhood. It is usually associated with bladder augmentation. We are presenting a case of bladder rupture in an infant with neurogenic bladder without prior bladder surgery. Three days after lipomyelomeningocele excision the patient showed signs and symptoms of acute abdomen. The ultrasound exploration revealed significant amount of intraperitoneal free fluid and therefore a laparoscopic exploration was performed. A posterior bladder rupture was diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. Currently, being 3 years old, she keeps successfully dry with clean intermittent catheterization. Neurogenic bladder voiding function can change at any time of its evolution and lead to complications. Early diagnosis of spontaneous bladder rupture is of paramount importance, so it is essential to think about it in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

Cabezali Barbancho, Daniel; Guerrero Ramos, Felix; Lopez Vazquez, Francisco; Aransay Bramtot, Adolfo; Gomez Fraile, Andres

2013-01-01

126

Design of automation tools for management of descent traffic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of an automated air traffic control system based on a hierarchy of advisory tools for controllers is described. Compatibility of the tools with the human controller, a key objective of the design, is achieved by a judicious selection of tasks to be automated and careful attention to the design of the controller system interface. The design comprises three interconnected subsystems referred to as the Traffic Management Advisor, the Descent Advisor, and the Final Approach Spacing Tool. Each of these subsystems provides a collection of tools for specific controller positions and tasks. This paper focuses primarily on the Descent Advisor which provides automation tools for managing descent traffic. The algorithms, automation modes, and graphical interfaces incorporated in the design are described. Information generated by the Descent Advisor tools is integrated into a plan view traffic display consisting of a high-resolution color monitor. Estimated arrival times of aircraft are presented graphically on a time line, which is also used interactively in combination with a mouse input device to select and schedule arrival times. Other graphical markers indicate the location of the fuel-optimum top-of-descent point and the predicted separation distances of aircraft at a designated time-control point. Computer generated advisories provide speed and descent clearances which the controller can issue to aircraft to help them arrive at the feeder gate at the scheduled times or with specified separation distances. Two types of horizontal guidance modes, selectable by the controller, provide markers for managing the horizontal flightpaths of aircraft under various conditions. The entire system consisting of descent advisor algorithm, a library of aircraft performance models, national airspace system data bases, and interactive display software has been implemented on a workstation made by Sun Microsystems, Inc. It is planned to use this configuration in operational evaluations at an en route center.

Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

1988-01-01

127

Robotic Anastomoses and Bladder Neck Reconstruction Following Radical Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the introduction of robotic-assisted technology, there has been a dramatic evolution of minimally invasive prostate cancer\\u000a surgery. Rapidly gaining popularity in both the United States and abroad, advantages of the robotic platform include enhanced\\u000a stereoscopic depth of field vision and dexterity facilitating precise suturing for reconstruction. In addition to the conventional\\u000a benefits of laparoscopy including reduced blood loss and

Marc C. Smaldone; Tina K. Schuster; Stephen V. Jackman

128

Genetics Home Reference: Bladder cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... with bladder cancer each year. What are the genetic changes related to bladder cancer? As with most ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

129

Overactive Bladder: Prescription Drug Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... Prescription Drugs Search : Stay updated on the latest bladder health news! Share this site with a friend 1: Home 3: About NAFC 4: Bladder Health Information 6: Healthcare Providers 7: Contact 8: ...

130

The pain of painful bladder  

PubMed Central

Bladder pain can have a number of different etiologies. This brief summary provides an overview of bladder pain syndrome, including current evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management.

Payne, Christopher

2013-01-01

131

Development of the Eagle-Barrett (prune belly) syndrome and a thickened, poorly functional bladder wall after early second-trimester decompression of fetal megacystis.  

PubMed

The management of bladder outlet obstruction in the fetus remains a debated issue. Recent data suggest the use of cystocentesis for the possible relief of the bladder neck obstruction or for the opening of posterior urethral valves. This case report adds further support for the use of cystocentesis and observation prior to the placement of an indwelling bladder shunt. The case further demonstrates that relief of the megacystis may not prevent prune belly syndrome, bladder dysfunction or renal damage. Finally, the case demonstrates that severe oligohydramnios in the second trimester need not invariably result in pulmonary hypoplasia. PMID:12797278

Finley, B E; Bennett, T L; Burlbaw, J; Levitch, L

1993-07-01

132

Bladder afferent hyperexcitability in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis  

PubMed Central

Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

Yoshimura, Naoki; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Sugino, Yoshio; Kawamorita, Naoki; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Chancellor, Michael B; Tyagi, Pradeep; Ogawa, Teruyuki

2014-01-01

133

Bladder afferent hyperexcitability in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.  

PubMed

Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. PMID:24807488

Yoshimura, Naoki; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Sugino, Yoshio; Kawamorita, Naoki; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Chancellor, Michael B; Tyagi, Pradeep; Ogawa, Teruyuki

2014-04-01

134

Superficial bladder cancer.  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is almost certainly a product of the industrial revolution and the cigarette smoking that has accompanied it. Exposure to a chemical bladder carcinogen such as beta naphthylamine, benzidine, or 4-diphenylaniline can be proved in only a small proportion of patients and only a handful obtain industrial diseases benefit after developing "Prescribed Industrial Disease C23." None the less, the continued use of known carcinogenic substances in British industry for many years after their identification, the wide range of industries with a known or suspected increased risk of bladder cancer, and our ignorance of the carcinogenic potential of many materials used in current manufacturing should be a cause for continuing concern. Images p912-a

Hall, R. R.

1994-01-01

135

Paraganglioma of urinary bladder.  

PubMed

Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder is extremely rare. In this report of a young man, hypertensive crisis and ventricular arrhythmia was provoked during cystoscopic evaluation of a bladder mass. A diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was considered following detection of high serum and urinary catecholamine levels. A preoperative meta-iodobenzylguanidine scan was, however, negative. The bladder mass was surgically removed following initiation of antihypertensive therapy. Pathological confirmation of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma was established. During a serial follow-up, serum and urine catecholamine levels were persistently elevated. This was explained by abnormalities on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan, which were considered to represent a metastatic malignant neuroendocrine tumour. The patient is on palliative chemotherapy for malignant paraganglioma. This case highlights variable presentation of pheochromocytoma, importance of having a high index of clinical suspicion for early recognition and prompt management and serious adverse consequence of a delayed diagnosis. PMID:23917361

Malik, Azhar Ali; Afandi, Bachar; Jamil, Gohar; Akhter, Syed M J

2013-01-01

136

Crew Procedures for Continuous Descent Arrivals Using Conventional Guidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents results from a simulation study which investigated the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures for conducting a descent through a busy terminal area, using conventional transport-category automation. This research was part of the Low Noise Flight Procedures (LNFP) element within the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project, that addressed development of flight guidance, and supporting pilot and Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures for low noise operations. The procedures and chart were designed to be easy to understand, and to make it easy for the crew to make changes via the Flight Management Computer Control-Display Unit (FMC-CDU) to accommodate changes from ATC. The test runs were intended to represent situations typical of what exists in many of today's terminal areas, including interruptions to the descent in the form of clearances issued by ATC.

Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Williams, David H.; Lewis, Elliot T,

2007-01-01

137

Neck skin rejuvenation.  

PubMed

The author of this article uses the pulsed ablative CO2 laser for resurfacing of the neck and face, based on the gold standard status of the CO2 laser and a novel post-treatment plan that greatly reduces adverse effects traditionally associated with fully ablative resurfacing. The croton oil peel is an inexpensive and effective modality for rejuvenating neck skin. The use of either technique as an adjunct to neck lift surgery, with or without facelift surgery, permits surgeons to fulfill the expectations of patients who want the skin of their face and neck to be homogeneous and more attractive. PMID:24745383

Duplechain, J Kevin

2014-05-01

138

An overview on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in tumors of the head and neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels are increased in various tumors, particularly those involving the esophagus, stomach, breast, pancreas, lung, colon, skin, urinary bladder, prostate and head and neck. Nevertheless, the tumorigenic mechanisms of COX-2 overexpression still remain poorly understood and may include mechanisms that may act at different stages of the disease. Thus, the literature shows increasing evidence that overexpression of the

Rui Amaral Mendes; João F. C. Carvalho; Isaac van der Waal

2009-01-01

139

Space shuttle descent design: From development to operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The descent guidance system, the descent trajectories design, and generating of the associated flight products are discussed. The programs which allow the successful transitions from development to STS operations, resulting in reduced manpower requirements and compressed schedules for flight design cycles are addressed. The topics include: (1) continually upgraded tools for the job, i.e., consolidating tools via electronic data transfers, tailoring general purpose software for needs, easy access to tools through an interactive approach, and appropriate flexibility to allow design changes and provide growth capability; (2) stabilizing the flight profile designs (I-loads) in an uncertain environment; and (3) standardizing external interfaces within performance and subsystems constraints of the Orbiter.

Crull, T. J.; Hite, R. E., III

1985-01-01

140

Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita

2010-01-01

141

Flight Data Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Repository  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Daniel Winterhalter, NASA Engineering and Safety Center Chief Engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsor a 3-year effort to collect entry, descent, and landing material and to establish a NASA-wide archive to serve the material. The principle focus of this task was to identify entry, descent, and landing repository material that was at risk of being permanently lost due to damage, decay, and undocumented storage. To provide NASA-wide access to this material, a web-based digital archive was created. This document contains the outcome of the effort.

Martinez, Elmain M.; Winterhalter, Daniel

2012-01-01

142

[Bladder interstitial cells and pathophysiology].  

PubMed

Bladder interstitial cell (IC) is a cell, which lacks thick filaments and dense bodies but with incomplete basement membrane, rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus. IC is divided into 4 subtypes: lamina propria IC, intramuscular IC, IC between the detrusor bundles and perivascular IC. There are different ion currents and related activation pathways in the lamina propria IC and intramuscular IC. Ca2+ signaling pathways play an important role in the communication between IC and detrusor. Any bladder lesions affecting the ion current and Ca2+ signaling pathways can lead to bladder dysfunction. The bladder lesions include bladder outlet obstruction, bladder pain syndrome, interstitial cystitis, neurogenic bladder and diabetes. Imatinib mesylate is currently an available treatment target in IC, and electrical stimulation of acupuncture therapy is a new direction. PMID:25011974

Yin, Zhuo; Yang, Jinrui

2014-06-01

143

Painful bladder: Case studies  

PubMed Central

As part of the program at the 3rd Annual Canadian Urology Forum (2013), participants engaged in interactive discussions of difficult cases throughout the event. The following is a summary of discussions pertaining to two cases illustrating the difficulties in diagnosis and management of bladder pain symptoms.

Bailly, Greg

2013-01-01

144

Painful bladder: Case studies.  

PubMed

As part of the program at the 3(rd) Annual Canadian Urology Forum (2013), participants engaged in interactive discussions of difficult cases throughout the event. The following is a summary of discussions pertaining to two cases illustrating the difficulties in diagnosis and management of bladder pain symptoms. PMID:24523849

Bailly, Greg

2013-01-01

145

[Ileal bladder substitute].  

PubMed

The history of urinary diversion in general began in 1852 and started right away with continent diversion, i.e., ureterosigmoidostomy. Anastomosing an intestinal reservoir to the urethra was proposed by Tizzoni and Foggi in 1888. They replaced the bladder by an isoperistaltic ileal segment which was interposed between ureters and urethra in a female dog. In 1951 Couvelaire reactivated this idea of an ileal bladder substitute. Retrospectively many disappointing results of urinary diversion were often not caused by insufficient competence of the outlet mechanism, but because the intestinal reservoir maintained its peristaltic properties causing high pressure peaks. The decisive advance in ensuring continence, and thus an improvement in patient comfort, was achieved with the so-called low pressure reservoir. The main characteristics of this reservoir compared to those from intact intestinal segments are the larger diameter, the greater capacity with significantly low pressures, and the uncoordinated contraction of its wall. Transsection of the circular intestinal musculature when performing bladder augmentation had already been published by Rutkowski in 1899, Tasker in 1953, and Giertz in 1957. In 1969, Kock published the first results obtained with an ileal continent fecal reservoir in patients after total proctocolectomy. The significant advantages of interrupting the tubular structure of a reservoir obtained from intestine had been described much earlier. The need for reflux prevention is not the same as in ureterosigmoidostomy conduit or continent diversion. Reflux prevention in neobladders is even less important than in a normal bladder. When using nonrefluxing techniques, the risk of obstruction is at least twice that after direct anastomosis. Kidney function is not impaired by diversion if stenosis is recognized and managed. Patient health status is influenced more by underlying disease than by diversion. Orthotopic reconstruction has passed the test of time. In these patients life is similar to that in individuals with a native lower urinary tract. Until a better solution is devised orthotopic bladder reconstruction remains the best option for patients requiring cystectomy. PMID:18210063

Hautmann, R E

2008-01-01

146

Quasi-duo rings and stable range descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent paper, the first author introduced a general theory of corner rings in noncommutative rings that generalized the classical theory of Peirce decompositions. This theory is applied here to the study of the stable range of rings upon descent to corner rings. A ring is called quasi-duo if every maximal 1-sided ideal is 2-sided. Various new characterizations are

T. Y. Lam; Alex S. Dugas

2005-01-01

147

Simulation Results for Airborne Precision Spacing along Continuous Descent Arrivals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of a fast-time simulation experiment and a high-fidelity simulator validation with merging streams of aircraft flying Continuous Descent Arrivals through generic airspace to a runway at Dallas-Ft Worth. Aircraft made small speed adjustments based on an airborne-based spacing algorithm, so as to arrive at the threshold exactly at the assigned time interval behind their Traffic-To-Follow. The 40 aircraft were initialized at different altitudes and speeds on one of four different routes, and then merged at different points and altitudes while flying Continuous Descent Arrivals. This merging and spacing using flight deck equipment and procedures to augment or implement Air Traffic Management directives is called Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing, an important subset of a larger Airborne Precision Spacing functionality. This research indicates that Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing initiated while at cruise altitude and well prior to the Terminal Radar Approach Control entry can significantly contribute to the delivery of aircraft at a specified interval to the runway threshold with a high degree of accuracy and at a reduced pilot workload. Furthermore, previously documented work has shown that using a Continuous Descent Arrival instead of a traditional step-down descent can save fuel, reduce noise, and reduce emissions. Research into Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing is a cooperative effort between government and industry partners.

Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Baxley, Brian T.

2008-01-01

148

Quiver Presentations for Descent Algebras of Exceptional Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The descent algebra of a finite Coxeter group $W$ is a basic algebra, and as such it has a presentation as quiver with relations. In recent work, we have developed a combinatorial framework which allows us to systematically compute such a quiver presentation for a Coxeter group of a given type. In this article, we use that framework to determine

Goetz Pfeiffer; Galway Ireland

2008-01-01

149

Descents and nodal load in scale-free networks.  

PubMed

The load of a node in a network is the total traffic going through it when every node pair sustains a uniform bidirectional traffic between them on shortest paths. We express nodal load in terms of the more elementary notion of a node's descents in breadth-first-search [(BFS) or shortest-path] trees and study both the descent and nodal-load distributions in the case of scale-free networks. Our treatment is both semianalytical (combining a generating-function formalism with simulation-derived BFS branching probabilities) and computational for the descent distribution; it is exclusively computational in the case of the load distribution. Our main result is that the load distribution, even though it can be disguised as a power law through subtle (but inappropriate) binning of the raw data, is in fact a succession of sharply delineated probability peaks, each of which can be clearly interpreted as a function of the underlying BFS descents. This find is in stark contrast with previously held belief, based on which a power law of exponent -2.2 was conjectured to be valid regardless of the exponent of the power-law distribution of node degrees. PMID:18517694

Bareinboim, Elias; Barbosa, Valmir C

2008-04-01

150

The Challenge of Mars EDL (Entry, Descent, and Landing)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the some of the challenges of Martian atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) on the surface of Mars. It reviews some of the technological difficulties, and some solutions that are being developed for future unmanned missions with larger payloads than previous landers, and ultimately human spacecraft landing.

Sostaric, Ronald

2010-01-01

151

LANDER program manual: A lunar ascent and descent simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDER is a computer program used to predict the trajectory and flight performance of a spacecraft ascending or descending between a low lunar orbit of 15 to 500 nautical miles (nm) and the lunar surface. It is a three degree-of-freedom simulation which is used to analyze the translational motion of the vehicle during descent. Attitude dynamics and rotational motion are not considered. The program can be used to simulate either an ascent from the Moon or a descent to the Moon. For an ascent, the spacecraft is initialized at the lunar surface and accelerates vertically away from the ground at full thrust. When the local velocity becomes 30 ft/s, the vehicle turns downrange with a pitch-over maneuver and proceeds to fly a gravity turn until Main Engine Cutoff (MECO). The spacecraft then coasts until it reaches the requested holding orbit where it performs an orbital insertion burn. During a descent simulation, the lander begins in the holding orbit and performs a deorbit burn. It then coasts to pericynthion, where it reignites its engines and begins a gravity turn descent. When the local horizontal velocity becomes zero, the lander pitches up to a vertical orientation and begins to hover in search of a landing site. The lander hovers for a period of time specified by the user, and then lands.

1988-01-01

152

Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.  

PubMed

The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent. PMID:24636222

Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M

2014-04-01

153

Operation of CONSERT aboard Rosetta during the descent of Philae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study investigating the performance of using the CONSERT instrument aboard the Rosetta spacecraft as a radar sounder during the Separation-Descent-Landing (SDL) phase of the Rosetta mission. Gathering scientifically valuable data during this phase will support CONSERT's primary target, the reconstruction of the 3D permittivity distribution within the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, by providing a permittivity map of the surface around the landing site. Simulation results will show the performance of the instrument, using a realistic setup including the antenna characteristics of both orbiter and landing unit as well as a realistic orbitography for the descent phase. It will be shown that operating the CONSERT instrument will indeed provide very valuable data, thereby providing tremendous aid to the experiment's main objective. Furthermore, by including knowledge of the antenna characteristics, it is possible to calculate attitude and descent profile of the Philae lander during descent, using the data of the line-of-sight propagation path and the echoes reflected from the comet's surface.

Hegler, Sebastian; Statz, Christoph; Hahnel, Ronny; Plettemeier, Dirk; Herique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek

2013-12-01

154

Elderhostels: Teaching and Learning with Americans of German Descent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three workshops designed for an Elderhostel program whose audience is largely Americans of German descent and the grandparents of today's students. The workshop topics include an introduction to the German-American experience and German-American studies; German American customs, beliefs, and traditions; and German-American genealogy,…

Reichmann, Eberhard; Reichmann, Ruth M.

1998-01-01

155

Mars Smart Lander Simulations for Entry, Descent, and Landing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two primary simulations have been developed and are being updated for the Mars Smart Lander Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). The high fidelity engineering end-to-end EDL simulation that is based on NASA Langley's Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectori...

S. A. Striepe, D. W. Way, J. Balaram

2002-01-01

156

Moral Darwinism: Ethical evidence for the descent of man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Could an ethical theory ever play a substantial evidential role in a scientific argument for an empirical hypothesis? InThe Descent of Man, Darwin includes an extended discussion of the nature of human morality, and the ethical theory which he sketches is not simply developed as an interesting ramification of his theory of evolution, but is used as a key part

Robert T. Pennock

1995-01-01

157

Measurement of CPAS Main Parachute Rate of Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown. Flight test performance must be measured to a high degree of accuracy to ensure this requirement is met with the most efficient design possible. Although the design includes three CPAS Main parachutes, the requirement is that the system must not exceed 33 ft/s under two Main parachutes, should one of the Main parachutes fail. Therefore, several tests were conducted with clusters of two Mains. All of the steady-state rate of descent data are normalized to standard sea level conditions and checked against the limit. As the Orion design gains weight, the system is approaching this limit to within measurement precision. Parachute "breathing," cluster interactions, and atmospheric anomalies can cause the rate of descent to vary widely and lead to challenges in characterizing parachute terminal performance. An early test had contradictory rate of descent results from optical trajectory and Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS). A thorough analysis of the data sources and error propagation was conducted to determine the uncertainty in the trajectory. It was discovered that the Time Space Position Information (TSPI) from the optical tracking provided accurate position data. However, the velocity from TPSI must be computed via numerical differentiation, which is prone to large error. DGPS obtains position through pseudo-range calculations from multiple satellites and velocity through Doppler shift of the carrier frequency. Because the velocity from DGPS is a direct measurement, it is more accurate than TSPI velocity. To remedy the situation, a commercial off-the-shelf product that combines GPS and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was purchased to significantly improve rate of descent measurements. This had the added benefit of solving GPS dropouts during aircraft extraction. Statistical probability distributions for CPAS Main parachute rate of descent and drag coefficient were computed and plotted. Using test data, a terminal rate of descent at splashdown can be estimated as a function of canopy loading.

Ray, Eric S.

2011-01-01

158

Bladder outlet obstruction treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifty-nine males with bladder outlet obstruction were treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration of the prostate. Utilizing a 26.5 French urethral sheath, surgery was accomplished with a 10 French, 0-700 micron vibration level ultrasonic tip with an excursion rate of 39 kHz. Complete removal of the adenoma was accomplished, followed by transurethral electrocautery biopsies of both lateral lobes to compare pathologic specimens. One-year follow-up revealed satisfactory voiding patterns in 57 of 59 men (96%). Two men developed bladder neck contractures. Pathologic comparisons showed 100% correlation between aspirated and TUR specimens (56 BPH, 3 adeno-carcinoma). Forty-sevel men were active sexually preoperatively (6 with inflatable penile prostheses). Post ultrasonic aspiration, 46 men had erectile function similar to preoperative levels with one patient suffering erectile dysfunction. Forty men (85%) had antegrade ejaculation while 7 (15%) experienced retrograde or retarded ejaculation. No patients were incontinent.

Malloy, Terrence P.

1991-07-01

159

Constrained trajectory optimization for lunar landing during the powered descent phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

To design the more accurate trajectory of a soft lunar landing, the constraints on the powered descent sub-phase, such as a breaking phase, an approach phase, a terminal descent phase, have to be considered. In this paper, the trajectory optimization of the lunar landing was performed considering constraints on the sub-phase of the powered descent phase. To convert the optimal

Bong-Gyun Park; Daekyu Sangt; Min-Jea Tahku

2009-01-01

160

Treatment Options for Overactive Bladder Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment Options for OAB Treatment Options for Overactive Bladder Overactive bladder treatment is generally approached using one or a ... includes dietary changes , fluid management , pelvic muscle exercises , bladder retraining , and biofeedback ; over the Counter Non-Prescription ...

161

Urgency Urinary Incontinence/Overactive Bladder  

MedlinePLUS

... the toilet more often? You may have overactive bladder. Overactive bladder may leave you feeling embarrassed and like you ... your physician about diagnosis and treatment options. Overactive bladder (OAB): The International Continence Society (ICS) defines overactive ...

162

NECK AND SHOULDER PAIN  

PubMed Central

Neck and shoulder pains are presenting or incidental symptoms in a large variety of conditions. There may be similarities in the anatomicophysiological mechanism of pain production and in the clinical picture in many of these conditions. Many of the vague and refractory cases of neck and shoulder pain and of migraine may be due to cervical disc disease. Scalenus anticus syndrome and cardiac disease can be diagnosed or differentiated from cervical disc syndrome only by thorough investigation. Proper treatment of neck and shoulder pain is dependent upon correct diagnosis through complete history, physical examination and laboratory tests, as described in this presentation.

Fields, Albert; Hoesley, John

1949-01-01

163

Overactive bladder in males  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms is considerable in both men and women and the impact on quality of life (QOL) is equally substantial. Ironically, despite nearly equal prevalence, OAB symptoms in men are infrequently treated, and often with medical therapies aimed at bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). In this review, we examine the pathophysiology of OAB and its evaluation in the context of benign prostatic hypertrophy and concomitant BOO. We then consider the efficacy and safety of individual therapeutic options for lower urinary tract symptoms in men, focusing on the mainstays of medical therapy: ?-adrenergic blockers, 5-? reductase inhibitors, and antimuscarinic agents. Finally, we aim to comment on new therapeutic strategies and targets that may one day be available for the treatment of male OAB.

Dmochowski, Roger R.; Gomelsky, Alex

2009-01-01

164

Effects of electroacupuncture combined with bladder training on the bladder function of patients with neurogenic bladder after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Neurogenic bladder is a common complication of spinal cord injury and results in urinary bladder dysfunction through lost control of micturition, or urination. Although several treatment options exist, the efficacies of many of these treatments are unknown. In particular, electroacupuncture and bladder training have had some success as individual treatments. The aim of this study was to explore effects of electroacupuncture combined with bladder training on bladder function of patients with neurogenic bladder after spinal cord injury (SCI) above the sacral segment. Forty-two patients with neurogenic bladder after SCI were evenly divided into two groups (n=21) and given only bladder function training (control group) or electroacupuncture combined with bladder function training (treatment group). Urodynamic changes, IPSS score, and therapeutic efficacy were compared between groups pre- and post-treatment. After either treatment, patients had higher bladder volume and bladder compliance, but lower residual urine volume, bladder pressure, rectal pressure, and detrusor pressure, compared to pre-treatment (P<0.05). Compared to controls, treatment group patients had significantly increased bladder volume and bladder compliance, but significantly decreased residual urine volume, bladder pressure, rectal pressure, and detrusor pressure (P<0.05). Treatment group patients had lower IPSS scores post-treatment (P<0.05) and better therapeutic efficacy (P<0.05) than control group patients. Altogether, our results suggest that electroacupuncture combined with bladder function training can clinically improve bladder function of patients with neurogenic bladder after SCI above the sacral segment.

Xia, Li-Ping; Fan, Fan; Tang, Ai-Ling; Ye, Wen-Qin

2014-01-01

165

Regional Therapy of Bladder Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urinary bladder is an ideal organ for local topical treament. Numerous agents have been instilled intravesically during\\u000a the last century to decrease bladder tumor recurrence and prevent progression and subsequent patient mortality. Today, intravesical\\u000a immunotherapy with BCG and chemotherapy are routinely used as an adjunct to surgical resection of superficial bladder tumors.\\u000a Photodynamic therapy with different photosensitizers and thermotherapy

Ingo Kausch; Dieter Jocham

166

Purinoceptors and Bladder Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purinergic signaling is increasingly appreciated as an important contributor to the normal bladder functions of urine storage\\u000a and voiding. The translation of disease and injury to abnormal sensory and motor function, resulting in lower urinary tract\\u000a symptoms, is in part mediated by the interaction of adenosine 5?-triphosphate and related purines with specific purinergic\\u000a receptors (purinoceptors). Identification and clarification of purinoceptor-based

Phillip P. Smith

2011-01-01

167

Melanoma - neck (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This melanoma on the neck is variously colored with a very darkly pigmented area found centrally. It has irregular ... be larger than 0.5 cm. Prognosis in melanoma is best defined by its depth on resection.

168

Head and Neck Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the throat meets the back of the nasal cavity. Unlike other head and neck cancers, this one ... a lot of fermented foods. Sinuses and nasal cavity. About three-quarters of cancers found in the ...

169

Head and Neck Cancers  

MedlinePLUS

... image of head and neck cancer regions. Oral cavity : Includes the lips, the front two-thirds of ... entering the air passages. Paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity : The paranasal sinuses are small hollow spaces in ...

170

[Lymphorrhea after neck dissection].  

PubMed

In this publication lymphorrhea was described as one of possible complications after the neck dissection surgery of Crile-Jawdy?ski procedurae. The matter of this complication is rise of pressure in lymph system. 4 women with this complication after neck dissection, the best treatment is drainage of the operated area. In one patient, because of the failure of conservative treatment, another surgical intervention was preformed. The full treatment of lymphorrhea was after 4-6 weeks. PMID:10481496

Nowaczyk, M T

1999-01-01

171

Femoral Neck Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fractures around the hip joint result from violent force such as high-energy trauma or less frequently in association with\\u000a pathological conditions [1]. Femoral neck fracture as an atypical presentation of child abuse has also been presented recently\\u000a [2]. The overall incidence of femoral neck fractures in children is less than 1% [3]. They occur in children of all ages,\\u000a but

Peter W. Engelhardt

172

Evidence for Bladder Urothelial Pathophysiology in Functional Bladder Disorders  

PubMed Central

Understanding of the role of urothelium in regulating bladder function is continuing to evolve. While the urothelium is thought to function primarily as a barrier for preventing injurious substances and microorganisms from gaining access to bladder stroma and upper urinary tract, studies indicate it may also function in cell signaling events relating to voiding function. This review highlights urothelial abnormalities in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), feline interstitial cystitis (FIC), and nonneurogenic idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). These bladder conditions are typified by lower urinary tract symptoms including urinary frequency, urgency, urgency incontinence, nocturia, and bladder discomfort or pain. Urothelial tissues and cells from affected clinical subjects and asymptomatic controls have been compared for expression of proteins and mRNA. Animal models have also been used to probe urothelial responses to injuries of the urothelium, urethra, or central nervous system, and transgenic techniques are being used to test specific urothelial abnormalities on bladder function. BPS/IC, FIC, and OAB appear to share some common pathophysiology including increased purinergic, TRPV1, and muscarinic signaling, increased urothelial permeability, and aberrant urothelial differentiation. One challenge is to determine which of several abnormally regulated signaling pathways is most important for mediating bladder dysfunction in these syndromes, with a goal of treating these conditions by targeting specific pathophysiology.

Keay, Susan K.; Birder, Lori A.; Chai, Toby C.

2014-01-01

173

Two descent hybrid conjugate gradient methods for optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose two new hybrid nonlinear conjugate gradient methods, which produce sufficient descent search direction at every iteration. This property depends neither on the line search used nor on the convexity of the objective function. Under suitable conditions, we prove that the proposed methods converge globally for general nonconvex functions. The numerical results show that both hybrid methods are efficient for the given test problems from the CUTE library.

Zhang, Li; Zhou, Weijun

2008-06-01

174

Exponentiated Gradient Versus Gradient Descent for Linear Predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider two algorithms for on-line prediction based on a linear model. The algorithms are the well-known gradient descent (GD) algorithm and a new algorithm, which we call EG±. They both maintain a weight vector using simple updates. For the GD algorithm, the update is based on subtracting the gradient of the squared error made on a prediction. The EG±algorithm

Jyrki Kivinen; Manfred K. Warmuth

1997-01-01

175

Numerical Simulation of Helicopter Aeromechanics in Slow Descent Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we present numerical simulation results for a generic helicopter configuration in slow descent flight. The well\\u000a known HART-II test case has been chosen as the experimental reference, especially the baseline case. This test case is characterized\\u000a by the occurrence of Blade-Vortex Interactions (BVI) and can thus be considered as very ambitious with respect to the aerodynamic\\u000a simulation.

M. Embacher; M. Keßler; F. Bensing; E. Krämer

176

Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children of Middle Eastern Descent  

PubMed Central

Increasing rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are now seen in populations where it was once uncommon. The pattern of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent in Australia has never been reported. This study aimed to investigate the burden of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent at the Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCHR). The SCHR IBD database was used to identify patients of self-reported Middle Eastern ethnicity diagnosed between 1987 and 2011. Demographic, diagnosis, and management data was collected for all Middle Eastern children and an age and gender matched non-Middle Eastern IBD control group. Twenty-four patients of Middle Eastern descent were identified. Middle Eastern Crohn's disease patients had higher disease activity at diagnosis, higher use of thiopurines, and less restricted colonic disease than controls. Although there were limitations with this dataset, we estimated a higher prevalence of IBD in Middle Eastern children and they had a different disease phenotype and behavior compared to the control group, with less disease restricted to the colon and likely a more active disease course.

Naidoo, Christina Mai Ying; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

177

Entry, Descent, and Landing Performance of the Mars Phoenix Lander  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander successfully landed on the northern arctic plains of Mars. An overview of a preliminary reconstruction analysis performed on each entry, descent, and landing phase to assess the performance of Phoenix as it descended is presented and a comparison to pre-entry predictions is provided. The landing occurred 21 km further downrange than the predicted landing location. Analysis of the flight data revealed that the primary cause of Phoenix s downrange landing was a higher trim total angle of attack during the hypersonic phase of the entry, which resulted in Phoenix flying a slightly lifting trajectory. The cause of this higher trim attitude is not known at this time. Parachute deployment was 6.4 s later than prediction. This later deployment time was within the variations expected and is consistent with a lifting trajectory. The parachute deployment and inflation process occurred as expected with no anomalies identified. The subsequent parachute descent and powered terminal landing also behaved as expected. A preliminary reconstruction of the landing day atmospheric density profile was found to be lower than the best apriori prediction, ranging from a few percent less to a maximum of 8%. A comparison of the flight reconstructed trajectory parameters shows that the actual Phoenix entry, descent, and landing was close to pre-entry predictions. This reconstruction investigation is currently ongoing and the results to date are in the process of being refined.

Desai, Prasun N.; Prince, Jill L.; Wueen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.; Grover, Myron R.

2008-01-01

178

Data-Analysis System for Entry, Descent, and Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report describes the Entry Descent Landing Data Analysis (EDA), which is a system of signal-processing software and computer hardware for acquiring status data conveyed by multiple-frequency-shift-keying tone signals transmitted by a spacecraft during descent to the surface of a remote planet. The design of the EDA meets the challenge of processing weak, fluctuating signals that are Doppler-shifted by amounts that are only partly predictable. The software supports both real-time and post processing. The software performs fast-Fourier-transform integration, parallel frequency tracking with prediction, and mapping of detected tones to specific events. The use of backtrack and refinement parallel-processing threads helps to minimize data gaps. The design affords flexibility to enable division of a descent track into segments, within each of which the EDA is configured optimally for processing in the face of signal conditions and uncertainties. A dynamic-lock-state feature enables the detection of signals using minimum required computing power less when signals are steadily detected, more when signals fluctuate. At present, the hardware comprises eight dual-processor personal-computer modules and a server. The hardware is modular, making it possible to increase computing power by adding computers.

Pham, Timothy; Chang, Christine; Sartorius, Edgar; Finley, Susan; White, Leslie; Estabrook, Polly; Fort, David

2005-01-01

179

Lunar Surface Access Module Descent Engine Turbopump Technology: Detailed Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new lunar exploration architecture. Studies indicate that a 4-engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a candidate configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The lander descent engine will be required to perform minor mid-course corrections, a Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) burn, a de-orbit burn, and the powered descent onto the lunar surface. In order to achieve the wide range of thrust required, the engines must be capable of throttling approximately 10:1. Working under internal research and development funding, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been conducting the development of a 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 lunar lander descent engine testbed. This paper highlights the detailed design and analysis efforts to develop the lander engine Fuel Turbopump (FTP) whose operating speeds range from 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm. The capability of the FTP to operate across this wide range of speeds imposes several structural and dynamic challenges, and the small size of the FTP creates scaling and manufacturing challenges that are also addressed in this paper.

Alarez, Erika; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.

2008-01-01

180

Lunar Surface Access Module Descent Engine Turbopump Technology: Detailed Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new lunar exploration architecture. Studies indicate that a 4-engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a candidate configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The lander descent engine will be required to perform multiple burns including the powered descent onto the lunar surface. In order to achieve the wide range of thrust required, the engines must be capable of throttling approximately 10:1. Working under internal research and development funding, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been conducting the development of a 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 lunar lander descent engine technology testbed. This paper highlights the detailed design and analysis efforts to develop the lander engine Fuel Turbopump (FTP) whose operating speeds range from 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm. The capability of the FTP to operate across this wide range of speeds imposes several structural and dynamic challenges, and the small size of the FTP creates scaling and manufacturing challenges that are also addressed in this paper.

Alvarez, Erika; Forbes, John C.; Thornton, Randall J.

2010-01-01

181

Shadowing Pseudo-Orbits and Gradient Descent Noise Reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shadowing trajectories are one of the most powerful ideas of modern dynamical systems theory, providing a tool for proving some central theorems and a means to assess the relevance of models and numerically computed trajectories of chaotic systems. Shadowing has also been seen to have a role in state estimation and forecasting of nonlinear systems. Shadowing trajectories are guaranteed to exist in hyperbolic systems, but this is not true of nonhyperbolic systems, indeed it can be shown there are systems that cannot have long shadowing trajectories. In this paper we consider what might be called shadowing pseudo-orbits. These are pseudo-orbits that remain close to a given pseudo-orbit, but have smaller mismatches between forecast state and verifying state. Shadowing pseudo-orbits play a useful role in the understanding and analysis of gradient descent noise reduction, state estimation, and forecasting nonlinear systems, because their existence can be ensured for a wide class of nonhyperbolic systems. New theoretical results are presented that extend classical shadowing theorems to shadowing pseudo-orbits. These new results provide some insight into the convergence behaviour of gradient descent noise reduction methods. The paper also discusses, in the light of the new results, some recent numerical results for an operational weather forecasting model when gradient descent noise reduction was employed.

Judd, Kevin

2008-02-01

182

Biomechanical Analysis of Stair Descent in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purposes of this study were to investigate the lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics of patients with the knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) during stair descent and clarify the biomechanical factors related to their difficulty in stair descent. [Subjects and Methods] Eight healthy elderly persons and four knee OA patients participated in this study. A 3-D motion analysis system and force plates were employed to measure lower extremity joint angles, ranges of motion, joint moments, joint powers, and ratios of contribution for the joint powers while descending stairs. [Results] Knee joint flexion angle, extension moment, and negative power during the early stance phase in the knee OA group were smaller than those in the healthy subjects group. However, no significant changes in these parameters in the ankle joint were observed between the two subject groups. [Conclusion] Knee OA patients could not use the knee joint to absorb impact during the early stance phase of stair descent. Hence, they might compensate for the roles played by the intact knee joint by mainly using ipsilateral ankle kinematics and kinetics.

Igawa, Tatsuya; Katsuhira, Junji

2014-01-01

183

Hazard avoidance via descent images for safe landing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In planetary or lunar landing missions, hazard avoidance is critical for landing safety. Therefore, it is very important to correctly detect hazards and effectively find a safe landing area during the last stage of descent. In this paper, we propose a passive sensing based HDA (hazard detection and avoidance) approach via descent images to lower the landing risk. In hazard detection stage, a statistical probability model on the basis of the hazard similarity is adopted to evaluate the image and detect hazardous areas, so that a binary hazard image can be generated. Afterwards, a safety coefficient, which jointly utilized the proportion of hazards in the local region and the inside hazard distribution, is proposed to find potential regions with less hazards in the binary hazard image. By using the safety coefficient in a coarse-to-fine procedure and combining it with the local ISD (intensity standard deviation) measure, the safe landing area is determined. The algorithm is evaluated and verified with many simulated descent downward looking images rendered from lunar orbital satellite images.

Yan, Ruicheng; Cao, Zhiguo; Zhu, Lei; Fang, Zhiwen

2013-10-01

184

Titan Explorer Entry, Descent and Landing Trajectory Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Titan Explorer mission concept includes an orbiter, entry probe and inflatable airship designed to take remote and in-situ measurements of Titan's atmosphere. A modified entry, descent and landing trajectory at Titan that incorporates mid-air airship inflation (under a parachute) and separation is developed and examined for Titan Explorer. The feasibility of mid-air inflation and deployment of an airship under a parachute is determined by implementing and validating an airship buoyancy and inflation model in the trajectory simulation program, Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2). A nominal POST2 trajectory simulation case study is generated which examines different descent scenarios by varying airship inflation duration, orientation, and separation. The buoyancy model incorporation into POST2 is new to the software and may be used in future trajectory simulations. Each case from the nominal POST2 trajectory case study simulates a successful separation between the parachute and airship systems with sufficient velocity change as to alter their paths to avoid collision throughout their descent. The airship and heatshield also separate acceptably with a minimum distance of separation from the parachute system of 1.5 km. This analysis shows the feasibility of airship inflation on a parachute for different orientations, airship separation at various inflation times, and preparation for level-flight at Titan.

Fisher, Jody L.; Lindberg, Robert E.; Lockwood, Mary Kae

2006-01-01

185

Adenocarcinoma in the exstrophic bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 2 cases of cancerous transformation in an exstrophic bladder. The histology of these tumors, methods of surveillance, and treatment are discussed in conjunction with a review of published reports. These rare tumors are almost entirely adenocarcinomas. Their treatment is surgical (radical cystectomy) with or without associated radiation therapy. Surveillance for patients with bladder exstrophy, whether surgically corrected or

P Paulhac; F Maisonnette; S Bourg; J. P Dumas; P Colombeau

1999-01-01

186

Where is the neck?  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The alpha angle is the most used measurement to classify concavity of the femoral head-neck junction. It is not only used for treatment decisions for hip impingement, but also in cohort studies relating hip morphology and osteoarthritis. Alpha angle measurement requires identification of the femoral neck axis, the definition of which may vary between studies. The original “3-point method” uses 1 single point to construct the femoral neck axis, whereas the “anatomic method” uses multiple points and attempts to define the true anatomic neck axis. Depending on the method used, the alpha angle may or may not account for other morphological characteristics such as head-neck offset. Methods We compared 2 methods of alpha angle measurement (termed “anatomic” and “3-point”) in 59 cadaver femora and 83 cross-table lateral radiographs of asymptomatic subjects. Results were compared using Bland-Altman plots. Results Discrepancies of up to 13 degrees were seen between the methods. The 3-point method had an “equalizing effect” by disregarding femoral head position relative to the neck: in femora with high alpha angle, it resulted in lower values than anatomic measurement, and vice versa in femora with low alpha angles. Using the anatomic method, we derived a reference interval for the alpha angle in normal hips in the general population of 30–66 degrees. Interpretation We recommend the anatomic method because it also reflects the position of the femoral head on the neck. Consensus and standardization of technique of alpha angle measurement is warranted, not only for planar measurements but also for CT or MRI-based measurements.

2014-01-01

187

Urothelial mucosal signaling and the overactive bladder-ICI-RS 2013.  

PubMed

There is abundant evidence that the lower urinary tract (LUT) mucosal layer is involved both in mechanosensory functions that regulate bladder contractile activity and in urethral sensation. Changes to the mucosa can be associated with a number of bladder pathologies. For example, alterations of the urothelium and underlying lamina propria at both the molecular and structural levels have been reported in both patients and animals associated with disorders such as bladder pain syndrome and diabetic cystopathy. In contrast to the urinary bladder, much less is known about the urothelium/lamina propria of the bladder neck/proximal urethra. There are important gender differences in the outflow region both anatomically and with respect to innervation, hormonal sensitivity, and location of the external urethral sphincter. There is reasonable evidence to support the view that the mucosal signaling pathway in the proximal urethra is important for normal voiding, but it has also been speculated that the proximal urethra can initiate bladder overactivity. When dysfunctional, the proximal urethra may be an interesting target, for example, botulinum toxin injections aiming at eliminating both urgency and incontinence due to detrusor overactivity. Neurourol. Urodynam. 33:597-601, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24838393

Birder, Lori A; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Kanai, Anthony J; Hanna-Mitchell, Ann T; Fry, Chris H

2014-06-01

188

Primary multiple clear cell variant urothelial carcinomas of urinary bladder: a rare case report  

PubMed Central

Clear cell variant urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder was very rare. There were only 6 report articles included by Pubmed and total 8 cases had been described till now. All of the past reports described single tumor of urinary bladder, but multiple carcinomas had not been reported. Here we reported a 65-years-old Chinese man who complained of intermittent gross hematuria and odynuria for more than 2 months in January 2013. Only one cauliflower-like tumor was detected approximately in the left wall of the urinary bladder with cystoscopy and the biopsy specimen was diagnosed as “urothelial carcinoma, high grade”. However, three tumors were found in anterior wall (×2) near neck of urinary bladder and posterior wall (×1) of the urinary bladder during transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. Typical urothelial carcinoma with partial clear cell appearance made it difficult to make a precise pathological diagnosis and immunohistochemical stain helped to diagnose the case as clear cell variant urothelial carcinoma, but not metastasis of the renal cell carcinoma. Finally, computerized tomographic scanning confirmed that there was no primary tumor in the kidney. The clinical and pathological characteristic had not been identified for the limited reports. More work should be done to know this kind of tumor well for guiding clinical therapy.

Zhang, Yutao; Huang, Jun; Feng, Hao; Tang, Yun

2014-01-01

189

Medical management of overactive bladder  

PubMed Central

Overactive bladder (OAB), as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat.

Ubee, Sarvpreet S.; Manikandan, Ramaswamy; Singh, Gurpreet

2010-01-01

190

[Enteroplasty in bladder tumors].  

PubMed

A total of 429 patients with urinary tumors have been operated on in the past 10 years, 80 of them have been undergone cystectomy. Intestinal plasty of the urinary bladder was performed in 38 patients. These one-stage operations in 15 patients yielded a high postoperative mortality rate (33.3%). Two-stage surgeries in 23 patients largely reduced mortality (8.9%). The authors provide recommendations how to conduct the two-stage surgery and limited indications for one-stage interventions. PMID:1871919

Belykh, S I; Galeev, R Kh; Khalimov, Z M

1991-01-01

191

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Bladder Tumor in a Patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare neoplasm described in several tissues and organs including genitourinary system, lung, head, and neck. The etiology of IMT is contentious, and whether it is a postinflammatory process or a true neoplasm remains controversial. To our knowledge, we report the first reported case of IMT of urinary bladder in a pediatric patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn (WHS). We also review the literature about patients with associated neoplasia.

Marte, Antonio; Indolfi, Paolo; Ficociello, Carmine; Oreste, Matilde; Bottigliero, Gaetano; Gualdiero, Giovanna; Barone, Ciro; Vigliar, Elena; Indolfi, Cristiana; Casale, Fiorina

2013-01-01

192

Inflammatory myofibroblastic bladder tumor in a patient with wolf-hirschhorn syndrome.  

PubMed

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare neoplasm described in several tissues and organs including genitourinary system, lung, head, and neck. The etiology of IMT is contentious, and whether it is a postinflammatory process or a true neoplasm remains controversial. To our knowledge, we report the first reported case of IMT of urinary bladder in a pediatric patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn (WHS). We also review the literature about patients with associated neoplasia. PMID:24024066

Marte, Antonio; Indolfi, Paolo; Ficociello, Carmine; Russo, Daniela; Oreste, Matilde; Bottigliero, Gaetano; Gualdiero, Giovanna; Barone, Ciro; Vigliar, Elena; Indolfi, Cristiana; Casale, Fiorina

2013-01-01

193

Advances in bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are administered to patients with bladder cancer in the hope of decreasing the rate of recurrence and, more importantly, reducing the rate of progression. So far, bacille Calmette-Guérin is the only agent to decrease progression rate and thus increase survival. Bacille Calmette-Guérin has been shown to achieve this outcome by selectively sparing certain sequences during fibronectin degradation; these critical fragments were shown to have motility-stimulating activity, which may then enhance tumor invasion. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that cathepsin B inhibitors prevent degradation of human basement membrane laminin, which is the first step of tumor invasion. Cathepsin B inhibitors either alone or in combination with bacille Calmette-Guérin may be valuable in preventing the progression of superficial bladder tumors in the future. Clinical studies on bacille Calmette-Guérin have repeatedly shown that a second course of bacille Calmette-Guérin to patients with local failure did not jeopardize patient survival. Adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced disease and for those with regionally involved lymph nodes improves progression-free survival. Further controlled studies will establish the verdict for adjuvant chemotherapy. With the advancement of molecular genetic studies relevant to modern technology, our understanding of tumor behavior improves dramatically, and classic knowledge becomes more outdated every day. PMID:8494917

Ozen, H

1993-05-01

194

Adaptive management of bladder cancer radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Recently, the bladder preserving potential of radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer (bladder RT) has been recognized, and there is a renewed interest to improve bladder RT. The pivotal problem in bladder RT is caused by organ motion: without image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), generous margins in the range of 2-3 cm have to be applied to account for organ motion, implying large treatment volumes and dose-limiting toxicity. IGRT has the potential to substantially reduce those margins, and thereby reduce treatment volumes. This review summarizes the literature on organ motion and IGRT for bladder cancer, and several bladder-specific problems and IGRT strategies are discussed. PMID:20219549

Pos, Floris; Remeijer, Peter

2010-04-01

195

Head and neck leiomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

Soft tissue sarcomas of head and neck region, account for 4-15% of all soft tissue sarcomas and less than 1% of all neoplasms in this region. Leiomyosarcoma is malignant tumor of smooth muscle which accounts for only 4% of head and neck sarcomas. The tumor is commonly encountered as a slow growing, discrete firm, and non-ulcerated painless mass. The physical appearance of these tumors can be deceptively benign and can be mistaken for non-malignant conditions. An early diagnosis and aggressive initial treatment remains the mainstay of therapy for a good prognosis. We are presenting eight cases of primary leiomyosarcoma of head and neck region with review of literature and highlight the need for early prudent diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24427607

Yadav, Jagveer; Bakshi, Jaimanti; Chouhan, Mahendra; Modi, Rahul

2013-07-01

196

Leiomyoma of the bladder in a patient with von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis  

PubMed Central

Leiomyomas are an uncommon manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) and occur most often in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, they have a proclivity for the proximal small bowel and tend to be multiple. Urinary tract involvement by NF-1 is usually in the form of neurofibromas, and leiomyomas are exceptionally rare. This report describes a case of solitary leiomyoma occurring in a 49 year old woman with NF-1. The patient had symptoms related to a lower urinary tract infection and on examination was found to have a distended bladder. Imaging of the bladder showed a mass involving the posterior wall, neck, and trigone causing bilateral hydronephrosis. The mass was excised with part of the bladder. Microscopic examination revealed typical features of a leiomyoma and there was strong immunoreactivity for desmin and smooth muscle actin. Leiomyoma must be considered in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms in patients with NF-1.

Dauth, T L; Conradie, M; Chetty, R

2003-01-01

197

Bladder Injury During Cesarean Delivery  

PubMed Central

Cesarean section is the most common surgery performed in the United States with over 30% of deliveries occurring via this route. This number is likely to increase given decreasing rates of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) and primary cesarean delivery on maternal request, which carries the inherent risk for intraoperative complications. Urologic injury is the most common injury at the time of either obstetric or gynecologic surgery, with the bladder being the most frequent organ damaged. Risk factors for bladder injury during cesarean section include previous cesarean delivery, adhesions, emergent cesarean delivery, and cesarean section performed at the time of the second stage of labor. Fortunately, most bladder injuries are recognized at the time of surgery, which is important, as quick recognition and repair are associated with a significant reduction in patient mortality. Although cesarean delivery is a cornerstone of obstetrics, there is a paucity of data in the literature either supporting or refuting specific techniques that are performed today. There is evidence to support double-layer closure of the hysterotomy, the routine use of adhesive barriers, and performing a Pfannenstiel skin incision versus a vertical midline subumbilical incision to decrease the risk for bladder injury during cesarean section. There is also no evidence that supports the creation of a bladder flap, although routinely performed during cesarean section, as a method to reduce the risk of bladder injury. Finally, more research is needed to determine if indwelling catheterization, exteriorization of the uterus, and methods to extend hysterotomy incision lead to bladder injury.

Tarney, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

198

Head and Neck Melanoma  

PubMed Central

The incidence of malignant melanoma appears to be increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world over the past 30–40 years and continues to increase in the United States, Canada, Australia, Asia, and Europe. The behavior of head and neck melanoma is aggressive, and it has an overall poorer prognosis than that of other skin sites. The authors review the published literature and text books, intending to give an overall picture of malignant melanomas of the head and neck and a special emphasis on treatment considerations with controversies in treatment including biopsy, radiation therapy, sentinel node biopsy, and nodal dissection.

Shashanka, R.; Smitha, B. R.

2012-01-01

199

Entry, Descent, and Landing for Human Mars Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most challenging aspects of a human mission to Mars is landing safely on the Martian surface. Mars has such low atmospheric density that decelerating large masses (tens of metric tons) requires methods that have not yet been demonstrated, and are not yet planned in future Mars missions. To identify the most promising options for Mars entry, descent, and landing, and to plan development of the needed technologies, NASA's Human Architecture Team (HAT) has refined candidate methods for emplacing needed elements of the human Mars exploration architecture (such as ascent vehicles and habitats) on the Mars surface. This paper explains the detailed, optimized simulations that have been developed to define the mass needed at Mars arrival to accomplish the entry, descent, and landing functions. Based on previous work, technology options for hypersonic deceleration include rigid, mid-L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) aeroshells, and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (IADs). The hypersonic IADs, or HIADs, are about 20% less massive than the rigid vehicles, but both have their technology development challenges. For the supersonic regime, supersonic retropropulsion (SRP) is an attractive option, since a propulsive stage must be carried for terminal descent and can be ignited at higher speeds. The use of SRP eliminates the need for an additional deceleration system, but SRP is at a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) in that the interacting plumes are not well-characterized, and their effect on vehicle stability has not been studied, to date. These architecture-level assessments have been used to define the key performance parameters and a technology development strategy for achieving the challenging mission of landing large payloads on Mars.

Munk, Michelle M.; DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.

2012-01-01

200

Powered Descent Guidance with General Thrust-Pointing Constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) algorithm and software for generating Mars pinpoint or precision landing guidance profiles has been enhanced to incorporate thrust-pointing constraints. Pointing constraints would typically be needed for onboard sensor and navigation systems that have specific field-of-view requirements to generate valid ground proximity and terrain-relative state measurements. The original PDG algorithm was designed to enforce both control and state constraints, including maximum and minimum thrust bounds, avoidance of the ground or descent within a glide slope cone, and maximum speed limits. The thrust-bound and thrust-pointing constraints within PDG are non-convex, which in general requires nonlinear optimization methods to generate solutions. The short duration of Mars powered descent requires guaranteed PDG convergence to a solution within a finite time; however, nonlinear optimization methods have no guarantees of convergence to the global optimal or convergence within finite computation time. A lossless convexification developed for the original PDG algorithm relaxed the non-convex thrust bound constraints. This relaxation was theoretically proven to provide valid and optimal solutions for the original, non-convex problem within a convex framework. As with the thrust bound constraint, a relaxation of the thrust-pointing constraint also provides a lossless convexification that ensures the enhanced relaxed PDG algorithm remains convex and retains validity for the original nonconvex problem. The enhanced PDG algorithm provides guidance profiles for pinpoint and precision landing that minimize fuel usage, minimize landing error to the target, and ensure satisfaction of all position and control constraints, including thrust bounds and now thrust-pointing constraints.

Carson, John M., III; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars

2013-01-01

201

Management of overactive bladder syndrome  

PubMed Central

Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is the term used to describe the symptom complex of urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia. Drug treatment continues to have an important role in the management of women with OAB. Other treatment options include conservative management with lifestyle interventions, modification of fluid intake, and physiotherapy including bladder retraining. Surgery remains the last resort in the treatment and is usually reserved for intractable detrusor overactivity, as it is associated with significant morbidity. This article reviews the management of the overactive bladder with specific focus on newer developments in the medical treatment of OAB in women.

Srikrishna, Sushma; Robinson, Dudley; Cardozo, Linda; Vella, Maria

2007-01-01

202

A rare urinary bladder tumour.  

PubMed

This case report describes a 54-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with low back pain. During his workup, an incidental finding of a bladder mass was diagnosed. He underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour and the resulting pathology was consistent with extra nodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Presentation of MALT lymphoma in the urinary bladder is rare. This malignancy is more commonly found in the stomach. The prognosis for this rare tumour is excellent. Our patient showed no sign of recurrence with transurethral excision and radiation alone. PMID:24835803

Haddad-Lacle, Judella Edwina Maria; Haddad, Charles Joseph; Villas, Bruce

2014-01-01

203

STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 5: Descent, cycle 3. Appendix C: Monte Carlo dispersion analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of three nonlinear the Monte Carlo dispersion analyses for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) Orbiter Descent Operational Flight Profile, Cycle 3 are presented. Fifty randomly selected simulation for the end of mission (EOM) descent, the abort once around (AOA) descent targeted line are steep target line, and the AOA descent targeted to the shallow target line are analyzed. These analyses compare the flight environment with system and operational constraints on the flight environment and in some cases use simplified system models as an aid in assessing the STS-1 descent flight profile. In addition, descent flight envelops are provided as a data base for use by system specialists to determine the flight readiness for STS-1. The results of these dispersion analyses supersede results of the dispersion analysis previously documented.

1980-01-01

204

A piloted simulator evaluation of a ground-based 4D descent advisor algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground-based, four-dimensional (4D) descent-advisor algorithm is under development at NASA Ames Research Center. The algorithm combines detailed aerodynamic, propulsive, and atmospheric models with an efficient numerical integration scheme to generate 4D descent advisories. This paper investigates the ability of the 4D descent advisor algorithm to provide adequate control of arrival time for aircraft not equipped with on-board 4D guidance systems. A piloted simulation was conducted to determine the precision with which the descent advisor could predict the 4D trajectories of typical straight-in descents flown by airline pilots under different wind conditions. The effects of errors in the estimation of wind and initial aircraft weight were also studied. A description of the descent advisor as well as the results of the simulation studies are presented.

Green, Steven M.; Davis, Thomas J.; Erzberger, Heinz

1987-01-01

205

A piloted simulator evaluation of a ground-based 4-D descent advisor algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground-based, four dimensional (4D) descent-advisor algorithm is under development at NASA-Ames. The algorithm combines detailed aerodynamic, propulsive, and atmospheric models with an efficient numerical integration scheme to generate 4D descent advisories. The ability is investigated of the 4D descent advisor algorithm to provide adequate control of arrival time for aircraft not equipped with on-board 4D guidance systems. A piloted simulation was conducted to determine the precision with which the descent advisor could predict the 4D trajectories of typical straight-in descents flown by airline pilots under different wind conditions. The effects of errors in the estimation of wind and initial aircraft weight were also studied. A description of the descent advisor as well as the result of the simulation studies are presented.

Davis, Thomas J.; Green, Steven M.; Erzberger, Heinz

1990-01-01

206

Descent equations of Yang-Mills anomalies in noncommutative geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consistent Yang-Mills anomalies ? ?2n?kk?1 (n?N, k = 1,2,…, 2n) as described collectively by Zumino's descent equations ??2n?kk?1 + d?2n?k?1k = 0 starting with the Chern character Ch2n = d?2n?10 of a principal SU (N) bundle over a 2n-dimensional manifold are considered (i.e. ? ?2n?kk?1 are the Chern-Simons terms (k = 1), axial anomalies (k = 2), Schwinger terms (k

Edwin Langmann

1997-01-01

207

Apollo 16, LM-11 descent propulsion system final flight evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the LM-11 descent propulsion system during the Apollo 16 missions was evaluated and found satisfactory. The average engine effective specific impulse was 0.1 second higher than predicted, but well within the predicted one sigma uncertainty of 0.2 seconds. Several flight measurement discrepancies existed during the flight as follows: (1) the chamber pressure transducer had a noticeable drift, exhibiting a maximum error of about 1.5 psi at approximately 130 seconds after engine ignition, (2) the fuel and oxidizer interface pressure measurements appeared to be low during the entire flight, and (3) the fuel propellant quantity gaging system did not perform within expected accuracies.

Avvenire, A. T.

1974-01-01

208

Factored form descent: a practical algorithm for coherence retrieval.  

PubMed

We formulate coherence retrieval, the process of recovering via intensity measurements the two-point correlation function of a partially coherent field, as a convex weighted least-squares problem and show that it can be solved with a novel iterated descent algorithm using a coherent-modes factorization of the mutual intensity. This algorithm is more memory-efficient than the standard interior point methods used to solve convex problems, and we verify its feasibility by reconstructing the mutual intensity of a Schell-model source from both simulated data and experimental measurements. PMID:23482147

Zhang, Zhengyun; Chen, Zhi; Rehman, Shakil; Barbastathis, George

2013-03-11

209

Robotic approaches to the neck.  

PubMed

This article introduces and evaluates the feasibility of robot-assisted neck dissection as well as robot-assisted neck surgery via a modified facelift or retroauricular approach. Robot-assisted neck surgery is feasible compared with conventional techniques and shows a clear cosmetic benefit. PMID:24882801

Koh, Yoon Woo; Choi, Eun Chang

2014-06-01

210

Bladder endometriosis must be considered as bladder adenomyosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To present data from a series of 17 cases of bladder endometriosis.Design: Clinical study.Setting: A university hospital department of gynecology.Patient(s): Seventeen patients complaining of menstrual urinary symptoms and\\/or pelvic pain.Intervention(s): Diagnosis and resection of a bladder adenomyotic nodule.Main Outcome Measure(s): Histologic analysis and postsurgical outcome.Result(s): Seventy-six percent of the patients reported menstrual mictalgia and pollakiuria, and 88% reported dysmenorrhea

Jacques Donnez; Francesca Spada; Jean Squifflet; Michelle Nisolle

2000-01-01

211

Modulation of bladder myofibroblast activity: implications for bladder function  

PubMed Central

Bladder suburothelial myofibroblasts may modulate both sensory responses from the bladder wall and spontaneous activity. This study aimed to characterize further these cells in their response to exogenous agents implicated in mediating the above activity. Detrusor strips, with or without mucosa, and isolated suburothelial myofibroblasts were prepared from guinea pig bladders. Isometric tension, intracellular Ca2+, and membrane current were recorded. Cell pairs were formed by pushing two cells together. Tension, intracellular Ca2+, and membrane potential were also recorded from bladder sheets using normal or spinal cord-transected (SCT) rats. Spontaneous contractions were greater in detrusor strips with an intact mucosa and were augmented by 10 ?M UTP. ATP, UTP, or reduced extracellular pH elicited Ca2+ transients and inward currents (Erev ?30 mV) in isolated cells. Capsaicin (5–30 ?M) reduced membrane current (37 ± 12% of control) with minor effects on Ca2+ transients: sodium nitroprusside reduced membrane currents (40 ± 21% of control). Cell pair formation, without an increase in cell capacitance, augmented ATP and pH responses (180 ± 58% of control) and reduced the threshold to ATP and acidosis. Glivec (20–50 ?M) reversibly blocked the augmentation and also reduced spontaneous activity in bladder sheets from SCT, but not normal, rats. Glivec also disrupted the spread of Ca2+ waves in SCT sheets, generating patterns similar to normal bladders. Suburothelial myofibroblasts respond to exogenous agents implicated in modulating bladder sensory responses; responses augmented by physical intercellular contact. The action of glivec and its selective suppression of spontaneous activity in SCT rats identifies a possible pathway to attenuate bladder overactivity.

Sui, Gui-Ping; Wu, Changhao; Roosen, Alexander; Ikeda, Youko; Kanai, Anthony J.; Fry, Christopher H.

2008-01-01

212

An evaluation of descent strategies for TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigated were the effects on system throughput and fleet fuel usage of arrival aircraft utilizing three 4D RNAV descent strategies (cost optimal, clean-idle Mach/CAS and constant descent angle Mach/CAS), both individually and in combination, in an advanced air traffic control metering environment. Results are presented for all mixtures of arrival traffic consisting of three Boeing commercial jet types and for all combinations of the three descent strategies for a typical en route metering airport arrival distribution.

Izumi, K. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Groce, J. L.; Coote, M. A.

1986-01-01

213

A New Tool for Distinguishing Muscle Invasive and Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Initial Application of Flexible Ultrasound Bronchoscope in Bladder Tumor Staging  

PubMed Central

Objectives To validate the flexible ultrasound bronchoscope (FUB) as a tool in distinguishing muscle invasive and non-muscle invasive bladder tumors. Materials and Methods From June 2010 to April 2012, 62 patients (11 female and 51 male) with 92 bladder urothelial carcinoma were treated in our study. The mean (±SD) patient age was 64.0±12.5 years old (ranged from 22 to 87). Clinical T stage was assessed by FUB at first in operating room, then immediately initial diagnostic transurethral resection (TUR) was performed. A second TUR would be done 2–4 weeks after initial TUR when the latter was incomplete (in large and multiple tumours, no muscle in the specimen) or when an exophytic high-grade and/or T1 tumour was detected. And radical cystectomy would be performed for the patients who were diagnosed with muscle-invasive tumors. FUB staging and initial TUR staging, final pathological results were compared. Results In ultrasonic images, the normal muscle layer of bladder wall could be clearly distinguished into three layers, which were hyperechogenic mucosa, hypoechogenic muscle and hyperechogenic serosal. For non-muscle invasive tumors, the muscle layers were continuous. And distorted or discontinuous muscle layers could be seen in muscle-invasive case. The overall accuracy (95.7%) and the specificity of muscle invasion detection of FUB (98.8%) were comparable to TUR (overall accuracy 90.2% and specificity 100%), but sensitivity of muscle invasion detection of FUB was significantly higher than initial TUR (72.7%VS18.2%). Moreover, the tumor's diameter could not affect the FUB's accuracy of muscle invasion detection. For tumors near the bladder neck, FUB also showed the similar validity as those far from bladder neck. Conclusions To conclude, the flexible ultrasound bronchoscope is an effective tool for muscle invasion detection of bladder tumor with ideal ultrasonic images. It is an alternative option for bladder tumor staging besides TUR. It might have the potentiality to change the bladder diagnostic strategy.

Song, Qixiang; Wei, Rongchao; Yu, Yongwei; Li, Jian; Sun, Yinghao

2014-01-01

214

Proprioception in the neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proprioception in the neck was investigated in normal human subjects. Three experiments studied rotation of the head about a vertical axis on the body. Accuracy of pointing, thresholds for detection of passive movement, and control of fine movement were tested. Comparison of the accuracy of pointing at the big toe with the nose and with the arm, showed a smaller

J. L. Taylor; D. I. McCloskey

1988-01-01

215

The overactive bladder  

PubMed Central

Urinary urgency and the associated symptoms which comprise overactive bladder are prevalent amongst the general population and adversely affect quality of life. Disease management consists of a sequential series of options starting with behavioural and lifestyle techniques, pharmacological management (antimuscarinics) and, in severe cases, surgical treatment (urinary diversion, neuromodulation, augmentation cystoplasty and detrusor myectomy). There is increasing recognition of pathophysiological mechanisms in the urothelium, interstitial cells and afferent neurons allowing the importance of peripheral integrative interaction to be identified. The hierarchy of the central nervous system control adds additional complexity to understanding the oflower urinary tract function. Some newer methods of treatment include Botulinum toxin A intramural injections, oral beta-3 adrenergic agonists and rho-kinase inhibitors. The lack of a disease generating hypothesis, the lack of animal models for disease and the subjective nature of the central symptom (urgency) still pose considerable theoretical and scientific hurdles that need to be overcome in the treatment of this condition.

Foon, Richard; Drake, Marcus J.

2010-01-01

216

Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... following stages are used for bladder cancer: Stage 0 (Papillary Carcinoma and Carcinoma in Situ) Enlarge Stage ... staging tests , above. Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 (Papillary Carcinoma and Carcinoma in Situ) Treatment of ...

217

Idiopathic Bladder-Stone Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews current knowledge concerning idiopathic bladder stone disease, particularly in regard to its occurrence in children. The geographic distribution of the disease has changed during the past 100 years, disappearing from the USA, Western Eur...

R. Van Reen A. Valyasevi

1973-01-01

218

Interstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... urinary tract infections and bladder cancer. In men, common diseases include chronic prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome. In women, endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain. IC/PBS is not ...

219

Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

220

Vascular considerations in glaucoma patients of African and European descent.  

PubMed

Glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in individuals of African descent (AD). While open-angle glaucoma (OAG) disproportionately affects individuals of AD compared with persons of European descent (ED), the physiological mechanisms behind this disparity are largely unknown. The more rapid progression and greater severity of the disease in persons of AD further raise the concern for identifying these underlying differences in disease pathophysiology between AD and ED glaucoma patients. Ocular structural differences between AD and ED patients, including larger optic disc area, cup:disc ratio and thinner corneas, have been found. AD individuals are also disproportionately affected by systemic vascular diseases, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke and diabetes mellitus. Abnormal ocular blood flow has been implicated as a risk factor for glaucoma, and pilot research is beginning to identify localized ocular vascular differences between AD and ED OAG patients. Given the known systemic vascular deficits and the relationship between glaucoma and ocular blood flow, exploring these concepts in terms of glaucoma risk factors may have a significant impact in elucidating the mechanisms behind the disease disparity in the AD population. PMID:24460758

Huck, Andrew; Harris, Alon; Siesky, Brent; Kim, Nathaniel; Muchnik, Michael; Kanakamedala, Priyanka; Amireskandari, Annahita; Abrams-Tobe, Leslie

2014-08-01

221

Controller evaluations of the descent advisor automation aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automation aid to assist air traffic controllers in efficiently spacing traffic and meeting arrival times at a fix has been developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The automation aid, referred to as the descent advisor (DA), is based on accurate models of aircraft performance and weather conditions. The DA generates suggested clearances, including both top-of-descent point and speed profile data, for one or more aircraft in order to achieve specific time or distance separation objectives. The DA algorithm is interfaced with a mouse-based, menu-driven controller display that allows the air traffic controller to interactively use its accurate predictive capability to resolve conflicts and issue advisories to arrival aircraft. This paper focuses on operational issues concerning the utilization of the DA, specifically, how the DA can be used for prediction, intrail spacing, and metering. In order to evaluate the DA, a real time simulation was conducted using both current and retired controller subjects. Controllers operated in teams of two, as they do in the present environment; issues of training and team interaction will be discussed. Evaluations by controllers indicated considerable enthusiasm for the DA aid, and provided specific recommendations for using the tool effectively.

Tobias, Leonard; Volckers, Uwe; Erzberger, Heinz

1989-01-01

222

Mars Exploration Rover Terminal Descent Mission Modeling and Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of NASA's added reliance on simulation for successful interplanetary missions, the MER mission has developed a detailed EDL trajectory modeling and simulation. This paper summarizes how the MER EDL sequence of events are modeled, verification of the methods used, and the inputs. This simulation is built upon a multibody parachute trajectory simulation tool that has been developed in POST I1 that accurately simulates the trajectory of multiple vehicles in flight with interacting forces. In this model the parachute and the suspended bodies are treated as 6 Degree-of-Freedom (6 DOF) bodies. The terminal descent phase of the mission consists of several Entry, Descent, Landing (EDL) events, such as parachute deployment, heatshield separation, deployment of the lander from the backshell, deployment of the airbags, RAD firings, TIRS firings, etc. For an accurate, reliable simulation these events need to be modeled seamlessly and robustly so that the simulations will remain numerically stable during Monte-Carlo simulations. This paper also summarizes how the events have been modeled, the numerical issues, and modeling challenges.

Raiszadeh, Behzad; Queen, Eric M.

2004-01-01

223

High mammographic density in women of Ashkenazi Jewish descent  

PubMed Central

Introduction Percent mammographic density (PMD) adjusted for age and body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer and is known to be approximately 60% heritable. Here we report a finding of an association between genetic ancestry and adjusted PMD. Methods We selected self-identified Caucasian women in the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute Cohort whose screening mammograms placed them in the top or bottom quintiles of age-adjusted and body mass index-adjusted PMD. Our final dataset included 474 women with the highest adjusted PMD and 469 with the lowest genotyped on the Illumina 1 M platform. Principal component analysis (PCA) and identity-by-descent analyses allowed us to infer the women's genetic ancestry and correlate it with adjusted PMD. Results Women of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, as defined by the first principal component of PCA and identity-by-descent analyses, represented approximately 15% of the sample. Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, defined by the first principal component of PCA, was associated with higher adjusted PMD (P = 0.004). Using multivariate regression to adjust for epidemiologic factors associated with PMD, including age at parity and use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, did not attenuate the association. Conclusions Women of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, based on genetic analysis, are more likely to have high age-adjusted and body mass index-adjusted PMD. Ashkenazi Jews may have a unique set of genetic variants or environmental risk factors that increase mammographic density.

2013-01-01

224

Bladder perivascular epithelioid cell tumours.  

PubMed

Perivascular epithelioid cell tumours, better known as PECOMAs, are a very uncommon pathological finding. In English medical literature it has rarely been reported. In the genitourinary system, mostly urinary bladder, the incidence is as low as 10 cases described since 2003 until now. In this case report, we present a urinary bladder PECOMA with a detailed pathological description and a review of literature. PMID:23970497

Abou Ghaida, Rami; Nasr, Rami; Shahait, Mohammed; Khairallah, Aya

2013-01-01

225

Primary lymphoma of the bladder.  

PubMed

Primary lymphomas of bladder are rare, have a good prognosis and present good response to chemotherapy. We report a case of primary lymphoma affecting the bladder of an 89-year old female patient who, despite full response to chemotherapy, presented recurrence and death 1 year after concluding the treatment. The authors emphasize the differential diagnosis due to the great differences concerning prognosis and therapeutic approach. PMID:15707515

Leite, Katia R M; Bruschini, Homero; Camara-Lopes, Luiz H

2004-01-01

226

Cloacal anomaly with bladder tumor  

PubMed Central

A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder occurring in a 36-year-old female with persistent cloacal anomaly who presented with frequency, urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection is reported. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with three dimensional reconstruction showed presence of bladder tumor and persistent cloaca. She underwent pelvic exenteration and wet colostomy. Histopathologic findings revealed locally advanced moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

Seth, Amlesh; Ram, Ishwar

2013-01-01

227

Phaeochromocytoma of the urinary bladder.  

PubMed

The occurrence of urinary bladder paragangliomas is rare. A 12-year-old Chinese girl who presented with history of blurring of vision was found to have grade IV hypertensive retinopathy. Investigations revealed a phaeochromocytoma on the posterior wall of the urinary bladder. A partial cystectomy with right ureter reimplantation was undertaken and her hypertension was promptly controlled. The diagnosis and management of this rare tumour is discussed. PMID:15968447

Naqiyah, I; Rohaizak, M; Meah, F A; Nazri, M J; Sundram, M; Amram, A R

2005-07-01

228

Botulinum toxin: An emerging therapy in female bladder outlet obstruction  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We evaluated the utility of botulinum toxin in functional female bladder outlet obstruction. Materials and Methods: A total of 7 consecutive female patients with bladder outlet obstruction were included. Patients with neurogenic bladder were excluded. All were previously treated with periodic dilations. Diagnosis was based on symptomatology, cystometry, and micturating cystograms. A total of 2 patients had been in chronic retention with residual volumes more than 400 ml. All were managed with an injection of botulinum toxin, 100 units in 2 ml of saline injected with a flexible cystoscopic needle. The site of the injection was deep submucosally, 0.5 ml in each quadrant at the level of the most prominent narrowing seen endoscopically. All the procedures were done as day care procedures under local anaesthesia. After the procedure, no catheter was placed. Patients were followed up for changes in IPSS scores and post void residual urine measurements. In all cases, multiple injections were used. Results: The follow-up period ranged from 48–52 weeks. The IPSS reduced by an average of 12 points. Post void residual urine reduced by 62%. Improvements commenced 4.85 days (average) after the procedure and lasted for an average of 16.8 weeks (range: 10.8–28 weeks). Discussion: There is a gradual improvement in symptoms over time and the maximal effect occurred at 10–14 days. The duration of improvement was approximately 16.8 weeks. All patients were satisfied by the degree of improvement felt. Conclusions: Botulinum toxin proved successful in improving the voiding characteristics. It possibly acts at the zone of hypertonicity at the bladder neck or midurethra. The only disadvantage is the high cost of the drug.

Pradhan, Aditya A.

2009-01-01

229

Treatment of the neurogenic bladder in spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Renal damage and renal failure are among the most severe complications of spina bifida. Over the past decades, a comprehensive treatment strategy has been applied that results in minimal renal scaring. In addition, the majority of patients can be dry for urine by the time they go to primary school. To obtain such results, it is mandatory to treat detrusor overactivity from birth onward, as upper urinary tract changes predominantly start in the first months of life. This means that new patients with spina bifida should be treated from birth by clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacological suppression of detrusor overactivity. Urinary tract infections, when present, need aggressive treatment, and in many patients, permanent prophylaxis is indicated. Later in life, therapy can be tailored to urodynamic findings. Children with paralyzed pelvic floor and hence urinary incontinence are routinely offered surgery around the age of 5 years to become dry. Rectus abdominis sling suspension of the bladder neck is the first-choice procedure, with good to excellent results in both male and female patients. In children with detrusor hyperactivity, detrusorectomy can be performed as an alternative for ileocystoplasty provided there is adequate bladder capacity. Wheelchair-bound patients can manage their bladder more easily with a continent catheterizable stoma on top of the bladder. This stoma provides them extra privacy and diminishes parental burden. Bowel management is done by retrograde or antegrade enema therapy. Concerning sexuality, special attention is needed to address expectations of adolescent patients. Sensibility of the glans penis can be restored by surgery in the majority of patients. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00467-008-0780-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Chrzan, Rafal; Klijn, Aart J.

2008-01-01

230

Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux  

PubMed Central

In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB) and the dysfunctional voiding (DV), have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome), most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES) are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB), with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

Sillen, Ulla

2008-01-01

231

Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

2014-01-30

232

What I Need to Know about Bladder Control for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... does the bladder work? Parts of the bladder control system. The bladder is a balloon-shaped organ that ... ready to release it. Parts of the bladder control system. Several body systems must work together to control ...

233

Development of an analytical guidance algorithm for lunar descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, NASA has indicated a desire to return humans to the moon. With NASA planning manned missions within the next couple of decades, the concept development for these lunar vehicles has begun. The guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) computer programs that will perform the function of safely landing a spacecraft on the moon are part of that development. The lunar descent guidance algorithm takes the horizontally oriented spacecraft from orbital speeds hundreds of kilometers from the desired landing point to the landing point at an almost vertical orientation and very low speed. Existing lunar descent GN&C algorithms date back to the Apollo era with little work available for implementation since then. Though these algorithms met the criteria of the 1960's, they are cumbersome today. At the basis of the lunar descent phase are two elements: the targeting, which generates a reference trajectory, and the real-time guidance, which forces the spacecraft to fly that trajectory. The Apollo algorithm utilizes a complex, iterative, numerical optimization scheme for developing the reference trajectory. The real-time guidance utilizes this reference trajectory in the form of a quartic rather than a more general format to force the real-time trajectory errors to converge to zero; however, there exist no guarantees under any conditions for this convergence. The proposed algorithm implements a purely analytical targeting algorithm used to generate two-dimensional trajectories "on-the-fly"' or to retarget the spacecraft to another landing site altogether. It is based on the analytical solutions to the equations for speed, downrange, and altitude as a function of flight path angle and assumes two constant thrust acceleration curves. The proposed real-time guidance algorithm has at its basis the three-dimensional non-linear equations of motion and a control law that is proven to converge under certain conditions through Lyapunov analysis to a reference trajectory formatted as a function of downrange, altitude, speed, and flight path angle. The two elements of the guidance algorithm are joined in Monte Carlo analysis to prove their robustness to initial state dispersions and mass and thrust errors. The robustness of the retargeting algorithm is also demonstrated.

Chomel, Christina Tvrdik

234

?1-, ?2- and ?-adrenoceptors in the urinary bladder, urethra and prostate  

PubMed Central

We have systematically reviewed the presence, functional responses and regulation of ?1-, ?2- and ?-adrenoceptors in the bladder, urethra and prostate, with special emphasis on human tissues and receptor subtypes. ?1-Adrenoceptors are only poorly expressed and play a limited functional role in the detrusor. ?1-Adrenoceptors, particularly their ?1A-subtype, show a more pronounced expression and promote contraction of the bladder neck, urethra and prostate to enhance bladder outlet resistance, particularly in elderly men with enlarged prostates. ?1-Adrenoceptor agonists are important in the treatment of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, but their beneficial effects may involve receptors within and outside the prostate. ?2-Adrenoceptors, mainly their ?2A-subtype, are expressed in bladder, urethra and prostate. They mediate pre-junctional inhibition of neurotransmitter release and also a weak contractile effect in the urethra of some species, but not humans. Their overall post-junctional function in the lower urinary tract remains largely unclear. ?-Adrenoceptors mediate relaxation of smooth muscle in the bladder, urethra and prostate. The available tools have limited the unequivocal identification of receptor subtypes at the protein and functional levels, but it appears that the ?3- and ?2-subtypes are important in the human bladder and urethra, respectively. ?3-Adrenoceptor agonists are promising drug candidates for the treatment of the overactive bladder. We propose that the overall function of adrenoceptors in the lower urinary tract is to promote urinary continence. Further elucidation of the functional roles of their subtypes will help a better understanding of voiding dysfunction and its treatment.

Michel, Martin C; Vrydag, Wim

2006-01-01

235

Field Testing of the Mars Exploration Rovers Descent Image Motion Estimation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ? The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Descent Image Motion Estimation System (DIMES) is the first autonomous machine vision system used to safely land a robotics payload on another planet. DIMES consists of a descent camera and an algorithm for estimating horizontal velocity using image, inertial and altitude measurements. Before DIMES was accepted by MER for inclusion in the mission,

Andrew Edie Johnson; Reg G. Willson; Jay Goguen; James Alexander; David Meller

2005-01-01

236

Mitral annular descent velocity by tissue Doppler echocardiography as an index of global left ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitral annular descent has been described as an index of left ventricular (LV) systolic function, which is independent of endocardial definition. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging is a new technique that calculates and displays color-coded cardiac tissue velocities on-line. To evaluate mitral annular descent velocity as a rapid index of global LV function, we performed tissue Doppler imaging studies in 55

Vijay K. Gulati; William E. Katz; William P. Follansbee; John Gorcsan

1996-01-01

237

Parallel tracing of multiple trajectories in gradient descent algorithm with Cell Broadband Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explored here is t he ability of Cell B.E. to efficiently reveal viable solutions of nonlinear function approximation with multilayer perceptron (MLP) employing gradient descent algorithm. The capacity of Cell BE to asynchronously trace several trajectories of implemented gradient descent algorithm from random set of starting points offers advantage of revealing statistical trends and classifying viable optimal approximations delivered by

Yuri Boiko; Gabriel A. Wainer

2009-01-01

238

Prostate Cancer in Men of African Descent: Opportunities for Global Research Collaborations  

Cancer.gov

Prostate cancer disproportionately affects men of African descent in terms of incidence, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. Significant knowledge gaps exist about the factors that predict disparities in prostate cancer incidence and outcomes between men of African descent and other ethnic or racial groups.

239

From Psychology of Race to Issue of Skin Color: Western Trivialization and Peoples of African Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the aftermath of Western colonization is the trivialization of skin color as significant issue in the psychology of peoples of African descent. Although social scientists use race as a key factor in elucidating and understanding human social conditions, skin color and its impact on the social and psychological disposition of people of African descent have been understudied. Oblivious to

Ronald E. Hall

2005-01-01

240

Effects of the Phoenix Lander descent thruster plume on the Martian surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exhaust plume of Phoenix's hydrazine monopropellant pulsed descent thrusters will impact the surface of Mars during its descent and landing phase in the northern polar region. Experimental and computational studies have been performed to characterize the chemical compounds in the thruster exhausts. No undecomposed hydrazine is observed above the instrument detection limit of 0.2%. Forty-five percent ammonia is measured

D. H. Plemmons; M. Mehta; B. C. Clark; S. P. Kounaves; L. L. Peach; N. O. Renno; L. Tamppari; S. M. M. Young

2008-01-01

241

Hyperparathyroidism after neck irradiation.  

PubMed

A retrospective review of 1550 cases of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) treated surgically over a 30-year period reveals a past history of exposure to neck irradiation in 10 cases (0.7 per cent). The indication for radiotherapy was benign disease in nine and papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. The mean interval between radiation exposure and the detection of HPT was 32 years (range 3-63 years). Patients treated with radioactive iodine alone developed HPT after a mean of 5 years while the interval for those treated with external beam therapy alone was a mean of 44 years. The parathyroid histology was adenoma in six cases, carcinoma in three cases and nodular hyperplasia in one case. All patients had coincident benign thyroid disease apart from one that had previously had papillary carcinoma and another with follicular carcinoma. Neck irradiation has been shown to confer an increased risk of HPT due to parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma. Radiotherapy for benign disease has generally been abandoned and these cases demonstrate a further contra-indication for the use of neck irradiation. PMID:3179662

Christmas, T J; Chapple, C R; Noble, J G; Milroy, E J; Cowie, A G

1988-09-01

242

Scale effects in necking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geometrically similar specimens spanning a scale range of 100:1 are tested quasi-statically to failure. Images of neck development are acquired using optical means for large specimens, and in-situ scanning electron microscope testing for small specimens, to examine the dependence of neck geometry on a broad range of specimen sizes. Size effects typically arise when the smallest specimen dimension is on the order of a microstructural length (e.g. grain size, dislocation mean free path, etc.), or in the presence of significant plastic strain gradients, which increase the density of geometrically necessary dislocations. This study was carried out for the purpose of investigating scale dependence in models used for predicting dynamic deformation and damage to very high strains for ballistic impact applications, such as the Goldthorpe path-dependent failure model, which includes temperature and strain-rate dependence but does not account for specimen size or a dependence on microstructural lengths. Although the experiments show that neck geometry does not exhibit a clear dependence on specimen size across the range of length scales tested, the statistical variation due to microstructural variations was found to increase monotonically with decreasing size, becoming significant for the smallest (0.35 mm diameter) size, allowing a limit to be identified for reliable model calibration.

Dunnett, T.; Balint, D.; MacGillivray, H.; Church, P.; Gould, P.

2012-08-01

243

Ambulatory monitoring of bladder pressure in low compliance neurogenic bladder dysfunction.  

PubMed

Upper tract dilatation is an important complication of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Risk factors include incomplete bladder emptying with large residual volumes of urine and high tonic increases in bladder pressures during artificial filling. However, on natural bladder filling many of these patients do not have high tonic increases in detrusor pressures. We compared conventional urodynamic studies with ambulatory monitoring during natural bladder filling in 66 patients with low compliance neurogenic bladder dysfunction. There were marked differences in the tonic increase in bladder pressure during filling and in compliance during artificial bladder filling compared with ambulatory monitoring. Faster filling rates during artificial filling resulted in greater end filling pressures and lower compliance but the lowest increases in bladder pressure were found during ambulatory monitoring with natural bladder filling. During natural bladder filling significantly more patients had phasic changes in detrusor pressure; a high intensity of phasic activity during ambulatory monitoring correlated with high end filling pressures during artificial bladder filling. Upper tract dilatation was associated with large volumes of residual urine, high resting bladder pressures and low bladder compliance on filling at 100 ml. per minute. However, upper tract dilatation was most strongly associated with high intensity phasic pressure activity during natural bladder filling in combination with high residual urine volumes and high resting bladder pressures. On multivariate statistical analysis the intensity of phasic pressure activity during ambulatory monitoring was the best discriminator between patients with dilated and normal upper tracts. Our study has highlighted important differences in the results obtained by artificial filling cystometry and ambulatory monitoring during natural bladder filling. In particular, high increases in pressure did not occur during natural bladder filling, apparently being replaced by phasic activity. Within this group of patients who had the high risk factor of low bladder compliance measured during artificial bladder filling, a combination of greater residual urine volumes, greater resting pressures and greater phasic activity during natural bladder filling was found in patients with upper tract dilatation. PMID:1433551

Webb, R J; Griffiths, C J; Ramsden, P D; Neal, D E

1992-11-01

244

CryoScout: A Descent Through the Mars Polar Cap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CryoScout was proposed as a subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars North Polar cap. After landing on a gentle landscape in the midst of the mild summer season, CryoScout was to use the continuous polar sunlight to power the descent of a cryobot, a thermal probe, into the ice at a rate of about 1 m per day. CryoScout would probe deep enough into this time capsule to see the effects of planetary obliquity variations and discrete events such as dust storms or volcanic eruptions. By penetrating tens of meters of ice, the mission would explore at least one of the dominant "MOC layers" observed in exposed layered terrain.

Hecht, M. H.; Saunders, R. S.

2003-01-01

245

Mars Exploration Rovers Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rover mission successfully landed two rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" on Mars on January 4th and 25th of 2004, respectively. The trajectory analysis performed to define the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) scenario is described. The entry requirements and constraints are presented, as well as uncertainties used in a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis to statistically assess the robustness of the entry design to off-nominal conditions. In the analysis, six-degree-of-freedom and three-degree-of-freedom trajectory results are compared to assess the entry characteristics of the capsule. Comparison of the preentry results to preliminary post-landing reconstruction data shows that all EDL parameters were within the requirements. In addition, the final landing position for both "Spirit" and "Opportunity" were within 15 km of the predicted landing location.

Desai, Prasun N.; Knocke, Philip C.

2004-01-01

246

RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry. 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth's atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. 'Mini-1' category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, V (m/s): re-entry velocity and ? (deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet ('Mini-1' category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being VSOL = 5268 m/s. Using the basic pre-defined parameters for MetNet-type of lander in Earth atmosphere, we get the optimal angle of ? = -3.06 degrees for Earth re-entry. 3. Payload Mass for Earth Entry DV One of the key elements in Earth entry lander is the amount of available payload mass. The payload mass depends on, e.g., the lander size, landing type (soil or water), heat shield durability and additional landing gear. The payload mass will have an impact to the center of gravity of the lander. The payload with a 'low' CoG (compared the the lander structure) has a larger tolerance than the payload with 'high' CoG. In cases where payload CoG causes instability, the extra balance mass can be used to adjust CoG. This balance mass will reduce the available payload mass. A major limitation for payload mass is the heat shielding. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 263255. References [1] http://ritd.fmi.fi

Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Koryanov, Vsevolod; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valery; Martynov, Maxim; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Viktor; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero

2014-05-01

247

Embryology and physiology of testicular development and descent.  

PubMed

Sexual differentiation starts with the development of bipotential gonads that further differentiate into testes or ovaries. The fetal testis secretes hormones that guide the differentiation of internal and external sex organs, whereas the fetal ovary remains rather inactive hormonally. Defects in gonadal differentiation or hormone secretion and action result in disorders of sex development (DSD). Testicular descent is a continuum that has often been described to occur in two main phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase. The first phase is according to animal studies dependent on Leydig cell-derived insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) that induces male-like development of the gubernaculum. This phase is rarely disrupted in man. The inguinoscrotal phase is dependent on androgens, also secreted by Leydig cells. PMID:24683945

Virtanen, Helena E; Toppari, Jorma

2014-02-01

248

Overview of the Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing System Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Phoenix Mars Lander began its journey to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida in August 2007, but its journey to the launch pad began many years earlier in 1997 as NASA s Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. In the intervening years, the entry, descent and landing (EDL) system architecture went through a series of changes, resulting in the system flown to the surface of Mars on May 25th, 2008. Some changes, such as entry velocity and landing site elevation, were the result of differences in mission design. Other changes, including the removal of hypersonic guidance, the reformulation of the parachute deployment algorithm, and the addition of the backshell avoidance maneuver, were driven by constant efforts to augment system robustness. An overview of the Phoenix EDL system architecture is presented along with rationales driving these architectural changes.

Grover, Myron R., III; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Desai, Prasun N.

2008-01-01

249

Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions.

Prakash, Ravi; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Devin, M. Kipp; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Steltzner, Adam D.; Way, David W.

2008-01-01

250

Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System validation for a Mars entry, descent, and landing system is not simply a demonstration that the electrical system functions in the associated environments. The function of this system is its interaction with the atmospheric and surface environment. Thus, in addition to traditional test-bed, hardware-in-the-loop, testing, a validation program that confirms the environmental interaction is required. Unfortunately, it is not possible to conduct a meaningful end-to-end test of a Mars landing system on Earth. The validation plan must be constructed from an interconnected combination of simulation, analysis and test. For the Mars Exploration Rover mission, this combination of activities and the logic of how they combined to the system's validation was explicitly stated, reviewed, and tracked as part of the development plan.

Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Lee, Wayne; Steltzner, Adam; SanMartin, Alejanhdro

2004-01-01

251

Mars Exploration Rover: Launch, Cruise, Entry, Descent, and Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rover Project was an ambitious effort to land two highly capable rovers on Mars and concurrently explore the Martian surface for three months each. Launched in June and July of 2003, cruise operations were conducted through January 4, 2004 with the first landing, followed by the second landing on January 25. The prime mission for the second rover ended on April 27, 2004. This paper will provide an overview of the launch, cruise, and landing phases of the mission, including the engineering and science objectives and challenges involved in the selection and targeting of the landing sites, as well as the excitement and challenges of atmospheric entry, descent and landing execution.

Erickson, James K.; Manning, Robert M.; Adler, M.

2004-01-01

252

Neuromodulation for overactive bladder.  

PubMed

Overactive bladder (OAB) affects millions of people worldwide yet first-line treatments are often poorly tolerated and compliance rates are low. Neuromodulation works via afferent nerve modulation and offers a minimally invasive and reversible alternative treatment option for patients with OAB who have failed first-line therapy. Neuromodulation has revolutionized the management of OAB and is now well established as a safe and effective treatment for those refractory to conservative treatments. Multiple neuroanatomical pathways have been described for sacral neuromodulation including the S3 nerve root, pudendal nerve and tibial nerve. The S3 nerve root is currently the main treatment target and has the most long-term data on safety and efficacy to support its use. However, studies on neuromodulation at the pudendal nerve or posterior tibial nerve have been positive and their role in treatment continues to evolve. Most urologists who are experienced in voiding dysfunction can become proficient in each technique. Patient selection, surgical techniques and postoperative management differ slightly between approaches and urologists should familiarize themselves with these differences. Treatment of OAB should progress from the least to most invasive modality, and neuromodulation provides an attractive option owing to its minimally invasive approach, tolerability, positive outcomes and reversibility. PMID:23817408

Bartley, Jamie; Gilleran, Jason; Peters, Kenneth

2013-09-01

253

Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts and cerebellar tonsillar descent: short review.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the association of cerebellar tonsillar descent and syringomyelia in patients with posterior fossa arachnoid cysts. We reviewed the medical records of ten patients (mean, age 33; range, 24-49 years) diagnosed with posterior fossa arachnoid cyst and tonsillar descent. Symptoms evolved over a mean of 12 months (range, 6 months to 3 years). Syringomyelia was present in six cases. Six patients underwent a suboccipital craniectomy, three cases underwent an additional C1 laminectomy, and a further case had a limited craniectomy and tonsillar reduction. Three patients were also treated for hydrocephalus: one with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and two with endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Two patients had conservative treatment. The posterior fossa arachnoid cysts were located at the vermis-cisterna magna (n = 4), the cerebellar hemispheres (n = 2), the cerebellopontine angle (n = 3), and the quadrigeminal cistern (n = 1). A patient with achondroplasia showed features of platybasia. Associated malformations included craniofacial dysmorphism in a patient diagnosed of trichorhinophalangeal syndrome and a case with a primary temporal arachnoid cyst. After a mean follow-up of 2 years (range, 3 months to 5 years), four patients showed resolution of their neurological symptoms, and two exhibited persisting ocular findings. Headaches and nuchalgia improved in four cases and persisted in four. Syringomyelia was resolved in four patients and improved in two. Patients harboring a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst may evolve with acquired Chiari malformation and syringomyelia. Initial management should be directed to decompressing the foramen magnum and should include the resection of the arachnoid cyst's walls. A wait-and-see attitude can be implemented in selected cases. In our experience, hydrocephalus should be properly addressed before treating the arachnoid cyst. PMID:20480382

Galarza, Marcelo; López-Guerrero, Antonio López; Martínez-Lage, Juan F

2010-07-01

254

Assessment on EXPERT Descent and Landing System Aerodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EXPERT is a re-entry vehicle designed for validation of aero-thermodynamic models, numerical schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics codes and test facilities for measuring flight data under an Earth re-entry environment. This paper addresses the design for the descent and landing sequence for EXPERT. It includes the descent sequence, the choice of drogue and main parachutes, and the parachute deployment condition, which can be supersonic or subsonic. The analysis is based mainly on an engineering tool, PASDA, together with some hand calculations for parachute sizing and design. The tool consists of a detailed 6-DoF simulation performed with the aerodynamics database of the vehicle, an empirical wakes model and the International Standard Atmosphere database. The aerodynamics database for the vehicle is generated by DNW experimental data and CFD codes within the framework of an ESA contract to CIRA. The analysis will be presented in terms of altitude, velocity, accelerations, angle-of- attack, pitch angle and angle of rigging line. Discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each parachute deployment condition is included in addition to some comparison with the available data based on a Monte-Carlo method from a Russian company, FSUE NIIPS. Sensitivity on wind speed to the performance of EXPERT is shown to be strong. Supersonic deployment of drogue shows a better performance in stability at the expense of a larger G-load than those from the subsonic deployment of drogue. Further optimization on the parachute design is necessary in order to fulfill all the EXPERT specifications.

Wong, H.; Muylaert, J.; Northey, D.; Riley, D.

2009-01-01

255

Botox Might Help Treat Bladder Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... either 20 to 30 needle injections or one infusion directly into the bladder with a catheter. The ... bladder muscle. Four weeks later, the single Botox infusion (compared to a placebo) had significantly reduced participants' ...

256

Introduction to Bowel and Bladder Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The booklet provides information on bowel and bladder function and guidance in the development of bowel and bladder care plans for persons whose disabilities affect these life functions. It includes discussions of the anatomy and physiology of the bowel a...

1975-01-01

257

Renal transplantation in augmented bladders.  

PubMed

Not many years ago, children with congenital abnormalities of the lower urinary tract or with bladder dysfunction were denied renal transplantation because they were considered very high-risk recipients. However, in the past few decades, we learned that in children with poorly compliant, low-capacity bladders, augmentation cystoplasty (AC) can create a compliant, low-pressure reservoir that helps preserve the kidney graft. Although the incidence of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) may be greater in pediatric transplant recipients with an AC than in those without, UTI is related more to noncompliance with clean intermittent catheterization or vesicoureteral reflux to the native kidney or graft than to the AC itself, and usually does not lead to impairment of graft function. Today, children with a bladder reconstruction may undergo transplantation with the same outcome (graft survival and function) as those with normal bladders, although there is some possibility of malignant transformation in the intestinal segment used to augment the bladder in these patients. PMID:24916328

Pereira, P López; Urrutia, M J Martínez; Lobato, R; Jaureguizar, E

2014-08-01

258

25 CFR 18.104 - May a tribe include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent of trust personalty? 18.104 Section 18...include provisions in its tribal probate code regarding the distribution and descent of trust personalty? No. All trust...

2011-04-01

259

Micropapillary carcinoma of the bladder presented with spontaneous intraperitoneal bladder rupture  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous bladder perforation is a rare presenting feature of bladder malignancy. We describe an unusual case of a patient, admitted to emergency, with diffuse abdominal pain due to spontaneous bladder rupture in association with a micropapillary carcinoma. A diagnosis of an intraperitoneal bladder perforation was made during an emergency operation. Aspects of etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management are described. Although cases of spontaneous carcinomatous bladder rupture are associated with high morbidity and mortality, prompt identification and treatment can lead to favourable outcomes.

Stojadinovi, Miroslav M.; Mitrovi, Slobodanka Lj.; Milovanovi, Dragan R.

2012-01-01

260

Ultrasonic Device Monitors Fullness Of The Bladder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic device monitors fullness of bladder is self-contained, lightweight, portable, powered by battery, and tailored for specific patient through software modified as patient's behavior changes. Essentially quantifies amount of urine in bladder by measuring relative distension of bladder and gives suitable alarm telling patient to eliminate. Intended for use in training people who are incontinent and cannot identify when elimination necessary.

Heyman, Joseph S.; Blalock, Travis; Companion, John A.; Cavalier, AL; Mineo, Beth A.

1991-01-01

261

Postmicturition residual bladder volumes in healthy babies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty eight assessments of postmicturition residual volume were undertaken in 34 babies of various gestational and postnatal ages using abdominal ultrasonography. Twenty one (54%) babies had no detectable residual bladder volume. In all cases manual expression of the bladder failed to eliminate the residual volume. The formula widely used in the estimation of fetal bladder size and urine output is

D S Roberts; B Rendell

1989-01-01

262

Surgical management of the neuropathic bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a simplified view, the “normal” bladder, through a multifaceted neuromuscular event, allows the basic functions of urinary storage and emptying. More specifically, the urinary bladder accommodates increasing urinary volume with little to no increase in vesicular pressure while maintaining continence. The normal act of emptying integrates the relaxation of the urinary sphincters (external and internal) with the subsequent bladder

Jamie B. Lowe; Peter D. Furness; Albaha Z. Barqawi; Martin A. Koyle

2002-01-01

263

Bladder outlet obstruction in women  

PubMed Central

Bladder outlet obstruction in females remains a poorly understood condition and is much rarer as compared to males. More difficult is the objective diagnosis of this condition. There is no general agreement on the Urodynamic parameters to define the condition with certainty. A number of conditions are involved particularly in urinary retention in females are not completely understood. Besides, external sphincter dysfunction and post surgical retentions add another group of conditions which are distinct from retentions seen in the males. This article takes a review of various aetiological factors of Bladder outlet obstruction in women. An attempt is made to standardise the Urodynamic parameters for use in females, based on our data and experimentation on the models of the bladder and urethra. This article also takes a review of uncommon conditions such as Fowler's syndrome which often complicate evaluation of this condition.

Yande, Shirish; Joshi, Maya

2011-01-01

264

Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to <95% of the prescribed dose. The dose distribution in the rectum and intestines was better with a 'partially empty' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm{sup 3} for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm{sup 3} for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with a 'partially empty' than with a 'full' bladder.

Majewski, Wojciech, E-mail: wmajewski1@poczta.onet.p [Department of Radiotherapy, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Wesolowska, Iwona [Department of Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy Planning, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Urbanczyk, Hubert [Department of Radiotherapy, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara [Department of Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy Planning, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Miszczyk, Leszek [Department of Radiotherapy, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland)

2009-12-01

265

Actinomycosis of the urinary bladder  

PubMed Central

Actinomycosis of the urinary bladder is a rare anaerobic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces isrealii. Initial diagnosis is often difficult and this disease is easily misdiagnosed as a urothelial or urachal tumour. The definitive diagnosis is usually made postoperatively via tissue pathology. We discuss a case of a 54-year-old male with a smoking history and a 2.5-week history of gross hematuria. Ultrasound, computed tomography and cystoscopy revealed a large inflammatory mass adherent to the right, anterior bladder wall, suggesting malignancy. Transurethral resection and histological pathology subsequently confirmed inflammatory urothelium and gram-positive bacteria consistent with actinomyces species.

Huang, Chun; Al-Essawi, Turki

2013-01-01

266

Urinary markers for bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer has the fifth highest incidence of all malignancies in the United States, with a propensity to recur, requiring lifelong surveillance after diagnosis. Urinary markers of disease have been of extreme interest in this field in an effort to simplify surveillance schedules and improve early detection of tumors. Many markers have been described, but most remain investigational. However, some markers have undergone clinical trials and are approved for clinical use. In this review, urinary markers and their application for screening and surveillance of bladder cancer are discussed.

Smith, Zachary L.

2013-01-01

267

[Transurethral enucleation of bladder paraganglioma].  

PubMed

Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder is a rare neoplasm that derives from ganglion cells located in the bladder wall and may morphologically simulate a urothelial carcinoma. The authors present the case of a vesical paraganglioma incidentally detected by ultrasound, and entirely removed by transurethral approach from detrusorial wall. Conventional approaches include surgery (partial cystectomy) or laparoscopic procedures, with inspection by transurethral endoscopy; in this case we wanted to avoid the combined approach considering the lesion diameter and the possibility of an easy removal. PMID:22081416

Pedalino, Marco; Manini, Claudia; Vella, Riccardo; Di Primio, Otello; Piras, Dorino; Cagnazzi, Eugenio; Vercesi, Enrico; Gaetano, Marino

2011-10-01

268

Bladder Dysfunction in Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Diabetic cystopathy is a well-recognized complication of diabetes mellitus, which usually develops in middle-aged or elderly patients with long-standing and poorly controlled disease. It may have broad spectrum clinical presentations. Patients may be asymptomatic, or have a wide variety of voiding complaints from overactive bladder and urge incontinence to decreased bladder sensation and overflow incontinence. This review focuses on pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for urologic complications of diabetes and emphasizing on recent developments in our understanding of this condition. We also tried to shed some light on therapeutic modalities like behavioral, pharmacological, and surgical approaches.

Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

2010-01-01

269

Electrostimulation of the neuropathic bladder.  

PubMed

Intravesical electrostimulation offers promise in management of neurogenic bladder in children with myelocele. In the past 2 yr, we carried out about 500 treatments in 25 children aged 2 wk to 13 yr. After repeated stimulation, the starting intravesical pressure increases considerably in all cases; however, this was not always accompanied by clinical improvement. Our early results are encouraging, especially after repeated 10-day courses of electrostimulation; bladder contractions increase slowly and micturition begins to appear. Seventeen of 25 patients showed significant improvement, in two patients no improvement was observed. The remaining six have not been treated long enough to evaluate. PMID:1091723

Dénes, J; Léb, J

1975-04-01

270

Cervical Spondylosis (Arthritis of the Neck)  

MedlinePLUS

... Orthopaedic Surgeons. Cervical Spondylosis (Arthritis of the Neck) Neck pain is extremely common. It can be caused by ... have all been linked to higher risks of neck pain and spondylosis: • Genetics - if your family has a ...

271

Chenopod salt bladders deter insect herbivores.  

PubMed

Trichomes on leaves and stems of certain chenopods (Chenopodiaceae) are modified with a greatly enlarged apical cell (a salt bladder), containing a huge central vacuole. These structures may aid in the extreme salt tolerance of many species by concentrating salts in the vacuole. Bladders eventually burst, covering the leaf in residue of bladder membranes and solid precipitates. The presence of this system in non-halophytic species suggests additional functions. I tested the novel hypothesis that these bladders have a defensive function against insect herbivores using choice, no choice, and field tests. Generalist insect herbivores preferred to feed on leaves without salt bladders in choice tests. In no choice tests, herbivores consumed less leaf matter with bladders. In a field test, leaves from which I had removed bladders suffered greater herbivory than adjacent leaves with bladders. Solutions containing bladders added to otherwise preferred leaves deterred herbivores, suggesting a water-soluble chemical component to the defense. This bladder system has a defensive function in at least four genera of chenopods. Salt bladders may be a structural defense, like spines or domatia, but also have a chemical defense component. PMID:24241642

LoPresti, E F

2014-03-01

272

Reoperative Head and Neck Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operative procedures performed in the head and neck in children compose a significant element in pediatric surgical practice. There are a broad variety of these procedures, from correction of complex congenital anomalies to treatment of a variety of acquired lesions. The successful conduct of these operations requires a thorough knowledge of normal head and neck anatomy and precise attention to

Bradley M. Rodgers

273

[Warthin's tumor in the neck].  

PubMed

Papillar lymphomatous cystoadenoma on the neck as first stage of development. Other lesions of this nature in atypical areas as larynx, minor salivary glands or oropharynx has been described, but is not frequent on heterotopic location so peculiar. In that case the real diagnostic problem was the differential with neck masses. Description of the case and review of the literature. PMID:10645014

Ramírez Ponferrada, R; Gallardo, A; Solís, E; Rodríguez, E; Castilla, J M

1999-01-01

274

Bethanechol chloride in neurogenic bladder dysfunction.  

PubMed

Representative case summaries of patients with different types of neurogenic bladder diagnosed by combined cystometric-perineal electromyography and treated with bethanechol (Urecholine) are presented. Determination of the activity of the periurethral striated muscle in relation to bladder dysfunction is extremely important in the selection of patients for bethanechol therapy. In the absence of structural obstruction, bethanechol can be used in patients with (1) the early phase of coordinated reflex neurogenic bladder and sphincter when there is incomplete bladder emptying due to feeble or unsustained detrusor contractions, (2) recovery phase of spinal shock when the periurethral striated muscle has recovered and is under voluntary control, (3) incomplete motor paralytic bladder with coordinated sphincter, and (4) sensory paralytic bladder with decompensation. The bethanechol regimen will vary in accordance with the type of bladder being treated. PMID:982732

Diokno, A C; Koppenhoefer, R

1976-11-01

275

Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer.

Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

2011-01-01

276

Descent strategy comparisons for TNAV-equipped aircraft under airplane-preferred operating conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three 4-D descent strategies were evaluated which were employed by TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering air traffic control environment. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to assess performance using three criteria when traffic enters the simulation under preferred cruise operating conditions (altitude and speed): throughput, fuel usage, and conflict probability. In comparison to an evaluation previously performed under NASA contract, the current analysis indicates that the optimal descent strategy is preferred over the clean-idle and constant descent angle (CFPA) strategies when all three criteria are considered.

Izumi, K. H.

1989-01-01

277

General Information about Bladder Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer is present in these organs. A contrast dye is injected into a vein . As the contrast dye moves through the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, x- ... computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed ...

278

A huge bladder cystine stone.  

PubMed

An unusual cystine stone that occur only in patients, who have cystinuria is presented in 24-year-old man. Radiographs showed a giant bladder stone shadow, 8.0 x 10.0 x 5.0 cm in size. The literature was reviewed to identify the giant stones as well as the huge cystine stone which is exceptional yet as. PMID:15198153

Gürdal, Mesut; Ayyildiz, Ali; Huri, Emre; Kanbero?lu, Hüseyin; Karaman, M Ihsan

2003-01-01

279

Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

Vicroy, D. D.; Knox, C. E.

1983-01-01

280

Estimating Controller Intervention Probabilities for Optimized Profile Descent Arrivals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulations of arrival traffic at Dallas/Fort-Worth and Denver airports were conducted to evaluate incorporating scheduling and separation constraints into advisories that define continuous descent approaches. The goal was to reduce the number of controller interventions required to ensure flights maintain minimum separation distances of 5 nmi horizontally and 1000 ft vertically. It was shown that simply incorporating arrival meter fix crossing-time constraints into the advisory generation could eliminate over half of the all predicted separation violations and more than 80% of the predicted violations between two arrival flights. Predicted separation violations between arrivals and non-arrivals were 32% of all predicted separation violations at Denver and 41% at Dallas/Fort-Worth. A probabilistic analysis of meter fix crossing-time errors is included which shows that some controller interventions will still be required even when the predicted crossing-times of the advisories are set to add a 1 or 2 nmi buffer above the minimum in-trail separation of 5 nmi. The 2 nmi buffer was shown to increase average flight delays by up to 30 sec when compared to the 1 nmi buffer, but it only resulted in a maximum decrease in average arrival throughput of one flight per hour.

Meyn, Larry A.; Erzberger, Heinz; Huynh, Phu V.

2011-01-01

281

HLA Type Inference via Haplotypes Identical by Descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes play a major role in adaptive immune response and are used to differentiate self antigens from non self ones. HLA genes are hyper variable with nearly every locus harboring over a dozen alleles. This variation plays an important role in susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases and needs to be matched on for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, HLA typing by serological methods is time consuming and expensive compared to high throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data. We present a new computational method to infer per-locus HLA types using shared segments Identical By Descent (IBD), inferred from SNP genotype data. IBD information is modeled as graph where shared haplotypes are explored among clusters of individuals with known and unknown HLA types to identify the latter. We analyze performance of the method in a previously typed subset of the HapMap population, achieving accuracy of 96% in HLA-A, 94% in HLA-B, 95% in HLA-C, 77% in HLA-DR1, 93% in HLA-DQA1 and 90% in HLA-DQB1 genes. We compare our method to a tag SNP based approach and demonstrate higher sensitivity and specificity. Our method demonstrates the power of using shared haplotype segments for large-scale imputation at the HLA locus.

Setty, Manu N.; Gusev, Alexander; Pe'Er, Itsik

282

Estimating the degree of identity by descent in consanguineous couples.  

PubMed

In some clinical and research settings, it is often necessary to identify the true level of "identity by descent" (IBD) between two individuals. However, as the individuals become more distantly related, it is increasingly difficult to accurately calculate this value. Consequently, we have developed a computer program that uses genome-wide SNP genotype data from related individuals to estimate the size and extent of IBD in their genomes. In addition, the software can compare a couple's IBD regions with either the autozygous regions of a relative affected by an autosomal recessive disease of unknown cause, or the IBD regions in the parents of the affected relative. It is then possible to calculate the probability of one of the couple's children suffering from the same disease. The software works by finding SNPs that exclude any possible IBD and then identifies regions that lack these SNPs, while exceeding a minimum size and number of SNPs. The accuracy of the algorithm was established by estimating the pairwise IBD between different members of a large pedigree with varying known coefficients of genetic relationship (CGR). PMID:21901788

Carr, Ian M; Markham, Sir Alexander F; Pena, Sérgio D J

2011-12-01

283

STS-40 descent BET products: Development and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Descent Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) Data were generated for the final Orbiter Experiments Flight, STS-40. This report discusses the actual development of these post-flight products: the inertial BET, the Extended BET, and the Aerodynamic BET. Summary results are also included. The inertial BET was determined based on processing Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRSS) coherent Doppler data in conjunction with observations from eleven C-band stations, to include data from the Kwajalein Atoll and the usual California coastal radars, as well as data from five cinetheodolite cameras in the vicinity of the runways at EAFB. The anchor epoch utilized for the trajectory reconstruction was 53,904 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) seconds which corresponds to an altitude at epoch of approximately 708 kft. Atmospheric data to enable development of an Extended BET for this mission were upsurped from the JSC operational post-flight BET. These data were evaluated based on Space Shuttle-derived considerations as well as model comparisons. The Aerodynamic BET includes configuration information, final mass properties, and both flight-determined and predicted aerodynamic performance estimates. The predicted data were based on the final pre-operational databook, updated to include flight determined incrementals based on an earlier ensemble of flights. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are presented and correlated versus statistical results based on twenty-two previous missions.

Oakes, Kevin F.; Wood, James S.; Findlay, John T.

1991-01-01

284

Minimum Landing Error Powered-Descent Guidance for Planetary Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm improves the accuracy with which a lander can be delivered to the surface of Mars. The main idea behind this innovation is the use of a lossless convexification, which converts an otherwise non-convex constraint related to thruster throttling to a convex constraint, enabling convex optimization to be used. The convexification leads directly to an algorithm that guarantees finding the global optimum of the original nonconvex optimization problem with a deterministic upper bound on the number of iterations required for convergence. In this innovation, previous work in powered-descent guidance using convex optimization is extended to handle the case where the lander must get as close as possible to the target given the available fuel, but is not required to arrive exactly at the target. The new algorithm calculates the minimum-fuel trajectory to the target, if one exists, and calculates the trajectory that minimizes the distance to the target if no solution to the target exists. This approach poses the problem as two Second-Order Cone Programs, which can be solved to global optimality with deterministic bounds on the number of iterations required.

Blackmore, Lars; Acikmese, Behcet

2011-01-01

285

Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions. Thus, there are many design challenges that must be solved for the mission to be successful. Several pieces of the EDL design are technological firsts, such as guided entry and precision landing on another planet, as well as the entire Sky Crane maneuver. This paper discusses the MSL EDL architecture and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

Steltzner, Adam D.; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Kipp, Devin M.; Lorenzoni, Leila V.; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Prakash, Ravi; Way, David W.

2010-01-01

286

Preliminary Study of a Model Rotor in Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within a program designed to develop experimental techniques for measuring the trajectory and structure of vortices trailing from the tips of rotor blades, the present preliminary study focuses on a method for quantifying the trajectory of the trailing vortex during descent flight conditions. This study also presents rotor loads and blade surface pressures for a range of tip-path plane angles and Mach numbers. Blade pressures near the leading edge and along the outer radius are compared with data obtained on the same model rotor, but in open jet facilities. A triangulation procedure based on two directable laser-light sheets, each containing an embedded reference, proved effective in defining the spatial coordinates of the trailing vortex. When interrogating a cross section of the flow that contains several trailing vortices, the greatest clarity was found to result when the flow is uniformly seeded. Surface pressure responses during blade-vortex interactions appeared equally sensitive near the leading edge and along the outer portion of the blade, but diminished rapidly as the distance along the blade chord increased. The pressure response was virtually independent of whether the tip-path plane angle was obtained through shaft tilt or cyclic pitch. Although the shape and frequency of the pressure perturbations on the advancing blade during blade-vortex interaction are similar to those obtained in open-jet facilities, the angle of the tip-path plane may need to be lower than the range covered in this study.

McAlister, K. W.; Tung, C.; Sharpe, D. L.; Huang, S.; Hendley, E. M.

2000-01-01

287

Engineering description of the ascent/descent bet product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ascent/Descent output product is produced in the OPIP routine from three files which constitute its input. One of these, OPIP.IN, contains mission specific parameters. Meteorological data, such as atmospheric wind velocities, temperatures, and density, are obtained from the second file, the Corrected Meteorological Data File (METDATA). The third file is the TRJATTDATA file which contains the time-tagged state vectors that combine trajectory information from the Best Estimate of Trajectory (BET) filter, LBRET5, and Best Estimate of Attitude (BEA) derived from IMU telemetry. Each term in the two output data files (BETDATA and the Navigation Block, or NAVBLK) are defined. The description of the BETDATA file includes an outline of the algorithm used to calculate each term. To facilitate describing the algorithms, a nomenclature is defined. The description of the nomenclature includes a definition of the coordinate systems used. The NAVBLK file contains navigation input parameters. Each term in NAVBLK is defined and its source is listed. The production of NAVBLK requires only two computational algorithms. These two algorithms, which compute the terms DELTA and RSUBO, are described. Finally, the distribution of data in the NAVBLK records is listed.

Seacord, A. W., II

1986-01-01

288

Direct Temperature Measurements during Netlander Descent on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design for a platinum thermoresistance temperature sensor has been developed and tested in Earth's atmosphere and stratosphere. It will be one of the sensors equipping the scientific package ATMIS (Atmospheric and Meteorology Instrument System), which will be devoted to the measurement of the meteorological parameters during both the entry/descent phase and the surface phase, aboard the Netlanders. In particular vertical profiles of temperature, density and pressure will allow the resolution of vertical gradients to investigate the atmospheric structure and dynamics. In view of the future missions to Mars, Netlander represents a unique chance to increase significantly the climate record both in time and in space, doubling the current knowledge of the atmospheric parameters. Furthermore is the only opportunity to conduct direct measurement of temperature and pressure (outside the boundary layer of the airbags used for the landing). The temperature sensor proposed is a platinum thermoresistance, enhancement of HASI TEM (Cassini/Huygens Mission); a substantial improvement of the performances, i.e. a faster dynamic response, has been obtained. Two different prototypes of new design sensor have been built, laboratory test are proceeding and the second one has been already flown aboard a stratospheric balloon.

Colombatti, G.; Angrilli, F.; Ferri, F.; Francesconi, A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Lion Stoppato, P. F.; Saggi, B.

1999-09-01

289

HLA type inference via haplotypes identical by descent.  

PubMed

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes play a major role in adaptive immune response and are used to differentiate self antigens from non-self ones. HLA genes are hypervariable with nearly every locus harboring over a dozen alleles. This variation plays an important role in susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases and needs to be matched on for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, HLA typing by serological methods is time consuming and expensive compared to high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We present a new computational method to infer per-locus HLA types using shared segments identical by descent (IBD), inferred from SNP genotype data. IBD information is modeled as graph where shared haplotypes are explored among clusters of individuals with known and unknown HLA types to identify the latter. We analyze performance of the method in a previously typed subset of the HapMap population, achieving accuracy of 96% in HLA-A, 94% in HLA-B, 95% in HLA-C, 77% in HLA-DR1, 93% in HLA-DQA1, and 90% in HLA-DQB1 genes. We compare our method to a tag SNP-based approach, and demonstrate higher sensitivity and specificity. Our method demonstrates the power of using shared haplotype segments for large-scale imputation at the HLA locus. PMID:21385049

Setty, Manu N; Gusev, Alexander; Pe'er, Itsik

2011-03-01

290

Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing Performance and Mission Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Vehicle is the next spacecraft to take humans into space and will include missions to ISS as well as missions to the Moon. As part of that challenge, the vehicle will have to accommodate multiple mission design concepts, since return from Low Earth Orbit and return from the Moon can be quite different. Commonality between the different missions as it relates to vehicle systems, guidance capability, and operations concepts is the goal. Several unique mission design concepts include the specification of multiple land-based landing sites for a vehicle with closed-loop direct and skip entry guidance, followed by a parachute descent and landing attenuation system. This includes the ability of the vehicle to accurately target and land at a designated landing site, including site location aspects, landing site size, and landing opportunities assessments. Analyses associated with these mission design and flight performance challenges and constraints will be discussed as well as potential operational concepts to provide feasibility and/or mission commonality.

Broome, Joel M.; Johnson, Wyatt

2007-01-01

291

Development of a Mars Airplane Entry, Descent, and Flight Trajectory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An entry, descent, and flight (EDF) trajectory profile for a Mars airplane mission is defined as consisting of the following elements: ballistic entry of an aeroshell; supersonic deployment of a decelerator parachute; subsonic release of a heat shield; release, unfolding, and orientation of an airplane to flight attitude; and execution of a pull up maneuver to achieve trimmed, horizontal flight. Using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) a trajectory optimization problem was formulated. Model data representative of a specific Mars airplane configuration, current models of the Mars surface topography and atmosphere, and current estimates of the interplanetary trajectory, were incorporated into the analysis. The goal is to develop an EDF trajectory to maximize the surface-relative altitude of the airplane at the end of a pull up maneuver, while subject to the mission design constraints. The trajectory performance was evaluated for three potential mission sites and was found to be site-sensitive. The trajectory performance, examined for sensitivity to a number of design and constraint variables, was found to be most sensitive to airplane mass, aerodynamic performance characteristics, and the pull up Mach constraint. Based on the results of this sensitivity study, an airplane-drag optimized trajectory was developed that showed a significant performance improvement.

Murray, James E.; Tartabini, Paul V.

2001-01-01

292

Antarctic Polar Descent and Planetary Wave Activity Observed in ISAMS CO from April to July 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Antarctic polar descent and planetary wave activity in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere are observed in ISAMS CO data from April to July 1992. CO-derived mean April-to-May upper stratosphere descent rates of 15 K/day (0.25 km/day) at 60 S and 20 K/day (0.33 km/day) at 80 S are compared with descent rates from diabatic trajectory analyses. At 60 S there is excellent agreement, while at 80 S the trajectory-derived descent is significantly larger in early April. Zonal wavenumber 1 enhancement of CO is observed on 9 and 28 May, coincident with enhanced wave 1 in UKMO geopotential height. The 9 May event extends from 40 to 70 km and shows westward phase tilt with height, while the 28 May event extends from 40 to 50 km and shows virtually no phase tilt with height.

Allen, D. R.; Stanford, J. L.; Nakamura, N.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Taylor, F. W.; Remedios, J. J.

2000-01-01

293

Final STS-35 Columbia Descent BET Products and Results for LaRC OEX Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Final STS-35 'Columbia' descent Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) products have been developed for Langley Research Center (LaRC) Orbiter Experiments (OEX) investigations. Included are the reconstructed inertial trajectory profile; the Extended BET, which co...

K. F. Oakes J. T. Findlay R. A. Jasinski J. S. Wood

1991-01-01

294

Atmosphere Assessment for MARS Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On August 6, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed on the surface of Mars. The Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) sequence was designed using atmospheric conditions estimated from mesoscale numerical models. The models, dev...

A. Chen A. D. Cianciolo A. R. Vasavada B. Cantor D. Kass D. Tyler J. Barnes M. Mischna S. Rafkin

2013-01-01

295

2007 Mars Phoenix Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation and Modeling Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the entry, descent, and landing of the 2007 Mars Phoenix lander. Aerodynamics characteristics along with Monte Carlo analyses are also presented for launch and landing site opportunities.

Prince, Jill L.; Grover, Myron R.; Desai, Prasun N.; Queen, Eric M.

2007-01-01

296

Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Technology Investments Within NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate has several investments in entry, descent and landing technologies, across its nine programs. This presentation will give a top-level view of the various investments.

Munk, M. M.

2014-06-01

297

A conflict analysis of 4D descent strategies in a metered, multiple-arrival route environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conflict analysis was performed on multiple arrival traffic at a typical metered airport. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to simulate arrival operations using Denver Stapleton's arrival route structure. Sensitivities of conflict performance to three different 4-D descent strategies (clear-idle Mach/Constant AirSpeed (CAS), constant descent angle Mach/CAS and energy optimal) were examined for three traffic mixes represented by those found at Denver Stapleton, John F. Kennedy and typical en route metering (ERM) airports. The Monte Carlo technique was used to generate simulation entry point times. Analysis results indicate that the clean-idle descent strategy offers the best compromise in overall performance. Performance measures primarily include susceptibility to conflict and conflict severity. Fuel usage performance is extrapolated from previous descent strategy studies.

Izumi, K. H.; Harris, C. S.

1990-01-01

298

Ruptured urinary bladder attributable to urethral compression by a haematoma after vertebral fracture in a bull  

PubMed Central

Background In male cattle, rupture of the urinary bladder is usually associated with urethral obstruction by uroliths. Less common causes include urethral compression or stricture. This case report describes the findings in a young Limousion breeding bull with rupture of the urinary bladder because of urethral compression by a haematoma after coccygeal fracture. Case presentation The bull had been introduced into a 40-head Red-Holstein herd one week before being injured. One week after introduction to the herd, the bull had an acute onset of anorexia and he was referred to the clinic. There was marked abdominal distension, reduced skin turgor and enophthalmus. The serum concentration of urea and creatinine was increased. Ultrasonographic examination revealed severe ascites and abdominocentesis yielded clear yellow fluid with high urea and creatinine concentrations, which supported a diagnosis of uroperitoneum. The bull was euthanatized because of a poor prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed a comminuted fracture of the first two coccygeal vertebrae associated with a massive haematoma that obstructed entire pelvic cavity. The haematoma compressed the urethra thereby preventing outflow of urine, which resulted in a 5-cm tear ventrally at the neck of the bladder. It was assumed that the newly-introduced bull had sustained the vertebral fractures when he was mounted by a cow. Conclusions The present case study serves to expand the differential diagnosis of urinary bladder rupture. Therefore, in addition to obstructive urolithiasis, compression and stricture of the urethra might be considered in male cattle with uroperitoneum.

2014-01-01

299

[Surgical treatment for gall bladder cancer with a confluence stone-a case report].  

PubMed

The patient was a 71-year-old man. In September 2011, he experienced abdominal pain with high fever. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) diagnosed acute cholecystitis with a confluence stone (corlette classification type II). He underwent total cholecystectomy and placement of a T-tube in the main bile duct through the gall bladder duct. However, pathological investigations revealed gall bladder cancer in the neck and body part of the gall bladder, leading to a diagnosis of gall bladder adenocarcinoma(Gbn, Flat type, tub2, INF ?,pSS, pHinf0, pBinf1, pPV0, pA0, pT3) with a confluence stone. We suspected that the tumor was present in the common bile duct. Therefore, in October 2011, he underwent choledochectomy, resection of the liver bed, lymph node dissection, and choledocho-jejunostomy. Pathological findings revealed that the tumor was present in the common bile duct. He died 8 months after the last surgery because of recurrence of peritoneal metastasis. PMID:23268000

Ota, Hideo; Ohtsuru, Minoru; Komai, Takanori; Katayama, Tomohiro; Machida, Tomohiko; Ishii, Takaaki; Hiraoka, Kunihiko; Sinozaki, Kouji; Kawasaki, Yasuhito; Ikeda, Yukio; Senba, Hidemine; Yasuda, Seiji

2012-11-01

300

Urinary bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography  

PubMed Central

Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux with urinary tract infection or congenital renal diseases in children. The procedure is relatively simple and cost-effective, and complications are very rare. The iatrogenic complication of VCUG range from discomfort, urinary tract infection to bacteremia, as well as bladder rupture. Bladder rupture is a rare complication of VCUG, and only a few cases were reported. Bladder rupture among healthy children during VCUG is an especially uncommon event. Bladder rupture associated with VCUG is usually more common in chronically unused bladders like chronic renal failure. Presented is a case of bladder rupture that occurred during a VCUG in a healthy 9-month-old infant, due to instilled action of dye by high pressure. This injury completely healed after 7 days of operation, and it was confirmed with a postoperative cystography. The patient's bladder volume, underlying disease, velocity of the contrast media instilled, catheter size, and styles of instillation are important factors to prevent bladder rupture during VCUG. Management of bladder rupture should be individualized, but the majority of infants are treated with the operation. In conclusion, bladder rupture is a rare complication, however, delicate attention is needed in order to prevent more dire situations.

Lee, Kyong Ok; Park, Se Jin; Shin, Jae Il; Lee, Suk Young

2012-01-01

301

The difficult neck in facelifting.  

PubMed

The management of the neck often presents the most challenging aspect of the facelift procedure. The aesthetic neck has a well-defined jaw line, a pleasing and adequate cervicomental angle, and visible definitions of the deeper lateral and midline structures, such as the sternocleidomastoid muscles and trachea. Several unfavorable anatomic characteristics will present that will compound the challenge. These characteristics are contrasted with ideal features and include the following: an excess of adipose tissue, an excess of either thin or thick inelastic skin, marked relaxation of the suspension structures of the neck with resultant platysma banding and jowling, and unfavorable skeletal features such as microgenia and hyoid malposition. These patients present for rhytidectomy with inadequate chin projection, an obtuse cervicomental angle, sagging skin, and a heavy neck. To maximize rhytidectomy results in these patients with difficult neck anatomy, special attention to the anatomy and application of recognized techniques in an individualized manner is recommended. This article reviews the issues encountered in the management of the difficult neck in facelifting, with special attention given to patients with a heavy neck. PMID:25076452

Fedok, Fred G; Chaikhoutdinov, Irina; Garritano, Frank

2014-08-01

302

Vision-Aided Inertial Navigation for Spacecraft Entry, Descent, and Landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the vision-aided inertial navigation (VISINAV) algorithm that enables precision planetary landing. The vision front-end of the VISINAV system extracts 2-D-to-3-D correspondences between descent images and a surface map (mapped landmarks), as well as 2-D-to-2-D feature tracks through a sequence of descent images (opportunistic features). An extended Kalman filter (EKF) tightly integrates both types of visual

Anastasios I. Mourikis; Nikolas Trawny; Stergios I. Roumeliotis; Andrew Edie Johnson; Adnan Ansar; Larry Matthies

2009-01-01

303

Glaucoma detection: the content of optometric eye examinations for a presbyopic patient of African racial descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims:Standardised patient (SP) methodology is the gold standard for evaluating clinical practice. We investigated the content of optometric eyecare for an early presbyopic SP of African racial descent, an “at-risk” patient group for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Methods:A trained actor presented unannounced as a 44-year-old patient of African racial descent, complaining of recent near vision difficulties, to 100 community optometrists for

R Shah; D F Edgar; P G Spry; R A Harper; A Kotecha; S Rughani; B J W Evans

2009-01-01

304

Relation between perineal descent and pudendal nerve damage in idiopathic faecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 60 patients with idiopathic anorectal incontinence, without neurological disease, there was a significant relationship, shown by regression analysis, between the pudendal nerve terminal motor latency and the extent of perineal descent during straining (r0.59;p<0.001), and the plane of the perineum on straining (r-0.61;p<0.001). These data are consistent with the suggestion that perineal descent can lead to stretch-induced damage to

P. N. Jones; D. Z. Lubowski; M. Swash; M. M. Henry

1987-01-01

305

Analysis of Flight Management System Predictions of Idle-Thrust Descents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the predictor and its uncertainty models, descents from cruise to the meter fix were executed using vertical navigation in a B737-700 simulator and a B777-200 simulator, both with commercial FMSs. For both aircraft types, the FMS computed the intended descent path for a specified speed profile assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and then it controlled the avionics without human intervention. The test matrix varied aircraft weight, descent speed, and wind conditions. The first analysis in this paper determined the effect of the test matrix parameters on the FMS computation of TOD location, and it compared the results to those for the current ground predictor in the Efficient Descent Advisor (EDA). The second analysis was similar but considered the time to fly a specified distance to the meter fix. The effects of the test matrix variables together with the accuracy requirements for the predictor will determine the allowable error for the predictor inputs. For the B737, the EDA prediction of meter fix crossing time agreed well with the FMS; but its prediction of TOD location probably was not sufficiently accurate to enable idle-thrust descents in congested airspace, even though the FMS and EDA gave similar shapes for TOD location as a function of the test matrix variables. For the B777, the FMS and EDA gave different shapes for the TOD location function, and the EDA prediction of the TOD location is not accurate enough to fully enable the concept. Furthermore, the differences between the FMS and EDA predictions of meter fix crossing time for the B777 indicated that at least one of them was not sufficiently accurate.

Stell, Laurel

2010-01-01

306

[Carcinomatous meningitis from urothelial carcinoma of bladder and ureter: case report].  

PubMed

Carcinomatous meningitis from urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and ureter is rare. A 77-year-old man with invasive bladder cancer and right ureter cancer had been treated with 3 courses M-VAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, epirubicin, cisplatin) chemotherapy. After chemotherapy we performed radical cystectomy and right nephroureterectomy (ileal-neobladder) (TCC, G3, pT3, N0, M0). Sixteen months after operation, patient complained of anorexia, muscular weakness, stiff neck. CT of chest and abdomen, and bone scintigraphy showed no metastasis. Brain CT and MRI showed hydrocephalus but no evidence of parenchymal metastasis. Because we suspected carcinomatous meningitis, we performed lumbar puncture. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology revealed class V (urothelial carcinoma). Patient died 6 days after diagnosis of carcinomatous meningitis. PMID:15624493

Matsushita, Mabumi; Kawasaki, Yoshihide; Okada, Yasuhiro

2004-11-01

307

The epidemiology of neck pain.  

PubMed

Neck pain is becoming increasingly common throughout the world. It has a considerable impact on individuals and their families, communities, health-care systems, and businesses. There is substantial heterogeneity between neck pain epidemiological studies, which makes it difficult to compare or pool data from different studies. The estimated 1 year incidence of neck pain from available studies ranges between 10.4% and 21.3% with a higher incidence noted in office and computer workers. While some studies report that between 33% and 65% of people have recovered from an episode of neck pain at 1 year, most cases run an episodic course over a person's lifetime and, thus, relapses are common. The overall prevalence of neck pain in the general population ranges between 0.4% and 86.8% (mean: 23.1%); point prevalence ranges from 0.4% to 41.5% (mean: 14.4%); and 1 year prevalence ranges from 4.8% to 79.5% (mean: 25.8%). Prevalence is generally higher in women, higher in high-income countries compared with low- and middle-income countries and higher in urban areas compared with rural areas. Many environmental and personal factors influence the onset and course of neck pain. Most studies indicate a higher incidence of neck pain among women and an increased risk of developing neck pain until the 35-49-year age group, after which the risk begins to decline. The Global Burden of Disease 2005 Study is currently making estimates of the global burden of neck pain in relation to impairment and activity limitation, and results will be available in 2011. PMID:21665126

Hoy, D G; Protani, M; De, R; Buchbinder, R

2010-12-01

308

Fetal Bladder Wall Regeneration with a Collagen Biomatrix and Histological Evaluation of Bladder Exstrophy in a Fetal Sheep Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate histological changes in an animal model for bladder exstrophy and fetal repair of the bladder defect with a molecular-defined dual-layer collagen biomatrix to induce fetal bladder wall regeneration. Methods: In 12 fetal lambs the abdominal wall and bladder were opened by a midline incision at 79 days’ gestation. In 6 of these lambs an uncorrected bladder exstrophy

Luc A. J. Roelofs; Alex J. Eggink; Christina A. Hulsbergen-van de Kaa; Rene M. H. Wijnen; Toin H. van Kuppevelt; Herman T. B. van Moerkerk; A. Jane Crevels; Alex Hanssen; Fred K. Lotgering; Paul P. van den Berg; Wout F. J. Feitz

2008-01-01

309

The Descent Rates of the Shear Zones of the Equatorial QBO.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of vertical advection on the descent rate of the zero-wind line in both phases of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is investigated with the help of the `THIN AIR' stratosphere two-and-a-half-dimensional model. The model QBO is forced by two symmetric easterly and westerly waves, and yet the model reproduces qualitatively the observed asymmetry in the descent rates of the two shear zones due to the enhanced heating during easterly descent combined with the equatorial heating induced by the extratropical planetary waves. Observations show that the maximum easterly accelerations occur predominantly from May until July, which is when the modeled equatorial planetary-wave-induced heating rates are weakest. Hence, model results are consistent with the theory that vertical advection induced by extratropical planetary waves slows significantly the descent of the easterly shear zone. The model also shows the observed increase in vertical wind shear during stalling of the easterly descent (which increases the impact of vertical advection). In the model, the effect of cross-equatorial advection of momentum by the mean flow is negligible compared to the vertical advection. Changes in the propagation of planetary waves depending on the sign of the equatorial zonal wind have a small effect on the modeled equatorial heating rates and therefore do not play a large part in producing the modeled asymmetry in descent rates.

Kinnersley, Jonathan S.; Pawson, Steven

1996-07-01

310

Adjunctive procedures to neck rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Rejuvenation of the neck often requires more than just a neck lift. Various steps and procedures exist to enhance the surgical technique or overall result. Fibrin sealants can be used to improve the recovery process and obviate the need for drain placement. Chin augmentation can be a critical part of creating a more refined neckline. Submandibular gland excision has been put forth as helpful to the overall aesthetic result. A low and anteriorly positioned hyoid bone creates an unattractive neckline that is difficult to treat. This article focuses on techniques beyond lifting and resurfacing that may enhance neck rejuvenation. PMID:24745385

Hamilton, Mark M; Chan, David

2014-05-01

311

49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...572.113 Neck assembly. The head/neck assembly consists of the parts...78051-303 and -307, mount the head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum...except that the direction of the head/neck assembly is rotated around...

2009-10-01

312

49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...572.113 Neck assembly. The head/neck assembly consists of the parts...78051-303 and -307, mount the head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum...except that the direction of the head/neck assembly is rotated around...

2010-10-01

313

Pharmacogenomics of warfarin in populations of African descent.  

PubMed

Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant worldwide despite its narrow therapeutic index and the notorious inter- and intra-individual variability in dose required for the target clinical effect. Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms are major determinants of warfarin pharmacokinetic and dynamics and included in several warfarin dosing algorithms. This review focuses on warfarin pharmacogenomics in sub-Saharan peoples, African Americans and admixed Brazilians. These 'Black' populations differ in several aspects, notably their extent of recent admixture with Europeans, a factor which impacts on the frequency distribution of pharmacogenomic polymorphisms relevant to warfarin dose requirement for the target clinical effect. Whereas a small number of polymorphisms in VKORC1 (3673G > A, rs9923231), CYP2C9 (alleles *2 and *3, rs1799853 and rs1057910, respectively) and arguably CYP4F2 (rs2108622), may capture most of the pharmacogenomic influence on warfarin dose variance in White populations, additional polymorphisms in these, and in other, genes (e.g. CALU rs339097) increase the predictive power of pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithms in the Black populations examined. A personalized strategy for initiation of warfarin therapy, allowing for improved safety and cost-effectiveness for populations of African descent must take into account their pharmacogenomic diversity, as well as socio-economical, cultural and medical factors. Accounting for this heterogeneity in algorithms that are 'friendly' enough to be adopted by warfarin prescribers worldwide requires gathering information from trials at different population levels, but demands also a critical appraisal of racial/ethnic labels that are commonly used in the clinical pharmacology literature but do not accurately reflect genetic ancestry and population diversity. PMID:22676711

Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Botton, Mariana R

2013-02-01

314

Experiments on liquid immiscibility along tholeiitic liquid lines of descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystallization experiments have been conducted on compositions along tholeiitic liquid lines of descent to define the compositional space for the development of silicate liquid immiscibility. Starting materials have 46-56 wt% SiO2, 11.7-17.7 wt% FeOtot, and Mg-number between 0.29 and 0.36. These melts fall on the basaltic trends relevant for Mull, Iceland, Snake River Plain lavas and for the Sept Iles layered intrusion, where large-scale liquid immiscibility has been recognized. At one atmosphere under anhydrous conditions, immiscibility develops below 1,000-1,020°C in all of these compositionally diverse lavas. Extreme iron enrichment is not necessary; immiscibility also develops during iron depletion and silica enrichment. Variations in melt composition control the development of silicate liquid immiscibility along the tholeiitic trend. Elevation of Na2O + K2O + P2O5 + TiO2 promotes the development of two immiscible liquids. Increasing melt CaO and Al2O3 stabilizes a single-liquid field. New data and published phase equilibria show that anhydrous, low-pressure fractional crystallization is the most favorable condition for unmixing during differentiation. Pressure inhibits immiscibility because it expands the stability field of high-Ca clinopyroxene, which reduces the proportion of plagioclase in the crystallizing assemblage, thus enhancing early iron depletion. Magma mixing between primitive basalt and Fe-Ti-P-rich ferrobasalts can serve to elevate phosphorous and alkali contents and thereby promote unmixing. Water might decrease the temperature and size of the two-liquid field, potentially shifting the binodal (solvus) below the liquidus, leading the system to evolve as a single-melt phase.

Charlier, Bernard; Grove, Timothy L.

2012-07-01

315

Pharmacogenomics of warfarin in populations of African descent  

PubMed Central

Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant worldwide despite its narrow therapeutic index and the notorious inter- and intra-individual variability in dose required for the target clinical effect. Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms are major determinants of warfarin pharmacokinetic and dynamics and included in several warfarin dosing algorithms. This review focuses on warfarin pharmacogenomics in sub-Saharan peoples, African Americans and admixed Brazilians. These ‘Black’ populations differ in several aspects, notably their extent of recent admixture with Europeans, a factor which impacts on the frequency distribution of pharmacogenomic polymorphisms relevant to warfarin dose requirement for the target clinical effect. Whereas a small number of polymorphisms in VKORC1 (3673G > A, rs9923231), CYP2C9 (alleles *2 and *3, rs1799853 and rs1057910, respectively) and arguably CYP4F2 (rs2108622), may capture most of the pharmacogenomic influence on warfarin dose variance in White populations, additional polymorphisms in these, and in other, genes (e.g. CALU rs339097) increase the predictive power of pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithms in the Black populations examined. A personalized strategy for initiation of warfarin therapy, allowing for improved safety and cost-effectiveness for populations of African descent must take into account their pharmacogenomic diversity, as well as socio-economical, cultural and medical factors. Accounting for this heterogeneity in algorithms that are ‘friendly’ enough to be adopted by warfarin prescribers worldwide requires gathering information from trials at different population levels, but demands also a critical appraisal of racial/ethnic labels that are commonly used in the clinical pharmacology literature but do not accurately reflect genetic ancestry and population diversity.

Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Botton, Mariana R

2013-01-01

316

Atmospheric Environments for Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific measurements of atmospheric properties have been made by a wide variety of planetary flyby missions, orbiters, and landers. Although landers can make in-situ observations of near-surface atmospheric conditions (and can collect atmospheric data during their entry phase), the vast majority of data on planetary atmospheres has been collected by remote sensing techniques from flyby and orbiter spacecraft (and to some extent by Earth-based remote sensing). Many of these remote sensing observations (made over a variety of spectral ranges), consist of vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature as a function of atmospheric pressure level. While these measurements are of great interest to atmospheric scientists and modelers of planetary atmospheres, the primary interest for engineers designing entry descent and landing (EDL) systems is information about atmospheric density as a function of geometric altitude. Fortunately, as described in in this paper, it is possible to use a combination of the gas-law relation and the hydrostatic balance relation to convert temperature-versus-pressure, scientific observations into density-versus-altitude data for use in engineering applications. The following section provides a brief introduction to atmospheric thermodynamics, as well as constituents, and winds for EDL. It also gives methodology for using atmospheric information to do "back-of-the-envelope" calculations of various EDL aeroheating parameters, including peak deceleration rate ("g-load"), peak convective heat rate. and total heat load on EDL spacecraft thermal protection systems. Brief information is also provided about atmospheric variations and perturbations for EDL guidance and control issues, and atmospheric issues for EDL parachute systems. Subsequent sections give details of the atmospheric environments for five destinations for possible EDL missions: Venus. Earth. Mars, Saturn, and Titan. Specific atmospheric information is provided for these destinations, and example results are presented for the "back-of-the-envelope" calculations mentioned above.

Justus, Carl G.; Braun, Robert D.

2007-01-01

317

Cyclic coordinate descent: A robotics algorithm for protein loop closure  

PubMed Central

In protein structure prediction, it is often the case that a protein segment must be adjusted to connect two fixed segments. This occurs during loop structure prediction in homology modeling as well as in ab initio structure prediction. Several algorithms for this purpose are based on the inverse Jacobian of the distance constraints with respect to dihedral angle degrees of freedom. These algorithms are sometimes unstable and fail to converge. We present an algorithm developed originally for inverse kinematics applications in robotics. In robotics, an end effector in the form of a robot hand must reach for an object in space by altering adjustable joint angles and arm lengths. In loop prediction, dihedral angles must be adjusted to move the C-terminal residue of a segment to superimpose on a fixed anchor residue in the protein structure. The algorithm, referred to as cyclic coordinate descent or CCD, involves adjusting one dihedral angle at a time to minimize the sum of the squared distances between three backbone atoms of the moving C-terminal anchor and the corresponding atoms in the fixed C-terminal anchor. The result is an equation in one variable for the proposed change in each dihedral. The algorithm proceeds iteratively through all of the adjustable dihedral angles from the N-terminal to the C-terminal end of the loop. CCD is suitable as a component of loop prediction methods that generate large numbers of trial structures. It succeeds in closing loops in a large test set 99.79% of the time, and fails occasionally only for short, highly extended loops. It is very fast, closing loops of length 8 in 0.037 sec on average.

Canutescu, Adrian A.; Dunbrack, Roland L.

2003-01-01

318

Mars Exploration Rover Entry, Descent, and Landing: A Thermal Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps the most challenging mission phase for the Mars Exploration Rovers was the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). During this phase, the entry vehicle attached to its cruise stage was transformed into a stowed tetrahedral Lander that was surrounded by inflated airbags through a series of complex events. There was only one opportunity to successfully execute an automated command sequence without any possible ground intervention. The success of EDL was reliant upon the system thermal design: 1) to thermally condition EDL hardware from cruise storage temperatures to operating temperature ranges; 2) to maintain the Rover electronics within operating temperature ranges without the benefit of the cruise single phase cooling loop, which had been evacuated in preparation for EDL; and 3) to maintain the cruise stage propulsion components for the critical turn to entry attitude. Since the EDL architecture was inherited from Mars Pathfinder (MPF), the initial EDL thermal design would be inherited from MPF. However, hardware and implementation differences from MPF ultimately changed the MPF inheritance approach for the EDL thermal design. With the lack of full inheritance, the verification and validation of the EDL thermal design took on increased significance. This paper will summarize the verification and validation approach for the EDL thermal design along with applicable system level thermal testing results as well as appropriate thermal analyses. In addition, the lessons learned during the system-level testing will be discussed. Finally, the in-flight EDL experiences of both MER-A and -B missions (Spirit and Opportunity, respectively) will be presented, demonstrated how lessons learned from Spirit were applied to Opportunity.

Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Sunada, Eric T.; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.; Phillip, Charles J.

2005-01-01

319

9 CFR 96.7 - Dried bladders, weasands, and casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dried bladders, weasands, and casings. 96.7 Section...INTO THE UNITED STATES § 96.7 Dried bladders, weasands, and casings. Dried animal bladders, dried weasands, and all other...

2010-01-01

320

9 CFR 96.7 - Dried bladders, weasands, and casings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Dried bladders, weasands, and casings. 96.7 Section...INTO THE UNITED STATES § 96.7 Dried bladders, weasands, and casings. Dried animal bladders, dried weasands, and all other...

2009-01-01

321

Regenerative medicine and the neurogenic bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of normal bladder function by the nervous system has been described in great detail. In some cases of injury to the\\u000a spinal cord, neurogenic bladder dysfunction develops, typified by detrusor sphincter dyssynergia and decreasing bladder capacity\\u000a and compliance. Numerous therapies, including anticholinergic agents, botulinum toxin, neuromodulation, and clean intermittent\\u000a catheterization, have been used to maintain physiologic pressures in the

Steve J. Hodges; Anthony Atala

2008-01-01

322

Bladder Endometriosis: Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis or Adenomyosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the anatomopathologic characteristics of endometriosis infiltrating the bladder detrusor.Design: Descriptive anatomopathologic study.Setting: Tertiary care center for endometriosis.Patient(s): Four patients, aged 22–38 years, who underwent laparotomy for bladder endometriosis.Intervention(s): Surgical excision and pathologic analysis of bladder endometriotic nodules in four patients.Main Outcome Measure(s): Gross and microscopic characteristics of endometriotic nodules.Result(s): A nodule of adenomyosis on the anterior wall

Luigi Fedele; Elena Piazzola; Ricciarda Raffaelli; Stefano Bianchi

1998-01-01

323

Bladder cancer in spinal cord injury patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective review.Objective:Spinal cord injury is a known risk factor for bladder cancer. The risk of bladder cancer has been reported at 16–28 times higher than the general population. Earlier studies have identified indwelling catheters as risk factors. We examined the characteristics of bladder cancers in a spinal cord injury (SCI) population.Setting:Long Beach VA Hospital Spinal Cord Injury Unit, Long

J F Kalisvaart; H K Katsumi; L D Ronningen; R M Hovey

2010-01-01

324

Carcinoma gall bladder presenting as hemobilia.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old man presented with recurrent bouts of melena, requiring multiple transfusions. Upper GI endoscopic evaluation demonstrated fresh bleeding from the ampulla of Vater. Ultrasonography and CT scan suggested a gall bladder mass without evidence of metastases. Laparotomy confirmed a mass confined to the lumen of the gall bladder. The patient underwent cholecystectomy. Histological examination showed papillary adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder extending up to the muscularis propria. PMID:10319544

John, A; Ramachandran, T M; Ashraf, S; Nair, M S; Devi, R S

1999-01-01

325

Nontransitional Carcinoma of the Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this article, we review available evidence on the treatment of patients with nonurothelial cancer of the bladder. More\\u000a than 150 published works were reviewed in preparation for this summary. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are ideally\\u000a treated with radical cystectomy. High-risk groups for these diseases are defined. Small cell carcinoma should be treated with\\u000a multimodality therapy, including chemotherapy. Other

Hassan Abol-Enein; Bruce R. Kava; Adrienne J. K. Carmack

326

Overactive Bladder after Sling Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Midurethral sling surgery has become the new gold standard for the management of stress urinary incontinence. A significant\\u000a number of patients will have preoperative symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), including urgency, frequency, nocturia, and\\/or\\u000a urgency urinary incontinence; however, 5% to 25% of women will report persistent, worsening, or de novo OAB after sling surgery.\\u000a Some cases of OAB after sling

Kamran P. Sajadi; Sandip P. Vasavada

2010-01-01

327

Head and Neck Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Head and neck cancer (HNC) represents a broad spectrum of diseases that involves the nasal and oropharyngeal cavities, the\\u000a paranasal sinuses, the major and minor salivary glands, the larynx and the lymphatic tissues of the neck. The world-wide yearly\\u000a incidence exceeds over half a million cases. Tobacco (smoking and smokeless) and alcohol use are the principal risk factors,\\u000a however, a

Fausto Chiesa; Angelo Ostuni; Roberto Grigolato; Luca Calabrese

328

Pediatric urologic oncology: bladder, prostate, testis.  

PubMed

Although treatment for bladder, prostate, and testis cancer comprises a large part of adult urologic practice, the tumors that affect these organs in children are rare. Rhabdomyosarcoma,which affects the bladder, prostate, vaginal, and paratesticular areas,is treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Most transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder and prepubertal testis tumors are managed surgically owing to the low stage at presentation. Application of the technical advances learned in adults with tumors of the bladder, prostate, and testis, combined with an understanding of the difference in tumor biology, helps urologists improve the treatment of these tumors in children. PMID:15313070

Wu, Hsi-Yang; Snyder, Howard M

2004-08-01

329

Aerodynamics of Reentry Vehicle Clipper at Descent Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From Gagarin spacecraft to reusable orbiter Buran, RSC Energia has traveled a long way in the search for the most optimal and, which is no less important, the most reliable spacecraft for manned space flight. During the forty years of space exploration, in cooperation with a broad base of subcontractors, a number of problems have been solved which assure a safe long stay in space. Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft were replaced with Soyuz supporting a crew of three. During missions to a space station, it provides crew rescue capability in case of a space station emergency at all times (the spacecraft life is 200 days).The latest modification of Soyuz spacecraft -Soyuz TMA -in contrast to its predecessors, allows to become a space flight participant to a person of virtually any anthropometric parameters with a mass of 50 to 95 kg capable of withstanding up to 6 g load during descent. At present, Soyuz TMA spacecraft are the state-of-the-art, reliable and only means of the ISS crew delivery, in-flight support and return. Introduced on the basis of many years of experience in operation of manned spacecraft were not only the principles of deep redundancy of on-board systems and equipment, but, to assure the main task of the spacecraft -the crew return to Earth -the principles of functional redundancy. That is, vital operations can be performed by different systems based on different physical principles. The emergency escape system that was developed is the only one in the world that provides crew rescue in case of LV failure at any phase in its flight. Several generations of space stations that have been developed have broadened, virtually beyond all limits, capabilities of man in space. The docking system developed at RSC Energia allowed not only to dock spacecraft in space, but also to construct in orbit various complex space systems. These include large space stations, and may include in the future the in-orbit construction of systems for the exploration of the Moon and Mars.. Logistics spacecraft Progress have been flying regularly since 1978. The tasks of these unmanned spacecraft include supplying the space station with all the necessities for long-duration missions, such as propellant for the space station propulsion system, crew life support consumables, scientific equipment for conducting experiments. Various modifications of the spacecraft have expanded the space station capabilities. 1988 saw the first, and, much to our regret, the last flight of the reusable orbiter Buran.. Buran could deliver to orbit up to 30 tons of cargo, return 20 tons to Earth and have a crew of up to 10. However, due to our country's economic situation the project was suspended.

Semenov, Yu. P.; Reshetin, A. G.; Dyadkin, A. A.; Petrov, N. K.; Simakova, T. V.; Tokarev, V. A.

2005-02-01

330

Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

1985-01-01

331

Functional improvement in spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder by bladder augmentation using bladder acellular matrix graft in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury (SCI) rostral to the lumbosacral level causes bladder hyperreflexia and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia\\u000a (DSD), which are accompanied by bladder hypertrophy. We hypothesize that bladder augmentation using a bladder acellular matrix\\u000a graft (BAMG) can improve the function of SCI-mediated neurogenic bladder. In female rats (n = 35), SCI was induced by transection of the spinal cord at the lower thoracic level.

Shinji Urakami; Hiroaki Shiina; Hideki Enokida; Ken Kawamoto; Nobuyuki Kikuno; Thomas Fandel; Kaveh Vejdani; Lora Nunes; Mikio Igawa; Emil A. Tanagho; Rajvir Dahiya

2007-01-01

332

In vivo patient measurements of bladder elasticity using Ultrasound Bladder Vibrometry (UBV).  

PubMed

A healthy compliant bladder is capable of storing increasing volumes of urine at low pressures. The loss of bladder compliance is associated with various diseases. The urodynamic studies (UDS), the current clinical gold standard for measuring bladder compliance, requires catheterization and measuring intra-bladder pressure as a function of filling volumes. Ultrasound Bladder Vibrometry (UBV) is a noninvasive technique that uses focused ultrasound radiation force to excite Lamb waves in the bladder wall and pulse-echo techniques to track the wave motion in tissue. Cross-spectral analysis is used to calculate the wave velocity, which is directly related to the elastic properties of the bladder wall. In this study, we compare the measurements of changes in bladder elasticity as a function of bladder pressure and volume obtained using UBV and the pressure-volume measurements obtained using UDS. UBV and UDS of an excised porcine bladder are presented. Comparative studies in neurogenic and healthy patient bladders are also summarized. PMID:24109637

Nenadic, Ivan; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Urban, Matthew W; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F; Fatemi, Mostafa

2013-01-01

333

The Effects of Acupuncture on Bladder Interstitial Cells of Cajal Excitability in Rats with Overactive Bladder  

PubMed Central

It is well known that acupuncture treatment has an effect on patients with an overactive bladder, but the mechanism of its action remains to be clarified. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of acupuncture on bladder overactivity, and the excitability of interstitial cells of Cajal of the bladder in a rat model of partial bladder outlet obstruction. Electroacupuncture (continuous wave, 30?Hz, 1?mA) was applied to stimulate the Ciliao point (BL32) and the Huiyang point (BL35) of rats for 20?min, 3 days. Results showed that acupuncture suppressed detrusor unstable contraction frequency and decreased detrusor maximum pressure in the bladder filling period. Compared with the normal control rats, HCN2 mRNA and protein expression within the bladder were upregulated and were reversed by electroacupuncture in overactive bladder rats as determined by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, in-vitro cell-cultured OAB rats bladder interstitial cells of Cajal intracellular Ca2+ concentration were higher than normal control rats, which were lowered after acupuncture treatment. These findings suggest that acupuncture stimulation can suppress bladder overactivity, and regulate the excitability of bladder interstitial cells of Cajal in treatment of overactive bladder myogenic mechanism.

Feng, Qi-fan; Hou, Yuen-hao; Hou, Wen-guang; Lin, Zhi-xian; Tang, Kang-min; Chen, Yue-lai

2013-01-01

334

Tracer-Based Determination of Vortex Descent in the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed analysis of available in situ and remotely sensed N2O and CH4 data measured in the 1999-2000 winter Arctic vortex has been performed in order to quantify the temporal evolution of vortex descent. Differences in potential temperature (theta) among balloon and aircraft vertical profiles (an average of 19-23 K on a given N2O or CH4 isopleth) indicated significant vortex inhomogeneity in late fall as compared with late winter profiles. A composite fall vortex profile was constructed for November 26, 1999, whose error bars encompassed the observed variability. High-latitude, extravortex profiles measured in different years and seasons revealed substantial variability in N2O and CH4 on theta surfaces, but all were clearly distinguishable from the first vortex profiles measured in late fall 1999. From these extravortex-vortex differences, we inferred descent prior to November 26: 397+/-15 K (1sigma) at 30 ppbv N2O and 640 ppbv CH4, and 28+/-13 K above 200 ppbv N2O and 1280 ppbv CH4. Changes in theta were determined on five N2O and CH4 isopleths from November 26 through March 12, and descent rates were calculated on each N2O isopleth for several time intervals. The maximum descent rates were seen between November 26 and January 27: 0.82+/-0.20 K/day averaged over 50-250 ppbv N2O. By late winter (February 26-March 12), the average rate had decreased to 0.10+/-0.25 K/day. Descent rates also decreased with increasing N2O; the winter average (November 26-March 5) descent rate varied from 0.75+/-0.10 K/day at 50 ppbv to 0.40+/-0.11 K/day at 250 ppbv. Comparison of these results with observations and models of descent in prior years showed very good overall agreement. Two models of the 1999-2000 vortex descent, SLIMCAT and REPROBUS, despite theta offsets with respect to observed profiles of up to 20 K on most tracer isopleths, produced descent rates that agreed very favorably with the inferred rates from observation.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-Juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Hurst, Dale F.; Elkins, James W.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Herman, Robert L.; Webster, Christopher R.

2001-01-01

335

Tracer-based Determination of Vortex Descent in the 1999/2000 Arctic Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed analysis of available in situ and remotely sensed N2O and CH4 data measured in the 1999/2000 winter Arctic vortex has been performed in order to quantify the temporal evolution of vortex descent. Differences in potential temperature (theta) among balloon and aircraft vertical profiles (an average of 19-23 K on a given N2O or CH4 isopleth) indicated significant vortex inhomogeneity in late fall as compared with late winter profiles. A composite fall vortex profile was constructed for 26 November 1999, whose error bars encompassed the observed variability. High-latitude extravortex profiles measured in different years and seasons revealed substantial variability in N2O and CH4 on theta surfaces, but all were clearly distinguishable from the first vortex profiles measured in late fall 1999. From these extravortex-vortex differences we inferred descent prior to 26 November: as much as 397 plus or minus 15 K (lsigma) at 30 ppbv N2O and 640 ppbv CH4, and falling to 28 plus or minus 13 K above 200 ppbv N2O and 1280 ppbv CH4. Changes in theta were determined on five N2O and CH4 isopleths from 26 November through 12 March, and descent rates were calculated on each N2O isopleth for several time intervals. The maximum descent rates were seen between 26 November and 27 January: 0.82 plus or minus 0.20 K/day averaged over 50- 250 ppbv N2O. By late winter (26 February to 12 March), the average rate had decreased to 0.10 plus or minus 0.25 K/day. Descent rates also decreased with increasing N2O; the winter average (26 November to 5 March) descent rate varied from 0.75 plus or minus 0.10 K/day at 50 ppbv to 0.40 plus or minus 0.11 K/day at 250 ppbv. Comparison of these results with observations and models of descent in prior years showed very good overall agreement. Two models of the 1999/2000 vortex descent, SLIMCAT and REPROBUS, despite theta offsets with respect to observed profiles of up to 20 K on most tracer isopleths, produced descent rates that agreed very favorably with the inferred rates from observation.

Greenblatt, Jeffrey B.; Jost, Hans-Juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Hurst, Dale F.; Elkins, James W.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Herman, Robert L.; Webster, Chrisotopher R.

2002-01-01

336

Arylamine exposures and bladder cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure to arylamines in industrial settings was the first known cause of bladder cancer in humans. In the United States and many developed countries, these industrial dyes have been under strict government control for decades and are believed to contribute minimally to today’s population burden of bladder cancer in the West. The two other recognized, and potentially substantial sources

Mimi C Yu; Paul L Skipper; Steven R Tannenbaum; Kenneth K Chan; Ronald K Ross

2002-01-01

337

Regenerative Medicine Strategies for Treating Neurogenic Bladder  

PubMed Central

Neurogenic bladder is a general term encompassing various neurologic dysfunctions of the bladder and the external urethral sphincter. These can be caused by damage or disease. Therapeutic management options can be conservative, minimally invasive, or surgical. The current standard for surgical management is bladder augmentation using intestinal segments. However, because intestinal tissue possesses different functional characteristics than bladder tissue, numerous complications can ensue, including excess mucus production, urinary stone formation, and malignancy. As a result, investigators have sought after alternative solutions. Tissue engineering is a scientific field that uses combinations of cells and biomaterials to encourage regeneration of new, healthy tissue and offers an alternative approach for the replacement of lost or deficient organs, including the bladder. Promising results using tissue-engineered bladder have already been obtained in children with neurogenic bladder caused by myelomeningocele. Human clinical trials, governed by the Food and Drug Administration, are ongoing in the United States in both children and adults to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of this technology. This review will introduce the principles of tissue engineering and discuss how it can be used to treat refractory cases of neurogenic bladder.

Olson, Jennifer; Atala, Anthony; Kim, Bupwan

2011-01-01

338

Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation CBCT sampled on the segmentation contour candidate. The cost function measured the goodness of fit of the segmentation on the validation image and was minimized using a simplex optimizer. For each validation CBCT image, the segmentations were done five times using a different reference CBCT. The one with the lowest cost function was selected as the final bladder segmentation. Volume- and distance-based metrics and the accuracy of plan selection were evaluated to quantify the performance. Two to four PCA modes were needed to represent the bladder shape variation with less than 0.1 cm average residual error for the training data of each patient. The automatically segmented bladders had a 78.5% mean conformity index with the manual delineations. The mean SD of the local residual error over all patients was 0.24 cm. The agreement of plan selection between automatic and manual bladder segmentations was 77.5%. PCA is an efficient method to describe patient-specific bladder deformation. The statistical-shape-based segmentation approach is robust to handle the relatively poor CBCT image quality and allows for fast and reliable automatic segmentation of the bladder on CBCT for selecting the appropriate plan from a library of plans.

Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

2012-06-01

339

Large vesical diverticulae with narrow neck, presenting with features of severe urinary tract infection managed surgically.  

PubMed

A case of multiple large urinary bladder diverticulae, with narrow neck, presented with features of severe urinary tract infection, with increased frequency of micturition, not treated since a long time. The muscular dehiscence that is at the origin of a diverticulum may be either congenital or degenerative. Two important complications of the diverticulum-that are sometimes interwoven-may occur: a draining defect and the development of an urothelial tumour in the diverticulum cavity. For such complicated diverticula, surgery is indicated. Results may be excellent, provided the surgical intervention focuses at the same time on the management of the associated subvesical obstacle in case of an acquired diverticulum. PMID:24426467

Ajwani, Vikky Ramesh; Bharaney, Rajesh P; Singh, Vijoy; Mehta, Jayshree P; Babu, Abdulla Askar; Joshi, Prarthan

2013-08-01

340

Photodynamic management of bladder cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bladder cancer (BC) is among the most expensive oncological diseases. Any improvement in diagnosis or therapy carries a high potential for reducing costs. Fluorescence cystoscopy relies on a selective formation of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) or more general photoactive porphyrins (PAP) in malignant urothelium upon instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its hexyl-derivative h-ALA. Fluorescence cystoscopy equipment has been developed with the aim to compensate for the undesired distortion caused by the tissue optical properties by displaying the red fluorescence simultaneously with the backscattered blue light. Many clinical studies proved a high sensitivity in detecting flat carcinoma in situ and small papillary malignant tumours. As a result, recurrence rates were significantly decreased in most studies. The limitation lies in a low specificity, caused by false positive findings at inflamed bladder wall. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently being investigated as a promising tool to overcome this limitation. H-ALA-PDT (8 or 16 mM h-ALA in 50 ml instillation for 1-2 h, white light source, catheter applicator) has recently been investigated in a phase I study. 17 patients were applied 100 J/cm2 (3 patients received incrementing doses of 25 - 50 - 100 J/cm2) during approx. 1 hour irradiation time in 3 sessions, 6 weeks apart. PDT was performed without any technical complications. Complete photobleaching of the PpIX-fluorescence, as intended, could be achieved in 43 of 45 PDT-sessions receiving 100 J/cm2. The most prominent side effects were postoperative urgency and bladder pain, all symptoms being more severe after 16 mM h-ALA. Preliminary evaluation shows complete response assessed at 3 months after the third PDT-session (i.e. 6 months after first treatment) in 9 of 12 patients. 2 of these patients were free of recurrence until final follow-up at 84 weeks.

Johansson, A.; Stepp, H.; Beyer, W.; Pongratz, T.; Sroka, R.; Bader, M.; Kriegmair, M.; Zaak, D.; Waidelich, R.; Karl, A.; Hofstetter, A.; Stief, C.; Baumgartner, R.

2009-06-01

341

Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998) classification. Methods This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification. Results Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78%) were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17%) were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2%) were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1%) were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3), small cell carcinoma (n=1), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1). The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%), papilloma 7 (3%), papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%), and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%), with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group. Conclusion This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age.

Al-Samawi, Abdullah Saleh; Aulaqi, Saleh Mansoor

2013-01-01

342

Targeting EGFR in bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Expression and overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been described in several solid tumors including bladder, breast, colorectal, NSCLC, prostate, and ovarian cancers. In addition to gene amplification, point mutations within the kinase domain also occur. Previous reports indicate that the patient's response to gefitinib depends on either the presence of mutations within the kinase domain of EGFR or the expression of the most frequent alteration, the truncated EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII). Therefore, it is important to determine if these EGFR alterations are present in urothelial carcinoma. The kinase domain of EGFR (exons 18-21) from 11 bladder cancer cell lines as well as from 75 patient tumors was analyzed by automated sequencing. No mutations were detected in all samples tested. Furthermore, analysis of EGFRvIII by immunohistochemistry revealed that almost half of all the patient samples expressed this truncation in a urothelial carcinoma tissue microarray. However, there have been previous reports of inconsistencies in detecting EGFRvIII by immunohistochemistry owing to the specificity of the antibodies and the methodologies utilized. Therefore, these results were validated by reverse transcription PCR, real-time PCR and western blot analysis. In these assays, none of the samples tested positive for EGFRvIII. Taken together, these results indicate that mutations within the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR and expression of EGFRvIII are rare events in bladder cancer and therefore do not contribute to the malignant phenotype of this tumor. These results have clinical implications in selecting tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the therapy of urothelial carcinoma. PMID:17690890

Villares, G J; Zigler, M; Blehm, K; Bogdan, C; McConkey, D; Colin, D; Bar-Eli, Menashe

2007-12-01

343

Spectroscopic Imaging of Bladder Cancer  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of developing bladder cancer detection methods using intrinsic tissue optical properties is the focus of this investigation. In vitro experiments have been performed using polarized elastic light scattering in combination with tissue autofluorescence in the NIR spectral region under laser excitation in the green and red spectral regions. The experimental results obtained from a set of tissue specimens from 25 patients reveal the presence of optical fingerprint characteristics suitable for cancer detection with high contrast and accuracy. These photonic methods are compatible with existing endoscopic imaging modalities which make them suitable for in-vivo application.

Demos, S G; Gandour-Edwards, R; Ramsamooj, R; deVere White, R

2003-01-01

344

Advances in POST2 End-to-End Descent and Landing Simulation for the ALHAT Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) is used as a basis for an end-to-end descent and landing trajectory simulation that is essential in determining design and integration capability and system performance of the lunar descent and landing system and environment models for the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. The POST2 simulation provides a six degree-of-freedom capability necessary to test, design and operate a descent and landing system for successful lunar landing. This paper presents advances in the development and model-implementation of the POST2 simulation, as well as preliminary system performance analysis, used for the testing and evaluation of ALHAT project system models.

Davis, Jody L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Hines, Glenn D.; Paschall, Stephen, II; Cohanim, Babak E.; Fill, Thomas; Johnson, Michael C.; Bishop, Robert H.; DeMars, Kyle J.; Sostaric, Ronald r.; Johnson, Andrew E.

2008-01-01

345

Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the Study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

Zang, Thomas A.; Dwyer-Cianciolo, Alicia M.; Kinney, David J.; Howard, Austin R.; Chen, George T.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Westhelle, Carlos H.

2010-01-01

346

Sensitivity studies of 4D descent strategies in an advanced metering environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of utilizing various 4D airplane descent strategies in an advanced time-based metering environment was conducted. The three strategies considered were clean-idle Mach/CAS, constant flight path angle (CFPA) Mach/CAS, and fuel-optimal. Traffic inputs consisted of all combinatory pairs of three types of commercial turbojets (B737-300, B747-200, and B767-200) and two weight classes for each airplane type. Sensitivities of traffic throughput and fleet fuel to descent strategies, both among themselves and in combination, for different assigned meter fix times and traffic pairings were studied under controlled initial conditions.

Izumi, K. H.

1986-01-01

347

LaBonte's method revisited: An effective steepest descent method for micromagnetic energy minimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a steepest descent energy minimization scheme for micromagnetics. The method searches on a curve that lies on the sphere which keeps the magnitude of the magnetization vector constant. The step size is selected according to a modified Barzilai-Borwein method. Standard linear tetrahedral finite elements are used for space discretization. For the computation of quasistatic hysteresis loops, the steepest descent minimizer is faster than a Landau-Lifshitz micromagnetic solver by more than a factor of two. The speed up on a graphic processor is 4.8 as compared to the fastest single-core central processing unit (CPU) implementation.

Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Reichel, Franz; Schrefl, Thomas; Peter Stimming, Hans; Mauser, Norbert J.

2014-05-01

348

Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs  

MedlinePLUS

... 5/2013 Symptoms and Signs Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck Cancer Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention Symptoms ... on the side of your screen. People with head and neck cancer often experience the following symptoms or signs. ...

349

Assessment of Neck Muscle Biodynamics During Impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental effort was conducted to assess the neck muscle's biodynamic characteristics using electromyographic (EMG) data collected during a human impact study. EMG data were collected from specific neck muscles of volunteer human subjects before, du...

K. R. Getschow C. E. Perry D. M. Bonetti C. L. Taylor

1993-01-01

350

Tension free vaginal tape underneath bladder base: does it prevent cystocele recurrence?  

PubMed Central

Objective: The target of the current prospective study was to assess the effectiveness of the polypropylene tapes in preventing recurrence of cystocele formation when placed underneath the bladder base. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two Caucasian women, predominantly postmemopausal with marked descent of the anterior, middle and/or posterior pelvic segment, participated in the study. Vaginal reconstructive surgery including anterior colporrhaphy and Kelly placation, posterior colpoperineorrhaphy and/or hysterectomy, was undertaken in all subjects. The polypropylene tape was placed not under the midurethra, as often performed in stress urine incontinence (SUI) cases, but underneath the bladder base as an adjunct to the anterior colporrhaphy sutures. The postoperative follow up lasted 2 years and was carried out every 4 months. The assessment of the anatomic result included evaluation of the operated sites and the position of the tapes inserted on clinical grounds and after perineal sonography. Urodynamic assessment was performed in the presence of urinary incontinence. Results: In all patients the postoperative correction of the anterior vaginal wall was sufficient, 14 subjects did not present genitourinary symptoms and therefore were considered as cured; three patients were designated as improved because despite sufficient anatomic correction of the anterior vaginal segment they reported urinary incontinence symptoms. Retropubic haematoma occurred in 1 patient, transient urge incontinence in 1, transient stress incontinence in 1, and persistent stress incontinence also in 1. There was no erosion of the tape noticed. Mean residual urine was 30 ml, mean bladder base distance to the inferior edge of the symphysis pubis was 1.2 cm and the mean total vaginal length was 7 cm. Conclusion: Despite the relative short follow up period and the limited number of patients enrolled, we conclude from our study that the use of polypropylene tapes as an adjunct for fortification of the anterior pelvic segment could provide an option in preventing recurrence of cystocele formation.

Tantanasis, T; Giannoulis, C; Daniilidis, A; Papathanasiou, K; Loufopoulos, A; Tzafettas, J

2008-01-01

351

Thrombomodulin expression regulates tumorigenesis in bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of potential tumor markers will help improve therapeutic planning and patient management. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a sensitive urothelial marker. TM was reported to be one of the endogenous anti-metastatic factors and has diagnostic and prognostic values for the progression of carcinoma. In the present study, we examine the role of TM in bladder cancer. Methods We studied the role of TM in tumor behavior and related signaling pathways in vitro using the human bladder cancer cell lines HT1376, HT1197, J82 and T24, and in vivo using animal models. We also selected clinical specimens from 100 patients with bladder cancer for immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the predictive capacity of TM in tumor invasiveness. Results The data revealed that positive immunoreactivity for TM was inversely correlated with clinical stage and DNA methyltransferase 1 immunoreactivity. Decreased TM expression could predict the aggressive tumor growth and advanced clinical stage in bladder cancer. When TM was inhibited, tumor growth rate and invasion ability were augmented in vitro and in vivo. The underlying changes included increased cell proliferation, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of NF-?B activation significantly increased TM expression and attenuated tumor aggressiveness in bladder cancer. Conclusions TM plays an important role in bladder cancer tumor aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo and is a clinically significant predictor that may represent a suitable therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

2014-01-01

352

Contemporary management of deep neck space infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep neck infections continue to be seen despite the wide use of antibiotics. These infections follow along fascial planes to create deep neck space abscesses. The clinical presentation often points to the space involved. Understanding the regional anatomy gives the surgeon the ability to treat these grave infections. The records of 24 patients with a diagnosis of deep neck space

PAUL W. GIDLEY; BECHARA Y. GHORAYEB; CHARLES M. STIERNBERG

1997-01-01

353

Microvascular Reconstruction After Previous Neck Dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Microvascular reconstruction of defects in the head and neck is more challenging in patients who have undergone a previous neck dissection, owing to prior resection of potential cervical recipient blood vessels used for free flap perfusion. Objective: To evaluate the reliability and safety of free flap reconstruction in patients with previous neck dis- section. Patients and Methods: Sixty free

Christian Head; Joel A. Sercarz; Elliot Abemayor; Thomas C. Calcaterra; Jeffrey D. Rawnsley; Keith E. Blackwell

2002-01-01

354

Computed tomography of the head and neck  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Planning Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors; Comparison of CT and MR of the Head and Neck; The Orbit and Globe; The Base of the Tongue; The Salivary Glands; and Head and Neck Lesions in Children.

Carter, B.L.

1985-01-01

355

Justification of the Steepest Descent Method for the Integral Statement of an Inverse Problem for a Hyperbolic Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under consideration is the steepest descent method for solving the problem of determination of a coefficient in a hyperbolic equation in integral statement. The properties of solutions to the direct and inverse problems are studied. Estimates for the objective functional and its gradient are obtained. Convergence in the mean is proved for the steepest descent method for minimizing the residual

S. I. Kabanikhin; K. T. Iskakov

2001-01-01

356

Preservation of renal function in the modern staged repair of classic bladder exstrophy  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in bladder exstrophy patients with published normative GFR estimates. Patients and Methods eGFR was calculated using the Schwartz formula at three timepoints, with mean eGFR at each timepoint compared to normative values. Results At primary closure (n = 53) the mean eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) in exstrophy patients was similar to norms at 0–7 days (exstrophy vs norm: 42.5 vs 40.6, p > 0.05) and after 2 years of age (108.8 vs 133, p > 0.05). However, the mean eGFR in exstrophy patients was significantly lower than norms between 8 days (44.8 vs 65.8, p < 0.0001) and 2 years of life (68 vs 95.7, p = 0.01). At bladder neck reconstruction (n = 13) no statistically significant difference existed between the exstrophy and normative eGFR values (137.1 vs 133, p >0.05). Similarly, among 27 patients with at least 1 year follow-up after bladder neck reconstruction, the mean exstrophy eGFR was no worse or higher than normative values (2–12 years: 124.5 vs 133, p > 0.05; males ? 13 years 175.6 vs 140, p = 0.04; females ? 13 years 128.8 vs 126, p >0.05). Conclusion The staged reconstruction of exstrophy does not appear to negatively impact renal function in most patients. As eGFR detects only significant changes, surgical reconstruction may still cause more subtle renal damage.

Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Stec, Andrew A.; Baradaran, Nima; Gearhart, John P.; Mathews, Ranjiv I.

2012-01-01

357

Electromotive diffusion (EMD) and photodynamic therapy with delta-aminolaevulinic acid (delta-ALA) for superficial bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Recent reports have shown that topical application of delta-aminolaevulinic acid (delta-ALA) can be used for the photodynamic diagnosis and therapy of superficial bladder tumours. Electromotive diffusion (EMD) increases the cellular uptake of polar substances. In six patients with biopsy-proven recurrent carcinoma in situ of the bladder after Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treatment, 100 cm3 of a 0.5% delta-ALA solution at pH approximately 6 was instilled into the bladder. With a special Foley catheter containing a stainless steel electrode, EMD, with a 15 mA, pulsed current, positive polarity at the catheter, was created for 20 min in the sedated patient. Thereafter a laser fibre with a spheric diffuser was inserted into the bladder over a cystoscope. The bladder surface was irradiated at a wavelength of 632 nm with 350 mW s-1 (total dose, 30-50 J cm-2). Follow-up consisted of a cystoscopy and biopsy after 6 weeks and cystoscopy and cytology every 3 months thereafter. The whole procedure was well tolerated. Currently, five patients are tumour free after a follow-up of 10-16 months. One patient has recurred after 10 months with a Ta G3 superficial tumour at the bladder neck which was resected. In a transwell cell culture model, we investigated the effect of delta-ALA treatment with and without application of EMD. In this in vitro system, application of an electric field showed only a small increase in delta-ALA uptake compared with uptake by passive diffusion. PMID:9002267

Stenzl, A; Eder, I; Kostron, H; Klocker, H; Bartsch, G

1996-11-01

358

Using Mitrofanoff's principle and Monti's technique as a surgical option for bladder augmentation with a continent stoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hydronephrosis, reflux and renal failure are serious complications that occur in patients with neurogenic bladder associated with myelomeningocele. When the bladder compliance is lost, it is imperative to carry out surgery aimed at reducing bladder storage pressure. An ileocystoplasty, and for patients not suitable for intermittent catheterization, using the Mitrofanoff principle to form a continent stoma and the subsequent closure of the bladder neck, can be used. We report here, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, an association between two previously described techniques (the Mitrofanoff principle and the technique of Monti), that can solve the problem of a short appendix in obese patients. Case presentation A 33-year-old male Caucasian patient with myelomeningocele and neurogenic bladder developed low bladder compliance (4.0 mL/cm H2O) while still maintaining normal renal function. A bladder augmentation (ileocystoplasty) with continent derivation principle (Mitrofanoff) was performed. During surgery, we found that the patient's appendix was too short and was insufficient to reach the skin. We decided to make an association between the Mitrofanoff conduit and the ileal technique of Monti, through which we performed an anastomosis of the distal stump of the appendix to the bladder (with an antireflux valve). Later, the proximal stump of the appendix was anastomosed to an ileal segment of 2.0 cm that was open longitudinally and reconfigured transversally (Monti technique), modeled by a 12-Fr urethral catheter, and finally, the distal stump was sutured at the patient's navel. After the procedure, a suprapubic cystostomy (22 Fr) and a Foley catheter (10 Fr) through the continent conduit were left in place. The patient had recovered well and was discharged on the tenth day after surgery. He remained with the Foley catheter (through the conduit) for 21 days and cystostomy for 30 days. Six months after surgery he was continent with good bladder compliance without reflux and fully adapted to catheterization through the navel. Conclusion The unpublished association between the Mitrofanoff and Monti techniques is feasible and a very useful alternative in urologic cases of derivation continent in which the ileocecal appendix is too short to reach the skin (i.e., in obese patients).

2011-01-01

359

MR imaging of the urinary bladder.  

PubMed

MR imaging is the modality of choice for accurate local staging of bladder cancer. In addition, bladder MR imaging helps detect lymph node involvement, and in conjunction with computed tomography, provides complete staging. Familiarity with optimal imaging protocols, normal urinary bladder anatomy, and pathologic MR imaging appearances is essential for the radiologist. Evolving techniques, such as use of diffusion-weighted imaging and lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced MR imaging, may further enhance the ability of MR imaging in local and nodal staging. PMID:24792673

Hoosein, Moin M; Rajesh, Arumugam

2014-05-01

360

Vincristine-induced urinary bladder paralysis.  

PubMed

The authors describe the development of bladder paralysis in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing maintenance chemotherapy. Immediately before the adverse clinical event, the child had received vincristine intravenously and triple therapy with hydrocortisone, cytosine arabinoside, and methotrexate intrathecally and had begun a 5-day pulse of prednisolone. The authors conclude that the ensuing reversible bladder paralysis was related to the vincristine. The clinical event resolved, and vincristine was deleted from the child's subsequent therapy until full recovery was achieved. The authors advise recognition of this problem and discontinuation of the vincristine if transient bladder paralysis develops until symptoms completely disappear. PMID:15891567

El Hayek, Mohammed; Trad, Omar; Jamil, Altaf

2005-05-01

361

Bladder exstrophy: current management and postoperative imaging.  

PubMed

Bladder exstrophy is a rare malformation characterized by an infra-umbilical abdominal wall defect, incomplete closure of the bladder with mucosa continuous with the abdominal wall, epispadias, and alterations in the pelvic bones and muscles. It is part of the exstrophy-epispadias complex, with cloacal exstrophy on the severe and epispadias on the mild ends of the spectrum. Bladder exstrophy is the most common of these entities and is more common in boys. The goal of this paper is to describe common methods of repair and to provide an imaging review of the postoperative appearances. PMID:24939762

Pierre, Ketsia; Borer, Joseph; Phelps, Andrew; Chow, Jeanne S

2014-07-01

362

Conservative treatment of an intraperitoneal bladder perforation  

PubMed Central

Introduction The management of bladder rupture depends on its anatomical location. Material and methods Case report and review of the pertinent English language literature. Results A 56-year-old man with history of an anterior rectum resection with partial cystectomy presented with signs of acute renal failure, and later with a tender, distended abdomen. Work-up including serum and ascites biochemistry, cystoscopy, and CT cystography diagnosed urinary ascites. The small intraperitoneal bladder rupture was treated conservatively via continued urinary drainage under urinary antibiotic prophylaxis until closure. Conclusion A conservative treatment of a small intraperitoneal bladder perforation is possible under certain conditions.

Michielsen, Dirk

2011-01-01

363

Systemic, bladder wall, and bladder tumor concentration of misonidazole following intravesical administration in the rat  

SciTech Connect

The hypoxic-cell radiosensitizer misonidazole was administered intravesically to normal and to bladder tumor-bearing female Fischer rats. Drug concentration was measured in the bladder wall, the tumor and in the serum using high pressure liquid chromatography at different times following administration. The data show that misonidazole is readily absorbed by the bladder wall and the tumor with tissue levels reaching up to 10 times those measured in the serum.

Fathi, M.A.; Fisher, G.J.; Pageau, R.; Tahan, T.W.; Nigam, V.N.; Brailovsky, C.A.; Elhilali, M.M.

1983-09-01

364

Penetrating injuries of the neck.  

PubMed Central

A review of 271 patients with penetrating wounds of the neck is presented. A policy of selective conservative management appears totally justified in view of the low mortality and morbidity in this series. Particular attention has been paid to the presentation and surgical approach to the injured vertebral artery. Images Fig. 3

Demetriades, D.; Stewart, M.

1985-01-01

365

Head and Neck Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Head and Neck Steering Committee (HNSC) was established in 2007. The HNSC is currently composed of the Steering Committee and three task forces. Members of HNSC include committee co-chairs, representatives from the Cooperative Groups, Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPOREs), community oncologists, biostatisticians, pathologists, patient advocates, and NCI staff.

366

Femoral neck anteversion in ballerinas.  

PubMed

The elite ballet dancer has greater-than-average turnout, or external rotation, in the hip. Anatomic constraints, such as the angle of version of the femoral neck, or the femoral neck anteversion (FNA) angle, may limit the amount of external rotation or turnout in the hip. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dancers who have better-than-average turnout have lower-than-average FNA angles. Fourteen elite female dancers from three major American ballet companies were studied. The FNA angles were measured in 28 hips by magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The mean FNA angle in the dancers measured 11.9 degrees (range, 4 degrees-24 degrees), and was similar to the mean FNA angle in the general population (11.4 degrees). It was concluded that the average femoral neck anteversion angle in this select group of dancers is similar to that of the general population, although none of the dancers in this study had severe femoral neck anteversion. PMID:8168323

Bauman, P A; Singson, R; Hamilton, W G

1994-05-01

367

Phasic Changes in Bladder Compliance During Filling Cystometry of the Neurogenic Bladder  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate phasic changes during filling cystometry that most accurately represent detrusor properties, regardless of other factors affecting detrusor contractility. Methods Seventy-eight patients (59 males, 19 females; mean age, 48.2 years) with spinal cord injuries were enrolled. Urodynamic studies were performed using a normal saline filling rate of 24 mL/min. We calculated bladder compliance values of the detrusor muscle in each of three filling phase intervals, which divided the filling cystometrogram into three phases referable to the cystometric capacity or maximum cystometric capacity. The three phases were sequentially delineated by reference to the pressure-volume curve reflecting bladder filling. Results Bladder compliance during the first and second phases of filling cystometry was significantly correlated with overall bladder compliance in overactive detrusors. The highest coefficient of determination (r2=0.329) was obtained during the first phase of the pressure-volume curve. Bladder compliance during all three phases was significantly correlated with overall bladder compliance of filling cystometry in underactive detrusors. However, the coefficient of determination was greatest (r2=0.529) during the first phase of filling cystometry. Conclusion Phasic bladder compliance during the early filling phase (first filling phase) was the most representative assessment of overall bladder compliance during filling cystometry. Careful determination of early phase filling is important when seeking to acquire reliable urodynamic data on neurogenic bladders.

Kim, Soo-Yeon; Ko, Sung Hwa; Shin, Myung Jun; Park, Yeo Jin; Park, Ji Sang; Lee, Ko Eun

2014-01-01

368

A Terminal Descent Sensor Trade Study Overview for the Orion Landing and Recovery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This trade study was conducted as a part of the Orion Landing System Advanced Development Project to determine possible Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS) architectures that could be used for a rocket assisted landing system. Several technologies were considered for the Orion TDS including radar, lidar, GPS applications, mechanical sensors, and gamma ray altimetry.

Dunn, Catherine; Prakash, Ravi

2008-01-01

369

Smart-Divert Powered Descent Guidance to Avoid the Backshell Landing Dispersion Ellipse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A smart-divert capability has been added into the Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) software originally developed for Mars pinpoint and precision landing. The smart-divert algorithm accounts for the landing dispersions of the entry backshell, which separates from the lander vehicle at the end of the parachute descent phase and prior to powered descent. The smart-divert PDG algorithm utilizes the onboard fuel and vehicle thrust vectoring to mitigate landing error in an intelligent way: ensuring that the lander touches down with minimum- fuel usage at the minimum distance from the desired landing location that also avoids impact by the descending backshell. The smart-divert PDG software implements a computationally efficient, convex formulation of the powered-descent guidance problem to provide pinpoint or precision-landing guidance solutions that are fuel-optimal and satisfy physical thrust bound and pointing constraints, as well as position and speed constraints. The initial smart-divert implementation enforced a lateral-divert corridor parallel to the ground velocity vector; this was based on guidance requirements for MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) landings. This initial method was overly conservative since the divert corridor was infinite in the down-range direction despite the backshell landing inside a calculable dispersion ellipse. Basing the divert constraint instead on a local tangent to the backshell dispersion ellipse in the direction of the desired landing site provides a far less conservative constraint. The resulting enhanced smart-divert PDG algorithm avoids impact with the descending backshell and has reduced conservatism.

Carson, John M.; Acikmese, Behcet

2013-01-01

370

Pattern recognition using a family of design algorithms based upon the generalized probabilistic descent method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive introduction to a novel approach to pattern recognition which is based on the generalized probabilistic descent method (GPD) and its related design algorithms. The paper contains a survey of recent recognizer design techniques, the formulation of GPD, the concept of minimum classification error learning that is closely related to the GPD formalization, a relational analysis

SHIGERU KATAGIRI; Biing-Hwang Juang; Chin-Hui Lee

1998-01-01

371

Space shuttle descent flight control design requirements and experiments Learned, Pt. 1 p 617-628  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the lessons learned during the development of the Space Shuttle descent flight control system (FCS) are reviewed. Examples confirm the importance for requirements definition, systems level analyses, and testing. In sounding these experiences may have implication for future designs or suggest the discipline required in this engineering art.

Kafer, G.; Wilson, D.

1983-01-01

372

Entry descent, and landing scenario for the Mars Exploration Rover mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2004, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission will land two landers on the surface of Mars. Both landers will deliver a rover to the surface using an entry, descent, and landing (EDL) scenario based on Mars Pathfinder heritage. However, the entry conditions and environments are different from that of Mars Pathfinder. Unique challenges are present due to the

Prasun N. Desai; Wayne J. Lee

2004-01-01

373

Meteorological Predictions in Support of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry, descent, and landing (EDL) system employs a standard parachute strategy followed by a new sky crane concept where the rover is lowered to the ground via a tether from a hovering entry vehicle. As with previous missions, EDL system performance is sensitive to atmospheric conditions. While some observations characterizing the mean, large-scale atmospheric temperature

A. Rothchild; S. C. Rafkin; R. A. Pielke Sr.

2010-01-01

374

Final STS35 Columbia descent BET products and results for LaRC OEX investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Final STS-35 'Columbia' descent Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) products have been developed for Langley Research Center (LaRC) Orbiter Experiments (OEX) investigations. Included are the reconstructed inertial trajectory profile; the Extended BET, which combines the inertial data and, in this instance, the National Weather Service atmospheric information obtained via Johnson Space Center; and the Aerodynamic BET. The inertial BET utilized Inertial

Kevin F. Oakes; John T. Findlay; Rachel A. Jasinski; James S. Wood

1991-01-01

375

Cinco De Mayo, Normative Whiteness, and the Marginalization of Mexican-Descent Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study is concerned with how institutional practices of normative whiteness can impede the school involvement of Mexican-descent students. It examines how damaging forms of white normativity can operate in school settings where one might least expect to find them: in commemorations of Mexican cultural holidays. The author shows how such…

Hurd, Clayton A.

2008-01-01

376

Perceived Factors Influencing the Academic Underachievement of Talented Students of Puerto Rican Descent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study explored the self and environmental perceptions of six talented high school students of Puerto Rican descent who were underachieving. The absence of early appropriate academic experiences thwarted students' possibilities of developing their high abilities or talents. A model explaining underachievement and suggestions for meeting students'…

Diaz, Eva I.

1998-01-01

377

A concept for the entry, descent, and landing of high-mass payloads at Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The architecture concepts and aggressive science objectives for the next phases of Mars exploration will require landed masses an order of magnitude or greater than any Mars mission previously planned or flown. Additional studies have shown the requirements for missions more ambitious than the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (?900kg payload mass) to extend beyond the capabilities of Viking-heritage entry, descent,

Ashley M. Korzun; Gregory F. Dubos; Curtis K. Iwata; Benjamin A. Stahl; John J. Quicksall

2010-01-01

378

Model reference adaptive control of a maglev system with stable maximum descent criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model-reference adaptive controller (MRC) design framework for magnetically suspended vehicles (maglev) using the criterion of stable maximum descent. The adaptation algorithm is constrained to reduce the airgap error between the reference model and the actual system. The explicit relationship between the parameters of the performance criterion (function of the airgap error and its derivative) and the

P. K. Sinha; Alexandre N. Pechev

1999-01-01

379

A Wind Tunnel Study on the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) Lander Descent Pressure Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary focus of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Mars Pathfinder lander local pressure readings in accordance with the actual ambient atmospheric pressures of Mars during parachute descent. In order to obtain good measurements, the plane of the lander pressure sensor opening should ideally be situated so that it is parallel to the freestream. However, due to two unfavorable conditions, the sensor was positioned in locations where correction factors are required. One of these disadvantages is due to the fact that the parachute attachment point rotated the lander's center of gravity forcing the location of the pressure sensor opening to be off tangent to the freestream. The second and most troublesome factor was that the lander descends with slight oscillations that could vary the amplitude of the sensor readings. In order to accurately map the correction factors required at each sensor position, an experiment simulating the lander descent was conducted in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Using a 115 scale model at Earth ambient pressures, the test settings provided the necessary Reynolds number conditions in which the actual lander was possibly subjected to during the descent. In the analysis and results of this experiment, the readings from the lander sensor were converted to the form of pressure coefficients. With a contour map of pressure coefficients at each lander oscillatory position, this report will provide a guideline to determine the correction factors required for the Mars Pathfinder lander descent pressure sensor readings.

Soriano, J. Francisco; Coquilla, Rachael V.; Wilson, Gregory R.; Seiff, Alvin; Rivell, Tomas

2001-01-01

380

Spread of cattle led to the loss of matrilineal descent in Africa: a coevolutionary analysis.  

PubMed Central

Matrilineal descent is rare in human societies that keep large livestock. However, this negative correlation does not provide reliable evidence that livestock and descent rules are functionally related, because human cultures are not statistically independent owing to their historical relationships (Galton's problem). We tested the hypothesis that when matrilineal cultures acquire cattle they become patrilineal using a sample of 68 Bantu- and Bantoid-speaking populations from sub-Saharan Africa. We used a phylogenetic comparative method to control for Galton's problem, and a maximum-parsimony Bantu language tree as a model of population history. We tested for coevolution between cattle and descent. We also tested the direction of cultural evolution--were cattle acquired before matriliny was lost? The results support the hypothesis that acquiring cattle led formerly matrilineal Bantu-speaking cultures to change to patrilineal or mixed descent. We discuss possible reasons for matriliny's association with horticulture and its rarity in pastoralist societies. We outline the daughter-biased parental investment hypothesis for matriliny, which is supported by data on sex, wealth and reproductive success from two African societies, the matrilineal Chewa in Malawi and the patrilineal Gabbra in Kenya.

Holden, Clare Janaki; Mace, Ruth

2003-01-01

381

Showing Up, Remaining Engaged, and Partaking as Students: Resilience Among Students of Mexican Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the ways in which 12 high school students of Mexican descent remain resilient amid difficult and stressful realities. Through an examination of students' interview responses, a case is made that students' ability to engage in school and figure out everyday ways to partake as students are signs of resilience. This work suggests the need to shift from

Teresa Sosa

2012-01-01

382

The Cyclic Coordinate Descent in Hydrothermal Optimization Problems with Non-Regular Lagrangian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an algorithm, inspired by the cyclic coordinate descent method, which allows the resolution of hydrothermal optimization problems involving pumped-storage plants. The proof of the convergence of the succession generated by the algorithm was based on the use of an appropriate adaptation of Zangwill's global theorem of convergence.

Bayón, L.; Grau, J. M.; Ruiz, M. M.; Suárez, P. M.

2007-12-01

383

Coherent Beam Combining of Fiber Amplifiers Using Stochastic Parallel Gradient Descent Algorithm and Its Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present theoretical and experimental research on coherent beam combining of fiber amplifiers using stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. The feasibility of coherent beam combining using SPGD algorithm is detailed analytically. Numerical simulation is accomplished to explore the scaling potential to higher number of laser beams. Experimental investigation on coherent beam combining of two and three W-level fiber amplifiers

Pu Zhou; Zejin Liu; Xiaolin Wang; Yanxing Ma; Haotong Ma; Xiaojun Xu; Shaofeng Guo

2009-01-01

384

Coherent beam combination of fiber lasers based on the stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent beam combination of fiber laser arrays plays an important role in realizing high power, high radiance fiber laser systems. The stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is a newly developed optimization method using the technique of parallel perturbation and stochastic approximation and it is expected that this algorithm can reduce the cost and complexity of a high power fiber

Xuejun Long; Yonghui Liang; Xiaojun Xu; Sanhong Wang; Qifeng Yu

2008-01-01

385

Tracking control of trim trajectories of a blimp for ascent and descent flight manoeuvres  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blimp is a small airship that has no metal framework and collapses when deflated. It belongs to family of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In this paper we address the problem of designing tracking feedback control of an underactuated autonomous UAV. The ascent and descent flight conditions as one in which the rate of change (of magnitude) of the airship's

L. Beji; A. Abichou

2005-01-01

386

Access to Health Care Among Latinos of Mexican Descent in "Colonias" in Two Texas Counties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical to resolving the problem of health disparities among Latinos is examining the needs within ethnic subpopulations. This paper focused on the unique challenges encountered by one ethnic subpopulation -- Latinos of Mexican descent living in colonias. Findings reaffirm the importance of looking within ethnic subpopulations to understand the…

Ortiz, Larry; Arizmendi, Lydia; Cornelius, Llewellyn J.

2004-01-01

387

A molecular signature of an arrest of descent in human parturition  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was undertaken to identify the molecular basis of an arrest of descent. Study Design Human myometrium was obtained from women in term labor (TL; n=29) and arrest of descent (AODes, n=21). Gene expression was characterized using Illumina® HumanHT-12 microarrays. A moderated t-test and false discovery rate adjustment were applied for analysis. Confirmatory qRT-PCR and immunoblot was performed in an independent sample set. Results 400 genes were differentially expressed between women with an AODes compared to those with TL. Gene Ontology analysis indicated enrichment of biological processes and molecular functions related to inflammation and muscle function. Impacted pathways included inflammation and the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of HIF1A, IL-6, and PTGS2 in AODES was confirmed. Conclusion We have identified a stereotypic pattern of gene expression in the myometrium of women with an arrest of descent. This represents the first study examining the molecular basis of an arrest of descent using a genome-wide approach.

MITTAL, Pooja; ROMERO, Roberto; TARCA, Adi L.; DRAGHICI, Sorin; NHAN-CHANG, Chia-Ling; CHAIWORAPONGSA, Tinnakorn; HOTRA, John; GOMEZ, Ricardo; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; LEE, Deug-Chan; KIM, Chong Jai; HASSAN, Sonia S.

2010-01-01

388

Guidance and Control Algorithms for the Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) study was to identify feasible technologies that will enable human exploration of Mars, specifically to deliver large payloads to the Martian surface. This paper focuses on the m...

A. M. CwyerCianciolo E. Garcia-Llama J. D. Shidner J. L. Davis R. W. Powell

2010-01-01

389

Trajectory Guidance for Mars Robotic Precursors: Aerocapture, Entry, Descent, and Landing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future crewed missions to Mars require improvements in landed mass capability beyond that which is possible using state-of-the-art Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems. Current systems are capable of an estimated maximum landed mass of 1-1.5 met...

C. Zumwalt E. Garcia-Llama J. Shidner R. Powell R. R. Sostaric

2011-01-01

390

Advances in bladder cancer imaging  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to review the imaging techniques that have changed and are anticipated to change bladder cancer evaluation. The use of multidetector 64-slice computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remain standard staging modalities. The development of functional imaging such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT allows characterization of tumor physiology and potential genotypic activity, to help stratify and inform future patient management. They open up the possibility of tumor mapping and individualized treatment solutions, permitting early identification of response and allowing timely change in treatment. Further validation of these methods is required however, and at present they are used in conjunction with, rather than as an alternative to, conventional imaging techniques.

2013-01-01

391

Asymptomatic Bladder Metastasis from Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common nondermatologic cancer in women. Common metastatic sites include lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bone. Metastases to the bladder are extremely rare, with all reported cases presenting with urinary symptoms. Case Report. Herein, we report the first case of completely asymptomatic bladder metastasis from breast cancer, occasionally revealed, 98 months after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, by a follow-up computed tomography scanning showing thickening of left bladder wall and grade II left hydronephrosis. A positive staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Discussion. The reported case confirms that bladder metastases from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor and, for the first time, points out they can be asymptomatic. Conclusion. Such data support the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected.

Di Fino, Giuseppe; Massenio, Paolo; Ruocco, Nicola; Bufo, Pantaleo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

392

Exercise Linked to Improved Bladder Cancer Survival  

MedlinePLUS

... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Bladder Cancer Exercise and Physical Fitness Smoking WEDNESDAY, May 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Regular ... rights reserved. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Smoking Recent Health News Page last updated on ...

393

[Radiological study of the neoplastic bladder].  

PubMed

Radiological methods useful in the examination of bladder tumours are reviewed, with particular reference to preoperative evaluation in accordance with the system. Examples are drawn from a personal series. PMID:1078273

Belli, I; Caresano, A; Crespi Porro, R; Del Favero, C; Nascimbene, C; Tenti, L

1976-11-01

394

[Bladder stones in acute spinal cord injury].  

PubMed

Urologic complications are an important cause of morbidity and even mortality in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). It has been estimated that within eight years after injury, approximately 7% of SCI patients would develop kidney stones, whereas 36% would have bladder stones. Risk factors for urolithiasis among patients with SCI include complete spinal cord injury, lesions at or above the 4th thoracic spinal cord segment, upper motor neurone type of bladder, urinary tract infection with urease producing bacteria, recurrent urinary tract infection, indwelling catheters, presence of residual urine and immobilization. Detection and removal of bladder stones are important to prevent possible complications such as recurrent urinary tract infection, urosepsis and renal failure. The authors describe a clinical case of a patient with acute SCI that developed bladder stones and discuss its possible causes. PMID:20353715

Silva, Ana Isabel; Sousa, Pedro; Miranda, Maria João; Andrade, Maria João

2010-01-01

395

Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra  

MedlinePLUS

... by a catheter through the urethra or the abdominal wall over a period of days to weeks. This ... done, a tube will be inserted through the abdominal wall and directly into the bladder. This is called ...

396

Recent advances in management of bladder overactivity  

PubMed Central

Pharmacologic therapies, primarily antimuscarinic agents, have been the mainstay of treatment for overactive bladder. These drugs produce variable efficacy, a moderate rate of side effects, and rare occurrences of cure. The search for newer and better formulations and derivatives of this class of medication as well as novel therapies is ongoing and primarily fueled by the high prevalence of overactive bladder and the tremendous number of health care dollars spent on current therapy. Surgical options for overactive bladder have evolved slowly and are currently reserved for medical treatment failures and drug intolerance. This article will highlight the new drugs and therapies brought into clinical use for the treatment of overactive bladder over the last few years as well as a promising new agent in the advanced stages of development.

Wein, Alan J

2010-01-01

397

Asymptomatic bladder metastasis from breast cancer.  

PubMed

Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common nondermatologic cancer in women. Common metastatic sites include lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bone. Metastases to the bladder are extremely rare, with all reported cases presenting with urinary symptoms. Case Report. Herein, we report the first case of completely asymptomatic bladder metastasis from breast cancer, occasionally revealed, 98 months after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, by a follow-up computed tomography scanning showing thickening of left bladder wall and grade II left hydronephrosis. A positive staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Discussion. The reported case confirms that bladder metastases from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor and, for the first time, points out they can be asymptomatic. Conclusion. Such data support the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected. PMID:24716084

Cormio, Luigi; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Massenio, Paolo; Liuzzi, Giuseppe; Ruocco, Nicola; Bufo, Pantaleo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

398

Localized and locally advanced bladder cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Localized and locally advanced bladder cancer represents a heterogeneous spectrum of diseases with different biologic and\\u000a clinical behavior. It varies with respect to invasive potential, propensity for metastases, and sensitivity to chemotherapy.\\u000a Although several significant surgical advances have been made over the past 20 years in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder\\u000a cancer, resulting in decreases in perioperative morbidity and

Fabio Calabrò; Cora N. Sternberg

2002-01-01

399

Spinal cord injury and bladder recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate whether spinothalamic tract preservation and posterior column sparing are predictors of neurogenic recovery of bladder function after spinal cord injury (SCI).Designs and Participants: In a retrospective review, the initial perianal pinprick sensation (S4,5 dermatomes) and position sense of the great toes were examined and correlated with bladder function at 1 year after SCI in 19 consecutive spinal

David J. Weiss; Guy W. Fried; Michael B. Chancellor; Gerald J. Herbison; John F. Ditunno; William E. Staas

1996-01-01

400

Holmium laser lithotripsy of bladder calculi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the overall incidence of bladder calculi has been decreasing, it is still a significant disease affecting adults and children. Prior treatment options have included open cystolitholapaxy, blind lithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and visual lithotripsy with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes. The holmium laser has been found to be extremely effective in the treatment of upper tract calculi. This technology has also been applied to the treatment of bladder calculi. We report our experience with the holmium laser in the treatment of bladder calculi. Twenty- five patients over a year and a half had their bladder calculi treated with the Holmium laser. This study was retrospective in nature. Patient demographics, stone burden, and intraoperative and post-operative complications were noted. The mean stone burden was 31 mm with a range of 10 to 60 mm. Preoperative diagnosis was made with either an ultrasound, plain film of the abdomen or intravenous pyelogram. Cystoscopy was then performed to confirm the presence and determine the size of the stone. The patients were then taken to the operating room and given a regional or general anesthetic. A rigid cystoscope was placed into the bladder and the bladder stone was then vaporized using the holmium laser. Remaining fragments were washed out. Adjunctive procedures were performed on 10 patients. These included transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral incision of the prostate, optic internal urethrotomy, and incision of ureteroceles. No major complications occurred and all patients were rendered stone free. We conclude that the Holmium laser is an effective and safe modality for the treatment of bladder calculi. It was able to vaporize all bladder calculi and provides a single modality of treating other associated genitourinary pathology.

Beaghler, Marc A.; Poon, Michael W.

1998-07-01

401

Primary Urachal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Urinary bladder cancer is the second most frequent tumour of the genitourinary tract with bladder adenocarcinoma comprising for about 0.5-2% of all malignant bladder tumours. Other primary sites for such tumours include rectum, stomach, endometrium, breast, prostate, seminal vesicles and ovaries. Such non-urothelial bladder tumours with intramural bladder tumour growth may delay the onset of symptoms which may lead to a delay in the diagnosis and thereby adversely affecting the prognosis as compared to urothelial bladder tumours. Traditionally bladder adenocarcinomas were believed to be resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but recent advancements have shown encouraging responses with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We present here a case of primary urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder highlighting their relative rarity of occurrence and the difficulties encountered in diagnosing primary bladder mucinous adenocarcinoma.

Singh, Iqbal; Prasad, Ravi

2013-01-01

402

Isolated fetal hydronephrosis: beware the effect of bladder filling.  

PubMed

The aim was to assess the role that fetal bladder size has in the determination of fetal hydronephrosis. Forty-three fetuses were evaluated for fetal hydronephrosis in the second trimester of pregnancy. Anteroposterior measurements of the renal pelvis were obtained with a full bladder and again when the bladder emptied in each fetus. Statistical analysis was performed using the Spearman rank order correlation coefficient to assess the relationship between bladder status and renal dilation. The anteroposterior size of the fetal renal pelvis diminished from 6.8 +/- 1.8 mm on a full bladder scan to 4.5 +/- 1.6 mm when the bladder was emptied (P < 0.001). Fifty-three per cent of the fetuses whose renal pelvic measurements were 5 mm or more on a full bladder scan had normal-appearing renal pelvises when their bladders emptied. The status of the fetal bladder should be considered when evaluating fetal hydronephrosis. PMID:8559752

Petrikovsky, B M; Cuomo, M I; Schneider, E P; Wyse, L J; Cohen, H L; Lesser, M

1995-09-01

403

Bladder function of patients with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Bladder function of patients with Parkinson's disease alters significantly: the majority of patients have overactive bladder (urinary urgency/frequency) with little or no post-void residuals. This seems to be the result of an altered brain-bladder relationship, as in Parkinson's disease, the frontal-basal ganglia D1 dopaminergic circuit that normally suppresses the micturition reflex is altered. The pathophysiology of the bladder dysfunction in Parkinson's disease differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might also aid in differential diagnosis. The effects of levodopa, the major drug to treat motor dysfunction, on the bladder in Parkinson's disease vary significantly; therefore, add-on therapy is often required. Anticholinergic drugs are the first-line treatment, with particular care for cognitive function in elderly patients. The second-line treatment includes serotonergics drug, desmopressin and others. Newer modalities include deep brain stimulation that improves the bladder in Parkinson's disease; and botulinum toxin is promising, particularly in difficult cases. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life. PMID:24571321

Sakakibara, Ryuji; Tateno, Fuyuki; Nagao, Takeki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamanishi, Tomonori; Yano, Masashi; Kishi, Masahiko; Tsuyusaki, Yohei; Aiba, Yosuke

2014-07-01

404

Surgical management of the neuropathic bladder.  

PubMed

In a simplified view, the "normal" bladder, through a multifaceted neuromuscular event, allows the basic functions of urinary storage and emptying. More specifically, the urinary bladder accommodates increasing urinary volume with little to no increase in vesicular pressure while maintaining continence. The normal act of emptying integrates the relaxation of the urinary sphincters (external and internal) with the subsequent bladder contraction to void to completion when full. There are a multitude of conditions, both congenital and acquired, that can affect the bladder's ability to perform these functions in a smooth and coordinated fashion. The most common causes of pediatric bladder dysfunction necessitating surgical intervention are those associated with spina bifida/myelodysplasia, posterior urethral valves, and bladder exstrophy. Over the last 2 decades, the evolution of complex reconstruction for lower urinary tract dysfunction has resulted in an improved quality of life for children afflicted with upper urinary tract changes or incontinence despite maximum utilization of nonoperative therapies. Because each patient represents a unique therapeutic entity, an individualized approach to each child is recommended. PMID:11973764

Lowe, Jamie B; Furness, Peter D; Barqawi, Albaha Z; Koyle, Martin A

2002-05-01

405

[Hereditary head and neck tumors].  

PubMed

Hereditary paraganglioma, Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and Fanconi anemia are among the rare hereditary tumor syndromes of the head and neck. Patients with hereditary paraganglioma often develop multiple tumors of the glomus caroticum and glomus jugulotympanicum. The corresponding genetic defects of the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase complex induce autonomous tumor cell growth. In patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome basal cell carcinomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors usually occur much earlier than in patients with sporadic tumors. The associated germline mutations are located in the patched gene which is a modulator of the cell cycle. Fanconi anemia represents a chromosomal instability syndrome which is characterized by early onset of pancytopenia, i.e. bone marrow failure and subsequent development of acute myeloid leukemia and/or squamous cell carcinomas, especially of the head and neck. A total of 13 different gene clusters have been identified in 2 DNA associated complexes which play an important role in DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:20844882

Schwarz-Furlan, S; Brase, C; Stockmann, P; Furlan, I; Hartmann, A

2010-10-01

406

Comparative effectiveness of transurethral resection of bladder tumors and office fulguration for recurrent bladder tumors.  

PubMed

Evaluation of: Park DS, Hwang JH, Gong IH et al. An analysis of the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of fulguration under local anesthesia for small-sized recurrent masses: a comparative analysis of transurethral resection of bladder tumors in a matched cohort. J. Endourol. 27(10), 1240-1244 (2013). At initial diagnosis, most bladder tumors are nonmuscle invasive. Some will recur after initial resection and will require transurethral resections of the bladder tumor. Fulguration under local anesthesia represents an alternative. This option is assessed in the article of Park et al. with respect to efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness in patients with small-sized recurrent bladder tumors. The authors suggest that fulguration is safe and efficacious without compromising oncological outcomes in selected patients relative to formal transurethral resections of bladder tumor. PMID:24645686

Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Sun, Maxine; Azizi, Mounsif

2014-03-01

407

Local flow management/profile descent algorithm. Fuel-efficient, time-controlled profiles for the NASA TSRV airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Local Flow Management/Profile Descent (LFM/PD) algorithm designed for the NASA Transport System Research Vehicle program is described. The algorithm provides fuel-efficient altitude and airspeed profiles consistent with ATC restrictions in a time-based metering environment over a fixed ground track. The model design constraints include accommodation of both published profile descent procedures and unpublished profile descents, incorporation of fuel efficiency as a flight profile criterion, operation within the performance capabilities of the Boeing 737-100 airplane with JT8D-7 engines, and conformity to standard air traffic navigation and control procedures. Holding and path stretching capabilities are included for long delay situations.

Groce, J. L.; Izumi, K. H.; Markham, C. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Thompson, J. L.

1986-01-01

408

A case-control study on the association between bladder cancer and prior bladder calculus  

PubMed Central

Background Bladder calculus is associated with chronic irritation and inflammation. As there is substantial documentation that inflammation can play a direct role in carcinogenesis, to date the relationship between stone formation and bladder cancer (BC) remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the association between BC and prior bladder calculus using a population-based dataset. Methods This case–control study included 2,086 cases who had received their first-time diagnosis of BC between 2001 and 2009 and 10,430 randomly selected controls without BC. Conditional logistic regressions were employed to explore the association between BC and having been previously diagnosed with bladder calculus. Results Of the sampled subjects, bladder calculus was found in 71 (3.4%) cases and 105 (1.1%) controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) of having been diagnosed with bladder calculus before the index date for cases was 3.42 (95% CI?=?2.48-4.72) when compared with controls after adjusting for monthly income, geographic region, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and renal disease, tobacco use disorder, obesity, alcohol abuse, and schistosomiasis, bladder outlet obstruction, and urinary tract infection. We further analyzed according to sex and found that among males, the OR of having been previously diagnosed with bladder calculus for cases was 3.45 (95% CI?=?2.39-4.99) that of controls. Among females, the OR was 3.05 (95% CI?=?1.53-6.08) that of controls. Conclusions These results add to the evidence surrounding the conflicting reports regarding the association between BC and prior bladder calculus and highlight a potential target population for bladder cancer screening.

2013-01-01

409

Non-Inflammatory Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Can Be Caused by Bladder Neck Hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Little is known about the etiology of the non-inflammatory Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS, NIH category IIIb). We conducted this study to determine whether endoscopic and urodynamic evaluation provide objectively measurable parameters that may support the rationale of therapeutic strategies for patients who failed to respond to medical treatment of non-inflammatory CPPS.Materials and Methods: The 48 patients included in

Petr Hruz; Hansjörg Danuser; Urs E. Studer; Werner W. Hochreiter

2003-01-01

410

[Ultrasound of the urinary bladder neck: changes before and after pelvic floor muscle exercise].  

PubMed

It was repeatedly reported that training of pelvic floor muscles in the treatment of the stress type of urinary incontinence produced favourable results [1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10]. The objective of the present study was to examine by ultrasound, using the transperineal route, the influence of exercise of pelvic floor muscles in the treatment of the stress type of incontinence on the position of the internal reproductive organs and the vesicourethral system. For exercise and strengthening of the muscles of the pelvic floor the intravaginal aid Kolpexin [7] was used. The authors investigated two parameters--the angle formed by the median axis of the symphysis with the imaginary line connecting the apex of the lower margin of the symphysis with the urethrovesical junction (angle U). The second parameter is the distance of the apex of the lower margin of the symphysis from the urethrovesical junction (line P). The authors recorded statistically significant changes of angle U before and after exercise of the pelvic floor muscles which were confirmed by ultrasonic examination. Changes in the length of line P were not statistically significant. Strengthening of the pelvic floor muscles was confirmed also by manometric examination. From a group of 20 patients 14 (70%) improved markedly after two months' exercise of the pelvic floor muscles and thus are free from complaints. Ultrasonic urogynaecological examination provides information on a change in the position of internal reproductive organs and the vesicourethral system and is one of the many methods which can confirm the effect of conservative or surgical treatment. PMID:8081591

Martan, A; Halaska, M; Drbohlav, P; Voigt, R

1994-06-01

411

Submucosal Bladder Neck Injection of Bovine Dermal Collagen for Stress Urinary Incontinence in the Pediatric Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe surgical management of stress urinary incontinence in the pediatric population includes various surgical techniques of which the simplest is outpatient transurethral or periurethral injection of a bulking agent. Currently purified bovine dermal collagen cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (Contigen) is the only Food and Drug Administration approved bulking agent available. Patients with stable detrusor function are ideal candidates. We review our

Luis M. Perez; Edwin A. Smith; Thomas S. Parrott; Bruce H. Broecker; Charlotte A. Massad; John R. Woodard

1996-01-01

412

Transcriptional and Translational Plasticity in Rodent Urinary Bladder TRP Channels with Urinary Bladder Inflammation, Bladder Dysfunction or Postnatal Maturation  

PubMed Central

These studies examined transcriptional and translational plasticity of three transient receptor potential (TRP) channels (TRPA1, TRPV1, TRPV4) with established neuronal and non-neuronal expression and functional roles in the lower urinary tract. Mechanosensor and nociceptor roles in either physiological or pathological lower urinary tract states have been suggested for TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV4. We have previously demonstrated neurochemical, organizational and functional plasticity in micturition reflex pathways following induction of urinary bladder inflammation using the antineoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CYP). More recently, we have characterized similar plasticity in micturition reflex pathways in a transgenic mouse model with chronic urothelial overexpression (OE) of nerve growth factor (NGF) and in a transgenic mouse model with deletion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). In addition, the micturition reflex undergoes postnatal maturation that may also reflect plasticity in urinary bladder TRP channel expression. Thus, we examined plasticity in urinary bladder TRP channel expression in diverse contexts using a combination of quantitative, real-time PCR and western blotting approaches. We demonstrate transcriptional and translational plasticity of urinary bladder TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRVP4 expression. Although the functional significance of urinary bladder TRP channel plasticity awaits further investigation, these studies demonstrate context-(inflammation, postnatal development, NGF-OE, VIP deletion) and tissue-dependent (urothelium + suburothelium, detrusor) plasticity.

Merrill, Liana; Girard, Beatrice M.; May, Victor; Vizzard, Margaret A.

2013-01-01

413

Relationship between Schistosomiasis and Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma of the urinary bladder is the most common malignancy in the Middle East and parts of Africa where schistosomiasis is a widespread problem. Much evidence supports the association between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer: this includes the geographical correlation between the two conditions, the distinctive patterns of gender and age at diagnosis, the clinicopathological identity of schistosome-associated bladder cancer, and extensive evidence in experimentally infected animals. Multiple factors have been suggested as causative agents in schistosome-associated bladder carcinogenesis. Of these, N-nitroso compounds appear to be of particular importance since they were found at high levels in the urine of patients with schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Various strains of bacteria that can mediate nitrosation reactions leading to the formation of N-nitrosamines have been identified in the urine of subjects with schistosomiasis at higher intensities of infection than in normal subjects. In experimental schistosomiasis, the activities of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes are increased soon after infection but are reduced again during the later chronic stages of the disease. Not only could this prolong the period of exposure to activated N-nitrosamines, but also inflammatory cells, sitmulated as a result of the infection, may induce the endogenous synthesis of N-nitrosamines as well as generating oxygen radicals. Higher than normal levels of host cell DNA damage are therefore anticipated, and they have indeed been observed in the case of alkylation damage, together with an inefficiency in the capacity of relevant enzymes to repair this damaged DNA. In experimental schistosomiasis, it was also found that endogenous levels of host cell DNA damage were related to the intensity of infection. All of these factors could contribute to an increased risk of bladder cancer in patients with schistosomiasis, and in particular, the gene changes observed may have potential for use as biomarkers in the early detection of bladder cancer that may assist in alleviating the problem.

Mostafa, M. H.; Sheweita, S. A.; O'Connor, P. J.

1999-01-01

414

Ethnic Disparities in Americans of European descent versus Americans of African descent related to Polymorphic ERCC1, ERCC2, XRCC1 and PARP1  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER) pathways are DNA repair pathways that are important in carcinogenesis and in response to DNA damaging chemotherapy. ERCC1 and ERCC2 are important molecular markers for NER; XRCC1 and PARP1 are important molecular markers for BER. Functional polymorphisms have been described that are associated with altered expression levels of these genes, and with altered DNA repair capability. We assayed genomic DNA from 156 Americans of European descent (EAs) and 164 Americans of African descent (AAs), for the allelic frequencies of specific polymorphisms of ERCC1 N118N (500C>T), ERCC1 C8092A, ERCC2 K751Q (2282A>C), XRCC1 R399Q (1301G>A), XRCC1 R194W (685C>T) and PARP1 V762A (2446T>C). Differences were observed between EAs and AAs in the allelic frequencies of the ERCC1 N118N polymorphism (p=0.000000). Differences were also observed between these two ethnic groups for ERCC2 K751Q (p=0.006675), XRCC1 R399Q (p=0.000000), PARP1 V762A (p=0.000001). The ERCC1 N118N polymorphic variant that is seen most commonly in EAs is associated with a measurable reduction in NER function. ERCC1 mediated reduction in NER functionality impacts the repair of cisplatin-DNA lesions.

Gao, Rui; Price, Douglas K.; Sissung, Tristan; Reed, Eddie; Figg, William D.

2013-01-01

415

Mirabegron for overactive bladder syndrome.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence, the involuntary leakage of urine, can result from abnormalities of the urinary tract or may be caused by other conditions and is sub-divided into a number of classifications including stress incontinence and urge urinary incontinence.(1) Urge urinary incontinence (UUI) is involuntary urine leakage accompanied by urgency of micturition.(2) Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is defined as urgency occurring with or without UUI and usually occurs with frequency and nocturia.(1) Wet OAB is associated with UUI, while dry OAB is not associated with incontinence. Current drug therapy for OAB involves the use of an antimuscarinic drug, of which there are a number available, such as oxybutynin, darifenacin, solifenacin and tolterodine.(1,3) ?Mirabegron is the first of a new class of drug, beta-3-adrenoreceptor agonists, licensed for symptomatic treatment of urgency, increased micturition frequency and/or urgency incontinence as may occur in adult patients with OAB syndrome.(4) Here we review the evidence for mirabegron. PMID:23949821

2013-08-01

416

Neurogenic Bladder in Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

Lyme disease is a multi-systemic, tick-borne infectious disease caused by a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Various urologic symptoms are associated with Lyme disease, which can be primary or late manifestations of the disease. Although voiding dysfunction is a rarely reported symptom in patients with Lyme disease, it is one of the most disabling complications of Lyme disease. Korea is not an endemic area of Lyme disease, thus, fewer cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of a 32-year-old man with rapidly progressive bilateral ptosis, dysphagia, spastic paraparesis, and voiding difficulty in whom Lyme disease was diagnosed through serologic tests for antibodies and Western blot testing. A urodynamic study demonstrated detrusor areflexia and bulbocavernosus reflex tests showed delayed latency, indicating demyelination at S2-S4 levels. He received a 4-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone (2 g/day). The patient has recovered from the bilateral ptosis and spastic paraparesis but still suffers from neurogenic bladder.

Kim, Mi-hwa; Park, Dong-Su

2012-01-01

417

Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels  

DOEpatents

A lightweight, low permeability liner is described for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using tori spherical or near tori spherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film sealed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life. 19 figs.

Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Magnotta, F.

1998-08-25

418

Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels  

DOEpatents

A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

Mitlitsky, Fred (1125 Canton Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Myers, Blake (4650 Almond Cir., Livermore, CA 94550); Magnotta, Frank (1206 Bacon Way, Lafayette, CA 94549)

1998-01-01

419

Capture Conditions for Merging Trajectory Segments to Model Realistic Aircraft Descents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A typical commercial aircraft trajectory consists of a series of flight segments. An aircraft switches from one segment to another when certain specified variables reach their desired values. Trajectory synthesis for air traffic control automation must be consistent with practical pilot procedures. We examine capture conditions for merging trajectory segments to model commercial aircraft descent in trajectory synthesis. These conditions translate into bounds on measurements of atmospheric wind, pressure, and temperature. They also define ranges of thrust and drag feasible for a descent trajectory. Capture conditions are derived for the Center-TRACON Automation System developed at NASA Ames Research Center for automated air traffic control. Various uses of capture conditions are discussed. A Boeing 727-200 aircraft is used to provide numerical examples of capture conditions.

Zhao, Yiyuan; Slattery, Rhonda A.

1996-01-01

420

Multibody Modeling and Simulation for the Mars Phoenix Lander Entry, Descent and Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-body flight simulation for the Phoenix Mars Lander has been developed that includes high fidelity six degree-of-freedom rigid-body models for the parachute and lander system. The simulation provides attitude and rate history predictions of all bodies throughout the flight, as well as loads on each of the connecting lines. In so doing, a realistic behavior of the descending parachute/lander system dynamics can be simulated that allows assessment of the Phoenix descent performance and identification of potential sensitivities for landing. This simulation provides a complete end-to-end capability of modeling the entire entry, descent, and landing sequence for the mission. Time histories of the parachute and lander aerodynamic angles are presented. The response of the lander system to various wind models and wind shears is shown to be acceptable. Monte Carlo simulation results are also presented.

Queen, Eric M.; Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.

2008-01-01

421

The 4-D descent trajectory generation techniques under realistic operating conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Langley has been conducting and sponsoring research in airborne energy management for a number of years. During the course of this research, two fundamental techniques for the generation of 4D (fixed time) descent trajectories have emerged as viable candidates for advanced flight management systems. The first technique utilizes speed schedules of constant Mach number transitioning to constant calibrated airspeed chosen empirically to produce minimum fuel usage. The second technique computes cost optimized speed schedules of variable airspeed developed through application of optimal control theory. Both techniques have been found to produce reasonable and flyable descent trajectories. The formulation of the algorithms for each technique is evaluated and their suitability for operations in realistic conditions is discussed. Operational factors considered include: airplace speed, thrust, and altitude rate constaints; wind, temperature, and pressure variations; Air Traffic Control altitude, speed, and time constaints; and pilot interface and guidance considerations. Time flexibility, fuel usage, and airborne computational requirements were the primary performance measures.

Williams, David H.; Knox, Charles E.

1990-01-01

422

Minimum-fuel turning climbout and descent guidance of transport jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complete flightpath optimization problem for minimum fuel consumption from takeoff to landing including the initial and final turns from and to the runway heading is solved. However, only the initial and final segments which contain the turns are treated, since the straight-line climbout, cruise, and descent problems have already been solved. The paths are derived by generating fields of extremals, using the necessary conditions of optimal control together with singular arcs and state constraints. Results show that the speed profiles for straight flight and turning flight are essentially identical except for the final horizontal accelerating or decelerating turns. The optimal turns require no abrupt maneuvers, and an approximation of the optimal turns could be easily integrated with present straight-line climb-cruise-descent fuel-optimization algorithms. Climbout at the optimal IAS rather than the 250-knot terminal-area speed limit would save 36 lb of fuel for the 727-100 aircraft.

Neuman, F.; Kreindler, E.

1983-01-01

423

Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Feed Forward Internal Peer Review Slide Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 mt. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia M. (Editor)

2011-01-01

424

Preliminary Assessment of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed inside Gale Crater. This landing was only the seventh successful landing and fourth rover to be delivered to Mars. Weighing nearly one metric ton, Curiosity is the largest and most complex rover ever sent to investigate another planet. Safely landing such a large payload required an innovative Entry, Descent, and Landing system, which included the first guided entry at Mars, the largest supersonic parachute ever flown at Mars, and a novel and untested Sky Crane landing system. A complete, end-to-end, six degree-of-freedom, multibody computer simulation of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing sequence was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. In-flight data gathered during the successful landing is compared to pre-flight statistical distributions, predicted by the simulation. These comparisons provide insight into both the accuracy of the simulation and the overall performance of the vehicle.

Way, David W.

2013-01-01

425

Assessment of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed inside Gale Crater. This landing was only the seventh successful landing and fourth rover to be delivered to Mars. Weighing nearly one metric ton, Curiosity is the largest and most complex rover ever sent to investigate another planet. Safely landing such a large payload required an innovative Entry, Descent, and Landing system, which included the first guided entry at Mars, the largest supersonic parachute ever flown at Mars, and a novel and untested Sky Crane landing system. A complete, end-to-end, six degree-of-freedom, multi-body computer simulation of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing sequence was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. In-flight data gathered during the successful landing is compared to pre-flight statistical distributions, predicted by the simulation. These comparisons provide insight into both the accuracy of the simulation and the overall performance of the vehicle.

Way, David W.; Davis, J. L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.

2013-01-01

426

The probabilistic determination of identity-by-descent sharing for pairs of relatives from pedigrees.  

PubMed Central

Methods for detecting genetic linkage are more powerful when they fully use all of the data collected from pedigrees. We first discuss a method for obtaining the probability that a pedigree member has a given genotype, conditional on the phenotypes of his relatives. We then develop a rapid method to obtain the conditional probabilities of identity-by-descent sharing of marker alleles for all related pairs of individuals from extended pedigrees. The method assumes that the individuals are noninbred and that the relationship between genotype and phenotype is known for the marker locus studied. The probabilities of identity-by-descent sharing among relative pairs, conditional on marker phenotype information, can then be used in any of the model free tests for linkage between a trait locus and a marker locus.

Amos, C I; Dawson, D V; Elston, R C

1990-01-01

427

Reactions to secondhand smoke by nonsmokers of Korean descent: clash of cultures?  

PubMed

Koreans hail from a culture where men's smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure were the norm. Little is known about how nonsmokers of Korean descent respond to smokers in the United States. In 2007-2008, trained moderators conducted eight focus groups with nonsmokers (n = 47) of Korean descent in San Diego. Participants discussed their personal experiences and views concerning SHS. Most participants detected SHS quickly and disliked the smell. Their reactions differed by gender, age, and how well they knew the smoker. Reactions ranged from passive (e.g., tolerating SHS or staring) to assertive (moving or asking the smoker to stop smoking). Younger participants were more tolerant than older participants. Participants appeared caught between two cultures. Despite high awareness, they struggled with how to avoid SHS in a manner befitting of their social status and Korean values. Culturally sensitive programs are needed for immigrants such as Koreans in the United States. PMID:20490684

Hughes, Suzanne C; Usita, Paula M; Hovell, Melbourne F; Richard Hofstetter, C

2011-08-01

428

Combination Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer  

Cancer.gov

No standard therapy currently exists for head and neck cancer that recurs after treatment with radiation. Laboratory studies have shown that bortezomib (Velcade), a new type of cancer drug called a proteasome inhibitor, inhibits growth of head and neck cancer cells. This clinical study is the first test of whether bortezomib can increase the effectiveness of repeat radiation treatment for patients whose head and neck cancer has recurred.

429

Anatomic Variations in Head and Neck Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Head and neck reconstruction is a technically challenging procedure. Variations encountered in the recipient vessels and commonly used flaps add to the complexity of surgery. This article reviews the commonly encountered variations in the recipient vessels in the neck with emphasis on alternatives and techniques to circumvent these variations. Flaps commonly used in head and neck reconstruction are also reviewed in detail. Furthermore, safety, potential pitfalls, and technical pearls are highlighted.

Tan, Bien-Keem; Wong, Chin-Ho; Chen, Hung-Chi

2010-01-01

430

Shaping Bladder and Bowel Continence in Developmentally Retarded Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program to improve bowel and bladder continence with four developmentally retarded preschoolers used a regular schedule and social and liquid reinforcement, verbal reprimand, and correction for accidents. Ss showed improvement in bowel and bladder continence. (Author/CL)

Richmond, Glenn

1983-01-01

431

MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

432

Treatments for overactive bladder: focus on pharmacotherapy.  

PubMed

Objective: To provide guidelines for pharmacotherapy to treat overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). Options: Pharmacotherapy for OAB includes anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) drugs and vaginal estrogen. Both oral and transdermal anticholinergic preparations are available. Outcomes: To provide understanding of current available evidence concerning safety and clinical efficacy of pharmacotherapy for OAB; to guide selection of anticholinergic therapy based on individual patient characteristics. Evidence: The Cochrane Library and Medline were searched for articles published from 1950 to the present related to individual anticholinergic drugs. Review articles on management of refractory OAB were also examined. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to 2010. Values: The quality of evidence is rated and recommendations are made using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Benefits, harms, and costs: Anticholinergics are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy for OAB. Evidence for their efficacy is mostly derived from short-term phase III randomized drug trials. Placebo response is strong, and long-term follow-up and patient subjective outcome data are lacking. Care providers need to be well acquainted with the side effects of anticholinergics and select therapy based on individual patient parameters. Recommendations 1. Behavioural management protocols and functional electrical stimulation should be offered in the spectrum of effective primary treatments for overactive bladder syndrome. (I-A) 2. Oral oxybutynin, immediate and extended release, as well as transdermal oxybutynin, may be offered as treatment for overactive bladder syndrome, as they are associated with significant objective clinical improvement at 12 weeks. (I-A) Oxybutynin immediate release has superior cost-effectiveness but more side effects than other anticholinergics. (I-A) Adverse events associated with transdermal oxybutynin are fewer than with oral oxybutynin. (I-A) 3. Tolterodine, immediate and extended release, may be offered as treatment for overactive bladder syndrome, as it is associated with significant objective clinical improvement at 12 weeks. (I-A) 4. Trospium, immediate and extended release, may be offered as treatment for overactive bladder syndrome as it is associated with significant clinical improvement at 12 weeks. (I-A) Trospium is an adequate anticholinergic choice for overactive bladder syndrome patients with pre-existing cognitive impairment (II-B) and for overactive bladder syndrome patients taking concurrent CYP450 inhibitors. (III-B) 5. Solifenacin may be offered as treatment for overactive bladder syndrome, as it is associated with significant objective clinical improvement at 12 weeks. (I-A) Solifenacin may be an adequate anticholinergic choice for elderly overactive bladder syndrome patients or patients with pre-existing cognitive dysfunction. (I-B) 6. Darifenacin may be offered as treatment for overactive bladder syndrome, as it is associated with significant objective clinical improvement at 12 weeks. (I-A) Darifenacin is an adequate anticholinergic choice for overactive bladder syndrome patients with pre-existing cardiac concerns or cognitive dysfunction. (I-B) 7. Overactive bladder syndrome patients should be offered a choice between bladder training, functional electric stimulation, and anticholinergic therapy, as there is no difference in cure rates. Combination therapy does not have a clear advantage over one therapy alone. (I-A) 8. The choice of anticholinergic therapy should be guided by individual patient comorbidities, as objective efficacy of anticholinergic drugs is similar. (I-A) Dose escalation does not improve objective parameters and causes more anticholinergic adverse effects. It is, however, associated with improved subjective outcomes. (I-A) To decrease side effects, swi

Geoffrion, Roxana

2012-11-01

433

Estimation of heritability from limited family data using genome-wide identity-by-descent sharing  

PubMed Central

Background In classical pedigree-based analysis, additive genetic variance is estimated from between-family variation, which requires the existence of larger phenotyped and pedigreed populations involving numerous families (parents). However, estimation is often complicated by confounding of genetic and environmental family effects, with the latter typically occurring among full-sibs. For this reason, genetic variance is often inferred based on covariance among more distant relatives, which reduces the power of the analysis. This simulation study shows that genome-wide identity-by-descent sharing among close relatives can be used to quantify additive genetic variance solely from within-family variation using data on extremely small family samples. Methods Identity-by-descent relationships among full-sibs were simulated assuming a genome size similar to that of humans (effective number of loci ~80). Genetic variance was estimated from phenotypic data assuming that genomic identity-by-descent relationships could be accurately re-created using information from genome-wide markers. The results were compared with standard pedigree-based genetic analysis. Results For a polygenic trait and a given number of phenotypes, the most accurate estimates of genetic variance were based on data from a single large full-sib family only. Compared with classical pedigree-based analysis, the proposed method is more robust to selection among parents and for confounding of environmental and genetic effects. Furthermore, in some cases, satisfactory results can be achieved even with less ideal data structures, i.e., for selectively genotyped data and for traits for which the genetic variance is largely under the control of a few major genes. Conclusions Estimation of genetic variance using genomic identity-by-descent relationships is especially useful for studies aiming at estimating additive genetic variance of highly fecund species, using data from small populations with limited pedigree information and/or few available parents, i.e., parents originating from non-pedigreed or even wild populations.

2012-01-01

434

Vaginal surgery for uterine descent; which options do we have? A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several vaginal procedures are available for treating uterine descent. Vaginal hysterectomy is usually the surgeon’s first\\u000a choice. In this literature review, complications, anatomical and symptomatic outcomes, and quality of life after vaginal hysterectomy,\\u000a sacrospinous hysteropexy, the Manchester procedure, and posterior intravaginal slingplasty are described. All procedures had\\u000a low complication rates, except posterior intravaginal slingplasty, with a tape erosion rate of

Viviane Dietz; Steven E. Schraffordt Koops; C. Huub van der Vaart

2009-01-01

435

Strong refraction near the Venus surface - Effects observed by descent probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The telemetry signals from Pioneer Venus probes indicated the strong downward refraction of radio waves. As the probes descended, the strength of the direct signal decreased because of absorption and refractive defocusing. During the last 30 km of descent there was a second measured component in addition to the direct signal. Strong atmospheric reaction is important in strengthening echoes that are scattered toward the earth. Such surface-reflected signals are good indicators of horizontal winds.

Croft, T. A.

1982-01-01

436

A Numerical Descent Method for an Inverse Problem of a Scalar Conservation Law Modelling Sedimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution presents a numerical descent method for the identification of parameters in the flux function of a scalar\\u000a nonlinear conservation law when the solution at a fixed time is known. This problem occurs in a model of batch sedimentation\\u000a of an ideal suspension. We formulate the identification problem as a minimization problem of a suitable cost function and\\u000a derive

R. Bürger; A. Coronel; M. Sepúlveda

437

Biological effects of fuel and exhaust components from spacecraft descent engines employing hydrazine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of the products of the Viking terminal descent engine fuel upon possible extraterrestrial life at the Martian landing site is examined. The effects of the engine exhaust, the hydrazine fuel, and the breakdown products of the latter on terrestrial microorganisms have been studied. The results indicate that the gaseous exhaust products would probably not be hazardous to microorganisms, but that liquid hydrazine would be lethal.

Lehwalt, M. E.; Woeller, F. H.; Oyama, V. I.

1973-01-01

438

On the boundary conditions on a shock wave for hypersonic flow around a descent vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stationary hypersonic flow around a descent vehicle is examined by considering equilibrium and nonequilibrium reactions. We study how physical-chemical processes and shock wave conditions for gas species influence the shock-layer structure. It is shown that conservation conditions of species on the shock wave cause high-temperature and concentration gradients in the shock layer when we calculate spacecraft deceleration trajectory in the atmosphere at 75 km altitude.

Golomazov, M. M.; Ivankov, A. A.

2013-12-01

439

Entry, Descent, and Landing Aerothermodynamics: NASA Langley Experimental Capabilities and Contributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of recent research, development, testing and evaluation activities related to entry, descent and landing that have been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. An overview of the test facilities, model development and fabrication capabilities, and instrumentation and measurement techniques employed in this work is provided. Contributions to hypersonic/supersonic flight and planetary exploration programs are detailed, as are fundamental research and development activities.

Hollis, Brian R.; Berger, Karen T.; Berry, Scott A.; Bruckmann, Gregory J.; Buck, Gregory M.; DiFulvio, Michael; Horvath, Thomas J.; Liechty, Derek S.; Merski, N. Ronald; Murphy, Kelly J.; Rufer, Shann J.; Schoenenberger, Mark

2014-01-01

440

Optimizing 0\\/1 Loss for Perceptrons by Random Coordinate Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 0\\/1 loss is an important cost function for perceptrons. Nevertheless it cannot be easily minimized by most existing perceptron learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose a family of random coordinate descent algorithms to directly minimize the 0\\/1 loss for perceptrons, and prove their convergence. Our algorithms are computationally efficient, and usually achieve the lowest 0\\/1 loss compared with

Ling Li; Hsuan-tien Lin

2007-01-01

441

Apollo experience report: Mission planning for lunar module descent and ascent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The premission planning, the real-time situation, and the postflight analysis for the Apollo 11 lunar descent and ascent are described. A comparison between premission planning and actual results is included. A navigation correction capability, developed from Apollo 11 postflight analysis was used successfully on Apollo 12 to provide the first pinpoint landing. An experience summary, which illustrates typical problems encountered by the mission planners, is also included.

Bennett, F. V.

1972-01-01

442

Program package for the computer-aided aerodynamic design system for descent vehicles in planetary atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mathematical support for the calculation of the aerodynamics and flight trajectory of descent vehicles (DVs) entering the Earth's atmosphere from space is considered. The study of the aerodynamics of a segment- and cone-shaped DV is carried out under a wide range of atmospheric entry conditions. Comparison of the results of the calculations of aerodynamic characteristics of the "Phobos-Grunt" DV and of the data of wind tunnel tests of its models is presented.

Golomazov, M. M.; Finchenko, V. S.; Ivankov, A. A.; Shmatov, S. I.

2012-12-01

443

Embolization of the neck lymphatic varix, causing periodic neck swelling.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 44-year-old female patient, presented to us after years of recurrent intermittent episodes of unilateral left neck swelling. An MR lymphangiogram demonstrated a lymphatic varix at the confluence of the left upper extremity lymphatic ducts, confirmed by intranodal axillary lymphangiography. After successful catheterization of the feeding lymphatic vessels, the varix was successfully embolized with detachable microcoils and an autologous blood patch. The patient has been free from symptoms on subsequent outpatient follow-up. PMID:24352865

Guzman, Anthony K; Pukenas, Brian A; Yan, Yan; Newman, Jason G; Itkin, Maxim

2014-08-01

444

Direct and remote constriction of membrane necks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical properties of membrane necks are relevant in vesiculation, a process that plays an essential role in cellular physiology. Because the neck's radius is, in general, finite, membrane scission and the consequent pinching off of the vesicle can only occur if it is narrowed to permit the necessary membrane topological reformation. Here we examine, in a simple single phase lipid vesicle, how external forces can promote neck constriction not only by direct compression at the neck but also, counterintuitively, by dilation at remote locations. These results provide a new perspective on the role played by actin polymerization in the process of endocytosis.

Boži?, Bojan; Guven, Jemal; Vázquez-Montejo, Pablo; Svetina, Saša

2014-05-01

445

The Cassini/Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment: Results from the Titan Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE), one of the six scientific investigations comprising the payload of the ESA Huygens Probe, is a determination of the wind velocity in Titan's atmosphere. Measurements of the Doppler shift of the S-band (2040 MHz) carrier signal to the Cassini Orbiter and to Earth were recorded during the Probe descent in order to deduce wind-induced motion of the Probe to an accuracy better than 1 m s-1. An experiment with the same scientific goal was performed with the Galileo Probe at Jupiter. Analogous to the Galileo experience, it was anticipated that the frequency of the Huygens radio signal could be measured on Earth to obtain an additional component of the horizontal winds. Specific secondary science objectives of DWE include measurements of: (a) Doppler fluctuations to determine the turbulence spectrum and possible wave activity in the Titan atmosphere; (b) Doppler and signal level modulation to monitor Probe descent dynamics (e.g., spinrate/spinphase, parachute swing); (c) Probe coordinates and orientation during descent and after impact on Titan.

Bird, M. K.; Dutta-Roy, R.; Allison, M.; Asmar, S. W.; Atkinson, D. H.; Edenhofer, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Tyler, G. L.

2005-01-01

446

International Space Station (ISS) Soyuz Vehicle Descent Module Evaluation of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Penetration Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The descent module (DM) of the ISS Soyuz vehicle is covered by thermal protection system (TPS) materials that provide protection from heating conditions experienced during reentry. Damage and penetration of these materials by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts could result in loss of vehicle during return phases of the mission. The descent module heat shield has relatively thick TPS and is protected by the instrument-service module. The TPS materials on the conical sides of the descent module (referred to as backshell in this test plan) are exposed to more MMOD impacts and are relatively thin compared to the heat shield. This test program provides hypervelocity impact (HVI) data on materials similar in composition and density to the Soyuz TPS on the backshell of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz TPS penetration risk assessments. The impact testing was coordinated by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) Group [1] in Houston, Texas. The HVI testing was conducted at the NASA-JSC White Sands Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (WSTF) at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Figure

Davis, Bruce A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Tom

2013-01-01

447

Time controlled descent guidance algorithm for simulation of advanced ATC systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concepts and computer algorithms for generating time controlled four dimensional descent trajectories are described. The algorithms were implemented in the air traffic control simulator and used by experienced controllers in studies of advanced air traffic flow management procedures. A time controlled descent trajectory comprises a vector function of time, including position, altitude, and heading, that starts at the initial position of the aircraft and ends at touchdown. The trajectory provides a four dimensional reference path which will cause an aircraft tracking it to touchdown at a predetermined time with a minimum of fuel consumption. The problem of constructing such trajectories is divided into three subproblems involving synthesis of horizontal, vertical, and speed profiles. The horizontal profile is constructed as a sequence of turns and straight lines passing through a specified set of waypoints. The vertical profile consists of a sequence of level flight and constant descent angle segments defined by altitude waypoints. The speed profile is synthesized as a sequence of constant Mach number, constant indicated airspeed, and acceleration/deceleration legs. It is generated by integrating point mass differential equations of motion, which include the thrust and drag models of the aircraft.

Lee, H. Q.; Erzberger, H.

1983-01-01

448

Flight-Deck Strategies and Outcomes When Flying Schedule-Matching Descents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies at NASA Ames Research Center have investigated the development and use of ground-based (air traffic controller) tools to manage and schedule air traffic in future terminal airspace. An exploratory study was undertaken to investigate the impacts that such tools (and concepts) could have on the flight-deck. Ten Boeing 747-400 crews flew eight optimized profile descents in the Los Angeles terminal airspace, while receiving scripted current day and futuristic speed clearances, to ascertain their ability to fly schedulematching descents without prior training. Although the study was exploratory in nature, four variables were manipulated: route constraints, winds, speed changes, and clearance phraseology. Despite flying the same scenarios with the same events and timing, there were significant differences in the time it took crews to fly the approaches. This variation is the product of a number of factors but highlights potential difficulties for scheduling tools that would have to accommodate this amount of natural variation in descent times. The focus of this paper is the examination of the crews' aircraft management strategies and outcomes. This includes potentially problematic human-automation interaction issues that may negatively impact arrival times, speed and altitude constraint compliance, and energy management efficiency.

Kaneshige, John T.; Sharma, Shivanjli; Martin Lynne; Lozito, Sandra; Dulchinos, Victoria

2013-01-01

449

Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory and Atmosphere Reconstruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On August 5th 2012, The Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle successfully entered Mars atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover on its surface. A Kalman filter approach has been implemented to reconstruct the entry, descent, and landing trajectory based on all available data. The data sources considered in the Kalman filtering approach include the inertial measurement unit accelerations and angular rates, the terrain descent sensor, the measured landing site, orbit determination solutions for the initial conditions, and a new set of instrumentation for planetary entry reconstruction consisting of forebody pressure sensors, known as the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System. These pressure measurements are unique for planetary entry, descent, and landing reconstruction as they enable a reconstruction of the freestream atmospheric conditions without any prior assumptions being made on the vehicle aerodynamics. Moreover, the processing of these pressure measurements in the Kalman filter approach enables the identification of atmospheric winds, which has not been accomplished in past planetary entry reconstructions. This separation of atmosphere and aerodynamics allows for aerodynamic model reconciliation and uncertainty quantification, which directly impacts future missions. This paper describes the mathematical formulation of the Kalman filtering approach, a summary of data sources and preprocessing activities, and results of the reconstruction.

Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kutty, Prasad; Schoenenberer, Mark; Shidner, Jeremy D.

2013-01-01

450

Factors responsible for successful primary closure in bladder exstrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the important factors for successful primary closure in staged reconstruction of bladder exstrophy, 25 patients\\u000a (18 males, 7 females) underwent primary bladder closure during the ye