Sample records for bladder neck descent

  1. Management of bladder neck leiomyoma during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tupikowski, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Pawe?; Szyde?ko, Tomasz; Ha?o?, Agnieszka; Polok, Marcin; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    A 29-year-old primigravida was admitted to the urology ward with acute urinary retention. The patient underwent cystoscopy, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and tissue biopsy, which consequently led to the diagnosis of bladder neck leiomyoma that obstructed urine outflow. Subsequent to a cesarean section, a successful transurethral resection was performed. Here the diagnostic complexity in the pregnant patient, clinical course, and outcome are described. One year after successful treatment both mother and daughter are in good condition. PMID:24578908

  2. Management of bladder neck leiomyoma during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Pawe?; Szyde?ko, Tomasz; Ha?o?, Agnieszka; Polok, Marcin; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    A 29-year-old primigravida was admitted to the urology ward with acute urinary retention. The patient underwent cystoscopy, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and tissue biopsy, which consequently led to the diagnosis of bladder neck leiomyoma that obstructed urine outflow. Subsequent to a cesarean section, a successful transurethral resection was performed. Here the diagnostic complexity in the pregnant patient, clinical course, and outcome are described. One year after successful treatment both mother and daughter are in good condition. PMID:24578908

  3. Extraperitoneal laparoscopic bladder neck suspension using hernia mesh and tacker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarkan Soygür; Mut ?afak; Orhan Gö?ü?

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To report our initial experience with extraperitoneal bladder neck suspension for female stress incontinence due to urethral hypermobility.Methods. Between September 1996 and September 1999, 35 patients (mean age 49.5 years) underwent extraperitoneal bladder neck suspension at our institution. An extraperitoneal space was created by a trocar-mounted balloon device, and suspension was created using a 5-mm endoscopic hernia stapler and

  4. Bladder neck preservation following radical prostatectomy: continence and margins.

    PubMed

    Braslis, K G; Petsch, M; Lim, A; Civantos, F; Soloway, M S

    1995-01-01

    Between December 1991 and January 1994, 134 patients underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy with bladder neck preservation. Forty-nine patients had a positive margin. Number and location of positive margins were analyzed. A tumor was identified at the bladder neck in 10 cases (7.5%). In all 10 patients with bladder neck involvement, a tumor was also identified at multiple other sites. These data suggest that preservation of the bladder neck during radical prostatectomy does not appear to compromise the efficacy of the procedure. Using a self-administered patient questionnaire, we evaluated the effect of bladder neck preservation upon continence in 36 patients. At the initial 3-month follow-up, 24 (67%) patients did not wear any pads. Another 7 (19%) wore pads occasionally, while 5 (14%) patients wore pads daily. To date only 1 of the 134 patients has developed an anastomotic stricture. Bladder neck preservation may aid in an earlier return of continence following radical prostatectomy and reduces anastomotic strictures. It does not appear to compromise the removal of the cancer. PMID:8536773

  5. Transurethral Incision of the Bladder Neck in a Woman with Primary Bladder Neck Obstruction after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Marki?, Dean; Valen?i?, Maksim; Mari?i?, Anton; Krpina, Kristian; Raheli?, Dražen; Ahel, Juraj; Rubini?, Nino; Orli?, Lidija; Ra?ki, Sanjin

    2015-01-01

    Voiding dysfunction is frequently seen in the early posttransplant period. Among other causes, this condition can arise due to bladder outlet obstruction. Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) is a possible but very rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction. We present the case of a 52-year-old woman who, after kidney transplantation, presented with PBNO. The diagnosis was established based on symptoms, uroflowmetry, and multichannel urodynamics with electromyography. The transurethral incision of the bladder neck was made at the 5- and 7-o'clock position. After the operation, the maximal flow rate was significantly increased, and postvoid residual urine was decreased compared to the preoperative findings. The patient was followed for 5 years, and her voiding improvement is persistent. This is the first reported case of PBNO treated with a transurethral incision of the bladder neck in a posttransplantation female patient.

  6. Virus Analysis in Head and Neck and Bladder Cancers - Michael Parfenov, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Virus Analysis in Head and Neck and Bladder Cancers - Michael Parfenov Virus Analysis in Head and Neck and Bladder Cancers - Michael Parfenov, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You will need Adobe Flash

  7. Anchor fixation and other modifications of endoscopic bladder neck suspension.

    PubMed

    Benderev, T V

    1992-11-01

    The long-term efficacy of surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence can be improved by modifications that reduce the possibility of suspending suture detachment. Fifty-three women with stress urinary incontinence underwent consecutive endoscopic bladder neck suspensions with new modifications developed in an effort to decrease suspending suture detachment. Those modifications included: (1) technique of needle passage to capture a maximum volume of urethropelvic fascia lateral to the bladder neck and urethra while avoiding injury to the bladder, (2) pubic bone fixation of the suspending suture using a small anchor developed for orthopedic use, and (3) a simple technique to limit tension of the suspending sutures. Procedures were outpatient in 60 percent of patients (93% of the last 27 patients). Seventy percent of patients did not require intermittent catheterization beyond the day when their indwelling catheter was removed. The postoperative success rate (absence of stress urinary incontinence) at one month was 100 percent. There were 4 failures on follow-up up to fifteen months. Urgency incontinence decreased from 59 percent preoperatively to 15 percent postoperatively. The complication of osteitis pubis was not noted. Patient rating of satisfaction postoperatively was high. These modifications constitute a safe alternative to procedures that effectively suspend the bladder neck. An assessment of any change in long-term efficacy as a result of these modifications will require continued follow-up. PMID:1441037

  8. Modified anterior approach to the bladder neck: simple and reproducible procedure for anterior bladder neck transection during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Shimbo, Masaki; Hattori, Kazunori; Endo, Fumiyasu; Matsushita, Kazuhito; Iwabuchi, Toshihisa; Tobisu, Kenichi; Muraishi, Osamu

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of a simple technique for identifying the initial cutting point of the bladder neck during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. To precisely identify the prostatovesical junction, we first pulled the anterior bladder wall in an upward direction with the second arm to identify the precise location of the prostatovesical junction where anterior bladder neck dissection is initiated. After one experienced surgeon had established this technique, three surgeons who were less experienced in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy utilized this method for 50 consecutive robot-assisted radical prostatectomy cases. The pathological results and the time required to transect the anterior bladder wall were evaluated. There were no cases of positive resection margin on the site of bladder neck. The mean resection time was not significantly different when comparing less experienced surgeons with the experienced surgeon (P?=?0.29). In conclusion, this method is a simple and reproducible way to identify the bladder neck during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. This technique is also useful (for laparoscopic or open radical prostatectomy) even in difficult scenarios, such as post-transurethral resection of prostate cases. PMID:24825076

  9. Bladder neck preservation during classic laparoscopic radical prostatectomy – point of technique and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Drewa, Tomasz; Jaskulski, Jaros?aw; Dobruch, Jakub; Varkarakis, John; Borówka, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Stress urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer organ-confined patients can significantly affect quality of life. The article presents a technique of bladder neck preservation, because it is believed that this point is one of many crucial points responsible for fast recovery of continence after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). Material and methods Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with the intention of bladder neck preservation was performed in 194 patients of clinically organ-confined prostate cancer (cT2 ? N0M0). The working space was done by tissues-fingers dissections and insufflation of the cavity under full visual control, without the Gaur-balloon device. We insert two 10 mm trocars, three trocars of 5 mm and both 0° and 30° laparoscopes. The most important points of technique include: identification of landmarks of bladder neck and prostate base; dissection of muscle fibres of the very superficial bladder wall; mobilization of the posterior part of the urethra and simultaneous seminal vesicles release; neuro-vascular bundles preservation. This procedure resulted in a long bladder neck which can be easily anastomosed with the urethra. Tension-free and end-to-end (bladder neck-urethra) anastomosis are the results. Results In all cases radical prostatectomy was performed laparoscopically in the extraperitoneal space. There were no complications of bladder neck preservation during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) apart from 22 cases with a large medium lobe. The mean time of operation was 150 min (110-210 min). The mean blood loss during LRP was 150 ml (110-350 ml). Blood transfusion was not necessary. There were no postoperative complications. Mean hospitalization time was 5 days. Pathological result of the postoperative specimens was pT2a in 30%, pT2b in 60%, pT3a in 6%, and pT3b in 4% of patients. In 7% of patients a positive surgical margin was affirmed, but the bladder neck was not affected in any case. Full continence after 3, 6, and 12 months was observed in 75%, 85%, and 92% of analysed patients, respectively. Conclusions Bladder neck preservation during LRP is an effective, safe procedure that offers good functional results based on fast recovery of continence. Bladder neck preservation offers full tight anastomosis, especially in cases with no large median lobe of prostatic adenoma. Continence of patients who underwent bladder neck preservation was improved during short-term follow-up. Long-term results are still not conclusive. We think that this technique applied to laparoscopy will finally result in real progress of continence preservation after radical prostatectomy, but larger groups of patients have to be compared. PMID:23256008

  10. Emergency primary repair of grade V bladder neck injury complicating pelvic fracture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a grade V bladder injury complicating an open-book pelvic fracture following a road traffic accident. The bladder neck injury was primarily repaired in the emergency setting of a poor-resourced area with successful outcome. The dangers of urinary extravasation are still to be considered of importance and we advocate and encourage immediate/emergency open intervention although it remains controversial to say the least in a lesser resourced healthcare set up. PMID:25076980

  11. Bladder neck evaluation by perineal ultrasound before and after reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manabu Nishibayashi; Koichi Kobayashi; Akinori Miki; Ryugo Okagaki; Ichiro Nagata; Mitsuyoshi Urashima; Osamu Ishihara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  To study the correlation between stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and the mobility and funneling of the bladder neck (BN)\\u000a by observation of pre- and postoperative course by perineal ultrasound (PUS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We investigated 123 cases that underwent reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We prospectively checked\\u000a bladder neck mobility (BNM) during the Valsalva maneuver and funneling of the BN at

  12. Randomized clinical trial of a bladder neck plication stitch during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung-Kwon; Park, Sejun; Ahn, Hanjong

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is one of the most bothersome complications affecting patients' daily lives. The efficacy of the bladder neck plication stitch technique in promoting an earlier return of continence was prospectively evaluated in 158 patients who underwent RARP for clinically localized prostate cancer by a single surgeon at our institute from March 2012 to January 2013. Patients were randomized 1:1 to undergo surgery with (n = 79) or without (n = 79) the bladder neck plication stitch, and their time to recovery from incontinence, defined as being pad free, was compared. Recovery from incontinence at 1, 3, and 6 months were observed in 22 (27.8%), 42 (53.2%), and 57 (72.2%) patients, respectively, treated with, and 23 (29.1%), 47 (59.5%), and 59 (74.7%) patients, respectively, treated without the bladder neck plication stitch, with no significant difference in time to recovery from incontinence between the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that age, membranous urethral length and shape of the prostatic apex on magnetic resonance imaging were independent predictors of early recovery from urinary incontinence after RARP. The bladder neck plication stitch had no effect on time to recovery from postoperative urinary incontinence following RARP. PMID:25432493

  13. Intralesional Injection of Mitomycin C at Transurethral Incision of Bladder Neck Contracture May Offer Limited Benefit: TURNS Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Redshaw, Jeffrey D.; Broghammer, Joshua A.; Smith, Thomas G.; Voelzke, Bryan B.; Erickson, Bradley A.; McClung, Christopher D.; Elliott, Sean P.; Alsikafi, Nejd F.; Presson, Angela P.; Aberger, Michael E.; Craig, James R.; Brant, William O.; Myers, Jeremy B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Injection of mitomycin C may increase the success of transurethral incision of the bladder neck for the treatment of bladder neck contracture. We evaluated the efficacy of mitomycin C injection across multiple institutions. Materials and Methods Data on all patients who underwent transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed from 6 centers in the TURNS. Patients with at least 3 months of cystoscopic followup were included in the analysis. Results A total of 66 patients underwent transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C and 55 meeting the study inclusion criteria were analyzed. Mean ± SD patient age was 64 ± 7.6 years. Dilation or prior transurethral incision of the bladder neck failed in 80% (44 of 55) of patients. Overall 58% (32 of 55) of patients achieved resolution of bladder neck contracture after 1 transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C at a median followup of 9.2 months (IQR 11.7). There were 23 patients who had recurrence at a median of 3.7 months (IQR 4.2), 15 who underwent repeat transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C and 9 of 15 (60%) who were free of another recurrence at a median of 8.6 months (IQR 8.8), for an overall success rate of 75% (41 of 55). Incision with electrocautery (Collins knife) was predictive of success compared with cold knife incision (63% vs 50%, p=0.03). Four patients experienced serious adverse events related to mitomycin C and 3 needed or are planning cystectomy. Conclusions The efficacy of intralesional injection of mitomycin C at transurethral incision of the bladder neck was lower than previously reported and was associated with a 7% rate of serious adverse events. PMID:25200807

  14. Bladder neck contracture–incidence and management following contemporary robot assisted radical prostatectomy technique

    PubMed Central

    Parihar, Jaspreet Singh; Ha, Yun-Sok; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Bladder neck contracture (BNC) is a well-recognized complication following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for treatment of localized prostate cancer with a reported incidence of up to 1.4%. In this series, we report our institutional experience and management results. Methods: A prospectively collected database of patients who underwent RARP by a single surgeon from 2006 to 2012 was reviewed. Watertight bladder neck to urethral anastomosis was performed over 18-French foley catheter. BNC was diagnosed by flexible cystoscopy in patients who developed symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction. Subsequently, these patients underwent cold knife bladder neck incisions. Patients then followed a strict self regimen of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). We identify the patient demographics, incidence of BNC, associated risk factors and success of subsequent management. Results: Total of 930 patients who underwent RARP for localized prostate cancer was identified. BNC was identified in 15 patients, 1.6% incidence. Mean patient age and preoperative prostate-specific antigen was 58.8 years old and 7.83 ng/mL (range, 2.5–14.55 ng/mL) respectively. Mean estimated blood loss was 361±193 mL (range, 50–650 mL). Follow-up was mean of 23.4 months. Average time to BNC diagnosis was 5.5 months. In three patients, a foreign body was identified at bladder neck. On multivariate analysis, estimated blood loss was significantly associated with development of BNC. All patients underwent cystoscopy and bladder neck incision with a 3-month CIC regimen. Out of 15 index patients, none had a BNC recurrence over the follow-up period. Conclusions: BNC was identified in 1.6% of patients in our series following RARP. Intraoperative blood loss was a significant risk factor for BNC. In 20% of BNC patients a migrated foreign body was noted at vesicourethral anastomosis. Primary management of patients with BNC following RARP should be bladder neck incision and self CIC regimen. PMID:24693529

  15. Continent ileovesicostomy after bladder neck closure as salvage procedure for intractable incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Anheuser, Petra; Rausch, Steffen; Fechner, Guido; Braun, Moritz; Müller, Stefan C.; Steffens, Joachim A.; Kälble, Tilman

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We evaluated the success rate of continent vesicostomy using an ileal segment with seroserosally embedded, tapered ileum for bladder augmentation with continent stoma following bladder neck closure (BNC) for severely damaged bladders or persistent urinary incontinence. Material and methods A total of 15 patients were treated for persistent urinary incontinence or non–reconstructible bladder outlet between 2003 and 2012. Underlying diagnosis included post–prostatectomy incontinence (n = 5), recurrent bladder neck stenosis (n = 5), neurogenic bladder (n = 3), urethral tumor recurrence following orthotopic neobladder (n = 1) and post–TVT and colposuspension incontinence (n = 1). All patients underwent open BNC, omental interposition and continent vesicoileostomy. The continent outlet was placed in the lower abdomen using a circumferential subcutaneous and skin plasty to avoid retraction. Data collected included age, underlying diagnosis, stoma site, time to complications and need for subsequent surgical revisions. All patients received a standardized questionnaire at the time of data acquisition and were personally interviewed. Results Median follow–up was 24 months (range: 2–111). Primary BNC was successful in all patients and primary continence rate was 86.7%. Two patients (13.3%) suffered from failure of the continence mechanism, caused by stoma stenosis at skin level and insufficiency of the bladder augmentation and stoma due to local infection. One additional patient developed a mild stomal incontinence without need for further reconstruction. Regardless of the number of revisions, at the last follow–up 93.3% of patients had a functional channel. All complications occurred within the first postoperative year. Conclusions This technique is an effective last resort treatment for patients with non–reconstructible bladder outlet. PMID:24757550

  16. Robotic-assisted bladder neck repair: feasibility and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gargollo, Patricio C

    2015-02-01

    Minimally invasive techniques are rapidly being developed and integrated into urologic surgery. Over the past 5 years, the urologic literature is abound with novel techniques and adaptations to conventional laparoscopy. Pediatric urology is no exception to this trend, and the benefits of minimally invasive surgery may be accentuated in children given the relatively more confined working spaces and also a heightened awareness of cosmesis for the pediatric population. Increasingly, complex pediatric urologic procedures are being performed with robot assistance. The feasibility of nephrectomy, pyeloplasty, ureteral reimplantation, and bladder surgery has been clearly established. PMID:25455177

  17. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: modified ultradissection reduces pT2 positive surgical margins on the bladder neck.

    PubMed

    Araki, Motoo; Jeong, Wooju; Park, Sung Yul; Lee, Young Hoon; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the positive surgical margin (PSM) rates of 2 techniques of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for pT2 (localized) prostate cancer. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 361 RARP cases, performed from May 2005 to September 2008 by a single surgeon (KHR) at our institution (Yonsei University College of Medicine). In the conventional technique, the bladder neck was transected first. In the modified ultradissection, the lateral border of the bladder neck was dissected and then the bladder neck was transected while the detrusor muscle of the bladder was well visualized. Perioperative characteristics and outcomes and PSM rates were analyzed retrospectively for pT2 patients (n?217), focusing on a comparison of those undergoing conventional (n?113) and modified ultradissection (n?104) techniques. There was no difference between the conventional and modified ultradissection group in mean age, BMI, PSA, prostate volume, biopsy Gleason score, and D'Amico prognostic criteria distributions. The mean operative time was shorter (p?0.001) and the estimated blood loss was less (p?0.01) in the modified ultradissection group. The PSM rate for the bladder neck was significantly reduced by modified ultradissection, from 6.2% to 0% (p?0.05). In conclusion, modified ultradissection reduces the PSM rate for the bladder neck. PMID:24553487

  18. Neuronal and smooth muscle receptors involved in the PACAP- and VIP-induced relaxations of the pig urinary bladder neck

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M; Barahona, M V; Recio, P; Benedito, S; Martínez, A C; Rivera, L; García-Sacristán, A; Prieto, D; Orensanz, L M

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: As pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP 38)- and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are widely distributed in the urinary tract, the current study investigated the receptors and mechanisms involved in relaxations induced by these peptides in the pig bladder neck. Experimental approach: Urothelium-denuded strips were suspended in organ baths for isometric force recordings and the relaxations to VIP and PACAP analogues were investigated. Key results: VIP, PACAP 38, PACAP 27 and [Ala11,22,28]-VIP produced similar relaxations. Inhibition of neuronal voltage-gated Ca2+ channels reduced relaxations to PACAP 38 and increased those induced by VIP. Blockade of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents (CSPA), nitric oxide (NO)-synthase or guanylate cyclase reduced the PACAP 38 relaxations but failed to modify the VIP responses. Inhibition of VIP/PACAP receptors and of voltage-gated K+ channels reduced PACAP 38 and VIP relaxations, which were not modified by the K+ channel blockers iberiotoxin, charybdotoxin, apamin or glibenclamide. The phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor rolipram and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin produced potent relaxations. Blockade of protein kinase A (PKA) reduced PACAP 38- and VIP-induced relaxations. Conclusions and implications: PACAP 38 and VIP relax the pig urinary bladder neck through muscle VPAC2 receptors linked to the cAMP-PKA pathway and involve activation of voltage-gated K+ channels. Facilitatory PAC1 receptors located at CSPA and coupled to NO release, and inhibitory VPAC receptors at motor endings are also involved in the relaxations to PACAP 38 and VIP, respectively. VIP/PACAP receptor antagonists could be useful in the therapy of urinary incontinence produced by intrinsic sphincter deficiency. PMID:16847435

  19. Selective Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Combined with Transurethral Incision of the Bladder Neck for Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Patients with Small Volume Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH): A Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Pan, Jin-hong; Liu, Qi-gui; He, Peng; Song, Si-ji; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Zhan-song

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) has a high failure rate in patients with small volume benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). We describe and report the results of an alternative surgical method, selective transurethral resection of the prostate (STURP) in combination with transurethral incision of the bladder neck (TUIBN). Methods Patients were randomized to receive TURP or STRUP+TUIBN in combination with TUIBN. Maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), voided volume, and post voiding residual volume (PVR) were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Efficacy of treatment was assessed by lower urinary tract symptoms and IPSS. Results Sixty three patients received STRUP+TUIBN and 61 received TURP. Surgical time, amount of prostate tissue resected, and blood loss was the same in both groups (all, p>0.05). The mean duration of follow-up was 9.02 and 8.53 months in patients receiving TURP and STRUP+TUIBN, respectively. At 6 months postoperatively, IPSS was 4.26±1.22 and 4.18±1.47 in patients receiving TURP and STRUP+TUIBN, respectively (p>0.05), and the Qmax in patients receiving STRUP+TUIBN was markedly higher than in those receiving TURP (28.28±6.46 mL/s vs. 21.59±7.14 mL/s; p<0.05). Bladder neck contracture and urinary tract infections were observed in 3 and 5 patients receiving TURP, respectively, and none in STURP. Conclusions STRUP+TUIBN may offer a more effective and safer alternative to TURP for small volume BPH patients. PMID:23691002

  20. Duplicate bladder exstrophy: a unique approach to initial repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D Fabrizio; Stephen E Strup; R. Bruce Filmer; John Noseworthy; John P Gearhart

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. To describe a unique approach to the management of duplicate bladder exstrophy combining initial bladder closure and epispadias repair. Bladder exstrophy has been successfully managed by staged surgical repair with early bladder closure, subsequent epispadias repair, and, finally, bladder neck reconstruction. Duplicate bladder exstrophy is a rare variant of the exstrophy complex with fewer than 20 cases reported.Methods. A

  1. Collateral bladder duplication with exstrophy of one moiety in a female infant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cem Akbal; Rosalia Misseri; Richard C. Rink; Martin Kaefer

    2005-01-01

    Complete bladder duplication with exstrophy of one moiety is an extremely rare condition. We report an unusual case of complete bladder duplication with exstrophy of one moiety, in which each bladder received one ureter and the internal bladder drained into a urogenital sinus. The patient was treated by combining the two bladder halves and using the bladder neck of the

  2. Bladder cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder; Urothelial cancer ... In the United States, bladder cancer usually starts from the cells lining the bladder. These cells are called transitional cells. These tumors are classified by the way ...

  3. Bladder Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  4. Bladder stones

    MedlinePLUS

    Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SM. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 89. Sharma R, Dill CE, Gelman DY. Urinary ...

  5. Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Home Cancers Selected for Study Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Last Updated: April 01, 2013 What is urothelial bladder cancer? Urothelial bladder cancer is the most common type of bladder cancer.  The bladder is a hollow

  6. Appendicovesicostomy: a useful adjunct to continent reconstruction of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Keating, M A; Rink, R C; Adams, M C

    1993-05-01

    Appendicovesicostomy is a useful adjunct to continent reconstruction of the bladder. During the last 3 years we have used this procedure in 14 children with difficult incontinence due to spina bifida (7), exstrophy/epispadias (5), imperforate anus (1) and urethral agenesis (1). In 4 patients in whom previous operations had failed to achieve continence the bladder neck was closed. In the remaining 10 children, all of whom had difficulty or discomfort catheterizing the native urethra, the bladder neck/urethra was preserved or reconstructed to serve as a vent for elevated bladder pressures. Continence was achieved in all 14 children with no complications related to the appendix. All children in whom the bladder neck/urethra was salvaged preferentially empty via the appendix and remain dry, except when the bladder is overly full. PMID:8483219

  7. Bladder Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

  8. Ascent/Descent Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Charles; Andrew, Robert; Roe, Scott; Frye, Ronald; Harvey, Michael; Vu, Tuan; Balachandran, Krishnaiyer; Bly, Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Ascent/Descent Software Suite has been used to support a variety of NASA Shuttle Program mission planning and analysis activities, such as range safety, on the Integrated Planning System (IPS) platform. The Ascent/Descent Software Suite, containing Ascent Flight Design (ASC)/Descent Flight Design (DESC) Configuration items (Cis), lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle ascent and entry modeling analysis and mission design, resides on IPS/Linux workstations. A list of tools in Navigation (NAV)/Prop Software Suite represents tool versions established during or after the IPS Equipment Rehost-3 project.

  9. Bladder Retraining

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the clock. Do Kegel Exercises Help People with IC? Some bladder retraining programs recommend practicing Kegel exercises ... used to treat incontinence but can actually make IC symptoms worse. This is because Kegel exercises are ...

  10. Neck dissection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dissection; Modified radical neck dissection; Selective neck dissection; Lymph node removal - neck ... dissection is a major surgery done to remove lymph nodes that have cancer. It is done in the ...

  11. Intramuscular nerve distribution in bladder and the relationship between intramuscular ganglia and bladder function in man and dog

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zeju; Xu, Qian; Lu, Li; Luo, Xu; Fu, Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    In clinical, the relationship between bladder intramuscular nerve and function is also elusive. This study aims to compare the bladder intramuscular nerve distribution and its characteristics and significance in human and dog. Eleven dogs’ bladders were stained by Sihler’s and HE techniques. Fifteen human bladders were adopted by Sihler’s staining, using 10% formaldehyde to fix 12 weeks, 7 by HE dyeing fixes 24 hours. Results indicated that man’s bladder was triangularpyramid-shaped. While dog’s bladder was spherical-shaped and its muscle fibers arrange were irregularly shaped. Longitudinal muscle of the outer layer is fleshy, the terminal is at the bladder neck without exception, and vesical trigone has relatively obvious three layers of structure. After dyeing dog’s bladder was transparent jelly, the nerve was purple color, enter bladder at the ureter-bladder junction with different forms. Man’s bladder nerves, no ganglion, were more trivial than that of dogs, and with smaller branches, the large nerve ganglion. The links with the nerve fibers and forms the network on the dog’s bladder wall, and the nerve fibers crosses comparatively little on both the left and right sides in the midline. The right nerve branch gains advantage on the man’s bladder wall, the situations is opposite on the dog’s. In conclusion, bladder nerves which scatter to the bladder wall have branches to lower ureter at the ureter-bladder junction, the structure and distribution of intramuscular nerves are different, the existence of intramuscular ganglia is relating to the bladder function both in man and dog. PMID:25664008

  12. BLADDER CANCER 11. BLADDER CANCER

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    non-melanoma skin cancer, in women and 4.4% in men (Table 11.1). The average number of new cases.2% % of all new cancer cases excluding non-melanoma skin cancer 1.9% 4.4% 1.9% 4.4% 1.8% 4.4% average numberBLADDER CANCER 95

  13. Regulation of testicular descent.

    PubMed

    Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili; Southwell, Bridget R; Newgreen, Don; Cousinery, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Testicular descent occurs in two morphologically distinct phases, each under different hormonal control from the testis itself. The first phase occurs between 8 and 15 weeks when insulin-like hormone 3 (Insl3) from the Leydig cells stimulates the gubernaculum to swell, thereby anchoring the testis near the future inguinal canal as the foetus grows. Testosterone causes regression of the cranial suspensory ligament to augment the transabdominal phase. The second, or inguinoscrotal phase, occurs between 25 and 35 weeks, when the gubernaculum bulges out of the external ring and migrates to the scrotum, all under control of testosterone. However, androgen acts mostly indirectly via the genitofemoral nerve (GFN), which produces calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to control the direction of migration. In animal models the androgen receptors are in the inguinoscrotal fat pad, which probably produces a neurotrophin to masculinise the GFN sensory fibres that regulate gubernacular migration. There is little direct evidence that this same process occurs in humans, but CGRP can regulate closure of the processus vaginalis in inguinal hernia, confirming that the GFN probably mediates human testicular descent by a similar mechanism as seen in rodent models. Despite increased understanding about normal testicular descent, the common causes of cryptorchidism remain elusive. PMID:25690562

  14. Bladder Augmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cranidis; G. Nestoridis

    2000-01-01

    :   This paper reviews bladder augmentation, which has been proved to be an effective way of providing a well functioning urine\\u000a reservoir that protects the upper urinary tract and allows patients to have a good quality of life. Good results have been\\u000a achieved with the use of all types of bowel segments. Lifetime follow-up and recognition of the complications is

  15. Complementary curves of descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungan, Carl E.; Lipscombe, Trevor C.

    2013-01-01

    The shapes of two wires in a vertical plane with the same starting and ending points are described as complementary curves of descent if beads frictionlessly slide down both of them in the same time, starting from rest. Every analytic curve has a unique complement, except for a cycloid (solution of the brachistochrone problem), which is self complementary. A striking example is a straight wire whose complement is a lemniscate of Bernoulli. Alternatively, the wires can be tracks down which round objects undergo a rolling race. The level of presentation is appropriate for an intermediate undergraduate course in classical mechanics.

  16. Neck Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Sex and Arthritis Neck Pain PRINT Download PDF Description Saying, “It’s a pain ... requires expensive or uncomfortable tests. What is neck pain? Acute strain may occur after sleeping in an ...

  17. Giant Urinary Bladder Diverticula presenting as Epigastric Mass and Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Jayant, Kumar; Barapatra, Yogesh; Rani, Jyotsana; Agrawal, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bladder diverticulum is a result of bladder mucosa and submucosa herniation through the muscularis propria of bladder wall. Bladder diverticula are mostly seen in the elderly men in association with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Case Presentation: A 74-year-old man presented with complaints of vague epigastric discomfort, dyspepsia, and mild lower urinary tract symptoms. An ultrasonography of the abdomen showed bilateral hydroureteronephrosis, large cystic lesion with the size of 26.3 × 20.5 cm and in continuation of urinary bladder and prostate of 70 mL volume. Voiding cystourethrogram revealed a large diverticulum with its neck communicating with bladder on posterior aspect. Abdominopelvic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed bilateral hydronephrosis with large bladder diverticulum of 27.3 × 21.5 cm in size with smooth diverticular wall. On cystoscopy, the neck of diverticulum was seen at the posterior wall of bladder. Open prostatectomy and diverticulectomy were done simultaneously (Figure 3). Postoperative course was uneventful. The histopathological assessment showed features of chronic inflammation without any evidence of malignancy. On the third postoperative day, the urethral catheter was removed and suprapubic catheter was clamped. Patient was voiding well and cystography done on day 12 revealed smooth bladder contour without any leakage; hence, suprapubic catheter was removed. Patient was discharged in satisfactory condition. Conclusions: The elderly men are at high risk of developing bladder diverticulum, which may be due to high prevalence BPH in this group. Although presentation of bladder diverticulum is nonspecific, its effect on renal system is significant. Therefore, awareness of patients and physicians is necessary to prevent its consequences. PMID:25695022

  18. Bladder Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James S. Butler

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the genitourinary tract, and is the second most common cause of deaths\\u000a among genitourinary tract cancers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Most patients present with hematuria (75%). A quarter of patients present with irritative and\\/or obstructive symptoms. Patients\\u000a with advanced disease can present with decreased appetite, weight loss, bone pain, and\\/or pelvic pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • 

  19. TCGA bladder cancer study reveals potential drug targets, similarities to several cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with TCGA have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease. They also discovered that, at the molecular level, some subtypes of bladder cancer resemble subtypes of breast, head and neck and lung cancers, suggesting similar routes of development.

  20. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  1. Terminal Descent Sensor Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis W.

    2009-01-01

    Sulcata software simulates the operation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) radar terminal descent sensor (TDS). The program models TDS radar antennas, RF hardware, and digital processing, as well as the physics of scattering from a coherent ground surface. This application is specific to this sensor and is flexible enough to handle end-to-end design validation. Sulcata is a high-fidelity simulation and is used for performance evaluation, anomaly resolution, and design validation. Within the trajectory frame, almost all internal vectors are represented in whatever coordinate system is used to represent platform position. The trajectory frame must be planet-fixed. The platform body frame is specified relative to arbitrary reference points relative to the platform (spacecraft or test vehicle). Its rotation is a function of time from the trajectory coordinate system specified via dynamics input (file for open loop, callback for closed loop). Orientation of the frame relative to the body is arbitrary, but constant over time. The TDS frame must have a constant rotation and translation from the platform body frame specified at run time. The DEM frame has an arbitrary, but time-constant, rotation and translation with respect to the simulation frame specified at run time. It has the same orientation as sigma0 frame, but is possibly translated. Surface sigma0 has the same arbitrary rotation and translation as DEM frame.

  2. Bladder function - neurological control

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... with urine, sensory nerves send impulses to the brain indicating that the bladder is full. The sensory ... cord to relay this information. In turn, the brain sends impulses back to the bladder instructing the ...

  3. Neonatal bladder rupture.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hoang; Nguyen, Ngoc; Nguyen, Tap

    2009-04-01

    Neonatal bladder rupture is rare as a complication of bladder obstruction due to abnormal anatomy or iatrogenic cause such as umbilical catheterization. The present study describes the case of a 27-day old infant with ascites due to bladder perforation secondary to bladder wall necrosis as a result of severe urinary tract infection. The baby was treated aggressively with antibiotics and underwent successful surgical repair of the perforation. PMID:19205633

  4. [Creation of artificial urinary bladder in children].

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, V V; Braev, A T; Shamatrin, S V

    2001-01-01

    In children creation of artificial urinary bladder using intestinal segments was made in the absent or reduced reservoir function of the bladder. From 1990 to 1998 enterocystoplasty was performed in 30 boys and 6 girls. 15 of them have undergone colocystoplasty, 21--ileocystoplasty with detubulized segment. Holding conduits were made of the appendix or intestinal segment in 31 patients. On postoperative day 1-16 six patients developed complications demanding emergency operation--3 cases of comissural ileus and 3 of urinary peritonitis. 33 patients were followed up for 1 to 9 years. 29 patients urinated only through catheter 3 to 6 times a day. 4 patients urinated without a catheter but they had imperative enuresis. Concrements in the artificial bladder were detected in 8 postcolocystoplasty patients and 1 postileocystoplasty patient. The preference was given to ileocystoplasty with detubulized segment with creation of the holding conduit and occlusion of the bladder neck. The ileal artificial bladder is characterized by less probable long-term complications, greater volume, low pressure at filling, less intensive mucus production. PMID:11505544

  5. Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-22

    Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer

  6. Neck lump

    MedlinePLUS

    ... et al, eds. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Mosby; 2009:chap 70. Chen A, Otto KJ. Differential diagnosis of neck masses. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, ...

  7. Descent and descent groups in lovedu social structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen Jensen Krige

    1985-01-01

    The basic unit in Lovedu society is the extended family, the minimal descent group, of three, and occasionally four generations living together in a village under the control of the patriarch, or, after his death, of his son, the eldest in the chief house. It is a corporate group of considerable importance.An initial examination in this paper of situations in

  8. Privacy-Preserving Gradient-Descent Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuguo Han; Wee Keong Ng; Li Wan; Vincent C. S. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Gradient descent is a widely used paradigm for solving many optimization problems. Gradient descent aims to minimize a target function in order to reach a local minimum. In machine learning or data mining, this function corresponds to a decision model that is to be discovered. In this paper, we propose a preliminary formulation of gradient descent with data privacy preservation.

  9. stochastic gradient descent nonlinear transformation

    E-print Network

    Abu-Mostafa, Yaser S.

    ÁØ³× ÙÒ Ð ÓÙØ Ø Ö stochastic gradient descent nonlinear transformation overfitting data snooping deterministic noise noisy targets bias-variance tradeoff RBF SVM weight decay regularization soft supervised online active neural networks RBF nearest neighbors SVD linear SVM aggregation input processing

  10. Descent into theDescent into theDescent into theDescent into the Hell of VenusHell of VenusHell of VenusHell of Venus

    E-print Network

    Alfonseca, Manuel

    Descent into theDescent into theDescent into theDescent into the Hell of VenusHell of VenusHell of VenusHell of Venus Manuel AlfonsecaManuel AlfonsecaManuel AlfonsecaManuel Alfonseca #12;Manuel Alfonseca 2 #12;Descent into the Hell of Venus 3 DESCENT INTO THE HELL OF VENUS Manuel Alfonseca All Rights

  11. Nephrectomy Combined With Lower Abdominal Extraperitoneal Ureteral Bladder Augmentation in the Treatment of Children With the Vesicoureteral Reflux Dysplasia Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri Reinberg; Robert C. Allen; Mary Vaughn; Patrick H. McKenna

    1995-01-01

    Ureterocystoplasty is a novel procedure well suited for treating children with megaureters and small or noncompliant bladders. It combines the benefits of enterocystoplasty without many of its drawbacks. We performed nephrectomy through a posterior approach with extraperitoneal ureteral augmentation in 6 patients with bladder neck obstruction and reflux into a nonfunctioning kidney (the vesicoureteral reflux dysplasia\\/vesicoureteral reflux nonfunctioning kidney syndrome).

  12. Ileocolic neobladder in the woman with interstitial cystitis and a small contracted bladder.

    PubMed

    Bejany, D E; Politano, V A

    1995-01-01

    Bladder substitution with an ileocolic segment after total cystectomy was performed in 5 women with a severely contracted bladder secondary to interstitial cystitis. The urethra was divided at the bladder neck in 2 patients and distal to it in 3. The latter 3 patients empty the bladder to completion and void naturally, while the former 2 have a large post-void residual volume and require intermittent self-catheterization. Mean patient age was 50 years and mean followup was 52 months. All patients have complete diurnal and nocturnal continence, and are free of all symptoms related to interstitial cystitis. Total bladder replacement in women with interstitial cystitis and a contracted bladder significantly improved the quality of life and is an ideal alternative to other forms of urinary diversion. PMID:7966787

  13. Bladder Carcinoma during Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Spahn; P. Bader; D. Westermann; D. Echtle; D. Frohneberg

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: We report 3 cases of bladder cancer during pregnancy and give a review of the literature in an attempt to evaluate tumor at presentation, characteristics, maternal and fetal outcome. Materials and Methods: The case history of 3 pregnant women treated for bladder cancer in 2001 together with the results of a MEDLINE search from 1966 to 2003. Results: Out

  14. The defunctionalized bladder.

    PubMed

    Adeyoju, A B; Lynch, T H; Thornhill, J A

    1998-01-01

    Supravesical urinary diversion without cystectomy is a common procedure performed to manage a variety of lower urinary tract pathologies. The purpose of this article is to review the complications associated with the bladder left in situ and to relate this to the female patient. Complications related to the defunctionalized bladder include pyocystis, hemorrhage, pain/spasm and neoplastic transformation. The defunctionalized bladder also has implications for sexual function, pregnancy and undiversion. The risk factors for complications are chronic infection, inadequate drainage, interstitial cystitis and previous irradiation. The incidence of neoplastic change in the defunctionalized bladder is low, but long-term follow-up is advised, as carcinoma could develop many decades after diversion. Sexual function following urinary diversion is better preserved when the bladder is retained. PMID:9657178

  15. Neck pain

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Non-specific neck pain has a postural or mechanical basis and affects about two thirds of people at some stage, especially in middle age. Acute neck pain resolves within days or weeks, but may become chronic in about 10% of people. Whiplash injuries follow sudden acceleration–deceleration of the neck, such as in road traffic or sporting accidents. Up to 40% of people continue to report symptoms 15 years after the accident, although this varies between countries. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for people with non-specific neck pain without severe neurological deficit? What are the effects of treatments for acute whiplash injury? What are the effects of treatments for chronic whiplash injury? What are the effects of treatments for neck pain with radiculopathy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 91 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of the evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, biofeedback, drug treatments (analgesics, antidepressants, epidural steroid injections, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), early mobilisation, early return to normal activity, exercise, heat or cold, manipulation (alone or plus exercise), mobilisation, multimodal treatment, patient education, percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy, physical treatments, postural techniques (yoga, pilates, Alexander technique), pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment, soft collars and special pillows, spray and stretch, surgery, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). PMID:19445809

  16. Portable Bladder Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Data from the National Population Health Survey indicate prevalence rates of urinary incontinence are 2.5% in women and 1.4 % in men in the general population. Prevalence of urinary incontinence is higher in women than men and prevalence increases with age. Identified risk factors for urinary incontinence include female gender, increasing age, urinary tract infections (UTI), poor mobility, dementia, smoking, obesity, consuming alcohol and caffeine beverages, physical activity, pregnancy, childbirth, forceps and vacuum-assisted births, episiotomy, abdominal resection for colorectal cancer, and hormone replacement therapy. For the purposes of this review, incontinence populations will be stratified into the following; the elderly, urology patients, postoperative patients, rehabilitation settings, and neurogenic bladder populations. Urinary incontinence is defined as any involuntary leakage of urine. Incontinence can be classified into diagnostic clinical types that are useful in planning evaluation and treatment. The major types of incontinence are stress (physical exertion), urge (overactive bladder), mixed (combined urge and stress urinary incontinence), reflex (neurological impairment of the central nervous system), overflow (leakage due to full bladder), continuous (urinary tract abnormalities), congenital incontinence, and transient incontinence (temporary incontinence). Postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, which is the amount of urine in the bladder immediately after urination, represents an important component in continence assessment and bladder management to provide quantitative feedback to the patient and continence care team regarding the effectiveness of the voiding technique. Although there is no standardized definition of normal PVR urine volume, measurements greater than 100 mL to 150 mL are considered an indication for urinary retention, requiring intermittent catheterization, whereas a PVR urine volume of 100 mL to 150 mL or less is generally considered an acceptable result of bladder training. Urinary retention has been associated with poor outcomes including UTI, bladder overdistension, and higher hospital mortality rates. The standard method of determining PVR urine volumes is intermittent catheterization, which is associated with increased risk of UTI, urethral trauma and discomfort. The Technology Being Reviewed Portable bladder ultrasound products are transportable ultrasound devices that use automated technology to register bladder volume digitally, including PVR volume, and provide three-dimensional images of the bladder. The main clinical use of portable bladder ultrasound is as a diagnostic aid. Health care professionals (primarily nurses) administer the device to measure PVR volume and prevent unnecessary catheterization. An adjunctive use of the bladder ultrasound device is to visualize the placement and removal of catheters. Also, portable bladder ultrasound products may improve the diagnosis and differentiation of urological problems and their management and treatment, including the establishment of voiding schedules, study of bladder biofeedback, fewer UTIs, and monitoring of potential urinary incontinence after surgery or trauma. Review Strategy To determine the effectiveness and clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound as reported in the published literature, the Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases. Nonsystematic reviews, nonhuman studies, case reports, letters, editorials, and comments were excluded. Summary of Findings Of the 4 included studies that examined the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound in the elderly population, all found the device to be acceptable. One study reported that the device underestimated catheterized bladder volume In patients with urology

  17. Bladder operated robotic joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a robotic joint which is operated by inflatable bladders and which can be used in applications where it is desired to move or hold an object. A support block supports an elongated plate to which is pivotally attached a finger. A tension strip passes over a lever attached to the finger and is attached at its ends to the support block on opposite sides of the plate. Bladders positioned between the plate and the tension strip on opposite sides of the plate can be inflated by pumps to pivot the finger, with one of the bladders being inflated while the other is being deflated.

  18. Algorithm for Fuel-Conservative Airplane Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Federal Aviation Administration implementing automated, time-based metering form of air-traffic control (ATC) with profile-descent procedures for arrivals into terminal area. Measures provide fuel savings by matching arrival of airplanes to airport acceptance rate through time-control computations and allowing pilot to descend at his discretion from cruise altitude to designated metering-fix altitude in idle-thrust clean configuration. Airborne descent algorithm developed compatible with time-based metering and profile-descent procedures and designed to improve accuracy of delivering airplane during fuel-efficient descent to metering fix at time designated by the ATC system.

  19. Consert during the Philae Descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, Alain; Berquin, Yann; Blazquez, Alejandro; Antoine Foulon, Marc; Hahnel, Ronny; Hegler, Sebastian; Jurado, Eric; Kofman, Wlodek; Plettemeier, Dirk; Rogez, Yves; Statz, Christoph; Zine, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    The CONSERT experiment on board Rosetta and Philae is to perform the tomography of the 67P/CG comet nucleus measuring radio waves transmission from the Rosetta S/C to the Philae Lander and using the 67P nucleus rotation to cover different geometries. CONSERT will operate during the Philae descent. This geometry strongly differs from the "nominal" bistatic tomography where the orbiter is on the opposite side of the nucleus by regard to the lander. During the descent, CONSERT will measure direct wave propagating from orbiter to lander and waves reflected / scattered by the 67P surface and subsurface. This signal will provide information of the greatest interest for both scientific investigations of 67P and technical operations of Philae. The landing site position is known a priori with a large ellipse of dispersion due to uncertainties on the Rosetta velocity and Rosetta/Philae separation strength. This dispersion is increased by the difference between nominal and emergency separation strength. An accurate estimation of the landing position as soon as possible after landing is of the greatest interest to optimize Philae operation during FSS. So propagation delay of the direct and reflected waves measured by CONSERT will help to reconstruct the descent geometry in order to more precisely estimate the landing position. The reflected signal is determined by the surface properties: its dielectric permittivity, its roughness and layering. The signal power inversion will allow to map surface properties especially in the vicinity of the landing site. This paper details the measurement configuration. It presents the data retrieval based on Monte-Carlo simulation using Metropolis-Hastings algorithm and expected performances for both science and operations.

  20. Descent theory for semiorthogonal decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Elagin, Alexei D

    2012-05-31

    We put forward a method for constructing semiorthogonal decompositions of the derived category of G-equivariant sheaves on a variety X under the assumption that the derived category of sheaves on X admits a semiorthogonal decomposition with components preserved by the action of the group G on X. This method is used to obtain semiorthogonal decompositions of equivariant derived categories for projective bundles and blow-ups with a smooth centre as well as for varieties with a full exceptional collection preserved by the group action. Our main technical tool is descent theory for derived categories. Bibliography: 12 titles.

  1. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bladder area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  2. What Is Bladder Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... much less common than transitional cell (urothelial) cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma: In the United States, only about 1% to 2% of bladder cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Under a microscope, the cells look much like ...

  3. Robotic Bladder Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1995-01-01

    Reliable, lightweight robotic joint suitable for variety of applications, actuated hydraulically, without need for heavy mechanical cylinders or gears on joint itself. Includes two members; first member rotates about pin at end of second member. Includes cam, over which tension line stretched. Ends of tension line anchored at end of second member opposite end that holds pin. Bladder placed on each side of second member, squeezed between second member and tension line. Pressures and/or amounts of fluid in bladders controlled by use of conventional equipment like pumps, valves, and reservoirs. Bladder on one side inflated more than on other side; greater inflation on one side causes greater stretching of tension line on that side. Greater tension pulls on cam, turning first member toward that side. Angle of joint controlled by controlling differential inflation of two bladders.

  4. Stochastic Gradient Descent with Only One Projection

    E-print Network

    , such as celebrated Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) [16, 2] and its online counterpart Online Gradient Descent (OGD, the lightweight computation per iteration makes SGD attractive for many large-scale learning problems. To find a solution within the domain K that optimizes the given objective function f(x), SGD computes an unbiased

  5. Stochastic Gradient Descent Tricks Leon Bottou

    E-print Network

    Bottou, Léon

    gradient descent (SGD). This chapter provides background material, explains why SGD is a good learning an instance of a more general technique called stochastic gradient descent (SGD). This chapter provides background material, explains why SGD is a good learning algorithm when the training set is large

  6. Bladder Cases - MP/H Rules

    Cancer.gov

    Bladder Case 1 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY REPORT Surgical Pathology Report February 17, 2007 Specimen (s) received: Bladder Tumor Pre-operative Diagnosis: Bladder Cancer Post operative Diagnosis: Bladder Cancer Procedure: Cystoscopy, transurethral resection

  7. Predictability of Top of Descent Location for Operational Idle-Thrust Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stell, Laurel L.

    2010-01-01

    To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the trajectory predictor and its uncertainty models, commercial flights executed idle-thrust descents at a specified descent speed, and the recorded data included the specified descent speed profile, aircraft weight, and the winds entered into the FMS as well as the radar data. The FMS computed the intended descent path assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and the controllers and pilots then endeavored to allow the FMS to fly the descent to the meter fix with minimal human intervention. The horizontal flight path, cruise and meter fix altitudes, and actual TOD location were extracted from the radar data. Using approximately 70 descents each in Boeing 757 and Airbus 319/320 aircraft, multiple regression estimated TOD location as a linear function of the available predictive factors. The cruise and meter fix altitudes, descent speed, and wind clearly improve goodness of fit. The aircraft weight improves fit for the Airbus descents but not for the B757. Except for a few statistical outliers, the residuals have absolute value less than 5 nmi. Thus, these predictive factors adequately explain the TOD location, which indicates the data do not include excessive noise.

  8. Staging of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gospodarowicz, M K

    1994-01-01

    The definitive diagnosis of bladder cancer is established at cystoscopic examination and confirmed by means of a transurethral biopsy. A careful bimanual palpation of the bladder under anesthesia is an integral part of the initial assessment of each patient. The most important part of the assessment of patients with bladder cancer is a thorough pathologic examination of the biopsy material establishing the histologic type of tumor, histologic grade, tumor configuration, depth of invasion of the bladder wall, and depth of the bladder wall available for assessment. If possible, the size of the tumor and the presence of associated carcinoma in situ should also be reported. Imaging studies play a smaller role in the clinical staging of bladder cancer. However, when initial staging procedures point to invasion of the muscularis propria, chest X-ray, bone scan, and computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis may provide valuable information about possible metastases. Whereas the clinical staging is essential to select and evaluate therapy, the pathologic stage (pTNM) provides the most precise data with which to estimate prognosis and calculate end results. The pathologic assessment entails resection of the primary tumor or a biopsy adequate to evaluate the highest pT category, removal of lymph nodes adequate to validate the absence of regional lymph node metastasis, as well as biopsy and microscopic examination for assessment of distant metastases. Although numerous factors have an impact on the behaviour of the malignancy, in bladder cancer the anatomic extent of disease reflected in the current staging classification remains the most powerful indicator of outcome. PMID:8115786

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Bladder cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with bladder cancer each year. What are the genetic changes related to bladder cancer? As with most ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

  10. General Information about Bladder Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bladder cancer are due to high-grade disease. Squamous cell carcinoma : Cancer that begins in squamous cells , which are thin, flat cells that may form in the bladder after long-term infection or irritation. Adenocarcinoma : Cancer that ... there is carcinoma in situ in other parts of the bladder. ...

  11. Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2012-06-06

    The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

  12. Bladder afferent hyperexcitability in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Naoki; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Sugino, Yoshio; Kawamorita, Naoki; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Chancellor, Michael B; Tyagi, Pradeep; Ogawa, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. PMID:24807488

  13. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Head and Neck Cancer Head and Neck Cancer htmCancerHead Head and neck cancer begins with the abnormal growth of cells. These cells multiply out of ... eventually forming a tumor in part of the head or neck. 284362 InteliHealth 2010-06-16 t ...

  14. Origin of spontaneous activity in neonatal and adult rat bladders and its enhancement by stretch and muscarinic agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, A.; Roppolo, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Zabbarova, I.; Tai, C.; Birder, L.; Griffiths, D.; de Groat, W.; Fry, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the origin of spontaneous activity in neonatal and adult rat bladders and the effect of stretch and muscarinic agonists and antagonists on spontaneous activity. Rats were anesthetized and their bladders were excised, cannulated, and loaded with voltage- and Ca2+-sensitive dyes. Intracellular Ca2+ and membrane potential transients were mapped using photodiode arrays in whole bladders, bladder sheets, or cross-section preparations at 37°C. Intravesical pressure was recorded from whole bladders. In neonatal bladders and sheets, spontaneous Ca2+ and electrical signals arose at a site near the dome and spread in a coordinated manner throughout the bladder with different dome-to-neck conduction velocities (Ca2+: 3.7 ± 0.4 mm/s; membrane potential: 46.2 ± 3.1 mm/s). In whole bladders, optical signals were associated with spontaneous contractions (10–20 cmH2O). By contrast, in adult bladders spontaneous Ca2+ and electrical activity was uncoordinated, originating at multiple sites and was associated with smaller (2–5 cmH2O) contractions. Spontaneous contractions and optical signals were insensitive to tetrodotoxin (2 ?M) but were blocked by nifedipine (10 ?M). Stretch or low carbachol concentrations (50 nM) applied to neonatal whole bladders enhanced the amplitude (to 20–35 cmH2O) of spontaneous activity, which was blocked by atropine. Bladder cross sections revealed that Ca2+ and membrane potential transients produced by stretch or carbachol began near the urothelial-suburothelial interface and then spread to the detrusor. In conclusion, spontaneous activity in neonatal bladders, unlike activity in adult bladders, is highly organized, originating in the urothelium-suburothelium near the dome. Activity is enhanced by stretch or carbachol and this enhancement is blocked by atropine. It is hypothesized that acetylcholine is released from the urothelium during bladder filling to enhance spontaneous activity. PMID:17107944

  15. Efficient parallel coordinate descent algorithm for convex ...

    E-print Network

    2012-12-21

    Keywords: Coordinate descent optimization, parallel algorithm, (sub)linear convergence .... vector on these sets and can be done numerically very efficient. For exam- ... quadratic problems are solved with an interior point solver. From (6)-

  16. Feature Clustering for Accelerating Parallel Coordinate Descent

    SciTech Connect

    Scherrer, Chad; Tewari, Ambuj; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Haglin, David J.

    2012-12-06

    We demonstrate an approach for accelerating calculation of the regularization path for L1 sparse logistic regression problems. We show the benefit of feature clustering as a preconditioning step for parallel block-greedy coordinate descent algorithms.

  17. Lunar descent using sequential engine shutdown

    E-print Network

    Springmann, Philip N

    2006-01-01

    The notion of sequential engine shutdown is introduced and its application to lunar descent is motivated. The concept calls for the utilization of multiple fixed thrust engines in place of a single continuously throttleable ...

  18. Painful bladder: Case studies

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Greg

    2013-01-01

    As part of the program at the 3rd Annual Canadian Urology Forum (2013), participants engaged in interactive discussions of difficult cases throughout the event. The following is a summary of discussions pertaining to two cases illustrating the difficulties in diagnosis and management of bladder pain symptoms. PMID:24523849

  19. Bladder Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Bladder C670–C679 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12

  20. Apollo experience report: Descent propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammock, W. R., Jr.; Currie, E. C.; Fisher, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    The propulsion system for the descent stage of the lunar module was designed to provide thrust to transfer the fully loaded lunar module with two crewmen from the lunar parking orbit to the lunar surface. A history of the development of this system is presented. Development was accomplished primarily by ground testing of individual components and by testing the integrated system. Unique features of the descent propulsion system were the deep throttling capability and the use of a lightweight cryogenic helium pressurization system.

  1. Descent relations in cubic superstring field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, I. Y.; Gorbachev, R.; Medvedev, P. B.; Rychkov, D. V.

    2008-01-01

    The descent relations between string field theory (SFT) vertices are characteristic relations of the operator formulation of SFT and they provide self-consistency of this theory. The descent relations langleV2|V1rangle and langleV3|V1rangle in the NS fermionic string field theory in the ? and discrete bases are established. Different regularizations and schemes of calculations are considered and relations between them are discussed.

  2. Descent Advisor Preliminary Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were: (1) to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional and flight-management system equipped jet transports, (2) to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and (3) to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 seconds late with a standard deviation of 13.1 seconds. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  3. Anatomic changes related to laryngeal descent from birth to 1 year of age: do they play a role in SIDS?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Robert E; Bancroft, Austin; Glaros, Alan G; Lowe, Lisa H

    2010-07-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to measure laryngeal descent in human infants and to determine if there is any correlation between the associated anatomic changes and the timing of the peak incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which is 2 to 4 months of age. We performed a computerized search of hospital records at our institution to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the head and neck and plain radiographs of the lateral neck in patients younger than 1 year of age (range: 1 to 357 days). After unusable images were excluded, 79 head and neck MRI scans and 111 lateral neck x-rays were suitable for study. Two measurements were taken from each image: one from the tip of the epiglottis to the uvula and one from the tip of the epiglottis to the center of the sella turcica. These measurements were then graphed against the subject's age. SPSS statistical software was used to determine growth curves of the various measurements. The first derivative of these curves was calculated to determine the rate of laryngeal descent at a given age. We found that most subjects did not have an overlapping epiglottis and uvula during the first few months of life. The rate of laryngeal descent, based on measurements of the distance between the epiglottis and uvula, gradually increased in a near-linear fashion from as low as 0.005726 mm/day at day 1 of life to as high as 0.028366 mm/day at 300 days of age. We found no sharp increase in the rate of descent at 2 to 4 months of age, and thus no support for our hypothesis that there might be a correlation between anatomic changes and the peak incidence of SIDS. PMID:20628990

  4. Non-functioning paraganglioma of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    LAI, YONGQING; CHEN, DUQUN; YU, ZUHU; NI, LIANGCHAO; YANG, SHANGQI

    2014-01-01

    Paragangliomas are extra-adrenal tumors of the autonomic nervous system and may be found within the skull base, neck, mediastinum and periaortic region. Paragangliomas of the urinary bladder are rare, and non-functioning bladder paraganglioma is even rarer and not easily recognized. Histological examination is often key in leading to a definitive diagnosis. The current report presents a case of a 28-year-old female with urinary bladder paraganglioma. The patient presented with no classical signs and symptoms, and these were only appreciated following histological examination of a transurethral resection specimen that elucidated the correct diagnosis. In the present report, the clinical features, diagnosis, management and pathological observations of paraganglioma of the urinary bladder are discussed. PMID:24520306

  5. Reference energy-altitude descent guidance: Simulator evaluation. [aircraft descent and fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbot, K. H.; Knox, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Descent guidance was developed to provide a pilot with information to ake a fuel-conservative descent and cross a designated geographical waypoint at a preselected altitude and airspeed. The guidance was designed to reduce fuel usage during the descent and reduce the mental work load associated with planning a fuel-conservative descent. A piloted simulation was conducted to evaluate the operational use of this guidance concept. The results of the simulation tests show that the use of the guidance reduced fuel consumption and mental work load during the descent. Use of the guidance also decreased the airspeed error, but had no effect on the altitude error when the designated waypoint was crossed. Physical work load increased with the use of the guidance, but remained well within acceptable levels. The pilots found the guidance easy to use as presented and reported that it would be useful in an operational environment.

  6. TRPs in bladder diseases

    PubMed Central

    Birder, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    This review attempts to provide an overview of the current knowledge of TRP proteins and their possible role in bladder function and disease. At present, there are 28 transient receptor potential (TRP) channels (subdivided into 7 categories or families) which are involved in a number of functions [G.A. Hicks, TRP channels as therapeutic targets: hot property, or time to cool down? Neurogastroenterology and Motility 18, (2006) 590–594., J.D. Levine, N. Alessandri-Haber, TRP channels: targets for the relief of pain, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1772, (2007) 989–1003.]. Of those belonging to the group 1 subfamily, a number of TRPV, TRPM and TRPA proteins associated with osmoregulation, thermal, chemical and mechanical signaling mechanisms have been shown to be expressed within the lower urinary tract. Though the biological role of many of these channels in urinary bladder function still remains elusive, TRPV1 is by far the best characterized and is thought to be involved in a number of bladder disorders PMID:17560087

  7. Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Adult Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case Report of Misclassification as Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kelven Weijing; Wu, Fiona Mei Wen; Lee, Victor Kwan Min; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan

    2015-01-01

    Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) of the adult urinary bladder is a rare malignant tumour. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) of the bladder is a benign genitourinary tumour that may appear variable histologically but usually lacks unequivocal malignant traits. Techniques like flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry may be used to differentiate these two tumours. Our patient, a 46-year-old male, had rapidly recurring lower urinary tract symptoms after two transurethral resections of the prostate. He subsequently underwent a transvesical prostatectomy which showed IMT on histology. However, his symptoms did not resolve and an open resection done at our institution revealed a 6?cm tumour arising from the right bladder neck. This time, histology was ERMS with diffuse anaplasia of the bladder. Rapid recurrence of urinary symptoms with prostate regrowth after surgery is unusual. Differential diagnoses of uncommon bladder malignancies should be considered if there is an inconsistent clinical course as treatment approaches are different. PMID:25737794

  8. Questions about Neck Manipulation?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... therapies available for the treatment of back pain, neck pain, joint pain of the arms or legs, headaches, ... are visiting your doctor of chiropractic with upper-neck pain or headache, be very specific about your symptoms, ...

  9. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes ... increases your risk. In fact, 85 percent of head and neck cancers are linked to tobacco use, ...

  10. Neurophysiological Control of Bladder Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby C. Chai; Todd J. Lehrfeld

    \\u000a Normal bladder function is characterized by storage of adequate volumes of urine at low pressures without leakage and without\\u000a unwanted bladder sensations (urgency) interspersed with short time periods of efficient unimpeded expulsion of urine. Tightly\\u000a regulated neural control of the bladder and outlet (urethral complex, i.e., internal and external urethral sphincters) is\\u000a required for the proper integration of urinary storage

  11. Drug delivery device for bladder disorders

    E-print Network

    Lee, Heejin, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Several pathologies associated with the bladder have wide impacts on society. Overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) are chronic urological conditions characterized by pain, ...

  12. Bladder outlet obstruction treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Terrence R.

    1991-07-01

    Fifty-nine males with bladder outlet obstruction were treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration of the prostate. Utilizing a 26.5 French urethral sheath, surgery was accomplished with a 10 French, 0-700 micron vibration level ultrasonic tip with an excursion rate of 39 kHz. Complete removal of the adenoma was accomplished, followed by transurethral electrocautery biopsies of both lateral lobes to compare pathologic specimens. One-year follow-up revealed satisfactory voiding patterns in 57 of 59 men (96%). Two men developed bladder neck contractures. Pathologic comparisons showed 100% correlation between aspirated and TUR specimens (56 BPH, 3 adeno-carcinoma). Forty-sevel men were active sexually preoperatively (6 with inflatable penile prostheses). Post ultrasonic aspiration, 46 men had erectile function similar to preoperative levels with one patient suffering erectile dysfunction. Forty men (85%) had antegrade ejaculation while 7 (15%) experienced retrograde or retarded ejaculation. No patients were incontinent.

  13. Bladder augmentation: ureterocystoplasty versus ileocystoplasty.

    PubMed

    Landau, E H; Jayanthi, V R; Khoury, A E; Churchill, B M; Gilmour, R F; Steckler, R E; McLorie, G A

    1994-08-01

    The primary advantages of augmentation ureterocystoplasty include the absence of mucus, lack of electrolyte absorption from the augmenting segment and the avoidance of gastrointestinal complications. We tested whether the ureteral patch offers sufficient biomaterial to increase adequately the storage efficiency of dysfunctional bladders. Between April 1989 and November 1992, 8 children with unilaterally dilated and tortuous ureters underwent bladder augmentation using detubularized reconfigured megaureter. Clinical and urodynamic outcomes were compared between these patients and a control group of 8 children matched in age and diagnosis who had undergone ileocystoplasty during the same time. Total bladder capacity, pressure specific bladder volume at pressure less than 30 cm. water, dynamic analysis of bladder compliance, continence and upper tract status were compared between the 2 groups before and after augmentation. Preoperatively, all 16 patients were incontinent with high pressure, small capacity bladders, and all had upper tract changes. Postoperatively, the mean total bladder capacity was 417 ml. in the ureterocystoplasty group and 381 ml. in the ileocystoplasty group (p > 0.05), while the mean pressure specific bladder volume was 413 and 380 ml. (p > 0.05), respectively. Pressure specific bladder volume and dynamic bladder compliance were normal in 7 of 8 patients (87.5%) in the ureterocystoplasty group. All patients in the ileocystoplasty group had normal postoperative urodynamics. We conclude that megaureters subtending effete kidneys may be used to improve the storage function of dysfunctional bladders to the same extent as that achieved with ileum without the complications pursuant to ileocystoplasty, and that the improvement is maintained long term. PMID:8022003

  14. Entry, Descent, and Landing With Propulsive Deceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet s moons atmospheres for entry, descent, and landing can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions.

  15. [Deep neck infections].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold

    2006-01-01

    Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible. PMID:17152800

  16. Modified descent-projection method for solving variational inequalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdellah Bnouhachem; Muhammad Aslam Noor; Mohamed Khalfaoui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified descent-projection method for solving variational inequalities. The method makes use of a descent direction to produce the new iterate and can be viewed as an improvement of the descent-projection method by using a new step size. Under certain conditions, the global convergence of the proposed method is proved. In order to demonstrate the

  17. Perceptron Learning with Random Coordinate Descent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Li

    2005-01-01

    A perceptron is a linear threshold classier that separates examples with a hyperplane. It is perhaps the simplest learning model that is used standalone. In this paper, we propose a family of random coordinate descent algorithms for perceptron learning on binary classication problems. Un- like most perceptron learning algorithms, which require smooth cost functions, our algorithms directly minimize the training

  18. Learning to rank using gradient descent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. C. Burges; Tal Shaked; Erin Renshaw; Ari Lazier; Matt Deeds; Nicole Hamilton; Gregory N. Hullender

    2005-01-01

    We investigate using gradient descent meth- ods for learning ranking functions; we pro- pose a simple probabilistic cost function, and we introduce RankNet, an implementation of these ideas using a neural network to model the underlying ranking function. We present test results on toy data and on data from a commercial internet search engine.

  19. Ka-Band Radar Terminal Descent Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, Brian; Berkun, Andrew; Tope, Michael; Andricos, Constantine; Okonek, Joseph; Lou, Yunling

    2007-01-01

    The terminal descent sensor (TDS) is a radar altimeter/velocimeter that improves the accuracy of velocity sensing by more than an order of magnitude when compared to existing sensors. The TDS is designed for the safe planetary landing of payloads, and may be used in helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft requiring high-accuracy velocity sensing

  20. Descent Assisted Split Habitat Lunar Lander Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The Descent Assisted Split Habitat (DASH) lunar lander concept utilizes a disposable braking stage for descent and a minimally sized pressurized volume for crew transport to and from the lunar surface. The lander can also be configured to perform autonomous cargo missions. Although a braking-stage approach represents a significantly different operational concept compared with a traditional two-stage lander, the DASH lander offers many important benefits. These benefits include improved crew egress/ingress and large-cargo unloading; excellent surface visibility during landing; elimination of the need for deep-throttling descent engines; potentially reduced plume-surface interactions and lower vertical touchdown velocity; and reduced lander gross mass through efficient mass staging and volume segmentation. This paper documents the conceptual study on various aspects of the design, including development of sortie and outpost lander configurations and a mission concept of operations; the initial descent trajectory design; the initial spacecraft sizing estimates and subsystem design; and the identification of technology needs

  1. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with bladder cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Jonine D; Ye, Yuanqing; Siddiq, Afshan; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Cortessis, Victoria K; Kooperberg, Charles; Cussenot, Olivier; Benhamou, Simone; Prescott, Jennifer; Porru, Stefano; Dinney, Colin P; Malats, Núria; Baris, Dalsu; Purdue, Mark; Jacobs, Eric J; Albanes, Demetrius; Wang, Zhaoming; Deng, Xiang; Chung, Charles C; Tang, Wei; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ljungberg, Börje; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Travis, Ruth; Tjønneland, Anne; Brenan, Paul; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Riboli, Elio; Conti, David; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Stern, Mariana C; Pike, Malcolm C; Van Den Berg, David; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hohensee, Chancellor; Rodabough, Rebecca; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Roupret, Morgan; Comperat, Eva; Chen, Constance; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara; Carta, Angela; Pavanello, Sofia; Arici, Cecilia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Kamat, Ashish M; Lerner, Seth P; Barton Grossman, H; Lin, Jie; Gu, Jian; Pu, Xia; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdette, Laurie; Wheeler, William; Kogevinas, Manolis; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Johnson, Alison; Schned, Alan; Armenti, Karla R; Hosain, G M; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Ryan Diver, W; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Haiman, Chris A; Landi, Maria T; Caporaso, Neil; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Vineis, Paolo; Wu, Xifeng; Silverman, Debra T; Chanock, Stephen; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2014-03-01

    Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 11 independent susceptibility loci associated with bladder cancer risk. To discover additional risk variants, we conducted a new GWAS of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with two independently published bladder cancer GWAS, resulting in a combined analysis of 6911 cases and 11 814 controls of European descent. TaqMan genotyping of 13 promising single nucleotide polymorphisms with P < 1 × 10(-5) was pursued in a follow-up set of 801 cases and 1307 controls. Two new loci achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs10936599 on 3q26.2 (P = 4.53 × 10(-9)) and rs907611 on 11p15.5 (P = 4.11 × 10(-8)). Two notable loci were also identified that approached genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 on 20p12.2 (P = 7.13 × 10(-7)) and rs4510656 on 6p22.3 (P = 6.98 × 10(-7)); these require further studies for confirmation. In conclusion, our study has identified new susceptibility alleles for bladder cancer risk that require fine-mapping and laboratory investigation, which could further understanding into the biological underpinnings of bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:24163127

  2. [Trans-appendicular continent cystostomy in the management of the neurogenic bladder].

    PubMed

    Mitrofanoff, P

    1980-01-01

    The comfort obtained in some cases of neurogenic bladder of the girl, thanks to unsterile self catheterization, and usual absence of septic complications, incite to search for a process which could be used for the boys as well as girls in those cases where urethral catheterization cannot be done. What's more, if the catheterization is easy to achieve even by young children and if the process brings complete dryness, almost perfect conditions of comfort would be achieved. A cystostomy with a continent opening easy to catheterize and associated with a closure of the vesical neck, was the objective. We had the idea to use the appendix in order to create a passage between the skin and the bladder, the tip of the appendix opening into the bladder at the end of an anti-reflux submucosal tunnel and the other end hemmed to the skin. The bladder neck is usually closed in the course of the same operation. From October 1976 to January 1979, 16 children have gone through such a vesicostomy. In two more cases a trans-ureteral cystostomy was created. Five cases were a failure owing to a too small bladder and required a cutaneous diversion. The continence of the vesicostomy is total and the comfort obtained is excellent for the other 13 cases. Some complications result directly from this technique. It concerns more particularly cutaneous fistula (1 case) or with urethral repermeation (2 cases). Other problems, common to all conservative treatments of a neurogenic bladder, are discussed:vesico-renal reflux, dilatation of the upper urinary tract, urinary infections and of course, risk for the renal function. They appear to be related with a small and hypertonic bladder. Obviously these problems must be kept in mind and require a strict selection for the vesicostomy and a strict followup. PMID:7408090

  3. Bladder Injury During Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tarney, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean section is the most common surgery performed in the United States with over 30% of deliveries occurring via this route. This number is likely to increase given decreasing rates of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) and primary cesarean delivery on maternal request, which carries the inherent risk for intraoperative complications. Urologic injury is the most common injury at the time of either obstetric or gynecologic surgery, with the bladder being the most frequent organ damaged. Risk factors for bladder injury during cesarean section include previous cesarean delivery, adhesions, emergent cesarean delivery, and cesarean section performed at the time of the second stage of labor. Fortunately, most bladder injuries are recognized at the time of surgery, which is important, as quick recognition and repair are associated with a significant reduction in patient mortality. Although cesarean delivery is a cornerstone of obstetrics, there is a paucity of data in the literature either supporting or refuting specific techniques that are performed today. There is evidence to support double-layer closure of the hysterotomy, the routine use of adhesive barriers, and performing a Pfannenstiel skin incision versus a vertical midline subumbilical incision to decrease the risk for bladder injury during cesarean section. There is also no evidence that supports the creation of a bladder flap, although routinely performed during cesarean section, as a method to reduce the risk of bladder injury. Finally, more research is needed to determine if indwelling catheterization, exteriorization of the uterus, and methods to extend hysterotomy incision lead to bladder injury. PMID:24876830

  4. Management of overactive bladder syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Srikrishna, Sushma; Robinson, Dudley; Cardozo, Linda; Vella, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is the term used to describe the symptom complex of urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia. Drug treatment continues to have an important role in the management of women with OAB. Other treatment options include conservative management with lifestyle interventions, modification of fluid intake, and physiotherapy including bladder retraining. Surgery remains the last resort in the treatment and is usually reserved for intractable detrusor overactivity, as it is associated with significant morbidity. This article reviews the management of the overactive bladder with specific focus on newer developments in the medical treatment of OAB in women. PMID:17621619

  5. Primary multiple clear cell variant urothelial carcinomas of urinary bladder: a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yutao; Huang, Jun; Feng, Hao; Tang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell variant urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder was very rare. There were only 6 report articles included by Pubmed and total 8 cases had been described till now. All of the past reports described single tumor of urinary bladder, but multiple carcinomas had not been reported. Here we reported a 65-years-old Chinese man who complained of intermittent gross hematuria and odynuria for more than 2 months in January 2013. Only one cauliflower-like tumor was detected approximately in the left wall of the urinary bladder with cystoscopy and the biopsy specimen was diagnosed as “urothelial carcinoma, high grade”. However, three tumors were found in anterior wall (×2) near neck of urinary bladder and posterior wall (×1) of the urinary bladder during transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. Typical urothelial carcinoma with partial clear cell appearance made it difficult to make a precise pathological diagnosis and immunohistochemical stain helped to diagnose the case as clear cell variant urothelial carcinoma, but not metastasis of the renal cell carcinoma. Finally, computerized tomographic scanning confirmed that there was no primary tumor in the kidney. The clinical and pathological characteristic had not been identified for the limited reports. More work should be done to know this kind of tumor well for guiding clinical therapy. PMID:25031765

  6. Spontaneous bladder rupture of a urinary bladder with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Hadjipavlou, Marios; Tharakan, Tharu; Khan, Shahid A A; Swinn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a 65-year-old man who developed spontaneous bladder rupture after picking up his suitcase from a squatting position. He was known to have non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), managed previously with transurethral resections and intravesical chemotherapy. CT scan showed a large amount of free intraperitoneal fluid anterior to the bladder, suggestive of a urinoma. Management was initially conservative, with insertion of urethral catheter, intravenous antibiotics and fluid resuscitation. Follow-up CT scan showed resolution of the urinoma with the patient making a full recovery after 3 weeks. PMID:24618866

  7. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  8. Nerve Disease and Bladder Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Human Development is supporting Collaborative Urological Research in Spinal Cord Injury, a program devoted to finding novel strategies to treat bladder control problems in people with spinal cord injury. The U.S. Government does not endorse or favor ...

  9. A gentle Hessian for efficient gradient descent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronan Collobert; Samy Bengio

    2004-01-01

    Several second-order optimization methods for gradient descent algorithms have been proposed over the years, but they usually need to compute the inverse of the Hessian of the cost function (or an approximation of this inverse) during training. In most cases, this leads to an O(n2) cost in time and space per iteration, where n is the number of parameters, which

  10. Surgical management for overactive bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney A. Appell; Timothy B. Boone

    2007-01-01

    The majority of patients with overactive bladder can be managed with office-based techniques. When medical therapy fails as\\u000a treatment for overactive bladder, surgical intervention ranging from electrical stimulation administered in the office to\\u000a extensive procedures, such as augmentation or urinary diversion, may be needed. Any surgical intervention should be tailored\\u000a to the patient with consideration of the degree of his

  11. The neurogenic bladder: medical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Buyse, Gunnar M.

    2007-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder sphincter dysfunction (NBSD) can cause severe and irreversible renal damage and bladder-wall destruction years before incontinence becomes an issue. Therefore, the first step in adequate management is to recognize early the bladder at risk for upper- and lower-tract deterioration and to start adequate medical treatment proactively. Clean intermittent catheterization combined with anticholinergics (oral or intravesical) is the standard therapy for NBSD. Early institution of such treatment can prevent both renal damage and secondary bladder-wall changes, thereby potentially improving long-term outcomes. In children with severe side effects or with insufficient suppression of detrusor overactivity despite maximal dosage of oral oxybutynin, intravesical instillation is an effective alternative. Intravesical instillation eliminates systemic side effects by reducing the first-pass metabolism and, compared with oral oxybutynin, intravesical oxybutynin is a more potent and long-acting detrusor suppressor. There is growing evidence that with early adequate treatment, kidneys are saved and normal bladder growth can be achieved in children so they will no longer need surgical bladder augmentation to achieve safe urinary continence in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:18095004

  12. What I Need to Know about Bladder Control for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... does the bladder work? Parts of the bladder control system. The bladder is a balloon-shaped organ that ... ready to release it. Parts of the bladder control system. Several body systems must work together to control ...

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of bladder cancer in the United States. Personal history of bladder or other urothelial cancer Urothelial carcinomas ... urinary infections and bladder cancer. Genetics and family history People who have family members with bladder cancer ...

  14. A New Tool for Distinguishing Muscle Invasive and Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Initial Application of Flexible Ultrasound Bronchoscope in Bladder Tumor Staging

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qixiang; Wei, Rongchao; Yu, Yongwei; Li, Jian; Sun, Yinghao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To validate the flexible ultrasound bronchoscope (FUB) as a tool in distinguishing muscle invasive and non-muscle invasive bladder tumors. Materials and Methods From June 2010 to April 2012, 62 patients (11 female and 51 male) with 92 bladder urothelial carcinoma were treated in our study. The mean (±SD) patient age was 64.0±12.5 years old (ranged from 22 to 87). Clinical T stage was assessed by FUB at first in operating room, then immediately initial diagnostic transurethral resection (TUR) was performed. A second TUR would be done 2–4 weeks after initial TUR when the latter was incomplete (in large and multiple tumours, no muscle in the specimen) or when an exophytic high-grade and/or T1 tumour was detected. And radical cystectomy would be performed for the patients who were diagnosed with muscle-invasive tumors. FUB staging and initial TUR staging, final pathological results were compared. Results In ultrasonic images, the normal muscle layer of bladder wall could be clearly distinguished into three layers, which were hyperechogenic mucosa, hypoechogenic muscle and hyperechogenic serosal. For non-muscle invasive tumors, the muscle layers were continuous. And distorted or discontinuous muscle layers could be seen in muscle-invasive case. The overall accuracy (95.7%) and the specificity of muscle invasion detection of FUB (98.8%) were comparable to TUR (overall accuracy 90.2% and specificity 100%), but sensitivity of muscle invasion detection of FUB was significantly higher than initial TUR (72.7%VS18.2%). Moreover, the tumor's diameter could not affect the FUB's accuracy of muscle invasion detection. For tumors near the bladder neck, FUB also showed the similar validity as those far from bladder neck. Conclusions To conclude, the flexible ultrasound bronchoscope is an effective tool for muscle invasion detection of bladder tumor with ideal ultrasonic images. It is an alternative option for bladder tumor staging besides TUR. It might have the potentiality to change the bladder diagnostic strategy. PMID:24704988

  15. [Selective neck dissection in head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Teymoortash, A; Werner, J A

    2013-09-01

    While (modified) radical neck dissection was seen formerly as an essential measure for securing local tumor control and improvement of the prognosis for head and neck cancer patients, this procedure is nowadays often replaced by selective neck dissection. Selective neck dissection is associated with a comparably low morbidity and acceptable functional results without having a negative impact on the prognosis of the patients. As staging procedure, neck dissection is currently the gold standard, so that selective neck dissection is an approved part of the therapy of the clinical N0 neck and is recommended as salvage therapy of the neck after radiochemotherapy. There are also aspects supporting the performance of selective neck dis-section in selected patients with N + neck. PMID:23996554

  16. A healthy bladder: a consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Lukacz, E S; Sampselle, C; Gray, M; MacDiarmid, S; Rosenberg, M; Ellsworth, P; Palmer, M H

    2011-01-01

    A panel of experts in urology, urogynecology, nursing, and behavioral therapy convened in 2010 to discuss the importance of a healthy bladder on overall health. They determined that a consensus statement was necessary to raise awareness among the general public, healthcare providers, payors, and policymakers, with the goals of minimizing the impact of poor bladder health and stimulating primary prevention of bladder conditions. In this statement, ‘healthy’ bladder function is described, as well as internal and external factors that influence bladder health. It is suggested that primary prevention strategies should be aimed at providing education regarding normal lower urinary tract structures and functioning to the public, including patients and healthcare providers. This education may promote the achievement of optimal bladder health by increasing healthy bladder habits and behaviors, awareness of risk factors, healthcare seeking, and clinician engagement and reducing stigma and other barriers to treatment. Promoting optimal bladder health may reduce the personal, societal and economic impact of bladder conditions, including anxiety and depression and costs associated with conditions or diseases and their treatment. While adopting healthy bladder habits and behaviors and behaviors may improve or maintain bladder health, it is important to recognize that certain symptoms may indicate the presence of conditions that require medical attention; many bladder conditions are treatable with a range of options for most bladder conditions. Lastly, the authors propose clinical directives based on persuasive and convergent research to improve and maintain bladder health. The authors hope that this statement will lead to promotion and achievement of optimal bladder health, which may improve overall health and help minimize the effects of bladder conditions on the public, healthcare professionals, educators, employers, and payors. The advisors are in consensus regarding the recommendations for improving and maintaining bladder health presented herein. PMID:21923844

  17. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... factors of head and neck cancer cannot be changed, such as age, there may be steps you ... the recurrence, including whether the cancer’s stage has changed. After testing is done, you and your doctor ...

  18. Talar neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Berlet, G C; Lee, T H; Massa, E G

    2001-01-01

    Clinical management of talar neck fractures is complex and fraught with complications. As Gaius Julius Caesar stated: "The die is cast"; often the outcome of a talar neck fracture is determined at the time of injury. The authors believe, however, that better results can be achieved by following some simple guidelines. The authors advocate prompt and precise anatomic surgical reduction, preferring the medial approach with secondary anterolateral approach. Preservation of blood supply can be achieved by a thorough understanding of vascular pathways and efforts to stay within appropriate surgical intervals. The authors advocate bone grafting of medial neck comminution (if present) to prevent varus malalignment and rigid internal fixation to allow for joint mobilization postoperatively. These guidelines may seem simple, but when dealing with the complexity of talar neck fractures, the foot and ankle surgeon needs to focus and rely on easily grasped concepts to reduce poor outcomes. PMID:11465133

  19. Regression Analysis of Top of Descent Location for Idle-thrust Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stell, Laurel; Bronsvoort, Jesper; McDonald, Greg

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, multiple regression analysis is used to model the top of descent (TOD) location of user-preferred descent trajectories computed by the flight management system (FMS) on over 1000 commercial flights into Melbourne, Australia. The independent variables cruise altitude, final altitude, cruise Mach, descent speed, wind, and engine type were also recorded or computed post-operations. Both first-order and second-order models are considered, where cross-validation, hypothesis testing, and additional analysis are used to compare models. This identifies the models that should give the smallest errors if used to predict TOD location for new data in the future. A model that is linear in TOD altitude, final altitude, descent speed, and wind gives an estimated standard deviation of 3.9 nmi for TOD location given the trajec- tory parameters, which means about 80% of predictions would have error less than 5 nmi in absolute value. This accuracy is better than demonstrated by other ground automation predictions using kinetic models. Furthermore, this approach would enable online learning of the model. Additional data or further knowl- edge of algorithms is necessary to conclude definitively that no second-order terms are appropriate. Possible applications of the linear model are described, including enabling arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the FMS even in congested airspace. In particular, a model for TOD location that is linear in the independent variables would enable decision support tool human-machine interfaces for which a kinetic approach would be computationally too slow.

  20. Dysfunction of bladder urothelium and bladder urothelial cells in interstitial cystitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Graham; Toby C. Chai

    2006-01-01

    The human bladder urothelium (BU) and bladder urothelial cells (BUCs) play an important role in the normal functioning of\\u000a bladder including bladder storage. Current evidence in interstitial cystitis (IC) supports multiple abnormalities in bladder\\u000a urothelial physiology. These data have come primarily from human studies. The discovery of a novel protein termed the antiproliferative\\u000a factor (APF) uniquely expressed by IC BUCs

  1. Bladder Dysfunction in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic cystopathy is a well-recognized complication of diabetes mellitus, which usually develops in middle-aged or elderly patients with long-standing and poorly controlled disease. It may have broad spectrum clinical presentations. Patients may be asymptomatic, or have a wide variety of voiding complaints from overactive bladder and urge incontinence to decreased bladder sensation and overflow incontinence. This review focuses on pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for urologic complications of diabetes and emphasizing on recent developments in our understanding of this condition. We also tried to shed some light on therapeutic modalities like behavioral, pharmacological, and surgical approaches. PMID:21833175

  2. [Rare cases of bladder stones].

    PubMed

    Sampalmieri, Gregorio; Moretti, Antonello; Sampalmieri, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We present here two special cases of urolithiasis. The first one shows a giant bladder lithiasis resulting in severe renal insufficiency in a 63-year-old patient, who had previously had nicturia (2-3 times), occasional episodes of urinary frequency and burning micturition, in the absence of renal colic, hematuria or interrupted urination. The second case referes to an 85-year-old man suffering from prostatic enlargement and bladder stones, hospitalized to undergo intervention of trans-vesical prostatic adenomectomy, during which two star-shaped stones were found without obvious symptoms. PMID:24474546

  3. Post open prostatectomy bladder exteriorization mimicking “acquired bladder extrophy”

    PubMed Central

    Takure, AO; Onuora, VC; Akerele, W

    2010-01-01

    A 58-year-old Nigerian male had open prostatectomy undertaken in a private hospital 3 months before presenting at our out-patient clinic with leakage of urine and a widening supra pubic defect of 10 weeks duration. Examination showed the posterior bladder wall and visible trigone. Subsequently the defect was closed and he remained continent at follow up. PMID:24198611

  4. Clinical features in patients with excessive perineal descent.

    PubMed

    Mackle, E J; Parks, T G

    1989-04-01

    We have found excessive perineal descent to be associated with a variety of anorectal problems and have reviewed the clinical features in 29 patients who were noted to have excessive perineal descent as measured by perineometer. The condition mostly occurs in women and is usually associated with straining at stool, rectal bleeding, mucus discharge, perineal or abdominal pain and urinary incontinence. PMID:2724218

  5. Large-Scale Matrix Factorization with Distributed Stochastic Gradient Descent

    E-print Network

    of columns, and billions of nonzero elements. Our approach rests on stochastic gradient descent (SGD), an iterative stochastic optimization algorithm. Based on a novel "stratified" variant of SGD, we obtain a new Gradient Descent The goal of SGD is to find the value k (k 1) that minimizes a given loss L

  6. Stochastic Gradient Descent Optimization for Low Power Nano-CMOS

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    Contributions Design flow methodology incorporating SGD for nano-CMOS design optimization Modification of SGD the gradient descent approach SGD reiteratively steps through the gradient descent until it converges At each is randomly chosen ­ also referred as training set Modified SGD restarts at random points to mitigate local

  7. SGD-QN: Careful Quasi-Newton Stochastic Gradient Descent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Bordes; Léon Bottou; Patrick Gallinari

    2009-01-01

    The SGD-QN algorithm is a stochastic gradient descent algorithm that makes careful use of second- order information and splits the parameter update into independently scheduled components. Thanks to this design, SGD-QN iterates nearly as fast as a first-order stochastic gradient descent but requires less iterations to achieve the same accuracy. This algorith m won the \\

  8. A Rare Metastasis to the Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Modh, Rishi A.; Corbyons, Katherine A.; Yeung, Lawrence L.

    2013-01-01

    Primary bladder cancer is the fifth most common malignancy but secondary malignancies of the bladder are rare. Distinguishing primary adenocarcinomas of the bladder from secondary adenocarcinomas is difficult and relies on immunohistochemical staining. Prostate, colorectal, breast, and lung all can produce metastatic adenocarcinomas to the bladder. Further management of the malignancy varies depending on the source, thus making proper diagnosis critical. We present only the fifth documented case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung to bladder and performed a review of the literature. PMID:23533933

  9. Primary amyloidosis of urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, S K; Walmsley, B H; Marley, N J

    1995-01-01

    Six cases of primary amyloidosis of the urinary bladder are reported. This is a rare clinical entity and is of interest to the urologist because it is usually confused with carcinoma. Conservative treatment is usually adequate, though long-term follow up is recommended. PMID:7752163

  10. Chenopod salt bladders deter insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    LoPresti, E F

    2014-03-01

    Trichomes on leaves and stems of certain chenopods (Chenopodiaceae) are modified with a greatly enlarged apical cell (a salt bladder), containing a huge central vacuole. These structures may aid in the extreme salt tolerance of many species by concentrating salts in the vacuole. Bladders eventually burst, covering the leaf in residue of bladder membranes and solid precipitates. The presence of this system in non-halophytic species suggests additional functions. I tested the novel hypothesis that these bladders have a defensive function against insect herbivores using choice, no choice, and field tests. Generalist insect herbivores preferred to feed on leaves without salt bladders in choice tests. In no choice tests, herbivores consumed less leaf matter with bladders. In a field test, leaves from which I had removed bladders suffered greater herbivory than adjacent leaves with bladders. Solutions containing bladders added to otherwise preferred leaves deterred herbivores, suggesting a water-soluble chemical component to the defense. This bladder system has a defensive function in at least four genera of chenopods. Salt bladders may be a structural defense, like spines or domatia, but also have a chemical defense component. PMID:24241642

  11. Bridle Device in Mars Science Laboratory Descent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view of a portion of the descent stage of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory shows two of the stage's three spherical fuel tanks flanking the bridle device assembly. The photograph was taken in early October 2008 from the center of the descent stage looking outward. The top of the descent stage is toward the top of the image.

    The bridle device assembly is about two-thirds of a meter, or 2 feet, from top to bottom, and has two main parts. The cylinder on the top is the descent brake. The conical-shaped mechanism below that is the bridle assembly, including a spool of nylon and Vectran cords that will be attached to the rover.

    When pyrotechnic bolts fire to sever the rigid connection between the rover and the descent stage, gravity will pull the tethered rover away from the descent stage. The bridle or tether, attached to three points on the rover, will unspool from the bridle assembly, beginning from the larger-diameter portion. The rotation rate of the assembly, hence the descent rate of the rover, will be governed by the descent brake. Inside the housing of that brake are gear boxes and banks of mechanical resistors engineered to prevent the bridle from spooling out too quickly or too slowly. The length of the bridle will allow the rover to be lowered about 7.5 meters (25 feet) while still tethered to the descent stage.

    The Starsys division of SpaceDev Inc., Poway, Calif., provided the descent brake. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., built the bridle assembly. Vectran is a product of Kuraray Co. Ltd., Tokyo. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  12. Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. PMID:21941546

  13. Hemangiopericytoma of the neck

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is an exceedingly rare tumor of uncertain malignant potential. Approximately 300 cases of HPC have been reported since Stout and Murray described HPCs as "vascular tumors arising from Zimmerman's pericytes" in 1942. After further characterization, the WHO reclassified HPC as a fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumor. Long term follow up is mandatory because the histologic criteria for prediction of biologic behavior are imprecise. There are reports of recurrence and metastasis many years after radical resection. The head and neck incidence is less than 20%, mostly in adults. We report herein a case of HPC resected from the neck of a 74-year-old woman, who presented in our department with a painless right-sided neck mass. The mass was well circumscribed, mobile and soft during the palpation. The skin over the tumor was intact and normal. Clinical diagnosis at this time was lipoma. A neck computer tomography scan showed a large submucosal mass in the neck, which extended in the muscular sites. The tumor was completely removed by wide surgical resection. During surgery we found a highly vascularised tumor. The histopathologic examination revealed a cellular, highly vascularized tumor. The diagnosis was that of solitary fibrous tumor, cellular variant, with haemangiopericytoma-like features. The patient had normal postoperative course of healing and 24 months later she remains asymptomatic, without signs of recurrence or metastases. PMID:20868476

  14. Distributed Control by Lagrangian Steepest Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Bieniawski, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Often adaptive, distributed control can be viewed as an iterated game between independent players. The coupling between the players mixed strategies, arising as the system evolves from one instant to the next, is determined by the system designer. Information theory tells us that the most likely joint strategy of the players, given a value of the expectation of the overall control objective function, is the minimizer of a function o the joint strategy. So the goal of the system designer is to speed evolution of the joint strategy to that Lagrangian mhimbhgpoint,lowerthe expectated value of the control objective function, and repeat Here we elaborate the theory of algorithms that do this using local descent procedures, and that thereby achieve efficient, adaptive, distributed control.

  15. Error analysis of stochastic gradient descent ranking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

    2013-06-01

    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error. PMID:24083315

  16. Error Analysis of Stochastic Gradient Descent Ranking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

    2012-12-31

    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error. PMID:23292808

  17. Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.

  18. Simulator Evaluation of a New Cockpit Descent Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Barry; Palmer, Everett; Smith, Nancy; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate flight crew performance of the "Precision Descent," a new cockpit procedure designed to support the Descent Advisor (DA), one of the components in a new air traffic control advisory system called the "Center-TRACON Automation System" (CTAS). The DA predicts when aircraft will reach a specific waypoint on the arrival route, and presents controllers with clearance advisories designed to improve the sequencing of arriving aircraft. The effectiveness of the DA depends on the aircraft's descent trajectory: where it begins descent, what speed it maintains, how fast and at what altitude it crosses the bottom-of-descent waypoint. The Precision Descent allows controllers to assign these descent parameters to the flight crew. A Field Evaluation of the DA was conducted in Denver in 1995. Three separate clearances using standard ATC phraseology were used to support the cockpit descent procedure during this evaluation. The number and length of these clearances caused problems for both controllers and flight crews, causing readback errors, repeat requests and procedure misunderstandings. These observations led to a focus group meeting in which controller and pilot participants in the 1995 FE assisted in the redesign of the procedure. The Precision Descent eliminates one clearance used in the earlier study, and greatly reduces the length of the remaining clearances. This was accomplished by using non-standard clearance phraseology that relies on a published procedure chart for correct interpretation. Eight type-rated flight crews flew eight Precision Descents in a Boeing 747-400 simulator. No training was provided: crews received either a procedure chart or a procedure chart with a flight manual bulletin describing procedure techniques. Video and digital data were recorded for each descent. Preliminary results indicate that moving information from the verbal clearance to the chart was successful: the shorter clearances and the procedure's default crossing restriction were understood, and procedure compliance of 81% was observed across all descents on six independent compliance measures. Some readback errors and procedure misunderstandings were still observed, however; particularly when descent clearances deviated from the normative procedure.

  19. Detection of Newly Diagnosed Bladder Cancer, Bladder Cancer Recurrence and Bladder Cancer in Patients with Hematuria Using Quantitative RT-PCR of Urinary Survivin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Kenney; Ryan D. Geschwindt; Marcia R. Kary; Jeanette M. Linic; Niranjan Y. Sardesai; Zhong-Qian Li

    2007-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Survivin mRNA in urine was measured to detect newly diagnosed bladder cancer, bladder cancer recurrence and bladder cancer in patients with hematuria. Methods: We have investigated urinary survivin mRNA of 118 voided urine specimens, including 24 patients with bladder cancer, 50 with bladder cancer history, 68 not known to harbor bladder cancer, and 55 with hematuria using quantitative reverse

  20. Head and Neck Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Shashanka, R.; Smitha, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma appears to be increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world over the past 30–40 years and continues to increase in the United States, Canada, Australia, Asia, and Europe. The behavior of head and neck melanoma is aggressive, and it has an overall poorer prognosis than that of other skin sites. The authors review the published literature and text books, intending to give an overall picture of malignant melanomas of the head and neck and a special emphasis on treatment considerations with controversies in treatment including biopsy, radiation therapy, sentinel node biopsy, and nodal dissection. PMID:22570796

  1. Fetal Bladder Wall Regeneration with a Collagen Biomatrix and Histological Evaluation of Bladder Exstrophy in a Fetal Sheep Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc A. J. Roelofs; Alex J. Eggink; Christina A. Hulsbergen-van de Kaa; Rene M. H. Wijnen; Toin H. van Kuppevelt; Herman T. B. van Moerkerk; A. Jane Crevels; Alex Hanssen; Fred K. Lotgering; Paul P. van den Berg; Wout F. J. Feitz

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate histological changes in an animal model for bladder exstrophy and fetal repair of the bladder defect with a molecular-defined dual-layer collagen biomatrix to induce fetal bladder wall regeneration. Methods: In 12 fetal lambs the abdominal wall and bladder were opened by a midline incision at 79 days’ gestation. In 6 of these lambs an uncorrected bladder exstrophy

  2. [Diagnosis of overactive bladder (OAB)].

    PubMed

    Kurosch, M; Mager, R; Gust, K; Brandt, M; Borgmann, H; Haferkamp, A

    2015-03-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom complex which is present in approximately 17% of the European population. It is observed in the presence or absence of incontinence (wet or dry) and is associated with a high degree of psychological stress as well as high costs for the healthcare system. Myogenic, urothelial and neurogenic factors lead to frequently unknown changes of muscular, neural and connective tissue. The diagnosis of OAB is empirical and can be used as a basis for initial treatment, while lower urinary tract symptoms have to be evaluated up front. As there are no established biomarkers for OAB, a definitive diagnosis is problematic. It is important to carry out routine diagnostics including a detailed medical history and if needed urodynamic evaluation of the patient. Therapy of OAB will be the topic of a further continuing medical education (CME) article entitled "Therapy of overactive bladder (OAB)". PMID:25716688

  3. Pharmacologic management of overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Sum; Hilas, Olga

    2007-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a prevalent and costly condition that can affect any age group. Typical symptoms include urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence and nocturia. OAB occurs as a result of abnormal contractions of the bladder detrusor muscle caused by the stimulation of certain muscarinic receptors. Therefore, antimuscarinic agents have long been considered the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for OAB. Currently, there are five such agents approved for the management of OAB in the United States: oxybutynin, tolterodine, trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin. This article summarizes the efficacy, contraindications, precautions, dosing and common side effects of these agents. All available clinical trials on trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin were reviewed to determine its place in therapy. PMID:18044184

  4. Overview of Neck Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... broad and general approaches to the treatment of neck pain. The physiatrist that you choose will develop an individual treatment plan for you. As a public service, the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AAPM&R) provides listings of its member physiatrists ...

  5. Surgical management of overactive bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Gross; Timothy B. Boone; Rodney A. Appell

    2002-01-01

    The majority of patients with overactive bladder (OAB) can be managed with office-based techniques. When medical therapy fails\\u000a as treatment for OAB, surgical intervention ranging from electric stimulation administered in the office to extensive procedures,\\u000a such as augmentation or urinary diversion, may be needed. Any surgical intervention should be tailored to the patient with\\u000a consideration of the degree of his

  6. Intra-iteration Approximation for Large Scale Parallel Gradient Descent Optimization Chengjie Qin & Florin Rusu

    E-print Network

    Rusu, Florin

    and to allow interactive parameter tuning. (Stochastic) Gradient Descent Problem definition: minwRd (w) def = N Gradient Descent w(k+1) = w(k) - (k) w(k) Stochastic Gradient Descent w(k+1) = w(k) - (k) fi w(k) Datasets-iteration Approximation Parallel (Stochastic) Gradient Descent in GLADE #12; #12; #12; #12

  7. UTIs in patients with neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Mona S; Mure, Amanda; Gomez, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) remain one of the most prevalent and frustrating morbidities for neurogenic bladder patients, and death attributed to urosepsis in the spinal cord injury (SCI) patient is higher when compared to the general population. Risk factors include urinary stasis, high bladder pressures, bladder stones, and catheter use. While classic symptoms of UTI include dysuria, increased frequency and urgency, neurogenic bladder patients present differently with increased spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, urinary incontinence, and vague pains. Multiple modalities have been assessed for prevention including catheter type, oral supplements, bladder irrigation, detrusor injections and prophylactic antimicrobials. Of these, bladder inoculation with E. coli HU2117, irrigation with iAluRil(®), detrusor injections, and weekly prophylaxis with alternating antibiotics appear to have a positive reduction in UTI but require further study. Ultimately, treatment for symptomatic UTI should account for the varied flora and possible antibiotic resistances including relying on urine cultures to guide antibiotic therapy. PMID:25113150

  8. Scrotal Herniation of Bladder: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi Madani, Ali; Mohammadi Nikouei, Hossein; Baghani Aval, Hamidreza; Enshaei, Ahmad; Asadollahzade, Ahmad; Esmaeili, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Inguinal bladder hernia is a rare clinical condition, with 1–3% of all inguinal hernias involving the bladder. Any portion of the bladder may herniate, from a small portion or a diverticulum to most of the bladder. We present a 55-year-old male with an intermittent right scrotal mass of 6 months’ duration. The mass lesion protruded through the right inguinal canal before voiding and reduced after that. Scrotal sonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion in the scrotum that stretched cranially to the intra-abdominal portion of the bladder. Excretory urography showed a duplicated system in the left kidney and deviation of the left orifice to the right side of the trigon. Finally, cystography illustrated herniation of the bladder to the right scrotum. Surgical repair of the hernia was done with mesh. Follow-up cystography one month postoperatively revealed no herniation. PMID:23645960

  9. A multi-stage genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies multiple susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Nathaniel; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Malats, Nuria; Wu, Xifeng; Figueroa, Jonine; Real, Francisco X; Van Den Berg, David; Matullo, Giuseppe; Baris, Dalsu; Thun, Michael; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vineis, Paolo; De Vivo, Immaculata; Albanes, Demetrius; Purdue, Mark P; Rafnar, Thorunn; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Kiltie, Anne E; Cussenot, Olivier; Golka, Klaus; Kumar, Rajiv; Taylor, Jack A; Mayordomo, Jose I; Jacobs, Kevin B; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Zhaoming; Fu, Yi-Ping; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Burdette, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Wheeler, William; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Schned, Alan; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Jacobs, Eric J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Cortessis, Victoria K; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Pike, Malcolm C; Stern, Mariana C; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hunter, David; McGrath, Monica; Dinney, Colin P; Czerniak, Bogdan; Chen, Meng; Yang, Hushan; Vermeulen, Sita H; Aben, Katja K; Witjes, J Alfred; Makkinje, Remco R; Sulem, Patrick; Besenbacher, Soren; Stefansson, Kari; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul; Panico, Salvatore; Navarro, Carmen; Allen, Naomi E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria Teresa; Canzian, Federico; Ljungberg, Borje; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Bishop, David T; Teo, Mark T W; Knowles, Margaret A; Guarrera, Simonetta; Polidoro, Silvia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Allione, Alessandra; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Dietrich, Holger; Fletcher, Tony; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugen; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Bolick, Sophia C E; Godfrey, Ashley; Xu, Zongli; Sanz-Velez, José I; García-Prats, María D; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Porru, Stefano; Benhamou, Simone; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Silverman, Debra T; Chanock, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 589,299 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,532 cases and 5,120 controls of European descent (5 studies) followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,381 cases and 48,275 controls (16 studies). In a combined analysis, we identified three new regions associated with bladder cancer on chromosomes 22q13.1, 19q12 and 2q37.1; rs1014971, (P=8×10?12) maps to a non-genic region of chromosome 22q13.1; rs8102137 (P=2×10?11) on 19q12 maps to CCNE1; and rs11892031 (P=1×10?7) maps to the UGT1A cluster on 2q37.1. We confirmed four previous GWAS associations on chromosomes 3q28, 4p16.3, 8q24.21 and 8q24.3, validated previous candidate associations for the GSTM1 deletion (P=4×10?11) and a tag SNP for NAT2 acetylation status (P=4×10?11), as well as demonstrated smoking interactions with both regions. Our findings on common variants associated with bladder cancer risk should provide new insights into mechanisms of carcinogenesis. PMID:20972438

  10. Bladder evisceration in a child with antenatally detected gastroschisis: outcome of bladder function.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Fumi; Matsui, Futoshi; Kawagoe, Mari; Shimada, Kenji; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Kubota, Akio

    2007-12-01

    In patients with gastroschisis, evisceration of the bladder is rare. To date, little is known about functional outcome of the antenatally eviscerated bladder. We present a case of antenatally detected gastroschisis associated with entire bladder evisceration and fetal hydronephrosis. Full urological evaluation was carried out after primary closure of the abdominal wall defect. The postoperative period was uneventful and there were no abnormal findings in the kidney or urinary tract. This indicated good prognosis of the antenatally eviscerated bladder. PMID:18036052

  11. Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coopenbarger, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

  12. 14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...be determined for the most critical uncontrolled descent that can result from any single failure of the heater assembly, fuel cell system, gas value system, or maneuvering vent system, or from any single tear in the balloon envelope between...

  13. TextBased Information Retrieval Using Exponentiated Gradient Descent

    E-print Network

    Callan, Jamie

    Text­Based Information Retrieval Using Exponentiated Gradient Descent Ron Papka, James P. Callan papka@cs.umass.edu, callan@cs.umass.edu, barto@cs.umass.edu Abstract The following investigates the use

  14. Ascent/descent ancillary data production user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brans, H. R.; Seacord, A. W., II; Ulmer, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Product, also called the A/D BET because it contains a Best Estimate of the Trajectory (BET), is a collection of trajectory, attitude, and atmospheric related parameters computed for the ascent and descent phases of each Shuttle Mission. These computations are executed shortly after the event in a post-flight environment. A collection of several routines including some stand-alone routines constitute what is called the Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Production Program. A User's Guide for that program is given. It is intended to provide the reader with all the information necessary to generate an Ascent or a Descent Ancillary Data Product. It includes descriptions of the input data and output data for each routine, and contains explicit instructions on how to run each routine. A description of the final output product is given.

  15. Efficient coordinate descent for ranking with domination loss

    E-print Network

    Stevens, Mark A., M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    We define a new batch coordinate-descent ranking algorithm based on a domination loss, which is designed to rank a small number of positive examples above all negatives, with a large penalty on false positives. Its objective ...

  16. Randomized coordinate descent methods for big data optimization 

    E-print Network

    Takac, Martin

    2014-07-01

    This thesis consists of 5 chapters. We develop new serial (Chapter 2), parallel (Chapter 3), distributed (Chapter 4) and primal-dual (Chapter 5) stochastic (randomized) coordinate descent methods, analyze their complexity ...

  17. Large-Scale Matrix Factorization with Distributed Stochastic Gradient Descent

    E-print Network

    . Our approach rests on stochastic gradient descent (SGD), an iterative stochastic optimization algorithm. We first develop a novel "stratified" SGD variant (SSGD) that applies to general loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2. SGD for Matrix Factorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4

  18. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-30

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

  19. Fuel-Conservative Descents Using A Programable Calcultor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne descent algorithm used with or without time constraints. Concepts provide fuel savings by matching airplane arrival flow to airport acceptance rate through time control computations and allowing pilot to descend at his descretion from cruise altitude to designated metering fix in idle-thrust clean (landing gear up, flaps, zero, and speed brakes retracted) configuration. Also used for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not consideration.

  20. Fractional extreme value adaptive training method: fractional steepest descent approach.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yi-Fei; Zhou, Ji-Liu; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ni; Huang, Guo; Siarry, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The application of fractional calculus to signal processing and adaptive learning is an emerging area of research. A novel fractional adaptive learning approach that utilizes fractional calculus is presented in this paper. In particular, a fractional steepest descent approach is proposed. A fractional quadratic energy norm is studied, and the stability and convergence of our proposed method are analyzed in detail. The fractional steepest descent approach is implemented numerically and its stability is analyzed experimentally. PMID:25314711

  1. Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoelscher, Brian R.

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing simulation was created over the past two years to serve as the primary Crew Exploration Vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) design and analysis tool at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) simulation is a six degree-of-freedom tool with a unique design architecture which has a high level of flexibility. This paper describes the decision history and motivations that guided the creation of this simulation tool. The capabilities of the models within ANTARES are presented in detail. Special attention is given to features of the highly flexible GN&C architecture and the details of the implemented GN&C algorithms. ANTARES provides a foundation simulation for the Orion Project that has already been successfully used for requirements analysis, system definition analysis, and preliminary GN&C design analysis. ANTARES will find useful application in engineering analysis, mission operations, crew training, avionics-in-the-loop testing, etc. This paper focuses on the entry simulation aspect of ANTARES, which is part of a bigger simulation package supporting the entire mission profile of the Orion vehicle. The unique aspects of entry GN&C design are covered, including how the simulation is being used for Monte Carlo dispersion analysis and for support of linear stability analysis. Sample simulation output from ANTARES is presented in an appendix.

  2. Genetic Variations rs11892031 and rs401681 Are Associated with Bladder Cancer Risk in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Yan; Chen, Tao; Hu, Hailong; Xie, Wanqin; Qiao, Zhihui; Ding, Na; Xie, Linguo; Li, Sheng; Wang, Wenlong; Xing, Chen; Wang, Yihan; Qie, Yunkai; Wu, Changli

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of genetic variants associated with risk of bladder cancer in populations of European descent. Here, we assessed association of two of these variants, rs11892031 (2q37.1 region) and rs401681 (5p15.33 region) in a Chinese case-control study, which included 367 bladder cancer cases and 420 controls. We found that the AC genotype of rs11892031 was associated with remarkably decreased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09–0.81; p = 0.019), compared with the AA genotype of rs11892031; and that CT/CC genotypes of rs401681 were associated with significantly increased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.10–2.91; p = 0.02), compared with the TT genotype of rs401681. We further conducted stratification analysis to examine the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11892031/rs401681 and tumor grade/stage. Results showed that heterogeneity in ORs of tumor categories was not significant for either rs11892031 or rs401681 (p > 0.05), indicating that the two SNPs seemingly do not associate with tumor grade and stage of bladder cancer in our study population. The present study suggests that the SNPs rs11892031 and rs401681 are associated with bladder cancer risk in a Chinese population. Future analyses will be conducted with more participants recruited in a case-control study. PMID:25347272

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in a female associated with multiple bladder stones

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy in the urinary tract. Urothelial carcinoma is the most common histologic type of bladder cancer in the United States, accounting for approximately 90%. Squamous cell carcinoma is less common, making up 3-5% of bladder cancers. We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma in a female associated with multiple bladder stones. Case presentation A 76-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the emergency department with gross hematuria and dysuria for one month. Urinalysis showed many RBCs and WBCs with positive nitrite. She was admitted with an initial impression of urinary tract infection and intravenous ceftriaxone was started. Urine culture grew greater than 100,000 cfu/ml of Enterococcus species. Computed tomographic imaging of the abdomen/pelvis with oral contrast revealed a markedly distended bladder with hemorrhage, multiple calculi, and diffuse bladder wall thickening. Cystoscopy was performed for diffuse bladder wall thickening and demonstrated numerous bladder stones, a bladder mass, and organized blood clots. Biopsy of the mass was consistent with high-grade carcinoma with squamous differentiation. The bladder cancer was not surgically resectable and radical cystectomy was not recommended due to old age and poor functional status. The patient refused chemotherapy and she died in 6 months. Conclusions The association between foreign bodies in the bladder and sqaumous cell carcinoma is well established. Long-standing bladder stones have been implicated as a cause of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Our female patient’s unusual presentation with multiple bladder stones and sqaumous cell carcinoma of the bladder highlights the association between these two conditions. PMID:24007445

  4. Comparison of a new venous control device with a bladder box system for use in ECMO.

    PubMed

    Setz, K; Kesser, K; Kopotic, R J; Cornish, J D

    1992-01-01

    During extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), forward pump flow must not be allowed to exceed the rate of blood drainage from the patient so that excessive negative pressure does not develop within the ECMO circuit or in the patient's right atrium. A distensible reservoir ("bladder") and mechanically actuated electronic switch ("bladder box"), has typically been used for this purpose. If the rate of blood flow from the patient to the pump is insufficient to support the perfusion rate desired and adjustments in volume status and catheter position do not increase blood drainage, the only recourse is to increase the siphon pressure by elevating the patient. At the author's institution, a novel venous control module (VCM), without a reservoir, that can provide increased venous drainage without elevating the patient is used. Using an in vitro model of neonatal ECMO, the authors' compared their VCM to a commercially available "bladder box" system. Pressures were monitored in a collapsible chamber inside a water bath (simulating the right atrium), at the gravitational high point of the ECMO circuit ("neck site") and at the low point of the circuit ("venous site") at flow rates of 100, 450, 900, and 1,300 cc/min. Pump shut-off characteristics for both systems were also measured with either sudden interruption of venous drainage ("cross-clamping") or restriction of venous inflow ("hypovolemia"). Under continuous flow conditions, higher flows could be achieved with the VCM. With acute venous catheter occlusion, instantaneous ("trough") pressures at the neck site were lower, and venous monitoring site pressures were higher with the bladder box system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1450482

  5. Metastatic Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder to the Testis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Gregory N.; Field, Nicholas C.

    2012-01-01

    An 84-year-old gentleman presented with onset of gross hematuria in September 2010. Follow-up investigations revealed T1 superficially invasive, poorly differentiated, papillary urothelial carcinoma. He subsequently had GreenLight laser for BPH and bladder neck contracture on two occasions. He developed a right hydrocele 16 months after initial presentation and during his hydrocelectomy, a rock-hard right epididymis and testicle were discovered. Pathology revealed metastatic urothelial carcinoma replacing nearly the entire testis with lymphovascular invasion. PMID:23133785

  6. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Al-Samawi, Abdullah Saleh; Aulaqi, Saleh Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998) classification. Methods This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification. Results Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78%) were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17%) were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2%) were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1%) were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3), small cell carcinoma (n=1), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1). The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%), papilloma 7 (3%), papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%), and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%), with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group. Conclusion This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age. PMID:24044060

  7. Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher L. Amling

    2001-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer in American men, accounting for more than 12,000 deaths annually. It was one of the first malignancies in which carcinogens were recognized as an important factor in its cause. Currently, cigarette smoking is by far the most common cause of bladder cancer, although occupational exposure to arylamines has been implicated in

  8. Systemic Chemotherapy for Advanced Bladder Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bex; T. Otto; M. Goepel; H. Rübben

    1996-01-01

    Summary The influence of systemic chemotherapy on advanced bladder carcinoma is limited. Apparently patients do not benefit from cytostatic treatment prior to surgical removal of the bladder (neoadjuvant chemotherapy). Combination chemotherapy subsequent to radical cystectomy is currently being investigated in several clinical trials, at present, however, adjuvant chemotherapy cannot be regarded as standard treatment. In metastatic disease responses following application

  9. Bladder cancer documentation of causes: multilingual questionnaire, 'bladder cancer doc'.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Abreu-Villaca, Yael; Anbari Attar, Rowshanak; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Aslam, Muhammad; Basaran, Nursen; Belik, Rouslana; Butryee, Chaniphun; Dalpiaz, Orietta; Dzhusupov, Keneshbek; Ecke, Thorsten H; Galambos, Henrieta; Galambos, Henrieta; Gerilovica, Helena; Gerullis, Holger; Gonzalez, Patricia Casares; Goossens, Maria E; Gorgishvili-Hermes, Lela; Heyns, Chris F; Hodzic, Jasmin; Ikoma, Fumihiko; Jichlinski, Patrice; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Martinova, Irina; Mittal, Rama Devi; Ravichandran, Beerappa; Romics, Imre; Roy, Bidyut; Rungkat-Zakaria, Fransiska; Rydzynski, Konrad; Scutaru, Cristian; Shen, Jianhua; Soufi, Maria; Toguzbaeva, Karlygash; Vu Duc, Trinh; Widera, Agata; Wishahi, Mohamed; Hengstler, Jan G

    2012-01-01

    There is a considerable discrepancy between the number of identified occupational-related bladder cancer cases and the estimated numbers particularly in emerging nations or less developed countries where suitable approaches are less or even not known. Thus, within a project of the World Health Organisation Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health, a questionnaire of the Dortmund group, applied in different studies, was translated into more than 30 languages (Afrikaans, Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, Czech, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Korean, Latvian, Malay, Persian (Farsi), Polish, Portuguese, Portuguese/Brazilian, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Spanish, Spanish/Mexican, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Urdu, Vietnamese). The bipartite questionnaire asks for relevant medical information in the physician's part and for the occupational history since leaving school in the patient's part. Furthermore, this questionnaire is asking for intensity and frequency of certain occupational and non-occupational risk factors. The literature regarding occupations like painter, hairdresser or miner and exposures like carcinogenic aromatic amines, azo dyes, or combustion products is highlighted. The questionnaire is available on www.ifado.de/BladderCancerDoc. PMID:22652680

  10. A descent of the aurora over Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiter, Daniel; Partamies, Noora

    2014-05-01

    A very large statistical study (? 4 × 105 measurements) into the peak emission height of the aurora has shown that the aurora over Lapland descended significantly between 1996 and 2007. The study was performed using images from a network of ground-based all-sky cameras which form part of the MIRACLE (Magnetometers-Ionospheric Radar-All-sky Cameras Large Experiment) network, and are located at various observation stations across northern Finland and Sweden. The height of the aurora was first measured about a century ago. Since then, it has generally been assumed that the peak emission height of any particular auroral emission is constant for similar geomagnetic conditions. The present work was motivated by the need to improve estimates of the height of the aurora used to calculate other ionospheric and auroral properties, such as optical flow velocities and auroral arc widths. In recent years MIRACLE has produced approximately 105 images of the aurora per station per year. In order to analyse such a large number of images, a novel fast and automatic method was developed for finding the peak emission height of an auroral structure from a pair of all-sky camera images with overlapping fields of view. This method has been applied to all auroral images recorded by the MIRACLE intensified CCD cameras in operation between 1996 and 2007. Such a large data set allows the study of variations in the height of the aurora with time (yearly, monthly, hourly) and with solar and geomagnetic indices such as F10.7 and Kp. Results from the statistical study show that the peak emission height of green (557.7 nm, O1S - O1D transition) aurora over Lapland descended by about 10 km between 1996 and 2007. This descent occurred independently of the solar cycle, and is thought to be due to a cooling and contraction of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  11. Spectroscopic Imaging of Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S G; Gandour-Edwards, R; Ramsamooj, R; deVere White, R

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of developing bladder cancer detection methods using intrinsic tissue optical properties is the focus of this investigation. In vitro experiments have been performed using polarized elastic light scattering in combination with tissue autofluorescence in the NIR spectral region under laser excitation in the green and red spectral regions. The experimental results obtained from a set of tissue specimens from 25 patients reveal the presence of optical fingerprint characteristics suitable for cancer detection with high contrast and accuracy. These photonic methods are compatible with existing endoscopic imaging modalities which make them suitable for in-vivo application.

  12. [Urodynamics of artificial urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Komiakov, B K; Fadeev, V A; Novikov, A I; Zuban', O N; Atmadzhev, D N; Sergeev, A V; Kirichenko, O A; Burlaka, O O

    2006-01-01

    Radical cystectomy with creation of orthotopic reservoir from various segments of gastrointestinal tract was made in 120 patients (99 males, 21 females, age 37-74 years) with muscular-invasive cancer of the urinary bladder (UB) in 1996-2004. Replacement of UB was made according to the Studer and Hautmann method in 38 and 27 patients, respectively. S-cystoplasty was performed in 31 patients. The gastric segment was used for creation of the reservoir in 24 patients. Three patients died. Three to twelve month follow-up recorded the best functional results in patients after Studer cystoplasty. PMID:17058673

  13. Design of automation tools for management of descent traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

    1988-01-01

    The design of an automated air traffic control system based on a hierarchy of advisory tools for controllers is described. Compatibility of the tools with the human controller, a key objective of the design, is achieved by a judicious selection of tasks to be automated and careful attention to the design of the controller system interface. The design comprises three interconnected subsystems referred to as the Traffic Management Advisor, the Descent Advisor, and the Final Approach Spacing Tool. Each of these subsystems provides a collection of tools for specific controller positions and tasks. This paper focuses primarily on the Descent Advisor which provides automation tools for managing descent traffic. The algorithms, automation modes, and graphical interfaces incorporated in the design are described. Information generated by the Descent Advisor tools is integrated into a plan view traffic display consisting of a high-resolution color monitor. Estimated arrival times of aircraft are presented graphically on a time line, which is also used interactively in combination with a mouse input device to select and schedule arrival times. Other graphical markers indicate the location of the fuel-optimum top-of-descent point and the predicted separation distances of aircraft at a designated time-control point. Computer generated advisories provide speed and descent clearances which the controller can issue to aircraft to help them arrive at the feeder gate at the scheduled times or with specified separation distances. Two types of horizontal guidance modes, selectable by the controller, provide markers for managing the horizontal flightpaths of aircraft under various conditions. The entire system consisting of descent advisor algorithm, a library of aircraft performance models, national airspace system data bases, and interactive display software has been implemented on a workstation made by Sun Microsystems, Inc. It is planned to use this configuration in operational evaluations at an en route center.

  14. Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) on the Mars Polar Lander

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malin, M.C.; Caplinger, M.A.; Carr, M.H.; Squyres, S.; Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Descent Imager, or MARDI, experiment on the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) consists of a camera characterized by small physical size and mass (???6 ?? 6 ?? 12 cm, including baffle; <500 gm), low power requirements (<2.5 W, including power supply losses), and high science performance (1000 x 1000 pixel, low noise). The intent of the investigation is to acquire nested images over a range of resolutions, from 8 m/pixel to better than 1 cm/pixel, during the roughly 2 min it takes the MPL to descend from 8 km to the surface under parachute and rocket-powered deceleration. Observational goals will include studies of (1) surface morphology (e.g., nature and distribution of landforms indicating past and present environmental processes); (2) local and regional geography (e.g., context for other lander instruments: precise location, detailed local relief); and (3) relationships to features seen in orbiter data. To accomplish these goals, MARDI will collect three types of images. Four small images (256 x 256 pixels) will be acquired on 0.5 s centers beginning 0.3 s before MPL's heatshield is jettisoned. Sixteen full-frame images (1024 X 1024, circularly edited) will be acquired on 5.3 s centers thereafter. Just after backshell jettison but prior to the start of powered descent, a "best final nonpowered descent image" will be acquired. Five seconds after the start of powered descent, the camera will begin acquiring images on 4 s centers. Storage for as many as ten 800 x 800 pixel images is available during terminal descent. A number of spacecraft factors are likely to impact the quality of MARDI images, including substantial motion blur resulting from large rates of attitude variation during parachute descent and substantial rocket-engine-induced vibration during powered descent. In addition, the mounting location of the camera places the exhaust plume of the hydrazine engines prominently in the field of view. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-06-21

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation CBCT sampled on the segmentation contour candidate. The cost function measured the goodness of fit of the segmentation on the validation image and was minimized using a simplex optimizer. For each validation CBCT image, the segmentations were done five times using a different reference CBCT. The one with the lowest cost function was selected as the final bladder segmentation. Volume- and distance-based metrics and the accuracy of plan selection were evaluated to quantify the performance. Two to four PCA modes were needed to represent the bladder shape variation with less than 0.1 cm average residual error for the training data of each patient. The automatically segmented bladders had a 78.5% mean conformity index with the manual delineations. The mean SD of the local residual error over all patients was 0.24 cm. The agreement of plan selection between automatic and manual bladder segmentations was 77.5%. PCA is an efficient method to describe patient-specific bladder deformation. The statistical-shape-based segmentation approach is robust to handle the relatively poor CBCT image quality and allows for fast and reliable automatic segmentation of the bladder on CBCT for selecting the appropriate plan from a library of plans. PMID:22643320

  16. Urinary incontinence and bladder endometriosis: conservative management.

    PubMed

    Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ferrero, Simone; Salvatore, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Bladder endometriosis causes urinary symptoms including frequency, dysuria, cyclic haematuria and non-urinary pain symptoms. To our knowledge, the association of bladder endometriosis with urinary incontinence has not been described. We present the first case of bladder endometriosis that caused urinary symptoms including mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). A 34-year-old nulliparous woman was referred to our urogynaecology clinic with a 18-month history of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A diagnosis of bladder endometriosis was performed on the basis of symptoms and imaging. The patient refused surgery and dienogest was prescribed. At the 12-month follow-up, all endometriosis-related symptoms and questionnaire scores had significantly improved, and there was resolution of the abnormal urodynamic findings. In reproductive-aged women suffering pain symptoms, bladder endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of urinary incontinence and treatment with dienogest may lead to improvement of both urinary and pain symptoms. PMID:25182151

  17. Design of a randomised acupuncture trial on functional neck/shoulder stiffness with two placebo controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional neck/shoulder stiffness is one of the most well-known indications for acupuncture treatment in Japan. There is little evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for functional neck/shoulder stiffness. Research using two different placebos may allow an efficient method to tease apart the components of real acupuncture from various kinds of ‘non-specific’ effects such as ritual with touch or ritual alone. Herein, we describe a protocol of an ongoing, single-centre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial which aims to assess whether, in functional neck/shoulder stiffness, acupuncture treatment with skin piercing has a specific effect over two types of placebo: skin-touching plus ritual or ritual alone. Methods Six acupuncturists and 400 patients with functional neck/shoulder stiffness are randomly assigned to four treatment groups: genuine acupuncture penetrating the skin, skin-touch placebo or no-touch placebo needles in a double-blind manner (practitioner-patient blinding) or no-treatment control group. Each acupuncturist applies a needle to each of four acupoints (Bladder10, Small Intestine14, Gallbladder21 and Bladder42) in the neck/shoulder to 50 patients. Before, immediately after and 24 hours after the treatment, patients are asked about the intensity of their neck/shoulder stiffness. After the treatment, practitioners and patients are asked to guess whether the treatment is “penetrating”, “skin-touch” or “no-touch” or to record “cannot identify the treatment”. Discussion In addition to intention-to-treat analysis, we will conduct subgroup analysis based on practitioners’ or patients’ guesses to discuss the efficacy and effectiveness of treatments with skin piercing and various placebo controls. The results of practitioner and patient blinding will be discussed. We believe this study will further distinguish the role of different components of acupuncture. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN76896018 PMID:25027157

  18. Developmental biomechanics of neck musculature

    PubMed Central

    Lavallee, Amy V.; Ching, Randal P.; Nuckley, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Neck mechanics is central to head injury prevention since it is the musculoskeletal neck, which dictates the position and movement of the head. In the US, traumatic injury is the leading cause of death for children; however prevention is hampered by the lack of data concerning the mechanics of the immature head-and-neck. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify neck muscle strength and endurance across the maturation spectrum and correlate these with head-and-neck anthropometry. A factorial study was performed on 91 human subjects measuring head-and-neck anthropometry and neck strength and endurance in three bending directions (flexion, extension, and lateral) as a function of age (6–23 years). Using a custom device, neck maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force was measured in triplicate. Next, neck muscle endurance (sustained effort) was measured as the subjects’ ability to maintain 70% of peak force over 30 s. Linear regression of peak force and endurance as a function of age revealed each direction to significantly (p<0.0001) increase with age. The MVC force, averaged across all directions and normalized to the adult values, exhibits the following maturation curve: %MVC Force= ?0.0879(age)2+6.018(age)+8.120. Neck muscle strength, similar between young males and females, becomes disparate in adolescence and adulthood with males exhibiting greater strength. Bending direction differences were also found with extension strength being the greatest regardless of age and sex. Furthermore, neck circumference appears predictive of neck strength and endurance in children. Together, these relationships may facilitate improved design of injury prevention interventions. PMID:23127787

  19. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18)(q21: 21). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment. PMID:24511310

  20. Neonatal Bladder Inflammation Produces Functional Changes and Alters Neuropeptide Content in Bladders of Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    DeBerry, Jennifer; Randich, Alan; Shaffer, Amber D.; Robbins, Meredith T.; Ness, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Neonatal bladder inflammation has been demonstrated to produce hypersensitivity to bladder re-inflammation as an adult. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neonatal urinary bladder inflammation on adult bladder function and structure. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated on postnatal days 14-16 with intravesical zymosan or anesthesia alone. At 12-16 weeks of age, micturition frequency and cystometrograms were measured. Similarly treated rats had their bladders removed for measurement of plasma extravasation following intravesical mustard oil, for neuropeptide analysis (CGRP or SubP), or for detailed histological examination. Rats treated with zymosan as neonates exhibited increased micturition frequency, reduced micturition volume thresholds, greater extravasation of Evan's Blue following intravesical mustard oil administration, and greater total bladder content of CGRP and SubP. In contrast, there were no quantitative histological changes in the thickness, fibrosis or mast cells of bladder tissue due to neonatal zymosan treatments. Functional changes in urologic systems observed in adulthood, coupled with the increased neuropeptide content and neurogenic plasma extravasation in adult bladders, suggest that the neonatal bladder inflammation treatment enhanced the number, function and/or neurochemical content of primary afferent neurons. These data support the hypothesis that insults to the urologic system in infancy may contribute to the development of adult bladder hypersensitivity. Perspective Inflammation of the bladder early in life in the rat has multiple sequelae including laboratory measures that suggest an alteration of the neurophysiological substrates related to the bladder. Some painful bladder syndromes in humans have similar characteristics and so may be due to similar mechanisms. PMID:19945355

  1. Ion channel and receptor mechanisms of bladder afferent nerve sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biying Sun; Qian Li; Li Dong; Weifang Rong

    2010-01-01

    Sensory nerves of the urinary bladder consist of small diameter A? and C fibers running in the hypogastic and pelvic nerves. Neuroanatomical studies have revealed a complex neuronal network within the bladder wall. Electrophysiological recordings in vitro and in vivo have revealed several distinct classes of afferent fibers that may signal a wide range of bladder stimulations including physiological bladder

  2. Head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Crozier, Emily; Sumer, Baran D

    2010-09-01

    Early detection of upper aerodigestive tract cancer improves prognosis. The primary care physician plays an important role in early detection of these cancers. Most upper aerodigestive tract cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that are linked to tobacco, alcohol, or human papillomavirus exposure. These cancers produce nonspecific symptoms; thus, any persistent oral cavity lesion or neck mass or other unexplainable ear, nose, and throat symptoms should prompt an evaluation for malignancy. Although overall survival has not improved, nonsurgical treatment approaches have led to higher rates of organ preservation and rehabilitation after treatment has improved the quality of life of survivors. PMID:20736111

  3. Factors impacting bladder underactivity and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Van Koeveringe, G A; Rademakers, K L

    2015-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms in the voiding phase can be due to an underactive bladder, but are usually similar to symptoms of infravesical obstruction or dysfunctional voiding. The underactive bladder can be caused by an impaired detrusor contraction but also by a derangement of local and central neuro-cognitive regulatory systems or an impairment of bladder sensation. Potential risk factors of bladder underactivity include: ageing, diabetes, neurogenic disease, cardiovascular disease, obstruction and psychological causes. Comprehensive diagnostic and detection techniques for an underactive detrusor are necessary. To establish the diagnosis and follow up new treatments, useful urodynamic parameters and threshold values have to be determined. As neuro-cognitive regulation plays an important role in the control of voiding, psychological factors have to be taken into account during the assessment in these patients. Ambulatory urodynamic techniques therefore have to be considered. Voiding is determined by the balance of both the detrusor contraction and the resistance of the bladder outlet, a dysfunction in one factor can be compensated by a counter-acting function of the other factor. Therefore, to predict voiding problems in the future, it will be indicated to assess the compensatory capacity of the detrusor contractility, contractile reserve, and the outlet relaxation capacity. If novel treatments and evaluation techniques have become available, it is likely that in the future, many patients that get a TURP now, can be treated by pharmacological agents directed towards increasing the bladder contractility in a balanced combination with medication directed towards lowering the bladder outlet resistance. PMID:25645344

  4. Crew Procedures for Continuous Descent Arrivals Using Conventional Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Williams, David H.; Lewis, Elliot T,

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a simulation study which investigated the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures for conducting a descent through a busy terminal area, using conventional transport-category automation. This research was part of the Low Noise Flight Procedures (LNFP) element within the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project, that addressed development of flight guidance, and supporting pilot and Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures for low noise operations. The procedures and chart were designed to be easy to understand, and to make it easy for the crew to make changes via the Flight Management Computer Control-Display Unit (FMC-CDU) to accommodate changes from ATC. The test runs were intended to represent situations typical of what exists in many of today's terminal areas, including interruptions to the descent in the form of clearances issued by ATC.

  5. Bladder outlet obstruction in male cystinuria mice

    PubMed Central

    Ercolani, Mathew; Sahota, Amrik; Schuler, Catherine; Yang, Min; Evan, Andrew P.; Reimer, David; Barone, Joseph G.; Tischfield, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystinuria is the most common inherited cause of urinary tract stones in children. It can lead to obstructive uropathy, which is a major cause of renal failure. Genetic studies have identified two genes, SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, to be directly involved in cystine stone formation. Slc3a1 knockout male mice develop cystine stones in the bladder and, to a lesser extent, in the kidney. Slc3a1 knockout female mice also develop cystinuria, but they do not form stones. The specific aim of this study was to characterize bladder function in cystinuria mice. Methods Eight control (4 male, 4 female) and 16 Slc3a1 knockout (9 male, 7 female) mice of mixed strain background (C57B/129, age 4–5 months) were evaluated. Each mouse was anesthetized and the bladder dome catheterized for cystometry. Immediately following cystometry, the bladder was excised, weighed, and separated into three full thickness strips for contractile studies. Results Bladders from cystinuria male mice had significantly increased weight, all of them had stones, decreased compliance, and decreased contractile responses to field stimulation, ATP, carbachol, and KCl. Compared with controls, female knockout mice showed normal bladder weight, decreased voiding pressure, slightly decreased compliance, and slightly decreased contractile responses. Conclusions These studies clearly demonstrate that the bladder stones that developed in the male cystinuria mice resulted in a partial outlet obstruction. Although the female cystinuria mice did not have bladder stones, bladder function was mildly impaired; presumably by the presence of cystine crystals. PMID:19484501

  6. Noninvasive treatment of the neck.

    PubMed

    Brobst, Robert W; Ferguson, Maria; Perkins, Stephen W

    2014-05-01

    Emerging trends in neck rejuvenation include the incorporation of nonsurgical treatment modalities as an offering to those patients desiring minimal downtime and accepting of mild results. Intense focused ultrasound is a promising technology for treatment of the neck. It is rapidly growing in clinical use and undergoing further investigation to determine optimum treatment parameters and make its outcomes more predictable. PMID:24745382

  7. Mars Smart Lander Simulations for Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striepe, S. A.; Way, D. W.; Balaram, J.

    2002-01-01

    Two primary simulations have been developed and are being updated for the Mars Smart Lander Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). The high fidelity engineering end-to-end EDL simulation that is based on NASA Langley's Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) and the end-to-end real-time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation testbed, which is based on NASA JPL's (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing (DSENDS). This paper presents the status of these Mars Smart Lander EDL end-to-end simulations at this time. Various models, capabilities, as well as validation and verification for these simulations are discussed.

  8. Flight Data Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Elmain M.; Winterhalter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Daniel Winterhalter, NASA Engineering and Safety Center Chief Engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsor a 3-year effort to collect entry, descent, and landing material and to establish a NASA-wide archive to serve the material. The principle focus of this task was to identify entry, descent, and landing repository material that was at risk of being permanently lost due to damage, decay, and undocumented storage. To provide NASA-wide access to this material, a web-based digital archive was created. This document contains the outcome of the effort.

  9. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  10. Advances in bladder cancer imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the imaging techniques that have changed and are anticipated to change bladder cancer evaluation. The use of multidetector 64-slice computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remain standard staging modalities. The development of functional imaging such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT allows characterization of tumor physiology and potential genotypic activity, to help stratify and inform future patient management. They open up the possibility of tumor mapping and individualized treatment solutions, permitting early identification of response and allowing timely change in treatment. Further validation of these methods is required however, and at present they are used in conjunction with, rather than as an alternative to, conventional imaging techniques. PMID:23574966

  11. Overlooked Degree of Freedom in Steepest Descent Method ---Steepest Descent Method Corresponding to Divergence-Free WKB Method---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyouguchi, T.; Seto, R.; Adachi, S.

    2009-12-01

    The divergence-free WKB method proposed in our previous papers (T. Hyouguchi, S. Adachi and M. Ueda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002), 170404 and T. Hyouguchi, R. Seto, M. Ueda and S. Adachi, Ann. of Phys. 312 (2004), 177) yields a WKB wave function free from divergence for any real argument x in R even around the classical turning point. It is expected in asymptotic analysis that any WKB method for differential equations can be translated in one-to-one manner to the corresponding steepest descent method for integrals. This paper presents newly a steepest descent method that corresponds to our divergence-free WKB method. The experience of this translation lets us notice that the key to improving the traditional steepest descent method for general integrals to become divergence-free is the choice of integration variable to express a given integral.

  12. Urinary Bladder Hemangioma –A Rare Urinary Bladder Tumor in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Sanklecha, Vandana; Valand, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder hemangiomas are rare, accounting for 0.6% of the urinary bladder tumors. Hemangioma is considered arising from embryonic stem cells of an angioblastic lineage. A 3-year old boy presented with hematuria. He had past operative history of excision of extensive lymphatic malformation involving retroperitoneum, pelvis and upper thigh. Computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis with contrast revealed a large soft tissue mass arising from the dome of the bladder. Partial cystectomy was done. Histopathology confirmed the mass as cavernous hemangioma of urinary bladder. PMID:25628995

  13. Urinary bladder hemangioma -a rare urinary bladder tumor in a child.

    PubMed

    Jibhkate, Shubhangi; Sanklecha, Vandana; Valand, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder hemangiomas are rare, accounting for 0.6% of the urinary bladder tumors. Hemangioma is considered arising from embryonic stem cells of an angioblastic lineage. A 3-year old boy presented with hematuria. He had past operative history of excision of extensive lymphatic malformation involving retroperitoneum, pelvis and upper thigh. Computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis with contrast revealed a large soft tissue mass arising from the dome of the bladder. Partial cystectomy was done. Histopathology confirmed the mass as cavernous hemangioma of urinary bladder. PMID:25628995

  14. A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities

    E-print Network

    Patriksson, Michael

    A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities Michael describes the problem and the choices of cost approximating mappings and merit functions. The taxonomy. Taxonomy, classification, nonlinear programs, variational inequalities, descent algo­ rithms, cost

  15. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) Flight Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, M. C.; Caplinger, M. A.; Edgett, K. S.; Ghaemi, F. T.; Ravine, M. A.; Schaffner, J. A.; Maki, J. N.; Willson, R. G.; Bell, J. F.; Cameron, J. F.; Dietrich, W. E.; Edwards, L. J.; Hallet, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heydari, E.; Kah, L. C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Minitti, M. E.; Olson, T. S.; Parker, T. J.; Rowland, S. K.; Schieber, J.; Sullivan, R. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Thomas, P. C.; Yingst, R. A.

    2009-03-01

    The MSL Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) flight instrument has been completed and installed on the rover. MARDI will provide hundreds of color images during the descent of MSL to the martian surface in 2012.

  16. Perceptron Learning with Random Coordinate Descent Learning Systems Group, California Institute of Technology

    E-print Network

    Perceptron Learning with Random Coordinate Descent Ling Li Learning Systems Group, California Institute of Technology Abstract. A perceptron is a linear threshold classifier that separates examples a family of random coordinate descent algorithms for perceptron learning on binary classification problems

  17. Polytopes, generating functions, and new statistics related to descents and inversions in permutations

    E-print Network

    Chebikin, Denis

    2008-01-01

    We study new statistics on permutations that are variations on the descent and the inversion statistics. In particular, we consider the alternating descent set of a permutation [sigma] = [sigma] 1 [sigma] 2 an defined as ...

  18. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: Can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    SciTech Connect

    Stam, Marcel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: m.stam@rther.umcn.nl; Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Vight, Lisette P. van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kaanders, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Visser, Andries G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. Results: A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 Sd = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. Conclusions: This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations.

  19. Bladder Cancer: A Major Public Health Issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Grasso

    2008-01-01

    ObjectivesThis paper considers the epidemiology, societal burden, and natural history of bladder cancer; the common barriers to early diagnosis; and the professional and clinical factors that can impede the detection of an occupational cause of the disease.

  20. Bladder pacemaker: scientific basis and clinical future.

    PubMed

    Tanagho, E A; Schmidt, R A

    1982-12-01

    Complete intermittent emptying of the denervated bladder is essential to maintain the integrity of the urinary tract. Intraspinal extradural segments of the sacral roots in the canine can be stimulated electrically to induce bladder emptying effectively, especially in conjunction with selective neurotomy to make the stimulus pure autonomic effect on the bladder wall itself. With varying parameters of stimulation, one also can induce sustained voluntary sphincter activity to maintain continence--which obviates the problem of skeletal muscle fatigue. Combination of the two--detrusor stimulation for emptying and sphincteric stimulation to achieve control--are the first steps toward utilization of an electronic bladder pacemaker in the presence of an intact reflex arc. Its use in humans will be possible in the near future. PMID:7179629

  1. A new technique for bladder washing.

    PubMed

    Miller, D C; Fitkin, D L; Kropp, K A; Selman, S H

    1992-01-01

    We describe a simple adaptation of the Water Pik (Teledyne Water Pik, Fort Collins, Colorado) irrigating device which allows vigorous, direct-vision agitation of the bladder wall. Three groups of mongrel dogs were subjected to cystoscopy and either syringe barbotage, half-speed Water Pik irrigation, or full-speed Water Pik irrigation of the bladder wall. Transitional cell counts were then done on centrifuged aliquots of each bladder wash specimen. The average number of transitional cells per high-power field were similar between the control group and the syringe barbotage group (2.5 and 1.5 respectively). However, both the half-speed and the full-speed Water Pik groups demonstrated statistically higher cell counts (5.7 and 13.7) when compared to both the controls and syringe barbotage groups. We conclude that Water Pik irrigation is an effective method to increase cell yield in bladder wash specimens. PMID:1729530

  2. Role of laser therapy in bladder carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Brent A.; de Riese, Werner T.

    2001-05-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder is most common genitourinary tract cancer and its treatment comprises a large number of surgical procedures in urological oncology. Seventy-five percent (75%) of cases recur within two years and the recurrence rate is correlated with the grade of the initial tumor. While Transurethral Resection of the Bladder (TURB) is the current standard of care, the use of laser offers a proven alternative. Sufficient evidence is available that laser treatment of superficial bladder cancer is as effective as TURB. Laser treatment offers several advantages such as decreased incidence of bladder perforation, a near bloodless procedure, catheter-free procedure, and the possibility of outpatient therapy. It has been reported that laser treatment may reduce the recurrence rate of TCC as compared to electrocautery resection. Furthermore, some studies suggest seeding can be avoided with laser resection; however, both items remain highly controversial.

  3. Neurogenic Inflammation of Guinea-Pig Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Saban, M. R.; Saban, R.

    1994-01-01

    Capsaicin, substance P, and ovalbumin, instilled into the bladders of naive and ovalbumin (OVA) sensitized guineapigs caused inflammation, as indicated by increased vascular permeability. Histological changes after exposure to these compounds progressed with time from intense vasodilatation to marginalization of granulocytes followed by interstitial migration of leukocytes. In vitro incubation of guinea-pig bladder tissue with substance P and ovalbumin stimulated release of prostaglandin D2 and leukotrienes. In vitro incubation of bladder tissue with capsaicin, OVA, prostaglandin D2, leukotriene C4, histamine, or calcium ionophore A-23587 all stimulated substance P release. These data suggest that bladder inflammation initiated by a variety of stimuli could lead to a cyclic pattern of release of inflammatory mediators and neuropeptides, which could result in amplification and persistence of cystitis after the inciting cause has subsided. PMID:18472941

  4. Animal Models in Overactive Bladder Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A. Parsons; Marcus J. Drake

    \\u000a Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is a symptom-based diagnosis characterised by the presence of urinary urgency. It is highly\\u000a prevalent and overlaps with the presence of bladder contractions during urine storage, which characterises the urodynamic\\u000a diagnosis of detrusor overactivity. Animal models are needed to understand the pathophysiology of OAB, but the subjective\\u000a nature of the symptomcomplex means that interpretation of the

  5. Genetic Marker Identified for Aggressive Bladder Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers led by Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Ph.D., in DCEG's Laboratory of Translational Genomics, have identified the first genetic variant associated with risk of aggressive bladder cancer. The variant, rs7257330, is in the promoter region of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes for cyclin E protein, a cell cycle regulator. This result comes from a fine-mapping analysis of data from two bladder cancer genome-wide association studies and functional studies.

  6. [Skin metastasis from invasive bladder tumour].

    PubMed

    Haouas, Noureddine; Youssef, Anis; Sahraoui, Wassila; Thabet, Imène; Ben Sorba, Nabil; Jaidane, Mehdi; Haddad, Nidhal; Mosbah, Ali Taher

    2005-06-01

    Metastatic spread of advanced transitional cell bladder carcinoma rarely involves the skin. However, the presence of a skin metastasis indicates at least microscopic dissemination of cancer cells to the liver or lung, corresponding to a poor prognosis. The authors report a new case of single skin metastasis during the course of a poorly differentiated stage pT3a N0 M0 transitional cell bladder carcinoma. The patient died 5 months after the appearance of the skin metastasis. PMID:16097168

  7. Bladder Pain Syndrome\\/Interstitial Cystitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Irwin

    \\u000a Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) should be regarded as a true pain syndrome (a collection of symptoms and signs which, together,\\u000a characterize a particular condition or disease) rather than an end-organ disease. The term “interstitial cystitis” (IC) has\\u000a been a misleading name for a condition in which true bladder inflammation is seen only in a small subset of patients with\\u000a chronic

  8. Steepest Descent Path Study of Electron-Transfer Reactions Jianshu Cao

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jianshu

    : October 13, 1999 A nonadiabatic steepest descent path method is developed as a qualitative tool to analyze transfer. I. Introduction The steepest descent path has been widely used as a qualitative tool concept,15-17 and the steepest descent evaluation of the instanton rate recovers the overdamped limit

  9. ONLINE MULTI-LABEL LEARNING WITH ACCELERATED NONSMOOTH STOCHASTIC GRADIENT DESCENT

    E-print Network

    Choi, Seungjin

    ONLINE MULTI-LABEL LEARNING WITH ACCELERATED NONSMOOTH STOCHASTIC GRADIENT DESCENT Sunho Park1 where we minimize the primal form us- ing the accelerated nonsmooth stochastic gradient descent which the primal form using the accelerated nons- mooth stochastic gradient descent [17] which has been recently de

  10. A GENTLE HESSIAN FOR EFFICIENT GRADIENT DESCENT Ronan Collobert and Samy Bengio

    E-print Network

    Collobert, Ronan

    of the time, people rely on simple stochastic gradient descent which has a cost in O(n) per iterationA GENTLE HESSIAN FOR EFFICIENT GRADIENT DESCENT Ronan Collobert and Samy Bengio IDIAP, Martigny, Switzerland {collober,bengio}@idiap.ch ABSTRACT Several second-order optimization methods for gradient descent

  11. Tracer-based determination of vortex descent in the 1999/2000 Arctic winter

    E-print Network

    Chipperfield, Martyn

    , polar vortex, subsidence, descent, stratosphere Citation: Greenblatt, J. B., et al., TracerTracer-based determination of vortex descent in the 1999/2000 Arctic winter Jeffery B. Greenblatt1 vortex has been performed in order to quantify the temporal evolution of vortex descent. Differences

  12. Simulation Results for Airborne Precision Spacing along Continuous Descent Arrivals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a fast-time simulation experiment and a high-fidelity simulator validation with merging streams of aircraft flying Continuous Descent Arrivals through generic airspace to a runway at Dallas-Ft Worth. Aircraft made small speed adjustments based on an airborne-based spacing algorithm, so as to arrive at the threshold exactly at the assigned time interval behind their Traffic-To-Follow. The 40 aircraft were initialized at different altitudes and speeds on one of four different routes, and then merged at different points and altitudes while flying Continuous Descent Arrivals. This merging and spacing using flight deck equipment and procedures to augment or implement Air Traffic Management directives is called Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing, an important subset of a larger Airborne Precision Spacing functionality. This research indicates that Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing initiated while at cruise altitude and well prior to the Terminal Radar Approach Control entry can significantly contribute to the delivery of aircraft at a specified interval to the runway threshold with a high degree of accuracy and at a reduced pilot workload. Furthermore, previously documented work has shown that using a Continuous Descent Arrival instead of a traditional step-down descent can save fuel, reduce noise, and reduce emissions. Research into Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing is a cooperative effort between government and industry partners.

  13. Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent. PMID:24636222

  14. Dictionary Learning with Large Step Gradient Descent for Sparse Representations

    E-print Network

    Plumbley, Mark

    Dictionary Learning with Large Step Gradient Descent for Sparse Representations Boris Mailhé.name@eecs.qmul.ac.uk Abstract. This work presents a new algorithm for dictionary learn- ing. Existing algorithms such as MOD and K-SVD often fail to find the best dictionary because they get trapped in a local minimum. Olshausen

  15. Dictionary Learning with Large Step Gradient Descent for Sparse Representations

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dictionary Learning with Large Step Gradient Descent for Sparse Representations Boris Mailhé.name@eecs.qmul.ac.uk Abstract. This work presents a new algorithm for dictionary learning. Existing algorithms such as MOD and K-SVD often fail to find the best dictionary because they get trapped in a local minimum. Olshausen and Field

  16. CONSTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE FACETS OF WEIL DESCENT ON ELLIPTIC CURVES

    E-print Network

    Gaudry, Pierrick

    , divisor class group, cryptography, elliptic curves. 1 #12; 2 P. GAUDRY, F. HESS, AND N.P. SMART We shallCONSTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE FACETS OF WEIL DESCENT ON ELLIPTIC CURVES P. GAUDRY, F. HESS, AND N and Smart for producing curves in the Weil restriction of an elliptic curve over a finite field

  17. CONSTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE FACETS OF WEIL DESCENT ON ELLIPTIC CURVES

    E-print Network

    Hess, Florian

    , divisor class group, cryptography, elliptic curves. 1 #12;2 P. GAUDRY, F. HESS, AND N.P. SMART We shallCONSTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE FACETS OF WEIL DESCENT ON ELLIPTIC CURVES P. GAUDRY, F. HESS, AND N and Smart for producing curves in the Weil restriction of an elliptic curve over a finite field

  18. Mars Science Laboratory entry, descent, and landing system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Steltzner; Devin Kipp; Allen Chen; Dan Burkhart; Carl Guernsey; Gavin Mendeck; Robert Mitcheltree; Richard Powell; Tommaso Rivellini; Miguel San Martin

    2006-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable.

  19. Operation of CONSERT aboard Rosetta during the descent of Philae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegler, Sebastian; Statz, Christoph; Hahnel, Ronny; Plettemeier, Dirk; Herique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a study investigating the performance of using the CONSERT instrument aboard the Rosetta spacecraft as a radar sounder during the Separation-Descent-Landing (SDL) phase of the Rosetta mission. Gathering scientifically valuable data during this phase will support CONSERT's primary target, the reconstruction of the 3D permittivity distribution within the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, by providing a permittivity map of the surface around the landing site. Simulation results will show the performance of the instrument, using a realistic setup including the antenna characteristics of both orbiter and landing unit as well as a realistic orbitography for the descent phase. It will be shown that operating the CONSERT instrument will indeed provide very valuable data, thereby providing tremendous aid to the experiment's main objective. Furthermore, by including knowledge of the antenna characteristics, it is possible to calculate attitude and descent profile of the Philae lander during descent, using the data of the line-of-sight propagation path and the echoes reflected from the comet's surface.

  20. Steepest descent methods for critical points in vector optimization problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thai Doan Chuong; Jen-Chih Yao

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present steepest descent methods for finding stationary (critical) points of vector optimization problems for maps from an Euclidean space to a Banach space with respect to the partial order induced by a closed, convex and pointed cone with a nonempty interior. Convergence of the generated sequence to a weakly efficient solution of our problem is established

  1. Cortical network functional connectivity in the descent to sleep

    E-print Network

    Larson-Prior, Linda

    sleep is characterized by a sequence of electroencephalographically de- fined stages that may be broadly stages of NREM and then REM sleep progressively disengage the self from the environment. It is now wellCortical network functional connectivity in the descent to sleep Linda J. Larson-Priora,1 , John M

  2. Deformations and descent type theory for Hopf algebras

    E-print Network

    Agore, A L

    2012-01-01

    Let $A \\subset E$ be a given extension of Hopf algebras. A factorization $A$-form of $E$ is a Hopf algebra $H$ such that $E$ factorizes through $A$ and $H$. The bicrossed descent theory asks for the description and classification of all factorization $A$-forms of $E$. The factorization index $[E: A]^f$ is introduced as a numerical measure of the bicrossed descent theory: the extensions of factorization index 1 are those for which a Krull-Schmidt-Azumaya type theorem for bicrossed products holds. The Hopf algebra $H$ is deformed to a new Hopf algebra $H_r$, using a certain type of unitary cocentral map $r: H \\to A$ called a descent map of the matched pair $(A, H, \\triangleright,\\triangleleft)$. This is a general deformation of a given Hopf algebra and it is of interest in its own right. Let $H$ be a given factorization $A$-form of $E$. The description of forms proves that ${\\mathbb H}$ is a factorization $A$-form of $E$ if and only if ${\\mathbb H}$ is isomorphic to $H_{r}$, for some descent map $r: H \\to A$. T...

  3. A Comparison of Inexact Newton and Coordinate Descent Meshoptimization Technqiues

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, L F; Knupp, P; Munson, T; Shontz, S

    2004-07-08

    We compare inexact Newton and coordinate descent methods for optimizing the quality of a mesh by repositioning the vertices, where quality is measured by the harmonic mean of the mean-ratio metric. The effects of problem size, element size heterogeneity, and various vertex displacement schemes on the performance of these algorithms are assessed for a series of tetrahedral meshes.

  4. Transcendental Brauer elements via descent on elliptic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Viray, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    Transcendental Brauer elements are notoriously difficult to compute. Work of Wittenberg, and later, Ieronymou, gives a method for computing 2-torsion transcendental classes on surfaces that have a genus 1 fibration with rational 2-torsion in the Jacobian fibration. We use ideas from a descent paper of Poonen and Schaefer to remove this assumption on the rational 2-torsion.

  5. Fast Training of Object Detection Using Stochastic Gradient Descent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob G. J. Wijnhoven

    2010-01-01

    Training datasets for object detection problems are typically very large and Support Vector Machine (SVM) implementations are computationally complex. As opposed to these complex techniques, we use Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) algorithms that use only a single new training sample in each iteration and process samples in a stream-like fashion. We have incorporated SGD optimization in an object detection framework.

  6. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Consortium is collaborating on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer among this population. These investigators are interested in understanding the complex multifactorial causes of prostate cancer etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry worldwide.

  7. Identity by Descent in Island-mainland Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Rannala; J. A. Hartigant

    1995-01-01

    A new model is presented for the genetic structure among a collection of island populations, with fluctuating population sizes and continuous overlapping generations, using a stochastic birth, death and immigration (BDI) process. Immigrants enter each island from a large mainland population, with constant gene frequencies, according to a Poisson process. The average probability of identity by descent (IBD) for two

  8. Semi-Stochastic Gradient Descent Methods Jakub Konecny Peter Richtarik

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    to evaluate full gradient at each iteration. Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) picks i {1, 2, . . . , n} uniformly at random, and sets xj+1 = xj - hfi (xj). SGD drastically reduces the amount of work that needs the work efficiency of SGD. 2. The Algorithm (S2GD) In the S2GD algorithm, we compute full gradient (gj

  9. Accelerating Stochastic Gradient Descent using Predictive Variance Reduction

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Rie

    evaluation of n derivatives, which is expensive. A popular modification is stochastic gradient descent (SGD) - t it (w(t-1) ). (3) The expectation E[w(t) |w(t-1) ] is identical to (2). A more general version of SGD convergence of O((1 - /L)t ) Nesterov [2004]. However, for SGD, due to the variance of random sampling, we

  10. Women of African Descent: Persistence in Completing Doctorates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iddrisu, Vannetta Bailey

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the educational persistence of women of African descent (WOAD) in pursuit of a doctorate degree at universities in the southeastern United States. WOAD are women of African ancestry born outside the African continent. These women are heirs to an inner dogged determination and spirit to survive despite all odds (Pulliam, 2003,…

  11. Abuse against Women with Disabilities of Mexican Descent: Cultural Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Noreen M.; Reed, Bruce J.; Sanchez, Rubi

    2008-01-01

    Although considerable attention has been focused on violence against women with disabilities, environmental and cultural factors that contribute to this violence have received limited attention. This paper examines violence against women of Mexican descent with disabilities. Recommendations are offered to researchers, educators, and service…

  12. Rapid descent of mesospheric air into the stratospheric polar vortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Fisher; Alan O'Neill; Rowan Sutton

    1993-01-01

    Wind fields from a numerical simulation are used to give a detailed Lagrangian picture of air flow in the middle atmosphere of the southern hemisphere in winter and early spring 1991. Trajectories for many thousands of air particles exhibit rapid descent of mesospheric air into the stratospheric polar vortex, revealing its organizing and structure-preserving properties. Results are used to account

  13. Neck Pain following Laminoplasty.

    PubMed

    Mesfin, Addisu; Park, Moon-Soo; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Song, Kwang Sup; Kim, Han Jo; Riew, K Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Study Design?Retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data. Objective?To compare preoperative and postoperative neck pain following laminoplasty using the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Methods?Seventy-two patients undergoing laminoplasty from 2006 to 2009 at a single institution were identified. Thirty-four patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up who completed preoperative, 6-week, and 1-year postoperative NDI questionnaires were enrolled. Demographic data and surgical data including estimated blood loss (EBL), length of surgery, number of laminoplasty levels, complications, and length of hospitalization were collected. Results?Mean age was 62 years (range: 34 to 88), mean follow-up was 17 months (range: 12 to 31), and there were 21 men and 13 women. Diagnoses were cervical spondylotic myelopathy (n?=?26), ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (n?=?6), and central cord syndrome (n?=?2). Mean EBL was 120 mL (range: 50 to 200), and mean surgical time was 152 minutes (range: 70 to 240). Average number of laminoplasty levels was 3 (range: 1 to 5). The open door technique was used, and 24/34 (71%) did not have laminoplasty at C3 and C7. No intraoperative complications were noted, and average hospital stay was 1.6 days (range: 1 to 7). Significant improvement in NDI total score was noted at 1?year (p?

  14. Inguinal Bladder Hernia: Four Case Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Moufid, Kamal; Touiti, Driss; Mohamed, Lezrek

    2013-01-01

    A study of four cases presenting as inguinal bladder hernia was performed based on a review of the clinical presentation, circumstances of diagnostics, and surgical management. The mean age of patients was 66.5 years. Presenting symptoms included lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS; three cases) and decrease in scrotal size after voiding (one case). The diagnostic circumstances were incidental finding during investigation for urethral stricture (one case), preoperative discovery on the basis of decrease in scrotal size after voiding (one case), perioperative discovery during standard herniorrhaphy (one case), and peritoneal effusion secondary to bladder injury in the early postoperative period. All patients were managed successfully by replacement of the bladder in its original position and inguinal herniorrhaphy, the Lichtenstein technique (two cases), Shouldice repair (one case), or modified Bassini repair (one case) through the same inguinal incision. For one patient, bladder injury was diagnosed at the time of inguinal herniorrhaphy and repair was promptly made. For another, bladder injury was discovered only at surgical abdominal exploration. Surgical repair led to the resolution of signs and urologic symptoms in all but one patient who needed medical therapy for residual LUTS. An awareness of this possibility on the part of general surgeons should guide preoperative evaluation and therapy appropriately. Even if the preoperative diagnosis is missed, a perioperative diagnosis is crucial to avoid bladder injury during surgery. PMID:23671403

  15. Diagnosis and management of intradiverticular bladder tumours.

    PubMed

    Walker, Nicholas Faure; Gan, Christine; Olsburgh, Jonathon; Khan, Muhammad Shamim

    2014-07-01

    Intradiverticular bladder tumours (IDBT) account for approximately 1% of all urinary bladder tumours. The risk of developing a tumour within a bladder diverticulum is considered to be greater than in the main bladder, possibly owing to prolonged contact of potential carcinogens with the mucosal lining from urinary stasis. Patients with these tumours most commonly present with visible haematuria. Diagnostic tests include urine cytology, cystoscopy, ultrasonography, CT, MRI, and biopsy. Lack of muscle in the diverticula increases the risk of bladder perforation during biopsy and makes pathological staging difficult as there is no T2 stage; instead, data suggest that any invasion beyond the lamina propria should be described as T3. IDBT can be managed by transurethral resection and adjuvant intravesical therapy, diverticulectomy, or cystectomy (partial or radical), as outlined by the only guidelines to specifically address the management of IDBT, which were published by the Cancer Committee of the French Association of Urology (CCAFU) in 2012. The prognosis of patients with intradiverticular bladder tumours has always been perceived to be worse than those with intravesical tumours; however, the only study of 5-year survival rates for patients with IDBT suggests that prognosis might be comparable for these conditions. PMID:24934450

  16. Increased Bladder Wall Thickness in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Women With Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ogullar, Sabri; ?ahin, Serap Baydur; Zorba, Orhan Ünal; Akça, Görkem; Sümer, Fatih; Güney, Ülkü Mete; Bal?k, Gül?ah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Bladder wall thickness has been reported to be associated with overactive bladder (OAB) in women. Diabetic women have an increased risk for OAB syndrome and may have an increased risk for bladder wall thickness. Methods A total of 235 female patients aged 40 to 75 years were categorized into four groups. The first group consisted of women free of urgency or urge urinary incontinence. The second group included nondiabetic women with idiopathic OAB. The third group consisted of women with diabetes and clinical OAB, and women with diabetes but without OAB constituted the fourth group. Bladder wall thickness at the anterior wall was measured by ultrasound by the suprapubic approach with bladder filling over 250 mL. Results The diabetic (third group) and nondiabetic (second group) women with OAB had significantly greater bladder wall thickness at the anterior bladder wall than did the controls. However, the difference was not significant between the diabetic (third group) and the nondiabetic (second group) women with OAB. Women with diabetes but without OAB (fourth group) had greater bladder wall thickness than did the controls but this difference was not significant. Additionally, the difference in bladder wall thickness between diabetic women with (third group) and without (fourth group) OAB was not significant. Conclusions This is the first study to show that bladder wall thickness is increased in diabetic women with and without OAB. Additionally, nondiabetic women with OAB had increased bladder wall thickness. Further studies may provide additional information for diabetic and nondiabetic women with OAB, in whom the etiopathogenesis of the disease may be similar. PMID:23869270

  17. Sensory Dysfunction of Bladder Mucosa and Bladder Oversensitivity in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Chia; Chiang, Po-Hui; Tain, You-Lin; Wu, Chia-Ching; Chuang, Yao-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study the role of sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa in bladder oversensitivity of rats with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods Female Wistar rats were fed a fructose-rich diet (60%) or a normal diet for 3 months. Based on cystometry, the fructose-fed rats (FFRs) were divided into a group with normal detrusor function or detrusor overactivity (DO). Acidic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) solution (5mM, pH 3.3) was used to elicit reflex micturition. Cystometric parameters were evaluated before and after drug administration. Functional proteins of the bladder mucosa were assessed by western blotting. Results Compared to the controls, intravesical acidic ATP solution instillation induced a significant increase in provoked phasic contractions in both FFR groups and a significant decrease in the mean functional bladder capacity of group DO. Pretreatment with capsaicin for C-fiber desentization, intravesical liposome for mucosal protection, or intravenous pyridoxal 5-phosphate 6-azophenyl-2?,4?-disulfonic acid for antagonized purinergic receptors can interfere with the urodynamic effects of intravesical ATP in FFRs and controls. Over-expression of TRPV1, P2X3, and iNOS proteins, and down-regulation of eNOS proteins were observed in the bladder mucosa of both fructose-fed groups. Conclusions Alterations of sensory receptors and enzymes in the bladder mucosa, including over-expression of TRPV1, P2X3, and iNOS proteins, can precipitate the emergence of bladder phasic contractions and oversensitivity through the activation of C-afferents during acidic ATP solution stimulation in FFRs. The down-regulation of eNOS protein in the bladder mucosa of FFRs may lead to a failure to suppress bladder oversensitivity and phasic contractions. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and DO causing by metabolic syndrome are easier to elicit bladder oversensitivity to certain urothelium stimuli. PMID:23029112

  18. Measurement of CPAS Main Parachute Rate of Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown. Flight test performance must be measured to a high degree of accuracy to ensure this requirement is met with the most efficient design possible. Although the design includes three CPAS Main parachutes, the requirement is that the system must not exceed 33 ft/s under two Main parachutes, should one of the Main parachutes fail. Therefore, several tests were conducted with clusters of two Mains. All of the steady-state rate of descent data are normalized to standard sea level conditions and checked against the limit. As the Orion design gains weight, the system is approaching this limit to within measurement precision. Parachute "breathing," cluster interactions, and atmospheric anomalies can cause the rate of descent to vary widely and lead to challenges in characterizing parachute terminal performance. An early test had contradictory rate of descent results from optical trajectory and Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS). A thorough analysis of the data sources and error propagation was conducted to determine the uncertainty in the trajectory. It was discovered that the Time Space Position Information (TSPI) from the optical tracking provided accurate position data. However, the velocity from TPSI must be computed via numerical differentiation, which is prone to large error. DGPS obtains position through pseudo-range calculations from multiple satellites and velocity through Doppler shift of the carrier frequency. Because the velocity from DGPS is a direct measurement, it is more accurate than TSPI velocity. To remedy the situation, a commercial off-the-shelf product that combines GPS and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was purchased to significantly improve rate of descent measurements. This had the added benefit of solving GPS dropouts during aircraft extraction. Statistical probability distributions for CPAS Main parachute rate of descent and drag coefficient were computed and plotted. Using test data, a terminal rate of descent at splashdown can be estimated as a function of canopy loading.

  19. Computations of diabatic descent in the stratospheric polar vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.; Newman, Paul A.; Schoeberl, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A radiation model, together with National Meteorological Center temperature observations, was used to compute daily net heating rates in the northern hemisphere (NH) for the Arctic late fall and winter periods of both 1988-1989 and 1991-1992 and in the southern hemisphere (SH) for the Antarctic fall and winters of 1987 and 1992. The heating rates were interpolated to potential temperature (theta) surfaces between 400 K and 2000 K and averaged within the polar vortex, the boundary of which was determined by the maximum gradient in potential vorticity. The averaged heating rates were used in a one-dimensional vortex interior descent model to compute the change in potential temperature with time of air parcels initialized at various theta values, as well as to compute the descent in log pressure coodinates. In the NH vortex, air parcels which were initialized at 18 km on November 1, descended about 6 km by March 21, while air initially at 25 km descended 9 km in the same time period. this represents an average descent rate in the lower stratosphere of 1.3 to 2 km per month. Air initialized at 50 km descended 27 km between November 1 and March 21. In the SH vortex, parcels initialized at 18 km on March 1, descended 3 km, while air at 25 km descended 5-7 km by the end of October. This is equivalent to an average descent in the lower stratosphere of 0.4 to 0.9 km per month during this 8-month period. Air initialized at 52 km descended 26-29 km between March 1 and October 31. In both the NH and the SH, computed descent rates increased markedly with height. The descent for the NH winter of 1992-1993 and the SH winter of 1992 computed with a three-dimensional trajectory model using the same radiation code was within 1 to 2 km of that calculated by the one-dimensional model, thus validating the vortex averaging procedure. The computed descent rates generally agree well with observations of long-lived tracers, thus validating the radiative transfer model.

  20. Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES: Neck pain may be triggered by a specific event discomfort. Long term neck problems are more likely when pain develops gradually or discomfort is recurrent over a period of time. Chronic neck pain is often triggered by prior injuries, especially if original

  1. Reproducibility of the bladder shape and bladder shape changes during filling

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, Heidi T.; Herk, Marcel van; Betgen, Anja; Pos, Floris; Lebesque, Joos V.; Remeijer, Peter [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-08-15

    The feasibility of high precision radiotherapy to the bladder region is limited by bladder motion and volume changes. In the near future, we plan to begin treatment delivery of bladder cancer patients with the acquisition of a cone beam CT image on which the complete bladder will be semi-automatically localized. Subsequently, a bladder shape model that was developed in a previous study will be used for bladder localization and for the prediction of shape changes in the time interval between acquisition and beam delivery. For such predictions, knowledge about urinary inflow rate is required. Therefore, a series of MR images was acquired over 1 h with time intervals of 10 min for 18 healthy volunteers. To gain insight in the reproducibility of the bladder shape over longer periods of time, two additional MRI series were recorded for 10 of the volunteers. To a good approximation, the bladder volume increased linearly in time for all individuals. Despite receiving drinking instructions, we found a large variation in the inflow rate between individuals, ranging from 2.1 to 15 cc/min (mean value: 9{+-}3 cc/min). In contrast, the intravolunteer variation was much smaller, with a mean standard deviation (SD) of 0.4 cc/min. The inflow rate was linearly correlated with age (negative slope). To study the reproducibility of the bladder shape, we compared bladder shapes of equal volume. For all individuals, the caudal part of the bladder was the most reproducible (variations<0.3 cm in all cases). The cranial and posterior parts of the bladder was much less reproducible, with local SD values up to {approx}1.2 cm for bladders with a volume of 200 cc. These large long-term variations were primarily caused by changes in position and filling of the small bowel and rectum. However, for short time intervals, the rectal filling was (nearly) constant. Therefore, the reproducibility of urinary inflow, combined with the previously developed shape model gives us an excellent tool to predict short-term shape changes. We intend to use this tool for further improvement of image-guided radiotherapy for bladder cancer patients.

  2. Tension free vaginal tape underneath bladder base: does it prevent cystocele recurrence?

    PubMed Central

    Tantanasis, T; Giannoulis, C; Daniilidis, A; Papathanasiou, K; Loufopoulos, A; Tzafettas, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The target of the current prospective study was to assess the effectiveness of the polypropylene tapes in preventing recurrence of cystocele formation when placed underneath the bladder base. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two Caucasian women, predominantly postmemopausal with marked descent of the anterior, middle and/or posterior pelvic segment, participated in the study. Vaginal reconstructive surgery including anterior colporrhaphy and Kelly placation, posterior colpoperineorrhaphy and/or hysterectomy, was undertaken in all subjects. The polypropylene tape was placed not under the midurethra, as often performed in stress urine incontinence (SUI) cases, but underneath the bladder base as an adjunct to the anterior colporrhaphy sutures. The postoperative follow up lasted 2 years and was carried out every 4 months. The assessment of the anatomic result included evaluation of the operated sites and the position of the tapes inserted on clinical grounds and after perineal sonography. Urodynamic assessment was performed in the presence of urinary incontinence. Results: In all patients the postoperative correction of the anterior vaginal wall was sufficient, 14 subjects did not present genitourinary symptoms and therefore were considered as cured; three patients were designated as improved because despite sufficient anatomic correction of the anterior vaginal segment they reported urinary incontinence symptoms. Retropubic haematoma occurred in 1 patient, transient urge incontinence in 1, transient stress incontinence in 1, and persistent stress incontinence also in 1. There was no erosion of the tape noticed. Mean residual urine was 30 ml, mean bladder base distance to the inferior edge of the symphysis pubis was 1.2 cm and the mean total vaginal length was 7 cm. Conclusion: Despite the relative short follow up period and the limited number of patients enrolled, we conclude from our study that the use of polypropylene tapes as an adjunct for fortification of the anterior pelvic segment could provide an option in preventing recurrence of cystocele formation. PMID:18923661

  3. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of cancer in the head and neck is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the cells that line the inside of the nose, mouth and throat. Squamous cell cancer is often associated with a history ...

  4. Neurogenic Bladder in Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-hwa; Park, Dong-Su

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multi-systemic, tick-borne infectious disease caused by a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Various urologic symptoms are associated with Lyme disease, which can be primary or late manifestations of the disease. Although voiding dysfunction is a rarely reported symptom in patients with Lyme disease, it is one of the most disabling complications of Lyme disease. Korea is not an endemic area of Lyme disease, thus, fewer cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of a 32-year-old man with rapidly progressive bilateral ptosis, dysphagia, spastic paraparesis, and voiding difficulty in whom Lyme disease was diagnosed through serologic tests for antibodies and Western blot testing. A urodynamic study demonstrated detrusor areflexia and bulbocavernosus reflex tests showed delayed latency, indicating demyelination at S2-S4 levels. He received a 4-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone (2 g/day). The patient has recovered from the bilateral ptosis and spastic paraparesis but still suffers from neurogenic bladder. PMID:23346488

  5. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Mitlitsky, Fred (1125 Canton Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Myers, Blake (4650 Almond Cir., Livermore, CA 94550); Magnotta, Frank (1206 Bacon Way, Lafayette, CA 94549)

    1998-01-01

    A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

  6. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Magnotta, F.

    1998-08-25

    A lightweight, low permeability liner is described for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using tori spherical or near tori spherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film sealed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life. 19 figs.

  7. Head and neck vascular lesions.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Stephen R; Rastatter, Jeffrey C; Richter, Gresham T

    2015-02-01

    Vascular lesions of the head and neck are complex and diverse. These include infantile hemangioma, venous malformations, lymphatic malformations, and arteriovenous malformations, among others. Vascular malformations and tumors display different growth patterns and require different approaches to treatment. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is of utmost importance. This article is a guide for the diagnosis and management of vascular lesions of the head and neck. PMID:25439548

  8. Flight Management System Execution of Idle-Thrust Descents in Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stell, Laurel L.

    2011-01-01

    To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the trajectory predictor and its error models, commercial flights executed idle-thrust descents, and the recorded data includes the target speed profile and FMS intent trajectories. The FMS computes the intended descent path assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and any intervention by the controllers that alters the FMS execution of the descent is recorded so that such flights are discarded from the analysis. The horizontal flight path, cruise and meter fix altitudes, and actual TOD location are extracted from the radar data. Using more than 60 descents in Boeing 777 aircraft, the actual speeds are compared to the intended descent speed profile. In addition, three aspects of the accuracy of the FMS intent trajectory are analyzed: the meter fix crossing time, the TOD location, and the altitude at the meter fix. The actual TOD location is within 5 nmi of the intent location for over 95% of the descents. Roughly 90% of the time, the airspeed is within 0.01 of the target Mach number and within 10 KCAS of the target descent CAS, but the meter fix crossing time is only within 50 sec of the time computed by the FMS. Overall, the aircraft seem to be executing the descents as intended by the designers of the onboard automation.

  9. Surgical management of bladder stones: literature review.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Danilovic, Alexandre; Coelho, Rafael Ferreira; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Bladder stones are rare and most cases occur in adult men with bladder outlet obstruction. Currently, there are few data on the best treatment of this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss some aspects of pathogenesis and treatment approaches for bladder lithiasis. A comprehensive search of the database of the "National Library of Medicine" /pubmed was conducted with the following key words and descriptors: "bladder" or "vesical" associated with "calculus", "stone" or "lithiasis", and "cistolithotripsy ". One hundred and seventy-one articles were identified. The articles were independently assessed by two reviewers with expertise in urolithiasis. They were included in the study when the results, complications and follow-up were clearly reported. In the end, 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several options for the treatment of bladder lithiasis are available, but no randomized trials comparing them. Different rates of calculus-free patients are described in each of them, as follows: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (75-100%), transurethral cistolithotripsy (63-100%), percutaneous cistolithotripsy (89-100%) and open surgery (100 %). The percutaneous approach has lower morbidity, with similar results to the transurethral treatment, while extracorporeal lithotripsy has the lowest rate of elimination of calculi and is reserved for patients at high surgical risk. PMID:23912371

  10. Improvement in neurogenic bladder after the antegrade continence enema procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Gividen; John G Van Savage

    2002-01-01

    A child with neurogenic bladder and bowel underwent an antegrade continence enema procedure for fecal incontinence and severe constipation. She subsequently demonstrated an improvement in her neurogenic bladder and urinary incontinence.

  11. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  12. Efficient Sensor Placement Optimization Using Gradient Descent and Probabilistic Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Vahab; Lévesque, Julien-Charles; Gagné, Christian; Parizeau, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We are proposing an adaptation of the gradient descent method to optimize the position and orientation of sensors for the sensor placement problem. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the combination of gradient descent optimization with a realistic model, which considers both the topography of the environment and a set of sensors with directional probabilistic sensing. The performance of this approach is compared with two other black box optimization methods over area coverage and processing time. Results show that our proposed method produces competitive results on smaller maps and superior results on larger maps, while requiring much less computation than the other optimization methods to which it has been compared. PMID:25196164

  13. A Symmetric Time-Varying Cluster Rate of Descent Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    A model of the time-varying rate of descent of the Orion vehicle was developed based on the observed correlation between canopy projected area and drag coefficient. This initial version of the model assumes cluster symmetry and only varies the vertical component of velocity. The cluster fly-out angle is modeled as a series of sine waves based on flight test data. The projected area of each canopy is synchronized with the primary fly-out angle mode. The sudden loss of projected area during canopy collisions is modeled at minimum fly-out angles, leading to brief increases in rate of descent. The cluster geometry is converted to drag coefficient using empirically derived constants. A more complete model is under development, which computes the aerodynamic response of each canopy to its local incidence angle.

  14. A conjugate gradient method with descent direction for unconstrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Gonglin; Lu, Xiwen; Wei, Zengxin

    2009-11-01

    A modified conjugate gradient method is presented for solving unconstrained optimization problems, which possesses the following properties: (i) The sufficient descent property is satisfied without any line search; (ii) The search direction will be in a trust region automatically; (iii) The Zoutendijk condition holds for the Wolfe-Powell line search technique; (iv) This method inherits an important property of the well-known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) method: the tendency to turn towards the steepest descent direction if a small step is generated away from the solution, preventing a sequence of tiny steps from happening. The global convergence and the linearly convergent rate of the given method are established. Numerical results show that this method is interesting.

  15. Tissue Engineering of Rat Bladder Using Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Bladder Acellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Loutochin, Oleg; Galipeau, Jacques; Corcos, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Bladder replacement or augmentation is required in congenital malformations or following trauma or cancer. The current surgical solution involves enterocystoplasty but is associated with high complication rates. Strategies for bladder tissue engineering are thus actively sought to address this unmet clinical need. Because of the poor efficacy of synthetic polymers, the use of bladder acellular matrix (BAM) has been proposed. Indeed when cellular components are removed from xenogenic or allogeneic bladders, the extracellular matrix scaffold thus obtained can be used alone or in combination with stem cells. In this study, we propose the use of BAM seeded with marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bladder tissue engineering. We optimized a protocol for decellularization of bladder tissue from different species including rat, rabbit and swine. We demonstrate the use of non-ionic detergents followed by nuclease digestion results in efficient decellularization while preserving the extracellular matrix. When MSCs were seeded on acellular matrix scaffold, they remained viable and proliferative while adopting a cellular phenotype consistent with their microenvironment. Upon transplantation in rats after partial cystectomy, MSC-seeded BAM proved superior to unseeded BAM with animals recovering nearly 100% normal bladder capacity for up to six months. Histological analyses also demonstrated increased muscle regeneration. PMID:25437001

  16. Dysfunction of bladder urothelium and bladder urothelial cells in interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Graham, Emmanuel; Chai, Toby C

    2006-11-01

    The human bladder urothelium (BU) and bladder urothelial cells (BUCs) play an important role in the normal functioning of bladder including bladder storage. Current evidence in interstitial cystitis (IC) supports multiple abnormalities in bladder urothelial physiology. These data have come primarily from human studies. The discovery of a novel protein termed the antiproliferative factor (APF) uniquely expressed by IC BUCs is extremely important. APF induces increased permeability of normal BUCs grown in culture. Furthermore, APF regulates expression of other cytokines, including upregulating heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and downregulating epidermal growth factor by BUCs. These cytokine abnormalities were also related to increases in purinergic (adenosine triphosphate) signaling, which could mediate increased bladder sensation. Recent studies of uroplakins, which are specialized proteins expressed only in the apical urothelial cells, suggest that uroplakins play a role in the barrier function of the BU. It is also conceivable that alterations in uroplakins may result in bladder symptoms related to increased permeability or decreased protective function. As the body of knowledge about BU and BUC function increases, novel therapies targeting urothelial cells should become clinically feasible. PMID:17052438

  17. Factors responsible for successful primary closure in bladder exstrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laxmikant S. Kasat; S. S. Borwankar

    2000-01-01

    To assess the important factors for successful primary closure in staged reconstruction of bladder exstrophy, 25 patients\\u000a (18 males, 7 females) underwent primary bladder closure during the years 1993–1997. Twenty-one were more than 72?h old; all\\u000a of these underwent bilateral posterior iliac osteotomies followed by primary bladder closure during the same anesthetic. Bladder\\u000a closure was done in a double layer.

  18. Extravesical cryosurgical approach for VX2 bladder tumor in rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Horng Yang; Monica Liebert; Roger E. Price; Douglas M. Cromeens; Johnny S. Lin; Barton H. Grossman

    2001-01-01

    This study characterized the VX2 bladder cancer model in rabbits and tested the feasibility of treating bladder cancer by extravesical cryosurgery. After the growth characteristics of the VX2 bladder tumor model were determined, the VX2 tumor was inoculated into rabbits at the dome of the bladder. One week later, three freeze\\/thaw cycles were followed by immediate surgical repair. The control

  19. Metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the bladder.

    PubMed

    Doo, Seung Whan; Kim, Woong Bin; Kim, Bong Ki; Yang, Won Jae; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Jin, So Young; Song, Yun Seob

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is an uncommon source of bladder metastases. Here we report a case of renal cell carcinoma that metastasized to the bladder. A 73-year-old woman complained of gross hematuria. Abdominopelvic computerized tomography showed a bladder mass and a heterogenous enhancing mass in the lower pole of the left kidney with left vein thrombosis. The pathological analysis of the resected bladder specimen revealed metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the clear cell type. PMID:23362452

  20. Steepest Descent Algorithms for Optimization Under Unitary Matrix Constraint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traian E. Abrudan; Jan Eriksson; Visa Koivunen

    2008-01-01

    In many engineering applications we deal with constrained optimization problems with respect to complex-valued matrices. This paper proposes a Riemannian geometry approach for optimization of a real-valued cost function T of complex-valued matrix argument W, under the constraint that W is an n times n unitary matrix. We derive steepest descent (SD) algorithms on the Lie group of unitary matrices

  1. A new paradigm in chronic bladder pain.

    PubMed

    Wesselmann, Ursula

    2014-12-01

    The concept of visceral pain has moved from organ-centered disease to a conceptualization based on pathophysiological mechanisms, integrating psychosocial and sexual dimensions. The terms painful bladder syndrome and bladder pain syndrome have been coined to include all patients with bladder pain. There is substantial overlap between IC/BPS and other pelvic/abdominal pain syndromes IC/BPS is likely to be underdiagnosed and undertreated in both men and women IC/BPS requires a multidisciplinary team approach toward management. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 2, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. Paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the website: http://www.paineurope.com at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication. PMID:25348226

  2. Progress in personalizing chemotherapy for bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, James S; Lara, Primo N; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2012-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer. However, there are currently no methods to predict chemotherapy response in this disease setting. A better understanding of the biology of bladder cancer has led to developments of molecular biomarkers that may help guide clinical decision making. These biomarkers, while promising, have not yet been validated in prospective trials and are not ready for clinical applications. As alkylating agents, platinum drugs kill cancer cells mainly through induction of DNA damage. A microdosing approach is currently being tested to determine if chemoresistance can be identified by measuring platinum-induced DNA damage using highly sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry technology. The hope is that these emerging strategies will help pave the road towards personalized therapy in advanced bladder cancer. PMID:22400017

  3. Bladder exstrophy from childhood into adult life.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Chaim, J; Docimo, S G; Jeffs, R D; Gearhart, J P

    1996-01-01

    Exstrophy of the bladder is rare and the incidence of bladder exstrophy is calculated to be from 1 per 30,000 to 50,000 live births with male to female ratio ranging from 1.5-5 to 1(1-4). It was found that persistence or overgrowth of the cloacal membrane on the lower anterior abdominal area, prevents normal mesenchymal ingrowth. This causes divergence of the lower abdominal muscular structures and forces the genital ridges to fuse caudal to the cloacal membrane. The stage of ingrowth of the urorectal septum at the time of rupture determines whether one will produce an exstrophic urinary tract alone (classic bladder exstrophy or epispadias) or cloacal exstrophy with the hindgut interposed between the hemibladders. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8709084

  4. A flowgraph model for bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Superficial bladder cancer has been the subject of numerous studies for many years, but the evolution of the disease still remains not well understood. After the tumor has been surgically removed, it may reappear at a similar level of malignancy or progress to a higher level. The process may be reasonably modeled by means of a Markov process. However, in order to more completely model the evolution of the disease, this approach is insufficient. The semi-Markov framework allows a more realistic approach, but calculations become frequently intractable. In this context, flowgraph models provide an efficient approach to successfully manage the evolution of superficial bladder carcinoma. Our aim is to test this methodology in this particular case. Results We have built a successful model for a simple but representative case. Conclusion The flowgraph approach is suitable for modeling of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:25080066

  5. Neural reconstruction methods of restoring bladder function

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M.; Barbe, Mary F.; de Groat, William C.; Brown, Justin M.; Tuite, Gerald F.; Corcos, Jacques; Fecho, Susan B.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, diverse studies have focused on the development of surgical strategies to restore function of a decentralized bladder after spinal cord or spinal root injury via repair of the original roots or by transferring new axonal sources. The techniques included end-to-end sacral root repairs, transfer of roots from other spinal segments to sacral roots, transfer of intercostal nerves to sacral roots, transfer of various somatic nerves to the pelvic or pudendal nerve, direct reinnervation of the detrusor muscle, or creation of an artificial reflex pathway between the skin and the bladder via the central nervous system. All of these surgical techniques have demonstrated specific strengths and limitations. The findings made to date already indicate appropriate patient populations for each procedure, but a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of each technique to restore urinary function after bladder decentralization is required to guide future research and potential clinical application. PMID:25666987

  6. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children of Middle Eastern Descent

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Christina Mai Ying; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are now seen in populations where it was once uncommon. The pattern of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent in Australia has never been reported. This study aimed to investigate the burden of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent at the Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCHR). The SCHR IBD database was used to identify patients of self-reported Middle Eastern ethnicity diagnosed between 1987 and 2011. Demographic, diagnosis, and management data was collected for all Middle Eastern children and an age and gender matched non-Middle Eastern IBD control group. Twenty-four patients of Middle Eastern descent were identified. Middle Eastern Crohn's disease patients had higher disease activity at diagnosis, higher use of thiopurines, and less restricted colonic disease than controls. Although there were limitations with this dataset, we estimated a higher prevalence of IBD in Middle Eastern children and they had a different disease phenotype and behavior compared to the control group, with less disease restricted to the colon and likely a more active disease course. PMID:24987422

  7. Factors Associated with Sleep Disturbance in Women of Mexican Descent

    PubMed Central

    Heilemann, MarySue V.; Choudhury, Shonali M.; Kury, Felix Salvador; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aims were to identify the most useful parameters of acculturation in relation to self reported sleep disturbance and describe risk factors for sleep disturbance in women of Mexican descent. Background Little is known about acculturation as a factor for poor sleep in the context of other personal factors such as income or sense of resilience or mastery for Latinas in the United States. Methods These personal factors were incorporated into a modification of the Conceptual Framework of Impaired Sleep to guide our secondary analysis of self-reported sleep disturbance. Cross sectional data from a convenience sample of 312 women of Mexican descent of childbearing age (21-40 years) located in an urban California community were collected and previously analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms and post traumatic stress disorder. The General Sleep Disturbance Scale (in English and Spanish) was used to assess sleep disturbance. Results Early socialization to the United States during childhood was the most useful acculturation parameter for understanding self reported sleep disturbance in this sample. In a multivariate regression analysis, three factors (higher acculturation, lower income, and higher depressive symptoms) were significant in accounting for 40% of the variance in sleep disturbance. Conclusion When low income Latinas of Mexican descent report sleep problems, clinicians should probe for environmental sleep factors associated with low income, such as noise, over-crowding, and exposure to trauma and violence, and refer the woman to psychotherapy and counselling rather than merely prescribe a sleep medication. PMID:22221152

  8. Free-falls and parachute descents in the standard atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, A P

    1947-01-01

    A detailed table of the standard equilibrium velocity and standard equilibrium time is presented for bodies falling in the standard atmosphere. This table gives the velocity at various altitudes and the time of fall from sea level to -4000 feet and from 80,000 feet to sea level. In addition to this standard table, there are given short tables and charts of an open-parachute descent and free-falls; the terminal velocity at sea level, and the variation of the weight-to-drag ratio (2w/cds)1/2 for various weight jumpers from 90 to 30 feet in open-parachute descent; and estimations of drag coefficients of silk and nylon parachutes. The table of standard equilibrium velocities and standard equilibrium times may be used directly for open-parachute descents, given the weight of the jumper, the diameter of the parachute, and the drag coefficient. For free-falls starting from horizontal flight, approximately 14 seconds must be added to the equilibrium time given in the table to obtain the total time to sea level. (author)

  9. Data-Analysis System for Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Timothy; Chang, Christine; Sartorius, Edgar; Finley, Susan; White, Leslie; Estabrook, Polly; Fort, David

    2005-01-01

    A report describes the Entry Descent Landing Data Analysis (EDA), which is a system of signal-processing software and computer hardware for acquiring status data conveyed by multiple-frequency-shift-keying tone signals transmitted by a spacecraft during descent to the surface of a remote planet. The design of the EDA meets the challenge of processing weak, fluctuating signals that are Doppler-shifted by amounts that are only partly predictable. The software supports both real-time and post processing. The software performs fast-Fourier-transform integration, parallel frequency tracking with prediction, and mapping of detected tones to specific events. The use of backtrack and refinement parallel-processing threads helps to minimize data gaps. The design affords flexibility to enable division of a descent track into segments, within each of which the EDA is configured optimally for processing in the face of signal conditions and uncertainties. A dynamic-lock-state feature enables the detection of signals using minimum required computing power less when signals are steadily detected, more when signals fluctuate. At present, the hardware comprises eight dual-processor personal-computer modules and a server. The hardware is modular, making it possible to increase computing power by adding computers.

  10. Hazard avoidance via descent images for safe landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ruicheng; Cao, Zhiguo; Zhu, Lei; Fang, Zhiwen

    2013-10-01

    In planetary or lunar landing missions, hazard avoidance is critical for landing safety. Therefore, it is very important to correctly detect hazards and effectively find a safe landing area during the last stage of descent. In this paper, we propose a passive sensing based HDA (hazard detection and avoidance) approach via descent images to lower the landing risk. In hazard detection stage, a statistical probability model on the basis of the hazard similarity is adopted to evaluate the image and detect hazardous areas, so that a binary hazard image can be generated. Afterwards, a safety coefficient, which jointly utilized the proportion of hazards in the local region and the inside hazard distribution, is proposed to find potential regions with less hazards in the binary hazard image. By using the safety coefficient in a coarse-to-fine procedure and combining it with the local ISD (intensity standard deviation) measure, the safe landing area is determined. The algorithm is evaluated and verified with many simulated descent downward looking images rendered from lunar orbital satellite images.

  11. Titan Explorer Entry, Descent and Landing Trajectory Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Jody L.; Lindberg, Robert E.; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    2006-01-01

    The Titan Explorer mission concept includes an orbiter, entry probe and inflatable airship designed to take remote and in-situ measurements of Titan's atmosphere. A modified entry, descent and landing trajectory at Titan that incorporates mid-air airship inflation (under a parachute) and separation is developed and examined for Titan Explorer. The feasibility of mid-air inflation and deployment of an airship under a parachute is determined by implementing and validating an airship buoyancy and inflation model in the trajectory simulation program, Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2). A nominal POST2 trajectory simulation case study is generated which examines different descent scenarios by varying airship inflation duration, orientation, and separation. The buoyancy model incorporation into POST2 is new to the software and may be used in future trajectory simulations. Each case from the nominal POST2 trajectory case study simulates a successful separation between the parachute and airship systems with sufficient velocity change as to alter their paths to avoid collision throughout their descent. The airship and heatshield also separate acceptably with a minimum distance of separation from the parachute system of 1.5 km. This analysis shows the feasibility of airship inflation on a parachute for different orientations, airship separation at various inflation times, and preparation for level-flight at Titan.

  12. Airborne Management of Traffic Conflicts in Descent With Arrival Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    NASA is studying far-term air traffic management concepts that may increase operational efficiency through a redistribution of decisionmaking authority among airborne and ground-based elements of the air transportation system. One component of this research, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows trained pilots of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for traffic separation. Ground-based air traffic controllers would continue to separate traffic unequipped for autonomous operations and would issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To evaluate En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a human-in-the-loop experiment was jointly conducted by the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. In this experiment, test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve conflicts in cruise and descent, and to adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by test subject controllers. Simulators at NASA Langley were equipped with a prototype Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) flight deck toolset to assist pilots with conflict management and constraint compliance tasks. Results from the experiment are presented, focusing specifically on operations during the initial descent into the terminal area. Airborne conflict resolution performance in descent, conformance to traffic flow management constraints, and the effects of conflicting traffic on constraint conformance are all presented. Subjective data from subject pilots are also presented, showing perceived levels of workload, safety, and acceptability of autonomous arrival operations. Finally, potential AOP functionality enhancements are discussed along with suggestions to improve arrival procedures.

  13. Neuroselective Current Perception Threshold Evaluation of Bladder Mucosal Sensory Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Ukimura; So Ushijima; Hisashi Honjo; Tsuyoshi Iwata; Kei Suzuki; Naoki Hirahara; Koji Okihara; Yoichi Mizutani; Akihiro Kawauchi; Tsuneharu Miki

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate human bladder mucosal sensory function by neuroselective Current Perception Threshold (CPT) measures from healthy and neuropathic bladders.Methods: Eight healthy volunteers and 38 patients with urinary symptoms underwent conventional urodynamic tests including water-filling cystometry and ice water test. Standardized neuroselective CPT measures were obtained from the left index finger and the mucosa of the posterior bladder wall. Three

  14. A rare case of solitary fibrous tumour of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Otta, Renan Javier; Acosta, Marco Antonio; Gordillo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour of the bladder is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm with a favourable prognosis. Its symptoms are usually secondary to obstructive symptoms rather than hematuria or other findings typical of other bladder neoplasms. We describe a case of solitary fibrous tumour of the bladder and review the literature. PMID:25210562

  15. Prevalence and burden of overactive bladder in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Stewart; J. Van Rooyen; G. Cundiff; P. Abrams; A. Herzog; R. Corey; T. Hunt; A. Wein

    2003-01-01

    Context: the National Overactive BLadder Evaluation (NOBLE) Program was initiated to better understand the prevalence and burden of overactive bladder in a broad spectrum of the United States population. Objective: to estimate the prevalence of overactive bladder with and without urge incontinence in the US, assess variation in prevalence by sex and other factors, and measure individual burden. Design: US

  16. Motor exhaust-related occupations and bladder cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Silverman; R. N. Hoover; T. J. Mason; G. M. Swanson

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between employment in occupations with potential exposure to motor exhaust and bladder cancer risk was examined based on interviews conducted with 1909 white male bladder cancer patients and 3569 population controls during the National Bladder Cancer Study, a population-based, case-control study conducted in ten areas of the United States. Our findings indicated that males usually employed as truck

  17. Telocytes subtypes in human urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Vannucchi, Maria-Giuliana; Traini, Chiara; Guasti, Daniele; Giulio, Del Popolo; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta

    2014-01-01

    Urinary bladder voiding is a complex mechanism depending upon interplay among detrusor, urothelium, sensory and motor neurons and connective tissue cells. The identity of some of the latter cells is still controversial. We presently attempted to clarify their phenotype(s) in the human urinary bladder by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunohistochemistry. At this latter aim, we used CD34, PDGFR?, ?SMA, c-Kit and calreticulin antibodies. Both, TEM and immunohistochemistry, showed cells that, sharing several telocyte (TC) characteristics, we identified as TC; these cells, however, differed from each other in some ultrastructural features and immunolabelling according to their location. PDGFR?/calret-positive, CD34/c-Kit-negative TC were located in the sub-urothelium and distinct in two subtypes whether, similarly to myofibroblasts, they were ?SMA-positive and had attachment plaques. The sub-urothelial TC formed a mixed network with myofibroblasts and were close to numerous nerve endings, many of which nNOS-positive. A third TC subtype, PDGFR?/?SMA/c-Kit-negative, CD34/calret-positive, ultrastructurally typical, was located in the submucosa and detrusor. Briefly, in the human bladder, we found three TC subtypes. Each subtype likely forms a network building a 3-D scaffold able to follow the bladder wall distension and relaxation and avoiding anomalous wall deformation. The TC located in the sub-urothelium, a region considered a sort of sensory system for the micturition reflex, as forming a network with myofibroblasts, possessing specialized junctions with extracellular matrix and being close to nerve endings, might have a role in bladder reflexes. In conclusions, the urinary bladder contains peculiar TC able to adapt their morphology to the organ activity. PMID:25139461

  18. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947

  19. [Bladder tumor presenting multiple osteoblastic bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Hamada, M; Morishita, F; Mori, Y

    1986-07-01

    A 67-year-old man who had undergone partial cystectomy for a bladder tumor (stage pTlb) about two years earlier, was seen with the complaint of lumbago. KUB examination revealed multiple osteoblastic lesions at the lumbar vertebrae and pelvic bone. Furthermore, additional osteoblastic lesions were detected at the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, humeral bones, femoral bones and claviculae. Osteolytic lesions also were recognized at the ribs and claviculae, although osteoblastic change was dominant. Pathologically, transitional cell carcinoma had invaded the bones, and it was suspected that they had metastasized from the bladder tumor. PMID:3747153

  20. Smoking intensity predicts seriousness of bladder cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Smoking not only causes bladder cancer — it also affects its course, in that people who smoke more have greater likelihood of developing more aggressive and deadly disease. That is one of the conclusions of a new study published online in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society. The study, conducted by researchers with the University of Miami’s Miller School of Medicine and the Keck School of Medicine of USC (home of the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center) also found that a panel of bladder cancer markers can predict which particular cases are at the highest risk for a fatal outcome.

  1. Perioperative management of classic bladder exstrophy

    PubMed Central

    Massanyi, Eric Z; Gearhart, John P; Kost-Byerly, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The exstrophy-epispadias complex is a rare congenital malformation of the genitourinary system, abdominal wall muscles, and pelvic structures. Modern surgical repairs focus on reconstruction of the bladder and its adjacent structures, with the goal of achieving urinary continence, a satisfactory cosmetic result, and a high quality of life. Complex surgery in neonates and young children, as well as a prolonged postoperative course require close collaboration between surgeons, anesthesiologists, intensivists, pediatricians, and an experienced nursing staff. This article will review the spectrum of bladder exstrophy anomalies, the surgical repair, and the perioperative interdisciplinary management. PMID:24400236

  2. Preoperative imaging for staging bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Maxim J; Woods, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    Accurate preoperative staging of bladder cancer is essential in determining the extent of disease and optimal treatment. The current gold standard of transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by computed tomography (CT) imaging provides excellent staging specificity, but often understages the disease, leading to pathologic upstaging and adverse outcomes in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. Newer imaging modalities, such as multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) combined with CT or MR provides promising imaging alternatives which may improve accuracy of staging both local and distant disease. PMID:25724433

  3. Bladder Perforation Secondary to Primary Systemic Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Dru, Christopher J.; Feng, Tom S.; Kim, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a disorder of protein folding characterized by extracellular aggregation and deposition of amyloid protein fibrils. Light-chain amyloidosis, also known as primary systemic amyloidosis, is the most common form of the disease. We present a case of an 84-year-old male with a history of systemic primary amyloidosis causing genitourinary, cardiac, and autonomic dysfunction who presented with hematuria and hypotension secondary to bladder perforation. He underwent open repair of a large extraperitoneal bladder defect. He ultimately died as a result of medical complications from his disease. PMID:25587481

  4. Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; SanMartin, A. Miguel; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Mendeck, Gavin F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of Mars. This paper describes the current MSL EDL system performance as predicted by end-to-end EDL simulations, highlights the sensitivity of this baseline performance to several key environmental assumptions, and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering such an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

  5. Fgfr2 is integral for bladder mesenchyme patterning and function.

    PubMed

    Walker, K A; Ikeda, Y; Zabbarova, I; Schaefer, C M; Bushnell, D; De Groat, W C; Kanai, A; Bates, C M

    2015-04-15

    While urothelial signals, including sonic hedgehog (Shh), drive bladder mesenchyme differentiation, it is unclear which pathways within the mesenchyme are critical for its development. Studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor receptor (Fgfr)2 is necessary for kidney and ureter mesenchymal development. The objective of the present study was to determine the role of Fgfr2 in the bladder mesenchyme. We used Tbx18cre mice to delete Fgfr2 in the bladder mesenchyme (Fgfr2(BM-/-)). We performed three-dimensional reconstructions, quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, immunolabeling, ELISAs, immunoblot analysis, void stain on paper, ex vivo bladder sheet assays, and in vivo decerebrated cystometry. Compared with control bladders, embryonic day 16.5 (E16.5) Fgfr2(BM-/-) bladders had thin muscle layers with less ?-smooth muscle actin and thickened lamina propria with increased collagen type Ia and IIIa that intruded into the muscle. The reciprocal changes in mutant layer thicknesses appeared partly due to a cell fate switch. From postnatal days 1 to 30, Fgfr2(BM-/-) bladders demonstrated progressive muscle loss and increased collagen expression. Postnatal Fgfr2(BM-/-) bladder sheets exhibited decreased agonist-mediated contractility and increased passive stretch tension versus control bladder sheets. Cystometry revealed high baseline and threshold pressures and shortened intercontractile intervals in Fgfr2(BM-/-) versus control bladders. Mechanistically, whereas Shh expression appeared normal, mRNA and protein readouts of hedgehog activity were increased in E16.5 Fgfr2(BM-/-) versus control bladders. Moreover, E16.5 Fgfr2(BM-/-) bladders exhibited higher levels of Cdo and Boc, hedgehog coreceptors that enhance sensitivity to Shh, compared with control bladders. In conclusion, loss of Fgfr2 in the bladder mesenchyme leads to abnormal bladder morphology and decreased compliance and contractility. PMID:25656370

  6. Chiropractic and Neck Pain: Conservative Care of Cervical Pain, Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this flexibility makes the neck very susceptible to pain and injury. The neck’s susceptibility to injury is ... normal aging, and everyday wear and tear. Neck pain can be very bothersome, and it can have ...

  7. Malignant melanoma of the bladder: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Hamide; Erdogan, Seyda; Adamhasan, Fulya; Gurbuz, Esma; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the bladder is very rare. Rather than being a primary lesion, malignant melanomas of the bladder are more commonly metastatic lesions. The histopathological appearance largely does not differ from that of melanoma at other body sites. It is often difficult to discriminate whether a bladder melanoma is primary or metastatic. Therefore, a careful review of histological features and performing necessary immunohistochemical staining procedures for S-100 protein and HMB-45 are very important in achieving a correct diagnosis. We report a case of hypomelanotic malignant melanoma of the bladder. Despite the variety of therapies available for primary melanomas of the bladder, the prognosis is still poor. PMID:24454603

  8. Discordance Between Preoperative and Postoperative Bladder Cancer Location: Implications for Partial-Bladder Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Tucker, Kai; Conway, Robert Greg; He, Jiwei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzzo, Thomas [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Malkowicz, S. Bruce [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John, E-mail: christojo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: There is strong interest in partial-bladder radiation whether as a boost or definitive therapy to limit long-term toxicity. It is unclear that a standard preoperative examination can accurately identify all sites of disease within the bladder. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between preoperative localization of bladder tumors with postoperative findings to facilitate partial-bladder radiation techniques when appropriate. Methods and Materials: We examined patients with clinically staged T1-T4 invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or TCC with variant histology with no history of radiation or partial cystectomy undergoing radical cystectomy. Patients were scored as “under-detected” if a bladder site was involved with invasive disease (?T1) at the time of cystectomy, but not identified preoperatively. Patients were additionally scored as “widely under-detected” if they had postoperative lesions that were not identified preoperatively in a given site, nor in any adjacent site. Rates of under-detected and widely under-detected lesions, as well as univariate and multivariate association between clinical variables and under-detection, were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: Among 222 patients, 96% (213/222) had at least 1 area of discordance. Fifty-eight percent of patients were under-detected in at least 1 location, whereas 12% were widely under-detected. Among 24 patients with a single site of disease on preoperative evaluation, 21/24 (88%) had at least 1 under-detected lesion and 14/24 (58%) were widely under-detected. On multivariate analysis, only solitary site of preoperative disease was associated with increased levels of under-detection of invasive disease (OR = 4.161, 95% CI, 1.368-12.657). Conclusion: Our study shows a stark discordance between preoperative and postoperative localization of bladder tumors. From a clinical perspective, incomplete localization of all sites of disease within the bladder may lead to marginal misses when a partial-bladder technique is used.

  9. Head and Neck International Group (HNIG)

    Cancer.gov

    The Head and Neck International Group was established in 2014 with the mission to promote and conduct high quality head and neck cancer clinical trials worldwide to improve outcomes in patients diagnosed with these diseases.

  10. Initial conformation of kinesin's neck linker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yi-Zhao; Ji, Qing; Liu, Shu-Xia; Yan, Shi-Wei

    2014-10-01

    How ATP binding initiates the docking process of kinesin's neck linker is a key question in understanding kinesin mechanisms. By exploiting a molecular dynamics method, we investigate the initial conformation of kinesin's neck linker in its docking process. We find that, in the initial conformation, the neck linker has interactions with ?0 and forms a ‘cover-neck bundle’ structure with ?0. From this initial structure, the formation of extra turns and the docking of the cover-neck bundle structure can be achieved. The motor head provides a forward force on the initial cover-neck bundle structure through ATP-induced rotation. This force, together with the hydrophobic interaction of ILE327 with the hydrophobic pocket on the motor head, drives the formation of the extra turn and initiates the neck linker docking process. Based on these findings, a pathway from ATP binding-induced motor head rotation to neck linker docking is proposed.

  11. Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Print to PDF Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Approved by ... Emotions Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head ...

  12. Pseudopathologic fracture of the femoral neck

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, T.L. Jr.; Keats, T.E.; Goldner, R.; Stelling, C.B.; Logan, M.

    1981-11-01

    We have seen two cases of traumatic subcapital fractures of the femoral neck which resembled pathologic fractures on plain radiography. We have named this entity pseudopathologic fracture of the femoral neck and offer suggestions for why it occurs.

  13. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 5: Descent, cycle 3. Appendix C: Monte Carlo dispersion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of three nonlinear the Monte Carlo dispersion analyses for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) Orbiter Descent Operational Flight Profile, Cycle 3 are presented. Fifty randomly selected simulation for the end of mission (EOM) descent, the abort once around (AOA) descent targeted line are steep target line, and the AOA descent targeted to the shallow target line are analyzed. These analyses compare the flight environment with system and operational constraints on the flight environment and in some cases use simplified system models as an aid in assessing the STS-1 descent flight profile. In addition, descent flight envelops are provided as a data base for use by system specialists to determine the flight readiness for STS-1. The results of these dispersion analyses supersede results of the dispersion analysis previously documented.

  14. Protein Interactome of Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Akshay; Heinzel, Andreas; Mayer, Bernd; Perco, Paul; Mühlberger, Irmgard; Husi, Holger; Merseburger, Axel S.; Zoidakis, Jerome; Vlahou, Antonia; Schanstra, Joost P.; Mischak, Harald; Jankowski, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Muscle invasive bladder carcinoma is a complex, multifactorial disease caused by disruptions and alterations of several molecular pathways that result in heterogeneous phenotypes and variable disease outcome. Combining this disparate knowledge may offer insights for deciphering relevant molecular processes regarding targeted therapeutic approaches guided by molecular signatures allowing improved phenotype profiling. The aim of the study is to characterize muscle invasive bladder carcinoma on a molecular level by incorporating scientific literature screening and signatures from omics profiling. Public domain omics signatures together with molecular features associated with muscle invasive bladder cancer were derived from literature mining to provide 286 unique protein-coding genes. These were integrated in a protein-interaction network to obtain a molecular functional map of the phenotype. This feature map educated on three novel disease-associated pathways with plausible involvement in bladder cancer, namely Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, Neurotrophin signalling pathway and Endocytosis. Systematic integration approaches allow to study the molecular context of individual features reported as associated with a clinical phenotype and could potentially help to improve the molecular mechanistic description of the disorder. PMID:25569276

  15. Lymphadenectomy in Bladder Cancer: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Buscarini; David Y. Josephson; John P. Stein

    2007-01-01

    Background: Radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer, however the role and appropriate extent of an associated lymphadenectomy continues to change. Methods: We performed a detailed review of the medical literature pertaining to the development and rationale for an extended lymphadenectomy in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. Results: A perspective of lymphadenectomy and an anatomic account of

  16. Protein interactome of muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Akshay; Heinzel, Andreas; Mayer, Bernd; Perco, Paul; Mühlberger, Irmgard; Husi, Holger; Merseburger, Axel S; Zoidakis, Jerome; Vlahou, Antonia; Schanstra, Joost P; Mischak, Harald; Jankowski, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Muscle invasive bladder carcinoma is a complex, multifactorial disease caused by disruptions and alterations of several molecular pathways that result in heterogeneous phenotypes and variable disease outcome. Combining this disparate knowledge may offer insights for deciphering relevant molecular processes regarding targeted therapeutic approaches guided by molecular signatures allowing improved phenotype profiling. The aim of the study is to characterize muscle invasive bladder carcinoma on a molecular level by incorporating scientific literature screening and signatures from omics profiling. Public domain omics signatures together with molecular features associated with muscle invasive bladder cancer were derived from literature mining to provide 286 unique protein-coding genes. These were integrated in a protein-interaction network to obtain a molecular functional map of the phenotype. This feature map educated on three novel disease-associated pathways with plausible involvement in bladder cancer, namely Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, Neurotrophin signalling pathway and Endocytosis. Systematic integration approaches allow to study the molecular context of individual features reported as associated with a clinical phenotype and could potentially help to improve the molecular mechanistic description of the disorder. PMID:25569276

  17. Recurrent Aggressive Angiomyxoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. May; A. Luther; W. Mohr; R. Bachor; R. E. Hautmann

    2000-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare neoplasm which predominantly involves the female pelvis and perineum. Forty-four cases have been reported in the world literature, including 10 cases in men. To the best of our knowledge, the first case of recurrent aggressive angiomyxoma of the urinary bladder is presented here. Operative management, radiologic features and pathological findings are discussed.

  18. Thromboembolism and bleeding in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Fantony, Joseph J; Inman, Brant A

    2014-10-01

    Bladder cancer is a unique disease process in that clinically significant hemorrhage can occur simultaneously with equally significant aberrant clotting. With hematuria the key presenting symptom of bladder cancer, hemorrhage is generally thought to be a component of the natural history of the disease, and to commonly occur during its treatment. However, as those who regularly treat bladder cancer know, the need to address a predisposition to clotting is also very much part of the treatment paradigm. Physicians must be cognizant of the biochemical changes that confer a propensity for both significant bleeding and clotting occurring simultaneously in their patients. Both of these entities remain important issues, and further study is needed to find ways to mitigate and balance the associated risks. Here, we performed a review of the literature, focusing on the concomitant issues of bleeding and venous thromboembolism in both the pre- and post-operative periods in patients with bladder cancer. We formulated a general management approach with respect to these two processes, and we provide direction for further investigation. PMID:25323610

  19. Novel endoscopic diagnosis for bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Seth P; Goh, Alvin

    2015-01-15

    Advances in endoscopic imaging technology may improve sensitivity for the detection of bladder cancer and provide a more complete understanding of the urothelial landscape, and it also may lead to improved short-term and long-term cancer control. Fluorescence cystoscopy requires intravesical administration of a photosensitizing agent (5-aminolevulinic acid or hexaminolevulinate), and imaging with a blue-light endoscopy system demonstrably improves the detection of papillary and flat bladder lesions compared with conventional white-light cystoscopy. Prospective phase 3 clinical trials have demonstrated improved diagnostic ability, enhanced tumor resection, and a small but significant reduction in recurrence-free survival. Optical coherence tomography delineates subsurface microarchitecture information about bladder lesions in real time and has the ability to discriminate between noninvasive and invasive cancers. Narrow-band imaging may augment white-light cystoscopy by providing increased contrast between normal and abnormal tissue on the basis of neovascularity. Confocal laser endoscopy has been applied to the urinary tract using thinner probes adapted from use in gastrointestinal malignancies and provides exquisite images at microscopic resolution. More technology is on the horizon that may further enhance our ability to detect and accurately stage bladder tumors and distinguish benign from malignant or dysplastic lesions. PMID:25132313

  20. HEAD AND NECK CANCER 12. HEAD AND NECK CANCER

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    malignant neoplasms, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, in women and 4.0% in men (Table 12.1). The average excluding non-melanoma skin cancer 1.6% 4.0% 1.5% 3.9% 1.9% 4.3% average number of new cases per year 170HEAD AND NECK CANCER 105

  1. An evaluation of descent strategies for TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Groce, J. L.; Coote, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated were the effects on system throughput and fleet fuel usage of arrival aircraft utilizing three 4D RNAV descent strategies (cost optimal, clean-idle Mach/CAS and constant descent angle Mach/CAS), both individually and in combination, in an advanced air traffic control metering environment. Results are presented for all mixtures of arrival traffic consisting of three Boeing commercial jet types and for all combinations of the three descent strategies for a typical en route metering airport arrival distribution.

  2. What is the best way of measuring perineal descent? A comparison of radiographic and clinical methods.

    PubMed

    Oettle, G J; Roe, A M; Bartolo, D C; Mortensen, N J

    1985-12-01

    The 'perineometer' underestimated movement of the pelvic floor by nearly 60 per cent in 21 patients tested; mean descent was 1.2 cm, compared with a radiographic mean descent of 2.9 cm (P less than 0.001). Since the instrument measures movement of the anal verge, not the pelvic floor, no account is taken of anal canal shortening. Radiographic methods are still necessary for the reliable identification of abnormal descent. PMID:4084759

  3. Application of Bladder Acellular Matrix in Urinary Bladder Regeneration: The State of the Art and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Drewa, Gerard; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Construction of the urinary bladder de novo using tissue engineering technologies is the “holy grail” of reconstructive urology. The search for the ideal biomaterial for urinary bladder reconstruction has been ongoing for decades. One of the most promising biomaterials for this purpose seems to be bladder acellular matrix (BAM). In this review we determine the most important factors, which may affect biological and physical properties of BAM and its regeneration potential in tissue engineered urinary bladder. We also point out the directions in modification of BAM, which include incorporation of exogenous growth factors into the BAM structure. Finally, we discuss the results of the urinary bladder regeneration with cell seeded BAM.

  4. Diffuse Neck Swelling after Car Accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HUAN-WU CHEN; SHENG-CHAU HUANG; HUAN-WEN CHEN; KOU-MOU HUANG

    2005-01-01

    The neck connects the head with the trunk, and is easily injuried due to trauma. Herein we reported a case with diffuse neck swelling after car accident. She suffered from progressive dyspnea and cyanosis 3 hours after the accident and needed airway main- tenance with tracheostomy. A plain lateral radi- ograph and computed tomography scan of the neck showed diffuse

  5. Probiotics, dendritic cells and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Feyisetan, Oladapo; Tracey, Christopher; Hellawell, Giles O

    2012-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The suppressor effect of probiotics on superficial bladder cancer is an observed phenomenon but the specific mechanism is poorly understood. The evidence strongly suggests natural killer (NK) cells are the anti-tumour effector cells involved and NK cell activity correlates with the observed anti-tumour effect in mice. It is also known that dendritic cells (DC) cells are responsible for the recruitment and mobilization of NK cells so therefore it may be inferred that DC cells are most likely to be the interphase point at which probiotics act. In support of this, purification of NK cells was associated with a decrease in NK cells activity. The current use of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin in the management of superficial bladder cancer is based on the effect of a localised immune response. In the same way, understanding the mechanism of action of probiotics and the role of DC may potentially offer another avenue via which the immune system may be manipulated to resist bladder cancer. Probiotic foods have been available in the UK since 1996 with the arrival of the fermented milk drink (Yakult) from Japan. The presence of live bacterial ingredients (usually lactobacilli species) may confer health benefits when present in sufficient numbers. The role of probiotics in colo-rectal cancer may be related in part to the suppression of harmful colonic bacteria but other immune mechanisms are involved. Anti-cancer effects outside the colon were suggested by a Japanese report of altered rates of bladder tumour recurrence after ingestion of a particular probiotic. Dendritic cells play a central role to the general regulation of the immune response that may be modified by probiotics. The addition of probiotics to the diet may confer benefit by altering rates of bladder tumour recurrence and also alter the response to immune mechanisms involved with the application of intravesical treatments (bacille Calmette-Guérin). PMID:22176770

  6. Powered Descent Guidance with General Thrust-Pointing Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M., III; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) algorithm and software for generating Mars pinpoint or precision landing guidance profiles has been enhanced to incorporate thrust-pointing constraints. Pointing constraints would typically be needed for onboard sensor and navigation systems that have specific field-of-view requirements to generate valid ground proximity and terrain-relative state measurements. The original PDG algorithm was designed to enforce both control and state constraints, including maximum and minimum thrust bounds, avoidance of the ground or descent within a glide slope cone, and maximum speed limits. The thrust-bound and thrust-pointing constraints within PDG are non-convex, which in general requires nonlinear optimization methods to generate solutions. The short duration of Mars powered descent requires guaranteed PDG convergence to a solution within a finite time; however, nonlinear optimization methods have no guarantees of convergence to the global optimal or convergence within finite computation time. A lossless convexification developed for the original PDG algorithm relaxed the non-convex thrust bound constraints. This relaxation was theoretically proven to provide valid and optimal solutions for the original, non-convex problem within a convex framework. As with the thrust bound constraint, a relaxation of the thrust-pointing constraint also provides a lossless convexification that ensures the enhanced relaxed PDG algorithm remains convex and retains validity for the original nonconvex problem. The enhanced PDG algorithm provides guidance profiles for pinpoint and precision landing that minimize fuel usage, minimize landing error to the target, and ensure satisfaction of all position and control constraints, including thrust bounds and now thrust-pointing constraints.

  7. Radiotherapy and head neck cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Jenkins; C. M. Griffiths; P. Ray; R. R. Perry; M. H. Olson

    1980-01-01

    The mean number of lymphocytes, response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and response to concanavalin A (Con A) in whole-blood cultures for 106 patients with head and neck cancer were 83%, 73%, and 64%, respectively, of values for healthy control individuals. During radiotherapy, lymphocyte counts declined to 44% and PHA and Con A responses declined to about one third of control values.

  8. The neck constriction in plasmodesmata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Olesen

    1979-01-01

    Simple plasmodesmata between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells in actively expanding leaves of Salsola kali L. and roots of Epilobium hirsutum L. are shown to possess specialized structures, called sphincters, around their neck regions. The sphineters are made visible by the combined effects of tannic acid and heavy metal staining; they are localized just outside that area of the plasmalemma,

  9. [Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis in patients of African descent].

    PubMed

    Maia, Morgana Lima e; Trevisam, Paula Grasiele Carvalho; Minicucci, Marcos; Mazeto, Glaucia M F S; Azevedo, Paula S

    2014-10-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP) is an endocrine emergency marked by recurrent attacks of muscle weakness associated with hypokalemia and thyrotoxicosis. Asiatic male patients are most often affected. On the other hand, African descents rarely present this disease. The case described shows an afrodescendant patient with hypokalemia and tetraparesis, whose diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was considered during this crisis. The THPP, although rare, is potentially lethal. Therefore, in cases of flaccid paresis crisis this diagnosis should always be considered, especially if associated with hypokalemia. In this situation, if no previous diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, this should also be regarded. PMID:25372590

  10. Regularization Paths for Generalized Linear Models via Coordinate Descent

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jerome; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Rob

    2010-01-01

    We develop fast algorithms for estimation of generalized linear models with convex penalties. The models include linear regression, two-class logistic regression, and multinomial regression problems while the penalties include ?1 (the lasso), ?2 (ridge regression) and mixtures of the two (the elastic net). The algorithms use cyclical coordinate descent, computed along a regularization path. The methods can handle large problems and can also deal efficiently with sparse features. In comparative timings we find that the new algorithms are considerably faster than competing methods. PMID:20808728

  11. Shuttle program: OFT ascent/descent ancillary data requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. C., Jr.; Knoedler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements are presented for the ascent/descent (A/D) navigation and attitude-dependent ancillary data products to be generated for the space shuttle orbiter in support of the orbital flight test (OFT) flight test requirements, MPAD guidance and navigation performance assessment, and the mission evaluation team. The A/D ancillary data support for OFT mission evaluation activities is confined to providing postflight position, velocity, attitude, and associated navigation and attitude derived parameters for the Orbiter over particular flight phases and time intervals.

  12. Graham Greene's use of the christian concept of descent

    E-print Network

    Love, Frances Ann C

    1969-01-01

    &gonist. . , Sarah i~ilies and K!aurice . 8 ndrix, undergo the Dark liight of the Soul. Through her descent into ihc sufi'ering of both the passive night of sense and o:! spirit, Sarah '. =. wholly purified. , achieving unior! with God and becoming a saint... supplied. once and for all with a subjeot. '" 11 Doyitis believes that "what Greene does is to make 10, , '. Ihe Eos!-, C'!ildhood and Other I ~ssa s (IJew York, 1o~q~) n. 6$. 11 Faith ", ud . &'iction! Creative process in Greene a!!d ilgwu. riac (l...

  13. Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia for Bladder Cancer: A Preclinical Dosimetry Study

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea D.; Etienne, Wiguins; Ashcraft, Kathleen A.; McNerny, Katie L.; Mashal, Alireza; Nouls, John; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Beyer, Wayne F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes a preclinical investigation of the feasibility of thermotherapy treatment of bladder cancer with Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH), performed by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Materials and Methods The bladders of twenty-five female rats were instilled with magnetite-based nanoparticles, and hyperthermia was induced using a novel small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder, CO). We aimed to increase the bladder lumen temperature to 42°C in <10 min and maintain that temperature for 60 min. Temperatures were measured within the bladder lumen and throughout the rat with seven fiberoptic probes (OpSens Technologies, Quebec, Canada). An MRI analysis was used to confirm the effectiveness of the catheterization method to deliver and maintain various nanoparticle volumes within the bladder. Thermal dosimetry measurements recorded the temperature rise of rat tissues for a variety of nanoparticle exposure conditions. Results Thermal dosimetry data demonstrated our ability to raise and control the temperature of rat bladder lumen ?1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C with minimal heating of surrounding normal tissues. MRI scans confirmed the homogenous nanoparticle distribution throughout the bladder. Conclusion These data demonstrate that our MFH system with magnetite-based nanoparticles provide well-localized heating of rat bladder lumen with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues. PMID:24050253

  14. Mechanisms of disease: The epidemiology of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; Malvezzi, Matteo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2006-06-01

    Mortality from bladder cancer has shown downward trends over the last 2 decades in several western European countries (albeit 10-15 years later than similar trends in the US), but is still increasing in some eastern European countries. Tobacco smoking and occupational exposure to aromatic amines are the two major established environmental risk factors for bladder cancer. Controlling exposure to these factors has been an important contributor to the reduction in bladder cancer mortality, particularly among men. Diet could influence bladder carcinogenesis, as many compounds contained in foods--and their metabolites--are excreted through the urinary tract. Fruit and vegetable consumption was inversely related with bladder cancer in many studies, but no consistent association has emerged between intake of related micronutrients and reduced risk of bladder cancer. Other widely investigated lifestyle habits are probably not associated with risk of developing bladder cancer (e.g. coffee consumption, artificial sweetener use, hair dyes) or are difficult to assess (e.g. fluid intake). Infections and stones in the urinary tract might cause chronic irritation of the bladder epithelium, and thus increase bladder cancer risk. First-degree relatives of bladder cancer patients have a 50-100% increased relative risk of developing the disease, a risk that could be even higher when the proband is diagnosed at an early age. PMID:16763645

  15. Basic surgical techniques in the Göttingen minipig: intubation, bladder catheterization, femoral vessel catheterization, and transcardial perfusion.

    PubMed

    Ettrup, Kaare S; Glud, Andreas N; Orlowski, Dariusz; Fitting, Lise M; Meier, Kaare; Soerensen, Jens Christian; Bjarkam, Carsten R; Alstrup, Aage K Olsen

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of the Göttingen minipig in research of topics such as neuroscience, toxicology, diabetes, obesity, and experimental surgery reflects the close resemblance of these animals to human anatomy and physiology (1-6).The size of the Göttingen minipig permits the use of surgical equipment and advanced imaging modalities similar to those used in humans (6-8). The aim of this instructional video is to increase the awareness on the value of minipigs in biomedical research, by demonstrating how to perform tracheal intubation, transurethral bladder catheterization, femoral artery and vein catheterization, as well as transcardial perfusion. Endotracheal Intubation should be performed whenever a minipig undergoes general anesthesia, because it maintains a patent airway, permits assisted ventilation and protects the airways from aspirates. Transurethral bladder catheterization can provide useful information about about hydration state as well as renal and cardiovascular function during long surgical procedures. Furthermore, urinary catheterization can prevent contamination of delicate medico-technical equipment and painful bladder extension which may harm the animal and unnecessarily influence the experiment due to increased vagal tone and altered physiological parameters. Arterial and venous catheterization is useful for obtaining repeated blood samples and monitoring various physiological parameters. Catheterization of femoral vessels is preferable to catheterization of the neck vessels for ease of access, when performing experiments involving frame-based stereotaxic neurosurgery and brain imaging. When performing vessel catheterization in survival studies, strict aseptic technique must be employed to avoid infections(6). Transcardial perfusion is the most effective fixation method, and yields preeminent results when preparing minipig organs for histology and histochemistry(2,9). For more information about anesthesia, surgery and experimental techniques in swine in general we refer to Swindle 2007. Supplementary information about premedication and induction of anesthesia, assisted ventilation, analgesia, pre- and postoperative care of Göttingen minipigs are available via the internet at http://www.minipigs.com(10). For extensive information about porcine anatomy we refer to Nickel et al. Vol. 1-5(11). PMID:21730947

  16. Bladder Cancer: A Simple Model Becomes Complex

    PubMed Central

    Pierro, Giovanni Battista Di; Gulia, Caterina; Cristini, Cristiano; Fraietta, Giorgio; Marini, Lorenzo; Grande, Pietro; Gentile, Vincenzo; Piergentili, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in developed countries and it is also characterized by a high number of recurrences. Despite this, several authors in the past reported that only two altered molecular pathways may genetically explain all cases of bladder cancer: one involving the FGFR3 gene, and the other involving the TP53 gene. Mutations in any of these two genes are usually predictive of the malignancy final outcome. This cancer may also be further classified as low-grade tumors, which is always papillary and in most cases superficial, and high-grade tumors, not necessarily papillary and often invasive. This simple way of considering this pathology has strongly changed in the last few years, with the development of genome-wide studies on expression profiling and the discovery of small non-coding RNA affecting gene expression. An easy search in the OMIM (On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database using “bladder cancer” as a query reveals that genes in some way connected to this pathology are approximately 150, and some authors report that altered gene expression (up- or down-regulation) in this disease may involve up to 500 coding sequences for low-grade tumors and up to 2300 for high-grade tumors. In many clinical cases, mutations inside the coding sequences of the above mentioned two genes were not found, but their expression changed; this indicates that also epigenetic modifications may play an important role in its development. Indeed, several reports were published about genome-wide methylation in these neoplastic tissues, and an increasing number of small non-coding RNA are either up- or down-regulated in bladder cancer, indicating that impaired gene expression may also pass through these metabolic pathways. Taken together, these data reveal that bladder cancer is far to be considered a simple model of malignancy. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in the genome-wide analysis of bladder cancer, and analyse non-genetic, genetic and epigenetic factors causing extensive gene mis-regulation in malignant cells. PMID:23372425

  17. Pathogenesis of Bladder Calculi in the Presence of Urinary Stasis

    PubMed Central

    Childs, M. Adam; Mynderse, Lance A.; Rangel, Laureano J.; Wilson, Torrence M.; Lingeman, James E.; Krambeck, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although minimal evidence exists, bladder calculi in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia are thought to be secondary to bladder outlet obstruction induced urinary stasis. We performed a prospective, multi-institutional clinical trial to determine whether metabolic differences were present in men with and without bladder calculi undergoing surgical intervention for benign prostatic hyperplasia induced bladder outlet obstruction. Materials and Methods Men who elected surgery for bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia with and without bladder calculi were assessed prospectively and compared. Men without bladder calculi retained more than 150 ml urine post-void residual urine. Medical history, serum electrolytes and 24-hour urinary metabolic studies were compared. Results Of the men 27 had bladder calculi and 30 did not. Bladder calculi were associated with previous renal stone disease in 36.7% of patients (11 of 30) vs 4% (2 of 27) and gout was associated in 13.3% (4 of 30) vs 0% (0 of 27) (p <0.01 and 0.05, respectively). There was no observed difference in the history of other medical conditions or in serum electrolytes. Bladder calculi were associated with lower 24-hour urinary pH (median 5.9 vs 6.4, p = 0.02), lower 24-hour urinary magnesium (median 106 vs 167 mmol, p = 0.01) and increased 24-hour urinary uric acid supersaturation (median 2.2 vs 0.6, p <0.01). Conclusions In this comparative prospective analysis patients with bladder outlet obstruction and benign prostatic hyperplasia with bladder calculi were more likely to have a renal stone disease history, low urinary pH, low urinary magnesium and increased urinary uric acid supersaturation. These findings suggest that, like the pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis, the pathogenesis of bladder calculi is likely complex with multiple contributing lithogenic factors, including metabolic abnormalities and not just urinary stasis. PMID:23159588

  18. Bursting stimulation of proximal urethral afferents improves bladder pressures and voiding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim M. Bruns; Narendra Bhadra; Kenneth J. Gustafson

    2009-01-01

    Reflex bladder excitation has been evoked via pudendal nerve, pudendal nerve branch and intraurethral stimulation; however, afferent-evoked bladder emptying has been less efficient than direct activation of the bladder via sacral root stimulation. A stimulation method that improves activation of the urethra-bladder excitatory reflex with minimal sphincter recruitment may lead to improved bladder emptying. Fine wire electrodes were placed in

  19. Bursting stimulation of proximal urethral afferents improves bladder pressures and voiding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim M Bruns; Narendra Bhadra; Kenneth J Gustafson

    2009-01-01

    Reflex bladder excitation has been evoked via pudendal nerve, pudendal nerve branch and intraurethral stimulation; however, afferent-evoked bladder emptying has been less efficient than direct activation of the bladder via sacral root stimulation. A stimulation method that improves activation of the urethra–bladder excitatory reflex with minimal sphincter recruitment may lead to improved bladder emptying. Fine wire electrodes were placed in

  20. Hypoxia and an Angiogenic Response in the Partially Obstructed Rat Bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed A Ghafar; Aristotelis G Anastasiadis; L Eric Olsson; Paul Chichester; Steven A Kaplan; Ralph Buttyan; Robert M Levin

    2002-01-01

    Previous molecular and blood flow studies performed on animal models of partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO) caused us to propose that bladder hypoxia\\/ischemia was a significant effector of the cellular and functional changes that occur in the bladder as a result of this condition. To confirm the occurrence of hypoxia in the partially obstructed bladder, we obtained rat bladders at

  1. Gemcitabine, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin in Metastatic or Unresectable Bladder Cancer With Decreased Kidney Function

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-03

    Distal Urethral Cancer; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Proximal Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder; Urethral Cancer Associated With Invasive Bladder Cancer

  2. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-25

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  3. Does squatting reduce pelvic floor descent during defaecation?

    PubMed

    Lam, T C; Islam, N; Lubowski, D Z; King, D W

    1993-03-01

    Neurogenic faecal and urinary incontinence result from a stretch-induced injury to the pelvic nerves, from difficult childbirth or from chronic straining at stool. It has been suggested that the condition occurs less frequently in societies where the squatting position is used during defaecation, and that squatting may minimize pelvic floor descent. This is a prospective study which evaluates the position of the pelvic floor during defaecation straining in 52 patients. The position of the perineum was measured at rest and during maximal defaecation straining using a perineometer, with the patient in the left lateral, sitting and squatting positions. There was a significant difference in the position of the perineum at rest and on straining between the left lateral position and both the sitting and squatting positions. However, there was no significant difference at rest or on straining between the sitting and squatting positions. These results show that squatting does not reduce pelvic floor descent during defaecation straining, and imply that squatting would not help reverse stretch-induced pudendal nerve damage. PMID:8311789

  4. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Descent and Landing Simulation Using DSENDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, P. Daniel; Casoliva, Jordi; Balaram, Bob

    2013-01-01

    The most recent planetary science mission to Mars is Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) with the Curiosity rover, launched November 26, 2011 and landed at Gale Crater on August 6, 2012. This spacecraft was the first use at Mars of a complete closed-loop Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) system, including guided entry with a lifting body that greatly reduces dispersions during the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) phase to achieve a 25 km x 20 km landing error relative to the selected Gale Crater landing target. In order to confirm meeting the above landing criteria, high-fidelity simulation of the EDL phase is required. The tool used for 6DOF EDL trajectory verification analysis is Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing (DSENDS), which is a high-fidelity simulation tool from JPLs Dynamics and Real-Time Simulation Laboratory for the development, test and operations of aero-flight vehicles. DSENDS inherent capability is augmented for MSL with project-specific models of atmosphere, aerodynamics, sensors and thrusters along with GN&C flight software to enable high-fidelity trajectory simulation. This paper will present the model integration and independent verification experience of the JPL EDL trajectory analysis team.

  5. Controller evaluations of the descent advisor automation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard; Volckers, Uwe; Erzberger, Heinz

    1989-01-01

    An automation aid to assist air traffic controllers in efficiently spacing traffic and meeting arrival times at a fix has been developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The automation aid, referred to as the descent advisor (DA), is based on accurate models of aircraft performance and weather conditions. The DA generates suggested clearances, including both top-of-descent point and speed profile data, for one or more aircraft in order to achieve specific time or distance separation objectives. The DA algorithm is interfaced with a mouse-based, menu-driven controller display that allows the air traffic controller to interactively use its accurate predictive capability to resolve conflicts and issue advisories to arrival aircraft. This paper focuses on operational issues concerning the utilization of the DA, specifically, how the DA can be used for prediction, intrail spacing, and metering. In order to evaluate the DA, a real time simulation was conducted using both current and retired controller subjects. Controllers operated in teams of two, as they do in the present environment; issues of training and team interaction will be discussed. Evaluations by controllers indicated considerable enthusiasm for the DA aid, and provided specific recommendations for using the tool effectively.

  6. Mars Exploration Rover Terminal Descent Mission Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Queen, Eric M.

    2004-01-01

    Because of NASA's added reliance on simulation for successful interplanetary missions, the MER mission has developed a detailed EDL trajectory modeling and simulation. This paper summarizes how the MER EDL sequence of events are modeled, verification of the methods used, and the inputs. This simulation is built upon a multibody parachute trajectory simulation tool that has been developed in POST I1 that accurately simulates the trajectory of multiple vehicles in flight with interacting forces. In this model the parachute and the suspended bodies are treated as 6 Degree-of-Freedom (6 DOF) bodies. The terminal descent phase of the mission consists of several Entry, Descent, Landing (EDL) events, such as parachute deployment, heatshield separation, deployment of the lander from the backshell, deployment of the airbags, RAD firings, TIRS firings, etc. For an accurate, reliable simulation these events need to be modeled seamlessly and robustly so that the simulations will remain numerically stable during Monte-Carlo simulations. This paper also summarizes how the events have been modeled, the numerical issues, and modeling challenges.

  7. Mirodenafil Prevents Bladder Dysfunction Induced by Chronic Bladder Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun; Shim, Ji Sung; Park, Jae Young; Moon, Du Geon; Lee, Jeong Gu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of mirodenafil on bladder function in a rat model of chronic bladder ischemia (CBI). Methods: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: untreated, sham-operated rats (control group); untreated, CBI model rats (CBI group); and CBI rats treated daily with 4 mg/kg mirodenafil (CBI+mirodenafil group). The CBI and CBI+mirodenafil groups underwent endothelial injury to the iliac arteries and were fed a 2% cholesterol diet after injury. Four weeks after surgery, the CBI+mirodenafil group started daily treatment with mirodenafil for four weeks. Eight weeks after surgery, continuous in vivo cystometry and in vivo organ bath studies of detrusor muscle strips were performed. Results: in vivo cystometry revealed that the rats in the CBI group had a significantly higher micturition frequency, lower bladder capacity, and lower compliance than the rats in the control and CBI+mirodenafil groups. The detrusor muscle strip study showed that the magnitude of the carbachol-induced contractile response was significantly lower in the CBI group compared to either the control or CBI+mirodenafil group. Addition of daily mirodenafil after induction of CBI decreased the contractile response, compared to untreated CBI rats. CBI induced submucosal fibrosis and degenerative changes in bladder walls, which was reversed by the addition of mirodenafil. Conclusions: Daily treatment with mirodenafil showed protective effects against bladder dysfunction resulting from CBI in rats. PMID:25833477

  8. Selecting a Medical Therapy for Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Lai, H Henry; Boone, Timothy B; Appell, Rodney A

    2002-01-01

    Immediate-release oxybutynin was the gold standard for pharmacologic treatment of overactive bladder for nearly 30 years. Intolerable systemic side effects, in particular dry mouth, limited its clinical utility, resulting in poor patient compliance with dosing regimens. Multiple studies have demonstrated the vastly superior tolerability of tolterodine, extended-release tolterodine, and extended-release oxybutynin over that of immediate-release oxybutynin at equivalent doses, and in the case of extended-release oxybutynin even to twice the dose of the original immediate-release form. With different drug delivery systems and, perhaps, with better bladder selectivity, these new oral agents have favorable side effect profiles, which translate into higher patient compliance and fewer treatment withdrawals or dosage reductions. PMID:16986019

  9. Neurogenic mechanisms in bladder and bowel ageing.

    PubMed

    Ranson, Richard N; Saffrey, M Jill

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of both urinary and faecal incontinence, and also chronic constipation, increases with ageing and these conditions have a major impact on the quality of life of the elderly. Management of bladder and bowel dysfunction in the elderly is currently far from ideal and also carries a significant financial burden. Understanding how these changes occur is thus a major priority in biogerontology. The functions of the bladder and terminal bowel are regulated by complex neuronal networks. In particular neurons of the spinal cord and peripheral ganglia play a key role in regulating micturition and defaecation reflexes as well as promoting continence. In this review we discuss the evidence for ageing-induced neuronal dysfunction that might predispose to neurogenic forms of incontinence in the elderly. PMID:25666896

  10. Applying Online Gradient Descent Search to Genetic Programming for Object Recognition

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Applying Online Gradient Descent Search to Genetic Programming for Object Recognition Will Smart to the use of gradi- ent descent search in genetic programming (GP) for object classification problems to the GP mechanism and is embedded into the genetic beam search, which allows the evolutionary learning

  11. The Yearly Variation in Fall-Winter Arctic Winter Vortex Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Newman, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    Using the change in HALOE methane profiles from early September to late March, we have estimated the minimum amount of diabatic descent within the polar which takes place during Arctic winter. The year to year variations are a result in the year to year variations in stratospheric wave activity which (1) modify the temperature of the vortex and thus the cooling rate; (2) reduce the apparent descent by mixing high amounts of methane into the vortex. The peak descent amounts from HALOE methane vary from l0km -14km near the arrival altitude of 25 km. Using a diabatic trajectory calculation, we compare forward and backward trajectories over the course of the winter using UKMO assimilated stratospheric data. The forward calculation agrees fairly well with the observed descent. The backward calculation appears to be unable to produce the observed amount of descent, but this is only an apparent effect due to the density decrease in parcels with altitude. Finally we show the results for unmixed descent experiments - where the parcels are fixed in latitude and longitude and allowed to descend based on the local cooling rate. Unmixed descent is found to always exceed mixed descent, because when normal parcel motion is included, the path average cooling is always less than the cooling at a fixed polar point.

  12. Proving Mordell-Weil: A Descent in Three Parts A Senior Thesis Of

    E-print Network

    Stein, William

    3 #12;Introductions In 1659, Pierre de Fermat wrote to Christiaan Huygens claiming to have on elliptic curves. In this thesis, we examine three of these moments: (1) Pierre de Fermat's proof. Descent 1: Fermat's Infinite Descent 40 Conclusion 43 Appendix A. Cohomology of Groups 45 Bibliography 48

  13. Engine Placement for Manned Descent at Mars Considering Single Engine Failures

    E-print Network

    . Vehicles large enough to support humans on the flight to Mars and land them safely on the surfaceEngine Placement for Manned Descent at Mars Considering Single Engine Failures by STEPHEN P. YORK B;3 Engine Placement for Manned Descent at Mars Considering Single Engine Failures by STEPHEN P. YORK

  14. A dynamic continuous descent approach methodology for low noise and emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Alam; M. H. Nguyen; H. A. Abbass; C. Lokan; M. Ellejmi; S. Kirby

    2010-01-01

    Continuous Descent Approaches (CDAs) can significantly reduce fuel burn and noise impact by keeping arriving aircraft at their cruise altitude for longer than during conventional approaches(to descend as late as possible)and then having them make a continuous descent to the runway at near idle thrust with no level flight segments. The CDA procedures are fixed routes that are vertically optimized.

  15. A block-based gradient descent search algorithm for block motion estimation in video coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lurng-Kuo Liu; E. Feig

    1996-01-01

    A block-based gradient descent search (BBGDS) algorithm is proposed in this paper to perform block motion estimation in video coding. The BBGDS evaluates the values of a given objective function starting from a small centralized checking block. The minimum within the checking block is found, and the gradient descent direction where the minimum is expected to lie is used to

  16. Miniature coherent velocimeter and altimeter (MCVA) for terminal descent control on lunar and planetary landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Dan; Cardell, Greg; Szwaykowski, Piotr; Shaffat, Syed T.; Meras, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    While the overall architecture of an Entry Descent and Landing (EDL) system may vary depending on specific mission requirementsw, measurements of the rate vector with respect to the surface is a primary requirement for the Terminal Descent Control (TDC) phase of any controlled lander.

  17. Evidence of pudendal neuropathy in patients with perineal descent and chronic straining at stool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E S Kiff; P R Barnes; M Swash

    1984-01-01

    In 17 women with chronic constipation, and abnormal perineal descent on straining at stool, there was more severe neurogenic damage to the external anal sphincter muscle and to its pudendal innervation in those patients with a long history than in those with a short history. These results suggest that recurrent trauma to the pudendal nerves can occur during perineal descent,

  18. Prostate Cancer in Men of African Descent: Opportunities for Global Research Collaborations

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer disproportionately affects men of African descent in terms of incidence, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. Significant knowledge gaps exist about the factors that predict disparities in prostate cancer incidence and outcomes between men of African descent and other ethnic or racial groups.

  19. Asynchronous Peer-to-peer Data Mining with Stochastic Gradient Descent

    E-print Network

    Jelasity, Márk

    Asynchronous Peer-to-peer Data Mining with Stochastic Gradient Descent Róbert Ormándi1 , István a stochastic gradient descent search. We demonstrate our approach by implementing the support vector machine participating nodes. Our contribution is that we propose a method based on stochastic gradient search that meets

  20. Introduction to the special issue on lesbians of African descent: contemporary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Bianca D M; Johnson, Verlena L

    2011-01-01

    This article serves as an introduction to the special issue entitled, "Lesbians of African Descent: Contemporary Perspectives." We briefly discuss our framing of this collection as a contemporary contribution to the canon of Black lesbian writing and art, and identify themes that appear to transcend both earlier and current works of lesbians of African descent. PMID:21279896

  1. Stochastic Gradient Descent Optimization for Low Power Nano-CMOS Thermal Sensor Design

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    descent (SGD) based algorithm and is implemented using a 45 nm thermal sensor circuit as case study. Power gradient descent based (SGD) algorithm. The SGD algorithm helps to improve the optimization time and also is the presentation of a design optimization flow model, which incorporates an SGD algorithm for the optimization

  2. Management Strategies for Painful Bladder Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Trevin C; Bengtson, Joan M

    2010-01-01

    Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is a condition of chronic pelvic pain associated with irritative voiding symptoms. Management of PBS/IC has been a challenge for generations of physicians, owing to a lack of consensus on its definition, an incompletely understood pathophysiology, and numerous available therapies without high-quality evidence to guide their usage. This article reviews the most current conception of PBS/IC and data on effective treatments to recommend a management strategy. PMID:20842281

  3. Foreign body in the bladder mimicking nephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus R. Benz; Maximilian Stehr; Birgit Kammer; Judith Glöckner-Pagel; Julia Höfele; Rudolf Eife; Lutz T. Weber

    2007-01-01

    Cases of foreign bodies in the bladder self-inserted via urethra are not rare in childhood. Urinary tract infection, dysuria,\\u000a lower abdominal pain, or haematuria with and without pain are common symptoms. We report on a 11-year-old boy with accidentally\\u000a detected microscopic haematuria, proteinuria and leukocyturia. Because of increasing proteinuria up to 2330 mg\\/g creatinine\\u000a and elevated antistreptolysin titre glomerulonephritis was suspected.

  4. [Bladder replacement by enterocystoplasty after total cystectomy].

    PubMed

    Tobisu, K; Tanaka, Y; Takai, K; Kakizoe, T

    1989-02-01

    From May 1987 to April 1988, 7 male patients, 43-69 years old in age, underwent enterocystoplasty after total cystectomy. In 5 of them, a selected intestinal segment, consisted of the terminal portion of the ileum, the cecum and the proximal part of the ascending colon, was freed and detubularized for construction of "bladder" substitution. In the remaining two patients with a previous history of cholecystectomy, having severe intestinal adhesions, the ileum or the sigmoid-colon were used. At 3 months after operation, 6 patients had a vesical capacity of 300 ml or more and the maximum volume of urine excreted at one voiding was 200 ml or more. Daytime continence had been achieved in 6 patients at 3 months after operation, whereas nighttime continence had been achieved in 5 patients at 6 months after operation. Serum electrolytes, pH value of arterial blood and renal function, were all normal during the follow-up period (5-13 months). Potency was preserved in 2 patients. All the patients, except one whose "bladder" was constructed with ileum and who was performing daily intermittent selfcatheterization, were able to enjoy almost the same activity of daily life as before operation. The final shape of the "bladder" and its position in the pelvic space seemed to be an important factor for the "bladder" function after operation. By our hand, however, postoperative cystogram revealed a sigmoid shape in all cases, though the reservoirs had an oval shape at the time when they had been constructed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2747089

  5. Modelling the Recurrence of Bladder Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Santamaría; B. García-Mora; G. Rubio; J. L. Pontones

    2008-01-01

    The risk of a new tumor recurrence after transurethral resection (surgical operation) in patients with primary superficial\\u000a bladder carcinoma is evaluated. As the exact time of the event is not known, it is suggested to consider interval-censored\\u000a survival data methodology. We use the model of Farrington to perform a prognostic model for predicting a new recurrence and\\u000a to determine the

  6. Urinary tract infection in patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, D

    2002-06-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are a significant problem in all patients with neurogenic bladder leading to high morbidity, poor quality of life and a limited life expectancy. For the diagnosis of UTI, a urine specimen taken by bladder puncture or catheterization is required. In patients with neurogenic bladders, clinical symptoms and leukocyturia must be present together with bacteriuria in order to qualify as UTI. The spectrum of pathogens differs significantly from that in patients with normal bladder function. Culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing must, therefore, be performed prior to the initiation of antibiotic therapy. This is also important in the prevention of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The main way to prevent recurrent UTI in the neurogenic bladder is by restoring the normal low-pressure reservoir function of the bladder and is the aim of neuro-urological management. PMID:12135853

  7. Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type: a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Mahmoud; Kramer, Mario W.; Wolters, Mathias; Herrman, Thomas R.W.; Becker, Jan U.; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare disease. It occurs in 0.5–2% of all bladder cancers and is discussed as the malignant counterpart of nephrogenic adenomas. We report a 46-year-old white female presented with gross hematuria for clinical examination. Histopathology revealed pT2, Pn1, L1, G2 adenocarcinoma of the bladder and carcinoma in situ according to the TNM classification. Computed tomography scan diagnostic was unremarkable. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder should be treated vigorously and without time delay. Only 7 cases of adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder (mesonephroid) have been described until now. We present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type that early diagnosed and till now 3 months after the cystectomy without symptoms and without complications. PMID:23772302

  8. Oncolytic Viruses in the Treatment of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Kyle G.; Hitt, Mary M.; Moore, Ronald B.

    2012-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the second most common malignancy of the urinary tract. Up to 85% of patients with bladder cancer are diagnosed with a tumor that is limited to the bladder mucosa (Ta, T1, and CIS). These stages are commonly termed as non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Although the treatment of NMIBC has greatly improved in recent years, there is a need for additional therapies when patients fail bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and chemotherapeutic agents. We propose that bladder cancer may be an ideal target for oncolytic viruses engineered to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells leaving normal cells unharmed. In support of this hypothesis, here we review current treatment strategies for bladder cancer and their shortcomings, as well as recent advancements in oncolytic viral therapy demonstrating encouraging safety profiles and antitumor activity. PMID:22899907

  9. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid...Requirements § 121.333 Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid...the certificate holder shall furnish oxygen and dispensing equipment to comply...

  10. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid...Requirements § 121.333 Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid...the certificate holder shall furnish oxygen and dispensing equipment to comply...

  11. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid...Requirements § 121.333 Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid...the certificate holder shall furnish oxygen and dispensing equipment to comply...

  12. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid...Requirements § 121.333 Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid...the certificate holder shall furnish oxygen and dispensing equipment to comply...

  13. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized... (a) General. When operating a turbine engine powered airplane with a...

  14. FES for bladder: direct or indirect means?

    PubMed

    Talalla, A; Bloom, J W; Quang, N

    1987-01-01

    Efforts to restore function to the neurologically disabled lower urinary tract by direct electrical stimulation of the bladder wall have met with only very limited success. This has been due to pain and cocontraction of bladder outlet mechanisms caused by presumed spread of the large currents required to effectively directly stimulate the detrusor muscle. Stimulation at the four anatomical sites of the sacral neural outflow on the other hand has been more successful. Conus medullaris stimulation has resulted in "good results" in just over half of the 28 patients so treated. Acceptance of this technique has been limited by the poor selectivity of the intramedullary electrodes in stimulating only the target motor neurons and the resultant clinical problems with the consequent stimulus current spread. Sacral anterior root stimulation has been used in at least 88 patients with generally good results. Cocontraction of the detrusor and external urethral sphincter are circumvented by the use of an intermittent pattern of stimulation. The primary disadvantage of this technique is the obligatory placement of the electrodes within the cerebrospinal fluid compartment. Clinical experience with stimulation of the extradural sacral mixed nerves is limited. Experimental studies indicate that success with this technique requires dorsal rhizotomy and pudendal neurotomy. Preliminary clinical experience suggests that these surgical manipulations may not be necessary for a successful outcome. The literature on clinical application of pelvic nerve stimulation is too limited for detailed comment on this technique. A definitive technique for restoration of bladder function by electrical stimulation remains to be developed. PMID:2436186

  15. Bladder Cancer Screening in Aluminum Smelter Workers

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Oyebode A.; Slade, Martin D.; Cantley, Linda F.; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R.; Donoghue, A. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present results of a bladder cancer screening program conducted in 18 aluminum smelters in the United States from January 2000 to December 2010. Methods: Data were collected on a cohort of workers with a history of working in coal tar pitch volatile exposed areas including urine analysis for conventional cytology and ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ assay. Results: ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ and cytology in combination showed a sensitivity of 62.30%, a specificity of 92.60%, a negative predictive value of 99.90%, and a positive predictive value of 2.96%. Fourteen cases of bladder cancer were detected, and the standardized incidence ratio of bladder cancer was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.99). Individuals who tested positive on either test who were later determined to be cancer free had undergone expensive and invasive tests. Conclusions: Evidence to support continued surveillance of this cohort has not been demonstrated. PMID:25525927

  16. [Hereditary head and neck tumors].

    PubMed

    Schwarz-Furlan, S; Brase, C; Stockmann, P; Furlan, I; Hartmann, A

    2010-10-01

    Hereditary paraganglioma, Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and Fanconi anemia are among the rare hereditary tumor syndromes of the head and neck. Patients with hereditary paraganglioma often develop multiple tumors of the glomus caroticum and glomus jugulotympanicum. The corresponding genetic defects of the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase complex induce autonomous tumor cell growth. In patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome basal cell carcinomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors usually occur much earlier than in patients with sporadic tumors. The associated germline mutations are located in the patched gene which is a modulator of the cell cycle. Fanconi anemia represents a chromosomal instability syndrome which is characterized by early onset of pancytopenia, i.e. bone marrow failure and subsequent development of acute myeloid leukemia and/or squamous cell carcinomas, especially of the head and neck. A total of 13 different gene clusters have been identified in 2 DNA associated complexes which play an important role in DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:20844882

  17. Human urinary bladder-carcinoma cells are non-osteoinductive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. W?odarski; B. Kuzaka; P. W?odarski

    1996-01-01

    Small pieces (ca. 2–3×3–5 mm) of the urinary-tract mucosa from noninvasive papillary transitional-cell carcinomas of the bladder (ca. urotheliale papillare, n=33), invasive transitional-cell carcinomas of the bladder (ca. urotheliale papillare infiltrans, n=6, papillary transitional-cell carcinomas of the bladder with squamous metaplasia (ca. urotheliale papillare cum metaplasia planoepitheliale, n=4), transitional-cell carcinomas in situ (ca. urotheliale in situ, n=2), and squamous-cell carcinomas

  18. Compliance with bladder management in spinal cord injury patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Yavuzer; H Gök; S Tuncer; T Soygür; N Arikan; T Arasil

    2000-01-01

    Study design: Retrospective analysis of medical records on spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with neuropathic bladder.Objective: To determine SCI patients' compliance with the method of bladder management they used on discharge from inpatient rehabilitation.Setting: Ankara University Medical School, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spinal Cord Injury Unit, which treats patients referred from throughout Turkey.Methods: The bladder management method of

  19. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Devices § 882.5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder...

  20. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Devices § 882.5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder...

  1. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Devices § 882.5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder...

  2. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Devices § 882.5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder...

  3. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Devices § 882.5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder...

  4. The in vivo Formation of N-Nitrosamines in the Rat Bladder and their Subsequent Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Hawksworth, G.; Hill, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments are described which demonstrate the production of nitrosamine in vivo in the bladder of rats with experimental bladder infections. The absorption of nitrosamines from the bladder into the circulating blood is also described. PMID:4605274

  5. The M2 muscarinic receptor mediates in vitro bladder contractions from patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pontari, Michel A.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Bladder muscle specimens from seven patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction were analyzed to determine whether the muscarinic receptor subtype mediating contraction shifts from M3 to the M2 subtype as found in the denervated, hypertrophied rat bladder. Seven bladder specimens were analyzed from six female and one male patients. Six of the patients had traumatic cervical spinal cord injuries (C4–C7), and the other patient had an L1 congenital myelomeningocele. This was compared with results from bladder specimens obtained from eight organ transplant donors. The affinities of three subtype-selective muscarinic receptor antagonists for inhibition of carbachol-induced contractions were determined. The affinity of the M3 selective antagonists darifenacin or p-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenadol (p-F-HHSiD) was determined in six of the seven spinal injury patient specimens. The affinity was consistent with M2-mediated contractions in four of these six specimens, intermediate between M2 and M3 in one specimen, and within the M3 range in one specimen. The other specimen, tested only with the M2 selective antagonist methoctramine, showed an M3 affinity. In the organ donors, the affinity of p-F-HHSiD was within the M2 range for six of seven specimens, whereas the affinity of darifenacin was within the M3 range for five of six and intermediate between M2 and M3 for the other specimen tested. The affinity of methoctramine in both organ donor specimens tested was within the M3 range. Whereas normal detrusor contractions are mediated by the M3 receptor subtype, in patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction as well as certain organ transplant donors, contractions can be mediated by the M2 muscarinic receptor subtype. PMID:14751843

  6. Alterations of Histone H1 Phosphorylation During Bladder Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Telu, Kelly H.; Abbaoui, Besma; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Zynger, Debra L.; Clinton, Steven K.

    2013-01-01

    There is a crucial need for development of prognostic and predictive biomarkers in human bladder carcinogenesis in order to personalize preventive and therapeutic strategies and improve outcomes. Epigenetic alterations, such as histone modifications, are implicated in the genetic dysregulation that is fundamental to carcinogenesis. Here we focus on profiling the histone modifications during the progression of bladder cancer. Histones were extracted from normal human bladder epithelial cells, an immortalized human bladder epithelial cell line (hTERT), and four human bladder cancer cell lines (RT4, J82, T24, and UMUC3) ranging from superficial low-grade to invasive high-grade cancers. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling revealed a statistically significant increase in phosphorylation of H1 linker histones from normal human bladder epithelial cells to low-grade superficial to high-grade invasive bladder cancer cells. This finding was further validated by immunohistochemical staining of the normal epithelium and transitional cell cancer from human bladders. Cell cycle analysis of histone H1 phosphorylation by western blotting showed an increase of phosphorylation from G0/G1 phase to M phase, again supporting this as a proliferative marker. Changes in histone H1 phosphorylation status may further clarify epigenetic changes during bladder carcinogenesis and provide diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers or targets for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:23675690

  7. Biomarkers for bladder cancer management: present and future

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fei; Wang, Li; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; McBride, Russell; Galsky, Matthew D; Zhu, Jun; Boffetta, Paolo; Zhang, David Y; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and sensitive detection of bladder cancer is critical to diagnose this deadly disease at an early stage, estimate prognosis, predict response to treatment, and monitor recurrence. In past years, laboratory diagnosis and surveillance of urinary bladder cancer have improved significantly. Although urine cytology remains the gold standard test, many new urinary biomarkers have been identified. Furthermore, recent advances in genomic studies of bladder cancer have helped to refine our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, the biological basis for outcome disparities, and to inform more efficient treatment and surveillance strategies. In this article, the established diagnostic tests, newly identified biomarkers and genomic landscape of bladder cancer will be reviewed. PMID:25374904

  8. The psychological impact of overactive bladder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Debbie; Pretorius, Sara; Glover, Lesley; Alexander, Tim

    2014-03-01

    This review aimed to provide an overview of the current research on the psychological impact of overactive bladder. A systematic search yielded 32 papers. It was found that people with overactive bladder tended to have greater levels of depression, anxiety and embarrassment/shame; difficulties with social life; impact on sleep and sexual relationships; and a lower quality of life than people without overactive bladder. A psychological impact on family members was also found. Psychological health should be considered an important aspect of managing overactive bladder and further research is required to determine how best to provide psychological care and support in this area. PMID:24591118

  9. Bladder reconstruction in rabbits with glutaraldehyde-stabilized amniotic membranes.

    PubMed

    Norris, M A; Cohen, M S; Warren, M M; Becker, S N; Baur, P S; Seybold, H M

    1982-06-01

    Glutaraldehyde-treated human amniotic membranes were used to repair rabbit bladders after supratrigonal cystectomies. The membranes maintained the integrity of the bladders until healing and reepithelialization occurred. There was no significant loss of bladder capacity or decreased renal function postoperatively. Calcification did not occur on the membranes but was noted on chromic sutures retaining the membranes in 7 of 27 bladders. These findings suggest that glutaraldehyde-stabilized amnion is well tolerated by the urothelium and may serve as a suitable material for replacement of genitourinary tissues. PMID:7090113

  10. Histological study of urinary bladder transplantation in rats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Takechi, S; Ohoka, H; Yokoyama, M; Iwata, H; Takeuchi, M; Matsuda, S

    1997-04-15

    Patients who require cystectomy are usually treated with an ileal conduit or intestinal neobladder for urinary control. In some of them, however, the bowel segment cannot be used because of previous abdominal surgery or radiation treatment. Bladder transplantation from cadavers may be beneficial to these patients, if possible. To obtain basic knowledge about bladder transplantation, we developed an animal model of whole bladder transplantation in rats. Male Lewis rats weighing 270-320 g were used as both donors and recipients. Of the 23 recipients, 12 (52.2%) survived 7 days or longer after surgery. At 1 week after transplantation, the bladder showed loss of transitional epithelium and remarkable cellular infiltration. In the bladder at 5 weeks after transplantation, the transitional epithelium regenerated markedly and submucosal cellular infiltration was much improved. Regeneration of some smooth muscle cells was also noted. At 6 months after transplantation, the nerve fibers were recognized in the bladder and the volume of the transplanted bladder was well preserved (1.0-1.3 ml). This article describes an animal model of whole bladder transplantation in the rat which we produced and the results of our study. Because a large number of pure-bred animals can easily be used, we believe our rat model is very useful for basic studies of bladder transplantation. PMID:9112340

  11. Initial evaluation of whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy after intravesical ALA sensitization for carcinoma in situ of the bladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hallewin, Marie-Ange; Star, Willem M.; Baert, Luc

    1997-12-01

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder is a treacherous entity, that will develop into invasive cancer. Early treatment is mandatory in order to prevent progression. When conservative measures, such as Bacillus Calmette Querin (BCG) instillations have failed, radical cystectomy and urinary diversion is recommended. Whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Photofrin II has been shown to be effective in eradicating carcinoma in situ, but often resulted in bladder shrinking. We wanted to evaluate the effects of PDT after aminolevulinic acid (ALA) sensitization. Six patients with refractory carcinoma in situ of the bladder were treated with whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy, after intravesical sensitization with aminolevulinic acid. The total light dose (scattered plus non scattered) was 75 J/cm2. No skin sensitization occurred, nor loss of bladder capacity. One patient did not respond and was successfully treated with BCG. Another patient developed distant metastases. Carcinoma in situ was completely absent after 3 months in four patients (66%).

  12. Evaluation of vertical profiles to design continuous descent approach procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, Priyank

    The current research focuses on predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA), which is among the key concepts of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The idle-thrust CDA is a fuel economical, noise and emission abatement procedure, but requires increased separation to accommodate for variability and uncertainties in vertical and speed profiles of arriving aircraft. Although a considerable amount of researches have been devoted to the estimation of potential benefits of the CDA, only few have attempted to explain the predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of CDA. The analytical equations derived using flight dynamics and Base of Aircraft and Data (BADA) Total Energy Model (TEM) in this research gives insight into dependency of vertical profile of CDA on various factors like wind speed and gradient, weight, aircraft type and configuration, thrust settings, atmospheric factors (deviation from ISA (DISA), pressure and density of the air) and descent speed profile. Application of the derived equations to idle-thrust CDA gives an insight into sensitivity of its vertical profile to multiple factors. This suggests fixed geometric flight path angle (FPA) CDA has higher degree of predictability and lesser variability at the cost of non-idle and low thrust engine settings. However, with optimized design this impact can be overall minimized. The CDA simulations were performed using Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) based on radar-track and aircraft type data (BADA) of the real air-traffic to some of the busiest airports in the USA (ATL, SFO and New York Metroplex (JFK, EWR and LGA)). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA shows 1) mean geometric FPAs derived from various simulated vertical profiles are consistently shallower than 3° glideslope angle and 2) high level of variability in vertical profiles of idle-thrust CDA even in absence of uncertainties in external factors. Analysis from operational feasibility perspective suggests that two key features of the performance based Flight Management System (FMS) i.e. required time of arrival (RTA) and geometric descent path would help in reduction of unpredictability associated with arrival time and vertical profile of aircraft guided by the FMS coupled with auto-pilot (AP) and auto-throttle (AT). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA also suggests that for procedure design window type, 'AT or above' and 'AT or below' altitude and FPA constraints are more realistic and useful compared to obsolete 'AT' type altitude constraint.

  13. Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Vicroy; C. E. Knox

    1983-01-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is

  14. Calvin's confession of Christ's descent into hell in the context of the doctrine of redemption: an historical and hermeneutical inquiry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Brenton

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the credibility problem of the creedal article on Christ's descent into hell, and proposes that this article of faith can be restored to credibility by accepting Calvin's confession on Christ's descent. The question of whether Calvin's interpretation of the descent as Christ's soul-suffering or redemptive agony can fill the credibility gap is answered by following a

  15. Large Vaginal and Bladder Calculi in a Woman With Previous Operation of Bladder Exstrophy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli, Mahmoud; Ghoreifi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    This is to report the case of a huge vaginal stone, and bladder calculi in a 26-year-old woman with previous operation of bladder exstrophy. It seems that the vaginal stone was secondary to the remaining wire used in her previous reconstructive surgery for pelvic closure 20 years ago and now surgery is performed to remove the vaginal and bladder stones. PMID:24719809

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... neck, and shoulder movement, speech, and swallowing. The patient may need physical therapy of the throat , neck, shoulder, and/or arm after radical neck dissection. Radical neck dissection may be used when cancer has spread widely in the neck. Modified radical ...

  17. Overview of the Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grover, Myron R., III; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Phoenix Mars Lander began its journey to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida in August 2007, but its journey to the launch pad began many years earlier in 1997 as NASA s Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. In the intervening years, the entry, descent and landing (EDL) system architecture went through a series of changes, resulting in the system flown to the surface of Mars on May 25th, 2008. Some changes, such as entry velocity and landing site elevation, were the result of differences in mission design. Other changes, including the removal of hypersonic guidance, the reformulation of the parachute deployment algorithm, and the addition of the backshell avoidance maneuver, were driven by constant efforts to augment system robustness. An overview of the Phoenix EDL system architecture is presented along with rationales driving these architectural changes.

  18. Apollo 16 LM-11 descent propulsion system final flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avvenire, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    The performance of the LM-11 Descent Propulsion System during the Apollo 16 Mission was evaluated and found to be satisfactory. The average engine effective specific impulse was 0.1 second higher than predicted, but well within the predicted 1 sigma uncertainty of 0.2 seconds. The engine performance corrected to standard inlet conditions for the FTP portion of the burn at 50 seconds after ignition was as follows: thrust, 9839 lbf; specific impulse, 306.9 sec; and propellant mixture ratio, 1.592. These values are +0.34, +0.03 and +0.0 percent different, respectively, from the values reported from engine acceptance tests and were within specification limits. Several flight measurement discrepancies that existed during the flight are discussed.

  19. Transitions and transversions in evolutionary descent - An approach to understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative theoretical groundwork is presented for determining the proportions of the possible types of base substitutions observed between 12 genes sharing a common ancestor and isolated from extant species. Three methods (direct count, regression, and informational entropy maximization) are described by which conditional base substitution probabilities that determine evolutionary descent can be estimated from experimental data. These methods are utilized to study the ratio of transversions to transitions during gene divergence. The limiting ratio is directly calculated from a knowledge of the 12 conditional probabilities for each type of base substitution and from a knowledge of the equilibrium base composition of the DNAs compared. An expression is developed for this calculation. It is concluded that multiple substitutions per se do not lead to a decrease in transition differences with increasing evolutionary divergence.

  20. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, Ravi; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Devin, M. Kipp; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Steltzner, Adam D.; Way, David W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions.

  1. Generalized Harish-Chandra descent and applications to Gelfand pairs

    E-print Network

    Aizenbud, Avraham

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of the paper we generalize a descent technique due to Harish-Chandra to the case of a reductive group acting on a smooth affine variety both defined over arbitrary local field F of characteristic zero. Our main tool in that is Luna slice theorem. In the second part of the paper we apply this technique to symmetric pairs. In particular we prove that the pair (GL(n,C),GL(n,R)) is a Gelfand pair. We also prove that any conjugation invariant distribution on GL(n,F) is invariant with respect to transposition. For non-archimedean F the later is a classical theorem of Gelfand and Kazhdan. We use the techniques developed here in our proceeding work [AG3] where we prove an archimedean analog of the theorem on uniqueness of linear periods by H. Jacquet and S. Rallis.

  2. Down-Regulation of Nerve Growth Factor Expression in the Bladder by Antisense Oligonucleotides as New Treatment for Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Mahendra; Kawamorita, Naoki; Tyagi, Vikas; Sugino, Yoshio; Chancellor, Michael; Yoshimura, Naoki; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Nerve growth factor over expression in the bladder has a role in overactive bladder symptoms via the mediation of functional changes in bladder afferent pathways. We studied whether blocking nerve growth factor over expression in bladder urothelium by a sequence specific gene silencing mechanism would suppress bladder overactivity and chemokine expression induced by acetic acid. Materials and Methods Female Sprague-Dawley® rats anesthetized with isoflurane were instilled with 0.5 ml saline, scrambled or TYE™ 563 labeled antisense oligonucleotide targeting nerve growth factor (12 ?M) alone or complexed with cationic liposomes for 30 minutes. The efficacy of nerve growth factor antisense treatments for acetic acid induced bladder overactivity was assessed by cystometry. Bladder nerve growth factor expression levels and cellular distribution were quantified by immunofluorescence staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Effects on bladder chemokine expression were measured by Luminex® xMAP® analysis. Results Liposomes were needed for bladder uptake of oligonucleotide, as seen by the absence of bright red TYE 563 fluorescence in rats instilled with oligonucleotide alone. At 24 hours after liposome-oligonucleotide treatment baseline bladder activity during saline infusion was indistinct in the sham and antisense treated groups with a mean ± SEM intercontraction interval of 348 ± 55 and 390 ± 120 seconds, respectively. Acetic acid induced bladder overactivity was shown by a decrease in the intercontraction interval to a mean of 33.2% ± 4.0% of baseline in sham treated rats. However, the reduction was blunted to a mean of 75.8% ± 3.4% of baseline in rats treated with liposomal antisense oligonucleotide (p <0.05). Acetic acid induced increased nerve growth factor in the urothelium of sham treated rats, which was decreased by antisense treatment, as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reduced nerve growth factor immunoreactivity in the urothelium. Increased nerve growth factor in bladder tissue was associated with sICAM-1, sE-selectin, CXCL-10 and 1, leptin, MCP-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor over expression, which was significantly decreased by nerve growth factor antisense treatment (p <0.01). Conclusions Acetic acid induced bladder overactivity is associated with nerve growth factor over expression in the urothelium and with chemokine up-regulation. Treatment with liposomal antisense suppresses bladder overactivity, and nerve growth factor and chemokine expression. Local suppression of nerve growth factor in the bladder could be an attractive approach for overactive bladder. It would avoid the systemic side effects that may be associated with nonspecific blockade of nerve growth factor expression. PMID:23454160

  3. Y chromosome lineages in men of west African descent.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jada Benn; Doura, Menahem B; Keita, Shomarka O Y; Kittles, Rick A

    2012-01-01

    The early African experience in the Americas is marked by the transatlantic slave trade from ?1619 to 1850 and the rise of the plantation system. The origins of enslaved Africans were largely dependent on European preferences as well as the availability of potential laborers within Africa. Rice production was a key industry of many colonial South Carolina low country plantations. Accordingly, rice plantations owners within South Carolina often requested enslaved Africans from the so-called "Grain Coast" of western Africa (Senegal to Sierra Leone). Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and central Africans (from 12 populations), 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands), 532 African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC), and 91 European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30-40% of the paternal lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European ancestry. Diverse west African ancestries and sex-biased gene flow from EAs has contributed greatly to the genetic heterogeneity of African populations throughout the Americas and has significant implications for gene mapping efforts in these populations. PMID:22295064

  4. Chronic neck pain: How to approach treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Borenstein

    2007-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a common patient complaint. Despite its frequency as a clinical problem, there are few evidence-based\\u000a studies that document efficacy of therapies for neck pain. The treatment of this symptom is based primarily on clinical experience.\\u000a Preventing the development of chronic neck pain can be achieved by modification of the work environment with chairs that encourage\\u000a proper

  5. Infections of the deep neck spaces.

    PubMed

    Hedge, Amogh; Mohan, Suyash; Lim, Winston Eng Hoe

    2012-05-01

    Deep neck infections (DNI) have a propensity to spread rapidly along the interconnected deep neck spaces and compromise the airway, cervical vessels and spinal canal. The value of imaging lies in delineating the anatomical extent of the disease process, identifying the source of infection and detecting complications. Its role in the identification and drainage of abscesses is well known. This paper pictorially illustrates infections of important deep neck spaces. The merits and drawbacks of imaging modalities used for assessment of DNI, the relevant anatomy and the possible sources of infection of each deep neck space are discussed. Certain imaging features that alter the management of DNI have been highlighted. PMID:22584969

  6. Validation of Genome-Wide Prostate Cancer Associations in Men of African Descent

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bao-Li; Spangler, Elaine; Gallagher, Stephen; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian; Isaacs, William; Benford, Marnita L.; Kidd, LaCreis R.; Cooney, Kathleen; Strom, Sara; Ann Ingles, Sue; Stern, Mariana C.; Corral, Roman; Joshi, Amit D.; Xu, Jianfeng; Giri, Veda N.; Rybicki, Benjamin; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Kibel, Adam S.; Thompson, Ian M.; Leach, Robin J.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Stanford, Janet L.; Witte, John; Casey, Graham; Eeles, Rosalind; Hsing, Ann W.; Chanock, Stephen; Hu, Jennifer J.; John, Esther M.; Park, Jong; Stefflova, Klara; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, but these loci have been identified primarily in men of European descent. There is limited information about the role of these loci in men of African descent. Methods We identified 7,788 prostate cancer cases and controls with genotype data for 47 GWAS-identified loci. Results We identified significant associations for SNP rs10486567 at JAZF1, rs10993994 at MSMB, rs12418451 and rs7931342 at 11q13, and rs5945572 and rs5945619 at NUDT10/11. These associations were in the same direction and of similar magnitude as those reported in men of European descent. Significance was attained at all report prostate cancer susceptibility regions at chromosome 8q24, including associations reaching genome-wide significance in region 2. Conclusion We have validated in men of African descent the associations at some, but not all, prostate cancer susceptibility loci originally identified in European descent populations. This may be due to heterogeneity in genetic etiology or in the pattern of genetic variation across populations. Impact The genetic etiology of prostate cancer in men of African descent differs from that of men of European descent. PMID:21071540

  7. Bladder augmentation and urinary diversion in patients with neurogenic bladder: surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Stein, Raimund; Schröder, Annette; Thüroff, Joachim W

    2012-04-01

    In patients with a neurogenic bladder, the primary goal is preservation of renal function and prevention of urinary tract infection, with urinary continence as the secondary goal. After failure of conservative treatment (clean intermittent catheterisation and pharmacotherapy) urinary diversion should be considered. In this review, the surgical options with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. In patients with a hyper-reflexive, small-capacity and/or low-compliance bladder with normal upper urinary tract, bladder augmentation (bowel segments/ureter) is an option. To those who are unable to perform clean intermittent catheterisation via urethra, a continent cutaneous stoma can be offered. In patients with irreparable sphincter defects a continent cutaneous diversion is an option. For patients who are not suitable for a continent diversion (incompliant±chronic renal failure), a colonic conduit for incontinent diversion is preferred. Surgical complications specific to urinary diversion include: ureterointestinal stenosis, stomal stenosis, stone formation, bladder perforation, and shunt infection and obstruction. Surgical revision is required in around one third of patients. Careful lifelong follow-up of these patients is necessary, as some of these complications can occur late. PMID:22264521

  8. Bladder afferent pathway and spinal cord injury: possible mechanisms inducing hyperreflexia of the urinary bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Yoshimura

    1999-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common problem in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Since the coordination of the urinary bladder and urethra is controlled by the complex mechanisms in spinal and supraspinal neural pathways, SCI rostral to the lumbosacral level disrupts voluntary and supraspinal control of voiding and induces a considerable reorganization of the micturition reflex pathway.Following SCI,

  9. What I need to know about Bladder Control for WomenBladder Control for Women

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    OF HEALTH National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse #12;#12;Contents What are the different types. What Your Doctor Needs to Know B. Your Daily Bladder Diary C. Kegel Exercise Tips D. Medicines common in women. Many women leak urine when they exercise, laugh hard, cough, or sneeze. Often women

  10. Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Vicroy, D.D.; Knox, C.E.

    1983-05-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

  11. Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, D. D.; Knox, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

  12. Achieving continence in children with neurogenic bowel and bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candace F. Zickler; Virginia Richardson

    2004-01-01

    Bowel and bladder continence is a major developmental accomplishment for a child and his or her family. Children with neurogenic bowel and bladder dysfunction, which occurs with myelomeningocele and other neural tube defects, have a physical inability to attain continence. However, children with these limitations can attain continence when the appropriate modifications to the traditional routines are made. Enabling the

  13. Incomplete bladder duplication with multiple congenital anomalies: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Nipun Kumar; Goel, Hemantkumar; Mahapatra, Rajkumarsingha; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of incomplete bladder duplication associated with multiple congenital malformation. The patient presented with a symptomatic left pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction which was surgically managed. To the best of our knowledge, this type of bladder duplication with such syndromic association is not yet reported in literature. PMID:25657553

  14. Variable Patterned Pudendal Nerve Stimuli Improves Reflex Bladder Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim M. Bruns; Narendra Bhadra; Kenneth J. Gustafson

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated variable patterns of pudendal nerve (PN) stimuli for reflex bladder excitation. Reflex activation of the bladder has been demonstrated previously with 20-33 Hz continuous stimulation of PN afferents. Neuronal circuits accessed by afferent mediated pathways may respond better to physiological patterned stimuli than continuous stimulation. Unilateral PN nerve cuffs were placed in neurologically intact male cats. PN stimulation

  15. Bladder emptying by intermittent electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Joseph W.; Wenzel, Brian J.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2006-03-01

    Persons with a suprasacral spinal cord injury cannot empty their bladder voluntarily. Bladder emptying can be restored by intermittent electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots (SR) to cause bladder contraction. However, this therapy requires sensory nerve transection to prevent dyssynergic contraction of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). Stimulation of the compound pudendal nerve trunk (PN) activates spinal micturition circuitry, leading to a reflex bladder contraction without a reflex EUS contraction. The present study determined if PN stimulation could produce bladder emptying without nerve transection in cats anesthetized with ?-chloralose. With all nerves intact, intermittent PN stimulation emptied the bladder (64 ± 14% of initial volume, n = 37 across six cats) more effectively than either distention-evoked micturition (40 ± 19%, p < 0.001, n = 27 across six cats) or bilateral intermittent SR stimulation (25 ± 23%, p < 0.005, n = 4 across two cats). After bilateral transection of the nerves innervating the urethral sphincter, intermittent SR stimulation voided 79 ± 17% (n = 12 across three cats), comparable to clinical results obtained with SR stimulation. Voiding via intermittent PN stimulation did not increase after neurotomy (p > 0.10), indicating that PN stimulation was not limited by bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. Intermittent PN stimulation holds promise for restoring bladder emptying following spinal injury without requiring nerve transection.

  16. Overactive Bladder: Treatment Options in Primary Care Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David O. Sussman

    Overactive bladder is a highly prevalent condition, affecting approximately 33 million adults in the United States. Despite the considerable impact this condition has on patients' quality of life, overactive bladder remains underrecognized and undertreated as a result of patient embarrassment and reluctance to seek medical help, as well as a lack of proac- tive questioning by physicians. The present article

  17. Ontogeny of the Rat Bladder: Smooth Muscle and Epithelial Differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Baskin; S. W. Hayward; P. F. Young; G. R. Cunha

    1996-01-01

    The sequential expression of smooth muscle and epithelial markers in the rat bladder has been defined. Smooth muscle differentiation, based on cell morphology and immunohistochemical localization of smooth muscle oc-actin, myosin, vinculin, desmin, vimentin and laminin, begins at 16 days of gestation (birth = 22 days) in the rat bladder. Smooth muscle cell differentiation begins in the periphery of the

  18. Inguinal bladder hernia associated with vesico-ureteric reflux.

    PubMed Central

    Noble, J. G.; Christmas, T. J.; Chapple, C. R.; Rickards, D.

    1992-01-01

    The urinary bladder is frequently found as a component of inguinal herniae. This report describes a case of 'bladder hernia' associated with vesico-ureteric reflux. The current methods of investigation and subsequent treatment for this condition are reviewed along with the possible underlying cause of vesico-ureteric reflux in this case. Images Figure 1 PMID:1409201

  19. Renal Failure Caused by Malakoplakia Lesions of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Chelioti, Eleni; Tsavari, Aikaterini; Koulia, Kalliroi; Papalexandrou, Alexia; Efthymiou, Evdokia; Tsilivigkou, Maria; Vasilakaki, Thivi

    2014-01-01

    ?alakoplakia is a rare inflammatory condition of the urogenital tract. The most frequently affected organ is urinary bladder. This condition has features of a granulomatous inflammation, the pathogenesis of which is not well understood. In this study, we presented a case of urinary bladder malakoplakia associated with advanced obstructive uropathy and renal failure. PMID:25695020

  20. Arsenic-Related Chromosomal Alterations in Bladder Cancer

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Arsenic-Related Chromosomal Alterations in Bladder Cancer Lee E. Moore, Allan H. Smith, Clarence of arsenic in drinking water is a strong risk factor for several forms of cancer, including bladder cancer. It is not known whether arsenic-related cancers are genetically simi- lar to cancers in unexposed individuals

  1. Committee opinion: onabotulinumtoxinA and the bladder.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of onabotulinumtoxinA (also known as Botox A) for the treatment of overactive bladder, thus providing another treatment option for women. Symptoms of overactive bladder have been shown to significantly improve after onabotulinumtoxinA injections compared with no intervention, placebo, pharmacological treatments, and bladder instillation technique. Before considering medical or surgical treatment, all patients in whom overactive bladder is diagnosed should receive instruction in behavioral techniques (eg, bladder retraining drills and timed voids), fluid management, or pelvic muscle exercises with or without physical therapy. Intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA may be a second-line treatment option for overactive bladder in appropriate patients, and consideration of its use requires shared decision making between the patient and health care provider. Patients who are candidates for onabotulinumtoxinA injections into the bladder should be counseled about its risks and possible postprocedure adverse events, including the risk of postprocedure urinary retention, urinary tract infections, hematuria, pain, and transient body weakness. Health care providers who perform onabotulinumtoxinA injections must have appropriate training and experience in treating women with pelvic floor disorders, operative cystoscopy privileges, and the ability to diagnose and manage any adverse outcomes after onabotulinumtoxinA injections into the bladder. PMID:25181372

  2. Occupation and bladder cancer: a cohort study in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Ji; C Granström; K Hemminki

    2005-01-01

    In a follow-up study of occupational exposures and bladder cancer, an increased risk was observed after an adjustment for smoking, for physicians, administrators and managers, clerical workers and sales agents among men and assistant nurses among women. For physicians, the reason may be early diagnosis; for the other groups a sedentary type of work may have a role in bladder

  3. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects of the Urinary Bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Akila N., E-mail: aviswanathan@lroc.harvard.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Yorke, Ellen D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Eifel, Patricia J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-03-01

    An in-depth overview of the normal-tissue radiation tolerance of the urinary bladder is presented. The most informative studies consider whole-organ irradiation. The data on partial-organ/nonuniform irradiation are suspect because the bladder motion is not accounted for, and many studies lack long enough follow-up data. Future studies are needed.

  4. Ultrastructural basement membrane topography of the bladder epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Abrams; Christopher J. Murphy; Zun-Yi Wang; Paul F. Nealey; Dale E. Bjorling

    2003-01-01

    The basement membrane underlies epithelium and separates it from deeper tissues. Recent studies suggest that nanoscale topography of the surface of basement membrane may modulate adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation of overlying epithelium. This study was performed to elucidate nanoscale topographic features of basement membrane of the bladder. Bladder tissues were obtained from three adult female rhesus macaques. A process

  5. Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth Main ... Being Treated With Radiation for Cancer in Your Head or Neck? If so, this booklet can help ...

  6. Pathophysiology and animal modeling of underactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Smith, Phillip P; Kuchel, George A; de Groat, William C; Birder, Lori A; Chermansky, Christopher J; Adam, Rosalyn M; Tse, Vincent; Chancellor, Michael B; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    While the symptomology of underactive bladder (UAB) may imply a primary dysfunction of the detrusor muscle, insights into pathophysiology indicate that both myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms need to be considered. Due to lack of proper animal models, the current understanding of the UAB pathophysiology is limited, and much of what is known about the clinical etiology of the condition has been derived from epidemiological data. We hereby review current state of the art in the understanding of the pathophysiology of and animal models used to study the UAB. PMID:25238890

  7. Pathology Case Study: Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Wen-Wei

    This is a genitourinary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 84-year-old man has a bladder outlet obstruction. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

  8. Infrared spectra of urine from cancerous bladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharram, M. A.; Higazi, A.; Moharram, A. A.

    1996-06-01

    The infrared spectra of organic constituents of urine from cancerous bladders of some patients were recorded. The spectra of the organic part of the samples were classified into five types according to the bulk constituents. Samples with type A spectra consisted mainly of proteins with only trace amounts of lipids. Their spectra were characterized mainly by the absorption bands of proteins at the frequencies 3330, 3075, 2960, 2850, 1650, 1530, 1450, 1400 and 1320 cm-1, in addition to a weak band at 1720 cm-1 due to the absorption of lipids. Samples with type B spectra were characterized by high amounts of proteins and low amounts of lipids and phosphate compounds. The presence of phosphate compounds was indicated by the absorption bands at the frequencies 1100 and 1030 cm-1. Samples giving spectral type C were characterized by high urea contents as indicated by the presence of two strong bands at 1670 and 1630 cm-1. Samples with the spectral type D consisted of urea and phosphate compounds whereas the last spectral type E consisted mainly of calcium oxalates, uric acids and phosphate compounds. The presence of calcium oxalates was indicated by the presence of its diagnostic bands at the frequencies 1630 and 1330 cm-1, while the presence of uric acid was indicated by the bands at the frequencies 1360, 1130, 1020 and 880 cm-1. On the other hand, the spectra of the organic part of urine from some normal bladders exhibited the characteristic bands of urea only. Careful examination of the spectra of the inorganic part of urine revealed that some samples consisted mainly of hydroxyapatite. The absorption bands of hydroxyapatite appeared at the frequencies 568, 603, 985, 1037 and 1128 cm-1. The spectra of other samples showed that the bands of basic phosphates at the frequencies 568, 620, 727, 890, 1035 and 1140 cm-1. The spectra of the inorganic part of urine from a number of normal bladders displayed the bands of basic phosphates. The relationship between urine constituents and pathological types of bladder tumor tissue was discussed.

  9. Emerging Neural Stimulation Technologies for Bladder Dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Woong; Kim, Daejeong; Yoo, Sangjin; Lee, Hyungsup; Lee, Gu-Haeng; Nam, Yoonkey

    2015-01-01

    In the neural engineering field, physiological dysfunctions are approached by identifying the target nerves and providing artificial stimulation to restore the function. Neural stimulation and recording technologies play a central role in this approach, and various engineering devices and stimulation techniques have become available to the medical community. For bladder control problems, electrical stimulation has been used as one of the treatments, while only a few emerging neurotechnologies have been used to tackle these problems. In this review, we introduce some recent developments in neural stimulation technologies including microelectrode array, closed-loop neural stimulation, optical stimulation, and ultrasound stimulation. PMID:25833475

  10. Retroperitoneal lipoma arising from the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ukita, Shingo; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Ohnaka, Megumi; Miyagawa, Naoyuki; Yamanishi, Yukio; Nishimura, Fumitomo; Nagura, Michikazu; Kim, Tomoko; Hirose, Masaya; Shirase, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Hisato; Ozasa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Retroperitoneal benign lipomas are extremely rare and represent about 2.9% of all primary retroperitoneal tumors. About 80% of the tumors in the retroperitoneal cavities are malignant neoplasms. We experienced a case of a retroperitoneal lipoma simulating an ovarian mature cystic teratoma. A diagnosis was correctly made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery, and a total tumorectomy was performed. The retroperitoneal lipoma was recognized to have arisen from the urinary bladder. Histological sections revealed a tumor consisting of typical adipose cells without atypia. These types of lipomas should be carefully followed-up because they often recur and undergo malignant transformations. PMID:21139884

  11. The concept of peripheral modulation of bladder sensation

    PubMed Central

    Eastham, Jane E; Gillespie, James I

    2013-01-01

    It is recognized that, as the bladder fills, there is a corresponding increase in sensation. This awareness of the volume in the bladder is then used in a complex decision making process to determine if there is a need to void. It is also part of everyday experience that, when the bladder is full and sensations strong, these sensations can be suppressed and the desire to void postponed. The obvious explanation for such altered perceptions is that they occur centrally. However, this may not be the only mechanism. There are data to suggest that descending neural influences and local factors might regulate the sensitivity of the systems within the bladder wall generating afferent activity. Specifically, evidence is accumulating to suggest that the motor-sensory system within the bladder wall is influenced in this way. The motor-sensory system, first described over 100 years ago, appears to be a key component in the afferent outflow, the afferent “noise,” generated within the bladder wall. However, the presence and possible importance of this complex system in the generation of bladder sensation has been overlooked in recent years. As the bladder fills the motor activity increases, driven by cholinergic inputs and modulated, possibly, by sympathetic inputs. In this way information on bladder volume can be transmitted to the CNS. It can be argued that the ability to alter the sensitivity of the mechanisms generating the motor component of this motor-sensory system represents a possible indirect way to influence afferent activity and so the perception of bladder volume centrally. Furthermore, it is emerging that the apparent modulation of sensation by drugs to alleviate the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), the anti-cholinergics and the new generation of drugs the ?3 sympathomimetics, may be the result of their ability to modulate the motor component of the motor sensory system. The possibility of controlling sensation, physiologically and pharmacologically, by influencing afferent firing at its point of origin is a “new” concept in bladder physiology. It is one that deserves careful consideration as it might have wider implications for our understanding of bladder pathology and in the development of new therapeutic drugs. In this overview, evidence for the concept peripheral modulation of bladder afferent outflow is explored. PMID:23917648

  12. A Cause of Renal Dysfunction: A Giant Bladder Stone

    PubMed Central

    Ofluoglu, Yilmaz; Aydin, Hasan Riza; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Adanur, Senol; Ziypak, Tevfik

    2013-01-01

    Bladder stones are frequently seen in elderly men and account for 5% of all urinary stones. They develop secondary to infravesical obstructions, such as prostatic hyperplasia and neurogenic bladder. A 56-year-old patient with frequent and painful urination, dysuria, and minor complaints of suprapubic pain was referred to our clinic. He was diagnosed with bladder stones by non-contrast abdominopelvic computerized tomography, kidney-ureter-bladder radiography, and urinary system ultrasonography. Cystolithotomy was applied on a giant stone measuring 11×6.5×10 cm that filled the intravesical cavity nearly completely. Here, we present this case of a giant bladder stone causing renal dysfunction within the context of findings in the literature. PMID:25610281

  13. Laparoscopic Diverticulocystoplasty for Low Compliance Bladder in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, Kallappan; Murugesan, Anandan; Ganapathy Pai, Mizar

    2012-01-01

    Low compliance bladder with a posterior urethral valve is a common association. Augmentation cystoplasty is one of the management options. We present the case report of a 4-y-old boy who presented with low compliance bladder, bladder diverticulum, right obstructive megaureter, and left grade IV reflux, 6 mo following PUV fulguration. He was managed by laparoscopic diverticulocystoplasty with right ureteric reimplantation and left detrusorrhaphy. The patient showed subjective and urodynamic improvement at 12 mo follow-up. The use of diverticulum for augmentation is advantageous, as it abides by the principle of bladder augmentation with urothelium. This is the first case report of successful use of diverticulum for laparoscopic bladder augmentation in a child. PMID:23318084

  14. Laparoscopic diverticulocystoplasty for low compliance bladder in a child.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Manickam; Senthil, Kallappan; Murugesan, Anandan; Pai, Mizar Ganapathy

    2012-01-01

    Low compliance bladder with a posterior urethral valve is a common association. Augmentation cystoplasty is one of the management options. We present the case report of a 4-y-old boy who presented with low compliance bladder, bladder diverticulum, right obstructive megaureter, and left grade IV reflux, 6 mo following PUV fulguration. He was managed by laparoscopic diverticulocystoplasty with right ureteric reimplantation and left detrusorrhaphy. The patient showed subjective and urodynamic improvement at 12 mo follow-up. The use of diverticulum for augmentation is advantageous, as it abides by the principle of bladder augmentation with urothelium. This is the first case report of successful use of diverticulum for laparoscopic bladder augmentation in a child. PMID:23318084

  15. Radical Cystectomy and Orthotopic Bladder Substitution Using Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinsung

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, continent urinary diversion, especially orthotopic bladder substitutions, has become increasingly popular following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. The ultimate goal of orthotopic bladder substitution is to offer patients the best quality of life, similar to that of patients with native bladders. To achieve that purpose, surgeons should be familiar with the characteristics of good candidates for neobladders, the possible intraoperative and postoperative problems related to the surgery, and the solutions to these problems. Postoperative surveillance and instructions given to the patients also contribute to successful, functional results. Here, we reviewed the indications, pitfalls, and solutions for orthotopic bladder substitutions and the patients' quality of life after surgery. When performed properly, orthotopic continent diversion offers good quality of life with few long-term complications. Therefore, we believe it is the best option for the majority of patients requiring cystectomy. PMID:21556208

  16. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies and causes hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide each year. Bladder cancer is strongly associated with exposure to environmental carcinogens. It is believed that DNA damage generated by environmental carcinogens and their metabolites causes development of bladder cancer. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the major DNA repair pathway for repairing bulk DNA damage generated by most environmental carcinogens, and XPC is a DNA damage recognition protein required for initiation of the NER process. Recent studies demonstrate reduced levels of XPC protein in tumors for a majority of bladder cancer patients. In this work we investigated the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer development. The results of our HDAC inhibition study revealed that the treatment of HTB4 and HTB9 bladder cancer cells with the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) caused an increase in transcription of the XPC gene in these cells. The results of our chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies indicated that the VPA treatment caused increased binding of both CREB1 and Sp1 transcription factors at the promoter region of the XPC gene for both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. The results of our immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining studies further revealed a strong correlation between the over-expression of HDAC4 and increased bladder cancer occurrence (p < 0.001) as well as a marginal significance of increasing incidence of HDAC4 positivity seen with an increase in severity of bladder cancer (p = 0.08). In addition, the results of our caspase 3 activation studies demonstrated that prior treatment with VPA increased the anticancer drug cisplatin-induced activation of caspase 3 in both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. All of these results suggest that the HDACs negatively regulate transcription of the XPC gene in bladder cancer cells and contribute to the severity of bladder tumors. PMID:21507255

  17. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in management of bladder cancer, particularly with multimodal bladder-sparing strategy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Koga, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Shuichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Satoh, Shiro; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Bladder-sparing strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is increasingly demanded instead of radical cystectomy plus urinary diversion. Multimodal therapeutic approaches consisting of transurethral resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or partial cystectomy improve patients’ quality of life by preserving their native bladder and sexual function without compromising oncological outcomes. Because a favorable response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a prerequisite for successful bladder preservation, predicting and monitoring therapeutic response is an essential part of this approach. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is a functional imaging technique increasingly applied to various types of cancers. Contrast in this imaging technique derives from differences in the motion of water molecules among tissues and this information is useful in assessing the biological behavior of cancers. Promising results in predicting and monitoring the response to CRT have been reported in several types of cancers. Recently, growing evidence has emerged showing that DW-MRI can serve as an imaging biomarker in the management of bladder cancer. The qualitative analysis of DW-MRI can be applied to detecting cancerous lesion and monitoring the response to CRT. Furthermore, the potential role of quantitative analysis by evaluating apparent diffusion coefficient values has been shown in characterizing bladder cancer for biological aggressiveness and sensitivity to CRT. DW-MRI is a potentially useful tool for the management of bladder cancer, particularly in multimodal bladder-sparing approaches for MIBC. PMID:24976935

  18. Naturally-occurring canine transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder A relevant model of human invasive bladder cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah W. Knapp; Nita W. Glickman; Dennis B. DeNicola; Patty L. Bonney; Tsang L. Lin; Lawrence T. Glickman

    2000-01-01

    Invasive bladder cancer results in over 10,000 deaths yearly in the United States alone. More effective therapy for invasive bladder cancer is clearly needed. As new cellular and molecular targets for therapy are identified, relevant animal models are needed to test new therapeutic strategies aimed at these targets prior to human clinical trials. The purpose of this review is to

  19. Is elective neck dissection indicated during salvage surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Alvaro; Silver, Carl E; Olsen, Kerry D; Medina, Jesus E; Hamoir, Marc; Paleri, Vinidh; Mondin, Vanni; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Rodrigo, Juan P; Suárez, Carlos; Boedeker, Carsten C; Hinni, Michael L; Kowalski, Luiz P; Teymoortash, Afshin; Werner, Jochen A; Takes, Robert P; Ferlito, Alfio

    2014-12-01

    Among patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with a negative neck who are initially treated with (chemo)radiotherapy, a number of cases will recur locally without obvious neck recurrence. There is little information available as to the most efficacious management of the neck in these cases. We have reviewed the literature to see what conclusions can be drawn from previous reports. We conducted a bibliography search on MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Studies published in the English language and those on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx were included. Data related to neck management were extracted from the articles. Twelve studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Five studies reported only one treatment plan (either neck dissection or observation), while the others compared neck dissection to observation. The rate of occult metastases ranged from 3.4 to 12 %. The studies included a variable distribution of primary sites and stages of the recurrent primary tumors. The risk of occult neck node metastasis in a clinically rN0 patient correlated with tumor site and T stage. Observation of the neck can be suggested for patients with T1-2 glottic tumors, who recurred with less advanced tumors (rT1-2). For patients with more advanced laryngeal recurrences or recurrence at other high-risk sites, neck dissection could be considered for the rN0 patient, particularly if the neck was not included in the previous radiation fields. PMID:24515917

  20. Inter-Vertebral Flexibility of the Ostrich Neck: Implications for Estimating Sauropod Neck Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Cobley, Matthew J.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Barrett, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus). The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50). This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data. PMID:23967284

  1. Stages of Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NCI Publications Español Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®) Stages of Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Key Points for This Section After metastatic ...

  2. Update Head and Neck Steering Committee

    Cancer.gov

    Update Head and Neck Steering Committee NCI Clinical Trials Advisory Committee December 8, 2008 Co-Chairs Arlene Forastiere, M.D. David Schuller, M.D. Andrew Trotti, M.D. Primary Goal Increase productivity of clinical research involving head and neck

  3. Use of Gold in Head and Neck

    E-print Network

    Walter, Peter

    Use of Gold in Head and Neck Cancer Treatments Q & A with Dr. Frank McCormick UCSF Helen Diller in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at UCSF, is working on several techniques to use gold nanoparticles to improve the identification of cancer. "Gold is very interesting because it has extraordinary

  4. Neck Circumference and Cardio- Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nagendran Vijaya; Ismail, Mohammed H.; M, Girish; Tripathy, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Only few studies about neck circumference (NC) as a measure of cardio metabolic syndrome available from India. Study was conducted to establish an association between neck circumference and cardio metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in South India. NCEP: ATPIII 2001 guideline was used for diagnosis of Cardio-metabolic syndrome among subjects. Neck circumference was measured and it was correlated with Cardio-metabolic syndrome. Results: Mean neck circumference was found to be 36.5 cms. Cardio-metabolic syndrome was present in 272 participants, of which 100 were females and 172 males. Among females 82(82%) had neck circumference >34cms, 18(18%) had <34cms and among males 117(68%)had NC >37cms and 55(32%) had NC<37cms. All individual parameter of cardio metabolic risk factor, i.e., BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, FBS, HDL & TG except waist/hip ratio were correlating with abnormal neck circumference when compared with those with normal neck circumference. Conclusion: Neck circumference with metabolic syndrome correlated better among females than males. Men with NC >37 cm and women with NC >34 cm are more prone for cardio metabolic syndrome and require additional evaluation. Measurement of NC is a simple, time saving, and least invasive measurement tool. PMID:25177592

  5. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Most head and neck cancers begin in the moist, mucus membranes lining the inside of the mouth, nose and throat. These membranes are made up of squamous cells and the head and neck cancers that grow in these cells are called squamous cell carcinomas.

  6. Prospective pharmacologic therapies for the overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and detrusor overactivity (DO) are all conditions that can have major effects on quality of life and social functioning. Antimuscarinic drugs are first-line treatment–they often have good initial response rates, but adverse effects and decreasing efficacy cause long-term compliance problems, and alternatives are needed. The recognition of the functional contribution of the urothelium, the spontaneous myocyte activity during bladder filling, and the diversity of nerve transmitters has sparked interest in both peripheral and central modulation of LUTS/OAB/DO pathophysiology. There may be several new possibilities to treat LUTS/OAB/DO. ?3-AR agonists (YM178), PDE 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil), vitamin D analogs (elocalcitol), combinations (?1-AR antagonist?+?antimuscarinic), and drugs with a central mode of action (tramadol, aprepitant) all have Randomized controlled trial (RCT) documented efficacy. Which of these therapeutic principles will be developed to clinically useful treatments remains to be established. PMID:21789056

  7. An improved system of bladder drainage.

    PubMed

    Hewson, A D

    2001-05-01

    We report the successful use of a modified No. 8 infant feeding tube for postoperative bladder drainage in 100 gynaecological patients after surgery In previous years, problems arising from the use of trans-urethral postoperative catheter drainage led to the use of various types of suprapubic catheter drainage after gynaecological surgery However, this method of catheter drainage still carries the risk of complications, and many surgeons have preferred to persist with trans-urethral bladder drainage. Several authors have described the postoperative use of a small diameter transurethral feeding tube so as to enable the patient to void around the tube, thus avoiding the risks of repeated reinsertion of a catheter if there is delay in reestablishment of normal voiding. The simplicity of this method and its low cost encouraged us to carry out a trial of the method and we have introduced some modifications to improve the technique. Our experience of the method and the positive comments from nursing staff and patients have led us to adopt it for most of our postoperative gynaecological patients and we believe it deserves wider use. PMID:11453272

  8. Polymeric Bladder for Storing Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, David H.; Harvey, Andrew C.; Leary, William

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system for storing oxygen in liquid form and dispensing it in gaseous form is based on (1) initial subcooling of the liquid oxygen; (2) containing the liquid oxygen in a flexible vessel; (3) applying a gas spring to the flexible vessel to keep the oxygen compressed above the saturation pressure and, thus, in the liquid state; and (4) using heat leakage into the system for vaporizing the oxygen to be dispensed. In a typical prior system based on these principles, the flexible vessel is a metal bellows housed in a rigid tank, and the gas spring consists of pressurized helium in the tank volume surrounding the bellows. Unfortunately, the welds in the bellows corrugations are subject to fatigue, and, because bellows have large ullage, a correspondingly large fraction of the oxygen content cannot be expelled. In the proposed system, the flexible vessel would be a bladder made of a liquid- crystal polymer (LCP). (LCPs are strong and compatible with liquid oxygen.) In comparison with a metal bellows, a polymeric bladder would have less ullage and would weigh less. In experiments involving fatigue cycling at liquid-nitrogen temperatures, two LCPs were found to be suitable for this application.

  9. Giant epidermoid cyst of the posterior neck.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheesun; Park, Myong Chul; Seo, Seung Jo; Yoo, Young Moon; Jang, Yu Jin; Lee, Il Jae

    2011-05-01

    A 49-year-old man was presented for evaluation of a painless mass on his right posterior neck. The mass had gradually enlarged for a 25-year period without inflammation or rupture. On physical examination, a round, nontender, soft-tissue mass, 8 cm in diameter, was noted on the right posterior neck. The neck is a common site of epidermoid cysts, but a mass more than 5 cm in diameter is rare. A contrast-enhanced neck computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed a 7.6 × 6.5 × 5.7 cm unilocular hypodense mass adjacent to the posterior neck muscles.The mass was completely excised under general anesthesia. A histopathologic examination of the excised specimen resulted in a diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the third postoperative day. There were no recurrences in a 2-year follow-up period. PMID:21586972

  10. Bladder hyperactivity and increased excitability of bladder afferent neurons associated with reduced expression of Kv1.4 ?-subunit in rats with cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yukio; Takimoto, Koichi; Chancellor, Michael B.; Erickson, Kristin A.; Erickson, Vickie L.; Kirimoto, Tsukasa; Nakano, Koushi; de Groat, William C.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    Hyperexcitability of C-fiber bladder afferent pathways has been proposed to contribute to urinary frequency and bladder pain in chronic bladder inflammation including interstitial cystitis. However, the detailed mechanisms inducing afferent hyperexcitability after bladder inflammation are not fully understood. Thus, we investigated changes in the properties of bladder afferent neurons in rats with bladder inflammation induced by intravesical application of hydrochloric acid. Eight days after the treatment, bladder function and bladder sensation were analyzed using cystometry and an electrodiagnostic device of sensory function (Neurometer), respectively. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings and immunohistochemical staining were also performed in dissociated bladder afferent neurons identified by a retrograde tracing dye, Fast Blue, injected into the bladder wall. Cystitis rats showed urinary frequency that was inhibited by pretreatment with capsaicin and bladder hyperalgesia mediated by C-fibers. Capsaicin-sensitive bladder afferent neurons from sham rats exhibited high thresholds for spike activation and a phasic firing pattern, whereas those from cystitis rats showed lower thresholds for spike activation and a tonic firing pattern. Transient A-type K+ current density in capsaicin-sensitive bladder afferent neurons was significantly smaller in cystitis rats than in sham rats, although sustained delayed-rectifier K+ current density was not altered after cystitis. The expression of voltage-gated K+ Kv1.4 ?-subunits, which can form A-type K+ channels, was reduced in bladder afferent neurons from cystitis rats. These data suggest that bladder inflammation increases bladder afferent neuron excitability by decreasing expression of Kv1.4 ?-subunits. Similar changes in capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber afferent terminals may contribute to bladder hyperactivity and hyperalgesia due to acid-induced bladder inflammation. PMID:19279288

  11. A conflict analysis of 4D descent strategies in a metered, multiple-arrival route environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.; Harris, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    A conflict analysis was performed on multiple arrival traffic at a typical metered airport. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to simulate arrival operations using Denver Stapleton's arrival route structure. Sensitivities of conflict performance to three different 4-D descent strategies (clear-idle Mach/Constant AirSpeed (CAS), constant descent angle Mach/CAS and energy optimal) were examined for three traffic mixes represented by those found at Denver Stapleton, John F. Kennedy and typical en route metering (ERM) airports. The Monte Carlo technique was used to generate simulation entry point times. Analysis results indicate that the clean-idle descent strategy offers the best compromise in overall performance. Performance measures primarily include susceptibility to conflict and conflict severity. Fuel usage performance is extrapolated from previous descent strategy studies.

  12. A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities

    E-print Network

    Patriksson, Michael

    A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and the choices of cost approximating mappings and merit functions. The* * taxonomy is illustrated on classical algorithms and is utilized to interrelate known alg* *orithm frameworks. Keywords. Taxonomy

  13. User's manual for a fuel-conservative descent planning algorithm implemented on a small programmable calculator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. An explanation and examples of how the algorithm is used, as well as a detailed flow chart and listing of the algorithm are contained.

  14. Antarctic Polar Descent and Planetary Wave Activity Observed in ISAMS CO from April to July 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. R.; Stanford, J. L.; Nakamura, N.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Taylor, F. W.; Remedios, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Antarctic polar descent and planetary wave activity in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere are observed in ISAMS CO data from April to July 1992. CO-derived mean April-to-May upper stratosphere descent rates of 15 K/day (0.25 km/day) at 60 S and 20 K/day (0.33 km/day) at 80 S are compared with descent rates from diabatic trajectory analyses. At 60 S there is excellent agreement, while at 80 S the trajectory-derived descent is significantly larger in early April. Zonal wavenumber 1 enhancement of CO is observed on 9 and 28 May, coincident with enhanced wave 1 in UKMO geopotential height. The 9 May event extends from 40 to 70 km and shows westward phase tilt with height, while the 28 May event extends from 40 to 50 km and shows virtually no phase tilt with height.

  15. Descent graphs in pedigree analysis: applications to haplotyping, location scores, and marker-sharing statistics.

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, E.; Lange, K.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of stochastic methods in pedigree analysis has enabled geneticists to tackle computations intractable by standard deterministic methods. Until now these stochastic techniques have worked by running a Markov chain on the set of genetic descent states of a pedigree. Each descent state specifies the paths of gene flow in the pedigree and the founder alleles dropped down each path. The current paper follows up on a suggestion by Elizabeth Thompson that genetic descent graphs offer a more appropriate space for executing a Markov chain. A descent graph specifies the paths of gene flow but not the particular founder alleles traveling down the paths. This paper explores algorithms for implementing Thompson's suggestion for codominant markers in the context of automatic haplotyping, estimating location scores, and computing gene-clustering statistics for robust linkage analysis. Realistic numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility of the algorithms. PMID:8651310

  16. Differential effects of intravesical resiniferatoxin on excitability of bladder spinal neurons upon colon-bladder cross-sensitization.

    PubMed

    Malykhina, Anna P; Qin, Chao; Lei, Qi; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Foreman, Robert D

    2013-01-23

    Cross-sensitization in the pelvis may contribute to etiology of functional pelvic pain disorders such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Increasing evidence suggests the involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the development of neurogenic inflammation in the pelvis and pelvic organ cross-sensitization. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that desensitization of TRPV1 receptors in the urinary bladder can minimize the effects of cross-sensitization induced by experimental colitis on excitability of bladder spinal neurons. Extracellular activity of bladder neurons was recorded in response to graded urinary bladder distension (UBD) in rats pretreated with intravesical resiniferatoxin (RTX, 10(-7)M). Colonic inflammation was induced by intracolonic instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The duration of excitatory responses to noxious UBD during acute colonic inflammation (3 days post-TNBS) was significantly shortened in the group with RTX pretreatment (25.3±1.5s, n=49) when compared to the control group (35.1±4.2s, n=43, p<0.05). The duration of long-lasting excitatory responses, but not short-lasting responses of bladder spinal neurons during acute colitis was significantly reduced by RTX from 52.9±6.6s (n=21, vehicle group) to 34.4±2.1s (RTX group, n=21, p<0.05). However, activation of TRPV1 receptors in the urinary bladder prior to acute colitis increased the number of bladder neurons receiving input from large somatic fields from 22.7% to 58.2% (p<0.01). The results of our study provide evidence that intravesical RTX reduces the effects of viscerovisceral cross-talk induced by colonic inflammation on bladder spinal neurons. However, RTX enhances the responses of bladder neurons to somatic stimulation, thereby limiting its therapeutic potential. PMID:23146715

  17. Whole-Pelvis or Bladder-Only Chemoradiation for Lymph Node-Negative Invasive Bladder Cancer: Single-Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tunio, Mutahir A., E-mail: drmutahirtonio@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan); Hashmi, Altaf [Department of Urology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan); Qayyum, Abdul [Department of Medical Oncology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan); Mohsin, Rehan [Department of Urology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan); Zaeem, Ahmed [Department of Medical Physics, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Whole-pelvis (WP) concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) is the standard bladder preserving option for patients with invasive bladder cancer. The standard practice is to treat elective pelvic lymph nodes, so our aim was to evaluate whether bladder-only (BO) CCRT leads to results similar to those obtained by standard WP-CCRT. Methods and Materials: Patient eligibility included histopathologically proven muscle-invasive bladder cancer, lymph nodes negative (T2-T4, N-) by radiology, and maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumor with normal hematologic, renal, and liver functions. Between March 2005 and May 2006, 230 patients were accrued. Patients were randomly assigned to WP-CCRT (120 patients) and BO-CCRT (110 patients). Data regarding the toxicity profile, compliance, initial complete response rates at 3 months, and occurrence of locoregional or distant failure were recorded. Results: With a median follow-up time of 5 years (range, 3-6), WP-CCRT was associated with a 5-year disease-free survival of 47.1% compared with 46.9% in patients treated with BO-CCRT (p = 0.5). The bladder preservation rates were 58.9% and 57.1% in WP-CCRT and BO-CCRT, respectively (p = 0.8), and the 5-year overall survival rates were 52.9% for WP-CCRT and 51% for BO-CCRT (p = 0.8). Conclusion: BO-CCRT showed similar rates of bladder preservation, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates as those of WP-CCRT. Smaller field sizes including bladder with 2-cm margins can be used as bladder preservation protocol for patients with muscle-invasive lymph node-negative bladder cancer to minimize the side effects of CCRT.

  18. CANNABINOID CB1 RECEPTORS ARE EXPRESSED IN THE MOUSE URINARY BLADDER AND THEIR ACTIVATION MODULATES

    E-print Network

    Price, Theodore

    CANNABINOID CB1 RECEPTORS ARE EXPRESSED IN THE MOUSE URINARY BLADDER AND THEIR ACTIVATION MODULATES of cannabinoid receptors in the urinary bladder and their potential role in reducing bladder inflam- matory pain. However, the localization of cannabinoid recep- tors in the urinary bladder remains unknown

  19. Vision-Aided Inertial Navigation for Spacecraft Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastasios I. Mourikis; Nikolas Trawny; Stergios I. Roumeliotis; Andrew Edie Johnson; Adnan Ansar; Larry Matthies

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present the vision-aided inertial navigation (VISINAV) algorithm that enables precision planetary landing. The vision front-end of the VISINAV system extracts 2-D-to-3-D correspondences between descent images and a surface map (mapped landmarks), as well as 2-D-to-2-D feature tracks through a sequence of descent images (opportunistic features). An extended Kalman filter (EKF) tightly integrates both types of visual

  20. Dual Gradient Descent Algorithm on Two-Layered Feed-Forward Artificial Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bumghi Choi; Ju-hong Lee; Tae-su Park

    2007-01-01

    The learning algorithms of multilayered feed-forward networks can be classified into two categories, gradient and non-gradient\\u000a kinds. The gradient descent algorithms like backpropagation (BP) or its variations are widely used in many application areas\\u000a because of convenience. However, the most serious problem associated with the BP is local minima problem. We propose an improved\\u000a gradient descent algorithm intended to weaken

  1. Relation between perineal descent and pudendal nerve damage in idiopathic faecal incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Jones; D. Z. Lubowski; M. Swash; M. M. Henry

    1987-01-01

    In 60 patients with idiopathic anorectal incontinence, without neurological disease, there was a significant relationship, shown by regression analysis, between the pudendal nerve terminal motor latency and the extent of perineal descent during straining (r0.59;p<0.001), and the plane of the perineum on straining (r-0.61;p<0.001). These data are consistent with the suggestion that perineal descent can lead to stretch-induced damage to

  2. Analysis of Flight Management System Predictions of Idle-Thrust Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stell, Laurel

    2010-01-01

    To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the predictor and its uncertainty models, descents from cruise to the meter fix were executed using vertical navigation in a B737-700 simulator and a B777-200 simulator, both with commercial FMSs. For both aircraft types, the FMS computed the intended descent path for a specified speed profile assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and then it controlled the avionics without human intervention. The test matrix varied aircraft weight, descent speed, and wind conditions. The first analysis in this paper determined the effect of the test matrix parameters on the FMS computation of TOD location, and it compared the results to those for the current ground predictor in the Efficient Descent Advisor (EDA). The second analysis was similar but considered the time to fly a specified distance to the meter fix. The effects of the test matrix variables together with the accuracy requirements for the predictor will determine the allowable error for the predictor inputs. For the B737, the EDA prediction of meter fix crossing time agreed well with the FMS; but its prediction of TOD location probably was not sufficiently accurate to enable idle-thrust descents in congested airspace, even though the FMS and EDA gave similar shapes for TOD location as a function of the test matrix variables. For the B777, the FMS and EDA gave different shapes for the TOD location function, and the EDA prediction of the TOD location is not accurate enough to fully enable the concept. Furthermore, the differences between the FMS and EDA predictions of meter fix crossing time for the B777 indicated that at least one of them was not sufficiently accurate.

  3. Preliminary Study of a Model Rotor in Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, K. W.; Tung, C.; Sharpe, D. L.; Huang, S.; Hendley, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    Within a program designed to develop experimental techniques for measuring the trajectory and structure of vortices trailing from the tips of rotor blades, the present preliminary study focuses on a method for quantifying the trajectory of the trailing vortex during descent flight conditions. This study also presents rotor loads and blade surface pressures for a range of tip-path plane angles and Mach numbers. Blade pressures near the leading edge and along the outer radius are compared with data obtained on the same model rotor, but in open jet facilities. A triangulation procedure based on two directable laser-light sheets, each containing an embedded reference, proved effective in defining the spatial coordinates of the trailing vortex. When interrogating a cross section of the flow that contains several trailing vortices, the greatest clarity was found to result when the flow is uniformly seeded. Surface pressure responses during blade-vortex interactions appeared equally sensitive near the leading edge and along the outer portion of the blade, but diminished rapidly as the distance along the blade chord increased. The pressure response was virtually independent of whether the tip-path plane angle was obtained through shaft tilt or cyclic pitch. Although the shape and frequency of the pressure perturbations on the advancing blade during blade-vortex interaction are similar to those obtained in open-jet facilities, the angle of the tip-path plane may need to be lower than the range covered in this study.

  4. Evolution and ecology of directed aerial descent in arboreal ants.

    PubMed

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Directed aerial descent (DAD) is used by a variety of arboreal animals to escape predators, to remain in the canopy, and to access resources. Here, we build upon the discovery of DAD in ants of tropical canopies by summarizing its known phylogenetic distribution among ant genera, and within both the subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae and the genus Cephalotes. DAD has multiple evolutionary origins in ants, occurring independently in numerous genera in the subfamilies Myrmicinae, Formicinae, and Pseudomyrmecinae. Ablation experiments and video recordings of ants in a vertical wind tunnel showed that DAD in Cephalotes atratus is achieved via postural changes, specifically orientation of the legs and gaster. The occurrence of DAD in Formicinae indicates that the presence of a postpetiole is not essential for the behavior. Evidence to date indicates that gliding behavior is accomplished by visual targeting mediated by the compound eyes, and is restricted to diurnally active ants that nest in trees. Occlusion of ocelli in Pseudomyrmex gracilis workers had no effect on their success or performance in gliding. Experimental assessment of the fate of ants that fall to the understory showed that ants landing in water are 15 times more likely to suffer lethal attacks than are ants landing in leaf litter. Variation in both the aerodynamic mechanisms and selective advantages of DAD merits further study given the broad taxonomic diversity of arboreal ants that engage in this intriguing form of flight. PMID:21562023

  5. Physics-based Entry, Descent and Landing Risk Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Huynh, Loc C.; Manning, Ted

    2014-01-01

    A physics-based risk model was developed to assess the risk associated with thermal protection system failures during the entry, descent and landing phase of a manned spacecraft mission. In the model, entry trajectories were computed using a three-degree-of-freedom trajectory tool, the aerothermodynamic heating environment was computed using an engineering-level computational tool and the thermal response of the TPS material was modeled using a one-dimensional thermal response tool. The model was capable of modeling the effect of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact damage on the TPS thermal response. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the effects of uncertainties in the vehicle state at Entry Interface, aerothermodynamic heating and material properties on the performance of the TPS design. The failure criterion was set as a temperature limit at the bondline between the TPS and the underlying structure. Both direct computation and response surface approaches were used to compute the risk. The model was applied to a generic manned space capsule design. The effect of material property uncertainty and MMOD damage on risk of failure were analyzed. A comparison of the direct computation and response surface approach was undertaken.

  6. Engineering description of the ascent/descent bet product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seacord, A. W., II

    1986-01-01

    The Ascent/Descent output product is produced in the OPIP routine from three files which constitute its input. One of these, OPIP.IN, contains mission specific parameters. Meteorological data, such as atmospheric wind velocities, temperatures, and density, are obtained from the second file, the Corrected Meteorological Data File (METDATA). The third file is the TRJATTDATA file which contains the time-tagged state vectors that combine trajectory information from the Best Estimate of Trajectory (BET) filter, LBRET5, and Best Estimate of Attitude (BEA) derived from IMU telemetry. Each term in the two output data files (BETDATA and the Navigation Block, or NAVBLK) are defined. The description of the BETDATA file includes an outline of the algorithm used to calculate each term. To facilitate describing the algorithms, a nomenclature is defined. The description of the nomenclature includes a definition of the coordinate systems used. The NAVBLK file contains navigation input parameters. Each term in NAVBLK is defined and its source is listed. The production of NAVBLK requires only two computational algorithms. These two algorithms, which compute the terms DELTA and RSUBO, are described. Finally, the distribution of data in the NAVBLK records is listed.

  7. Minimum Landing Error Powered-Descent Guidance for Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmore, Lars; Acikmese, Behcet

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm improves the accuracy with which a lander can be delivered to the surface of Mars. The main idea behind this innovation is the use of a lossless convexification, which converts an otherwise non-convex constraint related to thruster throttling to a convex constraint, enabling convex optimization to be used. The convexification leads directly to an algorithm that guarantees finding the global optimum of the original nonconvex optimization problem with a deterministic upper bound on the number of iterations required for convergence. In this innovation, previous work in powered-descent guidance using convex optimization is extended to handle the case where the lander must get as close as possible to the target given the available fuel, but is not required to arrive exactly at the target. The new algorithm calculates the minimum-fuel trajectory to the target, if one exists, and calculates the trajectory that minimizes the distance to the target if no solution to the target exists. This approach poses the problem as two Second-Order Cone Programs, which can be solved to global optimality with deterministic bounds on the number of iterations required.

  8. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Kipp, Devin M.; Lorenzoni, Leila V.; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Prakash, Ravi; Way, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions. Thus, there are many design challenges that must be solved for the mission to be successful. Several pieces of the EDL design are technological firsts, such as guided entry and precision landing on another planet, as well as the entire Sky Crane maneuver. This paper discusses the MSL EDL architecture and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

  9. Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing Performance and Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broome, Joel M.; Johnson, Wyatt

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Vehicle is the next spacecraft to take humans into space and will include missions to ISS as well as missions to the Moon. As part of that challenge, the vehicle will have to accommodate multiple mission design concepts, since return from Low Earth Orbit and return from the Moon can be quite different. Commonality between the different missions as it relates to vehicle systems, guidance capability, and operations concepts is the goal. Several unique mission design concepts include the specification of multiple land-based landing sites for a vehicle with closed-loop direct and skip entry guidance, followed by a parachute descent and landing attenuation system. This includes the ability of the vehicle to accurately target and land at a designated landing site, including site location aspects, landing site size, and landing opportunities assessments. Analyses associated with these mission design and flight performance challenges and constraints will be discussed as well as potential operational concepts to provide feasibility and/or mission commonality.

  10. Race, language, and mental evolution in Darwin's descent of man.

    PubMed

    Alter, Stephen G

    2007-01-01

    Charles Darwin was notoriously ambiguous in his remarks about the relationship between human evolution and biological race. He stressed the original unity of the races, yet he also helped to popularize the notion of a racial hierarchy filling the gaps between the highest anthropoids and civilized Europeans. A focus on Darwin's explanation of how humans initially evolved, however, shows that he mainly stressed not hierarchy but a version of humanity's original mental unity. In his book The Descent of Man, Darwin emphasized a substantial degree of mental development (including the incipient use of language) in the early, monogenetic phase of human evolution. This development, he argued, necessarily came before primeval man's numerical increase, geographic dispersion, and racial diversification, because only thus could one explain how that group was able to spread at the expense of rival ape-like populations. This scenario stood opposed to a new evolutionary polygenism formulated in the wake of Darwin's Origin of Species by his ostensible supporters Alfred Russel Wallace and Ernst Haeckel. Darwin judged this outlook inadequate to the task of explaining humanity's emergence. PMID:17623873

  11. HLA Type Inference via Haplotypes Identical by Descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setty, Manu N.; Gusev, Alexander; Pe'Er, Itsik

    The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes play a major role in adaptive immune response and are used to differentiate self antigens from non self ones. HLA genes are hyper variable with nearly every locus harboring over a dozen alleles. This variation plays an important role in susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases and needs to be matched on for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, HLA typing by serological methods is time consuming and expensive compared to high throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data. We present a new computational method to infer per-locus HLA types using shared segments Identical By Descent (IBD), inferred from SNP genotype data. IBD information is modeled as graph where shared haplotypes are explored among clusters of individuals with known and unknown HLA types to identify the latter. We analyze performance of the method in a previously typed subset of the HapMap population, achieving accuracy of 96% in HLA-A, 94% in HLA-B, 95% in HLA-C, 77% in HLA-DR1, 93% in HLA-DQA1 and 90% in HLA-DQB1 genes. We compare our method to a tag SNP based approach and demonstrate higher sensitivity and specificity. Our method demonstrates the power of using shared haplotype segments for large-scale imputation at the HLA locus.

  12. Identity by Descent in Island-Mainland Populations

    PubMed Central

    Rannala, B.; Hartigan, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    A new model is presented for the genetic structure among a collection of island populations, with fluctuating population sizes and continuous overlapping generations, using a stochastic birth, death and immigration (BDI) process. Immigrants enter each island from a large mainland population, with constant gene frequencies, according to a Poisson process. The average probability of identity by descent (IBD) for two haploid individuals randomly selected from an island population is f(0) = (?f(1) + ?)/(? + ?), where f(1) is the probability of IBD for two randomly selected immigrants, ? is the birth-rate for each individual, and ? is the arrival rate of immigrants into each island. The value of f(0) is independent of the death process, time and N. The expected level of genetic differentiation among island populations is F(ST) = (1 - 1/n)?/(? + ?), where n is the total number of islands receiving immigrants. Because f(0) and F(ST) are independent of the death process, for a BDI model, the population genetic structure for several general demographic situations may be examined using our equations. These include stochastic exponential, or logistic (regulated by death rate) growth within islands, or a ``source-sink'' population structure. Because the expected values of both f(0) and F(ST) are independent of time, these are achieved immediately, for a BDI model, with no need to assume the island populations are at genetic equilibrium. PMID:7598763

  13. Lunar Module Eagle Upon Descent to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). The LM is shown here making its descent to the lunar surface, while Astronaut Collins piloted the Command Module in a parking orbit around the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida aboard a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as Magnificent desolation. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. von Braun.

  14. Lipomatous congenital melanocytic nevus presenting as a neck mass in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kalyani R; Chernock, Rebecca; Lewis, James S; Raptis, Constantine A; Al Gilani, Maha; Dehner, Louis P

    2013-12-01

    Congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) is a melanocytic proliferation that has its onset at birth or shortly thereafter and shows characteristic histopathologic features including symmetric proliferation of benign melanocytes, extension of nevus cells into the deep reticular dermis and subcutis, maturation of melanocytes with descent, tracking of melanocytes around and within adnexal structures, vessels, or nerves and splaying of collagen bundles by nevus cells arranged in single rows or cords. We report the case of a 34 year old previously healthy woman who presented with a progressively enlarging soft tissue mass in the right neck and back adjacent to a medium sized CMN. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple lipomatous masses within the soft tissues of the posterior superficial neck. Subsequent excision of the soft tissue mass showed a well circumscribed lipomatous lesion with diffuse infiltration by benign appearing melanocytes within the fat lobules. Excision of the mass was not accompanied by overlying skin and, thus, posed a diagnostic challenge. Sudden increase in the size of a CMN is worrisome for the development of a melanoma, however, this lesion lacked significant cytologic atypia and mitotic figures, and had a low proliferative index by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. This case serves to illustrate the initial diagnostic dilemma as well as the plasticity of the neural crest cells. PMID:23649716

  15. Identification of novel piRNAs in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Chu, Haiyan; Hui, Gaoyun; Yuan, Lin; Shi, Danni; Wang, Yubang; Du, Mulong; Zhong, Dongyan; Ma, Lan; Tong, Na; Qin, Chao; Yin, Changjun; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin

    2015-01-28

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a newly identified class of small non-coding RNAs that can play important roles in germline development and carcinogenesis. In this study, piRNA microarrays were used to investigate global piRNA expression in three bladder cancer tissues and their adjacent normal tissues. Using the 3' untranslated region (UTR) sequence complementarily method, we predicted the target gene of piRNA. Our results showed that the expression levels of 106 piRNAs were up-regulated and 91 were down-regulated in bladder cancer tissues, among which the fold-change of down-regulated piRNA DQ594040 associated with bladder cancer (piRABC) was the highest piRNA. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to confirm piRABC expression in paired bladder cancer tissues and their adjacent normal tissues (n?=?25). Over-expression of piRABC can inhibit bladder cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, and promote cell apoptosis (all P?bladder cancer subjects. In conclusion, piRABC plays a crucial role in the development of bladder cancer. PMID:25305452

  16. An Orthotopic Bladder Cancer Model for Gene Delivery Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kasman, Laura; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urogenital tract and novel therapeutic approaches that can reduce recurrence and progression are needed. The tumor microenvironment can significantly influence tumor development and therapy response. It is therefore often desirable to grow tumor cells in the organ from which they originated. This protocol describes an orthotopic model of bladder cancer, in which MB49 murine bladder carcinoma cells are instilled into the bladder via catheterization. Successful tumor cell implantation in this model requires disruption of the protective glycosaminoglycan layer, which can be accomplished by physical or chemical means. In our protocol the bladder is treated with trypsin prior to cell instillation. Catheterization of the bladder can also be used to deliver therapeutics once the tumors are established. This protocol describes the delivery of an adenoviral construct that expresses a luciferase reporter gene. While our protocol has been optimized for short-term studies and focuses on gene delivery, the methodology of mouse bladder catheterization has broad applications. PMID:24326612

  17. HPLC assisted Raman spectroscopic studies on bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, W. L.; Cheng, Y.; Yu, W.; Zhang, X. B.; Shen, A. G.; Hu, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    We applied confocal Raman spectroscopy to investigate 12 normal bladder tissues and 30 tumor tissues, and then depicted the spectral differences between the normal and the tumor tissues and the potential canceration mechanism with the aid of the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. Normal tissues were demonstrated to contain higher tryptophan, cholesterol and lipid content, while bladder tumor tissues were rich in nucleic acids, collagen and carotenoids. In particular, ?-carotene, one of the major types of carotenoids, was found through HPLC analysis of the extract of bladder tissues. The statistical software SPSS was applied to classify the spectra of the two types of tissues according to their differences. The sensitivity and specificity of 96.7 and 66.7% were obtained, respectively. In addition, different layers of the bladder wall including mucosa (lumps), muscle and adipose bladder tissue were analyzed by Raman mapping technique in response to previous Raman studies of bladder tissues. All of these will play an important role as a directive tool for the future diagnosis of bladder cancer in vivo.

  18. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Higgy, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection./sup 3/H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

  19. Endoscopic Gold Fiducial Marker Placement into the Bladder Wall to Optimize Radiotherapy Targeting for Bladder-Preserving Management of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Feasibility and Initial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Maurice M.; Gottschalk, Alexander R.; Brajtbord, Jonathan; Konety, Badrinath R.; Meng, Maxwell V.; Roach, Mack; Carroll, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Bladder radiotherapy is a management option for carefully selected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, the inability to visualize the tumor site during treatment and normal bladder movement limits targeting accuracy and increases collateral radiation. A means to accurately and reliably target the bladder during radiotherapy is needed. Materials and Methods Eighteen consecutive patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T1–T4) elected bladder-preserving treatment with maximal transurethral resection (TUR), radiation and concurrent chemotherapy. All underwent endoscopic placement of 24-K gold fiducial markers modified with micro-tines (70 [2.9×0.9 mm.]; 19 [2.1×0.7 mm.) into healthy submucosa 5-10 mm. from the resection margin, using custom-made coaxial needles. Marker migration was assessed for with intra-op bladder-filling cystogram and measurement of distance between markers. Set-up error and marker retention through completion of radiotherapy was confirmed by on-table portal imaging. Results Between 1/2007 and 7/2012, a total of 89 markers (3–5 per tumor site) were placed into 18 patients of mean age 73.6 years. Two patients elected cystectomy before starting treatment; 16/18 completed chemo-radiotherapy. All (100%) markers were visible with all on-table (portal, cone-beam CT), fluoroscopy, plain-film, and CT-scan imaging. In two patients, 1 of 4 markers placed at the tumor site fell-out (voided) during the second half of radiotherapy. All other markers (80/82, 98%) were present through the end of radio-therapy. No intraoperative (e.g. uncontrolled bleeding, collateral injury) or post-operative complications (e.g. stone formation, urinary tract infection, post-TUR hematuria >48 hours) occurred. Use of micro-tined fiducial tumor-site markers afforded a 2 to 6-fold reduction in bladder-area targeted with high-dose radiation. Discussion Placement of the micro-tined fiducial markers into the bladder was feasible and associated with excellent retention-rate and no complications. All markers were well-visualized during radiotherapy with all imaging modalities. Bladder fiducial markers improve targeting accuracy, and may increase treatment efficacy and reduce morbidity from collateral radiation. PMID:24594774

  20. Structure and function in urinary bladder of foetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    France, Venetia M.; Stanier, Margaret W.; Wooding, F. B. P.

    1974-01-01

    1. The structure and function of the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder of sheep foetuses was investigated by electron microscopic studies made in conjunction with a series of experiments in which the permeability of the bladder to sodium and water was measured in vitro. Measurements were made at gestational ages ranging from 50 to 141 days (term = 147 days) Osmolarity and electrolyte concentrations of urine found in the foetal bladder were also measured. 2. The development of tight junctions between the bladder epithelial cells was investigated by incubating the tissue with solutions containing 1 mM-LaCl3 on the mucosal surface. No penetration of the junctions by lanthanum was observed in foetuses of 90 days or older. In younger bladders, the epithelial layer was stripped by treatment with lanthanum, but tight junctions appeared to be fully developed in early bladders incubated without lanthanum. 3. The surface structure of the luminal (mucosal) plasmalemma was fully developed at 50 days. 4. Unidirectional fluxes of labelled sodium and water were measured with identical solutions bathing the two surfaces of the bladder wall. No net water movement occurred; the mean ratio of efflux to influx in nine bladders was 1·002 ± 0·039 (S.E. of mean). Under these conditions, the flux ratio for sodium was 1·735 ± 0·143 (S.E. of mean) in twelve bladders. 5. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) had no effect on net water movement but reduced the net efflux of sodium so that the flux ratio became 1·285 ± 0·255 (S.E. of mean) n = 8. ADH also had a striking effect on the structure of the epithelium, causing marked swelling of the intercellular spaces. The tight junctions remained an effective barrier to lanthanum penetration under these conditions; lanthanum was not observed in the enlarged spaces. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2Plate 3Plate 4Plate 5Plate 6 PMID:4854429

  1. Preclinical Dosimetry of Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia for Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea; Etienne, Wiguins; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite positive efficacy, thermotherapy is not widely used in clinical oncology. Difficulties associated with field penetration and controlling power deposition patterns in heterogeneous tissue have limited its use for heating deep in the body. Heat generation using iron-oxide super-paramagnetic nanoparticles excited with magnetic fields has been demonstrated to overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this preclinical study is to investigate the feasibility of treating bladder cancer with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Methods The bladders of 25 female rats were injected with 0.4 ml of Actium Biosystems magnetite-based nanoparticles (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) via catheters inserted in the urethra. To assess the distribution of nanoparticles in the rat after injection we used the 7 T small animal MRI system (Bruker ClinScan, Bruker BioSpin MRI GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany). Heat treatments were performed with a small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) with a goal of raising bladder temperature to 42°C in <10min and maintaining for 60min. Temperatures were measured throughout the rat with seven fiberoptic temperature probes (OpSens Technologies, Quebec Canada) to characterize our ability to localize heat within the bladder target. Results The MRI study confirms the effectiveness of the catheterization procedure to homogenously distribute nanoparticles throughout the bladder. Thermal dosimetry data demonstrate our ability to controllably raise temperature of rat bladder ?1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that a MFH system provides well-localized heating of rat bladder with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues. PMID:23837123

  2. Preclinical dosimetry of magnetic fluid hyperthermia for bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea; Etienne, Wiguins; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-02-01

    Background Despite positive efficacy, thermotherapy is not widely used in clinical oncology. Difficulties associated with field penetration and controlling power deposition patterns in heterogeneous tissue have limited its use for heating deep in the body. Heat generation using iron-oxide super-paramagnetic nanoparticles excited with magnetic fields has been demonstrated to overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this preclinical study is to investigate the feasibility of treating bladder cancer with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Methods The bladders of 25 female rats were injected with 0.4 ml of Actium Biosystems magnetite-based nanoparticles (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) via catheters inserted in the urethra. To assess the distribution of nanoparticles in the rat after injection we used the 7 T small animal MRI system (Bruker ClinScan, Bruker BioSpin MRI GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany). Heat treatments were performed with a small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) with a goal of raising bladder temperature to 42°C in <10min and maintaining for 60min. Temperatures were measured throughout the rat with seven fiberoptic temperature probes (OpSens Technologies, Quebec Canada) to characterize our ability to localize heat within the bladder target. Results The MRI study confirms the effectiveness of the catheterization procedure to homogenously distribute nanoparticles throughout the bladder. Thermal dosimetry data demonstrate our ability to controllably raise temperature of rat bladder >1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that a MFH system provides well-localized heating of rat bladder with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues.

  3. Best practice in the assessment of bladder function in infants

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Michael; Castagnetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review normal developmental bladder physiology in infants and bladder dysfunction in conditions such as neurogenic bladder, posterior urethral valves and high grade vesicoureteric reflux. We contrast the classical concept that bladder function in nontoilet-trained children is thought to be ‘reflexive’ or ‘uninhibited’, with the results of more recent research showing that infants most commonly have a stable detrusor. The infant bladder is physiologically distinct from the state seen in older children or adults. The voiding pattern of the infant is characterized by an interrupted voiding stream due to lack of proper urinary sphincter relaxation during voiding. This is called physiologic detrusor sphincter dyscoordination and is different from the pathologic ‘detrusor sphincter dyssynergy’ seen in patients with neurogenic bladder. Urodynamic abnormalities in neonates born with spina bifida are common and depend on the level and severity of the spinal cord malformation. Upper neuron lesions most commonly lead to an overactive bladder with or without detrusor sphincter dyssynergy while a lower neuron lesion is associated with an acontractile detrusor with possible denervation of the external urinary sphincter. In infants with neurogenic bladder, the role of ‘early prophylactic treatment (clean intermittent catheterization and anticholinergics)’ versus initial ‘watchful waiting and treatment as needed’ is still controversial and needs more research. Many urodynamic-based interventions have been suggested in patients with posterior urethral valves and are currently under scrutiny, but their impact on the long-term outcome of the upper and lower urinary tract is still unknown. Cumulative data suggest that there is no benefit to early intervention regarding bladder function in infants with high-grade vesicoureteric reflux. PMID:25083164

  4. Inflammasomes are important mediators of cyclophosphamide-induced bladder inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Vivar, Nivardo P.; Kennis, James G.; Pratt-Thomas, Jeffery D.; Lowe, Danielle W.; Shaner, Brooke E.; Nietert, Paul J.; Spruill, Laura S.; Purves, J. Todd

    2013-01-01

    Bladder inflammation (cystitis) underlies numerous bladder pathologies and is elicited by a plethora of agents such as urinary tract infections, bladder outlet obstruction, chemotherapies, and catheters. Pattern recognition receptors [Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs)] that recognize pathogen- and/or damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and/or DAMPs, respectively) are key components of the innate immune system that coordinates the production (TLRs) and maturation (NLRs) of proinflammatory IL-1?. Despite multiple studies of TLRs in the bladder, none have investigated NLRs beyond one small survey. We now demonstrate that NLRP3 and NLRC4, and their binding partners apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a COOH-terminal caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and NLR family apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP), are expressed in the bladder and localized predominantly to the urothelia. Activated NLRs form inflammasomes that activate caspase-1. Placement of a NLRP3- or NLRC4-activating PAMP or NLRP3-activating DAMPs into the lumen of the bladder stimulated caspase-1 activity. To investigate inflammasomes in vivo, we induced cystitis with cyclophosphamide (CP, 150 mg/kg ip) in the presence or absence of the inflammasome inhibitor glyburide. Glyburide completely blocked CP-induced activation of caspase-1 and the production of IL-1? at 4 h. At 24 h, glyburide reduced two markers of inflammation by 30–50% and reversed much of the inflammatory morphology. Furthermore, glyburide reversed changes in bladder physiology (cystometry) induced by CP. In conclusion, NLRs/inflammasomes are present in the bladder urothelia and respond to DAMPs and PAMPs, whereas NLRP3 inhibition blocks bladder dysfunction in the CP model. The coordinated response of NLRs and TLRs in the urothelia represents a first-line innate defense that may provide an important target for pharmacological intervention. PMID:24285499

  5. Occupation, smoking, and alcohol in the epidemiology of bladder cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, R.C.; Chang, J.C.; Davis, J.R.

    1987-10-01

    We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effects of occupation, smoking, and alcohol consumption on bladder cancer risk. A total of 823 male cases and 2,469 age-matched controls were identified through the Missouri Cancer Registry. Relative risk estimates of 2.0 or greater were observed for janitors and cleaners, mechanics, miners, and printers. Current cigarette smoking was associated with a two-fold excess risk of bladder cancer, whereas alcohol consumption showed no association with bladder cancer risk.

  6. Tibial Metastasis from Muscle Invasive Bladder Carcinoma: An Unusual Site

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, David; Kelly, Michael E.; Nason, Gregory J.; Collins-Smyth, Coilin; McGuire, Barry B.; Lennon, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old gentleman who presented with frank hematuria with associated weight loss and on-going left knee pain. Subsequent investigation revealed a muscle invasive bladder carcinoma with a related unusual bone metastasis. Though bone metastases form bladder carcinoma are common, frequent deposition sites include the spinal column and pelvis. This case report is to the best of our knowledge the first reported case of a tibial metastasis for relevant bladder carcinoma. Furthermore, we reviewed the literature, relevant diagnostic and management surrounding such occurrences. PMID:24917780

  7. The uptake of paclitaxel and docetaxel into ex vivo porcine bladder tissue from polymeric micelle formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Tsallas; John Jackson; Helen Burt

    Superficial bladder cancer occurs in the urothelial layer of the bladder and is usually treated by transurethral resection\\u000a and chemotherapy. Although the bladder is well suited for intravesical chemotherapy, effective drug delivery is restricted\\u000a by urine dilution and poor drug uptake by bladder tissues during a 2 h instillation. In this study, freshly excised pig bladder\\u000a sections were mounted on Franz

  8. Current evidence for transurethral laser therapy of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario W. Kramer; Thorsten Bach; Mathias Wolters; Florian Imkamp; Andreas J. Gross; Markus A. Kuczyk; Axel S. Merseburger; Thomas R. W. Herrmann

    Introduction  Bladder cancer is the second most common malignancy of urologic tumors. Back in 1976, lasers were added to the endourological\\u000a armetarium for bladder tumor treatment. Despite nowadays’ standard procedure for staging and treating non-muscle invasive\\u000a bladder tumor by transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURB) via a wire loop, laser resection techniques for bladder\\u000a tumor came back in focus with the

  9. Bovine Bladder Mucosa Microsomal Cytochrome P-450 and 4Aminobiphenyl \\/V-Hydroxylase Activity1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay M. Poupko; Jack L. Radomski; W. Lee Hearn

    The potential for metabolic activation of bladder carcinogens by the bladder mucosa was examined by determining if bladder mucosa microsomes contain cytochrome P-450, exhibit typical microsomal-substrate interactions, and are capable of mediat ing the N-hydroxylation of the bladder carcinogen, 4-aminobi- phenyl (4-ABP). The carbon monoxide difference spectrum of reduced bovine bladder microsomes exhibited an absorption maximum at 450 nm and

  10. [A case of long-term survivor after combined modality therapy for brain metastasis of bladder carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kengo; Nakamura, Masafumi; Takamoto, Daiji; Sanjo, Hiroyuki; Gohbara, Ayako; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Yumura, Yasushi; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Kondo, Keiichi; Noguchi, Kazumi; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2012-10-01

    A 75-year-old man with advanced bladder cancer (cT4N1M0) received three courses of systemic chemotherapy with Methotrexate, Epirubicin and Nedaplatin (MEN). His metastatic lymph node completely disappeared. We performed total cystectomy. Three months after the surgery, he complained of neck pain and nausea. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 3 cm tumor in his right cerebella and a 5 mm tumor in left parietal lobe. He underwent surgical resection of the right cerebellar tumor and a gamma knife therapy for the left parietal tumor. Pathological diagnosis was metastatic urothelial carcinoma. We performed three additional courses of chemotherapy of MEN. He has been well without local recurrence or distant metastasis for 18 months. PMID:23235278

  11. Penetrating Neck Trauma: Review of 192 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodie, Mohsen; Sanei, Behnam; Moazeni-Bistgani, Mohammad; Namgar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background The neck region contains a high density of vital organ structures within a relatively small and unprotected anatomic region, making it one of the most vulnerable areas of the body for all types of injuries. Objectives In this article, we studied penetrating neck trauma cases in Alzahra Hospital over a 10-year period. Patients and Methods In this retrospective, descriptive, analytical study, penetrating neck trauma cases admitted to Alzahra Hospital between April 2000 and April 2010 were analyzed for epidemiology, mechanism of trauma, zone of trauma, therapeutic method, injuries to other organs, complications, and mortality. Results Among 192 penetrating neck injuries, the mean age at the time of injury was 25.08 ± 15.02 years. Of these cases, 96.4% occurred in men. The most common mechanisms of trauma was stab wounds (85.93%). In 56.3% of penetrating neck injuries, zone 2 was involved. Neck exploration was positive in 84.4% of cases, and 52.1% of patients underwent surgery. Vascular exploration was the most common cause of surgery (67.2% of patients). The most common surgical intervention was vein ligation (50.8% of cases). In 11.98% of cases, another organ injury occurred simultaneously, and chest injury was the most common coexisting problem (65.2%). Complications were reported in 9.3% of patients, and the need for intubation was the most common complication (5.2% of patients). Mortality rate was 1.5%. Conclusions According to the findings of this study, the most common cause of penetrating neck injuries was stab wounds, and the majority of patients were young men, therefore, preventive measures should be implemented. Because of fatal complications associated with neck injuries, we recommend early neck exploration in unstable cases or when injuries are deeper than the platysma. PMID:24719835

  12. Overactive Bladder in Special Patient Populations

    PubMed Central

    Appell, Rodney A

    2003-01-01

    It is now well accepted that overactive bladder (OAB) negatively affects the quality of life of a large number of persons and that the primary mode of therapy is the use of medication—currently antimuscarinic agents. However, it is also important for physicians to understand how the use of these drugs affects specific groups of patients. Most of the concern in this area focuses on the potential for these populations to experience certain adverse events or side effects from the use of antimuscarinic agents; this has prevented these drugs from being prescribed in these populations to the same degree as in the general population of OAB sufferers. The purpose of this article is to review these specific populations of OAB patients, including pediatric, geriatric, and pregnant patients, men with prostate problems, and patients in whom OAB is of neurogenic origin, and to discuss what is currently known about the use of antimuscarinic agents in these groups. PMID:16985989

  13. Use of herbal supplements for overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Kavaler, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven A; Lowe, Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Anticholinergics, specifically antimuscarinic agents, are the most common medications prescribed for overactive bladder (OAB). The most common side effects of these agents are dry mouth and constipation, although other more concerning effects include changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, or heart rhythm when treatment is initiated. Herbal treatments are an increasingly popular alternative for treating OAB. A 2002 survey of US adults aged ? 18 years conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated that 74.6% of those with OAB had used some form of complementary and alternative medicine. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the world's population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Women were more likely than men to use complementary and alternative medicine. The authors review the most commonly used herbal medications for OAB. PMID:24223020

  14. Use of Herbal Supplements for Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Bilal; Kavaler, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven A; Lowe, Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Anticholinergics, specifically antimuscarinic agents, are the most common medications prescribed for overactive bladder (OAB). The most common side effects of these agents are dry mouth and constipation, although other more concerning effects include changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, or heart rhythm when treatment is initiated. Herbal treatments are an increasingly popular alternative for treating OAB. A 2002 survey of US adults aged ? 18 years conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated that 74.6% of those with OAB had used some form of complementary and alternative medicine. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the world’s population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Women were more likely than men to use complementary and alternative medicine. The authors review the most commonly used herbal medications for OAB. PMID:24223020

  15. Pathology Case Study: Anterior Cervical Neck Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schubert, Eric

    This is a head & neck pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male has an increasing neck mass with a choking feeling. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.

  16. Imaging evaluation of the suprahyoid neck.

    PubMed

    Gamss, Caryn; Gupta, Ajay; Chazen, J Levi; Phillips, C Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the complex anatomy of the suprahyoid neck on imaging studies can be a daunting task without a sound understanding of anatomy and a systematic approach. In this article, the suprahyoid neck is divided into characteristic anatomic spaces, which allow for the accurate localization of both normal structures and abnormal pathology in the neck. Once a lesion is localized to a specific suprahyoid space, imaging characteristics and clinical data can be used in a logical fashion to provide a clinically useful imaging differential diagnosis. PMID:25476177

  17. Endovascular Embolization of Head and Neck Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Marc A.; Badruddin, Aamir; Zaidat, Osama O.; Darkhabani, Ziad; Pandya, Dhruvil J.; Lynch, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular tumor embolization as adjunctive therapy for head and neck cancers is evolving and has become an important part of the tools available for their treatment. Careful study of tumor vascular anatomy and adhering to general principles of intra-arterial therapy can prove this approach to be effective and safe. Various embolic materials are available and can be suited for a given tumor and its vascular supply. This article aims to summarize current methods and agents used in endovascular head and neck tumor embolization and discuss important angiographic and treatment characteristics of selected common head and neck tumors. PMID:22022319

  18. Thyroid rupture secondary to blunt neck trauma.

    PubMed

    Sow, Yih-Liang; Aziz, Nora Abdul; Ng, Khoon-Leong

    2013-04-01

    Rupture of the thyroid gland is uncommon in cases of blunt neck trauma. We report a case of thyroid rupture after a motor vehicle accident in a patient without a preexisting goiter. He presented with a painful anterior neck swelling associated with dysphagia and hoarseness of voice. Computed tomographic scans showed lacerations of the right thyroid lobe and isthmus with features suggestive of slow active bleeding. Neck exploration was subsequently performed, and a ruptured right thyroid lobe was found with ongoing venous hemorrhage. A right hemithyroidectomy was performed, and the patient recovered without complications. PMID:23399341

  19. Nomograms Predicting Response to Therapy and Outcomes After Bladder-Preserving Trimodality Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coen, John J., E-mail: jcoen@harthosp.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Paly, Jonathan J.; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kaufman, Donald S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heney, Niall M. [Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Spiegel, Daphne Y.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Selective bladder preservation by use of trimodality therapy is an established management strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Individual disease features have been associated with response to therapy, likelihood of bladder preservation, and disease-free survival. We developed prognostic nomograms to predict the complete response rate, disease-specific survival, and likelihood of remaining free of recurrent bladder cancer or cystectomy. Methods and Materials: From 1986 to 2009, 325 patients were managed with selective bladder preservation at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and had complete data adequate for nomogram development. Treatment consisted of a transurethral resection of bladder tumor followed by split-course chemoradiation. Patients with a complete response at midtreatment cystoscopic assessment completed radiation, whereas those with a lesser response underwent a prompt cystectomy. Prognostic nomograms were constructed predicting complete response (CR), disease-specific survival (DSS), and bladder-intact disease-free survival (BI-DFS). BI-DFS was defined as the absence of local invasive or regional recurrence, distant metastasis, bladder cancer-related death, or radical cystectomy. Results: The final nomograms included information on clinical T stage, presence of hydronephrosis, whether a visibly complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor was performed, age, sex, and tumor grade. The predictive accuracy of these nomograms was assessed. For complete response, the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve was 0.69. The Harrell concordance index was 0.61 for both DSS and BI-DFS. Conclusions: Our nomograms allow individualized estimates of complete response, DSS, and BI-DFS. They may assist patients and clinicians making important treatment decisions.

  20. Attempted bladder reinnervation and creation of a scratch reflex for bladder emptying through a somatic-to-autonomic intradural anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Tuite, Gerald F; Storrs, Bruce B; Homsy, Yves L; Gaskill, Sarah J; Polsky, Ethan G; Reilly, Margaret A; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Winesett, S Parrish; Rodriguez, Luis F; Carey, Carolyn M; Perlman, Sharon A; Tetreault, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    An intradural somatic-to-autonomic anastomosis, or Xiao procedure, has been described to create a "skin-CNS-bladder" reflex that improves bladder and bowel function in patients with neurogenic bladder and bowel dysfunction. The authors present their experience with a 10-year-old boy with chronic neurogenic bladder and bowel dysfunction related to spinal cord injury who underwent the Xiao procedure. After undergoing a left L-5 ventral root to left S2-3 intradural anastomosis, the patient reported that his bladder and bowel dysfunction improved between 6 and 12 months. Two years after the procedure, however, he reported that there was no change in his bladder or bowel dysfunction as compared with his condition prior to the procedure. Frequent, systematic multidisciplinary evaluations produced conflicting data. Electrophysiological and histological evaluation of the previously performed anastomosis during surgical reexploration 3 years after the Xiao procedure revealed that the anastomosis was in anatomical continuity but neuroma formation had prevented reinnervation. Nerve action potentials were not demonstrable across the anastomosis, and stimulation of the nerve above and below the anastomosis created no bladder or perineal contractions. This is the first clinical report on the outcome of the Xiao procedure in a child with spinal cord injury outside of China. It is impossible to draw broad conclusions about the efficacy of the procedure based on a single patient with no demonstrable benefit. However, future studies should carefully interpret transient improvements in bladder function, urodynamic findings, and the patient's ability to void in response to scratching after the Xiao procedure. The authors' experience with the featured patient, in whom reinnervation could not be demonstrated, suggests that such changes could be related to factors other than the establishment of a skin-CNS-bladder reflex as a result of a somatic-to-autonomic anastomosis. PMID:23662931

  1. Improvement in Spinal Cord Injury-induced Bladder Fibrosis Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation into the Bladder Wall.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Jun; An, Jin; Doo, Seung Whan; Kim, Jae Heon; Choi, Sung Sik; Lee, Sang-Rae; Park, Seung Won; Song, Yun Seob; Kim, Seung U

    2014-06-01

    Experiments on spinal cord injury (SCI) have largely focused on the transplantation of stem cells into injured spinal cords for motor recovery while neglecting to investigate bladder dysfunction. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of B10 human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) directly transplanted into the bladder wall of SCI rats and to determine whether they are capable of inhibiting collagen deposition and improving cystometric parameters in SCI rats. Forty 6-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (group 1: control, group 2: sham operated, group 3: SCI, group 4: SCI rats that received B10 cells). B10 cells were labeled with fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Four weeks after the onset of SCI, MNP-labeled B10 cells were injected to the bladder wall. Serial magnetic resonance (MR) images were taken immediately after MNP-B10 injection and at 4 weeks post transplantation. Voiding function was assessed at 4 weeks post transplantation, and the bladder was harvested. Improvements in bladder fibrosis and bladder function were monitored by molecular MR imaging. Transplantation of B10 cells into the SCI rats markedly reduced their weights and collagen deposition. MR images showed a clear hypointense signal induced by the MNP-labeled B10 cells at 4 weeks post transplantation. Transplanted B10 cells were found to differentiate into smooth muscle cells. The intercontraction interval decreased, and the maximal voiding pressure increased after SCI but recovered after B10 cells transplantation. Survival of B10 cells was found at 4 weeks post transplantation using anti-human mitochondria antibody staining and MR imaging. The transplanted B10 cells inhibited bladder fibrosis and ameliorated bladder dysfunction in the rat SCI model. MSC-based cell transplantation may be a novel therapeutic strategy for bladder dysfunction in patients with SCI. PMID:24912020

  2. Timely management of penetrating neck trauma: Report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Kamil Hakan; Koç, Arzu Karaman; Uzut, Mahmut; Altinta?, Ahmet; Ye?in, Yakup; Say?n, ?brahim; Kayhan, Fatma Tülin

    2013-01-01

    In head and neck surgery, penetrating neck injuries are uncommon. The neck contains many important structures, so such trauma can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A patient with penetrating neck trauma should be examined promptly in the emergency room. If possible, damaged tissue and organ fragments should be preserved carefully. PMID:24339665

  3. Robust prognostic gene expression signatures in bladder cancer and lung adenocarcinoma depend on cell cycle related genes.

    PubMed

    Dancik, Garrett M; Theodorescu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Few prognostic biomarkers are approved for clinical use primarily because their initial performance cannot be repeated in independent datasets. We posited that robust biomarkers could be obtained by identifying deregulated biological processes shared among tumor types having a common etiology. We performed a gene set enrichment analysis in 20 publicly available gene expression datasets comprising 1968 patients having one of the three most common tobacco-related cancers (lung, bladder, head and neck) and identified cell cycle related genes as the most consistently prognostic class of biomarkers in bladder (BL) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). We also found the prognostic value of 13 of 14 published BL and LUAD signatures were dependent on cell cycle related genes, supporting the importance of cell cycle related biomarkers for prognosis. Interestingly, no prognostic gene classes were identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma or head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Next, a specific 31 gene cell cycle proliferation (CCP) signature, previously derived in prostate tumors was evaluated and found predictive of outcome in BL and LUAD cohorts in univariate and multivariate analyses. Specifically, CCP score significantly enhanced the predictive ability of multivariate models based on standard clinical variables for progression in BL patients and survival in LUAD patients in multiple cohorts. We then generated random CCP signatures of various sizes and found sets of 10-15 genes had robust performance in these BL and LUAD cohorts, a finding that was confirmed in an independent cohort. Our work characterizes the importance of cell cycle related genes in prognostic signatures for BL and LUAD patients and identifies a specific signature likely to survive additional validation. PMID:24465512

  4. Robust Prognostic Gene Expression Signatures in Bladder Cancer and Lung Adenocarcinoma Depend on Cell Cycle Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Dancik, Garrett M.; Theodorescu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Few prognostic biomarkers are approved for clinical use primarily because their initial performance cannot be repeated in independent datasets. We posited that robust biomarkers could be obtained by identifying deregulated biological processes shared among tumor types having a common etiology. We performed a gene set enrichment analysis in 20 publicly available gene expression datasets comprising 1968 patients having one of the three most common tobacco-related cancers (lung, bladder, head and neck) and identified cell cycle related genes as the most consistently prognostic class of biomarkers in bladder (BL) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). We also found the prognostic value of 13 of 14 published BL and LUAD signatures were dependent on cell cycle related genes, supporting the importance of cell cycle related biomarkers for prognosis. Interestingly, no prognostic gene classes were identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma or head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Next, a specific 31 gene cell cycle proliferation (CCP) signature, previously derived in prostate tumors was evaluated and found predictive of outcome in BL and LUAD cohorts in univariate and multivariate analyses. Specifically, CCP score significantly enhanced the predictive ability of multivariate models based on standard clinical variables for progression in BL patients and survival in LUAD patients in multiple cohorts. We then generated random CCP signatures of various sizes and found sets of 10–15 genes had robust performance in these BL and LUAD cohorts, a finding that was confirmed in an independent cohort. Our work characterizes the importance of cell cycle related genes in prognostic signatures for BL and LUAD patients and identifies a specific signature likely to survive additional validation. PMID:24465512

  5. Pelvic lipomatosis: Bladder sparing extirpation of pelvic mass to relieve bladder storage dysfunction symptoms and pelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ahmed; Swain, Sanjaya

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic lipomatosis is a rare benign disease, associated with overgrowth of fat in the perivesical and perirectal area. It is of unknown etiology. We describe a 45–year–old male with pelvic lipomatosis causing bladder storage dysfunction symptoms and pelvic pain that affected his quality of life. Surgical excision of the pelvic mass with bladder preservation was performed. After surgery, the patient had a marked improvement in his quality of life, with resolution of bladder storage dysfunction symptoms and pelvic pain. PMID:25247089

  6. Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

  7. Efficient clustering of identity-by-descent between multiple individuals

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yu; Browning, Brian L.; Browning, Sharon R.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Most existing identity-by-descent (IBD) detection methods only consider haplotype pairs; less attention has been paid to considering multiple haplotypes simultaneously, even though IBD is an equivalence relation on haplotypes that partitions a set of haplotypes into IBD clusters. Multiple-haplotype IBD clusters may have advantages over pairwise IBD in some applications, such as IBD mapping. Existing methods for detecting multiple-haplotype IBD clusters are often computationally expensive and unable to handle large samples with thousands of haplotypes. Results: We present a clustering method, efficient multiple-IBD, which uses pairwise IBD segments to infer multiple-haplotype IBD clusters. It expands clusters from seed haplotypes by adding qualified neighbors and extends clusters across sliding windows in the genome. Our method is an order of magnitude faster than existing methods and has comparable performance with respect to the quality of clusters it uncovers. We further investigate the potential application of multiple-haplotype IBD clusters in association studies by testing for association between multiple-haplotype IBD clusters and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort. Using our multiple-haplotype IBD cluster approach, we found an association with a genomic interval covering the PCSK9 gene in these data that is missed by standard single-marker association tests. Previously published studies confirm association of PCSK9 with low-density lipoprotein. Availability and implementation: Source code is available under the GNU Public License http://cs.au.dk/~qianyuxx/EMI/. Contact: qianyuxx@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24363374

  8. A 26-gene hypoxia signature predicts benefit from hypoxia-modifying therapy in laryngeal cancer but not bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eustace, Amanda; Mani, Navin; Span, Paul N; Irlam, Joely J; Taylor, Janet; Betts, Guy NJ; Denley, Helen; Miller, Crispin J; Homer, Jarrod J; Rojas, Ana M; Hoskin, Peter J; Buffa, Francesca M; Harris, Adrian L; Kaanders, Johannes HAM; West, Catharine ML

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In head and neck and bladder cancer tumor hypoxia is associated with a poor prognosis, hypoxia modification improves outcome and hypoxic status predicts benefit from treatment. Yet, there is no universal measure of clinical hypoxia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 26-gene hypoxia signature predicted benefit from hypoxia-modifying treatment in both cancer types. Patients and Methods Samples were available from 157 T2-T4 laryngeal cancer and 185 T1-T4a bladder cancer patients enrolled on the ARCON and BCON phase III randomized trials of radiotherapy alone or with carbogen and nicotinamide (CON) respectively. Customized TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDAs) were used to assess expression of the 26-gene signature using quantitative real-time PCR. The median expression of the 26 genes was used to derive a hypoxia score (HS). Patients were categorized as TLDA-HS low (?median) or TLDA-HS high (>median). The primary outcome measures were regional control (RC; ARCON) and overall survival (OS; BCON). Results Laryngeal tumors categorized as TLDA-HS high showed greater benefit from ARCON than TLDA-HS low tumors. Five-year RC was 81% (radiotherapy alone) versus 100% (CON) for TLDA-HS high (P=0.009). For TLDA-HS low five-year RC was 91% (radiotherapy alone) versus 90% (CON) (P=0.90). TLDA-HS did not predict benefit from CON in bladder cancer. Conclusion The 26-gene hypoxia signature predicts benefit from hypoxia-modifying treatment in laryngeal cancer. These findings will be evaluated in a prospective clinical trial. PMID:23820108

  9. Hormonal Treatment for Severe Hydronephrosis Caused by Bladder Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Efe, Erkan; Serin, Salih; Kolus, Eyüp; Ercan, Önder; Resim, Sefa

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of endometriosis cases involving the urinary system has recently increased, and the bladder is a specific zone where endometriosis is most commonly seen in the urinary system. In the case presented here, a patient presented to the emergency department with the complaint of side pain and was examined and diagnosed with severe hydronephrosis and bladder endometriosis was determined in the etiology. After the patient was pathologically diagnosed, Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) was administered to the uterine cavity. At the 12-month follow-up, endometriosis was not observed in the cystoscopy and symptoms had completely regressed. Hydronephrosis may be observed after exposure of the ureter, and silent renal function loss may develop in patients suffering from endometriosis with bladder involvement. For patients with moderate or severe hydronephrosis associated with bladder endometriosis, LNG-IUS application may be separately and successfully used after conservative surgery. PMID:25506035

  10. Inflatable bladder to facilitate handling of heavy objects - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Goldrick, G. J.

    1969-01-01

    Inflatable bladder facilitates the removal of heavy, highly finished metal parts from tote boxes or shipping containers. The proposed concept permits removal without danger of damage to the parts or injury to handling personnel.

  11. Spontaneous, idiopathic urinary bladder perforation--case report.

    PubMed

    Wieloch, Maria; Bazyli?ska, Kamila; Ziemniak, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous, idiopathic urinary bladder rupture is a very rare disease entity, which may face the problem of proper preoperative diagnosis. In many cases the medical history, physical examination, and additional tests raise false suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation. The study presented a case of a female patient with spontaneous urinary bladder perforation, paying particular attention to the diagnostic difficulties associated with the above-mentioned pathology. The aim of the study was to analyse the presence of symptoms and imaging and laboratory results observed in case of spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, as well as differentiate the above-mentioned pathology with gastrointestinal perforation. Whenever diagnosing a patient with acute peritonitis symptoms, in whom the predominating symptoms include sudden abdominal pain, peritoneal cavity fluid presence, hematuria, oliguria, and coexisting increased urea, creatinine, and potassium levels, one should consider the possibility of urinary bladder rupture. PMID:24468594

  12. Photodynamic treatment of bladder cancer: report of 117 cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Zhiyou; Zhang, Daqi

    1993-03-01

    We report 117 cases of clinical data of photodynamic treatment of bladder cancer and confirm that treatment of the bladder cancer between 1 cm to 2 cm in diameter should get better results. That of 2 - 4 cm diameter needs increased energy density and repeated exposures. If the cancer is larger than 4 cm diameter or includes invasion of the deep muscle and the cervix of the bladder, the results of treatment would not be satisfactory. The elimination rate of cancers in this group of patients was 94%. The total recurrence rate reduced to 30.1% after the survey of patients in 8 years. By the way, we also discuss and investigate the results, the mechanism, and the cause which decreased the rate of recurrence in photodynamic treatment of bladder cancer.

  13. Hydrostatic pressure-regulated ion transport in bladder uroepithelium

    E-print Network

    Apodaca, Gerard

    Bridges, and Gerard Apodaca. Hydrostatic pressure-regulated ion transport in bladder uroepithelium. Am J-Myung Lee,1 John P. Johnson,1 Thomas R. Kleyman,1,2 Robert Bridges,2 and Gerard Apodaca1,2 1 Renal

  14. [Homicide by stab to the neck with subsequent attempted suicide by cut to the neck].

    PubMed

    Olze, Heidi; Hosse, Ulrike; Rosenbaum, Frank; Schmeling, Andreas; Schneider, Volkmar

    2005-01-01

    A 37-year-old Turkish woman was fatally injured by her 65-year-old Turkish husband with a stab to the cervical region. After her death he inflicted a deep cut to his own neck, which he survived thanks to immediate medical assistance. To the authors' knowledge this combination of a homicidal stab to the neck and a suicidal cut to the neck has not been described before. Kosher butchering, which is common in the couple's traditional cultural environment, is discussed as possible reason for the choice of the neck as site for applying sharp violence. It may have induced the perpetrator to choose this anatomical region. PMID:15887781

  15. Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khochikar, Makarand V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly comparable to that is used for colon or breast and for prostate as well. PMID:21814313

  16. Aging small Canada geese by neck plumage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Schoonover, L.J.

    1969-01-01

    The neck plumage method, a new technique for separating immature from adult Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in the hand, was evaluated by comparison with the notched tail feather and cloacal examination methods. Two (1.4 percent) of 141 geese examined were misaged, resulting in a 6 percent error in the immature-adult ratio obtained by the neck plumage method. The neck plumage method is a rapid aging method and reasonable accuracy (94 percent) can be obtained. It can also be used to differentiate immatures from adults on the ground at distances up to 175 yards, but was almost impossible to use when geese were in flight. As yet, the neck plumage method has only been tested on the subspecies (B. c. hutchinsii-parvipes complex) in the Tall-Grass Prairie population of small Canada geese.

  17. Prevention of complications in neck dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kerawala, Cyrus J; Heliotos, Manolis

    2009-01-01

    Background The neck dissection has remained a pivotal aspect of head and neck cancer management for over a century. During this time its role has expanded from a purely therapeutic option into an elective setting, in part promoted by efforts to reduce its morbidity. Objectives This review will consider the potential complications of neck dissection and on the basis of the available evidence describe both their management and prevention. Conclusion Although the neck dissection continues to provide clinicians with a method of addressing cervical disease, its reliability and safety can only be assured if surgeons remain cognisant of the potential complications and aim to minimise such morbidity by appropriate management in the peri-operative period. PMID:19822010

  18. The electrodiagnostic evaluation of neck pain.

    PubMed

    Plastaras, Christopher T; Joshi, Anand B

    2011-08-01

    Electrodiagnostic studies play an important role in the evaluation of radiculopathy. This article reviews the use of standard nerve conduction studies, late responses, evoked potentials, and needle electrode examination in the electrodiagnostic evaluation of neck pain. PMID:21824584

  19. Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for head and neck cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Bladder and urethral responses to isolated sacral motor root stimulation.

    PubMed

    McGuire, E J; Herlihy, E

    1978-11-01

    After complete intradural lumbosacral rhizotomy and cord transection in 40 cats, parasympathetic discharge was induced by electrical stimulation of the second and third sacral roots. Isolation of the stimulus to the preganglionic motor fiber resulted in bladder contraction and reciprocal urethral pressure loss. The threshold for the urethral response was lower than that of the bladder and the urethral response findings strongly suggest that urethral adrenoreceptor activity can be modified peripherally by a primary parasympathetic stimulus. PMID:568606