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Primary Bladder Neck Obstruction in Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) is a condition in which the bladder neck does not open appropriately or completely during voiding. Although the true prevalence of PBNO is difficult to ascertain, studies in both men and women with voiding dysfunction demonstrate a marked prevalence of the condition. Symptoms caused by PBNO include storage symptoms (frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, nocturia) and voiding symptoms (decreased force of stream, hesitancy, incomplete emptying). There are multiple theories as to the etiology of PBNO, including muscular and neurologic dysfunction and fibrosis. The diagnosis of PBNO can be made precisely with videourodynamics, urodynamic testing with simultaneous pressure-flow measurement, and visualization of the bladder neck during voiding. Treatments vary from watchful waiting to medical therapy to surgery, depending on the severity of symptoms, urodynamic findings, and response to therapy. This article reviews the current state of the art with respect to the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of PBNO. PMID:16985885

Nitti, Victor W



Incontinence, bladder neck mobility, and sphincter ruptures in primiparous women  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the function of the pelvic floor in primiparae before and during pregnancy with the status post partum concerning symptoms of incontinence, sphincter ruptures, bladder-neck mobility and the influence of the different modes of deliveries. Methods Questionnaire evaluating symptoms of urinary and anal incontinence in nulliparous women before and after delivery and correlating these symptoms with functional changes of the pelvic floor based on a careful gynaecologic examination as well as perineal and endoanal ultrasound. Results 112 women were included in our study and came for the first visit, 99 women returned for follow-up 6 months after childbirth. Stress and flatus incontinence significantly increased from before pregnancy (3 and 12%) to after childbirth (21 and 28%) in women with spontaneous delivery or vacuum extraction. No new symptoms occurred after c-section. There was no significant difference between the bladder neck position before and after delivery. The mobility of the bladder neck was significantly higher after vaginal delivery using a vacuum extraction compared to spontaneous delivery or c-section. The bladder neck in women with post partum urinary stress incontinence was significantly more mobile than in continent controls. The endoanal ultrasound detected seven occult sphincter defects without any correlation to symptoms of anal incontinence. Conclusion Several statistically significant changes of the pelvic floor after delivery were demonstrated. Spontaneous vaginal delivery or vacuum extraction increases the risk for stress or anal incontinence, delivery with vacuum extraction leads to higher bladder neck mobility and stress incontinent women have more mobile bladder necks than continent women. PMID:20696633



Functional bladder neck obstruction in males: a progressive disorder?  


Functional bladder neck obstruction is often an elusive cause of outlet obstruction in males. If the entity escapes timely diagnosis and treatment, it may progress to acute or chronic retention, terminating in renal failure. The diagnosis can be accurately made by a synchronous pressure flow electromyograph (EMG) study. This is a report on 16 men under 45 years of age encountered during the past 2.5 years. A high sustained detrusor pressure (mean 157 cm H2O) during voiding with poor flow (mean 9.89 ml/s) was observed in all patients. External sphincteric activity during EMG and video study was found to be completely quiescent at the time of voiding. All these patients had inadequate funneling and bladder neck opening. Some of these patients had intermittent bladder neck opening. Three patients presented with renal failure. Following therapy, renal function could be reversed back to normal in 2 patients. Clean intermittent catheterisation, pharmacotherapy using alpha-blockers and endoscopic bladder neck incision were the modalities used to treat this group of patients. PMID:1478227

Mishra, V K; Kumar, A; Kapoor, R; Srivastava, A; Bhandari, M



Functional bladder neck obstruction: a rare cause of renal failure.  


We studied 7 men and 6 women (average age 33 years) who presented in renal failure with obstructive voiding symptoms or retention. Of these patients 11 had a dilated upper tract and 2 had shrunken kidneys. Mean serum creatinine at presentation was 7.0 mg./dl. No abnormality was noted on cysto-panendoscopy, retrograde urethrography and voiding cystourethrography. The patients were initially treated with clean intermittent self-catheterization following 7 to 10 days of indwelling catheterization. The majority of patients had low pressure and low flow rate at initial presentation but high end filling pressure (mean 35.3 cm. water), high voiding pressure (mean 118.9 cm. water), high opening pressure (mean 95.3 cm. water) and low peak flow (mean 5.7 ml. per second) on video pressure flow electromyography. The external sphincter was relaxed during voiding but the bladder neck opened intermittently or inadequately. No proper funneling of the bladder neck was seen. Thus, functional bladder neck obstruction was considered to be responsible for obstructive voiding in these patients. Of the patients 3 void to completion with the help of alpha blockers alone, 5 underwent bladder neck incision and are voiding well, and 5 were practicing clean intermittent self-catheterization at last followup. Serum creatinine returned to near normal in 10 patients. End stage renal failure persisted in 2 patients, 1 of whom underwent renal transplantation and is voiding well but the other died without having undergone renal replacement therapy. In the remaining patient serum creatinine was stable at 3.2 mg./dl. Mean serum creatinine at 6 months of followup was 2.33 mg.%. Bladder neck obstruction is a rare cause of renal failure which can be corrected if treated appropriately. PMID:7776419

Kumar, A; Banerjee, G K; Goel, M C; Mishra, V K; Kapoor, R; Bhandari, M



Efficacy of Polydimethylsiloxane Injection to the Bladder Neck and Leaking Diverting Stoma for Urinary Continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAchieving urinary continence is a major goal in the treatment of patients with bladder exstrophy\\/epispadias, spinal dysraphism and other urological disorders. Endoscopic injection of bulking materials is an evolving, minimally invasive procedure that provides an attractive alternative to open bladder surgery to increase outlet resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of bladder outlet (bladder neck and diverting stoma) polydimethylsiloxane injection (BOMI)




Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000?mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male. PMID:22606637

Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahallal, Youness; Mellas, Soufiane; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan



Bladder Neck Rupture Following Perineal Bull Horn Injury: A Surgical Challenge  

PubMed Central

Pelvic-abdominal injuries caused by goring are serious lesions which require rapid diagnosis and urgent treatment in the context of a polytraumatized patient. The simultaneous rupture of both the bladder and the prostatic-membranous urethra occurs in 10%–29% of males with pelvic fractures but bladder neck injuries in adults are rarer. Unstable pelvic fractures, bilateral fractures of the ischiopubic branches (also referred to as fractures from falling astride) and the diastasis of the pubic symphysis are those that have the greatest likelihood of injuring both the posterior urethra and the bladder. We present a case of perineal bull horn injury with muscle laceration, bone fractures, scrotal avulsion and rupture of the bladder neck involving the right ureter which required two operations to be repaired. PMID:23066348

Padilla-Fernandez, B.; Diaz-Alferez, F.J.; Garcia-Garcia, M.A.; Herrero-Polo, M.; Velasquez-Saldarriaga, J.F.; Lorenzo-Gomez, M.F.



Emergency primary repair of grade V bladder neck injury complicating pelvic fracture  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a grade V bladder injury complicating an open-book pelvic fracture following a road traffic accident. The bladder neck injury was primarily repaired in the emergency setting of a poor-resourced area with successful outcome. The dangers of urinary extravasation are still to be considered of importance and we advocate and encourage immediate/emergency open intervention although it remains controversial to say the least in a lesser resourced healthcare set up. PMID:25076980



[Injury of the urethra, sphincter and bladder neck by a piercing].  


A 27-year-old woman presented to our clinic with total incontinence. The reason of the incontinence was an injury of the urethra, caused by a genital piercing of the sexual partner. Reconstruction of the urethra and the bladder neck was performed 10 weeks after injury. Upon removal of the catheter 6 weeks after surgery, the patient was fully continent. PMID:24970237

Nissl, A; Straub, M



Biomechanical study on the bladder neck and urethral positions: Simulation of impairment of the pelvic ligaments.  


Excessive mobility of the bladder neck and urethra are common features in stress urinary incontinence. We aimed at assessing, through computational modelling, the bladder neck position taking into account progressive impairment of the pelvic ligaments. Magnetic resonance images of a young healthy female were used to build a computational model of the pelvic cavity. Appropriate material properties and constitutive models were defined. The impairment of the ligaments was simulated by mimicking a reduction in their stiffness. For healthy ligaments, valsalva maneuver led to an increase in the ? angle (between the bladder neck-symphysis pubis and the main of the symphysis) from 91.8° (at rest) to 105.7°, and 5.7mm of bladder neck dislocation, which was similar to dynamic imaging of the same woman (? angle from 80° to 103.3°, and 5mm of bladder neck movement). For 95% impairment, they enlarged to 124.28° and 12mm. Impairment to the pubourethral ligaments had higher effect than that of vaginal support (115° vs. 108°, and 9.1 vs. 7.3mm). Numerical simulation could predict urethral motion during valsalva maneuver, for both healthy and impaired ligaments. Results were similar to those of continent women and women with stress urinary incontinence published in the literature. Biomechanical analysis of the pubourethral ligaments complements the biomechanical study of the pelvic cavity in urinary incontinence. It may be useful in young women presenting stress urinary incontinence without imaging evidence of urethral and muscle lesions or organ descend during valsalva, and for whom fascial damage are not expected. PMID:25527889

Brandão, Sofia; Parente, Marco; Mascarenhas, Teresa; da Silva, Ana Rita Gomes; Ramos, Isabel; Jorge, Renato Natal



Intralesional Injection of Mitomycin C at Transurethral Incision of Bladder Neck Contracture May Offer Limited Benefit: TURNS Study Group  

PubMed Central

Purpose Injection of mitomycin C may increase the success of transurethral incision of the bladder neck for the treatment of bladder neck contracture. We evaluated the efficacy of mitomycin C injection across multiple institutions. Materials and Methods Data on all patients who underwent transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed from 6 centers in the TURNS. Patients with at least 3 months of cystoscopic followup were included in the analysis. Results A total of 66 patients underwent transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C and 55 meeting the study inclusion criteria were analyzed. Mean ± SD patient age was 64 ± 7.6 years. Dilation or prior transurethral incision of the bladder neck failed in 80% (44 of 55) of patients. Overall 58% (32 of 55) of patients achieved resolution of bladder neck contracture after 1 transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C at a median followup of 9.2 months (IQR 11.7). There were 23 patients who had recurrence at a median of 3.7 months (IQR 4.2), 15 who underwent repeat transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C and 9 of 15 (60%) who were free of another recurrence at a median of 8.6 months (IQR 8.8), for an overall success rate of 75% (41 of 55). Incision with electrocautery (Collins knife) was predictive of success compared with cold knife incision (63% vs 50%, p=0.03). Four patients experienced serious adverse events related to mitomycin C and 3 needed or are planning cystectomy. Conclusions The efficacy of intralesional injection of mitomycin C at transurethral incision of the bladder neck was lower than previously reported and was associated with a 7% rate of serious adverse events. PMID:25200807

Redshaw, Jeffrey D.; Broghammer, Joshua A.; Smith, Thomas G.; Voelzke, Bryan B.; Erickson, Bradley A.; McClung, Christopher D.; Elliott, Sean P.; Alsikafi, Nejd F.; Presson, Angela P.; Aberger, Michael E.; Craig, James R.; Brant, William O.; Myers, Jeremy B.



Continent ileovesicostomy after bladder neck closure as salvage procedure for intractable incontinence  

PubMed Central

Introduction We evaluated the success rate of continent vesicostomy using an ileal segment with seroserosally embedded, tapered ileum for bladder augmentation with continent stoma following bladder neck closure (BNC) for severely damaged bladders or persistent urinary incontinence. Material and methods A total of 15 patients were treated for persistent urinary incontinence or non–reconstructible bladder outlet between 2003 and 2012. Underlying diagnosis included post–prostatectomy incontinence (n = 5), recurrent bladder neck stenosis (n = 5), neurogenic bladder (n = 3), urethral tumor recurrence following orthotopic neobladder (n = 1) and post–TVT and colposuspension incontinence (n = 1). All patients underwent open BNC, omental interposition and continent vesicoileostomy. The continent outlet was placed in the lower abdomen using a circumferential subcutaneous and skin plasty to avoid retraction. Data collected included age, underlying diagnosis, stoma site, time to complications and need for subsequent surgical revisions. All patients received a standardized questionnaire at the time of data acquisition and were personally interviewed. Results Median follow–up was 24 months (range: 2–111). Primary BNC was successful in all patients and primary continence rate was 86.7%. Two patients (13.3%) suffered from failure of the continence mechanism, caused by stoma stenosis at skin level and insufficiency of the bladder augmentation and stoma due to local infection. One additional patient developed a mild stomal incontinence without need for further reconstruction. Regardless of the number of revisions, at the last follow–up 93.3% of patients had a functional channel. All complications occurred within the first postoperative year. Conclusions This technique is an effective last resort treatment for patients with non–reconstructible bladder outlet. PMID:24757550

Anheuser, Petra; Rausch, Steffen; Fechner, Guido; Braun, Moritz; Müller, Stefan C.; Steffens, Joachim A.; Kälble, Tilman



Bladder neck closure in children: long-term results and consequences.  


Aim?Only few studies have gathered information on the long-term outcomes of children undergoing bladder neck closure (BNC). In the present study, we analyze the long-term results and consequences in this population. Patients and Methods?The medical records of 20 patients (12 males and 8 females), who underwent BNC after several failed procedures to improve urinary incontinence were revised. Exstrophy complex was the underlying diagnose in all the cases: bladder exstrophy in 15 and cloacal exstrophy in 5. The median age of the patients at the time of surgery was 11.5 years (range 4-19 years). Previous surgeries were bladder neck reconstruction in 14 patients, bladder neck injection in 4 patients, and previous BNC in 1 patient. Overall 17 patients had concomitant bladder augmentation. The catheterizable stoma was made with appendix in 14, bowel in 3, and ureter in 3. The nine male patients aged?>?18 years at the time of this study received a questionnaire with specific questions on erections, orgasm, and details of ejaculation and were also asked to provide a semen sample. Results?The median follow-up was 10 years (range 2-17 years) and median patient age was 21 years (range 13-32 years). Urinary continence was achieved initially in 16 patients (80%); 4 had a bladder neck fistula, 3 of them underwent surgical revision and achieved dryness. Long-term complications were: bladder stones (eight patients); stomal problems (four stenosis and three leaks); bladder perforation (two patients), and orchitis (one patient). All patients above the age of 18 years reported erections and orgasms although two had medium erectile dysfunction. The ejaculate volume was reported as normal in five, scarce in three, and absent in one, with slow ejection in seven. Only four supplied semen samples and only two showed normal values. Conclusions?BNC is an effective approach to incontinence when other procedures have failed. In the long term, the most frequent complications are those related with catheterizable stoma and stones. The high incidence report of a low fertility index and erectile dysfunction meant further study in a larger cohort. PMID:25172981

Hernandez-Martin, Sara; Lopez-Pereira, Pedro; Lopez-Fernandez, Sergio; Ortiz, Rubén; Marcos, Mercedes; Lobato, Roberto; Martinez-Urrutia, Maria Jose; Jaureguizar, Enrique



Robotic-assisted bladder neck repair: feasibility and outcomes.  


Minimally invasive techniques are rapidly being developed and integrated into urologic surgery. Over the past 5 years, the urologic literature is abound with novel techniques and adaptations to conventional laparoscopy. Pediatric urology is no exception to this trend, and the benefits of minimally invasive surgery may be accentuated in children given the relatively more confined working spaces and also a heightened awareness of cosmesis for the pediatric population. Increasingly, complex pediatric urologic procedures are being performed with robot assistance. The feasibility of nephrectomy, pyeloplasty, ureteral reimplantation, and bladder surgery has been clearly established. PMID:25455177

Gargollo, Patricio C



Transabdominal testicular descent is really ovarian ascent.  


Some investigators have suggested that testicular descent relative to the ovary is actually caused by the relative upward growth of the structures adjacent to the testis and that in the early phase of descent the testis is anchored to the inguinal region as the embryo enlarges. This concept was founded on results from the dissection of human fetuses. In this study the development of the urogenital system in fetal mice is examined using scanning electron microscopy to determine the distance between the bladder neck and the lower pole of the gonad. The results of this study confirm that transabdominal descent of the testis relative to the ovary is in one sense really ascent of the ovary in the fetal mouse, while the testis is anchored to the inguinal region by the developed gubernaculum. The testis shows real movement at the beginning of the inguinoscrotal phase of testicular descent at birth. PMID:8022013

Shono, T; Ramm-Anderson, S; Hutson, J M



Erbium vs. holmium laser incision of the urethra and bladder neck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to evaluate in an animal model differences in wound healing and scar formation in healthy urethra and bladder neck incised with the Erbium:YAG and Holmium:YAG lasers. In each of 18 domestic pigs, three 1-cm-long incisions were made, two at the bladder neck and one in the mid-urethra using either the Er:YAG laser (9 pigs) or the Ho:YAG laser (9 pigs). In each laser group, three animals were sacrificed on postoperative (POD) days 0, 6, and 14. Width of collateral damage, as evidenced by coagulation necrosis and granulation tissue at the wound base, and incision depth were evaluated during tissue analysis. Collateral damage with the Er:YAG laser at POD 0, 6 and 14 was 20 +/- 5 mm, 900 +/- 100 mm, and 430 +/- 100 mm, respectively. Damage with the Ho:YAG laser was 660 +/- 110 mm, 2280 +/- 700 mm, and 1580 +/- 250 mm, respectively. The granulation tissue was significantly less (p < 0.05) at all time points with the Er:YAG laser. Similarly, incision depths for the two laser groups at days 6 (1100 +/- 200 mm vs 1500 +/- 300 mm) and 14 (670 +/- 140 mm vs 1240 +/- 140 mm) were also significantly less (p < 0.05) for the Er:YAG laser group, indicating faster healing of the wound created. In this in vivo animal study, incisions in the urethra and bladder neck made with the Er:YAG laser healed faster and with less scar formation than incisions made with the Ho:YAG laser.

Varkarakis, Ioannis M.; Inagaki, Takeshi; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Chan, Theresa Y.; Rogers, Craig G.; Wright, Edward J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.



A Novel Surgical Technique for Preserving the Bladder Neck During Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: Preliminary Results.  


Abstract Purpose: To describe our new surgical technique for preserving the bladder neck during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) and to present the anatomy between the bladder neck and prostate. Methods: Between December 2012 and May 2014, 52 RALPs were performed at our institute. Demographic, perioperative, and postoperative data were recorded. Quality of life (QoL) scores were assessed before RALP, after urethral catheter removal, and at the first month after RALP. Fatty connective tissue between bladder neck and prostate was introduced, and circular muscle fibers of the internal sphincter were seen in all patients. Complications were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Statistical analyses were performed. Results: Mean follow-up was 9.6±5.2 months; mean age was 61.1±6.5 years. Our novel surgical technique for preserving the bladder neck was performed in 52 patients, and they were continent after catheter removal; mean duration of the catheter was 9.4±1.4 days. There was a significant difference in QoL before RALP and after catheter removal, however, but there was no statistical difference between before and 1 month after RALP (respectively; P<0.001, P=0.5). Furthermore, there was no complication related to the bladder neck such as bladder neck stricture, acute/chronic urinary retention, as well as no Clavien III, IV, and V complications. In addition, conventional laparoscopy and/or open surgery was not needed in any of the RALP cases. Conclusion: Our novel technique provided very early continence at the time of catheter removal after RALP within short-term follow-up. This can help early recovery and develop QoL scores after RALP. PMID:25045919

Tunc, Lutfi; Gumustas, Huseyin; Akin, Yigit; Atkin, Sinan; Peker, Tuncay; Erdem, Ozlem; Bozkirli, Ibrahim



Prevalence and Risk Factors of Bladder Neck Contracture After Radical Prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of bladder neck contracture (BNC) and its risk factors in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy in Korea. Materials and Methods We analyzed data from 488 patients with prostatic cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy performed by seven surgeons in seven hospitals, including 365 open radical prostatectomies (ORPs), 99 laparoscopic radical prostatectomies (LRPs), and 24 robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomies (RARPs). Patients with BNCs were compared with those without BNCs to identify the risk factors for BNC occurrence. Results Overall, BNCs occurred in 21 of 488 patients (4.3%): 17 patients (4.7%) who underwent ORP, 4 patients (4%) who underwent LRP, and no patients who underwent RARP. In the univariate analysis, men with BNCs had a longer length of time before drain removal (12 days vs. 6.8 days, p<0.001), which reflected urinary leakage through the vesicourethral anastomosis. In the multivariate analysis, the length of time before drain removal was the only predictor of BNC (odds ratio, 1.12; p=0.001). Intraoperative blood loss was higher in patients with BNC, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions The most significant factor related to BNC occurrence after radical prostatectomy in our study was the length of time before drain removal, which reflects urinary leakage from the vesicourethral anastomosis. The proper formation of a watertight anastomosis to decrease urinary leakage may help to reduce the occurrence of BNC. PMID:23700494

Cho, Hee Ju; Jung, Tae Young; Kim, Duk Yoon; Byun, Seok Soo; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Oh, Tae Hee; Ko, Woo Jin



[Molecular and anatomical studies of testicular descent].  


The mechanism of testicular descent is multifactorial, and the process is known to occur in two steps accompanied by different anatomies and hormonal regulation. In the first step, the testis descends from the lower pole of the kidney to the pelvic cavity near the bladder neck as a result of the swelling reaction of the gubernaculum. Next, in the second step, the testis descends into the scrotum through the inguinal canal via the gubernacular migration. The first step is androgen-independent, whereas the second step depends on the androgen action. Recently, several molecular studies on testicular descent have been reported. Several factors, such as androgen, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), epidermal growth factor (EGF), Hoxa-10 and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) have been suggested to be possible regulators of testicular descent. Because cryptorchidism has been frequently shown in androgen-insensitive human and mice (TFM-mice), androgen has been thought to play an important role in testicular descent. CGRP, which is released from the genitofemoral nerve, has been suggested to mediate the inguinoscrotal testicular descent. The epidermal growth factor (EGF) may promote both testosterone-induced wollfian duct differentiation and testicular descent by activating the androgen responsive systems. In male mice, a targeted disruption of the HOXA 10 gene causes cryptorchidism and the cryptorchid testes in these mutant mice are located in the lower abdominal cavity, whereas the cryptorchid testes in male mice lacking the INSL3 gene or its receptor Lgr8 were located in the abdominal cavity high. Recently, estrogens or environmental endocrine disruptors have also been suspected to induce a down-regulated INSL3 expression and thus disturb testicular descent. PMID:17702188

Shono, Takeshi



Influence of bladder neck suspension stitches on early continence after radical prostatectomy: a prospective randomized study of 180 patients  

PubMed Central

Several techniques have been introduced to improve early postoperative continence. In this study, we evaluated the impact of bladder neck (vesicourethral anastomosis) suspension on the outcome of extraperitoneal endoscopic radical prostatectomy (EERPE). In this research, a total of 180 patients underwent EERPE. Group 1 included patients who underwent nerve-sparing EERPE (nsEERPE) (n=45), and Group 2 included patients who underwent nsEERPE with bladder neck suspension (BNS, n=45). Groups 3 (n=45) and 4 (n=45) included patients who received EERPE and EERPE with BNS, respectively. Patients were randomly assigned to receive BNS with their nsEERPE or EERPE procedure. Perioperative parameters were recorded, and continence was evaluated by determining the number and weight of absorbent pads (pad weighing test) on the second day after catheter removal and by a questionnaire 3 months postoperatively. Two days after catheter removal, 11.1% of Group 1, 11.1% of Group 2, 4.4% of Group 3 and 8.9% of Group 4 were continent. The average urine loss was 80.4, 70.1, 325.0 and 291.3 g for the each of these groups, respectively. At 3 months, 76.5% of Group 1 and 81.3% of Group 2 were continent. The continence figures for Group 3 and 4 were 48.5% and 43.8%, respectively. Similar overall rates were observed in all groups. In conclusion, although there are controversial reports in the literature, early continence was never observed to be significantly higher in the BNS groups when compared with the non-BNS groups, regardless of the EERPE technique performed. PMID:21909121

Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Nicolaus, Martin; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Do, Minh; Dietel, Anja; Häfner, Tim; Sakellaropoulos, George; Hicks, James; Nikoleishvili, David; Liatsikos, Evangelos



Bilateral Double Ureters with Bladder Neck Diverticulum in a Nigerian Woman Masquerading as an Obstetric Fistula  

PubMed Central

A 43-year-old woman presented with 20-year history of leakage of urine per vaginam. She had one failed repair attempt. Pelvic examination with dye test showed leakage of clear urine suggestive of ureterovaginal fistula. The preoperative intravenous urogram revealed duplex ureter and cystoscopy showed normally cited ureteric orifices with two other ectopic ureteric openings and bladder diverticula. The definitive surgery performed was ureteric reimplantation (ureteroneocystostomy) of the two distal ureteric to 2?cm superiolateral to the two normal orifices and diverticuloplasty. There was resolution of urinary incontinence after surgery. Three months after surgery, she had urodynamic testing done (cystometry), which showed 220?mLs with no signs of instability or leakage during filling phase but leaked on coughing at maximal bladder capacity. This is to showcase some diagnostic dilemma that could arise with obstetric fistula, which is generally diagnosed by clinical assessment. PMID:25587483

Morhason-Bello, Imran O.; Adebayo, Sikiru A.; Abdusalam, Rukiyat A.; Bello, Oluwasomidoyin O.; Odubamowo, Kehinde H.; Lawal, Olatunji O.; Olapade-Olaopa, E. Oluwabunmi; Ojengbede, Oladosu A.



Bladder cancer  


Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder; Urothelial cancer ... In the United States, bladder cancer usually starts from the cells lining the bladder. These cells are called transitional cells. These tumors are classified by the way ...


Ascent/Descent Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ascent/Descent Software Suite has been used to support a variety of NASA Shuttle Program mission planning and analysis activities, such as range safety, on the Integrated Planning System (IPS) platform. The Ascent/Descent Software Suite, containing Ascent Flight Design (ASC)/Descent Flight Design (DESC) Configuration items (Cis), lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle ascent and entry modeling analysis and mission design, resides on IPS/Linux workstations. A list of tools in Navigation (NAV)/Prop Software Suite represents tool versions established during or after the IPS Equipment Rehost-3 project.

Brown, Charles; Andrew, Robert; Roe, Scott; Frye, Ronald; Harvey, Michael; Vu, Tuan; Balachandran, Krishnaiyer; Bly, Ben



Bladder Exstrophy  


... of treatment is modern staged reconstruction that involves closure of the bladder and pelvis in the newborn ... quality and the penis is of good size, closure of the bladder and reconstruction of the penis ...


Neurogenic Bladder  


... the bladder muscles to squeeze (or "contract"). This forces the urine out through your urethra, the tube ... bladder to the tip of the penis. In females, the urethra is much shorter than in males. ...


Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma

Home Cancers Selected for Study Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Last Updated: April 01, 2013 What is urothelial bladder cancer? Urothelial bladder cancer is the most common type of bladder cancer.  The bladder is a hollow


Bladder Diverticulum  


... bladder stones, backwards flow of urine into the kidneys ( reflux ), bladder tumors or difficulty urinating. For those patients with diverticula ... bladder into the ureters and occasionally into the kidneys, raising the risk of infection. ... formed in an organ. tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue or growth of ...


Recapitulation and Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN NATURE of October 14 my friend and colleague, Mr. L. T. Hogben, contributes a thoughtful letter on ``Recapitulation and Descent,'' on which you will, perhaps, allow me to make one or two comments. Mr. Hogben traverses the position taken up by Dr. Bather in his address to the Geological Section of the British Association that ``recapitulation'' in the development

E. W. MacBride



Descent and Divergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN Sir Arthur Keith's presidential address to the British Association at Leeds (Supplement to NATURE, Sept. 3, 1927), reference is made to ``the zigzag line of man's descent.'' It seemed desirable, if possible, to have some graphic method of crystallising, as in a nutshell, the views of the present moment as deduced from the results attained by leading investigators in

Arthur Willey



Neurogenic Bladder  

PubMed Central

Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented. PMID:22400020

Dorsher, Peter T.; McIntosh, Peter M.



Bladder Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.



Neck pain  


Pain - neck; Neck stiffness ... this as having a stiff neck. If neck pain involves nerves, you may feel numbness, tingling, or ... A common cause of neck pain is muscle strain or tension. Usually, ... Such activities include: Bending over a desk for hours Poor ...


Complete transurethral bladder eversion 3 months after hemipelvectomy.  


A 46-year-old white female underwent a left hemipelvectomy for chondrosarcoma. She presented with total incontinence and a bulging vaginal mass. Exam confirmed complete transurethral bladder eversion that was addressed with transvaginal multilayer bladder neck closure and suprapubic tube placement. Eventually she underwent abdominal hysterectomy, mesh sacral colpopexy, and catheterizable stoma creation. Patient is continent of urine 3 months postoperatively. We present the first reported case of bladder eversion after hemipelvectomy and propose possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:19629370

Lowe, Gregory; Mandalapu, Subbarao; Gilleran, Jason



Urinary Bladder  


... Anatomy & Physiology » Urinary System » Components of the Urinary System » Urinary Bladder Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...


Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.



Intramuscular nerve distribution in bladder and the relationship between intramuscular ganglia and bladder function in man and dog  

PubMed Central

In clinical, the relationship between bladder intramuscular nerve and function is also elusive. This study aims to compare the bladder intramuscular nerve distribution and its characteristics and significance in human and dog. Eleven dogs’ bladders were stained by Sihler’s and HE techniques. Fifteen human bladders were adopted by Sihler’s staining, using 10% formaldehyde to fix 12 weeks, 7 by HE dyeing fixes 24 hours. Results indicated that man’s bladder was triangularpyramid-shaped. While dog’s bladder was spherical-shaped and its muscle fibers arrange were irregularly shaped. Longitudinal muscle of the outer layer is fleshy, the terminal is at the bladder neck without exception, and vesical trigone has relatively obvious three layers of structure. After dyeing dog’s bladder was transparent jelly, the nerve was purple color, enter bladder at the ureter-bladder junction with different forms. Man’s bladder nerves, no ganglion, were more trivial than that of dogs, and with smaller branches, the large nerve ganglion. The links with the nerve fibers and forms the network on the dog’s bladder wall, and the nerve fibers crosses comparatively little on both the left and right sides in the midline. The right nerve branch gains advantage on the man’s bladder wall, the situations is opposite on the dog’s. In conclusion, bladder nerves which scatter to the bladder wall have branches to lower ureter at the ureter-bladder junction, the structure and distribution of intramuscular nerves are different, the existence of intramuscular ganglia is relating to the bladder function both in man and dog.

Zhao, Zeju; Xu, Qian; Lu, Li; Luo, Xu; Fu, Xiaoyun



Neck Pain  


... Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Sex and Arthritis Neck Pain PRINT Download PDF Description Saying, “It’s a pain ... requires expensive or uncomfortable tests. What is neck pain? Acute strain may occur after sleeping in an ...


Consert during the Philae Descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CONSERT experiment on board Rosetta and Philae is to perform the tomography of the 67P/CG comet nucleus measuring radio waves transmission from the Rosetta S/C to the Philae Lander and using the 67P nucleus rotation to cover different geometries. CONSERT will operate during the Philae descent. This geometry strongly differs from the "nominal" bistatic tomography where the orbiter is on the opposite side of the nucleus by regard to the lander. During the descent, CONSERT will measure direct wave propagating from orbiter to lander and waves reflected / scattered by the 67P surface and subsurface. This signal will provide information of the greatest interest for both scientific investigations of 67P and technical operations of Philae. The landing site position is known a priori with a large ellipse of dispersion due to uncertainties on the Rosetta velocity and Rosetta/Philae separation strength. This dispersion is increased by the difference between nominal and emergency separation strength. An accurate estimation of the landing position as soon as possible after landing is of the greatest interest to optimize Philae operation during FSS. So propagation delay of the direct and reflected waves measured by CONSERT will help to reconstruct the descent geometry in order to more precisely estimate the landing position. The reflected signal is determined by the surface properties: its dielectric permittivity, its roughness and layering. The signal power inversion will allow to map surface properties especially in the vicinity of the landing site. This paper details the measurement configuration. It presents the data retrieval based on Monte-Carlo simulation using Metropolis-Hastings algorithm and expected performances for both science and operations.

Herique, Alain; Berquin, Yann; Blazquez, Alejandro; Antoine Foulon, Marc; Hahnel, Ronny; Hegler, Sebastian; Jurado, Eric; Kofman, Wlodek; Plettemeier, Dirk; Rogez, Yves; Statz, Christoph; Zine, Sonia



Descent theory for semiorthogonal decompositions  

SciTech Connect

We put forward a method for constructing semiorthogonal decompositions of the derived category of G-equivariant sheaves on a variety X under the assumption that the derived category of sheaves on X admits a semiorthogonal decomposition with components preserved by the action of the group G on X. This method is used to obtain semiorthogonal decompositions of equivariant derived categories for projective bundles and blow-ups with a smooth centre as well as for varieties with a full exceptional collection preserved by the group action. Our main technical tool is descent theory for derived categories. Bibliography: 12 titles.

Elagin, Alexei D



Bladder function - neurological control  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... with urine, sensory nerves send impulses to the brain indicating that the bladder is full. The sensory ... cord to relay this information. In turn, the brain sends impulses back to the bladder instructing the ...


Neck lump  


... are often caused by cysts , such as sebaceous cysts . The thyroid gland may also produce swelling, or one or ... of the head or neck Radioactive thyroid scan Thyroid biopsy If ... a noncancerous mass or cyst, you may need surgery to remove it.


Predictability of Top of Descent Location for Operational Idle-Thrust Descents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the trajectory predictor and its uncertainty models, commercial flights executed idle-thrust descents at a specified descent speed, and the recorded data included the specified descent speed profile, aircraft weight, and the winds entered into the FMS as well as the radar data. The FMS computed the intended descent path assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and the controllers and pilots then endeavored to allow the FMS to fly the descent to the meter fix with minimal human intervention. The horizontal flight path, cruise and meter fix altitudes, and actual TOD location were extracted from the radar data. Using approximately 70 descents each in Boeing 757 and Airbus 319/320 aircraft, multiple regression estimated TOD location as a linear function of the available predictive factors. The cruise and meter fix altitudes, descent speed, and wind clearly improve goodness of fit. The aircraft weight improves fit for the Airbus descents but not for the B757. Except for a few statistical outliers, the residuals have absolute value less than 5 nmi. Thus, these predictive factors adequately explain the TOD location, which indicates the data do not include excessive noise.

Stell, Laurel L.



Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy

Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer



Non-communicating multiseptate gall bladder and choledochal cyst: a case report and review of publications.  


A 14 year old girl with multiseptate gall bladder and cystic dilatation of the biliary tree is presented. This is the 20th published case report of patients with multiseptate gall bladder and only the second to be associated with a choledochal cyst. The cystic spaces of the gall bladder did not communicate with the neck of the gall bladder or the rest of the biliary tree, and this unusual feature has not been previously described. A multiseptate gall bladder with a normal biliary tree commonly causes symptoms suggestive of cholecystitis, although gall stones are seldom present. Diagnosis is confirmed by an oral cholecystogram or ultrasound scan that may show the fine intraluminal septae, and these features should be looked for in patients with biliary symptoms without biliary calculi. Cholecystectomy is curative for the isolated gall bladder anomaly but hepaticojejunostomy may be necessary for an associated choledochal cyst. PMID:8314522

Tan, C E; Howard, E R; Driver, M; Murray-Lyon, I M




E-print Network

GENERALIZED HARISH-CHANDRA DESCENT AND APPLICATIONS TO GELFAND PAIRS AVRAHAM AIZENBUD AND DMITRY of the paper we generalize a descent technique due to Harish- Chandra to the case of a reductive group acting Harish-Chandra descent 8 3.1. Generalized Harish-Chandra descent 8 3.2. A stronger version 10 4


Feature Clustering for Accelerating Parallel Coordinate Descent  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate an approach for accelerating calculation of the regularization path for L1 sparse logistic regression problems. We show the benefit of feature clustering as a preconditioning step for parallel block-greedy coordinate descent algorithms.

Scherrer, Chad; Tewari, Ambuj; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Haglin, David J.



Lunar descent using sequential engine shutdown  

E-print Network

The notion of sequential engine shutdown is introduced and its application to lunar descent is motivated. The concept calls for the utilization of multiple fixed thrust engines in place of a single continuously throttleable ...

Springmann, Philip N



Descent relations in cubic superstring field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The descent relations between string field theory (SFT) vertices are characteristic relations of the operator formulation of SFT and they provide self-consistency of this theory. The descent relations langleV2|V1rangle and langleV3|V1rangle in the NS fermionic string field theory in the ? and discrete bases are established. Different regularizations and schemes of calculations are considered and relations between them are discussed.

Aref'eva, I. Y.; Gorbachev, R.; Medvedev, P. B.; Rychkov, D. V.



Optimal spline regression utilizing steepest descent  

E-print Network

OPTIMAL SPLINE REGRESSION UTILIZING STEEPEST DESCENT A Thesis ERIC SHIRLEY FLORA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May l975 Major Sub...]ect: Mathematics OPTIMAL SPLINE REGRESSION UTILIZING STEEPEST DESCENT A Thesis ERIC SHIRLEY FLORA Approved as to style and content by; (Chai an of Committee) (Head of Department) ~' (Member) (Member ) May 1975 ABSTRACT Optimal Spline Regression Utilizing...

Flora, Eric Shirley



Management of overactive bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people are affected by urinary urgency, which can be highly bothersome. Urgency is the cornerstone symptom of overactive bladder (OAB), commonly occurring in conjunction with urinary frequency and nocturia. Once other medical causes of similar symptoms have been excluded, first-line OAB management comprises fluid intake advice and bladder training, supplemented by antimuscarinic drugs if necessary. Urodynamic confirmation of the

Dev M. Gulur; Marcus J. Drake



Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model  

SciTech Connect

The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)



[The inverted papilloma of the urinary bladder (author's transl)].  


Regarding the characteristics of the inverted papilloma of the urinary bladder a report is given on two of our own observations, and its histogenesis is discussed. Out of 41 reported cases 21 patients developed symptoms of bladder obstruction and 15 patients had macrohaematuria. With exception of two cases, all the tumors were localized in the bladder neck, they were mostly solitary and in some cases pedunculated. Microscopically they showed papillomatous structures growing inverted into the stroma with only little signs of proliferation as well as microcysts with PAS-positive material, and always they had distinct borders between epithelium and connective tissues. In 33 out of 41 cases control cytoscopy was performed between 6 months and 17 years after resection. Only one case showed recidivation of the tumor. PMID:1014969

Donhujsen, K; Leistenschneider, W



Kruppel-like factor 5 is Required for Formation and Differentiation of the Bladder Urothelium  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Kruppel-like transcription factor 5 (Klf5) was detected in the developing and mature murine bladder urothelium. Herein we report a critical role of KLF5 in the formation and terminal differentiation of the urothelium. The ShhGfpCre transgene was used to delete the Klf5floxed alleles from bladder epithelial cells causing prenatal hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and vesicoureteric reflux. The bladder urothelium failed to stratify and did not express terminal differentiation markers characteristic of basal, intermediate, and umbrella cells including keratins 20, 14, and 5, and the uroplakins. The effects of Klf5 deletion were unique to the developing bladder epithelium since maturation of the epithelium comprising the bladder neck and urethra were unaffected by the lack of KLF5. mRNA analysis identified reductions in Ppar?, Grhl3, Elf3, and Ovol1expression in Klf5 deficient fetal bladders supporting their participation in a transcriptional network regulating bladder urothelial differentiation. KLF5 regulated expression of the mGrhl3 promoter in transient transfection assays. The absence of urothelial Klf5 altered epithelial-mesenchymal signaling leading to the formation of an ectopic alpha smooth muscle actin positive layer of cells subjacent to the epithelium and a thinner detrusor muscle that was not attributable to disruption of SHH signaling, a known mediator of detrusor morphogenesis. Deletion of Klf5 from the developing bladder urothelium blocked epithelial cell differentiation, impaired bladder morphogenesis and function causing hydroureter and hydronephrosis at birth. PMID:21803035

Bell, Sheila. M.; Zhang, Liqian; Mendell, Angela; Xu, Yan; Haitchi, Hans Michael; Lessard, James L.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.



Overactive Bladder (OAB)  


... or feces. infection: A condition resulting from the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms. ions: Electrically charged ... channel through which semen is ejaculated and it extends from the bladder to the tip of the ...


Daily Bladder Diary  


... bladder diary. If you have Adobe's® Acrobat® Reader Software , you might prefer looking at the Print PDF Version (80 KB) * of the diary as the print quality will be much enhanced. Please select which page ...


Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)  


... bladder area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...


Urinary Bladder Adenocarcinoma  


... These workers include hairdressers, machinists, printers, painters, truck drivers, and those in the rubber, chemical, textile, metal ... the body, slows the cancer’s progression and reduces pain. Clinical trials of new treatments for urinary bladder ...


Endometriosis localized to urinary bladder wall mimicking urinary bladder carcinoma.  


Although endometriosis is a common disease in women of reproductive age, urinary system endometriosis is an exceedingly rare disease that may cause important clinical problems. In this paper we discussed a 42-year-old woman who had urinary bladder endometriosis misdiagnosed as urinary bladder tumor in imaging modalities. The diagnosis of endometriosis was made by histopathological examination of the operative material after partial resection of the urinary bladder. Urinary bladder endometriosis causes nonspecific signs and symptoms in many patients. In female patients presenting with unexplained urinary symptoms the differential diagnosis should include urinary bladder endometriosis that may mimic urinary bladder cancer and lead to difficulties in making definitive preoperative diagnosis. PMID:25308596

Genç, Mine; Genç, Berhan; Karaarslan, Serap; Solak, Aynur; Saraçoglu, Musa



Research study: STS-1 Orbiter Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conversion of STS-1 orbiter descent data from AVE-SESAME contact programs to the REEDA system and the reduction of raw radiosonde data is summarized. A first difference program, contact data program, plot data program, and 30 second data program were developed. Six radiosonde soundings were taken. An example of the outputs of each of the programs is presented.

Hickey, J. S.



America's Descent into Madness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes America's descent into madness under the regime of neoliberalism that has emerged in the United States since the late 1970s. In part, this is due to the emergence of a public pedagogy produced by the corporate-owned media that now saturates Americans with a market-driven value system that undermines those formative…

Giroux, Henry A.



Ka-Band Radar Terminal Descent Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The terminal descent sensor (TDS) is a radar altimeter/velocimeter that improves the accuracy of velocity sensing by more than an order of magnitude when compared to existing sensors. The TDS is designed for the safe planetary landing of payloads, and may be used in helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft requiring high-accuracy velocity sensing

Pollard, Brian; Berkun, Andrew; Tope, Michael; Andricos, Constantine; Okonek, Joseph; Lou, Yunling



The Other Bladder Syndrome: Underactive Bladder  

PubMed Central

Detrusor underactivity, or underactive bladder (UAB), is defined as a contraction of reduced strength and/or duration resulting in prolonged bladder emptying and/or a failure to achieve complete bladder emptying within a normal time span. UAB can be observed in many neurologic conditions and myogenic failure. Diabetic cystopathy is the most important and inevitable disease developing from UAB, and can occur silently and early in the disease course. Careful neurologic and urodynamic examinations are necessary for the diagnosis of UAB. Proper management is focused on prevention of upper tract damage, avoidance of overdistension, and reduction of residual urine. Scheduled voiding, double voiding, al-blockers, and intermittent self-catheterization are the typical conservative treatment options. Sacral nerve stimulation may be an effective treatment option for UAB. New concepts such as stem cell therapy and neurotrophic gene therapy are being explored. Other new agents for UAB that act on prostaglandin E2 and EP2 receptors are currently under development. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries that have a pipeline in urology and women’s health may want to consider UAB as a potential target condition. Scientific counsel and review of the current pharmaceutical portfolio may uncover agents, including those in other therapeutic fields, that may benefit the management of UAB. PMID:23671401

Miyazato, Minoru; Yoshimura, Naoki; Chancellor, Michael B



Head and Neck Cancer  


Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... increases your risk. In fact, 85 percent of head and neck cancers are linked to tobacco use, including smoking ...


Genetics Home Reference: Bladder cancer  


... with bladder cancer each year. What are the genetic changes related to bladder cancer? As with most ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...


Post-renal acute renal failure due to a huge bladder stone.  


A 63-year old male was referred to our emergency unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum renal function tests levels, blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine, were 63 mmol/L/848 ?mol/L. CT (Computarised Tomography) scan showed a huge bladder stone (5 cm x 6 cm x 5 cm) with increased bladder wall thickness. Post-renal acute renal failure due to bilateral ureterohydronephrosis was diagnosed. The huge bladder stone was considered to be the cause of ureterohydronephrosis and renal failure. The patient was catheterised and received haemodialysis immediately. He received haemodialysis four times during ten days of hospitalization and the level of serum renal function tests levels (BUN/ creatinine) decreased 18 mmol/L/123 ?mol/L. After improvement of renal function, we performed cystoscopy that demonstrated normal prostatic urethra and bladder neck and bilaterally normal ureteral orifices. Bladder wall was roughly trabeculated and Bladder outlet was completely obstructed by a huge bladder stone. After cystoscopy open, cystolithotomy was performed to remove calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate stone weighing 200 g removed. Four days after operation the patient was discharged uneventfully and urethral catheter was removed on the seventh day. Post-renal acute renal failure due to large bladder stones is rare in literature. According to the our knowledge; early diagnosis of the stone avoid growth to large size and prevent renal failure. PMID:25017601

Celik, Orcun; Suelozgen, Tufan; Budak, Salih; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem



Bladder and rectal dose of gynecologic high-dose-rate implants: comparison of orthogonal radiographic measurements with in vivo and CT-assisted measurements.  


Bladder and rectal doses were retrospectively reviewed in 281 patients who underwent implantation of 575 gynecologic iridium-192 high-dose-rate devices. Dose measurements obtained with orthogonal radiography, in vivo thermoluminescent dosimetry, and computed tomography (CT)-assisted planning were compared. Measurements of bladder dose derived from radiographs revealed a significant difference between bladder neck dose and bladder base dose (P less than .0001). In 17% of cases, the dose to the bladder base was at least double the dose to the bladder neck. The mean dose to the rectum calculated from radiographs was 85.9% (cervix) and 90.2% (vaginal vault) of the prescribed fraction dose. The correlation coefficient factor between doses determined with orthogonal radiographs and doses determined with in vivo measurements was .9694. The dose to the bladder neck and to four rectal points determined with corresponding CT images revealed a deviation of 4% and 7%, respectively. However, calculations at the rectal wall cephalic to the specified rectal points showed higher doses to the rectum, with a ratio of 1-1.6. CT-assisted calculations at the bladder base also revealed doses that were higher than those obtained with radiographs alone by a ratio of 1.4-2.2. CT-assisted dosimetry is the method of choice. PMID:1947116

Stuecklschweiger, G F; Arian-Schad, K S; Poier, E; Poschauko, J; Hackl, A



[Deep neck infections].  


Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible. PMID:17152800

Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold



Simulating Descent and Landing of a Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent, and Surface landing (DSENDS) software performs high-fidelity simulation of the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of a spacecraft into the atmosphere and onto the surface of a planet or a smaller body. DSENDS is an extension of the DShell and DARTS programs, which afford capabilities for mathematical modeling of the dynamics of a spacecraft as a whole and of its instruments, actuators, and other subsystems. DSENDS enables the modeling (including real-time simulation) of flight-train elements and all spacecraft responses during various phases of EDL. DSENDS provides high-fidelity models of the aerodynamics of entry bodies and parachutes plus supporting models of atmospheres. Terrain and real-time responses of terrain-imaging radar and lidar instruments can also be modeled. The program includes modules for simulation of guidance, navigation, hypersonic steering, and powered descent. Automated state-machine-driven model switching is used to represent spacecraft separations and reconfigurations. Models for computing landing contact and impact forces are expected to be added. DSENDS can be used as a stand-alone program or incorporated into a larger program that simulates operations in real time.

Balaram, J.; Jain, Abhinandan; Martin, Bryan; Lim, Christopher; Henriquez, David; McMahon, Elihu; Sohl, Garrett; Banerjee, Pranab; Steele, Robert; Bentley, Timothy



Bladder outlet obstruction triggers neural plasticity in sensory pathways and contributes to impaired sensitivity in erectile dysfunction.  


Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are common problems in aging males worldwide. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of bladder neck nerve damage induced by partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO) on sensory innervation of the corpus cavernosum (CC) and CC smooth muscle (CCSM) using a rat model of PBOO induced by a partial ligation of the bladder neck. Retrograde labeling technique was used to label dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that innervate the urinary bladder and CC. Contractility and relaxation of the CCSM was studied in vitro, and expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was evaluated by Western blotting. Concentration of the sensory neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide was measured by ELISA. Partial obstruction of the bladder neck caused a significant hypertrophy of the urinary bladders (2.5-fold increase at 2 wk). Analysis of L6-S2 DRG sections determined that sensory ganglia received input from both the urinary bladder and CC with 5-7% of all neurons double labeled from both organs. The contractile responses of CC muscle strips to KCl and phenylephrine were decreased after PBOO, followed by a reduced relaxation response to nitroprusside. A significant decrease in neuronal NOS expression, but not in endothelial NOS or protein kinase G (PKG-1), was detected in the CCSM of the obstructed animals. Additionally, PBOO caused some impairment to sensory nerves as evidenced by a fivefold downregulation of SP in the CC (P ? 0.001). Our results provide evidence that PBOO leads to the impairment of bladder neck afferent innervation followed by a decrease in CCSM relaxation, downregulation of nNOS expression, and reduced content of sensory neuropeptides in the CC smooth muscle. These results suggest that nerve damage in PBOO may contribute to LUTS-ED comorbidity and trigger secondary changes in the contraction/relaxation mechanisms of CCSM. PMID:23535456

Malykhina, Anna P; Lei, Qi; Chang, Shaohua; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Villamor, Antonio N; Smith, Ariana L; Seftel, Allen D



[Treatment of bladder tumors].  


The bladder tumour treatment closely depends on initial diagnosis. For superficial bladder tumour a conservative treatment is required using endoscopic resection. Adjuvant instillations (BCG or mitomycine C) can be proposed for high grade tumour. In case of muscular layer invasion or in case of frequent non controlled recurrence, cystectomy is necessary. Progress in anaesthesia, surgery and postoperative care permitted to enteroplasty to be much less morbid, it must be considered as the urinary diversion of choice. To prevent recurrence, both (superficial or infiltrating) tumour require very strict follow-up for many years. PMID:11852763

Lebret, Thierry



The Artificial Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial bladder should provide adequate urine storage, allow volitional complete evacuation of urine and preserve renal function. Moreover, its structure has to be biocompatible, resistant to urinary encrustation and tolerant to bacterial infection. Various solutions have been proposed over the years to achieve these multiple requirements. However, most of these solutions and their corresponding prototypes did not advance beyond

François Desgrandchamps; Donald P. Griffith



Bladder Surgery Codes

Bladder C670–C679 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12


Radionuclide Cystogram (Bladder Scan)  


... filter wastes from the blood and discharge these waste products in urine. The kidneys are located on either side at the level of the 12th ribs toward the back. The kidneys send urine to the bladder through tubes called ureters. radioactive: Relating to or making use of radioactive substances ...


Non-functioning paraganglioma of the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Paragangliomas are extra-adrenal tumors of the autonomic nervous system and may be found within the skull base, neck, mediastinum and periaortic region. Paragangliomas of the urinary bladder are rare, and non-functioning bladder paraganglioma is even rarer and not easily recognized. Histological examination is often key in leading to a definitive diagnosis. The current report presents a case of a 28-year-old female with urinary bladder paraganglioma. The patient presented with no classical signs and symptoms, and these were only appreciated following histological examination of a transurethral resection specimen that elucidated the correct diagnosis. In the present report, the clinical features, diagnosis, management and pathological observations of paraganglioma of the urinary bladder are discussed. PMID:24520306




Leiomyosarcoma, a Nonurothelial Bladder Tumor: A Rare Entity With Therapeutic Diversity  

PubMed Central

A 22-year-old young woman presented with dysuria and lower urinary tract symptoms that had persisted for 6 months. She was diagnosed with a tumor near the bladder neck. Transurethral resection was done under anaesthesia. The histopathological examination with immunohistochemical staining showed the tumor to be a low-grade leiomyosarcoma. Adjuvant chemoradiation was given, and the patient has been doing well for 12 months of follow-up. Nonurothelial tumors of the bladder are rare and consensus is lacking regarding their definitive treatment. Furthermore, little is known about the natural history and prognosis of this type of bladder sarcoma. We present a minimally invasive treatment for this relatively rare tumor in which bladder preservation was achieved with no evidence of local or distant recurrences during the follow-up to date. PMID:23789052

Singh, Vishwajeet; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Kumar, Vijay; Nagathan, Deepak Sharanappa; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan



Overactive bladder in males  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms is considerable in both men and women and the impact on quality of life (QOL) is equally substantial. Ironically, despite nearly equal prevalence, OAB symptoms in men are infrequently treated, and often with medical therapies aimed at bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). In this review, we examine the pathophysiology of OAB and its evaluation in the context of benign prostatic hypertrophy and concomitant BOO. We then consider the efficacy and safety of individual therapeutic options for lower urinary tract symptoms in men, focusing on the mainstays of medical therapy: ?-adrenergic blockers, 5-? reductase inhibitors, and antimuscarinic agents. Finally, we aim to comment on new therapeutic strategies and targets that may one day be available for the treatment of male OAB. PMID:21789068

Dmochowski, Roger R.; Gomelsky, Alex



Metabonomic Profiling of Bladder Cancer.  


Early diagnosis and life-long surveillance are clinically important to improve the long-term survival of bladder cancer patients. Currently, a noninvasive biomarker that is as sensitive and specific as cystoscopy in detecting bladder tumors is lacking. Metabonomics is a complementary approach for identifying perturbed metabolic pathways in bladder cancer. Significant progress has been made using modern metabonomic techniques to characterize and distinguish bladder cancer patients from control subjects, identify marker metabolites, and shed insights on the disease biology and potential therapeutic targets. With its rapid development, metabonomics has the potential to impact the clinical management of bladder cancer patients in the future by revolutionizing the diagnosis and life-long surveillance strategies and stratifying patients for diagnostic, surgical, and therapeutic clinical trials. An introduction to metabonomics, typical metabonomic workflow, and critical evaluation of metabonomic investigations in identifying biomarkers for the diagnosis of bladder cancer are presented. PMID:25388527

Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Pasikanti, Kishore Kumar; Hong, Yanjun; Ho, Paul C; Mahendran, Ratha; Raman Nee Mani, Lata; Chiong, Edmund; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan



The Fibromyalgia Bladder Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether an existing outcome measure, the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem\\u000a Index (ICSI\\/ICPI), is a valid, reliable, and clinically relevant instrument to assess the sensory urinary symptoms in women\\u000a with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). Ninety women with American College of Rheumatology 90 FM and who had at least two sensory\\u000a bladder symptoms participated

Kaye Brand; Geoffrey Littlejohn; Linda Kristjanson; Stan Wisniewski; Thomas Hassard



Questions about Neck Manipulation?  


Questions About Neck Manipulation? Chiropractic is widely recognized as one of the safest drug-free, non-invasive therapies available for the treatment of ... of chiropractic, osteopaths and physical therapists provide--neck manipulation (also known as cervical manipulation)—with a certain ...


Marriage Networks, Descent Clusters and Native Title Claims Michael Houseman  

E-print Network

1 Marriage Networks, Descent Clusters and Native Title Claims Michael Houseman (Ecole Pratique des of empirical marriage patterns, with a view to its possible relevance for Native Title. Ethnographic accounts-related marriages. Descent, the key-stone genealogical principle of the 1976 Land Rights Act, is an excellent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Chemoprevention of bladder cancer.  


The data presented herein, although highly supportive for a protective role of various nutrients against bladder cancer, are far from definitive. Many authorities question the validity of current recommendations for nutritional chemoprevention against bladder cancer. The reason for the wide variations reported in epidemiologic studies lies in the nature of observational studies. Dietary studies are limited in their conclusions because the protection afforded by the consumption of a particular nutrient may be multifactorial, with different components of the food exerting potential chemopreventive effects. Furthermore, measuring levels of nutrients in the food intake of populations is confounded by factors that might affect these levels and also the incidence of cancer. For example, vitamin A can come from animal or vegetarian sources. Because animal fat has been identified as a potential carcinogen in man, depending on the source of the vitamin, varying levels of protection might be deduced. In addition, chemoprevention studies using dietary supplements are expected to have mild effects, and large studies would be required to confirm statistical significance. Even with agents such as intravesical chemotherapy, only half the studies achieve statistical significance [29]. Prospective randomized trials with a large sample size, longer follow-up, and an extended duration of treatment are needed to clarify the association between micronutrients and cancer protection. With these caveats in mind, several recommendations can be made. Simple measures, such as drinking more fluids (especially water), can have a profound impact on the incidence of bladder cancer. Vitamins are being extensively studied in chemopreventive trials for different cancers. There is strong evidence for a chemoprotective effect of vitamin A in bladder cancer. The authors recommend 32,000 IU/day of vitamin A initially, with lower doses (24,000 IU) for persons less than 50 kg. Because liver toxicity is a possibility with long-term administration, the dose should be decreased to 16,000 IU after 3 years. High doses of beta-carotene should be avoided based on a large clinical trial reporting a 25% increase in the number of cases of prostate cancer and a statistically significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Vitamin B6 has been studied in several clinical trials in bladder cancer. The US-based Veterans Administration cooperative study found benefit for vitamin B6 when given as a single agent. Data for vitamins C and E are insufficient to recommend either agent as stand-alone treatment. Nonetheless, each of these vitamins is known to have beneficial effects, including improved function of the immune system. It is possible that only a small percentage of patients with bladder cancer respond to vitamins B6, C, or E, yet each is safe, nontoxic, and inexpensive. In an effort to pool the efficacy of individual agents and to increase the power of study, the authors evaluated the combination of vitamins A, B6, C, and E in a double-blind trial. The observed 50% 5-year reduction in tumor recurrence was highly significant and greater than would be expected for any of the individual ingredients and suggests that combinations of nutritional agents may be most appropriate. A large-volume study along similar lines is being conducted. Among the numerous other compounds and dietary substances purported to have chemopreventive effect, soybeans, garlic, and green tea stand out as having the greatest promise and can freely be recommended to patients. For synthetically synthesized agents such as celecoxib, piroxicam, or DFMO, recommendations must be deferred until the results of clinical trials are conclusively in favor of their use. Many of the dietary factors found to be protective against bladder cancer are being investigated in other cancers and are beneficial to general health. Although naturally occurring nutrients are ideal, especially because the delicate balance of various micronutrients might be impossible to synthesize in the laboratory, the general population

Kamat, Ashish M; Lamm, Donald L



Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with bladder cancer risk.  


Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 11 independent susceptibility loci associated with bladder cancer risk. To discover additional risk variants, we conducted a new GWAS of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with two independently published bladder cancer GWAS, resulting in a combined analysis of 6911 cases and 11 814 controls of European descent. TaqMan genotyping of 13 promising single nucleotide polymorphisms with P < 1 × 10(-5) was pursued in a follow-up set of 801 cases and 1307 controls. Two new loci achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs10936599 on 3q26.2 (P = 4.53 × 10(-9)) and rs907611 on 11p15.5 (P = 4.11 × 10(-8)). Two notable loci were also identified that approached genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 on 20p12.2 (P = 7.13 × 10(-7)) and rs4510656 on 6p22.3 (P = 6.98 × 10(-7)); these require further studies for confirmation. In conclusion, our study has identified new susceptibility alleles for bladder cancer risk that require fine-mapping and laboratory investigation, which could further understanding into the biological underpinnings of bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:24163127

Figueroa, Jonine D; Ye, Yuanqing; Siddiq, Afshan; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Cortessis, Victoria K; Kooperberg, Charles; Cussenot, Olivier; Benhamou, Simone; Prescott, Jennifer; Porru, Stefano; Dinney, Colin P; Malats, Núria; Baris, Dalsu; Purdue, Mark; Jacobs, Eric J; Albanes, Demetrius; Wang, Zhaoming; Deng, Xiang; Chung, Charles C; Tang, Wei; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ljungberg, Börje; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Travis, Ruth; Tjønneland, Anne; Brenan, Paul; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Riboli, Elio; Conti, David; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Stern, Mariana C; Pike, Malcolm C; Van Den Berg, David; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hohensee, Chancellor; Rodabough, Rebecca; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Roupret, Morgan; Comperat, Eva; Chen, Constance; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara; Carta, Angela; Pavanello, Sofia; Arici, Cecilia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Kamat, Ashish M; Lerner, Seth P; Barton Grossman, H; Lin, Jie; Gu, Jian; Pu, Xia; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdette, Laurie; Wheeler, William; Kogevinas, Manolis; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Johnson, Alison; Schned, Alan; Armenti, Karla R; Hosain, G M; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Ryan Diver, W; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Haiman, Chris A; Landi, Maria T; Caporaso, Neil; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Vineis, Paolo; Wu, Xifeng; Silverman, Debra T; Chanock, Stephen; Rothman, Nathaniel



Evidence for Bladder Urothelial Pathophysiology in Functional Bladder Disorders  

PubMed Central

Understanding of the role of urothelium in regulating bladder function is continuing to evolve. While the urothelium is thought to function primarily as a barrier for preventing injurious substances and microorganisms from gaining access to bladder stroma and upper urinary tract, studies indicate it may also function in cell signaling events relating to voiding function. This review highlights urothelial abnormalities in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), feline interstitial cystitis (FIC), and nonneurogenic idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). These bladder conditions are typified by lower urinary tract symptoms including urinary frequency, urgency, urgency incontinence, nocturia, and bladder discomfort or pain. Urothelial tissues and cells from affected clinical subjects and asymptomatic controls have been compared for expression of proteins and mRNA. Animal models have also been used to probe urothelial responses to injuries of the urothelium, urethra, or central nervous system, and transgenic techniques are being used to test specific urothelial abnormalities on bladder function. BPS/IC, FIC, and OAB appear to share some common pathophysiology including increased purinergic, TRPV1, and muscarinic signaling, increased urothelial permeability, and aberrant urothelial differentiation. One challenge is to determine which of several abnormally regulated signaling pathways is most important for mediating bladder dysfunction in these syndromes, with a goal of treating these conditions by targeting specific pathophysiology. PMID:24900993

Keay, Susan K.; Birder, Lori A.; Chai, Toby C.



Trimodality bladder preservation therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.  


Potentially curative treatments for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) are underused, especially in the elderly. Trimodality bladder preservation therapy, which includes a maximally safe transurethral resection of the bladder tumor, followed by concurrent chemoradiation, fulfills this currently unmet need. In multiple prospective clinical trials and large institutional series, trimodality therapy has demonstrated excellent 5-year overall survival rates of 48% to 65%, comparable to those reported in cystectomy studies. Approximately 75% to 80% of long-term survivors maintain their native bladders, which tend to function well and allow patients to maintain excellent quality of life. Salvage cystectomy for patients who develop a local invasive recurrence can be performed with acceptable operative complication rates, and results in excellent long-term disease control and survival outcomes. For patients with MIBC who are noncystectomy candidates, or select patients who are motivated to keep their native bladders, trimodality bladder preservation therapy is recognized by the International Consultation on Urological Diseases-European Association of Urology and the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Bladder Cancer as an effective alternative to radical cystectomy, and should be considered. In the future, biomarkers may allow improved selection of patients for whom trimodality bladder preservation therapy is most likely to succeed. PMID:23946174

Chen, Ronald C; Shipley, William U; Efstathiou, Jason A; Zietman, Anthony L



Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.


Distributed Control by Lagrangian Steepest Descent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Often adaptive, distributed control can be viewed as an iterated game between independent players. The coupling between the players mixed strategies, arising as the system evolves from one instant to the next, is determined by the system designer. Information theory tells us that the most likely joint strategy of the players, given a value of the expectation of the overall control objective function, is the minimizer of a function o the joint strategy. So the goal of the system designer is to speed evolution of the joint strategy to that Lagrangian mhimbhgpoint,lowerthe expectated value of the control objective function, and repeat Here we elaborate the theory of algorithms that do this using local descent procedures, and that thereby achieve efficient, adaptive, distributed control.

Wolpert, David H.; Bieniawski, Stefan



Neck dissections: radical to conservative  

PubMed Central

Background Neck dissection is an important surgical procedure for the management of metastatic nodal disease in the neck. The gold standard of neck nodal management has been the radical neck dissection. Any modification in the neck dissection is always compared with this standard. Over the last few decades, in order to alleviate the morbidity of radical neck dissection, several modifications and conservative procedures have been advocated. These procedures retain certain lymphatic or non-lymphatic structures and have been shown not to compromise oncological safety. Methods A literature search of the Medline was carried out for all articles on neck dissections. The articles were systematically reviewed to analyze and trace the evolution of neck dissection. These were then categorized to address the nomenclature, management of node positive and node negative neck including those who had received chemoradiation. Results The present article discusses the neck nodal nomenclature, the radical neck dissection, its modifications and migration to more conservative procedures and possible advances in the near future. Conclusion Radical neck dissection is now replaced with modified radical neck dissections in most situations. Attempts are being made to replace modified radical neck dissections with selective neck dissections for early node positivity. Sentinel node biopsy is being studied to address the issue of node negative neck. More conservative surgeries are likely to replace the 'radical' surgeries of bygone era. This process is facilitated by earlier detection of the disease and better understanding of cancer biology. PMID:15836786

Harish, K



Medical management of overactive bladder  

PubMed Central

Overactive bladder (OAB), as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat. PMID:20877608

Ubee, Sarvpreet S.; Manikandan, Ramaswamy; Singh, Gurpreet



Bladder shape impact on the accuracy of ultrasonic estimation of bladder volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Variations in bladder shape can lead to errors in ultrasonic estimation of the bladder volume. The purposes of this study were to compare the accuracies of various formulas to estimate bladder volume from sonographic measurements and to assess the impact of bladder shape on the accuracy of bladder volume estimation.Study design: Twenty-four healthy volunteers (13 men, 11 women) and

Liu-Ing Bih; Chi-Chung Ho; Su-Ju Tsai; Ya-Chun Lai; Willy Chow



Surface erosion caused on Mars from Viking descent engine plume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Martian landings the descent engine plumes on Viking Lander 1 (VL-1) and Viking Lander 2 (VL-2) eroded the Martian surface materials. This had been anticipated and investigated both analytically and experimentally during the design phase of the Viking spacecraft. This paper presents data on erosion obtained during the tests of the Viking descent engine and the evidence for erosion by the descent engines of VL-1 and VL-2 on Mars. From these and other results, it is concluded that there are four distinct surface materials on Mars: (1) drift materials, (2) crusty to cloddy material, (3) blocky material, and (4) rock.

Hutton, R. E.; Moore, H. J.; Scott, R. F.; Shorthill, R. W.; Spitzer, C. R.



Bladder consequences of prostatic obstruction.  


The development of new imaging techniques has improved our knowledge of the cross-sectional anatomy of the pelvis and thereby our understanding of the bladder's response to prostatic obstruction. It is now known that changes in the bladder are intimately linked to the development of irritative and obstructive symptoms of BPH. This paper illustrates the anatomical changes within the pelvic region that can develop as a consequence of prostatic enlargement. The anatomical position of the prostate is such that its enlargement inevitably affects neighbouring organs. Enlargement of the median lobe can cause irritation of the trigone and the physical trapping of urine behind the lobe. The urethra may also become mechanically obstructed leading to an increase in the detrusor muscle mass as it struggles to overcome the restriction of the bladder outlet. In time, a change in the collagen to muscle ration in favour of collagen may develop, with the consequence that bladder compliance is reduced and the ability to increase volume without increasing pressure is diminished. Thereafter one of two scenarios may develop: the 'high pressure conflict' bladder or the 'distended low pressure' bladder. Urinary disturbance in BPH therefore results from an inadequate balance between bladder contractility and urethral resistance. PMID:9218936

Mauroy, B




E-print Network

GENERALIZED HARISH-CHANDRA DESCENT, GELFAND PAIRS AND AN ARCHIMEDEAN ANALOG OF JACQUET and Eitan Sayag Abstract. In the first part of the paper we generalize a descent technique due to Harish-Chandra 3. Generalized Harish-Chandra descent 9 3.1. Generalized Harish-Chandra descent 9 3.2. A stronger


Exogenous oestrogens prevent transabdominal testicular descent in mice with complete androgen resistance (testicular feminisation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testicular descent is believed to be hormonally mediated, but the precise mechanism remains unknown. Androgens have been proposed as the main stimulus for descent, based in part on the inhibition of descent by exogenous oestrogens, which supress fetal testosterone secretion by negative feedback on the hypothalamus. To test whether testosterone secretion was causally linked to descent, fetal male mice with

John M. Hutson



Descent Stage of Mars Science Laboratory During Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from early October 2008 shows personnel working on the descent stage of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory inside the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

The descent stage will provide rocket-powered deceleration for a phase of the arrival at Mars after the phases using the heat shield and parachute. When it nears the surface, the descent stage will lower the rover on a bridle the rest of the way to the ground. The larger three of the orange spheres in the descent stage are fuel tanks. The smaller two are tanks for pressurant gas used for pushing the fuel to the rocket engines.

JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.



Ascent/descent ancillary data production user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Product, also called the A/D BET because it contains a Best Estimate of the Trajectory (BET), is a collection of trajectory, attitude, and atmospheric related parameters computed for the ascent and descent phases of each Shuttle Mission. These computations are executed shortly after the event in a post-flight environment. A collection of several routines including some stand-alone routines constitute what is called the Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Production Program. A User's Guide for that program is given. It is intended to provide the reader with all the information necessary to generate an Ascent or a Descent Ancillary Data Product. It includes descriptions of the input data and output data for each routine, and contains explicit instructions on how to run each routine. A description of the final output product is given.

Brans, H. R.; Seacord, A. W., II; Ulmer, J. W.



Paul Tseng . Sangwoon Yun A Coordinate Gradient Descent  

E-print Network

sing duality , the%$ support vector regression'& model [5 .... vergence rate analysis involves new proof ideas to handle the nonsmoothness of ?° ... cY e denote by§% the identity matrix .... The descent condition ( Q ) is similar to those used in.


14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR determined for the most critical uncontrolled descent that can result from any single failure of the heater assembly, fuel cell system, gas value system, or maneuvering vent system, or from any single tear in the balloon envelope between...



Randomized coordinate descent methods for big data optimization   

E-print Network

This thesis consists of 5 chapters. We develop new serial (Chapter 2), parallel (Chapter 3), distributed (Chapter 4) and primal-dual (Chapter 5) stochastic (randomized) coordinate descent methods, analyze their complexity ...

Takac, Martin



14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR determined for the most critical uncontrolled descent that can result from any single failure of the heater assembly, fuel cell system, gas value system, or maneuvering vent system, or from any single tear in the balloon envelope between...



14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR determined for the most critical uncontrolled descent that can result from any single failure of the heater assembly, fuel cell system, gas value system, or maneuvering vent system, or from any single tear in the balloon envelope between...



14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent. determined for the most critical uncontrolled descent that can result from any single failure of the heater assembly, fuel cell system, gas value system, or maneuvering vent system, or from any single tear in the balloon envelope between...



14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR determined for the most critical uncontrolled descent that can result from any single failure of the heater assembly, fuel cell system, gas value system, or maneuvering vent system, or from any single tear in the balloon envelope between...



Bladder Schwannoma - A Case Presentation  

PubMed Central

Bladder schwannomas are exceedingly rare, benign or malignant, nerve sheath tumors that are most often discovered in patients with a known diagnosis of Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). A few sporadic case reports of bladder schwannoma have been published in urologic, obstetric/gynecologic, and pathologic journals. However, this is the first case report in the radiologic literature where computed tomography imaging and radiology-specific descriptions are discussed. Furthermore, the patient presented in this case is only the fifth published patient without NF1 to be diagnosed with a bladder schwannoma, to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23365700

Mosier, Andrew D.; Leitman, David A.; Keylock, Joren; Nguyen, David; Grant, David



Where is the neck?  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The alpha angle is the most used measurement to classify concavity of the femoral head-neck junction. It is not only used for treatment decisions for hip impingement, but also in cohort studies relating hip morphology and osteoarthritis. Alpha angle measurement requires identification of the femoral neck axis, the definition of which may vary between studies. The original “3-point method” uses 1 single point to construct the femoral neck axis, whereas the “anatomic method” uses multiple points and attempts to define the true anatomic neck axis. Depending on the method used, the alpha angle may or may not account for other morphological characteristics such as head-neck offset. Methods We compared 2 methods of alpha angle measurement (termed “anatomic” and “3-point”) in 59 cadaver femora and 83 cross-table lateral radiographs of asymptomatic subjects. Results were compared using Bland-Altman plots. Results Discrepancies of up to 13 degrees were seen between the methods. The 3-point method had an “equalizing effect” by disregarding femoral head position relative to the neck: in femora with high alpha angle, it resulted in lower values than anatomic measurement, and vice versa in femora with low alpha angles. Using the anatomic method, we derived a reference interval for the alpha angle in normal hips in the general population of 30–66 degrees. Interpretation We recommend the anatomic method because it also reflects the position of the femoral head on the neck. Consensus and standardization of technique of alpha angle measurement is warranted, not only for planar measurements but also for CT or MRI-based measurements. PMID:24650023



Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing simulation was created over the past two years to serve as the primary Crew Exploration Vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) design and analysis tool at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) simulation is a six degree-of-freedom tool with a unique design architecture which has a high level of flexibility. This paper describes the decision history and motivations that guided the creation of this simulation tool. The capabilities of the models within ANTARES are presented in detail. Special attention is given to features of the highly flexible GN&C architecture and the details of the implemented GN&C algorithms. ANTARES provides a foundation simulation for the Orion Project that has already been successfully used for requirements analysis, system definition analysis, and preliminary GN&C design analysis. ANTARES will find useful application in engineering analysis, mission operations, crew training, avionics-in-the-loop testing, etc. This paper focuses on the entry simulation aspect of ANTARES, which is part of a bigger simulation package supporting the entire mission profile of the Orion vehicle. The unique aspects of entry GN&C design are covered, including how the simulation is being used for Monte Carlo dispersion analysis and for support of linear stability analysis. Sample simulation output from ANTARES is presented in an appendix.

Hoelscher, Brian R.



The overexpression of the insl3 in female mice causes descent of the ovaries.  


Testicular descent in mice is dependent upon proper outgrowth of the gubernaculum primordia under the influence of the insulin-like 3 gene product (Insl3). Deletion of this gene prevents gubernaculum growth and causes bilateral cryptorchidism. In vitro experiments have led to the suggestion that Insl3 and androgens together induce outgrowth of the gubernacular primordia. The experiments reported here were designed specifically to determine whether in vivo the Insl3-mediated gubernaculum development is independent of androgens. To that effect transgenic male and female mice were generated that overexpressed Insl3 in the pancreas during fetal and postnatal life. Expression of the transgenic allele in the Insl3-deficient mice rescued the cryptorchidism in male mutant, indicating that the islet beta-cells efficiently processed the Insl3 gene product to the functional hormone. All transgenic females displayed bilateral inguinal hernia. The processus vaginalis developed containing intestinal loops. The Müllerian derivatives gave rise to oviduct, uterus, and upper vagina, and Wolffian duct derivatives were missing, indicating the absence of the androgen- and anti-Müllerian hormone-mediated activities in transgenic females. The ovaries descended into a position over the bladder and attached to the abdominal wall via the well developed cranial suspensory ligament and the gubernaculum. Administration of dihydrotestosterone during prenatal development suppressed formation of the cranial suspensory ligament and thereby allowed the descent of the ovaries into the processus vaginalis. These results suggest that Insl3-mediated activity induces gubernaculum development and precludes a role of androgen in this process. Furthermore, the transgenic females exhibit reduced fertility, which is due to fetal mortality during midgestation. PMID:11818498

Adham, Ibrahim M; Steding, Gerd; Thamm, Tarvo; Büllesbach, Erika E; Schwabe, Christian; Paprotta, Ilona; Engel, Wolfgang



Design principles of descent vehicles with an inflatable braking device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of descent vehicle (DVs) is described: a descent vehicle with an inflatable braking device (IBD DV). IBD development issues, as well as materials needed for the design, manufacturing, and testing of an IBD and its thermal protection, are discussed. A list is given of Russian integrated test facilities intended for testing IBD DVs. Progress is described in the development of IBD DVs in Russia and abroad.

Alexashkin, S. N.; Pichkhadze, K. M.; Finchenko, V. S.



Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.


A New Tool for Distinguishing Muscle Invasive and Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Initial Application of Flexible Ultrasound Bronchoscope in Bladder Tumor Staging  

PubMed Central

Objectives To validate the flexible ultrasound bronchoscope (FUB) as a tool in distinguishing muscle invasive and non-muscle invasive bladder tumors. Materials and Methods From June 2010 to April 2012, 62 patients (11 female and 51 male) with 92 bladder urothelial carcinoma were treated in our study. The mean (±SD) patient age was 64.0±12.5 years old (ranged from 22 to 87). Clinical T stage was assessed by FUB at first in operating room, then immediately initial diagnostic transurethral resection (TUR) was performed. A second TUR would be done 2–4 weeks after initial TUR when the latter was incomplete (in large and multiple tumours, no muscle in the specimen) or when an exophytic high-grade and/or T1 tumour was detected. And radical cystectomy would be performed for the patients who were diagnosed with muscle-invasive tumors. FUB staging and initial TUR staging, final pathological results were compared. Results In ultrasonic images, the normal muscle layer of bladder wall could be clearly distinguished into three layers, which were hyperechogenic mucosa, hypoechogenic muscle and hyperechogenic serosal. For non-muscle invasive tumors, the muscle layers were continuous. And distorted or discontinuous muscle layers could be seen in muscle-invasive case. The overall accuracy (95.7%) and the specificity of muscle invasion detection of FUB (98.8%) were comparable to TUR (overall accuracy 90.2% and specificity 100%), but sensitivity of muscle invasion detection of FUB was significantly higher than initial TUR (72.7%VS18.2%). Moreover, the tumor's diameter could not affect the FUB's accuracy of muscle invasion detection. For tumors near the bladder neck, FUB also showed the similar validity as those far from bladder neck. Conclusions To conclude, the flexible ultrasound bronchoscope is an effective tool for muscle invasion detection of bladder tumor with ideal ultrasonic images. It is an alternative option for bladder tumor staging besides TUR. It might have the potentiality to change the bladder diagnostic strategy. PMID:24704988

Song, Qixiang; Wei, Rongchao; Yu, Yongwei; Li, Jian; Sun, Yinghao



Bladder cancer epidemiology and genetic susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary system. The incidence of bladder cancer of men is higher than that of women (approximately 4:1). Here, we summarize the bladder cancer-related risk factors, including environmental and genetic factors. In recent years, although the mortality rate induced by bladder cancer has been stable or decreased gradually, the public health effect may be pronounced. The well-established risk factors for bladder cancer are cigarette smoking and occupational exposure. Genetic factors also play important roles in the susceptibility to bladder cancer. A recent study demonstrated that hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer is associated with increased risk of bladder cancer. Since 2008, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been used to identify the susceptibility loci for bladder cancer. Further gene-gene or gene-environment interaction studies need to be conducted to provide more information for the etiology of bladder cancer. PMID:23720672

Chu, Haiyan; Wang, Meilin; Zhang, Zhengdong



Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill' (QTVR)

In late November 2005 while descending 'Husband Hill,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the most detailed panorama so far of the 'Inner Basin,' the rover's next target destination. Spirit acquired the 405 individual images that make up this 360-degree view of the surrounding terrain using five different filters on the panoramic camera. The rover took the images on Martian days, or sols, 672 to 677 (Nov. 23 to 28, 2005 -- the Thanksgiving holiday weekend).

This image is an approximately true-color rendering using camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. Seams between individual frames have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

'Home Plate,' a bright, semi-circular feature scientists hope to investigate, is harder to discern in this image than in earlier views taken from higher up the hill. Spirit acquired this more oblique view, known as the 'Seminole panorama,' from about halfway down the south flank of Husband Hill, 50 meters (164 feet) or so below the summit. Near the center of the panorama, on the horizon, are 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill,' named, like Husband Hill, in honor of the fallen astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. Husband Hill is visible behind the rover, on the right and left sides of the panorama. An arc of rover tracks made while avoiding obstacles and getting into position to examine rock outcrops can be traced over a long distance by zooming in to explore the panorama in greater detail.

Spirit is now significantly farther downhill toward the center of this panorama, en route to Home Plate and other enigmatic soils and outcrop rocks in the quest to uncover the history of Gusev Crater and the 'Columbia Hills.'



[Ganglioneuroma of the neck].  


Ganglioneuroma represents a benign neoplasia based on the sympathetic system, which should be assessed in the differential diagnosis of cervical tumefactions. The paper discusses the epidemiology and clinical aspects of this pathology and stresses the importance of taking these factors into account whenever a neoformation of the neck is diagnosed in children. PMID:2074950

Vadalà, G; Buffone, A; Calcamo, A; Mangiameli, A; Matera, R; Vadalà, V



A healthy bladder: a consensus statement  

PubMed Central

A panel of experts in urology, urogynecology, nursing, and behavioral therapy convened in 2010 to discuss the importance of a healthy bladder on overall health. They determined that a consensus statement was necessary to raise awareness among the general public, healthcare providers, payors, and policymakers, with the goals of minimizing the impact of poor bladder health and stimulating primary prevention of bladder conditions. In this statement, ‘healthy’ bladder function is described, as well as internal and external factors that influence bladder health. It is suggested that primary prevention strategies should be aimed at providing education regarding normal lower urinary tract structures and functioning to the public, including patients and healthcare providers. This education may promote the achievement of optimal bladder health by increasing healthy bladder habits and behaviors, awareness of risk factors, healthcare seeking, and clinician engagement and reducing stigma and other barriers to treatment. Promoting optimal bladder health may reduce the personal, societal and economic impact of bladder conditions, including anxiety and depression and costs associated with conditions or diseases and their treatment. While adopting healthy bladder habits and behaviors and behaviors may improve or maintain bladder health, it is important to recognize that certain symptoms may indicate the presence of conditions that require medical attention; many bladder conditions are treatable with a range of options for most bladder conditions. Lastly, the authors propose clinical directives based on persuasive and convergent research to improve and maintain bladder health. The authors hope that this statement will lead to promotion and achievement of optimal bladder health, which may improve overall health and help minimize the effects of bladder conditions on the public, healthcare professionals, educators, employers, and payors. The advisors are in consensus regarding the recommendations for improving and maintaining bladder health presented herein. PMID:21923844

Lukacz, E S; Sampselle, C; Gray, M; MacDiarmid, S; Rosenberg, M; Ellsworth, P; Palmer, M H



What I need to know about Bladder Control for WomenBladder Control for Women  

E-print Network

What I need to know about Bladder Control for WomenBladder Control for Women NATIONAL INSTITUTES and Human Services #12;#12;What I need to know about Bladder Control for Women NATIONAL INSTITUTES of bladder control Urine Leakage: A Common Health Problem for Women of All Ages

Baker, Chris I.


Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck



Renal transplantation in augmented bladders.  


Not many years ago, children with congenital abnormalities of the lower urinary tract or with bladder dysfunction were denied renal transplantation because they were considered very high-risk recipients. However, in the past few decades, we learned that in children with poorly compliant, low-capacity bladders, augmentation cystoplasty (AC) can create a compliant, low-pressure reservoir that helps preserve the kidney graft. Although the incidence of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) may be greater in pediatric transplant recipients with an AC than in those without, UTI is related more to noncompliance with clean intermittent catheterization or vesicoureteral reflux to the native kidney or graft than to the AC itself, and usually does not lead to impairment of graft function. Today, children with a bladder reconstruction may undergo transplantation with the same outcome (graft survival and function) as those with normal bladders, although there is some possibility of malignant transformation in the intestinal segment used to augment the bladder in these patients. PMID:24916328

Pereira, P López; Urrutia, M J Martínez; Lobato, R; Jaureguizar, E



Crew Procedures for Continuous Descent Arrivals Using Conventional Guidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents results from a simulation study which investigated the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures for conducting a descent through a busy terminal area, using conventional transport-category automation. This research was part of the Low Noise Flight Procedures (LNFP) element within the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project, that addressed development of flight guidance, and supporting pilot and Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures for low noise operations. The procedures and chart were designed to be easy to understand, and to make it easy for the crew to make changes via the Flight Management Computer Control-Display Unit (FMC-CDU) to accommodate changes from ATC. The test runs were intended to represent situations typical of what exists in many of today's terminal areas, including interruptions to the descent in the form of clearances issued by ATC.

Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Williams, David H.; Lewis, Elliot T,



Brachytherapy with Iridium–192 for Bladder Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Patients with invasive bladder cancer often need radical cystectomy with its implications on quality of life. Bladder preservation combining surgery and radiotherapy could maintain quality of life without compromising tumor control.Study Design: Twenty–eight selected patients with different stages of invasive bladder cancer were treated with preoperative external beam radiotherapy in a dosage depending on the tumor stage. Subsequently they

Hein Van Poppel; Yolande Lievens; Eric Van Limbergen; Luc Baert



[Bladder fibrosis caused by eosinophilic cystitis].  


A 70-years-old man with no history of allergy or genitourinary problems had bilateral hydronephrosis, a marked decrease in bladder capacity and severe eosinophilic infiltration with fibrosis of the bladder wall. A total cystoprostatectomy with ileal bladder replacement was performed. We reviewed the literature of eosinophilic cystitis for clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapeutic options. PMID:14606317

Slama, A; Khouni, H; Sriha, B; Brini, K; Ben Sorba, N; Taher Mosbah, A



Fluorescence Detection of Bladder Cancer: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective therapeutic outcome in the treatment of bladder cancer is largely defined by its early detection. In this context, big expectations have been placed on the fluorescence-guided diagnosis of bladder cancer. This paper reviews the applications of endo- and exogenous fluorescence for early diagnosis of in situ carcinoma of the bladder. Despite certain advantages of autofluorescence, exogenous fluorescence, based

Marie-Ange D’Hallewin; Lina Bezdetnaya; François Guillemin



Carcinoid tumor of the gall bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoid of the gall bladder and bile duct is a rare tumor. Primary gall bladder and billiard duct system carinoids constitute less than 1% of all carcinoid tumors arising from different parts of the body. We describe a case of carcinoid tumor of the gall bladder in a 53-year-old woman. The rarity of this entity prompted us to present our

Vasala Anjaneyulu; Gouri Shankar-Swarnalatha; Simhadri Chandra-Sekhar Rao



Flight Data Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Repository  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Daniel Winterhalter, NASA Engineering and Safety Center Chief Engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsor a 3-year effort to collect entry, descent, and landing material and to establish a NASA-wide archive to serve the material. The principle focus of this task was to identify entry, descent, and landing repository material that was at risk of being permanently lost due to damage, decay, and undocumented storage. To provide NASA-wide access to this material, a web-based digital archive was created. This document contains the outcome of the effort.

Martinez, Elmain M.; Winterhalter, Daniel



Mars Smart Lander Simulations for Entry, Descent, and Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two primary simulations have been developed and are being updated for the Mars Smart Lander Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). The high fidelity engineering end-to-end EDL simulation that is based on NASA Langley's Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) and the end-to-end real-time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation testbed, which is based on NASA JPL's (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing (DSENDS). This paper presents the status of these Mars Smart Lander EDL end-to-end simulations at this time. Various models, capabilities, as well as validation and verification for these simulations are discussed.

Striepe, S. A.; Way, D. W.; Balaram, J.



Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita



Pseudospirochaetosis of the urinary bladder.  


This report describes an elderly patient with urinary symptoms who showed surface colonisation of the transitional mucosa of the bladder by an unusual haematoxophilic microorganism superficially resembling the "blue fuzz" seen in colonic biopsies showing intestinal spirochaetosis. Special stains showed that the organisms were Gram and Giemsa positive, weakly argyrophilic, and Ziehl-Nielsen negative. Immunostains were negative for Helicobacter pylori and electron microscopy revealed curious curved bodies, which were difficult to classify. Therefore, this condition was described as pseudospirochaetosis of the urinary bladder. The urinary symptoms regressed on treatment with ciprofloxacin. The clinicopathological relevance of these findings is discussed in the report. PMID:15790716

Chitale, S; Burgess, N; Barker, T H W; Roberts, P F



Head and Neck Paragangliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Head and neck paragangliomas are rare vascular tumors of neural crest origin that arise from extra-adrenal paraganglia of\\u000a the autonomic system. The nomenclature of these tumors has been confusing throughout the literature. Most are benign tumors\\u000a and rarely display malignant features. A majority of paragangliomas are sporadic with 10–30% representing familial cases.\\u000a Most present as an asymptomatic mass in the

Matthew O. Old; James L. Netterville


A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities  

E-print Network

A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities Michael describes the problem and the choices of cost approximating mappings and merit functions. The taxonomy. Taxonomy, classification, nonlinear programs, variational inequalities, descent algo­ rithms, cost

Patriksson, Michael


A large bullet in the bladder.  


All manner of foreign bodies have been extracted from the bladder. Introduction into the bladder may be through self-insertion, iatrogenic means or migration from adjacent organs. Extraction should be tailored according to the nature of the foreign body and should minimise bladder and urethral trauma. We report a case of a bullet injury to the bladder, which finally presented as a gross hematuria after remaining asymptomatic for four years. We present here an alternative to suprapubic cystostomy with a large bladder foreign body treated via a combined transurethral unroofing followed by removal using a grasper passed through a suprapubic laparoscopic port. PMID:11407042

Halkic, N; Wisard, M; Abdelmoumene, A; Vuilleumier, H



[Relationship between insulin like hormone 3 and testicular descent and development].  


Testicular descent is an essential step in the course of reproductive system development. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of testis descent is not distinct. Gubernaculum has a very close relationship with testis descent. Maldescent of testis can cause abnormalities of genital system such as testicular underwent (cryptorchidism), dysplasia, tumor, infertility and low sexuality. Recently insulin like hormone 3 is a hotspot of concerning affecting gubernacular development and testicular descent. This article briefly reviews the advances in these aspects. PMID:16483166

Xie, Xiao-jun; Jiang, Xue-Wu



Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. PMID:21941546

Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji



Cortical network functional connectivity in the descent to sleep  

E-print Network

dreaming (7, 15, 16). REM sleep is also marked by atonia in skeletal muscles, reducing the ability stages of NREM and then REM sleep progressively disengage the self from the environment. It is now wellCortical network functional connectivity in the descent to sleep Linda J. Larson-Priora,1 , John M

Larson-Prior, Linda


Women of African Descent: Persistence in Completing Doctorates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the educational persistence of women of African descent (WOAD) in pursuit of a doctorate degree at universities in the southeastern United States. WOAD are women of African ancestry born outside the African continent. These women are heirs to an inner dogged determination and spirit to survive despite all odds (Pulliam, 2003,…

Iddrisu, Vannetta Bailey



Simulation Results for Airborne Precision Spacing along Continuous Descent Arrivals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of a fast-time simulation experiment and a high-fidelity simulator validation with merging streams of aircraft flying Continuous Descent Arrivals through generic airspace to a runway at Dallas-Ft Worth. Aircraft made small speed adjustments based on an airborne-based spacing algorithm, so as to arrive at the threshold exactly at the assigned time interval behind their Traffic-To-Follow. The 40 aircraft were initialized at different altitudes and speeds on one of four different routes, and then merged at different points and altitudes while flying Continuous Descent Arrivals. This merging and spacing using flight deck equipment and procedures to augment or implement Air Traffic Management directives is called Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing, an important subset of a larger Airborne Precision Spacing functionality. This research indicates that Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing initiated while at cruise altitude and well prior to the Terminal Radar Approach Control entry can significantly contribute to the delivery of aircraft at a specified interval to the runway threshold with a high degree of accuracy and at a reduced pilot workload. Furthermore, previously documented work has shown that using a Continuous Descent Arrival instead of a traditional step-down descent can save fuel, reduce noise, and reduce emissions. Research into Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing is a cooperative effort between government and industry partners.

Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Baxley, Brian T.



Irish descent, religion, and alcohol and tobacco use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West of Scotland has traditionally been a focus for Irish migration. Using data from two studies carried out in this region, one quantitative, the other qualitative, this paper shows little difference in drinking and smoking between Scots of Irish descent and other Scots. It does, however, show significant differences in these behaviours according to religious affiliation in adulthood. Rather




Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Consortium is collaborating on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer among this population. These investigators are interested in understanding the complex multifactorial causes of prostate cancer etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry worldwide.


Learning by Online Gradient Descent Michael Biehl \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Learning by Online Gradient Descent Michael Biehl \\Lambda CONNECT, The Niels Bohr Institute architecture. For this model the generalization error decays exponentially with the number of training examples model in this context is the so--called simple perceptron, a single binary threshold unit which realizes

Lunds Universitet,


Determining the Environmental Benefits of Implementing Continuous Descent Arrival Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several research and development efforts to date have been aimed at demonstrating that Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures have the potential for significant environmental benefits including reductions in noise, emissions, and fuel burn. The benefits evaluation portion of these efforts typically involves evaluating small numbers of CDA flights under idealized flight test conditions. This paper focuses on the development and

Eric P. Dinges


Elderhostels: Teaching and Learning with Americans of German Descent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three workshops designed for an Elderhostel program whose audience is largely Americans of German descent and the grandparents of today's students. The workshop topics include an introduction to the German-American experience and German-American studies; German American customs, beliefs, and traditions; and German-American genealogy,…

Reichmann, Eberhard; Reichmann, Ruth M.



Monocular Hand Pose Estimation Using Variable Metric Gradient-Descent  

E-print Network

Monocular Hand Pose Estimation Using Variable Metric Gradient-Descent Martin de La Gorce -,nikos.paragios} Abstract In this paper, we propose a novel model-based approach to recover 3D hand pose from 2D images through a compact articulated 3D hand model whose parameters are inferred in a Bayesian manner

Paragios, Nikos


Settling descent: place making and genealogy in Talas, Kyrgyzstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how the inhabitants of two villages in northern Kyrgyzstan relate to one another and to their environment in terms of both place and genealogy. By performing relatedness, people make claims upon a physical landscape, while their relationships are simultaneously shaped by perceptions of the particular place they live in. The term ‘settling descent’ evokes this dialectic, in

Judith Beyer



The Challenge of Mars EDL (Entry, Descent, and Landing)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the some of the challenges of Martian atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) on the surface of Mars. It reviews some of the technological difficulties, and some solutions that are being developed for future unmanned missions with larger payloads than previous landers, and ultimately human spacecraft landing.

Sostaric, Ronald



Reference Airspeed Setting For Time Constrained Descent at Idle Thrust  

E-print Network

Nationale de l'Aviation Civile, Toulouse, France This paper addresses the issue of computing a reference and efficiency have become the two very important aspects in aviation industry after safety. Continuous Descent the arrival sequence and could be given for example through an Arrival Manager (AMAN). In addition

Boyer, Edmond


Role of fractional crystallization in the descent: Basalt ? trachyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of fractional crystallization in the descent: basalt ? trachyte is critically examined. For each “simple basalt” magma type — alkaline, critically undersaturated, and oversaturated — there is a possible trachyte derived by way of fractional crystallization. Olivine removal is the main physical control that may interfere with trachytic trends at low pressure. Higher pressures widen the field of

Amalbikash Mukherjee



Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.  


The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent. PMID:24636222

Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M



Developmental biomechanics of neck musculature  

PubMed Central

Neck mechanics is central to head injury prevention since it is the musculoskeletal neck, which dictates the position and movement of the head. In the US, traumatic injury is the leading cause of death for children; however prevention is hampered by the lack of data concerning the mechanics of the immature head-and-neck. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify neck muscle strength and endurance across the maturation spectrum and correlate these with head-and-neck anthropometry. A factorial study was performed on 91 human subjects measuring head-and-neck anthropometry and neck strength and endurance in three bending directions (flexion, extension, and lateral) as a function of age (6–23 years). Using a custom device, neck maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force was measured in triplicate. Next, neck muscle endurance (sustained effort) was measured as the subjects’ ability to maintain 70% of peak force over 30 s. Linear regression of peak force and endurance as a function of age revealed each direction to significantly (p<0.0001) increase with age. The MVC force, averaged across all directions and normalized to the adult values, exhibits the following maturation curve: %MVC Force= ?0.0879(age)2+6.018(age)+8.120. Neck muscle strength, similar between young males and females, becomes disparate in adolescence and adulthood with males exhibiting greater strength. Bending direction differences were also found with extension strength being the greatest regardless of age and sex. Furthermore, neck circumference appears predictive of neck strength and endurance in children. Together, these relationships may facilitate improved design of injury prevention interventions. PMID:23127787

Lavallee, Amy V.; Ching, Randal P.; Nuckley, David J.



Ultrasonic lithotripsy of bladder stones.  


In the second half of 1985, 15 patients with 25 bladder stones were treated with Lutzeyer's Ultrasonic Lithotriptor. Of the patients 13 underwent additional operations, mostly transurethral resection of the prostate. The average duration of lithotripsy was 30.5 minutes. Some difficulties were experienced especially when drilling hard stones and as a complication late urethral bleeding occurred in one patient. PMID:3170106

Cetin, S; Ozgür, S; Yazicio?lu, A; Unsal, K; Ilker, Y



Characterization of Texture Features of Bladder Carcinoma and the Bladder Wall on MRI  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine textural features that show a significant difference between carcinomatous tissue and the bladder wall on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and explore the feasibility of using them to differentiate malignancy from the normal bladder wall as an initial step for establishing MRI as a screening modality for the noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer. Materials and Methods Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually placed on foci of bladder cancer and uninvolved bladder wall in 22 patients and on the normal bladder wall of 23 volunteers to calculate 40 known textural features. Statistical analysis was applied to determine the difference in these features in bladder cancer versus uninvolved bladder wall versus normal bladder wall of volunteers. The significantly different features were then analyzed using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to determine their accuracy in differentiating malignancy from the bladder wall. Results Thirty-three of 40 features show significant differences between bladder cancer and the bladder wall. Nine of 40 features were significantly different in uninvolved bladder wall of patients versus normal bladder wall of volunteers. Further study indicates that seven of these 33 features were significantly different between uninvolved bladder wall of patients with early cancer and that of volunteers, whereas 15 of 33 features were different between that of patients with advanced cancer and normal wall. With the testing dataset consisting of ROIs acquired from patients, the classification accuracy using 33 textural features fed into the SVM classifier was 86.97%. Conclusion The initial experience demonstrates that texture features are sensitive to reveal the differences between bladder cancer and the bladder wall on MRI. The different features can be used to develop a computer-aided system for the evaluation of the entire bladder wall. PMID:23830600

Shi, Zhengxing; Yang, Zengyue; Zhang, Guopeng; Cui, Guangbin; Xiong, Xiaoshuang; Liang, Zhengrong; Lu, Hongbing



A multi-stage genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies multiple susceptibility loci  

PubMed Central

We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 589,299 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,532 cases and 5,120 controls of European descent (5 studies) followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,381 cases and 48,275 controls (16 studies). In a combined analysis, we identified three new regions associated with bladder cancer on chromosomes 22q13.1, 19q12 and 2q37.1; rs1014971, (P=8×10?12) maps to a non-genic region of chromosome 22q13.1; rs8102137 (P=2×10?11) on 19q12 maps to CCNE1; and rs11892031 (P=1×10?7) maps to the UGT1A cluster on 2q37.1. We confirmed four previous GWAS associations on chromosomes 3q28, 4p16.3, 8q24.21 and 8q24.3, validated previous candidate associations for the GSTM1 deletion (P=4×10?11) and a tag SNP for NAT2 acetylation status (P=4×10?11), as well as demonstrated smoking interactions with both regions. Our findings on common variants associated with bladder cancer risk should provide new insights into mechanisms of carcinogenesis. PMID:20972438

Rothman, Nathaniel; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Malats, Nuria; Wu, Xifeng; Figueroa, Jonine; Real, Francisco X; Van Den Berg, David; Matullo, Giuseppe; Baris, Dalsu; Thun, Michael; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vineis, Paolo; De Vivo, Immaculata; Albanes, Demetrius; Purdue, Mark P; Rafnar, Thorunn; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Kiltie, Anne E; Cussenot, Olivier; Golka, Klaus; Kumar, Rajiv; Taylor, Jack A; Mayordomo, Jose I; Jacobs, Kevin B; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Zhaoming; Fu, Yi-Ping; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Burdette, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Wheeler, William; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Schned, Alan; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Jacobs, Eric J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Cortessis, Victoria K; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Pike, Malcolm C; Stern, Mariana C; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hunter, David; McGrath, Monica; Dinney, Colin P; Czerniak, Bogdan; Chen, Meng; Yang, Hushan; Vermeulen, Sita H; Aben, Katja K; Witjes, J Alfred; Makkinje, Remco R; Sulem, Patrick; Besenbacher, Soren; Stefansson, Kari; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul; Panico, Salvatore; Navarro, Carmen; Allen, Naomi E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria Teresa; Canzian, Federico; Ljungberg, Borje; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Bishop, David T; Teo, Mark T W; Knowles, Margaret A; Guarrera, Simonetta; Polidoro, Silvia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Allione, Alessandra; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Dietrich, Holger; Fletcher, Tony; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugen; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Bolick, Sophia C E; Godfrey, Ashley; Xu, Zongli; Sanz-Velez, José I; García-Prats, María D; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Porru, Stefano; Benhamou, Simone; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Silverman, Debra T; Chanock, Stephen J



A multi-stage genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies multiple susceptibility loci.  


We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 591,637 SNPs in 3,532 affected individuals (cases) and 5,120 controls of European descent from five studies followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,382 cases and 48,275 controls from 16 studies. In a combined analysis, we identified three new regions associated with bladder cancer on chromosomes 22q13.1, 19q12 and 2q37.1: rs1014971, (P = 8 × 10?¹²) maps to a non-genic region of chromosome 22q13.1, rs8102137 (P = 2 × 10?¹¹) on 19q12 maps to CCNE1 and rs11892031 (P = 1 × 10??) maps to the UGT1A cluster on 2q37.1. We confirmed four previously identified genome-wide associations on chromosomes 3q28, 4p16.3, 8q24.21 and 8q24.3, validated previous candidate associations for the GSTM1 deletion (P = 4 × 10?¹¹) and a tag SNP for NAT2 acetylation status (P = 4 × 10?¹¹), and found interactions with smoking in both regions. Our findings on common variants associated with bladder cancer risk should provide new insights into the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. PMID:20972438

Rothman, Nathaniel; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Malats, Nuria; Wu, Xifeng; Figueroa, Jonine D; Real, Francisco X; Van Den Berg, David; Matullo, Giuseppe; Baris, Dalsu; Thun, Michael; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vineis, Paolo; De Vivo, Immaculata; Albanes, Demetrius; Purdue, Mark P; Rafnar, Thorunn; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Kiltie, Anne E; Cussenot, Olivier; Golka, Klaus; Kumar, Rajiv; Taylor, Jack A; Mayordomo, Jose I; Jacobs, Kevin B; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Zhaoming; Fu, Yi-Ping; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Wheeler, William; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Schned, Alan; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Jacobs, Eric J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Cortessis, Victoria K; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Pike, Malcolm C; Stern, Mariana C; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hunter, David J; McGrath, Monica; Dinney, Colin P; Czerniak, Bogdan; Chen, Meng; Yang, Hushan; Vermeulen, Sita H; Aben, Katja K; Witjes, J Alfred; Makkinje, Remco R; Sulem, Patrick; Besenbacher, Soren; Stefansson, Kari; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul; Panico, Salvatore; Navarro, Carmen; Allen, Naomi E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria Teresa; Canzian, Federico; Ljungberg, Borje; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Bishop, David T; Teo, Mark T W; Knowles, Margaret A; Guarrera, Simonetta; Polidoro, Silvia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Allione, Alessandra; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Dietrich, Holger; Fletcher, Tony; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugen; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Bolick, Sophia C E; Godfrey, Ashley; Xu, Zongli; Sanz-Velez, José I; D García-Prats, María; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Porru, Stefano; Benhamou, Simone; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Silverman, Debra T; Chanock, Stephen J



Exogenous glycosaminoglycans coat damaged bladder surfaces in experimentally damaged mouse bladder  

PubMed Central

Background Interstital cystitis is often treated with exogenous glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, chondroitin sulphate (Uracyst), hyaluronate (Cystistat) or the semi-synthetic pentosan polysulphate (Elmiron). The mechanism of action is presumed to be due to a coating of the bladder surface to replace the normally present chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate lost as a result of the disease. This study used fluorescent labelled chondroitin sulphate to track the distribution of glycosaminoglycans administered intravesically to mouse bladder that had been damaged on the surface. Methods The surfaces of mouse bladders were damaged by 3 mechanisms – trypsin, 10 mM HCl, and protamine sulphate. Texas Red-labeled chondroitin sulphate was instilled into the bladders of animals with damaged bladders and controls instilled only with saline. Bladders were harvested, frozen, and sectioned for examination by fluorescence. Results The normal mouse bladder bound a very thin layer of the labelled chondroitin sulphate on the luminal surface. Trypsin- and HCl-damaged bladders bound the labelled chondroitin sulphate extensively on the surface with little penetration into the bladder muscle. Protamine produced less overt damage, and much less labelling was seen, presumably due to loss of the label as it complexed with the protamine intercalated into the bladder surface. Conclusion Glycosaminoglycan administered intravesically does bind to damaged bladder. Given that the changes seen following bladder damage resemble those seen naturally in interstitial cystitis, the mechanisms proposed for the action of these agents is consistent with a coating of damaged bladder. PMID:15788101

Kyker, Kimberly D; Coffman, Jean; Hurst, Robert E



Analysis of various descent trajectories for a hypersonic-cruise, cold-wall research airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The probable descent operating conditions for a hypersonic air-breathing research airplane were examined. Descents selected were cruise angle of attack, high dynamic pressure, high lift coefficient, turns, and descents with drag brakes. The descents were parametrically exercised and compared from the standpoint of cold-wall (367 K) aircraft heat load. The descent parameters compared were total heat load, peak heating rate, time to landing, time to end of heat pulse, and range. Trends in total heat load as a function of cruise Mach number, cruise dynamic pressure, angle-of-attack limitation, pull-up g-load, heading angle, and drag-brake size are presented.

Lawing, P. L.



Head & Neck Cancer Care Program  

E-print Network

OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER PROGRAM THYROID AND PARATHYROID PROGRAM · Alexander Colevas, MD · Vasu Divi, MD · ChrisHead & Neck Cancer Care Program NONPROFITORG. U.S.POSTAGE PAID PALOALTO,CA PERMITNO.188900BlakeWilburDrive PaloAlto,CA94304 Starting February 24, 2014, the Head & Neck Cancer Care Program is moving to a new

Bogyo, Matthew


Ultrasonic estimation of bladder weight as a measure of bladder hypertrophy in men with infravesical obstruction: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonic estimation of bladder weight as a measure of bladder hypertrophy using transabdominal ultrasonography in men with infravesical obstruction. Ultrasonically estimated bladder weight (UEBW) was calculated from the thickness of the bladder wall measured ultrasonically and the intravesical volume at the ultrasonic measurement, assuming a spheric bladder. There

Munekado Kojima; Emi Inui; Atsush Ochiai; Yoshio Naya; Osamu Ukimura; Hiroki Watanabe



Fetal Bladder Wall Regeneration with a Collagen Biomatrix and Histological Evaluation of Bladder Exstrophy in a Fetal Sheep Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate histological changes in an animal model for bladder exstrophy and fetal repair of the bladder defect with a molecular-defined dual-layer collagen biomatrix to induce fetal bladder wall regeneration. Methods: In 12 fetal lambs the abdominal wall and bladder were opened by a midline incision at 79 days’ gestation. In 6 of these lambs an uncorrected bladder exstrophy

Luc A. J. Roelofs; Alex J. Eggink; Christina A. Hulsbergen-van de Kaa; Rene M. H. Wijnen; Toin H. van Kuppevelt; Herman T. B. van Moerkerk; A. Jane Crevels; Alex Hanssen; Fred K. Lotgering; Paul P. van den Berg; Wout F. J. Feitz



Flight Management System Execution of Idle-Thrust Descents in Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the trajectory predictor and its error models, commercial flights executed idle-thrust descents, and the recorded data includes the target speed profile and FMS intent trajectories. The FMS computes the intended descent path assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and any intervention by the controllers that alters the FMS execution of the descent is recorded so that such flights are discarded from the analysis. The horizontal flight path, cruise and meter fix altitudes, and actual TOD location are extracted from the radar data. Using more than 60 descents in Boeing 777 aircraft, the actual speeds are compared to the intended descent speed profile. In addition, three aspects of the accuracy of the FMS intent trajectory are analyzed: the meter fix crossing time, the TOD location, and the altitude at the meter fix. The actual TOD location is within 5 nmi of the intent location for over 95% of the descents. Roughly 90% of the time, the airspeed is within 0.01 of the target Mach number and within 10 KCAS of the target descent CAS, but the meter fix crossing time is only within 50 sec of the time computed by the FMS. Overall, the aircraft seem to be executing the descents as intended by the designers of the onboard automation.

Stell, Laurel L.



Genetic variations rs11892031 and rs401681 are associated with bladder cancer risk in a Chinese population.  


Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of genetic variants associated with risk of bladder cancer in populations of European descent. Here, we assessed association of two of these variants, rs11892031 (2q37.1 region) and rs401681 (5p15.33 region) in a Chinese case-control study, which included 367 bladder cancer cases and 420 controls. We found that the AC genotype of rs11892031 was associated with remarkably decreased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09-0.81; p=0.019), compared with the AA genotype of rs11892031; and that CT/CC genotypes of rs401681 were associated with significantly increased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.10-2.91; p=0.02), compared with the TT genotype of rs401681. We further conducted stratification analysis to examine the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11892031/rs401681 and tumor grade/stage. Results showed that heterogeneity in ORs of tumor categories was not significant for either rs11892031 or rs401681 (p>0.05), indicating that the two SNPs seemingly do not associate with tumor grade and stage of bladder cancer in our study population. The present study suggests that the SNPs rs11892031 and rs401681 are associated with bladder cancer risk in a Chinese population. Future analyses will be conducted with more participants recruited in a case-control study. PMID:25347272

Zhang, Yu; Sun, Yan; Chen, Tao; Hu, Hailong; Xie, Wanqin; Qiao, Zhihui; Ding, Na; Xie, Linguo; Li, Sheng; Wang, Wenlong; Xing, Chen; Wang, Yihan; Qie, Yunkai; Wu, Changli



Pharmacologic management of overactive bladder  

PubMed Central

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a prevalent and costly condition that can affect any age group. Typical symptoms include urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence and nocturia. OAB occurs as a result of abnormal contractions of the bladder detrusor muscle caused by the stimulation of certain muscarinic receptors. Therefore, antimuscarinic agents have long been considered the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for OAB. Currently, there are five such agents approved for the management of OAB in the United States: oxybutynin, tolterodine, trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin. This article summarizes the efficacy, contraindications, precautions, dosing and common side effects of these agents. All available clinical trials on trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin were reviewed to determine its place in therapy. PMID:18044184

Lam, Sum; Hilas, Olga



Is Bladder Tumor Location Associated with Prostate Cancer Detection after Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Instillation?  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bladder tumor (BT) location on prostate cancer (PCa) detection in patients with elevated PSA levels after intravesical BCG instillation. Methods Between February 2004 and January 2013 prostate biopsies were performed in 59 non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients whose PSA level were elevated (?3 ng/ml) after a 6 week course of intravesical BCG (Oncotice, 12.5 mg in 50 ml normal saline). Differences in PCa detection according to the BT location [bladder neck and/or trigone (Group 1, n?=?22) vs. other locations (Group 2, n?=?37)] were evaluated. The Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to evaluate the association between categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results A total of 14 patients (23.7%) were diagnosed with PCa. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) PSA before intravesical BCG instillation and prostate biopsy were 1.36±1.04 ng/ml in Group 1 and 1.09±1.12 ng/ml in Group 2 (P?=?0.633), and 6.05±3.57 ng/ml in Group 1 and 5.13±3.88 ng/ml in Group 2 (P?=?0.378), respectively. Interestingly, whereas PCa was detected upon biopsy in only one patient in Group 1 (4.5%), 13 cases were detected in Group 2 (35.1%) (P?=?0.009). Conclusions PCa detection after intravesical BCG was highly associated with BT location. Prostate biopsy should therefore be considered when PSA level is elevated after BCG instillation and his BT is located far from the bladder neck. PMID:25072158

Hong, Sungwoo; Kim, Seong-Cheol; Kwon, Taekmin; Jeong, In Gab; Kim, Choung-Soo; Ahn, Hanjong; Hong, Jun Hyuk



Efficient Sensor Placement Optimization Using Gradient Descent and Probabilistic Coverage  

PubMed Central

We are proposing an adaptation of the gradient descent method to optimize the position and orientation of sensors for the sensor placement problem. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the combination of gradient descent optimization with a realistic model, which considers both the topography of the environment and a set of sensors with directional probabilistic sensing. The performance of this approach is compared with two other black box optimization methods over area coverage and processing time. Results show that our proposed method produces competitive results on smaller maps and superior results on larger maps, while requiring much less computation than the other optimization methods to which it has been compared. PMID:25196164

Akbarzadeh, Vahab; Lévesque, Julien-Charles; Gagné, Christian; Parizeau, Marc



Helicopter optimal descent and landing after power loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal control solution is obtained for the descent and landing of a helicopter after the loss of power in level flight. The model considers the helicopter vertical velocity, horizontal velocity, and rotor speed; and it includes representations of ground effect, rotor inflow time lag, pilot reaction time, rotor stall, and the induced velocity curve in the vortex ring state. The control (rotor thrust magnitude and direction) required to minimize the vertical and horizontal velocity at contact with the ground is obtained using nonlinear optimal control theory. It is found that the optimal descent after power loss in hover is a purely vertical flight path. Good correlation, even quantitatively, is found between the calculations and (non-optimal) flight test results.

Johnson, W.



A conjugate gradient method with descent direction for unconstrained optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified conjugate gradient method is presented for solving unconstrained optimization problems, which possesses the following properties: (i) The sufficient descent property is satisfied without any line search; (ii) The search direction will be in a trust region automatically; (iii) The Zoutendijk condition holds for the Wolfe-Powell line search technique; (iv) This method inherits an important property of the well-known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) method: the tendency to turn towards the steepest descent direction if a small step is generated away from the solution, preventing a sequence of tiny steps from happening. The global convergence and the linearly convergent rate of the given method are established. Numerical results show that this method is interesting.

Yuan, Gonglin; Lu, Xiwen; Wei, Zengxin



Scaling Up Coordinate Descent Algorithms for Large ?1 Regularization Problems  

SciTech Connect

We present a generic framework for parallel coordinate descent (CD) algorithms that has as special cases the original sequential algorithms of Cyclic CD and Stochastic CD, as well as the recent parallel Shotgun algorithm of Bradley et al. We introduce two novel parallel algorithms that are also special cases---Thread-Greedy CD and Coloring-Based CD---and give performance measurements for an OpenMP implementation of these.

Scherrer, Chad; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tewari, Ambuj; Haglin, David J.



Dynamic MR colpocystorectography assessing pelvic-floor descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Magnetic resonance colpocystorectography (MR-CCRG) is presented in the evaluation of patients with pelvic-floor disorders.\\u000a Five healthy volunteers and 44 female patients with isolated or combined visceral descent underwent dynamic MRI and dynamic\\u000a fluoroscopy (DF). MR-CCRG was performed with the patient in a supine position using a True FISP sequence (1 image\\/1.2 s; in-plane\\u000a resolution 1.02 mm) during pelvic floor

A. Lienemann; C. Anthuber; A. Baron; P. Kohz; M. Reiser



Directed Aerial Descent Behavior in African Canopy Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of neotropical ants direct their aerial descent toward tree trunks during a fall from the forest canopy. The\\u000a primary goal of this study was to determine if afrotropical arboreal ants exhibit similar gliding behavior. Ants were collected\\u000a from nine tree crowns in late secondary forest at a hydrocarbon extraction site near Gamba, Gabon. Of the 32 species tested,

S. P. Yanoviak; B. L. Fisher; A. Alonso



Environmental effects on hormonal regulation of testicular descent.  


Regulation of testicular descent is hormonally regulated, but the reasons for maldescent remain unknown in most cases. The main regulatory hormones are Leydig cell-derived testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3). Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the secretion of these hormones, but the secretory responses to LH are different: INSL3 secretion increases slowly and may reflect the LH dependent differentiated status of Leydig cells, whereas testosterone response to LH is immediate. Testosterone contributes to the involution of the suspensory ligament and to the inguinoscrotal phase of the descent, while INSL3 acts mainly in transabdominal descent by stimulating the growth of the gubernaculum. INSL3 acts through a G-protein coupled receptor LGR8. In the absence of either INSL3 or LGR8 mice remain cryptorchid. In humans only few INSL3 mutations have been described, whereas LGR8 mutations may cause some cases of undescended testis. Similarly, androgen insensitivity or androgen deficiency can cause cryptorchidism. Estrogens have been shown to down regulate INSL3 and thereby cause maldescent. Thus, a reduced androgen-estrogen ratio may disturb testicular descent. Environmental effects changing the ratio can thereby influence cryptorchidism rate. Estrogens and anti-androgens cause cryptorchidism in experimental animals. In our cohort study we found higher LH/testosterone ratios in 3-month-old cryptorchid boys than in normal control boys, suggesting that cryptorchid testes are not cabable of normal hormone secretion without increased gonadotropin drive. This may be either the cause or consequence of cryptorchidism. Some phthalates act as anti-androgens and cause cryptorchidism in rodents. In our human material we found an association of a high phthalate exposure with a high LH/testosterone ratio. We hypothesize that an exposure to a mixture of chemicals with anti-androgenic or estrogenic properties (either their own activity or their effect on androgen-estrogen ratio) may be involved in cryptorchidism. PMID:17049842

Toppari, J; Virtanen, H; Skakkebaek, N E; Main, K M



A Variable Neighbourhood Descent Algorithm for the Redundancy Allocation Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first known application of a meta-heuristic algorithm, variable neighbour- hood descent (VND), to the redundancy allocation problem (RAP). The RAP, a well-known NP-hard problem, has been the subject of much prior work, generally in a restricted form where each subsystem must consist of identical components. The newer meta-heuristic methods overcome this limitation and offer a practical

Yun-Chia Liang; Chia-Chuan Wu


Lunar Surface Access Module Descent Engine Turbopump Technology: Detailed Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new lunar exploration architecture. Studies indicate that a 4-engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a candidate configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The lander descent engine will be required to perform multiple burns including the powered descent onto the lunar surface. In order to achieve the wide range of thrust required, the engines must be capable of throttling approximately 10:1. Working under internal research and development funding, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been conducting the development of a 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 lunar lander descent engine technology testbed. This paper highlights the detailed design and analysis efforts to develop the lander engine Fuel Turbopump (FTP) whose operating speeds range from 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm. The capability of the FTP to operate across this wide range of speeds imposes several structural and dynamic challenges, and the small size of the FTP creates scaling and manufacturing challenges that are also addressed in this paper.

Alvarez, Erika; Forbes, John C.; Thornton, Randall J.



Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children of Middle Eastern Descent  

PubMed Central

Increasing rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are now seen in populations where it was once uncommon. The pattern of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent in Australia has never been reported. This study aimed to investigate the burden of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent at the Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCHR). The SCHR IBD database was used to identify patients of self-reported Middle Eastern ethnicity diagnosed between 1987 and 2011. Demographic, diagnosis, and management data was collected for all Middle Eastern children and an age and gender matched non-Middle Eastern IBD control group. Twenty-four patients of Middle Eastern descent were identified. Middle Eastern Crohn's disease patients had higher disease activity at diagnosis, higher use of thiopurines, and less restricted colonic disease than controls. Although there were limitations with this dataset, we estimated a higher prevalence of IBD in Middle Eastern children and they had a different disease phenotype and behavior compared to the control group, with less disease restricted to the colon and likely a more active disease course. PMID:24987422

Naidoo, Christina Mai Ying; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.



Biomechanical Analysis of Stair Descent in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purposes of this study were to investigate the lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics of patients with the knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) during stair descent and clarify the biomechanical factors related to their difficulty in stair descent. [Subjects and Methods] Eight healthy elderly persons and four knee OA patients participated in this study. A 3-D motion analysis system and force plates were employed to measure lower extremity joint angles, ranges of motion, joint moments, joint powers, and ratios of contribution for the joint powers while descending stairs. [Results] Knee joint flexion angle, extension moment, and negative power during the early stance phase in the knee OA group were smaller than those in the healthy subjects group. However, no significant changes in these parameters in the ankle joint were observed between the two subject groups. [Conclusion] Knee OA patients could not use the knee joint to absorb impact during the early stance phase of stair descent. Hence, they might compensate for the roles played by the intact knee joint by mainly using ipsilateral ankle kinematics and kinetics. PMID:24926119

Igawa, Tatsuya; Katsuhira, Junji



Hormonal control of testicular descent and the cause of cryptorchidism.  


This paper briefly reviews the literature on testicular descent and presents new observations from the authors' laboratory which suggest new ways of looking at old problems. There is now good evidence that testicular descent occurs in two morphologically and hormonally distinct phases. Relative 'transabdominal migration' of the testis compared with the ovary occurs at 10-15 weeks of gestation in the human and 'inguinoscrotal' migration occurs at 26-35 weeks of gestation. We have proposed previously that the first phase is controlled by Müllerian inhibiting substance although this remains controversial. The second phase is androgen dependent and is possibly mediated indirectly through the release from the genitofemoral nerve (GFN) of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Recently we have used three different rodent models of undescended testis to determine the involvement of the GNF and/or CGRP. The testicular feminization mouse with complete androgen resistance and the rat exposed prenatally to the antiandrogen flutamide have a deficiency of CGRP in the GFN. In contrast, the mutant trans-scrotal rat which has normal androgen levels has an excess of CGRP in the GFN. All cryptorchidism models, despite their different primary cause, have in common an abnormality of the GNF and/or CGRP which is consistent with the hypothesis that normal testicular descent in the rodent may be mediated by the GFN. PMID:7991782

Hutson, J M; Baker, M; Terada, M; Zhou, B; Paxton, G



Airborne Management of Traffic Conflicts in Descent With Arrival Constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying far-term air traffic management concepts that may increase operational efficiency through a redistribution of decisionmaking authority among airborne and ground-based elements of the air transportation system. One component of this research, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows trained pilots of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for traffic separation. Ground-based air traffic controllers would continue to separate traffic unequipped for autonomous operations and would issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To evaluate En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a human-in-the-loop experiment was jointly conducted by the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. In this experiment, test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve conflicts in cruise and descent, and to adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by test subject controllers. Simulators at NASA Langley were equipped with a prototype Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) flight deck toolset to assist pilots with conflict management and constraint compliance tasks. Results from the experiment are presented, focusing specifically on operations during the initial descent into the terminal area. Airborne conflict resolution performance in descent, conformance to traffic flow management constraints, and the effects of conflicting traffic on constraint conformance are all presented. Subjective data from subject pilots are also presented, showing perceived levels of workload, safety, and acceptability of autonomous arrival operations. Finally, potential AOP functionality enhancements are discussed along with suggestions to improve arrival procedures.

Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik



Comparison of linear cephalometric dimensions in Americans of European descent (Ann Arbor, Cleveland, Philadelphia) and Americans of African descent (Nashville).  


Eleven dimensions, extracted from four commercially available cephalometric atlases were compared. Three populations were American of European descent and one was American of African descent. The source data were carefully corrected for linear enlargement. The confounding effect of linear radiographic enlargement is exemplified by depicting the often-used distance, sella-nasion, before and after correction. Total face height was smallest in the Cleveland population and largest in the Nashville population. The difference was fully accounted for by differences in lower face height and that was the most variable of all dimensions studied. Upper face height was almost identical in all four populations. Posterior face height was largest in the Nashville population. The mandible in the Nashville population had an average ramus height, but a longer corpus. Mandibular dimensions were equal in the three other populations. The maxilla was clearly shortest in the Cleveland population and almost of equal length in the three others. PMID:12169032

Dibbets, Jos M H; Nolte, Kai



Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in a female associated with multiple bladder stones  

PubMed Central

Background Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy in the urinary tract. Urothelial carcinoma is the most common histologic type of bladder cancer in the United States, accounting for approximately 90%. Squamous cell carcinoma is less common, making up 3-5% of bladder cancers. We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma in a female associated with multiple bladder stones. Case presentation A 76-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the emergency department with gross hematuria and dysuria for one month. Urinalysis showed many RBCs and WBCs with positive nitrite. She was admitted with an initial impression of urinary tract infection and intravenous ceftriaxone was started. Urine culture grew greater than 100,000 cfu/ml of Enterococcus species. Computed tomographic imaging of the abdomen/pelvis with oral contrast revealed a markedly distended bladder with hemorrhage, multiple calculi, and diffuse bladder wall thickening. Cystoscopy was performed for diffuse bladder wall thickening and demonstrated numerous bladder stones, a bladder mass, and organized blood clots. Biopsy of the mass was consistent with high-grade carcinoma with squamous differentiation. The bladder cancer was not surgically resectable and radical cystectomy was not recommended due to old age and poor functional status. The patient refused chemotherapy and she died in 6 months. Conclusions The association between foreign bodies in the bladder and sqaumous cell carcinoma is well established. Long-standing bladder stones have been implicated as a cause of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Our female patient’s unusual presentation with multiple bladder stones and sqaumous cell carcinoma of the bladder highlights the association between these two conditions. PMID:24007445



Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of Mars. This paper describes the current MSL EDL system performance as predicted by end-to-end EDL simulations, highlights the sensitivity of this baseline performance to several key environmental assumptions, and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering such an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, Alejandro M.; Burkhart, Paul D.; mendeck, Gavin F.



Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of Mars. This paper describes the current MSL EDL system performance as predicted by end-to-end EDL simulations, highlights the sensitivity of this baseline performance to several key environmental assumptions, and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering such an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; SanMartin, A. Miguel; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Mendeck, Gavin F.



CKD and bladder problems in children.  


Approximately 35% of children with CKD who require renal replacement therapy have a significant urological abnormality, including posterior urethral valves, a neuropathic bladder, prune belly syndrome, Hinman syndrome, or severe vesicoureteral reflux. In such children, abnormal bladder function can have a significant deleterious effect on the renal function. In children with bladder outlet obstruction, bladder compliance and capacity often are abnormal, and a sustained intravesical pressure of >40 cm H(2)O impedes drainage from the upper urinary tract. Consequently, in these conditions, regular evaluation with renal sonography, urodynamics, urine culture, and serum chemistry needs to be performed. Pediatric urological care needs to be coordinated with pediatric nephrologists. Many boys with posterior urethral valves have severe polyuria, resulting in chronic bladder overdistension, which is termed as valve bladder. In addition to behavioral modification during the day, such patients may benefit from overnight continuous bladder drainage, which has been shown to reduce hydronephrosis and stabilize or improve renal function in most cases. In children with a neuropathic bladder, detrusor-sphincter-dyssynergia is the most likely cause for upper tract deterioration due to secondary vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Pharmacologic bladder management and frequent intermittent catheterization are necessary. In some cases, augmentation cystoplasty is recommended; however, this procedure has many long-term risks, including UTI, metabolic acidosis, bladder calculi, spontaneous perforation, and malignancy. Nearly half of children with prune belly syndrome require renal replacement therapy. Hinman syndrome is a rare condition with severe detrusor-sphincter discoordination that results in urinary incontinence, encopresis, poor bladder emptying, and UTI, often resulting in renal impairment. Children undergoing evaluation for renal transplantation need a thorough evaluation of the lower urinary tract, mostly including a voiding cystourethrogram and urodynamic studies. PMID:21896378

Penna, Frank J; Elder, Jack S



The Effects of Acupuncture on Bladder Interstitial Cells of Cajal Excitability in Rats with Overactive Bladder  

PubMed Central

It is well known that acupuncture treatment has an effect on patients with an overactive bladder, but the mechanism of its action remains to be clarified. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of acupuncture on bladder overactivity, and the excitability of interstitial cells of Cajal of the bladder in a rat model of partial bladder outlet obstruction. Electroacupuncture (continuous wave, 30?Hz, 1?mA) was applied to stimulate the Ciliao point (BL32) and the Huiyang point (BL35) of rats for 20?min, 3 days. Results showed that acupuncture suppressed detrusor unstable contraction frequency and decreased detrusor maximum pressure in the bladder filling period. Compared with the normal control rats, HCN2 mRNA and protein expression within the bladder were upregulated and were reversed by electroacupuncture in overactive bladder rats as determined by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, in-vitro cell-cultured OAB rats bladder interstitial cells of Cajal intracellular Ca2+ concentration were higher than normal control rats, which were lowered after acupuncture treatment. These findings suggest that acupuncture stimulation can suppress bladder overactivity, and regulate the excitability of bladder interstitial cells of Cajal in treatment of overactive bladder myogenic mechanism. PMID:24194780

Feng, Qi-fan; Hou, Yuen-hao; Hou, Wen-guang; Lin, Zhi-xian; Tang, Kang-min; Chen, Yue-lai



Neck muscle responses to abrupt vertical acceleration in the seated human.  


The control of neck muscle during marked changes in "g" loading must be to protect head-trunk orientation. However, little is known about the organization of reflexes. We therefore investigated the shortest latency in neck muscle evoked by abrupt ascending and descending vertical acceleration with a stroke of 20 cm and peak acceleration 0.4xg in six healthy subjects. The subjects were seated upright and restrained on a chair driven by a hydraulic servo system. Ascent induced small responses in sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCMs) with a latency of 24.0 ms (SE 1.7) from onset of head acceleration, followed by larger responses of 100 ms in duration. In comparison the responses in SCMs evoked by descent were significantly delayed, with greater interindividual variations at 44.1 ms (SE 3.1) and smaller in amplitude than responses in ascent. Latencies were consistent and showed no habituation. In order to eliminate stretch components, we measured the neck responses to vertical acceleration with the head fixed by cervical collar. The latency of the fast response of SCM evoked by ascent was not significantly different from the latency of SCMs without the collar. These results may indicate that the fast responses of SCMs to sudden ascent may be composed of a vestibular-collic reflex for making the neck and head rigid for defense to sudden gravitational change. PMID:11500794

Aoki, M; Matsunami, K; y Han, X; Yamada, H; Muto, T; Ito, Y



[Paraganglioma of the bladder : two case reports].  


Case 1. A 48-year-old man with no history of hypertension was referred to our hospital with a 1 cm bladder tumor. According to cystoscopy, magnetic resonance imaging and 131I-MIBG scintigraphy, we diagnosed it as a paraganglioma of the bladder. Partial cystectomy was performed. The histological findings supported the diagnosis of paraganglioma of the bladder. Six years later, he was free of any evidence of recurrence. Case 2. A 64-year-old woman with hypertension was pointed out to have a 1cm bladder mass by ultrasound in a health examination. She was referred to our hospital for further examination. Cystoscopoy revealed a 1 cm intramural nodule covered by intact urothelium at the right posterior wall. Submucosal bladder tumor was not diagnosed as paraganglioma by cold punch biopsy. So, transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was performed for differential diagnosis. The tumor was hypervascular and involved the muscular layer of the bladder. Although a transient elevation of blood pressure occurred during the procedure, the tumor was resected as completely as possible. The histological diagnosis was paraganglioma of the bladder. She has been followed up for 27 months after operation without any evidence of recurrence. PMID:25511943

Kakoi, Narihiko; Katayama, Hiromichi; Kawamura, Sadafumi; Ito, Shigemi; Sato, Ikuro; Tochigi, Tatsuo



Bladder cancer and black tobacco cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was planned in the Hérault (Mediterranean) region of France where bladder cancer mortality and incidence rates are high. In the present paper, variations in bladder cancer risk according to various smoking-related variables, in particular time of exposure and type of tobacco, are examined. This case-control study with 219 male incident cases and 794 male population controls randomized

I. Momas; J. P. Daures; B. Festy; J. Bontoux; F. Gremy



Hydroxyzine inhibits neurogenic bladder mast cell activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased numbers of activated mast cells have been documented close to substance P (SP) containing nerve endings in the bladders of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC), a painful, sterile bladder disorder occurring primarily in females. Many of these patients also suffer from allergies, but common antihistamines do not help. In line with the fact that IC symptoms worsen under stress,

P Minogiannis; M El-Mansoury; J. a Betances; G. R Sant; T. C Theoharides



Occupational cancer of the urinary bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occupational etiology of bladder cancer has been known for more than 70 yr. The best?known etiologic agents are aromatic amines such as 2?naphthylamine and benzidine. The proportion of bladder cancers due to occupational exposure varies with the industrialization of the area in question. In heavily industrialized countries occupational exposure may be associated with as much as 25% of cases

Sakari Tola



Conservative Treatment of Patients with Neurogenic Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To review the up-to-date literature of the mostly used con- servative treatment modalities in patients with neurogenic bladder. Methods: material from literature on conservative management in patients with neurogenic bladder was reviewed. Pubmed search results and recent books were consulted. Results: The conservative treatment is in almost all cases the first and will remain the primary choice in the

Jean-Jacques Wyndaele


Ultrastructural visualization of human bladder mucous  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucous within the urinary bladder appears to play a protective role in shielding the uroepithelium against pathogens. This present study employs specific anti-mucous, antisera stabilization techniques to visualize a thin, continuous layer of mucous closely adherent to the human bladder uroepithelium, in both scanning and transmission electron microscopic analyses.

J. Cornish; J. C. Nickel; M. Vanderwee; J. W. Costerton



Thymic cyst in the neck.  


A rare case of a thymic cyst in the neck containing both thymus and parathyroid tissue in a 7-year-old boy is presented. The clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, surgical management and histopathological features are described. The embryology of cervical thymic cysts and the differential diagnosis of cystic neck masses in children are briefly reviewed. The diagnosis is seldom made preoperatively. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for definitive diagnosis, resolution of symptoms and cure. PMID:15799585

Berenos-Riley, L; Manni, J J; Coronel, C; De Wilde, P C M



Head and Neck Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Head and neck cancer (HNC) represents a broad spectrum of diseases that involves the nasal and oropharyngeal cavities, the\\u000a paranasal sinuses, the major and minor salivary glands, the larynx and the lymphatic tissues of the neck. The world-wide yearly\\u000a incidence exceeds over half a million cases. Tobacco (smoking and smokeless) and alcohol use are the principal risk factors,\\u000a however, a

Fausto Chiesa; Angelo Ostuni; Roberto Grigolato; Luca Calabrese


Photodynamic management of bladder cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bladder cancer (BC) is among the most expensive oncological diseases. Any improvement in diagnosis or therapy carries a high potential for reducing costs. Fluorescence cystoscopy relies on a selective formation of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) or more general photoactive porphyrins (PAP) in malignant urothelium upon instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its hexyl-derivative h-ALA. Fluorescence cystoscopy equipment has been developed with the aim to compensate for the undesired distortion caused by the tissue optical properties by displaying the red fluorescence simultaneously with the backscattered blue light. Many clinical studies proved a high sensitivity in detecting flat carcinoma in situ and small papillary malignant tumours. As a result, recurrence rates were significantly decreased in most studies. The limitation lies in a low specificity, caused by false positive findings at inflamed bladder wall. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently being investigated as a promising tool to overcome this limitation. H-ALA-PDT (8 or 16 mM h-ALA in 50 ml instillation for 1-2 h, white light source, catheter applicator) has recently been investigated in a phase I study. 17 patients were applied 100 J/cm2 (3 patients received incrementing doses of 25 - 50 - 100 J/cm2) during approx. 1 hour irradiation time in 3 sessions, 6 weeks apart. PDT was performed without any technical complications. Complete photobleaching of the PpIX-fluorescence, as intended, could be achieved in 43 of 45 PDT-sessions receiving 100 J/cm2. The most prominent side effects were postoperative urgency and bladder pain, all symptoms being more severe after 16 mM h-ALA. Preliminary evaluation shows complete response assessed at 3 months after the third PDT-session (i.e. 6 months after first treatment) in 9 of 12 patients. 2 of these patients were free of recurrence until final follow-up at 84 weeks.

Johansson, A.; Stepp, H.; Beyer, W.; Pongratz, T.; Sroka, R.; Bader, M.; Kriegmair, M.; Zaak, D.; Waidelich, R.; Karl, A.; Hofstetter, A.; Stief, C.; Baumgartner, R.



STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 5: Descent, cycle 3. Appendix C: Monte Carlo dispersion analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of three nonlinear the Monte Carlo dispersion analyses for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) Orbiter Descent Operational Flight Profile, Cycle 3 are presented. Fifty randomly selected simulation for the end of mission (EOM) descent, the abort once around (AOA) descent targeted line are steep target line, and the AOA descent targeted to the shallow target line are analyzed. These analyses compare the flight environment with system and operational constraints on the flight environment and in some cases use simplified system models as an aid in assessing the STS-1 descent flight profile. In addition, descent flight envelops are provided as a data base for use by system specialists to determine the flight readiness for STS-1. The results of these dispersion analyses supersede results of the dispersion analysis previously documented.



Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation CBCT sampled on the segmentation contour candidate. The cost function measured the goodness of fit of the segmentation on the validation image and was minimized using a simplex optimizer. For each validation CBCT image, the segmentations were done five times using a different reference CBCT. The one with the lowest cost function was selected as the final bladder segmentation. Volume- and distance-based metrics and the accuracy of plan selection were evaluated to quantify the performance. Two to four PCA modes were needed to represent the bladder shape variation with less than 0.1 cm average residual error for the training data of each patient. The automatically segmented bladders had a 78.5% mean conformity index with the manual delineations. The mean SD of the local residual error over all patients was 0.24 cm. The agreement of plan selection between automatic and manual bladder segmentations was 77.5%. PCA is an efficient method to describe patient-specific bladder deformation. The statistical-shape-based segmentation approach is robust to handle the relatively poor CBCT image quality and allows for fast and reliable automatic segmentation of the bladder on CBCT for selecting the appropriate plan from a library of plans.

Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan



Bladder cancer documentation of causes: multilingual questionnaire, 'bladder cancer doc'.  


There is a considerable discrepancy between the number of identified occupational-related bladder cancer cases and the estimated numbers particularly in emerging nations or less developed countries where suitable approaches are less or even not known. Thus, within a project of the World Health Organisation Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health, a questionnaire of the Dortmund group, applied in different studies, was translated into more than 30 languages (Afrikaans, Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, Czech, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Korean, Latvian, Malay, Persian (Farsi), Polish, Portuguese, Portuguese/Brazilian, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Spanish, Spanish/Mexican, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Urdu, Vietnamese). The bipartite questionnaire asks for relevant medical information in the physician's part and for the occupational history since leaving school in the patient's part. Furthermore, this questionnaire is asking for intensity and frequency of certain occupational and non-occupational risk factors. The literature regarding occupations like painter, hairdresser or miner and exposures like carcinogenic aromatic amines, azo dyes, or combustion products is highlighted. The questionnaire is available on PMID:22652680

Golka, Klaus; Abreu-Villaca, Yael; Anbari Attar, Rowshanak; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Aslam, Muhammad; Basaran, Nursen; Belik, Rouslana; Butryee, Chaniphun; Dalpiaz, Orietta; Dzhusupov, Keneshbek; Ecke, Thorsten H; Galambos, Henrieta; Galambos, Henrieta; Gerilovica, Helena; Gerullis, Holger; Gonzalez, Patricia Casares; Goossens, Maria E; Gorgishvili-Hermes, Lela; Heyns, Chris F; Hodzic, Jasmin; Ikoma, Fumihiko; Jichlinski, Patrice; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Martinova, Irina; Mittal, Rama Devi; Ravichandran, Beerappa; Romics, Imre; Roy, Bidyut; Rungkat-Zakaria, Fransiska; Rydzynski, Konrad; Scutaru, Cristian; Shen, Jianhua; Soufi, Maria; Toguzbaeva, Karlygash; Vu Duc, Trinh; Widera, Agata; Wishahi, Mohamed; Hengstler, Jan G



Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Primary melanoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. As far as we know, 19 cases have been reported worldwide, usually as case reports. Case Presentation. We present a 71-year-old male patient presented with a 2-month history of hematuria. Ultrasonography revealed a 5-cm-size mass located in the bladder trigone. A transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) revealed a malignant melanoma. Evaluation for metastatic disease was negative. The patient deceased five months later before radical treatment could be performed. Conclusion. This is one more reported case of primary melanoma of the urinary bladder. The previously reported cases of bladder melanoma are reviewed. Therapy and prognosis are discussed. PMID:22606629

El Ammari, Jalal Eddine; Ahallal, Youness; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan



NOTCH pathway inactivation promotes bladder cancer progression.  


NOTCH signaling suppresses tumor growth and proliferation in several types of stratified epithelia. Here, we show that missense mutations in NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 found in human bladder cancers result in loss of function. In murine models, genetic ablation of the NOTCH pathway accelerated bladder tumorigenesis and promoted the formation of squamous cell carcinomas, with areas of mesenchymal features. Using bladder cancer cells, we determined that the NOTCH pathway stabilizes the epithelial phenotype through its effector HES1 and, consequently, loss of NOTCH activity favors the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Evaluation of human bladder cancer samples revealed that tumors with low levels of HES1 present mesenchymal features and are more aggressive. Together, our results indicate that NOTCH serves as a tumor suppressor in the bladder and that loss of this pathway promotes mesenchymal and invasive features. PMID:25574842

Maraver, Antonio; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J; Cash, Timothy P; Mendez-Pertuz, Marinela; Dueñas, Marta; Maietta, Paolo; Martinelli, Paola; Muñoz-Martin, Maribel; Martínez-Fernández, Mónica; Cañamero, Marta; Roncador, Giovanna; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L; Grivas, Dimitrios; de la Pompa, Jose Luis; Valencia, Alfonso; Paramio, Jesús M; Real, Francisco X; Serrano, Manuel



Prosthetic reinforcements: how to manage bladder injuries?  


The aim of this study was to describe our experience in the management of bladder injuries occurring at intervesicovaginal dissection during the tension-free vaginal mesh (TVM) procedure. Seven hundred four patients were treated for prolapse by vaginal route using the TVM procedure. Bladder injury was diagnosed during the procedure in five patients. Polypropylene mesh was placed in the intervesicovaginal space after a careful repair of the bladder injury. Major postoperative complications were not diagnosed during the short-term follow up. We describe the occurrence and treatment of bladder injuries during the dissection phase in the TVM procedure. Such injuries can occur during the dissection. Placing an intervesicovaginal mesh is acceptable if cautious bladder repair is performed. PMID:17333442

Popovic, I; Debodinance, P; Cosson, M; Boukerrou, M



Urinary incontinence and bladder endometriosis: conservative management.  


Bladder endometriosis causes urinary symptoms including frequency, dysuria, cyclic haematuria and non-urinary pain symptoms. To our knowledge, the association of bladder endometriosis with urinary incontinence has not been described. We present the first case of bladder endometriosis that caused urinary symptoms including mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). A 34-year-old nulliparous woman was referred to our urogynaecology clinic with a 18-month history of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A diagnosis of bladder endometriosis was performed on the basis of symptoms and imaging. The patient refused surgery and dienogest was prescribed. At the 12-month follow-up, all endometriosis-related symptoms and questionnaire scores had significantly improved, and there was resolution of the abnormal urodynamic findings. In reproductive-aged women suffering pain symptoms, bladder endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of urinary incontinence and treatment with dienogest may lead to improvement of both urinary and pain symptoms. PMID:25182151

Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ferrero, Simone; Salvatore, Stefano



Spectroscopic Imaging of Bladder Cancer  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of developing bladder cancer detection methods using intrinsic tissue optical properties is the focus of this investigation. In vitro experiments have been performed using polarized elastic light scattering in combination with tissue autofluorescence in the NIR spectral region under laser excitation in the green and red spectral regions. The experimental results obtained from a set of tissue specimens from 25 patients reveal the presence of optical fingerprint characteristics suitable for cancer detection with high contrast and accuracy. These photonic methods are compatible with existing endoscopic imaging modalities which make them suitable for in-vivo application.

Demos, S G; Gandour-Edwards, R; Ramsamooj, R; deVere White, R



Entry, Descent, and Landing for Human Mars Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most challenging aspects of a human mission to Mars is landing safely on the Martian surface. Mars has such low atmospheric density that decelerating large masses (tens of metric tons) requires methods that have not yet been demonstrated, and are not yet planned in future Mars missions. To identify the most promising options for Mars entry, descent, and landing, and to plan development of the needed technologies, NASA's Human Architecture Team (HAT) has refined candidate methods for emplacing needed elements of the human Mars exploration architecture (such as ascent vehicles and habitats) on the Mars surface. This paper explains the detailed, optimized simulations that have been developed to define the mass needed at Mars arrival to accomplish the entry, descent, and landing functions. Based on previous work, technology options for hypersonic deceleration include rigid, mid-L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) aeroshells, and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (IADs). The hypersonic IADs, or HIADs, are about 20% less massive than the rigid vehicles, but both have their technology development challenges. For the supersonic regime, supersonic retropropulsion (SRP) is an attractive option, since a propulsive stage must be carried for terminal descent and can be ignited at higher speeds. The use of SRP eliminates the need for an additional deceleration system, but SRP is at a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) in that the interacting plumes are not well-characterized, and their effect on vehicle stability has not been studied, to date. These architecture-level assessments have been used to define the key performance parameters and a technology development strategy for achieving the challenging mission of landing large payloads on Mars.

Munk, Michelle M.; DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.



Powered Descent Guidance with General Thrust-Pointing Constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) algorithm and software for generating Mars pinpoint or precision landing guidance profiles has been enhanced to incorporate thrust-pointing constraints. Pointing constraints would typically be needed for onboard sensor and navigation systems that have specific field-of-view requirements to generate valid ground proximity and terrain-relative state measurements. The original PDG algorithm was designed to enforce both control and state constraints, including maximum and minimum thrust bounds, avoidance of the ground or descent within a glide slope cone, and maximum speed limits. The thrust-bound and thrust-pointing constraints within PDG are non-convex, which in general requires nonlinear optimization methods to generate solutions. The short duration of Mars powered descent requires guaranteed PDG convergence to a solution within a finite time; however, nonlinear optimization methods have no guarantees of convergence to the global optimal or convergence within finite computation time. A lossless convexification developed for the original PDG algorithm relaxed the non-convex thrust bound constraints. This relaxation was theoretically proven to provide valid and optimal solutions for the original, non-convex problem within a convex framework. As with the thrust bound constraint, a relaxation of the thrust-pointing constraint also provides a lossless convexification that ensures the enhanced relaxed PDG algorithm remains convex and retains validity for the original nonconvex problem. The enhanced PDG algorithm provides guidance profiles for pinpoint and precision landing that minimize fuel usage, minimize landing error to the target, and ensure satisfaction of all position and control constraints, including thrust bounds and now thrust-pointing constraints.

Carson, John M., III; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars



INSL3/RXFP2 signaling in testicular descent.  


Mutations of the insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) hormone or its receptor, RXFP2, cause intraabdominal cryptorchidism in male mice. Specific RXFP2 expression in mouse gubernacula was detected at embryonic day 14.5 and markedly increased after birth in the developing cremaster muscle, as well as in the epididymis and testicular Leydig and germ cells. INSL3 treatment stimulated cell proliferation of embryonic gubernacular and Leydig cells, implicating active INSL3-mediated signaling. The transcription factor SOX9, a known male sex determination factor, upregulated the activity of the RXFP2 promoter. INSL3 is sufficient to direct the first transabdominal phase of testicular descent in the absence of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis signaling or Hoxa10, although these factors are important for inguinoscrotal testicular descent. Similarly, conditional ablation of the androgen receptor gene in gubernacular cells resulted in disruption of inguinoscrotal descent. We performed mutation screening of INSL3 and RXFP2 in human patients with cryptorchidism and control subjects from different populations in Europe and the USA. Several missense mutations were described in both the INSL3 and RXFP2 genes. A novel V39G INSL3 mutation in a patient with cryptorchidism was identified; however, the functional analysis of the mutant peptide did not reveal compromised function. In more than 2000 patients and controls analyzed to date, the T222P RXFP2 mutation is the only one strongly associated with the mutant phenotype. The T222P mutant receptor, when transfected into 293T cells, had severely decreased cell membrane expression, providing the basis for the functional deficiency of this mutation. PMID:19416188

Feng, Shu; Ferlin, Alberto; Truong, Anne; Bathgate, Ross; Wade, John D; Corbett, Sean; Han, Shuo; Tannour-Louet, Mounia; Lamb, Dolores J; Foresta, Carlo; Agoulnik, Alexander I



Regularization Paths for Generalized Linear Models via Coordinate Descent  

PubMed Central

We develop fast algorithms for estimation of generalized linear models with convex penalties. The models include linear regression, two-class logistic regression, and multinomial regression problems while the penalties include ?1 (the lasso), ?2 (ridge regression) and mixtures of the two (the elastic net). The algorithms use cyclical coordinate descent, computed along a regularization path. The methods can handle large problems and can also deal efficiently with sparse features. In comparative timings we find that the new algorithms are considerably faster than competing methods. PMID:20808728

Friedman, Jerome; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Rob



Finite descent obstructions and rational  points on curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let k be a number field and X a smooth projective k-variety. In this paper,\\u000awe study the information obtainable from descent via torsors under finite\\u000ak-group schemes on the location of the k-rational points on X within the adelic\\u000apoints.\\u000a Our main result is that if a curve C\\/k maps nontrivially into an abelian\\u000avariety A\\/k such that A(k)

Michael Stoll



OFT ascent/descent ancillary data requirements document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements are presented for the ascent/descent (A/D) navigation and attitude-dependent ancillary data products to be generated for the space shuttle orbiter in support of orbital flight test requirements, MPAD guidance and navigation performance assessment, and the mission evaluation team. It was intended that this document serve as the sole requirements control instrument between MPB/MPAD and the A/D ancillary data users. The requirements are primarily functional in nature, but some detail level requirements are also included.

Bond, A. C., Jr.; Abramson, B.



Gradient descent assimilation for the point-vortex model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data assimilation is concerned with incorporating (noisy) observations into (imperfect) models that describe the underlying dynamics of the system, in order to infer the properties of the current state, by ensuring that the assimilated trajectories are consistent with both the observations and model dynamics. For many physical systems, particularly in oceanography, observations are usually available in the form of Lagrangian (particle trajectory) data that are augmented into models describing the flow fields. The incorporation of Lagrangian data into models of flow presents several challenges concerning the potential complexity of the Lagrangian trajectories in relatively simple flow fields, for example the appearance of nonlinear effects that are triggered by the exponential rate of separation of tracer trajectories in the region of saddle points [1]. As such, standard linear-based data assimilation methods, such as the Kalman filter, can fail. A nonlinear approach known as gradient descent assimilation [2] is presented, in which analysis trajectories are found by minimising a cost function in an extended state space. The gradient descent approach is demonstrated in the context of assimilating Lagrangian tracer trajectories in two-dimensional flows of point-vortex systems. The point-vortex model plays an important role as a simplified version of many physical systems, including Bose-Einstein condensates, certain plasma configurations and inviscid turbulence, in which the model dynamics are described by a relatively simple system of nonlinear ODEs, which can exhibit regular or chaotic motion for the 2-point vortex or 3-point vortex system respectively. A set of tracer advection equations augment the point vortex model equations, allowing the observed tracer positions to update the state information about the unobserved vortex postions. The gradient descent approach to the two-point vortex system has been successfully demonstrated for the case of both full and partial observations in a wide variety of test cases. [1] K. Ide, L. Kuznetsov and C. K. R. T. Jones. Lagrangian data assimilation for point vortex systems, Journal of Turbulence, 3, 053 (2002). [2] K. Judd, L. A. Smith and A. Weisheimer. Gradient free descent: Shadowing and state estimation using limited derivative information, Physica D, 190, 153-166 (2004).

Suckling, E. B.; Smith, L. A.



Complex bladder-exstrophy-epispadias management: causes of failure of initial bladder closure.  


The success of the initial closure of the complex bladder-exstrophy remains a challenge in pediatric surgery. This study describes a personal experience of the causes of failure of the initial closure and operative morbidity during the surgical treatment of bladder-exstrophy complex. From April 2000 to March 2014, four patients aged 16 days to 7 years and 5 months underwent complex exstrophy-epispadias repair with pelvic osteotomies. There were three males and one female. Three of them had posterior pelvic osteotomy, one had anterior innominate osteotomy. Bladder Closure: Bladder closure was performed in three layers. Our first patient had initial bladder closure with polyglactin 4/0 (Vicryl ® 4/0), concerning the last three patients, initial bladder closure was performed with polydioxanone 4/0 (PDS ® 4/0). The bladder was repaired leaving the urethral stent and ureteral stents for full urinary drainage for three patients. In one case, only urethral stent was left, ureteral drainage was not possible, because stents sizes were more important than the ureteral diameter. Out of a total of four patients, initial bladder closure was completely achieved for three patients. At the immediate postoperative follow-up, two patients presented a complete disunion of the abdominal wall and bladder despite an appropriate postoperative care. The absorbable braided silk (polyglactin) used for the bladder closure was considered as the main factor in the failure of the bladder closure. The second cause of failure of the initial bladder closure was the incomplete urine drainage, ureteral catheterisation was not possible because the catheters sizes were too large compared with the diameters of the ureters. The failure of the initial bladder-exstrophy closure may be reduced by a closure with an absorbable monofilament silk and efficient urine drainage via ureteral catheterisation. PMID:25323185

Bertin, Kouame Dibi; Serge, Kouame Yapo Guy; Moufidath, Sounkere; Maxime, Koffi; Hervé, Odehouri Koudou Thierry; Baptiste, Yaokreh Jean; Samba, Tembely; Gaudens, Dieth Atafi; Ossenou, Ouattara; Ruffin, Dick



Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18)(q21: 21). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment. PMID:24511310

Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey



Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.  


Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. PMID:22411938

Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan



Mars Exploration Rover Terminal Descent Mission Modeling and Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of NASA's added reliance on simulation for successful interplanetary missions, the MER mission has developed a detailed EDL trajectory modeling and simulation. This paper summarizes how the MER EDL sequence of events are modeled, verification of the methods used, and the inputs. This simulation is built upon a multibody parachute trajectory simulation tool that has been developed in POST I1 that accurately simulates the trajectory of multiple vehicles in flight with interacting forces. In this model the parachute and the suspended bodies are treated as 6 Degree-of-Freedom (6 DOF) bodies. The terminal descent phase of the mission consists of several Entry, Descent, Landing (EDL) events, such as parachute deployment, heatshield separation, deployment of the lander from the backshell, deployment of the airbags, RAD firings, TIRS firings, etc. For an accurate, reliable simulation these events need to be modeled seamlessly and robustly so that the simulations will remain numerically stable during Monte-Carlo simulations. This paper also summarizes how the events have been modeled, the numerical issues, and modeling challenges.

Raiszadeh, Behzad; Queen, Eric M.



Controller evaluations of the descent advisor automation aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automation aid to assist air traffic controllers in efficiently spacing traffic and meeting arrival times at a fix has been developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The automation aid, referred to as the descent advisor (DA), is based on accurate models of aircraft performance and weather conditions. The DA generates suggested clearances, including both top-of-descent point and speed profile data, for one or more aircraft in order to achieve specific time or distance separation objectives. The DA algorithm is interfaced with a mouse-based, menu-driven controller display that allows the air traffic controller to interactively use its accurate predictive capability to resolve conflicts and issue advisories to arrival aircraft. This paper focuses on operational issues concerning the utilization of the DA, specifically, how the DA can be used for prediction, intrail spacing, and metering. In order to evaluate the DA, a real time simulation was conducted using both current and retired controller subjects. Controllers operated in teams of two, as they do in the present environment; issues of training and team interaction will be discussed. Evaluations by controllers indicated considerable enthusiasm for the DA aid, and provided specific recommendations for using the tool effectively.

Tobias, Leonard; Volckers, Uwe; Erzberger, Heinz



Accelerated Mini-batch Randomized Block Coordinate Descent Method  

PubMed Central

We consider regularized empirical risk minimization problems. In particular, we minimize the sum of a smooth empirical risk function and a nonsmooth regularization function. When the regularization function is block separable, we can solve the minimization problems in a randomized block coordinate descent (RBCD) manner. Existing RBCD methods usually decrease the objective value by exploiting the partial gradient of a randomly selected block of coordinates in each iteration. Thus they need all data to be accessible so that the partial gradient of the block gradient can be exactly obtained. However, such a “batch” setting may be computationally expensive in practice. In this paper, we propose a mini-batch randomized block coordinate descent (MRBCD) method, which estimates the partial gradient of the selected block based on a mini-batch of randomly sampled data in each iteration. We further accelerate the MRBCD method by exploiting the semi-stochastic optimization scheme, which effectively reduces the variance of the partial gradient estimators. Theoretically, we show that for strongly convex functions, the MRBCD method attains lower overall iteration complexity than existing RBCD methods. As an application, we further trim the MRBCD method to solve the regularized sparse learning problems. Our numerical experiments shows that the MRBCD method naturally exploits the sparsity structure and achieves better computational performance than existing methods. PMID:25620860

Zhao, Tuo; Yu, Mo; Wang, Yiming; Arora, Raman; Liu, Han



Minimally invasive neck lifts: have they replaced neck lift surgery?  


The aging neck is accompanied by an increase in submental fat, platysmal banding, and redundant dyspigmented skin. Creating a more acute cervicomental angle, distinct mandibular border, homogeneous skin tone, and smoother texture helps to achieve a more youthful appearance. The aesthetic provider's armamentarium has long had surgical techniques in the highest regard, but a new wave of minimally invasive procedures looks to offer a nonsurgical approach to cervicomental rejuvenation. Selecting the appropriate procedure for appropriate patients that will effectively meet their aesthetic goals and expectations is the core of successful neck rejuvenation. PMID:23731587

Dayan, Steven H; Arkins, John P; Chaudhry, Rahman



Conservative treatment of an intraperitoneal bladder perforation  

PubMed Central

Introduction The management of bladder rupture depends on its anatomical location. Material and methods Case report and review of the pertinent English language literature. Results A 56-year-old man with history of an anterior rectum resection with partial cystectomy presented with signs of acute renal failure, and later with a tender, distended abdomen. Work-up including serum and ascites biochemistry, cystoscopy, and CT cystography diagnosed urinary ascites. The small intraperitoneal bladder rupture was treated conservatively via continued urinary drainage under urinary antibiotic prophylaxis until closure. Conclusion A conservative treatment of a small intraperitoneal bladder perforation is possible under certain conditions. PMID:24578862

Michielsen, Dirk



[Classification and natural history of bladder tumors].  


Urinary bladder tumors are mainly of urothelial type. Classifications include stage and grade to provide with the required prognostic factors and help to select the most adequate treatment. Though somatic mutations in bladder tumors are known, their used for targeted therapy are restricted to clinical trials. Upper urinary tract tumors are classified as urinary bladder tumor at histological level, but tumor staging is specified according to calyx, renal pelvis or ureter location; in young patients with upper urinary tract tumor, a Lynch syndrome should be eliminated. PMID:25668829

Allory, Yves



Chiropractic and Neck Pain: Conservative Care of Cervical Pain, Injury  


... this flexibility makes the neck very susceptible to pain and injury. The neck’s susceptibility to injury is ... normal aging, and everyday wear and tear. Neck pain can be very bothersome, and it can have ...


Lack of association between MTHFR Ala222Val and Glu429Ala polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk: A meta-analysis of case-control studies  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is a commom malignancy in the urinary tract that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The role of functional polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with bladder cancer risk remains to be determined. This meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimation of MTHFR Ala222Val and Glu429Ala polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Data were collected with the last report up to September 2013. A total of 3,463 cases and 3,927 controls for Ala222Val, and 3,177 cases and 3,502 controls for Glu429Ala were analyzed. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated for the association with bladder cancer risk. Overall, no significant associations of Ala222Val and Glu429Ala polymorphisms with bladder cancer risk were found (for Ala222Val: Val/Val vs. Ala/Ala: OR, 1.02; 95% CI: 0.80–1.29; Val/Ala vs. Ala/Ala: OR, 1.02; 95% CI: 0.92–1.12; dominant model: OR, 1.01; 95% CI: 0.87–1.17; recessive model: OR, 1.00; 95% CI: 0.87–1.15; and for Glu429Ala: Ala/Ala vs. Glu/Glu: OR, 1.11; 95% CI: 0.78–1.58; Ala/Glu vs. Glu/Glu: OR, 1.16; 95% CI: 0.95–1.40; dominant model: OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.94–1.41; recessive model: OR, 0.96; 95% CI: 0.79–1.15). In stratified analyses by ethnicity, significant associations were observed for Glu429Ala polymorphism in individuals of Middle Eastern descent (Ala/Glu vs. Glu/Glu: OR, 2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–3.53; dominant model: OR, 2.16; 95% CI: 1.16–4.01; recessive model: OR, 1.82; 95% CI: 1.11–3.01). This meta-analysis demonstrated that overall there was no association of MTHFR Ala222Val and Glu429Ala polymorphisms with bladder cancer risk. However, in the stratified analysis by ethnicity the MTHFR Glu429Ala polymorphism was significantly associated with increased bladder cancer risk in individuals of Middle Eastern descent. PMID:24748982




Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: Can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. Results: A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 Sd = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. Conclusions: This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations.

Stam, Marcel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail:; Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Vight, Lisette P. van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kaanders, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Visser, Andries G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)



Phasic Changes in Bladder Compliance During Filling Cystometry of the Neurogenic Bladder  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate phasic changes during filling cystometry that most accurately represent detrusor properties, regardless of other factors affecting detrusor contractility. Methods Seventy-eight patients (59 males, 19 females; mean age, 48.2 years) with spinal cord injuries were enrolled. Urodynamic studies were performed using a normal saline filling rate of 24 mL/min. We calculated bladder compliance values of the detrusor muscle in each of three filling phase intervals, which divided the filling cystometrogram into three phases referable to the cystometric capacity or maximum cystometric capacity. The three phases were sequentially delineated by reference to the pressure-volume curve reflecting bladder filling. Results Bladder compliance during the first and second phases of filling cystometry was significantly correlated with overall bladder compliance in overactive detrusors. The highest coefficient of determination (r2=0.329) was obtained during the first phase of the pressure-volume curve. Bladder compliance during all three phases was significantly correlated with overall bladder compliance of filling cystometry in underactive detrusors. However, the coefficient of determination was greatest (r2=0.529) during the first phase of filling cystometry. Conclusion Phasic bladder compliance during the early filling phase (first filling phase) was the most representative assessment of overall bladder compliance during filling cystometry. Careful determination of early phase filling is important when seeking to acquire reliable urodynamic data on neurogenic bladders. PMID:25024957

Kim, Soo-Yeon; Ko, Sung Hwa; Shin, Myung Jun; Park, Yeo Jin; Park, Ji Sang; Lee, Ko Eun



[Treatment of superficial bladder tumors].  


Superficial bladder cancer, T1, Ta, TIS transitional cell carcinomas of the TNM classification, represent a spectrum disease with different biological behavior. The main difficulty in the management of these tumors is to predict their potential aggressiveness based on clinicopathological parameters. Their management is based on endoscopy findings and histopathological analysis. For low risk tumors, transurethral resection and surveillance allow an adequate tumor control. For high risk tumors, conservative treatment is based on a complete transurethral resection and prophylactic endovesical instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guérin. For intermediate risk lesions, the advantage of prophylactic endovesical instillations have been finally established either using BCG or chemotherapy (mitomycine C). However in this setting, various therapeutic modalities (maintenance therapy, dose, repeat cycles) are proposed and their relative efficacy remains to be established. PMID:9114523

Chopin, D K



Pontine stroke and bladder dysfunction.  


We report the case of a 54-year-old hypertensive woman who presented with sudden onset left hemiparesis with facial asymmetry and inability to pass urine. Her bladder was distended and she had to be catheterised. MRI of her brain showed a large infarct in the right pontine region. Antiplatelet therapy was instituted and the patient showed good recovery and was able to walk with support after a fortnight at the time of discharge. She was discharged with a catheter in situ. After 6?months, she could walk with the support of a stick, but had increased frequency and urgency of micturition along with nocturia. Urodynamic study revealed detrusor hyper-reflexia, possibly due to involvement of the pontine micturition centre. PMID:24876208

Shukla, Rakesh; Giri, Prithvi; Bhandari, Aveg; Shankhwar, S N



Axial block coordinate descent (ABCD) algorithm for X-ray CT image reconstruction  

E-print Network

1 Axial block coordinate descent (ABCD) algorithm for X-ray CT image reconstruction Jeffrey A simultaneously by inverting a dense k2 �k2 matrix · Loop over z before proceeding to next transaxial block x y 2 y z #12;10 Axial block coordinate descent (ABCD) outline for k = 1,...,K: (K = # of x-y locations

Fessler, Jeffrey A.


Prostate Cancer in Men of African Descent: Opportunities for Global Research Collaborations

Prostate cancer disproportionately affects men of African descent in terms of incidence, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. Significant knowledge gaps exist about the factors that predict disparities in prostate cancer incidence and outcomes between men of African descent and other ethnic or racial groups.


Analysis of AIRE Continuous Descent Arrival operations at Atlanta and Miami  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous descent arrival (CDA) is a cockpit based flight technique characterized by operations that descend continuously at or near idle power settings resulting in reduced noise and emissions compared to standard stair-step arrival techniques. The development of published optimized profile descent (OPD) procedures that permit use of the CDA technique is generally considered to be a key step in

Kevin R. Sprong; Kathryn A. Klein; C. Shiotsuki; J. Arrighi; S. Liu



A block-based gradient descent search algorithm for block motion estimation in video coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A block-based gradient descent search (BBGDS) algorithm is proposed in this paper to perform block motion estimation in video coding. The BBGDS evaluates the values of a given objective function starting from a small centralized checking block. The minimum within the checking block is found, and the gradient descent direction where the minimum is expected to lie is used to

Lurng-Kuo Liu; E. Feig



Proving Mordell-Weil: A Descent in Three Parts A Senior Thesis Of  

E-print Network

3 #12;Introductions In 1659, Pierre de Fermat wrote to Christiaan Huygens claiming to have on elliptic curves. In this thesis, we examine three of these moments: (1) Pierre de Fermat's proof. Descent 1: Fermat's Infinite Descent 40 Conclusion 43 Appendix A. Cohomology of Groups 45 Bibliography 48

Stein, William


ccsd-00014292,version1-23Nov2005 The Shintani descents of Suzuki Groups  

E-print Network

ccsd-00014292,version1-23Nov2005 The Shintani descents of Suzuki Groups and consequences Olivier to every cuspidal unipotent character of the Suzuki group its root of unity and to give a possible. We compute to this end the Shintani descents of Suzuki groups and use results of Digne and Michel. 1

Boyer, Edmond


Miniature coherent velocimeter and altimeter (MCVA) for terminal descent control on lunar and planetary landers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the overall architecture of an Entry Descent and Landing (EDL) system may vary depending on specific mission requirementsw, measurements of the rate vector with respect to the surface is a primary requirement for the Terminal Descent Control (TDC) phase of any controlled lander.

Chang, Dan; Cardell, Greg; Szwaykowski, Piotr; Shaffat, Syed T.; Meras, Patrick



Solifenacin in overactive bladder syndrome.  


Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is a prevalent condition, increasingly recognised as a cause of reduced quality of life that places a substantial economic burden on healthcare provision. While antimuscarinic agents are the therapy of choice for OAB, their use is associated with a number of drawbacks, not least of which is the high rate of adverse events, which is intimately linked with poor compliance with treatment. Solifenacin succinate is a novel antimuscarinic agent approved in Europe and the US for the treatment of men and women with OAB. The recommended starting dose of solifenacin is 5 mg once daily and, if needed, the dose may be increased to 10 mg once daily. In multiple clinical trials, solifenacin treatment has been associated with statistically significant reductions in all key symptoms of OAB (notably frequency, urgency and incontinence) as well as increases in volume voided. Solifenacin has been shown to be well tolerated, producing few adverse effects, which are usually mild in nature. Furthermore, possibly because of this favourable efficacy and tolerability, solifenacin treatment has been associated with a high rate of patient persistence with therapy, with 81% of 1802 patients who completed 12-week, double-blind trials enrolling in and completing a 40-week open-label extension study. Solifenacin has been shown to display selectivity for bladder versus salivary tissue in vitro, and studies in healthy men have shown that absorption is slow but extensive with an absolute bioavailability of 88%. Solifenacin is a well tolerated and efficacious agent for the treatment of OAB, significantly reducing symptoms and improving patients' quality of life. PMID:16451092

Payne, Christopher K



Head and Neck International Group (HNIG)

The Head and Neck International Group was established in 2014 with the mission to promote and conduct high quality head and neck cancer clinical trials worldwide to improve outcomes in patients diagnosed with these diseases.


49 CFR 572.33 - Neck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Test Dummy § 572.33 Neck. (a) The neck consists of the assembly shown in drawing 78051-90, revision A...



Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  


... this page, please enable JavaScript. Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...


A new technique for bladder washing.  


We describe a simple adaptation of the Water Pik (Teledyne Water Pik, Fort Collins, Colorado) irrigating device which allows vigorous, direct-vision agitation of the bladder wall. Three groups of mongrel dogs were subjected to cystoscopy and either syringe barbotage, half-speed Water Pik irrigation, or full-speed Water Pik irrigation of the bladder wall. Transitional cell counts were then done on centrifuged aliquots of each bladder wash specimen. The average number of transitional cells per high-power field were similar between the control group and the syringe barbotage group (2.5 and 1.5 respectively). However, both the half-speed and the full-speed Water Pik groups demonstrated statistically higher cell counts (5.7 and 13.7) when compared to both the controls and syringe barbotage groups. We conclude that Water Pik irrigation is an effective method to increase cell yield in bladder wash specimens. PMID:1729530

Miller, D C; Fitkin, D L; Kropp, K A; Selman, S H



Evaluation of vertical profiles to design continuous descent approach procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current research focuses on predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA), which is among the key concepts of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The idle-thrust CDA is a fuel economical, noise and emission abatement procedure, but requires increased separation to accommodate for variability and uncertainties in vertical and speed profiles of arriving aircraft. Although a considerable amount of researches have been devoted to the estimation of potential benefits of the CDA, only few have attempted to explain the predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of CDA. The analytical equations derived using flight dynamics and Base of Aircraft and Data (BADA) Total Energy Model (TEM) in this research gives insight into dependency of vertical profile of CDA on various factors like wind speed and gradient, weight, aircraft type and configuration, thrust settings, atmospheric factors (deviation from ISA (DISA), pressure and density of the air) and descent speed profile. Application of the derived equations to idle-thrust CDA gives an insight into sensitivity of its vertical profile to multiple factors. This suggests fixed geometric flight path angle (FPA) CDA has higher degree of predictability and lesser variability at the cost of non-idle and low thrust engine settings. However, with optimized design this impact can be overall minimized. The CDA simulations were performed using Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) based on radar-track and aircraft type data (BADA) of the real air-traffic to some of the busiest airports in the USA (ATL, SFO and New York Metroplex (JFK, EWR and LGA)). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA shows 1) mean geometric FPAs derived from various simulated vertical profiles are consistently shallower than 3° glideslope angle and 2) high level of variability in vertical profiles of idle-thrust CDA even in absence of uncertainties in external factors. Analysis from operational feasibility perspective suggests that two key features of the performance based Flight Management System (FMS) i.e. required time of arrival (RTA) and geometric descent path would help in reduction of unpredictability associated with arrival time and vertical profile of aircraft guided by the FMS coupled with auto-pilot (AP) and auto-throttle (AT). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA also suggests that for procedure design window type, 'AT or above' and 'AT or below' altitude and FPA constraints are more realistic and useful compared to obsolete 'AT' type altitude constraint.

Pradeep, Priyank


Plasma cell infiltration of the urinary bladder.  


We report a novel entity of plasma cell bladder infiltration without other demonstrable disease. The patient had severe irritative voiding symptoms, hematuria, and a diffuse mucosal infiltrate with 90% plasma cells. Although the patient demonstrated some clinical and pathologic evidence consistent with interstitial cystitis and eosinophilic cystitis, a predominant finding of focal plasma cell infiltration of the urinary bladder suggests a new or previously unrecognized clinical entity. PMID:15245959

Thaxton, C S; Eggener, S E; Schaeffer, A J



Genetic Marker Identified for Aggressive Bladder Cancer

Researchers led by Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Ph.D., in DCEG's Laboratory of Translational Genomics, have identified the first genetic variant associated with risk of aggressive bladder cancer. The variant, rs7257330, is in the promoter region of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes for cyclin E protein, a cell cycle regulator. This result comes from a fine-mapping analysis of data from two bladder cancer genome-wide association studies and functional studies.


Female Urethral Condyloma Causing Bladder Outlet Obstruction  

PubMed Central

In women, urethral condyloma rarely leads to a bladder outlet obstruction. A 39-year-old woman who presented with frequency, urgency, and residual urine sensation was found to have a condyloma in her urethral meatus. Urodynamic study indicated bladder outlet obstruction. After condyloma excision, she returned to normal voiding, and the free maximum flow rate improved. In women, excision of urethral condylomas that cause obstruction can be an effective treatment with early recovery of voiding function. PMID:24729927

Chae, Ji Yun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Park, Hong Seok; Moon, Du Geon; Lee, Jeong Gu



[Neck dissection for Head and Neck cancers: state of the art and classification].  


The purposes of this article are to review the history and evolution of neck dissections, including an update on node levels and their anatomical landmark. A number of classification systems were proposed and subsequently established for neck dissection procedures. The system most often employed was published in 1991 by the American Head and Neck Society and American Academy of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery and revised in 2002 and 2008. According to this classification, neck dissections are grouped into four broad categories: radical neck dissection (RND), modified radical neck dissection (MRND), selective neck dissection (SND) and extended neck dissection (ERND). The choice between different surgeries depends on type and site of head and neck tumor as well nodal involvement. PMID:21453600

Pezzullo, L; Chiofalo, M G; Di Cecilia, M L; Marone, U



Embryology and anatomy of the neck.  


As a prelude to understanding pathologic conditions of the pediatric neck, this article presents the embryologic development of the neck, fascial planes, and key anatomic structures. Detailed discussion includes the normal development of the neck and illustrates, using selected CT and MR images, the fascial spaces, larynx and trachea, thyroid, parathyroid, and vascular and lymphatic anatomy. PMID:10658155

Stone, J A; Figueroa, R E



Sensory Dysfunction of Bladder Mucosa and Bladder Oversensitivity in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study the role of sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa in bladder oversensitivity of rats with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods Female Wistar rats were fed a fructose-rich diet (60%) or a normal diet for 3 months. Based on cystometry, the fructose-fed rats (FFRs) were divided into a group with normal detrusor function or detrusor overactivity (DO). Acidic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) solution (5mM, pH 3.3) was used to elicit reflex micturition. Cystometric parameters were evaluated before and after drug administration. Functional proteins of the bladder mucosa were assessed by western blotting. Results Compared to the controls, intravesical acidic ATP solution instillation induced a significant increase in provoked phasic contractions in both FFR groups and a significant decrease in the mean functional bladder capacity of group DO. Pretreatment with capsaicin for C-fiber desentization, intravesical liposome for mucosal protection, or intravenous pyridoxal 5-phosphate 6-azophenyl-2?,4?-disulfonic acid for antagonized purinergic receptors can interfere with the urodynamic effects of intravesical ATP in FFRs and controls. Over-expression of TRPV1, P2X3, and iNOS proteins, and down-regulation of eNOS proteins were observed in the bladder mucosa of both fructose-fed groups. Conclusions Alterations of sensory receptors and enzymes in the bladder mucosa, including over-expression of TRPV1, P2X3, and iNOS proteins, can precipitate the emergence of bladder phasic contractions and oversensitivity through the activation of C-afferents during acidic ATP solution stimulation in FFRs. The down-regulation of eNOS protein in the bladder mucosa of FFRs may lead to a failure to suppress bladder oversensitivity and phasic contractions. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and DO causing by metabolic syndrome are easier to elicit bladder oversensitivity to certain urothelium stimuli. PMID:23029112

Lee, Wei-Chia; Chiang, Po-Hui; Tain, You-Lin; Wu, Chia-Ching; Chuang, Yao-Chi



Increased Bladder Wall Thickness in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Women With Overactive Bladder  

PubMed Central

Purpose Bladder wall thickness has been reported to be associated with overactive bladder (OAB) in women. Diabetic women have an increased risk for OAB syndrome and may have an increased risk for bladder wall thickness. Methods A total of 235 female patients aged 40 to 75 years were categorized into four groups. The first group consisted of women free of urgency or urge urinary incontinence. The second group included nondiabetic women with idiopathic OAB. The third group consisted of women with diabetes and clinical OAB, and women with diabetes but without OAB constituted the fourth group. Bladder wall thickness at the anterior wall was measured by ultrasound by the suprapubic approach with bladder filling over 250 mL. Results The diabetic (third group) and nondiabetic (second group) women with OAB had significantly greater bladder wall thickness at the anterior bladder wall than did the controls. However, the difference was not significant between the diabetic (third group) and the nondiabetic (second group) women with OAB. Women with diabetes but without OAB (fourth group) had greater bladder wall thickness than did the controls but this difference was not significant. Additionally, the difference in bladder wall thickness between diabetic women with (third group) and without (fourth group) OAB was not significant. Conclusions This is the first study to show that bladder wall thickness is increased in diabetic women with and without OAB. Additionally, nondiabetic women with OAB had increased bladder wall thickness. Further studies may provide additional information for diabetic and nondiabetic women with OAB, in whom the etiopathogenesis of the disease may be similar. PMID:23869270

Ogullar, Sabri; ?ahin, Serap Baydur; Zorba, Orhan Ünal; Akça, Görkem; Sümer, Fatih; Güney, Ülkü Mete; Bal?k, Gül?ah



Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions.

Prakash, Ravi; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Devin, M. Kipp; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Steltzner, Adam D.; Way, David W.



SparseNet: Coordinate Descent With Nonconvex Penalties  

PubMed Central

We address the problem of sparse selection in linear models. A number of nonconvex penalties have been proposed in the literature for this purpose, along with a variety of convex-relaxation algorithms for finding good solutions. In this article we pursue a coordinate-descent approach for optimization, and study its convergence properties. We characterize the properties of penalties suitable for this approach, study their corresponding threshold functions, and describe a df-standardizing reparametrization that assists our pathwise algorithm. The MC+ penalty is ideally suited to this task, and we use it to demonstrate the performance of our algorithm. Certain technical derivations and experiments related to this article are included in the Supplementary Materials section.

Mazumder, Rahul; Friedman, Jerome H.; Hastie, Trevor



Transitions and transversions in evolutionary descent - An approach to understanding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative theoretical groundwork is presented for determining the proportions of the possible types of base substitutions observed between 12 genes sharing a common ancestor and isolated from extant species. Three methods (direct count, regression, and informational entropy maximization) are described by which conditional base substitution probabilities that determine evolutionary descent can be estimated from experimental data. These methods are utilized to study the ratio of transversions to transitions during gene divergence. The limiting ratio is directly calculated from a knowledge of the 12 conditional probabilities for each type of base substitution and from a knowledge of the equilibrium base composition of the DNAs compared. An expression is developed for this calculation. It is concluded that multiple substitutions per se do not lead to a decrease in transition differences with increasing evolutionary divergence.

Holmquist, R.



RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract A new generation of in?atable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) or Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth’s atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth’s atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. “Mini-1” category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: - qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, - Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, - m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, - V (m/s): re-entry velocity and - theta(deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet (“Mini-1” category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being VSOL = 5268 m/s. Using the basic pre-defined parameters for MetNet-type of lander in Earth atmosphere, we get the optimal angle of = -3.06 degrees for Earth re-entry. 3. Payload Mass for Earth Entry DV One of the key elements in Earth entry lander is the amount of available payload mass. The payload mass depends on, e.g., the lander size, landing type (soil or water), heat shield durability and additional landing gear. The payload mass will have an impact to the center of gravity of the lander. The payload with a “low” CoG (compared the the lander structure) has a larger tolerance than the payload with “high” CoG. In cases where payload CoG causes instability, the extra balance mass can be used to adjust CoG. This balance mass will reduce the available payload mass. A major limitation for payload mass is the heat shielding. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 263255. References [1]

Heilimo, Jyri; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Martynov, Maxim; Schmidt, Walter; Harri, Ari-Matti; Vsevolod Koryanov, D.; Kazakovtcev, Victor; Haukka, Harri; Arruego, Ignacio; Finchenko, Valery; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrei; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero


RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry. 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth's atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. 'Mini-1' category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, V (m/s): re-entry velocity and ? (deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet ('Mini-1' category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being VSOL = 5268 m/s. Using the basic pre-defined parameters for MetNet-type of lander in Earth atmosphere, we get the optimal angle of ? = -3.06 degrees for Earth re-entry. 3. Payload Mass for Earth Entry DV One of the key elements in Earth entry lander is the amount of available payload mass. The payload mass depends on, e.g., the lander size, landing type (soil or water), heat shield durability and additional landing gear. The payload mass will have an impact to the center of gravity of the lander. The payload with a 'low' CoG (compared the the lander structure) has a larger tolerance than the payload with 'high' CoG. In cases where payload CoG causes instability, the extra balance mass can be used to adjust CoG. This balance mass will reduce the available payload mass. A major limitation for payload mass is the heat shielding. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 263255. References [1]

Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Koryanov, Vsevolod; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valery; Martynov, Maxim; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Viktor; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero



CryoScout: A Descent Through the Mars Polar Cap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CryoScout was proposed as a subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars North Polar cap. After landing on a gentle landscape in the midst of the mild summer season, CryoScout was to use the continuous polar sunlight to power the descent of a cryobot, a thermal probe, into the ice at a rate of about 1 m per day. CryoScout would probe deep enough into this time capsule to see the effects of planetary obliquity variations and discrete events such as dust storms or volcanic eruptions. By penetrating tens of meters of ice, the mission would explore at least one of the dominant "MOC layers" observed in exposed layered terrain.

Hecht, M. H.; Saunders, R. S.



Treatment of advanced neck metastases  

PubMed Central

Summary Despite the use of aggressive single or multimodality treatment protocols, patients with advanced cervical metastases, N2 and N3, have a poor prognosis because of their high risk of regional and distal failure. Moreover, N3 class does not allow resectability and curability to be defined. Numerous trials have been carried out in order to improve the oncological outcomes of patients with advanced metastases to the neck using a variety of multimodality therapy. At present, there is a trend toward the use of a definitive radiochemotherapy followed, or not, by neck dissection. In order to offer a panoramic view of the treatment protocols in use, data available in the literature, regarding the management of advanced neck disease using surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, in different associations, have been reviewed and our experience reported. The presence of advanced cervical metastases is a very poor prognostic factor. The combined treatment modality offers better chances of cure than single modality treatment. Surgery followed by radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy is an effective and well standardized approach. The use of planned neck dissection following chemoradiation is still debated. PMID:17633156

Spriano, G; Pellini, R; Manciocco, V; Ruscito, P



Head and Neck Steering Committee

The NCI Head and Neck Steering Committee (HNSC) was established in 2007. The HNSC is currently composed of the Steering Committee and three task forces. Members of HNSC include committee co-chairs, representatives from the Cooperative Groups, Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPOREs), community oncologists, biostatisticians, pathologists, patient advocates, and NCI staff.


Assessment on EXPERT Descent and Landing System Aerodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EXPERT is a re-entry vehicle designed for validation of aero-thermodynamic models, numerical schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics codes and test facilities for measuring flight data under an Earth re-entry environment. This paper addresses the design for the descent and landing sequence for EXPERT. It includes the descent sequence, the choice of drogue and main parachutes, and the parachute deployment condition, which can be supersonic or subsonic. The analysis is based mainly on an engineering tool, PASDA, together with some hand calculations for parachute sizing and design. The tool consists of a detailed 6-DoF simulation performed with the aerodynamics database of the vehicle, an empirical wakes model and the International Standard Atmosphere database. The aerodynamics database for the vehicle is generated by DNW experimental data and CFD codes within the framework of an ESA contract to CIRA. The analysis will be presented in terms of altitude, velocity, accelerations, angle-of- attack, pitch angle and angle of rigging line. Discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each parachute deployment condition is included in addition to some comparison with the available data based on a Monte-Carlo method from a Russian company, FSUE NIIPS. Sensitivity on wind speed to the performance of EXPERT is shown to be strong. Supersonic deployment of drogue shows a better performance in stability at the expense of a larger G-load than those from the subsonic deployment of drogue. Further optimization on the parachute design is necessary in order to fulfill all the EXPERT specifications.

Wong, H.; Muylaert, J.; Northey, D.; Riley, D.



Primary carcinoid tumors of the urinary bladder and prostatic urethra: a clinicopathologic study of 6 cases.  


Primary carcinoid tumors of the urinary bladder are exceedingly rare. Although they have been considered to be potentially malignant neuroendocrine neoplasms, some previously reported cases were associated with a carcinoma component that might have altered the outcome. Only 8 histologically well-documented cases of pure carcinoid tumors of the bladder and 1 of the prostatic urethra have been reported in the literature. In this study, we describe 6 additional primary pure carcinoid tumors arising in the bladder (5 cases) or prostatic urethra (1 case). Patients (4 male, 2 female) ranged in age from 45 to 60 years (average, 55 y) and presented with hematuria (n = 5 of 6), obstruction (n = 1 of 6), or for concurrent genitourinary disease (n = 1 of 6). All 6 cases shared gross and microscopic findings. Cystoscopic examination showed small, smooth surfaced, or polypoid nodules. The 5 cases in the bladder were all located within or near the trigone and bladder neck region. Microscopically, these 6 tumors were subepithelial and confined within the lamina propria, associated with adjacent cystitis cystica et glandularis. The tumors were composed of uniform, cuboidal, or columnar cells with finely stippled chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli in a prominent pseudoglandular pattern composed of acinar and cribriform structures. The cells had moderate-to-abundant cytoplasm and basally located Paneth cell-like eosinophilic granules. Although occasional atypical cells with prominent nucleoli could be seen, mitotic activity was absent or rare and cases lacked necrosis. Neuroendocrine differentiation was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in all 6 cases. All tumors were completely excised by biopsies. There was no evidence of disease recurrence or progression in all 6 patients, including 3 patients who had clinical follow-up for >4 years. Primary pure carcinoid tumors of the urinary bladder (and prostatic urethra) have distinct pathologic characteristics, with their prominent pseudoglandular features leading to difficulty in diagnosis. They are likely to have a very favorable clinical outcome, and should be distinguished from mixed carcinoid tumors or urothelial carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation that show focal carcinoid-like histologic features. PMID:21317716

Chen, Ying-bei; Epstein, Jonathan I



Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck



Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck



Effects of bladder outlet obstruction on properties of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat bladder  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the effects of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on the expression and function of large conductance (BK) and small conductance (SK) Ca2+-activated K+ channels in detrusor smooth muscle. The bladder from adult female Sprague-Dawley rats with 6-wk BOO were used. The mRNA expression of the BK channel ?-subunit, ?1-, ?2-, and ?4-subunits and SK1, SK2, and SK3 channels were investigated using real-time RT-PCR. All subunits except for the BK-?2, SK2, and SK3 channels were predominantly expressed in the detrusor smooth muscle rather than in the mucosa. The mRNA expression of the BK channel ?-subunit was not significantly changed in obstructed bladders. However, the expression of the BK channel ?1-subunit and the SK3 channel was remarkably increased in obstructed bladders. On the other hand, the expression of the BK channel ?4-subunit was decreased as the severity of BOO-induced bladder overactivity progressed. In detrusor smooth muscle strips from obstructed bladders, blockade of BK channels by iberiotoxin (IbTx) or charybdotoxin (CTx) and blockade of SK channels by apamin increased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions. These blockers also increased the contractility and affinity of these strips for carbachol during cumulative applications. The facilitatory effects elicited by these K+ channel blockers were larger in the strips from obstructed bladders compared with control bladders. These results suggest that long-term exposure to BOO for 6 wk enhances the function of both BK and SK types of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in the detrusor smooth muscle to induce an inhibition of bladder contractility, which might be a compensatory mechanism to reduce BOO-induced bladder overactivity. PMID:20200132

Yunoki, Takakazu; Takimoto, Koichi; Miyazato, Minoru; Kita, Kaori; de Groat, William C.; Kakizaki, Hidehiro; Yoshimura, Naoki



Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels  


A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

Mitlitsky, Fred (1125 Canton Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Myers, Blake (4650 Almond Cir., Livermore, CA 94550); Magnotta, Frank (1206 Bacon Way, Lafayette, CA 94549)



Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels  


A lightweight, low permeability liner is described for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using tori spherical or near tori spherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film sealed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life. 19 figs.

Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Magnotta, F.



Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

Vicroy, D. D.; Knox, C. E.



Evaluating Prescription Drugs Used to Treat Overactive Bladder  


... We chose the following as Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs to treat overactive bladder—if you and ... Overactive Bladder: Drug Comparison Chart* Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs are in blue. We recommend these drugs ...



EPA Science Inventory

MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...


Optimization of debris removal during bladder irrigation.  


Debris build-up within the bladder is one of the main problems encountered by patients undergoing long term catheterization. One of the methods of ameliorating this is to wash out the bladder at regular intervals. In this paper, an alternative method of bladder irrigation is investigated experimentally. The effectiveness of several possible catheter designs has been examined, together with other relevant variables such as the proximity and alignment of the tube tip to the debris and the irrigation flow rate. Results show that debris removal is very sensitive to tube design, with best designs achieving almost complete removal and the worst practically none. The proprietary continuous irrigation catheter used was particularly poor for the type of debris used. Removal is insensitive to the distance of the tube tip from the bladder base up to a limiting value, above which it reduces rapidly. Where misalignment causes the inlet jet to miss the debris, removal rates are very low. Increasing flow rate increases removal up to a limiting value, above which it remains constant. Although the results show the general trends, to optimize the system requires further understanding of the detailed flow patterns within the bladder. A theoretical study using computational fluid dynamics is thus being undertaken. PMID:11556672

Coveney, V A; Godfrey, H; Mahieu, M; May, A P



Surgical management of bladder stones: literature review.  


Bladder stones are rare and most cases occur in adult men with bladder outlet obstruction. Currently, there are few data on the best treatment of this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss some aspects of pathogenesis and treatment approaches for bladder lithiasis. A comprehensive search of the database of the "National Library of Medicine" /pubmed was conducted with the following key words and descriptors: "bladder" or "vesical" associated with "calculus", "stone" or "lithiasis", and "cistolithotripsy ". One hundred and seventy-one articles were identified. The articles were independently assessed by two reviewers with expertise in urolithiasis. They were included in the study when the results, complications and follow-up were clearly reported. In the end, 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several options for the treatment of bladder lithiasis are available, but no randomized trials comparing them. Different rates of calculus-free patients are described in each of them, as follows: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (75-100%), transurethral cistolithotripsy (63-100%), percutaneous cistolithotripsy (89-100%) and open surgery (100 %). The percutaneous approach has lower morbidity, with similar results to the transurethral treatment, while extracorporeal lithotripsy has the lowest rate of elimination of calculi and is reserved for patients at high surgical risk. PMID:23912371

Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Danilovic, Alexandre; Coelho, Rafael Ferreira; Srougi, Miguel



Experimental constraints on the Skaergaard liquid line of descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New experimental information permits a forward approach to modeling the liquid line of descent of the Skaergaard intrusion. A series of melting experiments on chilled margins of evolved tholeiitic and ferrobasaltic dikes associated with the intrusion is, in combination with existing data, used to develop quantitative crystallization models that allow liquid and solid compositions to be predicted for initial magma compositions and crystallization conditions open or closed with respect to oxygen. The new experimental results comprise 6 experiments with melts coexisting with plagioclase and olivine, 29 experiments in addition containing augite, 14 experiments in addition containing ilmenite and/or magnetite, and 6 experiments in addition containing pigeonite and sometimes lacking olivine. All melting experiments were done at atmospheric pressure and with a furnace gas mostly controlled to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz oxygen buffer (FMQ). Using these experimental results, the melt evolution can be constrained for the layered series of the Skaergaard intrusion. Fractionation of a LZa troctolitic assemblage drives the residual liquid toward increasing iron with slight increase in silica. The appearance of augite as an abundant mineral phase in the LZb and the fractionation of a gabbroic assemblage adjust the liquid trend to one of slightly decreasing silica with continued strong increase in iron. Silica decline is principally dependent on the crystallization of augite and restricted to LZb. The appearance of Fe-Ti oxide minerals and the fractionation of Fe-Ti oxide gabbroic assemblages in LZc deflect the evolution trends of iron and silica. The modeling based on the experimental results suggests marked LZc-MZ silica enrichment concurrently with increasing iron content until upper MZ and thereafter relatively constant or slightly decreasing iron. The iron concentration level at which the deflection in iron and silica contents occurs is dependent on several factors of which the oxygen fugacity ( fO 2) has the strongest effect. Because of the restricted variation in fO 2 modeled in LZ (˜ 0.1 log unit above FMQ), the saturation of oxide minerals and the liquid line of descent are unlikely to deviate strongly from the predicted variation based on open system experimental conditions. For the same reason, there is no support for the suggestion that widely different LZc oxide mineral modes will result from crystallization conditions closed with respect to oxygen as opposed to the experimental conditions. Modeling based on the new experimental result suggests that iron can continue to increase through LZc, past the appearance of Fe-Ti oxides, and supports the possibility that iron may have continued to increase well into MZ. However, the forward modeling supports only a modest MZ and UZ decrease in fO 2 (< 1 log unit below FMQ). This result is supported by a good correspondence between the experimental modes and the actual observed gabbro modes. A marked UZ drop in fO 2 (˜ 2-3 log units below FMQ), as has been suggested, requires relatively high total modal content of Fe-Ti oxides (> 20 wt.%) and dominating magnetite over ilmenite not permitted based on the experimental observations. Such high oxide modes will always result in liquid lines of descent that are characterized by strong enrichment in silica with strong depletion in iron. The forward modeling illustrates that only for unrealistic small amounts of Fe-Ti oxide minerals will iron enrichment accompany silica depletion into UZ.

Thy, P.; Lesher, C. E.; Nielsen, T. F. D.; Brooks, C. K.



Tissue engineering of rat bladder using marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and bladder acellular matrix.  


Bladder replacement or augmentation is required in congenital malformations or following trauma or cancer. The current surgical solution involves enterocystoplasty but is associated with high complication rates. Strategies for bladder tissue engineering are thus actively sought to address this unmet clinical need. Because of the poor efficacy of synthetic polymers, the use of bladder acellular matrix (BAM) has been proposed. Indeed when cellular components are removed from xenogenic or allogeneic bladders, the extracellular matrix scaffold thus obtained can be used alone or in combination with stem cells. In this study, we propose the use of BAM seeded with marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bladder tissue engineering. We optimized a protocol for decellularization of bladder tissue from different species including rat, rabbit and swine. We demonstrate the use of non-ionic detergents followed by nuclease digestion results in efficient decellularization while preserving the extracellular matrix. When MSCs were seeded on acellular matrix scaffold, they remained viable and proliferative while adopting a cellular phenotype consistent with their microenvironment. Upon transplantation in rats after partial cystectomy, MSC-seeded BAM proved superior to unseeded BAM with animals recovering nearly 100% normal bladder capacity for up to six months. Histological analyses also demonstrated increased muscle regeneration. PMID:25437001

Coutu, Daniel L; Mahfouz, Wally; Loutochin, Oleg; Galipeau, Jacques; Corcos, Jacques



Tissue Engineering of Rat Bladder Using Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Bladder Acellular Matrix  

PubMed Central

Bladder replacement or augmentation is required in congenital malformations or following trauma or cancer. The current surgical solution involves enterocystoplasty but is associated with high complication rates. Strategies for bladder tissue engineering are thus actively sought to address this unmet clinical need. Because of the poor efficacy of synthetic polymers, the use of bladder acellular matrix (BAM) has been proposed. Indeed when cellular components are removed from xenogenic or allogeneic bladders, the extracellular matrix scaffold thus obtained can be used alone or in combination with stem cells. In this study, we propose the use of BAM seeded with marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bladder tissue engineering. We optimized a protocol for decellularization of bladder tissue from different species including rat, rabbit and swine. We demonstrate the use of non-ionic detergents followed by nuclease digestion results in efficient decellularization while preserving the extracellular matrix. When MSCs were seeded on acellular matrix scaffold, they remained viable and proliferative while adopting a cellular phenotype consistent with their microenvironment. Upon transplantation in rats after partial cystectomy, MSC-seeded BAM proved superior to unseeded BAM with animals recovering nearly 100% normal bladder capacity for up to six months. Histological analyses also demonstrated increased muscle regeneration. PMID:25437001

Loutochin, Oleg; Galipeau, Jacques; Corcos, Jacques



Fibromyxoma of the femoral neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of fibromyxoma of the long bone is presented. This benign bone tumor is more often found in the bones of the jaw, but is a rare lesion in extragnathic bones. In the presented case of a 28-year-old man the tumor was situated in the right femoral neck. In the roentgenograms it showed a cast-like osteolytic defect with unclear

C. P. Adler



A rare case of solitary fibrous tumour of the bladder  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumour of the bladder is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm with a favourable prognosis. Its symptoms are usually secondary to obstructive symptoms rather than hematuria or other findings typical of other bladder neoplasms. We describe a case of solitary fibrous tumour of the bladder and review the literature. PMID:25210562

Otta, Renan Javier; Acosta, Marco Antonio; Gordillo, Carlos



Stretch-regulated Exocytosis\\/Endocytosis in Bladder Umbrella Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelium of the urinary bladder must maintain a highly impermeable barrier despite large variations in urine volume during bladder filling and voiding. To study how the epithelium accommodates these volume changes, we mounted bladder tissue in modified Ussing chambers and subjected the tissue to mechanical stretch. Stretching the tissue for 5 h resulted in a 50% increase in lumenal

Steven T. Truschel; Edward Wang; Wily G. Ruiz; Som-Ming Leung; Raul Rojas; John Lavelle; Mark Zeidel; David Stoffer; Gerard Apodaca



Profiling the Evolution of Human Metastatic Bladder Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary metastases frequently develop in patients with aggressive bladder cancer, yet investigation of this process at the molecular level suffers from the poor availability of human metastatic tumor tissue and the absence of suitable animal models. To address this, we developed progressively more metastatic human bladder cancer cell lines and an in vivo bladder-cancer lung-metastasis model, and we successfully used

Brian E. Nicholson; Henry F. Frierson; Mark R. Conaway; Jabed M. Seraj; Michael A. Harding; Garret M. Hampton; Dan Theodorescu



Hydrostatic pressure-regulated ion transport in bladder uroepithelium  

E-print Network

Hydrostatic pressure-regulated ion transport in bladder uroepithelium Edward C. Y. Wang,1,2 Jey Bridges, and Gerard Apodaca. Hydrostatic pressure-regulated ion transport in bladder uroepithelium. Am J.2002.--The effect of hydrostatic pressure on ion transport in the bladder uroepithelium was investigated

Apodaca, Gerard


Bladder cancer: the molecular progression to invasive disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigations have given a clearer insight into the genetic progression of bladder cancer. In this review we identify the clinical courses of bladder cancer, review the basic concepts of carcinogenesis, and focus on the specific cytogenetic and molecular alterations observed in bladder cancer. Progression models to superficial and invasive disease are discussed.

A. R. Simoneau; P. A. Jones



Neural reconstruction methods of restoring bladder function  

PubMed Central

During the past century, diverse studies have focused on the development of surgical strategies to restore function of a decentralized bladder after spinal cord or spinal root injury via repair of the original roots or by transferring new axonal sources. The techniques included end-to-end sacral root repairs, transfer of roots from other spinal segments to sacral roots, transfer of intercostal nerves to sacral roots, transfer of various somatic nerves to the pelvic or pudendal nerve, direct reinnervation of the detrusor muscle, or creation of an artificial reflex pathway between the skin and the bladder via the central nervous system. All of these surgical techniques have demonstrated specific strengths and limitations. The findings made to date already indicate appropriate patient populations for each procedure, but a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of each technique to restore urinary function after bladder decentralization is required to guide future research and potential clinical application. PMID:25666987

Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M.; Barbe, Mary F.; de Groat, William C.; Brown, Justin M.; Tuite, Gerald F.; Corcos, Jacques; Fecho, Susan B.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.



Bladder cancer: smoking, beverages and artificial sweeteners  

PubMed Central

A matched patient-control study of bladder cancer examined the relationship of the disease to occupation, smoking and intake of tea, coffee, cola, alcohol and artificial sweeteners. There was no association of disease with occupation for these patients. Heavy smoking gave relative risks of 6.37 and 4.36 for men and women respectively; there was evidence of a dose-response relationship. Tea and coffee intake did not increase the risk of disease nor did prolonged use of artificial sweeteners. Alcohol and cola intake increased the relative risk of bladder cancer among male smokers. There is some suggestion that smoking interacts with both alcohol and cola intake in the production of bladder cancer. PMID:4429932

Morgan, Robert W.; Jain, Meera G.



A new paradigm in chronic bladder pain.  


ABSTRACT The concept of visceral pain has moved from organ-centered disease to a conceptualization based on pathophysiological mechanisms, integrating psychosocial and sexual dimensions. The terms painful bladder syndrome and bladder pain syndrome have been coined to include all patients with bladder pain. There is substantial overlap between IC/BPS and other pelvic/abdominal pain syndromes IC/BPS is likely to be underdiagnosed and undertreated in both men and women IC/BPS requires a multidisciplinary team approach toward management. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 2, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. Paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the website: at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication. PMID:25348226

Wesselmann, Ursula



Bladder volume estimation from electrical impedance tomography.  


Non-invasive estimation of bladder volume is required to progress from scheduled voiding to a demand-driven emptying scheme for patients with impaired bladder volume sensation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a promising candidate for the non-invasive monitoring of bladder volume. This article focuses on four estimation algorithms used to map recorded EIT data to a volume estimate. Two different approaches are presented: the tomographic algorithms (one based on global impedance, the other on equivalent circular diameter) rely on the reconstruction of a tomographic image and then extract a volume estimate, whereas the parametric algorithms (one based on neural networks, the other on the singular value difference method) directly map the raw data to a volume estimate. The four algorithms presented here are evaluated for volume estimation error, noise tolerance and suppression of varying urine conductivity based on finite element simulation data. PMID:25139037

Schlebusch, T; Nienke, S; Leonhardt, S; Walter, M



Bladder Leiomyoma Presenting With LUTS and Coexisting Bladder and Uterine Leiomyomata: A Review of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal tumors of the urinary bladder are a rare occurrence, the most common among them being leiomyoma of the bladder. These tumors commonly present with irritative urinary symptoms progressing gradually to obstructive symptoms as the size increases. We report on two patients who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). One of the patients also had concomitant bladder and uterine leiomyomata, which is the first such case to be reported in the literature. It is essential to differentiate leiomyoma from other common causes of LUTS. Cold cup biopsy has a significant false-negative rate and, in such cases, a wide local excision provides an optimal cure with excellent results. PMID:24791156

Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Tanwar, Raman; Mitra, Aparajita



A conflict analysis of 4D descent strategies in a metered, multiple-arrival route environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conflict analysis was performed on multiple arrival traffic at a typical metered airport. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to simulate arrival operations using Denver Stapleton's arrival route structure. Sensitivities of conflict performance to three different 4-D descent strategies (clear-idle Mach/Constant AirSpeed (CAS), constant descent angle Mach/CAS and energy optimal) were examined for three traffic mixes represented by those found at Denver Stapleton, John F. Kennedy and typical en route metering (ERM) airports. The Monte Carlo technique was used to generate simulation entry point times. Analysis results indicate that the clean-idle descent strategy offers the best compromise in overall performance. Performance measures primarily include susceptibility to conflict and conflict severity. Fuel usage performance is extrapolated from previous descent strategy studies.

Izumi, K. H.; Harris, C. S.



A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities  

E-print Network

A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and the choices of cost approximating mappings and merit functions. The* * taxonomy is illustrated on classical algorithms and is utilized to interrelate known alg* *orithm frameworks. Keywords. Taxonomy

Patriksson, Michael


Antarctic Polar Descent and Planetary Wave Activity Observed in ISAMS CO from April to July 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Antarctic polar descent and planetary wave activity in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere are observed in ISAMS CO data from April to July 1992. CO-derived mean April-to-May upper stratosphere descent rates of 15 K/day (0.25 km/day) at 60 S and 20 K/day (0.33 km/day) at 80 S are compared with descent rates from diabatic trajectory analyses. At 60 S there is excellent agreement, while at 80 S the trajectory-derived descent is significantly larger in early April. Zonal wavenumber 1 enhancement of CO is observed on 9 and 28 May, coincident with enhanced wave 1 in UKMO geopotential height. The 9 May event extends from 40 to 70 km and shows westward phase tilt with height, while the 28 May event extends from 40 to 50 km and shows virtually no phase tilt with height.

Allen, D. R.; Stanford, J. L.; Nakamura, N.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Taylor, F. W.; Remedios, J. J.



User's manual for a fuel-conservative descent planning algorithm implemented on a small programmable calculator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. An explanation and examples of how the algorithm is used, as well as a detailed flow chart and listing of the algorithm are contained.

Vicroy, D. D.



Distributed Algorithms for Multicommodity Flow Problems via Approximate Steepest Descent Framework  

E-print Network

Distributed Algorithms for Multicommodity Flow Problems via Approximate Steepest Descent Framework Baruch Awerbuch Rohit Khandekar Satish Rao Abstract We consider solutions for distributed multicommodity dimensionality. One classical ex- ample is multicommodity flow: there is an exponential number of paths, yet

Amir, Yair


Development of a Mars Airplane Entry, Descent, and Flight Trajectory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An entry, descent, and flight (EDF) trajectory profile for a Mars airplane mission is defined as consisting of the following elements: ballistic entry of an aeroshell; supersonic deployment of a decelerator parachute; subsonic release of a heat shield; release, unfolding, and orientation of an airplane to flight attitude; and execution of a pull up maneuver to achieve trimmed, horizontal flight. Using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) a trajectory optimization problem was formulated. Model data representative of a specific Mars airplane configuration, current models of the Mars surface topography and atmosphere, and current estimates of the interplanetary trajectory, were incorporated into the analysis. The goal is to develop an EDF trajectory to maximize the surface-relative altitude of the airplane at the end of a pull up maneuver, while subject to the mission design constraints. The trajectory performance was evaluated for three potential mission sites and was found to be site-sensitive. The trajectory performance, examined for sensitivity to a number of design and constraint variables, was found to be most sensitive to airplane mass, aerodynamic performance characteristics, and the pull up Mach constraint. Based on the results of this sensitivity study, an airplane-drag optimized trajectory was developed that showed a significant performance improvement.

Murray, James E.; Tartabini, Paul V.



HLA Type Inference via Haplotypes Identical by Descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes play a major role in adaptive immune response and are used to differentiate self antigens from non self ones. HLA genes are hyper variable with nearly every locus harboring over a dozen alleles. This variation plays an important role in susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases and needs to be matched on for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, HLA typing by serological methods is time consuming and expensive compared to high throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data. We present a new computational method to infer per-locus HLA types using shared segments Identical By Descent (IBD), inferred from SNP genotype data. IBD information is modeled as graph where shared haplotypes are explored among clusters of individuals with known and unknown HLA types to identify the latter. We analyze performance of the method in a previously typed subset of the HapMap population, achieving accuracy of 96% in HLA-A, 94% in HLA-B, 95% in HLA-C, 77% in HLA-DR1, 93% in HLA-DQA1 and 90% in HLA-DQB1 genes. We compare our method to a tag SNP based approach and demonstrate higher sensitivity and specificity. Our method demonstrates the power of using shared haplotype segments for large-scale imputation at the HLA locus.

Setty, Manu N.; Gusev, Alexander; Pe'Er, Itsik


Race, language, and mental evolution in Darwin's descent of man.  


Charles Darwin was notoriously ambiguous in his remarks about the relationship between human evolution and biological race. He stressed the original unity of the races, yet he also helped to popularize the notion of a racial hierarchy filling the gaps between the highest anthropoids and civilized Europeans. A focus on Darwin's explanation of how humans initially evolved, however, shows that he mainly stressed not hierarchy but a version of humanity's original mental unity. In his book The Descent of Man, Darwin emphasized a substantial degree of mental development (including the incipient use of language) in the early, monogenetic phase of human evolution. This development, he argued, necessarily came before primeval man's numerical increase, geographic dispersion, and racial diversification, because only thus could one explain how that group was able to spread at the expense of rival ape-like populations. This scenario stood opposed to a new evolutionary polygenism formulated in the wake of Darwin's Origin of Species by his ostensible supporters Alfred Russel Wallace and Ernst Haeckel. Darwin judged this outlook inadequate to the task of explaining humanity's emergence. PMID:17623873

Alter, Stephen G



Evolution and ecology of directed aerial descent in arboreal ants.  


Directed aerial descent (DAD) is used by a variety of arboreal animals to escape predators, to remain in the canopy, and to access resources. Here, we build upon the discovery of DAD in ants of tropical canopies by summarizing its known phylogenetic distribution among ant genera, and within both the subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae and the genus Cephalotes. DAD has multiple evolutionary origins in ants, occurring independently in numerous genera in the subfamilies Myrmicinae, Formicinae, and Pseudomyrmecinae. Ablation experiments and video recordings of ants in a vertical wind tunnel showed that DAD in Cephalotes atratus is achieved via postural changes, specifically orientation of the legs and gaster. The occurrence of DAD in Formicinae indicates that the presence of a postpetiole is not essential for the behavior. Evidence to date indicates that gliding behavior is accomplished by visual targeting mediated by the compound eyes, and is restricted to diurnally active ants that nest in trees. Occlusion of ocelli in Pseudomyrmex gracilis workers had no effect on their success or performance in gliding. Experimental assessment of the fate of ants that fall to the understory showed that ants landing in water are 15 times more likely to suffer lethal attacks than are ants landing in leaf litter. Variation in both the aerodynamic mechanisms and selective advantages of DAD merits further study given the broad taxonomic diversity of arboreal ants that engage in this intriguing form of flight. PMID:21562023

Yanoviak, Stephen P; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert



Minimum Landing Error Powered-Descent Guidance for Planetary Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm improves the accuracy with which a lander can be delivered to the surface of Mars. The main idea behind this innovation is the use of a lossless convexification, which converts an otherwise non-convex constraint related to thruster throttling to a convex constraint, enabling convex optimization to be used. The convexification leads directly to an algorithm that guarantees finding the global optimum of the original nonconvex optimization problem with a deterministic upper bound on the number of iterations required for convergence. In this innovation, previous work in powered-descent guidance using convex optimization is extended to handle the case where the lander must get as close as possible to the target given the available fuel, but is not required to arrive exactly at the target. The new algorithm calculates the minimum-fuel trajectory to the target, if one exists, and calculates the trajectory that minimizes the distance to the target if no solution to the target exists. This approach poses the problem as two Second-Order Cone Programs, which can be solved to global optimality with deterministic bounds on the number of iterations required.

Blackmore, Lars; Acikmese, Behcet



Estimating Controller Intervention Probabilities for Optimized Profile Descent Arrivals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulations of arrival traffic at Dallas/Fort-Worth and Denver airports were conducted to evaluate incorporating scheduling and separation constraints into advisories that define continuous descent approaches. The goal was to reduce the number of controller interventions required to ensure flights maintain minimum separation distances of 5 nmi horizontally and 1000 ft vertically. It was shown that simply incorporating arrival meter fix crossing-time constraints into the advisory generation could eliminate over half of the all predicted separation violations and more than 80% of the predicted violations between two arrival flights. Predicted separation violations between arrivals and non-arrivals were 32% of all predicted separation violations at Denver and 41% at Dallas/Fort-Worth. A probabilistic analysis of meter fix crossing-time errors is included which shows that some controller interventions will still be required even when the predicted crossing-times of the advisories are set to add a 1 or 2 nmi buffer above the minimum in-trail separation of 5 nmi. The 2 nmi buffer was shown to increase average flight delays by up to 30 sec when compared to the 1 nmi buffer, but it only resulted in a maximum decrease in average arrival throughput of one flight per hour.

Meyn, Larry A.; Erzberger, Heinz; Huynh, Phu V.



Perioperative management of classic bladder exstrophy  

PubMed Central

The exstrophy-epispadias complex is a rare congenital malformation of the genitourinary system, abdominal wall muscles, and pelvic structures. Modern surgical repairs focus on reconstruction of the bladder and its adjacent structures, with the goal of achieving urinary continence, a satisfactory cosmetic result, and a high quality of life. Complex surgery in neonates and young children, as well as a prolonged postoperative course require close collaboration between surgeons, anesthesiologists, intensivists, pediatricians, and an experienced nursing staff. This article will review the spectrum of bladder exstrophy anomalies, the surgical repair, and the perioperative interdisciplinary management. PMID:24400236

Massanyi, Eric Z; Gearhart, John P; Kost-Byerly, Sabine



Bladder Perforation Secondary to Primary Systemic Amyloidosis  

PubMed Central

Amyloidosis is a disorder of protein folding characterized by extracellular aggregation and deposition of amyloid protein fibrils. Light-chain amyloidosis, also known as primary systemic amyloidosis, is the most common form of the disease. We present a case of an 84-year-old male with a history of systemic primary amyloidosis causing genitourinary, cardiac, and autonomic dysfunction who presented with hematuria and hypotension secondary to bladder perforation. He underwent open repair of a large extraperitoneal bladder defect. He ultimately died as a result of medical complications from his disease. PMID:25587481

Dru, Christopher J.; Feng, Tom S.; Kim, Howard H.



Vision-Aided Inertial Navigation for Spacecraft Entry, Descent, and Landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the vision-aided inertial navigation (VISINAV) algorithm that enables precision planetary landing. The vision front-end of the VISINAV system extracts 2-D-to-3-D correspondences between descent images and a surface map (mapped landmarks), as well as 2-D-to-2-D feature tracks through a sequence of descent images (opportunistic features). An extended Kalman filter (EKF) tightly integrates both types of visual

Anastasios I. Mourikis; Nikolas Trawny; Stergios I. Roumeliotis; Andrew Edie Johnson; Adnan Ansar; Larry Matthies



Combination Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer

No standard therapy currently exists for head and neck cancer that recurs after treatment with radiation. Laboratory studies have shown that bortezomib (Velcade), a new type of cancer drug called a proteasome inhibitor, inhibits growth of head and neck cancer cells. This clinical study is the first test of whether bortezomib can increase the effectiveness of repeat radiation treatment for patients whose head and neck cancer has recurred.


Treatment of neglected femoral neck fracture  

PubMed Central

Intra-capsular femoral neck fractures are seen commonly in elderly people following a low energy trauma. Femoral neck fracture has a devastating effect on the blood supply of the femoral head, which is directly proportional to the severity of trauma and displacement of the fracture. Various authors have described a wide array of options for treatment of neglected/nonunion (NU) femoral neck fracture. There is lack of consensus in general, regarding the best option. This Instructional course article is an analysis of available treatment options used for neglected femoral neck fracture in the literature and attempt to suggest treatment guides for neglected femoral neck fracture. We conducted the “Pubmed” search with the keywords “NU femoral neck fracture and/or neglected femoral neck fracture, muscle-pedicle bone graft in femoral neck fracture, fibular graft in femoral neck fracture and valgus osteotomy in femoral neck fracture.” A total of 203 print articles were obtained as the search result. Thirty three articles were included in the analysis and were categorized into four subgroups based on treatment options. (a) treated by muscle-pedicle bone grafting (MPBG), (b) closed/open reduction internal fixation and fibular grafting (c) open reduction and internal fixation with valgus osteotomy, (d) miscellaneous procedures. The data was pooled from all groups for mean neglect, the type of study (prospective or retrospective), classification used, procedure performed, mean followup available, outcome, complications, and reoperation if any. The outcome of neglected femoral neck fracture depends on the duration of neglect, as the changes occurring in the fracture area and fracture fragments decides the need and type of biological stimulus required for fracture union. In stage I and stage II (Sandhu's staging) neglected femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis with open reduction and bone grafting with MPBG or Valgus Osteotomy achieves fracture union in almost 90% cases. However, in stage III with or without AVN, the results of osteosynthesis are poor and the choice of treatment is replacement arthroplasty (hemi or total). PMID:25593354

Jain, Anil K; Mukunth, R; Srivastava, Amit



Robotic surgery for head and neck cancer.  


During the last decade, robotic surgery has evolved from a novelty to the preferred surgical method for urologic, gynecologic, thoracic, cardiothoracic, and gastrointestinal procedures. The use of robotics in head and neck surgery grew out of the success of other transoral surgical modalities used to remove head and neck tumors. This article reviews the evolution of head and neck surgery, the current capabilities of surgical robots, and anticipated future applications of this technology. PMID:22413648

Moore, Eric J; Price, Daniel L



Immunology of Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The immune system plays a key role in the ­progression of head and neck cancer. A greater understanding of the important contribution\\u000a of the dysregulation and evasion of the immune system in the development and evolution of head and neck cancers should lead\\u000a to improved therapies and outcomes for patients. Head and neck cancer evades the host immune system through

Steve C. Lee; Robert L. Ferris


Direct and remote constriction of membrane necks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical properties of membrane necks are relevant in vesiculation, a process that plays an essential role in cellular physiology. Because the neck's radius is, in general, finite, membrane scission and the consequent pinching off of the vesicle can only occur if it is narrowed to permit the necessary membrane topological reformation. Here we examine, in a simple single phase lipid vesicle, how external forces can promote neck constriction not only by direct compression at the neck but also, counterintuitively, by dilation at remote locations. These results provide a new perspective on the role played by actin polymerization in the process of endocytosis.

Boži?, Bojan; Guven, Jemal; Vázquez-Montejo, Pablo; Svetina, Saša



Ultrasound bladder vibrometry method for measuring viscoelasticity of the bladder wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increase in bladder stiffness could be associated with various pathophysiologic conditions. Measuring bladder viscoelasticity could be an important step towards understanding various disease processes and improving patient care. Here, we introduce ultrasound bladder vibrometry (UBV), a novel method for rapid and noninvasive measurement of bladder wall viscoelasticity. UBV uses acoustic radiation force to excite mechanical waves in the bladder wall and track the motion using ultrasound pulse-echo techniques. Fourier domain analysis of the tissue motion versus time is used to calculate the phase velocity dispersion (change of phase velocity as a function of frequency). The measured phase velocity dispersion is fit with the antisymmetric Lamb wave model to estimate tissue elasticity and viscosity. We used finite element analysis of viscoelastic plate deformation to investigate the effect of curvature on Lamb wave dispersion and showed that the effects of curvature are negligible. The feasibility of the UBV technique was demonstrated in ex vivo and in vivo settings. Elasticity and viscosity of excised pig at various filling volumes (V) and pressures (p) were found to be µ1 = 9.6 kPa and µ2 = 0.2 Pa s (V = 187 ml and p = 8.6 mmHg), µ1 = 48.7 kPa and µ2 = 3.5 Pa s (V = 267 ml and p = 17.6 mmHg), and µ1 = 106.9 kPa and µ2 = 1.5 Pa s (V = 327 ml and p = 27.6 mmHg) respectively. Transabdominal measurements in an anesthetized pig found values of bladder elasticity µ1 = 26.1 kPa and viscosity µ2 = 0.9 Pa s and demonstrate the ability of UBV to perform in vivo measurements. The results presented in this paper introduce a novel technique for measuring mechanical properties of the bladder and lay the foundation for further investigation of the effects of pathology on bladder viscoelasticity.

Nenadic, Ivan Z.; Qiang, Bo; Urban, Matthew W.; Henrique de Araujo Vasconcelo, Luiz; Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F.; Fatemi, Mostafa



Ultrasound bladder vibrometry method for measuring viscoelasticity of the bladder wall.  


Increase in bladder stiffness could be associated with various pathophysiologic conditions. Measuring bladder viscoelasticity could be an important step towards understanding various disease processes and improving patient care. Here, we introduce ultrasound bladder vibrometry (UBV), a novel method for rapid and noninvasive measurement of bladder wall viscoelasticity. UBV uses acoustic radiation force to excite mechanical waves in the bladder wall and track the motion using ultrasound pulse-echo techniques. Fourier domain analysis of the tissue motion versus time is used to calculate the phase velocity dispersion (change of phase velocity as a function of frequency). The measured phase velocity dispersion is fit with the antisymmetric Lamb wave model to estimate tissue elasticity and viscosity. We used finite element analysis of viscoelastic plate deformation to investigate the effect of curvature on Lamb wave dispersion and showed that the effects of curvature are negligible. The feasibility of the UBV technique was demonstrated in ex vivo and in vivo settings. Elasticity and viscosity of excised pig at various filling volumes (V) and pressures (p) were found to be µ1 = 9.6 kPa and µ2 = 0.2 Pa s (V = 187 ml and p = 8.6 mmHg), µ1 = 48.7 kPa and µ2 = 3.5 Pa s (V = 267 ml and p = 17.6 mmHg), and µ1 = 106.9 kPa and µ2 = 1.5 Pa s (V = 327 ml and p = 27.6 mmHg) respectively. Transabdominal measurements in an anesthetized pig found values of bladder elasticity µ1 = 26.1 kPa and viscosity µ2 = 0.9 Pa s and demonstrate the ability of UBV to perform in vivo measurements. The results presented in this paper introduce a novel technique for measuring mechanical properties of the bladder and lay the foundation for further investigation of the effects of pathology on bladder viscoelasticity. PMID:23552842

Nenadic, Ivan Z; Qiang, Bo; Urban, Matthew W; de Araujo Vasconcelo, Luiz Henrique; Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F; Fatemi, Mostafa



Infantile neuroblastoma of the urinary bladder detected by hematuria.  


Malignant tumors of the urinary bladder in infants are extremely rare. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most likely tumor in this site, whereas neuroblastoma of the urinary bladder is exceedingly uncommon and is not listed as a differential diagnosis for tumors of this site. We present a case of neuroblastoma arising from the dome of the bladder wall, detected by hematuria. Only six cases of neuroblastoma originating from the bladder, including the present case have been reported. Of the cases, five arose from the dome of the bladder wall. In this report, the differential diagnosis of bladder tumors in children is discussed. A diagnosis of neuroblastoma should be taken into consideration, especially in the case of tumors arising from the dome of the bladder wall despite an uncommon location. PMID:23543098

Kojima, Shin-ichiro; Yagi, Minoru; Asagiri, Kimio; Fukahori, Suguru; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Shinji; Saikusa, Nobuyuki; Koga, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Motomu; Masui, Daisuke; Komatsuzaki, Naoko; Nakagawa, Shin-ichiro; Ozono, Shuichi; Tanikawa, Ken



The pitfalls of BladderScan™ PVR in evaluating bladder volume in adolescent females.  


Post-void residual (PVR) determination is an integral part of the evaluation of children presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms. Historically the PVR volume has been obtained by urinary catheterization after the child has voided, however, with the advent of ultrasound technology, PVR was determined in a noninvasive fashion by radiology personnel. Currently, PVR determinations may be obtained by healthcare personnel (without specialized training) using a portable, self calculating ultrasound; the BladderScan. While BladderScan PVR has been shown to be accurate and reproducible, it cannot differentiate between a distended bladder and other cystic pelvic structures. Several case reports have been published illustrating falsely elevated PVRs by bladder scan in adults with cystic pelvic structures. We present two adolescent females with LUTS who had falsely elevated PVRs by bladder scan, who, subsequently, underwent formal imaging to identify ovarian cystic pathology. To our knowledge, this is the first report of falsely elevated bladder scan PVR in children related to cystic pelvic organ pathology. PMID:21071280

Elsamra, Sammy E; Gordon, Zachary; Ellsworth, Pamela I



How frequent are overactive bladder symptoms in women with urodynamic verification of an overactive bladder?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the relationship between overactive bladder symptoms and urodynamic verification of overactive bladder. Material and Methods Between June 2011 and November 2011, 159 patients underwent urodynamics (UDS) at our urogynecology unit in the Ege University Hospital. Of these, 95 patients who complained of urgency, did not have any overt neurological diseases, bladder outlet obstruction and did not take any medication affecting the lower urinary tract function were evaluated. SPSS (ver. 15.0) was used to evaluate the data and the chi-square test and t test for independent samples were used for analysis. Results The mean age was found to be 54.5±12. Frequency was the most frequent symptom in women with overactive bladder (OAB) (82.1%), nocturia (57.8%) and (57.8%) urgency urinary incontinence followed in frequency. Detrusor over activity incidence was found to be 38.9%. There was no significant relationship between the presence of detrusor over activity (DOA) and OAB symptoms. Leak at urodynamics was found in 46.3% and there is no significant association with detrusor overactivity. Total bladder capacity was found to be significantly lower in women who had DOA (p=0.000). Conclusion It appears that overactive bladder symptoms do not predict detrusor over activity. Urodynamic investigation is not mandatory in the initial management of women with only OAB symptoms. PMID:24592016

Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Ergeno?lu, Mete Ahmet; Meseri, Reci; A?kar, Niyazi; ?til, ?smail Mete



[Cystectomy in the treatment of bladder cancer].  


Radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and urinary diversion is an important component in the treatment of bladder cancer. It is considered the most important method in the therapy for muscle invasive and selected high-risk non-muscle invasive tumours with excellent local control and high complete remission rate. It consists of complete removal of tumour tissue in the bladder, small pelvis and regional lymph nodes. In males, urinary bladder and prostate are routinely removed; in females, bladder, uterus and anterior vaginal wall are removed. Urethrectomy is indicated only in selected situations. An integral part of the operation is the bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. Extravesical disease extension and lymph node positivity are unfavourable prognostic factors. Better prognosis is expected in patients with less than 5 positive nodes. Important prognostic factor is also the number of removed lymph nodes, which is a strong argument for meticulous bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. Lymph node density (number of positive nodes/ number of removed nodes) is considered as very important prognostic factor. Better prognosis can be expected in patients with less positive and more removed nodes. PMID:18020006

Babjuk, M; Hanus, T; Safarík, L; Dvorácek, J; Pavlík, I; Soukup, V; Pesl, M; Szakacsová, M; Dusková, J



Intravesical Treatments of Bladder Cancer: Review  

PubMed Central

For bladder cancer, intravesical chemo/immunotherapy is widely used as adjuvant therapies after surgical transurethal resection, while systemic therapy is typically reserved for higher stage, muscle-invading, or metastatic diseases. The goal of intravesical therapy is to eradicate existing or residual tumors through direct cytoablation or immunostimulation. The unique properties of the urinary bladder render it a fertile ground for evaluating additional novel experimental approaches to regional therapy, including iontophoresis/electrophoresis, local hyperthermia, co-administration of permeation enhancers, bioadhesive carriers, magnetic-targeted particles and gene therapy. Furthermore, due to its unique anatomical properties, the drug concentration-time profiles in various layers of bladder tissues during and after intravesical therapy can be described by mathematical models comprised of drug disposition and transport kinetic parameters. The drug delivery data, in turn, can be combined with the effective drug exposure to infer treatment efficacy and thereby assists the selection of optimal regimens. To our knowledge, intravesical therapy of bladder cancer represents the first example where computational pharmacological approach was used to design, and successfully predicted the outcome of, a randomized phase III trial (using mitomycin C). This review summarizes the pharmacological principles and the current status of intravesical therapy, and the application of computation to optimize the drug delivery to target sites and the treatment efficacy. PMID:18369709

Shen, Zancong; Shen, Tong; Wientjes, M. Guillaume; O’Donnell, Michael A.



Novel endoscopic diagnosis for bladder cancer.  


Advances in endoscopic imaging technology may improve sensitivity for the detection of bladder cancer and provide a more complete understanding of the urothelial landscape, and it also may lead to improved short-term and long-term cancer control. Fluorescence cystoscopy requires intravesical administration of a photosensitizing agent (5-aminolevulinic acid or hexaminolevulinate), and imaging with a blue-light endoscopy system demonstrably improves the detection of papillary and flat bladder lesions compared with conventional white-light cystoscopy. Prospective phase 3 clinical trials have demonstrated improved diagnostic ability, enhanced tumor resection, and a small but significant reduction in recurrence-free survival. Optical coherence tomography delineates subsurface microarchitecture information about bladder lesions in real time and has the ability to discriminate between noninvasive and invasive cancers. Narrow-band imaging may augment white-light cystoscopy by providing increased contrast between normal and abnormal tissue on the basis of neovascularity. Confocal laser endoscopy has been applied to the urinary tract using thinner probes adapted from use in gastrointestinal malignancies and provides exquisite images at microscopic resolution. More technology is on the horizon that may further enhance our ability to detect and accurately stage bladder tumors and distinguish benign from malignant or dysplastic lesions. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society. PMID:25132313

Lerner, Seth P; Goh, Alvin



Bladder leiomyosarcoma: Report of three cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three patients with leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder are presented. One case showed urothelial carcinoma in situ also.\\u000a The mode of presentation and operative findings were similar in two female patients, whereas the lesion seemed to be more\\u000a aggressive in a male patient.

O. Özteke; A. Demirel; N. E. Aydin; L. Memi?



Combination Therapy for Invasive Bladder Cancer

In this clinical trial, patients with invasive bladder cancer who are not suitable for cystectomy will be treated with the drug paclitaxel and daily radiation therapy. Additionally, patients whose tumors test positive for a protein called HER2 will be treated with the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin).


Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.  


Masturbation in childhood is a normal behaviour which most commonly begins at 2 months of age, and peaks at 4 years and in adolescence. However excessive masturbation causes anxiety in parents. We describe a boy with a bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation. PMID:17315592

De Alwis, A C D; Senaratne, A M R D; De Silva, S M P D; Rodrigo, V S D



[What is the best bladder replacement].  


Among the surgical options for bladder replacement proposed after cystectomy, the ileocaecal pouch system has been abandoned for twenty years because of its poor gastrointestinal tolerance. Colonic enterocystoplasty is useful because of the reduced risk of degeneration and fewer repercussions on gastrointestinal absorption. However, replacement with the ileum is today the reference cystoplasty with three main techniques: Hautmann bladder, Studer pouch and Foch Z-shaped pouch. According to the data in the literature, these techniques offer similar overall performances and the results therefore remain mainly operator-dependent. Efficacy in terms of urinary continence is optimized by the preparation of a detubularized neobladder with a "physiological" functional capacity, the preservation of the sphincter as well as perineal-abdominal re-education which is started immediately after surgery. Direct ureteral reimplantation in the detubularized bladder is today an effective and sufficient technique to prevent vesico-renal reflux. Tumor recurrences do not seem be dependent on the type of ureteral reimplantation, nor on the type of initial bladder tumor. Extemporaneous examination of the cross-section of normal urethral section (no tumor, dysplasia, or carcinoma in situ) makes it possible to exclude the risk of urethral recurrence. PMID:16425729

Botto, H



CE Certificate - Urinary Bladder online training

Certificate of Attendance The Participant is hereby granted 2 CEUs for attending the Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules Bladder, Ureter, Renal Pelvis and Other Urinary - Breeze online training NCRA Event Number 2006-246 VtÜÉÄ [t{Ç ]É{ÇáÉÇ


Protein Interactome of Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Muscle invasive bladder carcinoma is a complex, multifactorial disease caused by disruptions and alterations of several molecular pathways that result in heterogeneous phenotypes and variable disease outcome. Combining this disparate knowledge may offer insights for deciphering relevant molecular processes regarding targeted therapeutic approaches guided by molecular signatures allowing improved phenotype profiling. The aim of the study is to characterize muscle invasive bladder carcinoma on a molecular level by incorporating scientific literature screening and signatures from omics profiling. Public domain omics signatures together with molecular features associated with muscle invasive bladder cancer were derived from literature mining to provide 286 unique protein-coding genes. These were integrated in a protein-interaction network to obtain a molecular functional map of the phenotype. This feature map educated on three novel disease-associated pathways with plausible involvement in bladder cancer, namely Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, Neurotrophin signalling pathway and Endocytosis. Systematic integration approaches allow to study the molecular context of individual features reported as associated with a clinical phenotype and could potentially help to improve the molecular mechanistic description of the disorder. PMID:25569276

Bhat, Akshay; Heinzel, Andreas; Mayer, Bernd; Perco, Paul; Mühlberger, Irmgard; Husi, Holger; Merseburger, Axel S.; Zoidakis, Jerome; Vlahou, Antonia; Schanstra, Joost P.; Mischak, Harald; Jankowski, Vera



Assessment of local structural disorders of the bladder wall in partial bladder outlet obstruction using polarized light imaging  

PubMed Central

Partial bladder outlet obstruction causes prominent morphological changes in the bladder wall, which leads to bladder dysfunction. In this paper, we demonstrate that polarized light imaging can be used to identify the location of obstruction induced structural changes that other imaging modalities fail to detect. We induced 2-week and 6-week partial outlet obstruction in rats, harvested obstructed bladders, then measured their retardances while distended to high pressures and compared them to controls. Our results show that the retardance of the central part of the ventral side (above the ureters) closer to the urethra can be used as a potential metric of the distending bladder obstruction. PMID:24575354

Alali, Sanaz; Aitken, Karen J.; Schröder, Annette; Gribble, Adam; Bagli, Darius J.; Vitkin, I. Alex



Atmospheric Environments for Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific measurements of atmospheric properties have been made by a wide variety of planetary flyby missions, orbiters, and landers. Although landers can make in-situ observations of near-surface atmospheric conditions (and can collect atmospheric data during their entry phase), the vast majority of data on planetary atmospheres has been collected by remote sensing techniques from flyby and orbiter spacecraft (and to some extent by Earth-based remote sensing). Many of these remote sensing observations (made over a variety of spectral ranges), consist of vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature as a function of atmospheric pressure level. While these measurements are of great interest to atmospheric scientists and modelers of planetary atmospheres, the primary interest for engineers designing entry descent and landing (EDL) systems is information about atmospheric density as a function of geometric altitude. Fortunately, as described in in this paper, it is possible to use a combination of the gas-law relation and the hydrostatic balance relation to convert temperature-versus-pressure, scientific observations into density-versus-altitude data for use in engineering applications. The following section provides a brief introduction to atmospheric thermodynamics, as well as constituents, and winds for EDL. It also gives methodology for using atmospheric information to do "back-of-the-envelope" calculations of various EDL aeroheating parameters, including peak deceleration rate ("g-load"), peak convective heat rate. and total heat load on EDL spacecraft thermal protection systems. Brief information is also provided about atmospheric variations and perturbations for EDL guidance and control issues, and atmospheric issues for EDL parachute systems. Subsequent sections give details of the atmospheric environments for five destinations for possible EDL missions: Venus. Earth. Mars, Saturn, and Titan. Specific atmospheric information is provided for these destinations, and example results are presented for the "back-of-the-envelope" calculations mentioned above.

Justus, Carl G.; Braun, Robert D.



Pharmacogenomics of warfarin in populations of African descent  

PubMed Central

Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant worldwide despite its narrow therapeutic index and the notorious inter- and intra-individual variability in dose required for the target clinical effect. Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms are major determinants of warfarin pharmacokinetic and dynamics and included in several warfarin dosing algorithms. This review focuses on warfarin pharmacogenomics in sub-Saharan peoples, African Americans and admixed Brazilians. These ‘Black’ populations differ in several aspects, notably their extent of recent admixture with Europeans, a factor which impacts on the frequency distribution of pharmacogenomic polymorphisms relevant to warfarin dose requirement for the target clinical effect. Whereas a small number of polymorphisms in VKORC1 (3673G > A, rs9923231), CYP2C9 (alleles *2 and *3, rs1799853 and rs1057910, respectively) and arguably CYP4F2 (rs2108622), may capture most of the pharmacogenomic influence on warfarin dose variance in White populations, additional polymorphisms in these, and in other, genes (e.g. CALU rs339097) increase the predictive power of pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithms in the Black populations examined. A personalized strategy for initiation of warfarin therapy, allowing for improved safety and cost-effectiveness for populations of African descent must take into account their pharmacogenomic diversity, as well as socio-economical, cultural and medical factors. Accounting for this heterogeneity in algorithms that are ‘friendly’ enough to be adopted by warfarin prescribers worldwide requires gathering information from trials at different population levels, but demands also a critical appraisal of racial/ethnic labels that are commonly used in the clinical pharmacology literature but do not accurately reflect genetic ancestry and population diversity. PMID:22676711

Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Botton, Mariana R



Mars Exploration Rover Entry, Descent, and Landing: A Thermal Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps the most challenging mission phase for the Mars Exploration Rovers was the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). During this phase, the entry vehicle attached to its cruise stage was transformed into a stowed tetrahedral Lander that was surrounded by inflated airbags through a series of complex events. There was only one opportunity to successfully execute an automated command sequence without any possible ground intervention. The success of EDL was reliant upon the system thermal design: 1) to thermally condition EDL hardware from cruise storage temperatures to operating temperature ranges; 2) to maintain the Rover electronics within operating temperature ranges without the benefit of the cruise single phase cooling loop, which had been evacuated in preparation for EDL; and 3) to maintain the cruise stage propulsion components for the critical turn to entry attitude. Since the EDL architecture was inherited from Mars Pathfinder (MPF), the initial EDL thermal design would be inherited from MPF. However, hardware and implementation differences from MPF ultimately changed the MPF inheritance approach for the EDL thermal design. With the lack of full inheritance, the verification and validation of the EDL thermal design took on increased significance. This paper will summarize the verification and validation approach for the EDL thermal design along with applicable system level thermal testing results as well as appropriate thermal analyses. In addition, the lessons learned during the system-level testing will be discussed. Finally, the in-flight EDL experiences of both MER-A and -B missions (Spirit and Opportunity, respectively) will be presented, demonstrated how lessons learned from Spirit were applied to Opportunity.

Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Sunada, Eric T.; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.; Phillip, Charles J.



Cyclic coordinate descent: A robotics algorithm for protein loop closure  

PubMed Central

In protein structure prediction, it is often the case that a protein segment must be adjusted to connect two fixed segments. This occurs during loop structure prediction in homology modeling as well as in ab initio structure prediction. Several algorithms for this purpose are based on the inverse Jacobian of the distance constraints with respect to dihedral angle degrees of freedom. These algorithms are sometimes unstable and fail to converge. We present an algorithm developed originally for inverse kinematics applications in robotics. In robotics, an end effector in the form of a robot hand must reach for an object in space by altering adjustable joint angles and arm lengths. In loop prediction, dihedral angles must be adjusted to move the C-terminal residue of a segment to superimpose on a fixed anchor residue in the protein structure. The algorithm, referred to as cyclic coordinate descent or CCD, involves adjusting one dihedral angle at a time to minimize the sum of the squared distances between three backbone atoms of the moving C-terminal anchor and the corresponding atoms in the fixed C-terminal anchor. The result is an equation in one variable for the proposed change in each dihedral. The algorithm proceeds iteratively through all of the adjustable dihedral angles from the N-terminal to the C-terminal end of the loop. CCD is suitable as a component of loop prediction methods that generate large numbers of trial structures. It succeeds in closing loops in a large test set 99.79% of the time, and fails occasionally only for short, highly extended loops. It is very fast, closing loops of length 8 in 0.037 sec on average. PMID:12717019

Canutescu, Adrian A.; Dunbrack, Roland L.



Basic surgical techniques in the Göttingen minipig: intubation, bladder catheterization, femoral vessel catheterization, and transcardial perfusion.  


The emergence of the Göttingen minipig in research of topics such as neuroscience, toxicology, diabetes, obesity, and experimental surgery reflects the close resemblance of these animals to human anatomy and physiology (1-6).The size of the Göttingen minipig permits the use of surgical equipment and advanced imaging modalities similar to those used in humans (6-8). The aim of this instructional video is to increase the awareness on the value of minipigs in biomedical research, by demonstrating how to perform tracheal intubation, transurethral bladder catheterization, femoral artery and vein catheterization, as well as transcardial perfusion. Endotracheal Intubation should be performed whenever a minipig undergoes general anesthesia, because it maintains a patent airway, permits assisted ventilation and protects the airways from aspirates. Transurethral bladder catheterization can provide useful information about about hydration state as well as renal and cardiovascular function during long surgical procedures. Furthermore, urinary catheterization can prevent contamination of delicate medico-technical equipment and painful bladder extension which may harm the animal and unnecessarily influence the experiment due to increased vagal tone and altered physiological parameters. Arterial and venous catheterization is useful for obtaining repeated blood samples and monitoring various physiological parameters. Catheterization of femoral vessels is preferable to catheterization of the neck vessels for ease of access, when performing experiments involving frame-based stereotaxic neurosurgery and brain imaging. When performing vessel catheterization in survival studies, strict aseptic technique must be employed to avoid infections(6). Transcardial perfusion is the most effective fixation method, and yields preeminent results when preparing minipig organs for histology and histochemistry(2,9). For more information about anesthesia, surgery and experimental techniques in swine in general we refer to Swindle 2007. Supplementary information about premedication and induction of anesthesia, assisted ventilation, analgesia, pre- and postoperative care of Göttingen minipigs are available via the internet at For extensive information about porcine anatomy we refer to Nickel et al. Vol. 1-5(11). PMID:21730947

Ettrup, Kaare S; Glud, Andreas N; Orlowski, Dariusz; Fitting, Lise M; Meier, Kaare; Soerensen, Jens Christian; Bjarkam, Carsten R; Alstrup, Aage K Olsen



Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.



Shake rattle and roll: the bony labyrinth and aerial descent in squamates.  


Controlled aerial descent has evolved many times independently in vertebrates. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are unusual in that respect due to the large number of independent origins of the evolution of this behavior. Although some squamates such as flying geckos of the genus Ptychozoon and the flying dragons of the genus Draco show obvious adaptations including skin flaps or enlarged ribs allowing them to increase their surface area and slow down their descent, many others appear unspecialized. Yet, specializations can be expected at the level of the sensory and neural systems allowing animals to maintain stability during controlled aerial descent. The vestibular system is a likely candidate given that it is an acceleration detector and is well-suited to detect changes in pitch, roll and yaw. Here we use conventional and synchrotron ?CT scans to quantify the morphology of the vestibular system in squamates able to perform controlled aerial descent compared to species characterized by a terrestrial or climbing life style. Our results show the presence of a strong phylogenetic signal in the data with the vestibular system in species from the same family being morphologically similar. However, both our shape analysis and an analysis of the dimensions of the vestibular system showed clear differences among animals with different life-styles. Species able to perform a controlled aerial descent differed in the position and shape of the inner ear, especially of the posterior ampulla. Given the limited stability of squamates against roll and the fact that the posterior ampulla is tuned to changes in roll this suggests an adaptive evolution of the vestibular system in squamates using controlled aerial descent. Future studies testing for similar differences in other groups of vertebrates known to use controlled aerial descent are needed to test the generality of this observation. PMID:21700578

Boistel, Renaud; Herrel, Anthony; Lebrun, Renaud; Daghfous, Gheylen; Tafforeau, Paul; Losos, Jonathan B; Vanhooydonck, Bieke



Inter-Vertebral Flexibility of the Ostrich Neck: Implications for Estimating Sauropod Neck Flexibility  

PubMed Central

The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus). The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50). This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data. PMID:23967284

Cobley, Matthew J.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Barrett, Paul M.



Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES  

E-print Network

program of neck strengthening exercises as well as stretching exercises to increase flexibility and gentle stretching will help the muscles relax. Do not worry about headache development, unless direct Quick Treatment: Neck Pain See Your Healthcare Provider If Rehabilitation Exercises Rights and Wrongs

Virginia Tech


Neck organ of Artemia salina nauplii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina L.) to exist in a wide range of salinities results from an active excretion of sodium ions from the body into the external environment. Localization of NaCl in the neck organ suggests that this is the site of salt secretion. Ultrastructural studies support this view, the structure of the neck organ being

F. P. Conte; S. R. Hootman; P. J. Harris



Update Head and Neck Steering Committee

Update Head and Neck Steering Committee NCI Clinical Trials Advisory Committee December 8, 2008 Co-Chairs Arlene Forastiere, M.D. David Schuller, M.D. Andrew Trotti, M.D. Primary Goal Increase productivity of clinical research involving head and neck


Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Most head and neck cancers begin in the moist, mucus membranes lining the inside of the mouth, nose and throat. These membranes are made up of squamous cells and the head and neck cancers that grow in these cells are called squamous cell carcinomas.


Use of Gold in Head and Neck  

E-print Network

Use of Gold in Head and Neck Cancer Treatments Q & A with Dr. Frank McCormick UCSF Helen Diller in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at UCSF, is working on several techniques to use gold nanoparticles to improve the identification of cancer. "Gold is very interesting because it has extraordinary

Walter, Peter


Neck Circumference and Cardio- Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Only few studies about neck circumference (NC) as a measure of cardio metabolic syndrome available from India. Study was conducted to establish an association between neck circumference and cardio metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in South India. NCEP: ATPIII 2001 guideline was used for diagnosis of Cardio-metabolic syndrome among subjects. Neck circumference was measured and it was correlated with Cardio-metabolic syndrome. Results: Mean neck circumference was found to be 36.5 cms. Cardio-metabolic syndrome was present in 272 participants, of which 100 were females and 172 males. Among females 82(82%) had neck circumference >34cms, 18(18%) had <34cms and among males 117(68%)had NC >37cms and 55(32%) had NC<37cms. All individual parameter of cardio metabolic risk factor, i.e., BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, FBS, HDL & TG except waist/hip ratio were correlating with abnormal neck circumference when compared with those with normal neck circumference. Conclusion: Neck circumference with metabolic syndrome correlated better among females than males. Men with NC >37 cm and women with NC >34 cm are more prone for cardio metabolic syndrome and require additional evaluation. Measurement of NC is a simple, time saving, and least invasive measurement tool. PMID:25177592

Kumar, Nagendran Vijaya; Ismail, Mohammed H.; M, Girish; Tripathy, Monica



Preventing head and neck injury.  


A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport. PMID:15911597

McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P



Giant epidermoid cyst of the posterior neck.  


A 49-year-old man was presented for evaluation of a painless mass on his right posterior neck. The mass had gradually enlarged for a 25-year period without inflammation or rupture. On physical examination, a round, nontender, soft-tissue mass, 8 cm in diameter, was noted on the right posterior neck. The neck is a common site of epidermoid cysts, but a mass more than 5 cm in diameter is rare. A contrast-enhanced neck computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed a 7.6 × 6.5 × 5.7 cm unilocular hypodense mass adjacent to the posterior neck muscles.The mass was completely excised under general anesthesia. A histopathologic examination of the excised specimen resulted in a diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the third postoperative day. There were no recurrences in a 2-year follow-up period. PMID:21586972

Kim, Cheesun; Park, Myong Chul; Seo, Seung Jo; Yoo, Young Moon; Jang, Yu Jin; Lee, Il Jae



Gemcitabine, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin in Metastatic or Unresectable Bladder Cancer With Decreased Kidney Function

Distal Urethral Cancer; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Proximal Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder; Urethral Cancer Associated With Invasive Bladder Cancer



Bladder wall thickness and ultrasound estimated bladder weight in healthy adults with portative ultrasound device  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate bladder wall thickness (BWT) and ultrasound estimated bladder weight (UEBW) values in healthy population with a portative ultrasound device and their relationship with demographic parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Neurorehabilitation Clinic of Ege University Hospital. Ninety-five subjects (48 women and 47 men) aged between 18 and 56 were included in the study. BWT and UEBW were determined non-invasively with a portative ultrasound device; Bladder Scan BVM 6500 (Verathon Inc., WA, USA) at a frequency of 3.7 MHz at functional bladder capacity. These values were compared by gender, and their relation was assessed with age, body mass index (BMI) and parity. Results: Mean BWT was 2.0 ± 0.4 mm and UEBW was 44.6 ± 8.3 g at a mean volume of 338.0 ± 82.1 ml. Although higher results were obtained in men at higher bladder volumes, the results did not differ significantly by gender. Correlation analyses revealed statistically significant correlation between UEBW and age (r = 0.32). BWT was negatively correlated with volume (r = –0.50) and bladder surface area (r = –0.57). Also, statistically significant correlations were observed between UEBW and volume (r = 0.36), bladder surface area (r = 0.48) and BWT (r = 0.25). Conclusion: Determined values of BWT and UEBW in healthy population are estimated with portative ultrasound devices, which are future promising, for their convenient, easy, non-invasive, time-efficient hand-held use for screening. PMID:23914210

Kanyilmaz, Selcen; Calis, Funda Atamaz; Cinar, Yasemin; Akkoc, Yesim



Tracer-Based Determination of Vortex Descent in the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed analysis of available in situ and remotely sensed N2O and CH4 data measured in the 1999-2000 winter Arctic vortex has been performed in order to quantify the temporal evolution of vortex descent. Differences in potential temperature (theta) among balloon and aircraft vertical profiles (an average of 19-23 K on a given N2O or CH4 isopleth) indicated significant vortex inhomogeneity in late fall as compared with late winter profiles. A composite fall vortex profile was constructed for November 26, 1999, whose error bars encompassed the observed variability. High-latitude, extravortex profiles measured in different years and seasons revealed substantial variability in N2O and CH4 on theta surfaces, but all were clearly distinguishable from the first vortex profiles measured in late fall 1999. From these extravortex-vortex differences, we inferred descent prior to November 26: 397+/-15 K (1sigma) at 30 ppbv N2O and 640 ppbv CH4, and 28+/-13 K above 200 ppbv N2O and 1280 ppbv CH4. Changes in theta were determined on five N2O and CH4 isopleths from November 26 through March 12, and descent rates were calculated on each N2O isopleth for several time intervals. The maximum descent rates were seen between November 26 and January 27: 0.82+/-0.20 K/day averaged over 50-250 ppbv N2O. By late winter (February 26-March 12), the average rate had decreased to 0.10+/-0.25 K/day. Descent rates also decreased with increasing N2O; the winter average (November 26-March 5) descent rate varied from 0.75+/-0.10 K/day at 50 ppbv to 0.40+/-0.11 K/day at 250 ppbv. Comparison of these results with observations and models of descent in prior years showed very good overall agreement. Two models of the 1999-2000 vortex descent, SLIMCAT and REPROBUS, despite theta offsets with respect to observed profiles of up to 20 K on most tracer isopleths, produced descent rates that agreed very favorably with the inferred rates from observation.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-Juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Hurst, Dale F.; Elkins, James W.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Herman, Robert L.; Webster, Christopher R.



Quadratic steepest descent on potential energy surfaces. I. Basic formalism and quantitative assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel second-order algorithm is formulated for determining steepest-descent lines on potential energy surfaces. The reaction path is deduced from successive exact steepest-descent lines of local quadratic approximations to the surface. At each step, a distinction is made between three points: the center for the local quadratic Taylor expansion of the surface, the junction of the two adjacent local steepest-descent line approximations, and the predicted approximation to the true steepest-descent line. This flexibility returns a more efficient yield from the calculated information and increases the accuracy of the local quadratic approximations by almost an order of magnitude. In addition, the step size is varied with the curvature and, if desired, can be readjusted by a trust region assessment. Applications to the Gonzalez-Schlegel and the Müller-Brown surfaces show the method to compare favorably with existing methods. Several measures are given for assessing the accuracy achieved without knowledge of the exact steepest-descent line. The optimal evaluation of the predicted gradient and curvature for dynamical applications is discussed.

Sun, Jun-Qiang; Ruedenberg, Klaus



Bladder Cancer: A Simple Model Becomes Complex  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in developed countries and it is also characterized by a high number of recurrences. Despite this, several authors in the past reported that only two altered molecular pathways may genetically explain all cases of bladder cancer: one involving the FGFR3 gene, and the other involving the TP53 gene. Mutations in any of these two genes are usually predictive of the malignancy final outcome. This cancer may also be further classified as low-grade tumors, which is always papillary and in most cases superficial, and high-grade tumors, not necessarily papillary and often invasive. This simple way of considering this pathology has strongly changed in the last few years, with the development of genome-wide studies on expression profiling and the discovery of small non-coding RNA affecting gene expression. An easy search in the OMIM (On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database using “bladder cancer” as a query reveals that genes in some way connected to this pathology are approximately 150, and some authors report that altered gene expression (up- or down-regulation) in this disease may involve up to 500 coding sequences for low-grade tumors and up to 2300 for high-grade tumors. In many clinical cases, mutations inside the coding sequences of the above mentioned two genes were not found, but their expression changed; this indicates that also epigenetic modifications may play an important role in its development. Indeed, several reports were published about genome-wide methylation in these neoplastic tissues, and an increasing number of small non-coding RNA are either up- or down-regulated in bladder cancer, indicating that impaired gene expression may also pass through these metabolic pathways. Taken together, these data reveal that bladder cancer is far to be considered a simple model of malignancy. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in the genome-wide analysis of bladder cancer, and analyse non-genetic, genetic and epigenetic factors causing extensive gene mis-regulation in malignant cells. PMID:23372425

Pierro, Giovanni Battista Di; Gulia, Caterina; Cristini, Cristiano; Fraietta, Giorgio; Marini, Lorenzo; Grande, Pietro; Gentile, Vincenzo; Piergentili, Roberto



Aerodynamics of Reentry Vehicle Clipper at Descent Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From Gagarin spacecraft to reusable orbiter Buran, RSC Energia has traveled a long way in the search for the most optimal and, which is no less important, the most reliable spacecraft for manned space flight. During the forty years of space exploration, in cooperation with a broad base of subcontractors, a number of problems have been solved which assure a safe long stay in space. Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft were replaced with Soyuz supporting a crew of three. During missions to a space station, it provides crew rescue capability in case of a space station emergency at all times (the spacecraft life is 200 days).The latest modification of Soyuz spacecraft -Soyuz TMA -in contrast to its predecessors, allows to become a space flight participant to a person of virtually any anthropometric parameters with a mass of 50 to 95 kg capable of withstanding up to 6 g load during descent. At present, Soyuz TMA spacecraft are the state-of-the-art, reliable and only means of the ISS crew delivery, in-flight support and return. Introduced on the basis of many years of experience in operation of manned spacecraft were not only the principles of deep redundancy of on-board systems and equipment, but, to assure the main task of the spacecraft -the crew return to Earth -the principles of functional redundancy. That is, vital operations can be performed by different systems based on different physical principles. The emergency escape system that was developed is the only one in the world that provides crew rescue in case of LV failure at any phase in its flight. Several generations of space stations that have been developed have broadened, virtually beyond all limits, capabilities of man in space. The docking system developed at RSC Energia allowed not only to dock spacecraft in space, but also to construct in orbit various complex space systems. These include large space stations, and may include in the future the in-orbit construction of systems for the exploration of the Moon and Mars.. Logistics spacecraft Progress have been flying regularly since 1978. The tasks of these unmanned spacecraft include supplying the space station with all the necessities for long-duration missions, such as propellant for the space station propulsion system, crew life support consumables, scientific equipment for conducting experiments. Various modifications of the spacecraft have expanded the space station capabilities. 1988 saw the first, and, much to our regret, the last flight of the reusable orbiter Buran.. Buran could deliver to orbit up to 30 tons of cargo, return 20 tons to Earth and have a crew of up to 10. However, due to our country's economic situation the project was suspended.

Semenov, Yu. P.; Reshetin, A. G.; Dyadkin, A. A.; Petrov, N. K.; Simakova, T. V.; Tokarev, V. A.



Adjustable passive stiffness in mouse bladder: regulated by Rho kinase and elevated following partial bladder outlet obstruction.  


Detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contributes to bladder wall tension during filling, and bladder wall deformation affects the signaling system that leads to urgency. The length-passive tension (L-T(p)) relationship in rabbit DSM can adapt with length changes over time and exhibits adjustable passive stiffness (APS) characterized by a L-T(p) curve that is a function of both activation and strain history. Muscle activation with KCl, carbachol (CCh), or prostaglandin E(2) at short muscle lengths can increase APS that is revealed by elevated pseudo-steady-state T(p) at longer lengths compared with prior T(p) measurements at those lengths, and APS generation is inhibited by the Rho Kinase (ROCK) inhibitor H-1152. In the current study, mouse bladder strips exhibited both KCl- and CCh-induced APS. Whole mouse bladders demonstrated APS which was measured as an increase in pressure during passive filling in calcium-free solution following CCh precontraction compared with pressure during filling without precontraction. In addition, CCh-induced APS in whole mouse bladder was inhibited by H-1152, indicating that ROCK activity may regulate bladder compliance during filling. Furthermore, APS in whole mouse bladder was elevated 2 wk after partial bladder outlet obstruction, suggesting that APS may be relevant in diseases affecting bladder mechanics. The presence of APS in mouse bladder will permit future studies of APS regulatory pathways and potential alterations of APS in disease models using knockout transgenetic mice. PMID:22205227

Speich, John E; Southern, Jordan B; Henderson, Sheree; Wilson, Cameron W; Klausner, Adam P; Ratz, Paul H



Altered bladder function in elastin-deficient mice at baseline and in response to partial bladder outlet obstruction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine functional and molecular changes of the bladders from elastin-haploinsufficient mice (Eln+/?) at baseline as well as in response to partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO). MATERIALS AND METHODS Female Eln+/? and wild type (Wt) mice (3–4 months old) were studied. The bladder elastin content was quantified by measuring desmosine. Mice were divided into two groups to undergo surgery to create pBOO or to undergo sham surgery. Three days after surgery, bladder function was evaluated by in vivo cystometry, and the contractile response of bladder strips exposed to electrical field stimulation (EFS) and carbachol was examined by ex vivo myography. RESULTS The Eln+/?-sham mice had a 33.6% decrease in bladder elastin compared with Wt-sham mice. Cystometry showed significantly decreased bladder compliance and capacity in Eln+/?-sham vs Wt-sham mice; pBOO increased bladder compliance and capacity to a greater extent in Eln+/? mice compared with Wt mice. Bladder strips from Eln+/?-sham mice showed a significantly heightened contractile response to both EFS and carbachol compared with Wt-sham mice. A significantly increased contractile response to carbachol was detected in Wt-pBOO vs Wt-sham but not between Eln+/?-pBOO and Eln+/?-sham mice. CONCLUSION The results that elastin-deficient mice had decreased bladder compliance and capacity and increased bladder contractility; and that Wt-pBOO mice showed an enhanced contractile response to carbachol, but Eln+/?-pBOO mice did not, suggest that elastin is critical for normal bladder function and is involved in bladder response to pBOO. PMID:22115428

Jiang, Xiaogang; Luttrell, Ian; Li, Dean Y.; Yang, Claire C.; Chitaley, Kanchan



E-learning for neurological bladder management.  


Regarding the impact of visceral dysfunction on quality of life, bowel and bladder management is a very important problem. The management of the patient with neurological bladder is often a source of uncertainty for both patients and healthcare personnel. Since the need of specialized training is growing, two CME e-learning courses have been developed to provide physicians and nurses competencies for the enhancement of the daily life of the patients. The present study aims at evaluating courses attendance and outcomes. Attendance data confirm the interest for both courses. The results document a pretty good objective and subjective effectiveness of the e-learning courses but low attitude to exploit he support of an asynchronous tutor. The analysis of test results gives some hints for eventual quality improvement of the courses themselves. PMID:22874390

Rognoni, Carla; Fizzotti, Gabriella; Pistarini, Caterina; Mazzoleni, M Cristina



Combined bladder exstrophy and epispadias repair  

PubMed Central

A 2-year-old male child of exstrophy-epispadias complex presented to us. He had not received any treatment at the time of presentation. It was decided to perform a combined bladder exstrophy and epispadias repair under general anaesthesia. There was a wide diastasis of symphysis pubis, it was decided to perform a bilateral anterior innominate and vertical iliac osteotomy. The bladder was closed in two layers. The urethroplasty and penile reconstruction was done by modified Cantwell–Ransley repair. At the completion of procedure to prevent distraction of pubis, the baby was strapped using elastoplast bandage. The child had a very good cosmetic outcome, good pubic and rectus muscle approximation. On clamping the suprapubic catheter, the patient started passing urine per urethrally and there was a small penopubic fistula. Thereafter the suprapubic catheter was removed. The urine culture was sterile and the patient was discharged on prophylactic antibiotics. The patient is due for follow-up. PMID:22679150

Chaudhary, Ranjit; Apte, Ashwin; Mehta, Rajkumar; Varshney, Atul; Singh, Kulwant; Jain, Nidhi; Biswas, Rakesh



Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type: a rare case  

PubMed Central

Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare disease. It occurs in 0.5–2% of all bladder cancers and is discussed as the malignant counterpart of nephrogenic adenomas. We report a 46-year-old white female presented with gross hematuria for clinical examination. Histopathology revealed pT2, Pn1, L1, G2 adenocarcinoma of the bladder and carcinoma in situ according to the TNM classification. Computed tomography scan diagnostic was unremarkable. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder should be treated vigorously and without time delay. Only 7 cases of adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder (mesonephroid) have been described until now. We present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type that early diagnosed and till now 3 months after the cystectomy without symptoms and without complications. PMID:23772302

Abbas, Mahmoud; Kramer, Mario W.; Wolters, Mathias; Herrman, Thomas R.W.; Becker, Jan U.; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich



Advances in POST2 End-to-End Descent and Landing Simulation for the ALHAT Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) is used as a basis for an end-to-end descent and landing trajectory simulation that is essential in determining design and integration capability and system performance of the lunar descent and landing system and environment models for the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. The POST2 simulation provides a six degree-of-freedom capability necessary to test, design and operate a descent and landing system for successful lunar landing. This paper presents advances in the development and model-implementation of the POST2 simulation, as well as preliminary system performance analysis, used for the testing and evaluation of ALHAT project system models.

Davis, Jody L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Hines, Glenn D.; Paschall, Stephen, II; Cohanim, Babak E.; Fill, Thomas; Johnson, Michael C.; Bishop, Robert H.; DeMars, Kyle J.; Sostaric, Ronald r.; Johnson, Andrew E.



Coordinate great circle descent algorithm with application to single-index models  

PubMed Central

Coordinate descent algorithm has been widely used to solve high dimensional optimization problems with a non-differentiable objective function recently. To provide theoretical justification, Tseng (2001) showed that it leads to a stationary point when the non-differentiable part of the objective function is separable. Motivated by the single index model, we consider optimization problems with a unit-norm constraint in this article. Because of this unit-norm constraint, the coordinate descent algorithm cannot be applied. In addition, non-separability of the non-differentiable part of the objective function makes the result of Tseng (2001) not directly applicable. In this paper, we propose a novel coordinate great circle descent algorithm to solve this family of optimization problems. The validity of the algorithm is justified both theoretically and via simulation studies. We also use the Boston housing data to illustrate this algorithm by applying it to fit single-index models.

Zeng, Peng



Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.



Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder during pregnancy.  


We present a rare case of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder that was diagnosed during pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the fourth case of its kind to be reported in the literature. Ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy were useful for making an accurate diagnosis in this case. The diagnosis was confirmed by suprapubic transcutaneous needle biopsy. The tumor was resected approximately 3 years after diagnosis, during which period the patient delivered a normal baby by caesarian section. PMID:12823699

Mizuno, Kentaro; Sasaki, Shoichi; Tozawa, Keiichi; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro



Human bladder cancer diagnosis using multiphoton microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the time of diagnosis, approximately 75% of bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive. Appropriate diagnosis and surgical resection at this stage improves prognosis dramatically. However, these lesions, being small and/or flat, are often missed by conventional white-light cystoscopes. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess the surgical margin for negativity using conventional cystoscopes. Resultantly, the recurrence rates in patients with early bladder cancer are very high. This is currently addressed by repeat cystoscopies and biopsies, which can last throughout the life of a patient, increasing cost and patient morbidity. Multiphoton endoscopes offer a potential solution, allowing real time, noninvasive biopsies of the human bladder, as well as an up-close assessment of the resection margin. While miniaturization of the Multiphoton microscope into an endoscopic format is currently in progress, we present results here indicating that Multiphoton imaging (using a bench-top Multiphoton microscope) can indeed identify cancers in fresh, unfixed human bladder biopsies. Multiphoton images are acquired in two channels: (1) broadband autofluorescence from cells, and (2) second harmonic generation (SHG), mostly by tissue collagen. These images are then compared with gold standard hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) stained histopathology slides from the same specimen. Based on a "training set" and a very small "blinded set" of samples, we have found excellent correlation between the Multiphoton and histopathological diagnoses. A larger blinded analysis by two independent uropathologists is currently in progress. We expect that the conclusion of this phase will provide us with diagnostic accuracy estimates, as well as the degree of inter-observer heterogeneity.

Mukherjee, Sushmita; Wysock, James S.; Ng, Casey K.; Akhtar, Mohammed; Perner, Sven; Lee, Ming-Ming; Rubin, Mark A.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Webb, Watt W.; Scherr, Douglas S.



Management Strategies for Painful Bladder Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is a condition of chronic pelvic pain associated with irritative voiding symptoms. Management of PBS/IC has been a challenge for generations of physicians, owing to a lack of consensus on its definition, an incompletely understood pathophysiology, and numerous available therapies without high-quality evidence to guide their usage. This article reviews the most current conception of PBS/IC and data on effective treatments to recommend a management strategy. PMID:20842281

Lau, Trevin C; Bengtson, Joan M



Bladder Rupture following Conversion to Enteric Drainage after Pancreatic Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Complications associated with bladder-drained pancreatic transplant are not uncommon and include urinary tract infections and reflux pancreatitis. Bladder rupture with peritoneal leak is a rare complication after pancreatic transplantation and can present as an acute abdomen with rapidly deteriorating renal function. We describe the first case of a urine leak into the peritoneal cavity occurring after conversion from bladder to enteric drainage. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose such a complication. PMID:23197947

Srivastava, Vikas; Passaris, George; Juneja, Rajiv; Siddins, Mark; Barbara, Jeffrey A.J.



Tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients needing cystoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods Seven patients with myelomeningocele, aged 4-19 years, with high-pressure or poorly compliant bladders, were identified as candidates for cystoplasty. A bladder biopsy was obtained from each patient. Urothelial and muscle cells were grown in culture, and seeded on a biodegradable bladder-shaped scaffold made of collagen, or a composite of collagen and polyglycolic acid. About 7 weeks after the biopsy,

Anthony Atala; Stuart B Bauer; Shay Soker; James J Yoo; Alan B Retik



Alternating chemo-radiotherapy in bladder cancer: A conservative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this Phase II study was to determine a bladder-sparing treatment in patients with invasive bladder cancer, allowing a better quality of life. Objectives were to test toxicity and disease-free and overall survival of patients given an alternated chemo-radiotherapy definitive treatment. Seventy-six patients with bladder cancer Stage T1G3 through T4 N0 M0 were entered in the same chemotherapy

Marco Orsatti; Antonio Curotto; Luciano Canobbio; Domenico Guarneri; Daniele Scarpati; Marco Venturini; Paola Franzone; Stefania Giudici; Giuseppe Martorana; Francesco Boccardo; Luciano Giuliani; Vito Vitale



Correlation between human papillomavirus infection and bladder transitional cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To determine the association of human papillomavirus infection (HPV) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). METHODS: Using polymerase chain reaction, fifty-nine bladder tissue specimens of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of bladder compared with 20 bladder samples of cases with non-neoplastic disorders. RESULTS: Male to female ratio was similar in the two groups (50\\/9 vs. 16\\/4, P = 0.62). Mean

Barghi; A Hajimohammadmehdiarbab; SMM Hosseini Moghaddam; B Kazemi



Genetics of human congenital urinary bladder disease.  


Lower urinary tract and/or kidney malformations are collectively the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in children, and they are also likely to account for a major subset of young adults requiring renal replacement therapy. Advances have been made regarding the discovery of the genetic causes of human kidney malformations. Indeed, testing for mutations of key nephrogenesis genes is now feasible for patients seen in nephrology clinics. Unfortunately, less is known about defined genetic bases of human lower urinary tract anomalies. The focus of this review is the genetic bases of congenital structural and functional disorders of the urinary bladder. Three are highlighted. First, prune belly syndrome, where mutations of CHRM3, encoding an acetylcholine receptor, HNF1B, encoding a transcription factor, and ACTA2, encoding a cytoskeletal protein, have been reported. Second, the urofacial syndrome, where mutations of LRIG2 and HPSE2, encoding proteins localised in nerves invading the fetal bladder, have been defined. Finally, we review emerging evidence that bladder exstrophy may have genetic bases, including variants in the TP63 promoter. These genetic discoveries provide a new perspective on a group of otherwise poorly understood diseases. PMID:23584850

Woolf, Adrian S; Stuart, Helen M; Newman, William G



Evolutionary analyses of non-genealogical bonds produced by introgressive descent  

PubMed Central

All evolutionary biologists are familiar with evolutionary units that evolve by vertical descent in a tree-like fashion in single lineages. However, many other kinds of processes contribute to evolutionary diversity. In vertical descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit is propagated by replication inside its own lineage. In what we call introgressive descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit propagates into different host structures and is replicated within these host structures. Thus, introgressive descent generates a variety of evolutionary units and leaves recognizable patterns in resemblance networks. We characterize six kinds of evolutionary units, of which five involve mosaic lineages generated by introgressive descent. To facilitate detection of these units in resemblance networks, we introduce terminology based on two notions, P3s (subgraphs of three nodes: A, B, and C) and mosaic P3s, and suggest an apparatus for systematic detection of introgressive descent. Mosaic P3s correspond to a distinct type of evolutionary bond that is orthogonal to the bonds of kinship and genealogy usually examined by evolutionary biologists. We argue that recognition of these evolutionary bonds stimulates radical rethinking of key questions in evolutionary biology (e.g., the relations among evolutionary players in very early phases of evolutionary history, the origin and emergence of novelties, and the production of new lineages). This line of research will expand the study of biological complexity beyond the usual genealogical bonds, revealing additional sources of biodiversity. It provides an important step to a more realistic pluralist treatment of evolutionary complexity. PMID:23090996

Bapteste, Eric; Lopez, Philippe; Bouchard, Frédéric; Baquero, Fernando; McInerney, James O.; Burian, Richard M.



Differential expression of immunohistochemical markers in bladder smooth muscle and myofibroblasts, and the potential utility of desmin, smoothelin, and vimentin in staging of bladder carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distinguishing bladder muscularis propria from muscularis mucosae can be problematic especially in transurethral resection specimens performed for bladder carcinoma. Moreover, bladder carcinoma can be associated with a proliferative\\/desmoplastic myofibroblastic response that can resemble smooth muscle and potentially lead to overdiagnosis of muscularis propria invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of immunohistochemistry in staging bladder

Leona Council; Omar Hameed



Bilateral Femoral Neck Fracture-Related Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Bilateral femoral neck fracture is not common as unilateral femoral fracture. Femoral neck fracture generally occurs by the high energized traumas. Traffic accidents and fallings are the most common reason for this fracture kind. But suddenly and minor traumatic fractures is not common. Especially, in the hormonal and pathogenic fractures is not common. In this case minor traumatic bilateral femoral fracture is presented. The fracture occurs in the background of critical medical condition by hyperparathyroidism. It can be said chronic hyperparathyroidism conditions must be determined for femoral neck fracture. Because these patients many times fell little disturbed by this fracture, diagnosis can be missed many times.

Ezirmik, Naci; Yildiz, Kadri; Cadirci, Kenan



Cancers of the head and neck  

SciTech Connect

The information in this text demonstrates the marked progress being made in the treatment of head and neck cancer, diseases which are among the most morbid in all medicine. New and promising surgical and radiotherapeutic techniques are discussed, including brachytherapy, hyperthermia, laser therapy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The timing of chemotherapy and the future rate of biologic modifiers and immune therapy are included. Innovative and creative surgical techniques geared towards improving the quality of life for head and neck patients are described. A final section of the volume covers other management problems including rhabdomyosarcoma and lymphomas of extranodal head and neck sites.

Jacobs, C. (Ed.)



Pathology Case Study: Anterior Cervical Neck Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a head & neck pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male has an increasing neck mass with a choking feeling. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.

Schubert, Eric



[Diagnosis and treatment of octogenarian neoplastic patients: bladder cancers].  


Age is a risk factor for the occurrence of bladder cancer and bladder cancer is a disease of the elderly. The choice of treatment relays on the staging into non-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Non-invasive bladder cancer is usually treated with transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) followed by intravesical therapy with BCG or chemotherapeutic agents. The gold standard in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer is radical cystectomy. The elderly and, in particular, the octogenarian have a worse tolerance for aggressive therapies, due to the higher incidence of side effects and complications. This problem could significantly occur for intravesical BCG therapy and for radical cystectomy. When the urologist faces the treatment of an octogenarian affected by bladder cancer, he should answer many questions: 1. In case of a non-invasive bladder cancer, is it possible to use the same drugs that we use for younger patients (BCG vs chemotherapeutic agents)? Should the timing and the kind of follow-up be the same? 2. Should the octogenarian affected by muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergo radical cystectomy or a less invasive treatment? What kind of diversion should be preferred? Is it possible to propose an orthotopic neobladder to an octogenarian patient? The choice of the treatment should be made on the basis of a careful evaluation of the patient, considering not only the patient's age but also comorbidities and life expectancy. PMID:21308672

Destefanis, Paolo; Bisconti, Alessandro; Lasaponara, Fedele; Fontana, Dario



Biomarkers for bladder cancer management: present and future  

PubMed Central

Accurate and sensitive detection of bladder cancer is critical to diagnose this deadly disease at an early stage, estimate prognosis, predict response to treatment, and monitor recurrence. In past years, laboratory diagnosis and surveillance of urinary bladder cancer have improved significantly. Although urine cytology remains the gold standard test, many new urinary biomarkers have been identified. Furthermore, recent advances in genomic studies of bladder cancer have helped to refine our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, the biological basis for outcome disparities, and to inform more efficient treatment and surveillance strategies. In this article, the established diagnostic tests, newly identified biomarkers and genomic landscape of bladder cancer will be reviewed. PMID:25374904

Ye, Fei; Wang, Li; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; McBride, Russell; Galsky, Matthew D; Zhu, Jun; Boffetta, Paolo; Zhang, David Y; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos



Alterations of Histone H1 Phosphorylation During Bladder Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

There is a crucial need for development of prognostic and predictive biomarkers in human bladder carcinogenesis in order to personalize preventive and therapeutic strategies and improve outcomes. Epigenetic alterations, such as histone modifications, are implicated in the genetic dysregulation that is fundamental to carcinogenesis. Here we focus on profiling the histone modifications during the progression of bladder cancer. Histones were extracted from normal human bladder epithelial cells, an immortalized human bladder epithelial cell line (hTERT), and four human bladder cancer cell lines (RT4, J82, T24, and UMUC3) ranging from superficial low-grade to invasive high-grade cancers. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling revealed a statistically significant increase in phosphorylation of H1 linker histones from normal human bladder epithelial cells to low-grade superficial to high-grade invasive bladder cancer cells. This finding was further validated by immunohistochemical staining of the normal epithelium and transitional cell cancer from human bladders. Cell cycle analysis of histone H1 phosphorylation by western blotting showed an increase of phosphorylation from G0/G1 phase to M phase, again supporting this as a proliferative marker. Changes in histone H1 phosphorylation status may further clarify epigenetic changes during bladder carcinogenesis and provide diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers or targets for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:23675690

Telu, Kelly H.; Abbaoui, Besma; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Zynger, Debra L.; Clinton, Steven K.



The Genetic or Mythical Ancestry of Descent Groups: Lessons from the Y Chromosome  

PubMed Central

Traditional societies are often organized into descent groups called “lineages,” “clans,” and “tribes.” Each of these descent groups claims to have a common ancestor, and this ancestry distinguishes the group's members from the rest of the population. To test the hypothesis of common ancestry within these groups, we compared ethnological and genetic data from five Central Asian populations. We show that, although people from the same lineage and clan share generally a recent common ancestor, no such common ancestry is observed at the tribal level. Thus, a tribe might be a conglomerate of clans who subsequently invented a mythical ancestor to strengthen group unity. PMID:15467979

Chaix, Raphaëlle; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Khegay, Tatyana; Jacquesson, Svetlana; Hammer, Michael F.; Heyer, Evelyne; Quintana-Murci, Lluís



Aerothermodynamics calculation of thermal destruction of "Fregat" upper stage at descent in the Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering calculation method has been developed for investigation of the process of thermal destruction of "Fregat" upper stage at deorbiting and descent into the Earth's atmosphere. The results of calculation of its descent trajectory and characteristics of aerodynamic heating are presented. Within the framework of the thermodynamic approach, the authors investigated the process of pressure increase in the tanks due to heating and evaporation of the liquid phase of fuel. Stresses in the shells, the height and the energy equivalent of explosive destruction of tanks were calculated depending on the degree of their filling with remains of the components of liquid fuel.

Glazunov, A. A.; Goldin, V. D.; Zverev, V. G.; Ustinov, S. N.; Finchenko, V. S.



Initial Field Evaluation of Pilot Procedures for Flying CTAS Descent Clearances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) is a new support system that is designed to assist air traffic controllers in the management of arrival traffic. CTAS will provide controllers with more information about current air traffic, enabling them to provide clearances for efficient, conflict-free descents that help achieve an orderly stream of aircraft at the final approach fix. CTAS is a computer-based system that functions as a "ground-based FMS" that can predict flight trajectories and arrival times for all incoming aircraft. CTAS uses an aircraft's cruise airspeed; current air traffic, winds and temperature; performance characteristics of the aircraft type; and individual airline preferences to create a flight profile from cruise altitude to the final approach fix. Controllers can use this flight profile to provide a descent clearance that will allow an aircraft to fly an efficient descent and merge more smoothly with other arriving aircraft. A field test of the CTAS Descent Advisor software was conducted at the Denver Center for aircraft arriving at the Stapleton International Airport from September 12-29. CTAS Descent clearances were given to a NASA flight test aircraft and to 77 airline flights that arrived during low traffic periods. For the airline portion of the field test, cockpit procedures and pilot briefing packages for both FMS equipped and unequipped aircraft were developed in cooperation with an airline. The procedures developed for the FMS equipped aircraft were to fly a VNAV descent at a controller specified speed to cross a metering fix at a specified altitude and speed. For nonFMS aircraft, the clearance also specified a CTAS calculated top-of-descent point. Some CTAS related flight deck issues included how much time was available to the pilots' for compliance, the amount of information that needed to be interpreted in the clearance and possible repercussions of misunderstandings. Data collected during the study ranged from subjective data (including the airline pilots' opinions and comments about the new descent clearances and procedures) to objective data (including observations of aircraft performance from the flight deck). This paper will present data and the resulting changes in the design of the procedures and clearance phraseology.

Palmer, Everett; Goka, Tsuyoshi; Cashion, Patricia; Feary, Michael; Graham, Holly; Smith, Nancy; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)



Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the Study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

Zang, Thomas A.; Dwyer-Cianciolo, Alicia M.; Kinney, David J.; Howard, Austin R.; Chen, George T.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Westhelle, Carlos H.



Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Class Simulation Overview and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and exploration or human-scale missions. The year one exploration class mission activity considered technologies capable of delivering a 40-mt payload. This paper provides an overview of the exploration class mission study, including technologies considered, models developed and initial simulation results from the EDL-SA year one effort.

DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.



Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis/ Painful Bladder Syndrome in Patients With Overactive Bladder Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis (IC) have similar symptoms, including urinary urgency/frequency and nocturia, making them difficult to differentiate on the basis of clinical presentation alone. Both conditions may represent a clinical manifestation of a hypersensitive bladder and should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with urgency/ frequency. It is especially important that IC be considered in patients with OAB that is refractory to treatment. The proposed diagnostic framework may be useful for differentiating IC from OAB and for facilitating appropriate treatment. PMID:17396167

MacDiarmid, Scott A; Sand, Peter K



Large Vaginal and Bladder Calculi in a Woman With Previous Operation of Bladder Exstrophy: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

This is to report the case of a huge vaginal stone, and bladder calculi in a 26-year-old woman with previous operation of bladder exstrophy. It seems that the vaginal stone was secondary to the remaining wire used in her previous reconstructive surgery for pelvic closure 20 years ago and now surgery is performed to remove the vaginal and bladder stones. PMID:24719809

Tavakkoli, Mahmoud; Ghoreifi, Alireza



49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum test fixture (see § 572.33, Figure...perpendicular to the plane of motion of the pendulum's longitudinal centerline (see...skull) rotation with respect to the pendulum's longitudinal centerline....



49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.  

...head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum test fixture (see § 572.33, Figure...perpendicular to the plane of motion of the pendulum's longitudinal centerline (see...skull) rotation with respect to the pendulum's longitudinal centerline....



49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum test fixture (see § 572.33, Figure...perpendicular to the plane of motion of the pendulum's longitudinal centerline (see...skull) rotation with respect to the pendulum's longitudinal centerline....



49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum test fixture (see § 572.33, Figure...perpendicular to the plane of motion of the pendulum's longitudinal centerline (see...skull) rotation with respect to the pendulum's longitudinal centerline....



Treatment for Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer

In this clinical trial, researchers seek to determine if giving concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy to patients with inoperable, recurrent head and neck cancer who were treated initially with radiation therapy will improve survival rates for these patients.


[Lipomas of the neck (author's transl)].  


Histological particularities, clinical details, diagnosis, malignant transformation and therapy of adipose tissue tumors of the neck are demonstrated. This will be completed by the discription of two cases, concerning this problem. PMID:135166

Fügemann, W; Müller, R



Prevention of complications in neck dissection  

PubMed Central

Background The neck dissection has remained a pivotal aspect of head and neck cancer management for over a century. During this time its role has expanded from a purely therapeutic option into an elective setting, in part promoted by efforts to reduce its morbidity. Objectives This review will consider the potential complications of neck dissection and on the basis of the available evidence describe both their management and prevention. Conclusion Although the neck dissection continues to provide clinicians with a method of addressing cervical disease, its reliability and safety can only be assured if surgeons remain cognisant of the potential complications and aim to minimise such morbidity by appropriate management in the peri-operative period. PMID:19822010

Kerawala, Cyrus J; Heliotos, Manolis



Aging small Canada geese by neck plumage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The neck plumage method, a new technique for separating immature from adult Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in the hand, was evaluated by comparison with the notched tail feather and cloacal examination methods. Two (1.4 percent) of 141 geese examined were misaged, resulting in a 6 percent error in the immature-adult ratio obtained by the neck plumage method. The neck plumage method is a rapid aging method and reasonable accuracy (94 percent) can be obtained. It can also be used to differentiate immatures from adults on the ground at distances up to 175 yards, but was almost impossible to use when geese were in flight. As yet, the neck plumage method has only been tested on the subspecies (B. c. hutchinsii-parvipes complex) in the Tall-Grass Prairie population of small Canada geese.

Higgins, K.F.; Schoonover, L.J.



Intrathecal bupivacaine for head and neck pain  

PubMed Central

Direct central nervous system (CNS) analgesic delivery is a useful option when more traditional means of dealing with chronic pain fail. Solutions containing local anesthetic have been effective in certain disease states, particularly in patients suffering from intractable head and neck pain. This review discusses historical aspects of CNS drug delivery and the role of intrathecal bupivacaine-containing solutions in refractory head and neck pain patients. PMID:22915879

Belverud, Shawn A; Mogilner, Alon Y; Schulder, Michael



Phasic Contractions in Urinary Bladder from Juvenile versus Adult Pigs  

PubMed Central

Aims Alterations in properties of the bladder with maturation are relevant physiologically and pathophysiologically. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in bladder properties with maturation in juvenile vs. adult pig, focussing on differences between layers of the bladder wall (mucosa vs. detrusor) and the presence and functional contribution of interstitial cells (ICs). Methods Basal and cholinergic-induced phasic contractions (PCs) in mucosal and denuded-detrusor strips from juvenile and adult pigs were assessed. Expression of c-kit, a marker of ICs, was investigated in the mucosa and the detrusor layers of the pig bladder. The functional role of ICs in mediating PCs was examined using imatinib. Results Mucosal strips from juvenile and adult pig bladders demonstrated basal PCs whilst denuded-detrusor strips did not. PCs of mucosal strips from juvenile pigs were significantly greater than those from adult bladders. Immunoreactivity for c-kit was detected in mucosa and detrusor layers of pig bladder. Histological studies demonstrated a distinct layer of smooth muscle between the urothelium and bladder detrusor, termed the muscularis mucosa. Imatinib was only effective in inhibiting PCs in mucosal strips from juvenile pigs. Imatinib inhibited the carbachol-induced PCs of both juvenile and adult denuded-detrusor strips, although strips from juvenile bladders demonstrated a trend towards being more sensitive to this inhibition. Conclusions We confirm the presence of c-kit positive ICs in pig urinary bladder. The enhanced PCs of mucosal strips from juvenile animals could be due to altered properties of ICs or the muscularis mucosa in the bladders of these animals. PMID:23516515

Vahabi, Bahareh; Sellers, Donna J.; Bijos, Dominika A.; Drake, Marcus J.



Modeling neck mobility in fossil turtles.  


Turtles have the unparalleled ability to retract their heads and necks within their shell but little is known about the evolution of this trait. Extensive analysis of neck mobility in turtles using radiographs, CT scans, and morphometry reveals that basal turtles possessed less mobility in the neck relative to their extant relatives, although the anatomical prerequisites for modern mobility were already established. Many extant turtles are able to achieve hypermobility by dislocating the central articulations, which raises cautions about reconstructing the mobility of fossil vertebrates. A 3D-model of the Late Triassic turtle Proganochelys quenstedti reveals that this early stem turtle was able to retract its head by tucking it sideways below the shell. The simple ventrolateral bend seen in this stem turtle, however, contrasts with the complex double-bend of extant turtles. The initial evolution of neck retraction therefore occurred in a near-synchrony with the origin of the turtle shell as a place to hide the unprotected neck. In this early, simplified retraction mode, the conical osteoderms on the neck provided further protection. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 9999B: XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24497449

Werneburg, Ingmar; Hinz, Juliane K; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Volpato, Virginie; Natchev, Nikolay; Joyce, Walter G



A Wind Tunnel Study on the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) Lander Descent Pressure Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary focus of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Mars Pathfinder lander local pressure readings in accordance with the actual ambient atmospheric pressures of Mars during parachute descent. In order to obtain good measurements, the plane of the lander pressure sensor opening should ideally be situated so that it is parallel to the freestream. However, due to two unfavorable conditions, the sensor was positioned in locations where correction factors are required. One of these disadvantages is due to the fact that the parachute attachment point rotated the lander's center of gravity forcing the location of the pressure sensor opening to be off tangent to the freestream. The second and most troublesome factor was that the lander descends with slight oscillations that could vary the amplitude of the sensor readings. In order to accurately map the correction factors required at each sensor position, an experiment simulating the lander descent was conducted in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Using a 115 scale model at Earth ambient pressures, the test settings provided the necessary Reynolds number conditions in which the actual lander was possibly subjected to during the descent. In the analysis and results of this experiment, the readings from the lander sensor were converted to the form of pressure coefficients. With a contour map of pressure coefficients at each lander oscillatory position, this report will provide a guideline to determine the correction factors required for the Mars Pathfinder lander descent pressure sensor readings.

Soriano, J. Francisco; Coquilla, Rachael V.; Wilson, Gregory R.; Seiff, Alvin; Rivell, Tomas



The Role of Educational Background, Activity, and Past Experiences in Mexican-Descent Families' Science Conversations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies investigated science conversations between Mexican-descent parents and children during a visit to a children's museum and at home after a family science workshop. Although more-educated parents gave more explanations about science in the museum, all families engaged in causal conversations, especially at home. (Contains 42 references.)…

Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Callanan, Maureen A.; Alba-Speyer, Consuelo; Sandoval, Leticia




E-print Network

PARTIAL DESCENT ON HYPERELLIPTIC CURVES AND THE GENERALIZED FERMAT EQUATION x3 + y4 + z5 = 0 SAMIR then C(Q) = . We shall demonstrate the effectiveness of our new method by solving the generalized Fermat new method by solving the generalized Fermat equation with signature (3, 4, 5). Let p, q, r Z2

Stoll, Michael


A Terminal Descent Sensor Trade Study Overview for the Orion Landing and Recovery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This trade study was conducted as a part of the Orion Landing System Advanced Development Project to determine possible Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS) architectures that could be used for a rocket assisted landing system. Several technologies were considered for the Orion TDS including radar, lidar, GPS applications, mechanical sensors, and gamma ray altimetry.

Dunn, Catherine; Prakash, Ravi



Tracking control of trim trajectories of a blimp for ascent and descent flight manoeuvres  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blimp is a small airship that has no metal framework and collapses when deflated. It belongs to family of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In this paper we address the problem of designing tracking feedback control of an underactuated autonomous UAV. The ascent and descent flight conditions as one in which the rate of change (of magnitude) of the airship's

L. Beji; A. Abichou



Model reference adaptive control of a maglev system with stable maximum descent criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model-reference adaptive controller (MRC) design framework for magnetically suspended vehicles (maglev) using the criterion of stable maximum descent. The adaptation algorithm is constrained to reduce the airgap error between the reference model and the actual system. The explicit relationship between the parameters of the performance criterion (function of the airgap error and its derivative) and the

P. K. Sinha; Alexandre N. Pechev



Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.



Space-Based Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Control for Aircraft Continuous Descent Approach  

E-print Network

and safety in flight operations. This communi- cation proposes a new representation of aircraft flightSpace-Based Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Control for Aircraft Continuous Descent Approach Hakim aircraft. The main novelty is that the adopted independent variable is the distance to land. This new

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


A Critical Analysis of Western Perspectives on Families of Arab Descent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western research on families of Arab descent has increased in the current decade, compared to the previous 30 years. In this review of 256 empirical articles, through a critical postcolonial lens, domestic violence and family planning were the two most established areas of study. Generally, samples have come from a small group of countries such as…

Beitin, Ben K.; Allen, Katherine R.; Bekheet, Maureen




E-print Network

algorithms for future autonomous landing and hazard avoidance systems. Although not an original requirementTHE MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY (MSL) MARS DESCENT IMAGER (MARDI) FLIGHT INSTRUMENT. M. C. Malin1 , M , and R. A. Yingst17 , 1 Malin Space Science Systems, PO Box 910148, San Diego CA 92191-0148, 2 Jet

Willson, Reg


Entry, Descent, and Landing System Design for the Mars Gravity Biosatellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Execution of a full entry, descent, and landing (EDL) from low Earth orbit is a rare requirement among university- class spacecraft. Successful completion of the Mars Gravity Biosatellite mission requires the recovery of a mammalian payload for post-flight analysis of the effects of partial gravity. The EDL design for the Mars Gravity Biosatellite is driven by requirements on the allowable

Ashley M. Korzun; Brandon P. Smith; Christine M. Hartzell; Scott K. Martinelli; Kyle B. Hott; Chi-Yau Yu; Robert D. Braun


Showing Up, Remaining Engaged, and Partaking as Students: Resilience Among Students of Mexican Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the ways in which 12 high school students of Mexican descent remain resilient amid difficult and stressful realities. Through an examination of students' interview responses, a case is made that students' ability to engage in school and figure out everyday ways to partake as students are signs of resilience. This work suggests the need to shift from

Teresa Sosa



Irish descent, religion and food consumption in the west of Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality and morbidity of people of Irish descent in Britain is high, including from cardiovascular causes potentially linked with diet. The west of Scotland has long had a pattern of Irish migration, where migrants were poorer than the host population, and their different religious background gave rise to prolonged discrimination. This paper uses data collected in 1987\\/88 from the west

K. Mullen; R. Williams; K. Hunt



The proof of sufficient descent condition for a new type of conjugate gradient methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conjugate gradient methods are effective in solving linear equations and solving non-linear optimization. In this work we compare our new conjugate gradient coefficient ?k with classical formula under strong Wolfe line search; our method contains sufficient descent condition. Numerical results have shown that the new ?k performs better than classical formula.

Abashar, Abdelrhaman; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd; Mohd, Ismail; Omer, Osman



A simple and rapid method for calculating identity-by-descent matrices using multiple markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast, partly recursive deterministic method for calculating Identity-by-Descent (IBD) probabilities was developed with the objective of using IBD in Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping. The method combined a recursive method for a single marker locus with a method to estimate IBD between sibs using multiple markers. Simulated data was used to compare the deterministic method developed in the present

Ricardo Pong-Wong; Andrew Winston George; John Arthur Woolliams; Chris Simon Haley



Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is the commonest malignancy of the urinary tract. In this review, we look at the latest developments in the diagnosis and management of this condition. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the most important tools in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer. Various alternatives have been investigated, either to reduce the frequency of cystoscopy, or improve its sensitivity for detection of tumors. These include urine-based markers and point-of-care tests. Narrow-band imaging and photodynamic diagnosis/blue-light cystoscopy have shown promise in improving detection and reducing recurrence of bladder tumors, by improving the completion of bladder resection when compared with standard resection in white light. The majority of patients with a new diagnosis of bladder cancer have non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, which requires adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. Recent developments in post-resection intravesical regimens are discussed. For patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, both laparoscopic radical cystectomy and robot-assisted radical cystectomy have been shown to reduce peri-operative morbidity, while being oncologically equivalent to open radical cystectomy in the medium term. Bladder-preserving strategies entail resection and chemoradiation, and in selected patients give equivalent results to surgery. The development, advantages, and disadvantages of these newer approaches are also discussed. PMID:23327481



Incomplete bladder duplication with multiple congenital anomalies: A rare presentation  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of incomplete bladder duplication associated with multiple congenital malformation. The patient presented with a symptomatic left pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction which was surgically managed. To the best of our knowledge, this type of bladder duplication with such syndromic association is not yet reported in literature.

Awasthi, Nipun Kumar; Goel, Hemantkumar; Mahapatra, Rajkumarsingha; Pal, Dilipkumar



Committee Opinion No. 604: OnabotulinumtoxinA and the bladder.  


In January 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the use of onabotulinumtoxinA (also known as Botox A) for the treatment of overactive bladder, thus providing another treatment option for women. Symptoms of overactive bladder have been shown to significantly improve after onabotulinumtoxinA injections compared with no intervention, placebo, pharmacological treatments, and bladder instillation technique. Before considering medical or surgical treatment, all patients in whom overactive bladder is diagnosed should receive instruction in behavioral techniques (eg, bladder retraining drills and timed voids), fluid management, or pelvic muscle exercises with or without physical therapy. Intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA may be a second-line treatment option for overactive bladder in appropriate patients, and consideration of its use requires shared decision making between the patient and health care provider. Patients who are candidates for onabotulinumtoxinA injections into the bladder should be counseled about its risks and possible postprocedure adverse events, including the risk of postprocedure urinary retention, urinary tract infections, hematuria, pain, and transient body weakness. Health care providers who perform onabotulinumtoxinA injections must have appropriate training and experience in treating women with pelvic floor disorders, operative cystoscopy privileges, and the ability to diagnose and manage any adverse outcomes after onabotulinumtoxinA injections into the bladder. PMID:24848923



Carbon Dioxide Production and Sodium Transport by the Toad Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN order to investigate further the relationship of cellular metabolism to active ion transport, we have correlated carbon dioxide production with sodium transport by the urinary bladder of the toad, Bufo marinus, in vitro. The toad bladder was mounted so as to separate the two halves of a glass chamber, and each side was bathed with a phosphate Ringer's solution

Roy H. Maffly; Cecil H. Coggins



Band ligation of the perforated gall bladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  


Perforation of the gall bladder is a frequent complication during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Grasping the perforated part of the gall bladder, clip application, or endoscopic loop application are possible solutions to prevent spillage. We propose laparoscopic rubber band application to close the perforated part of the gall bladder as an easy and safe method. We performed rubber band application after iatrogenic perforation of the gall bladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 5 patients. Two-millimeter-wide multiple rubber rings, cut from a 14-Fr Foley catheter, are loaded on a grasper. When a perforation occurred during the dissection of the gall bladder, the hole is grasped with this instrument and 1 of the rings is placed on the gall bladder by the aid of a dissector. Thus, the grasper remained available for traction of the Hartmann's pouch during further dissection of the gall bladder. The rubber bands were placed successfully in all cases. Two perforations occurred in 1 case, and 2 bands were placed with ease. Bile leakage or gall stone spillage did not occur. Operation time was not prolonged. Rubber band ligation of perforation of the gall bladder is a simple, safe, inexpensive, and effective method to prevent spillage of the bile or gallstones in laparoscopic surgery. PMID:18097314

Derici, Hayrullah; Bozda?, Ali Do?an; Tansug, Tugrul; Nazli, Okay; Reyhan, Enver



Renal Failure Caused by Malakoplakia Lesions of the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

?alakoplakia is a rare inflammatory condition of the urogenital tract. The most frequently affected organ is urinary bladder. This condition has features of a granulomatous inflammation, the pathogenesis of which is not well understood. In this study, we presented a case of urinary bladder malakoplakia associated with advanced obstructive uropathy and renal failure.

Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Chelioti, Eleni; Tsavari, Aikaterini; Koulia, Kalliroi; Papalexandrou, Alexia; Efthymiou, Evdokia; Tsilivigkou, Maria; Vasilakaki, Thivi



Bladder metastases of appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma: a case presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Appendiceal adenocarcinoma is rare with a frequency of 0.08% of all surgically removed appendices. Few cases of appendiceal carcinoma infiltrating the bladder wall for spatial contiguity have been documented. CASE PRESENTATION: A case is reported of a 45-years old woman with mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the appendix with bladder metastasis. Although ultrasonography and voided urinary cytology were negative, abdomen computed

Gianluigi Taverna; Matteo Corinti; Piergiuseppe Colombo; Fabio Grizzi; Mauro Severo; Alessando Piccinelli; Guido Giusti; Alessio Benetti; Paolo A Zucali; Pierpaolo Graziotti



Ontogeny of the Rat Bladder: Smooth Muscle and Epithelial Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequential expression of smooth muscle and epithelial markers in the rat bladder has been defined. Smooth muscle differentiation, based on cell morphology and immunohistochemical localization of smooth muscle oc-actin, myosin, vinculin, desmin, vimentin and laminin, begins at 16 days of gestation (birth = 22 days) in the rat bladder. Smooth muscle cell differentiation begins in the periphery of the

L. S. Baskin; S. W. Hayward; P. F. Young; G. R. Cunha



Role of chemokine receptor CXCR7 in bladder cancer progression.  


Bladder cancer is one of the most common tumors of the genitourinary tract; however, the molecular events underlying growth and invasion of the tumor remain unclear. Here, role of the CXCR7 receptor in bladder cancer was further explored. CXCR7 protein expression was examined using high-density tissue microarrays. Expression of CXCR7 showed strong epithelial staining that correlated with bladder cancer progression. In vitro and in vivo studies in bladder cancer cell lines suggested that alterations in CXCR7 expression were associated with the activities of proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, angiogenesis and tumor growth. Moreover, CXCR7 expression was able to regulate expression of the proangiogenic factors IL-8 or VEGF, which may involve in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis. Finally, we found that signaling by the CXCR7 in bladder cancer cells activates AKT, ERK and STAT3 pathways. The AKT and ERK pathways may reciprocally regulate, which are responsible for in vitro and in vivo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of bladder cancer. Simultaneously targeting the two pathways by using U0126 and LY294002 inhibitors or using CCX733, a selective CXCR7 antagonist drastically reduced CXCR7-induced EMT process. Taken together, our data show for the first time that CXCR7 plays a role in the development of bladder cancer. Targeting CXCR7 or its downstream-activated AKT and ERK pathways may prove beneficial to prevent metastasis and provide a more effective therapeutic strategy for bladder cancer. PMID:22525723

Hao, Mingang; Zheng, Jianghua; Hou, Kailin; Wang, Jinglong; Chen, Xiaosong; Lu, Xiaojiong; Bo, Junjie; Xu, Chen; Shen, Kunwei; Wang, Jianhua



Inguinal herniation of the bladder in an infant.  


Inguinal herniation of the bladder is an uncommon finding with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. It is found most commonly in older, obese men with lower urinary tract symptoms. We report a case of inguinal herniation of the bladder in a premature infant. PMID:16672120

Manatt, Scott; Campbell, Jeffrey B; Ramji, Faridali; Kuhn, Ann; Frimberger, Dominic



Ultrastructural basement membrane topography of the bladder epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basement membrane underlies epithelium and separates it from deeper tissues. Recent studies suggest that nanoscale topography of the surface of basement membrane may modulate adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation of overlying epithelium. This study was performed to elucidate nanoscale topographic features of basement membrane of the bladder. Bladder tissues were obtained from three adult female rhesus macaques. A process

George A. Abrams; Christopher J. Murphy; Zun-Yi Wang; Paul F. Nealey; Dale E. Bjorling



Acute Renal Failure after Consumption of Fish Gall Bladder  

PubMed Central

A case of acute renal failure after consumption of fish gall bladder as traditional medical remedy is reported. The patient fully recovered with conservative treatment. The risk of acute kidney failure and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following ingestion of fish gall bladder is highlighted. PMID:24829840

Yu Yao, Bian



Sequential whole bladder photodynamic therapy treatments: A preclinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We postulated that sequential whole bladder photodynamic therapy (WBPDT) treatments with a low WBPDT dose would result in improved safety profile and good local tumor control. However, the drawback with such a proposal is the potential cumulative effect of sequential WBPDT treatments on bladder function. We designed this preclinical study to determine the safety of sequential WBPDT treatments. Six female

Uniyime O. Nseyo; Henry Kim; Joe DeBord; Karen Tate; Jean DeHaven



Arsenic-Related Chromosomal Alterations in Bladder Cancer  

E-print Network

exposure being an estab- lished cause of dermatologic effects and skin cancer (1). How- ever, epidemiologic cancers that are more fatal than skin cancers, including those of the bladder, kidney, liver, and lung (3Arsenic-Related Chromosomal Alterations in Bladder Cancer Lee E. Moore, Allan H. Smith, Clarence

California at Berkeley, University of


The concept of peripheral modulation of bladder sensation  

PubMed Central

It is recognized that, as the bladder fills, there is a corresponding increase in sensation. This awareness of the volume in the bladder is then used in a complex decision making process to determine if there is a need to void. It is also part of everyday experience that, when the bladder is full and sensations strong, these sensations can be suppressed and the desire to void postponed. The obvious explanation for such altered perceptions is that they occur centrally. However, this may not be the only mechanism. There are data to suggest that descending neural influences and local factors might regulate the sensitivity of the systems within the bladder wall generating afferent activity. Specifically, evidence is accumulating to suggest that the motor-sensory system within the bladder wall is influenced in this way. The motor-sensory system, first described over 100 years ago, appears to be a key component in the afferent outflow, the afferent “noise,” generated within the bladder wall. However, the presence and possible importance of this complex system in the generation of bladder sensation has been overlooked in recent years. As the bladder fills the motor activity increases, driven by cholinergic inputs and modulated, possibly, by sympathetic inputs. In this way information on bladder volume can be transmitted to the CNS. It can be argued that the ability to alter the sensitivity of the mechanisms generating the motor component of this motor-sensory system represents a possible indirect way to influence afferent activity and so the perception of bladder volume centrally. Furthermore, it is emerging that the apparent modulation of sensation by drugs to alleviate the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), the anti-cholinergics and the new generation of drugs the ?3 sympathomimetics, may be the result of their ability to modulate the motor component of the motor sensory system. The possibility of controlling sensation, physiologically and pharmacologically, by influencing afferent firing at its point of origin is a “new” concept in bladder physiology. It is one that deserves careful consideration as it might have wider implications for our understanding of bladder pathology and in the development of new therapeutic drugs. In this overview, evidence for the concept peripheral modulation of bladder afferent outflow is explored. PMID:23917648

Eastham, Jane E; Gillespie, James I



Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture.  


This study assesses femoral neck shortening and its effect on gait pattern and muscle strength in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation. Seventy-six patients from a multicenter randomized controlled trial participated. Patient characteristics and Short Form 12 and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were collected. Femoral neck shortening, gait parameters, and maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured and differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Variables of patients with little or no shortening, moderate shortening, and severe shortening were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Median femoral neck shortening was 1.1 cm. Subtle changes in gait pattern, reduced gait velocity, and reduced abductor muscle strength were observed. Age, weight, and Pauwels classification were risk factors for femoral neck shortening. Femoral neck shortening decreased gait velocity and seemed to impair gait symmetry and physical functioning. In conclusion, internal fixation of femoral neck fractures results in permanent physical limitations. The relatively young and healthy patients in our study seem capable of compensating. Attention should be paid to femoral neck shortening and proper correction with a heel lift, as inadequate correction may cause physical complaints and influence outcome. PMID:23823040

Zielinski, Stephanie M; Keijsers, Noël L; Praet, Stephan F E; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M



A Cause of Renal Dysfunction: A Giant Bladder Stone  

PubMed Central

Bladder stones are frequently seen in elderly men and account for 5% of all urinary stones. They develop secondary to infravesical obstructions, such as prostatic hyperplasia and neurogenic bladder. A 56-year-old patient with frequent and painful urination, dysuria, and minor complaints of suprapubic pain was referred to our clinic. He was diagnosed with bladder stones by non-contrast abdominopelvic computerized tomography, kidney-ureter-bladder radiography, and urinary system ultrasonography. Cystolithotomy was applied on a giant stone measuring 11×6.5×10 cm that filled the intravesical cavity nearly completely. Here, we present this case of a giant bladder stone causing renal dysfunction within the context of findings in the literature. PMID:25610281

Ofluoglu, Yilmaz; Aydin, Hasan Riza; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Adanur, Senol; Ziypak, Tevfik



Eosinophilic cystitis after bladder instillation with dimethyl sulfoxide.  


Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare and poorly understood disorder. We report the first case of an acute flare of eosinophilic cystitis in a 51-year-old woman after bladder instillation with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for presumed interstitial cystitis. The patient presented with severe bladder pain, fever, and eosinophilia several hours after instillation. These symptoms were unresponsive to conventional analgesic and antibiotic treatments. Cystoscopy revealed erythema and exudate at the bladder walls, along with edema of both ureteral orifices. Bladder biopsies demonstrated massive eosinophilic infiltration of the bladder, confirming the diagnosis of eosinophilic cystitis. Urologists should bear in mind this clinical entity, particularly when DMSO is administered to patients with multiple drug allergies. PMID:15183980

Abramov, Yoram; Goldberg, Roger P; McGuire, Michael; Golden, Barbara; Gandhi, Sanjay; Sand, Peter K



Confocal reflectance imaging of excised malignant human bladder biopsies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the potential of reflectance confocal scanning laser microscopy (CM) for rapid imaging of non-processed freshly excised human bladder biopsies and cystectomy specimens. Freshly excised bladder tumors from three cystectomy specimens and random biopsies from twenty patients with a history of superficial bladder tumors were imaged with CM. Additional acetic acid washing prior to CM imaging was performed in some of the samples. Confocal images were compared to corresponding routine histologic sections. CM allows imaging of unprocessed bladder tissue at a subcellular resolution. Urothelial cell layers, collagen, vessels and muscle fibers can be rapidly visualized, in native state. In this regard, umbrella cells, basement membrane elucidated. Besides obvious limitations partly due to non-use of exogenous dyes, CM imaging offers several advantages: rapid imaging of the tissue in its native state like the basement membrane, normally seen only by using immunohistopathology. Reflectance CM opens a new avenue for imaging bladder cancer.

Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Kastein, Albrecht; Koenig, Frank; Sachs, Markus; Schnorr, Dietmar; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.



Urinary bladder mass in a dog.  


A 7-year-old spayed female Schnauzer dog with chronic hematuria had a soft tissue mass within the wall of the bladder. The mass was excised and, when examined histologically, was determined to be a discrete well-organized mural mass consisting of spindloid cells arranged in swirling sheets and palisades punctuated by aggregates of principally eosinophils. The overlying transitional mucosa was extensively ulcerated and focally hyperplastic and nodular with subjacent solid down growths, superficial cysts, and the extension of tubular structures deep into the submucosa. The histologic appearance of this mass is consistent with canine polypoid eosinophilic cystitis, also known as benign inflammatory fibrous polyp. PMID:20080500

Gelberg, H B



Pathophysiology and animal modeling of underactive bladder.  


While the symptomology of underactive bladder (UAB) may imply a primary dysfunction of the detrusor muscle, insights into pathophysiology indicate that both myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms need to be considered. Due to lack of proper animal models, the current understanding of the UAB pathophysiology is limited, and much of what is known about the clinical etiology of the condition has been derived from epidemiological data. We hereby review current state of the art in the understanding of the pathophysiology of and animal models used to study the UAB. PMID:25238890

Tyagi, Pradeep; Smith, Phillip P; Kuchel, George A; de Groat, William C; Birder, Lori A; Chermansky, Christopher J; Adam, Rosalyn M; Tse, Vincent; Chancellor, Michael B; Yoshimura, Naoki



Pathology Case Study: Bladder Outlet Obstruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a genitourinary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 84-year-old man has a bladder outlet obstruction. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

Chung, Wen-Wei



Raman spectroscopic documentation of Oligocene bladder stone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery of a fossil (30-35 million-year-old) urolith from Early Oligocene deposits in northeastern Colorado provides the earliest evidence for the antiquity of bladder stones. These are spherical objects with a layered phosphatic structure and a hollow center. Each layer is composed of parallel crystals oriented perpendicular to the surface. Macroscopic and microscopic examination and X-ray diffraction analysis, along with comparison with 1,000 contemporary uroliths, were used as evidence in the confirmation of this diagnosis. Raman microspectroscopy verified the presence of organic material between layers, confirming its biologic origin.

Rothschild, Bruce M.; Martin, Larry D.; Anderson, Brendan; Marshall, Alison Olcott; Marshall, Craig P.



Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in management of bladder cancer, particularly with multimodal bladder-sparing strategy.  


Bladder-sparing strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is increasingly demanded instead of radical cystectomy plus urinary diversion. Multimodal therapeutic approaches consisting of transurethral resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or partial cystectomy improve patients' quality of life by preserving their native bladder and sexual function without compromising oncological outcomes. Because a favorable response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a prerequisite for successful bladder preservation, predicting and monitoring therapeutic response is an essential part of this approach. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is a functional imaging technique increasingly applied to various types of cancers. Contrast in this imaging technique derives from differences in the motion of water molecules among tissues and this information is useful in assessing the biological behavior of cancers. Promising results in predicting and monitoring the response to CRT have been reported in several types of cancers. Recently, growing evidence has emerged showing that DW-MRI can serve as an imaging biomarker in the management of bladder cancer. The qualitative analysis of DW-MRI can be applied to detecting cancerous lesion and monitoring the response to CRT. Furthermore, the potential role of quantitative analysis by evaluating apparent diffusion coefficient values has been shown in characterizing bladder cancer for biological aggressiveness and sensitivity to CRT. DW-MRI is a potentially useful tool for the management of bladder cancer, particularly in multimodal bladder-sparing approaches for MIBC. PMID:24976935

Yoshida, Soichiro; Koga, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Shuichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Satoh, Shiro; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori



Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in management of bladder cancer, particularly with multimodal bladder-sparing strategy  

PubMed Central

Bladder-sparing strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is increasingly demanded instead of radical cystectomy plus urinary diversion. Multimodal therapeutic approaches consisting of transurethral resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or partial cystectomy improve patients’ quality of life by preserving their native bladder and sexual function without compromising oncological outcomes. Because a favorable response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a prerequisite for successful bladder preservation, predicting and monitoring therapeutic response is an essential part of this approach. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is a functional imaging technique increasingly applied to various types of cancers. Contrast in this imaging technique derives from differences in the motion of water molecules among tissues and this information is useful in assessing the biological behavior of cancers. Promising results in predicting and monitoring the response to CRT have been reported in several types of cancers. Recently, growing evidence has emerged showing that DW-MRI can serve as an imaging biomarker in the management of bladder cancer. The qualitative analysis of DW-MRI can be applied to detecting cancerous lesion and monitoring the response to CRT. Furthermore, the potential role of quantitative analysis by evaluating apparent diffusion coefficient values has been shown in characterizing bladder cancer for biological aggressiveness and sensitivity to CRT. DW-MRI is a potentially useful tool for the management of bladder cancer, particularly in multimodal bladder-sparing approaches for MIBC. PMID:24976935

Yoshida, Soichiro; Koga, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Shuichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Satoh, Shiro; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori



Transplantation of Autologous Minced Bladder Mucosa for a One-Step Reconstruction of a Tissue Engineered Bladder Conduit  

PubMed Central

Surgical intervention is sometimes needed to create a conduit from the abdominal wall to the bladder for self-catheterization. We developed a method for tissue engineering a conduit for bladder emptying without in vitro cell culturing as a one-step procedure. In a porcine animal model bladder, wall tissue was excised and the mucosa was minced to small particles. The particles were attached to a tube in a 1?:?3 expansion rate with fibrin glue and transplanted back by attaching the tube to the bladder and through the abdominal wall. Sham served as controls. After 4-5 weeks, conduits were assessed in respect to macroscopic and microscopic appearance in 6 pigs. Two pigs underwent radiology before termination. Gross examination revealed a patent conduit with an opening to the bladder. Histology and immunostaining showed a multilayered transitional uroepithelium in all cases. Up to 89% of the luminal surface area was neoepithelialized but with a loose attachment to the submucosa. No epithelium was found in control animals. CT imaging revealed a patent channel that could be used for filling and emptying the bladder. Animals that experienced surgical complications did not form conduits. Minced autologous bladder mucosa can be transplanted around a tubular mold to create a conduit to the urinary bladder without in vitro culturing. PMID:24288669

Reinfeldt Engberg, Gisela; Chamorro, Clara Ibel; Nordenskjöld, Agneta



Novel multi-sensor probe for monitoring bladder temperature during loco-regional chemo-hyperthermia for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: technical feasibility study.  


Background: The effectiveness of loco-regional hyperthermia combined with intravesical instillation of Mitomycin C, to reduce the risk of recurrence and progression of intermediate- and high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, is currently investigated in clinical trials. Clinically effective loco-regional hyperthermia delivery requires adequate thermal dosimetry; thus, optimal thermometry methods are needed to monitor accurately the temperature distribution throughout the bladder wall. Materials and Methods: A multi-sensor thermocouple probe was designed for deployment in the human bladder, using special sensors to cover the bladder wall in different directions. The deployment of the thermocouples against the bladder wall was evaluated with visual, endoscopic and computed tomography imaging in bladder phantoms, porcine models and human bladders obtained from obduction for bladder volumes and different deployment sizes of the probe. Finally, porcine bladders were embedded in a phantom and subjected to loco-regional heating to compare probe temperatures with additional thermometry inside and outside the bladder wall. Results: The 7.5 cm thermocouple probe yielded optimal bladder wall contact, adapting to different bladder volumes. Temperature monitoring was shown to be accurate and representative for the actual bladder wall temperature. Conclusions: Use of this novel multi-sensor probe could yield a more accurate monitoring of the bladder wall temperature during loco-regional chemo-hyperthermia. PMID:23998508

Cordeiro Feijoo, Ernesto Raul; Geijsen, Debby E; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J; Schooneveldt, Gerben; Sijbrands, Jan; Hulshof, Maarten C; De La Rosette, Jean; de Reijke, Theo M; Crezee, Hans



Human chorionic gonadotropin but not the calcitonin gene-related peptide induces postnatal testicular descent in mice.  


The androgen-regulated paracrine factor, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), has been proposed as a possible mediator of testicular descent. This peptide has been found to increase rhythmic contractions of gubernaculae and is known to be released by the genitofemoral nerve. We have investigated the ability of CGRP to induce premature testicular descent. CGRP was administered alone, or in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to C57BL/6 male mice postnatally. The extent of testicular descent at 18 days postpartum was then ascertained. The potential relationship between testicular weight and descent was also examined. Our results show that testes of mice treated with either hCG alone, or in combination with 500 ng CGRP, were at a significantly lower position than those of controls by 16% and 17%, respectively. In contrast, mice treated with 500 ng of CGRP alone had testes at a higher position when compared to those of controls, by 19%. In mice treated with 50 ng of CGRP alone or in combination with hCG, testes were at a position similar to those in controls. Furthermore, testicular descent was analyzed in relation to testicular weight, and we found that significantly smaller testes per gram of body weight than those of controls were at a significantly lower position compared to those of controls. Our data demonstrate that CGRP had no effect on postnatal testicular descent and that there is no relationship between postnatal descent and testicular weight. PMID:7559144

Houle, A M; Gagné, D



Molecular genetics of bladder cancer: an update.  


Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with tumors ranging from papillary non-invasive to solid muscle infiltrating high grade tumors. There are mainly three problems after initial management: recurrence, progression to higher stage and metastases. The respective risk is well known for each of the stages of the disease but not sufficiently for individual optimal risk assessments. The clinical need is initially to establish the correct risk irrespective of later treatment that is to find prognostic factors. Secondarily it is important to develop predictive factors for each specific therapy. With the advent of array-based molecular profiling it is possible to obtain a more complete picture of the cancer biology and thus hope to improve the prediction of risk. Today the microarray approach is implemented at DNA, RNA and protein level. Reported chromosomal alterations in low-grade papillary tumors are few and the most common are 9q and 9p deletions. Activation of the MAPK pathway through mutations of FGFR3, RAS or PI3K seems to be crucial in the genesis of these low malignant tumors. Muscle infiltrating bladder tumors typically have more genetic aberrations than non-muscle invasive cancers. Key genes are related to the p53 and RB pathways. Gene-expression signatures correlated to stage, CIS, progression and recurrence have been proposed but require further validation. PMID:18923358

Díaz De Ståhl, T; Segersten, U; Malmström, P U



Polymeric Bladder for Storing Liquid Oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed system for storing oxygen in liquid form and dispensing it in gaseous form is based on (1) initial subcooling of the liquid oxygen; (2) containing the liquid oxygen in a flexible vessel; (3) applying a gas spring to the flexible vessel to keep the oxygen compressed above the saturation pressure and, thus, in the liquid state; and (4) using heat leakage into the system for vaporizing the oxygen to be dispensed. In a typical prior system based on these principles, the flexible vessel is a metal bellows housed in a rigid tank, and the gas spring consists of pressurized helium in the tank volume surrounding the bellows. Unfortunately, the welds in the bellows corrugations are subject to fatigue, and, because bellows have large ullage, a correspondingly large fraction of the oxygen content cannot be expelled. In the proposed system, the flexible vessel would be a bladder made of a liquid- crystal polymer (LCP). (LCPs are strong and compatible with liquid oxygen.) In comparison with a metal bellows, a polymeric bladder would have less ullage and would weigh less. In experiments involving fatigue cycling at liquid-nitrogen temperatures, two LCPs were found to be suitable for this application.

Walker, David H.; Harvey, Andrew C.; Leary, William



Prospective pharmacologic therapies for the overactive bladder  

PubMed Central

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and detrusor overactivity (DO) are all conditions that can have major effects on quality of life and social functioning. Antimuscarinic drugs are first-line treatment–they often have good initial response rates, but adverse effects and decreasing efficacy cause long-term compliance problems, and alternatives are needed. The recognition of the functional contribution of the urothelium, the spontaneous myocyte activity during bladder filling, and the diversity of nerve transmitters has sparked interest in both peripheral and central modulation of LUTS/OAB/DO pathophysiology. There may be several new possibilities to treat LUTS/OAB/DO. ?3-AR agonists (YM178), PDE 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil), vitamin D analogs (elocalcitol), combinations (?1-AR antagonist?+?antimuscarinic), and drugs with a central mode of action (tramadol, aprepitant) all have Randomized controlled trial (RCT) documented efficacy. Which of these therapeutic principles will be developed to clinically useful treatments remains to be established. PMID:21789056

Andersson, Karl-Erik




E-print Network

CANNABINOID CB1 RECEPTORS ARE EXPRESSED IN THE MOUSE URINARY BLADDER AND THEIR ACTIVATION MODULATES of cannabinoid receptors in the urinary bladder and their potential role in reducing bladder inflam- matory pain. However, the localization of cannabinoid recep- tors in the urinary bladder remains unknown

Price, Theodore


Wireless, Ultra-Low-Power Implantable Sensor for Chronic Bladder Pressure Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wireless implantable\\/intracavity micromanometer (WIMM) system was designed to fulfill the unmet need for a chronic bladder pressure sensing device in urological fields such as urodynamics for diagnosis and neuromodulation for bladder control. Neuromodulation in particular would benefit from a wireless bladder pressure sensor which could provide real-time pressure feedback to an implanted stimulator, resulting in greater bladder capacity while

Steve J. A. Majerus; Steven L. Garverick; Michael A. Suster; Paul C. Fletter; Margot S. Damaser



Chitosan Scaffold Enhances Angiogenesis within an in vitro Reconstructed Bladder Wall, an Animal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The function of a reconstructed bladder depends on the contracting bladder wall. This can be obtained with sufficient angiogenesis. Polyglycolic acid (PGA) is used as a cell vehicle for bladder reconstruction. Chitosan supports adhesion and differentiation of endothelial cells. The aim of the study was to compare PGA with PGA\\/chitosan ?sandwich? grafts for bladder wall regeneration. Materials and Methods:

Tomasz Drewa; Jan Adamowicz; Agnieszka Krawczyk; Joanna Polasik; Jan Pielichowski; Joanna Lysik



Differential effects of intravesical resiniferatoxin on excitability of bladder spinal neurons upon colon–bladder cross-sensitization  

PubMed Central

Cross-sensitization in the pelvis may contribute to etiology of functional pelvic pain disorders such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Increasing evidence suggests the involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the development of neurogenic inflammation in the pelvis and pelvic organ cross-sensitization. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that desensitization of TRPV1 receptors in the urinary bladder can minimize the effects of cross-sensitization induced by experimental colitis on excitability of bladder spinal neurons. Extracellular activity of bladder neurons was recorded in response to graded urinary bladder distension (UBD) in rats pretreated with intravesical resiniferatoxin (RTX, 10?7 M). Colonic inflammation was induced by intracolonic instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The duration of excitatory responses to noxious UBD during acute colonic inflammation (3 days post-TNBS) was significantly shortened in the group with RTX pretreatment (25.37±.5 s, n=49) when compared to the control group (35.1±4.2 s, n=43, p?0.05). The duration of long-lasting excitatory responses, but not short-lasting responses of bladder spinal neurons during acute colitis was significantly reduced by RTX from 52.9±6.6 s (n=21, vehicle group) to 34.4±2.1 s (RTX group, n=21, p?0.05). However, activation of TRPV1 receptors in the urinary bladder prior to acute colitis increased the number of bladder neurons receiving input from large somatic fields from 22.7% to 58.2% (p?0.01). The results of our study provide evidence that intravesical RTX reduces the effects of viscerovisceral cross-talk induced by colonic inflammation on bladder spinal neurons. However, RTX enhances the responses of bladder neurons to somatic stimulation, thereby limiting its therapeutic potential. PMID:23146715

Malykhina, Anna P.; Qin, Chao; Lei, Qi; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Meerveld, Beverley Greenwood-Van; Foreman, Robert D.



Neck Rejuvenation with Fractional CO2 Laser  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of 10,600nm fractional CO2 laser for neck aging at one month and one year after treatment. Design/Setting/Participants/Measurement: Twenty patients underwent 10,600nm fractional CO2 laser treatment over the entire neck. Clinical features of the patients were classified according to Baker classification. The degrees of skin laxity, jowling, fat deposition, and horizontal neck lines were evaluated using a 9-point scale, prior to treatment at one month and one year after the treatment. The patients were independently assessed by the authors at two different times in a blinded fashion. Results: Skin laxity, jowling, fat deposition, and horizontal neck lines scores were significantly lower than the baseline values at one month and one year. One-year follow-up values of the same parameters were still significantly lower than the baseline. No persistent complication developed after treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that fractional CO2 neck rejuvenation is an effective treatment option with long-term efficacy for patients who mainly have skin laxity and jowling together with skin surface pigmentation. PMID:25161757

Oram, Yasemin



Local flow management/profile descent algorithm. Fuel-efficient, time-controlled profiles for the NASA TSRV airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Local Flow Management/Profile Descent (LFM/PD) algorithm designed for the NASA Transport System Research Vehicle program is described. The algorithm provides fuel-efficient altitude and airspeed profiles consistent with ATC restrictions in a time-based metering environment over a fixed ground track. The model design constraints include accommodation of both published profile descent procedures and unpublished profile descents, incorporation of fuel efficiency as a flight profile criterion, operation within the performance capabilities of the Boeing 737-100 airplane with JT8D-7 engines, and conformity to standard air traffic navigation and control procedures. Holding and path stretching capabilities are included for long delay situations.

Groce, J. L.; Izumi, K. H.; Markham, C. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Thompson, J. L.



Efficiency of biological versus physical optimization for single-arc VMAT for prostate and head and neck cases.  


The aim of this work was to compare different approaches to VMAT optimization (biological vs. physical DVH-based) in two commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) for head and neck and prostate cases, using Pareto fronts. VMAT vs. IMRT Pareto front comparison was additionally performed in order to benchmark the optimizer efficiency and VMAT plan quality for each TPS. Three prostate and three head and neck cancer patients were selected for nine-beam IMRT and single-arc VMAT planning in Monaco 3.00 and Oncentra MasterPlan (OMP) 3.3 planning systems. Pareto fronts for prostate cases were constructed based on PTV coverage by 95% isodose and volume of rectum receiving 60 Gy or more. For head and neck cases, PTV coverage by the same isodose and mean dose to parotid gland were used for the construction of Pareto fronts. DVH analysis was performed together with evaluation of planning and delivery efficiency for all the plans. In the intersystem comparison for prostate plans, Monaco generated very similar IMRT and VMAT solutions. Quality of Monaco VMAT plans was superior compared to Oncentra in terms of conformity, homogeneity, and lower median dose to bladder due to biological formalism of optimization cost functions. For the head and neck cases, IMRT and VMAT plans were similar in both systems, except the case where a very strong modulation was required. In this situation single-arc VMAT plan generated with OMP was inferior compared to IMRT. VMAT OMP solutions were similar to Monaco or slightly better for two less-modulated head and neck cases. However, this advantage was achieved on the cost of lower conformity and homogeneity of the Oncentra VMAT plans. IMRT and VMAT solutions generated by Monaco were very similar for both prostate and head and neck cases. Oncentra system shows a bigger difference, and use of the dual-arc VMAT would be recommended to achieve the same plan quality as nine-field IMRT. Biological optimization seems beneficial in terms of plan conformity and homogeneity and allowed achieving lower OAR doses for prostate cases. In complex anatomical situations represented by head and neck cases, sequencing algorithm in Monaco imposed limitations on VMAT plan quality in the intersystem comparison. PMID:25207394

Pyshniak, Vadzim; Fotina, Irina; Zverava, Alena; Siamkouski, Stanislau; Zayats, Elena; Kopanitsa, Georgy; Okuntsau, Dzmitry



Identification of novel piRNAs in bladder cancer.  


PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a newly identified class of small non-coding RNAs that can play important roles in germline development and carcinogenesis. In this study, piRNA microarrays were used to investigate global piRNA expression in three bladder cancer tissues and their adjacent normal tissues. Using the 3' untranslated region (UTR) sequence complementarily method, we predicted the target gene of piRNA. Our results showed that the expression levels of 106 piRNAs were up-regulated and 91 were down-regulated in bladder cancer tissues, among which the fold-change of down-regulated piRNA DQ594040 associated with bladder cancer (piRABC) was the highest piRNA. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to confirm piRABC expression in paired bladder cancer tissues and their adjacent normal tissues (n?=?25). Over-expression of piRABC can inhibit bladder cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, and promote cell apoptosis (all P?bladder cancer subjects. In conclusion, piRABC plays a crucial role in the development of bladder cancer. PMID:25305452

Chu, Haiyan; Hui, Gaoyun; Yuan, Lin; Shi, Danni; Wang, Yubang; Du, Mulong; Zhong, Dongyan; Ma, Lan; Tong, Na; Qin, Chao; Yin, Changjun; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin



Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Treatment for patients with head and neck cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach. Radiotherapy is employed as a primary treatment or as an adjuvant to surgery. Each specific subsite dictates the appropriate radiotherapy techniques, fields, dose, and fractionation scheme. Quality of life is also an important issue in the management of head and neck cancer. The radiation-related complications have a tremendous impact on the quality of life. Modern radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and image-guided radiotherapy, can offer precise radiation delivery and reduce the dose to the surrounding normal tissues without compromise of target coverage. In the future, efforts should be made in the exploration of novel strategies to improve treatment outcome in patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:22550433

Yeh, Shyh-An



Endoscopic Gold Fiducial Marker Placement into the Bladder Wall to Optimize Radiotherapy Targeting for Bladder-Preserving Management of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Feasibility and Initial Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Bladder radiotherapy is a management option for carefully selected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, the inability to visualize the tumor site during treatment and normal bladder movement limits targeting accuracy and increases collateral radiation. A means to accurately and reliably target the bladder during radiotherapy is needed. Materials and Methods Eighteen consecutive patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T1–T4) elected bladder-preserving treatment with maximal transurethral resection (TUR), radiation and concurrent chemotherapy. All underwent endoscopic placement of 24-K gold fiducial markers modified with micro-tines (70 [2.9×0.9 mm.]; 19 [2.1×0.7 mm.) into healthy submucosa 5-10 mm. from the resection margin, using custom-made coaxial needles. Marker migration was assessed for with intra-op bladder-filling cystogram and measurement of distance between markers. Set-up error and marker retention through completion of radiotherapy was confirmed by on-table portal imaging. Results Between 1/2007 and 7/2012, a total of 89 markers (3–5 per tumor site) were placed into 18 patients of mean age 73.6 years. Two patients elected cystectomy before starting treatment; 16/18 completed chemo-radiotherapy. All (100%) markers were visible with all on-table (portal, cone-beam CT), fluoroscopy, plain-film, and CT-scan imaging. In two patients, 1 of 4 markers placed at the tumor site fell-out (voided) during the second half of radiotherapy. All other markers (80/82, 98%) were present through the end of radio-therapy. No intraoperative (e.g. uncontrolled bleeding, collateral injury) or post-operative complications (e.g. stone formation, urinary tract infection, post-TUR hematuria >48 hours) occurred. Use of micro-tined fiducial tumor-site markers afforded a 2 to 6-fold reduction in bladder-area targeted with high-dose radiation. Discussion Placement of the micro-tined fiducial markers into the bladder was feasible and associated with excellent retention-rate and no complications. All markers were well-visualized during radiotherapy with all imaging modalities. Bladder fiducial markers improve targeting accuracy, and may increase treatment efficacy and reduce morbidity from collateral radiation. PMID:24594774

Garcia, Maurice M.; Gottschalk, Alexander R.; Brajtbord, Jonathan; Konety, Badrinath R.; Meng, Maxwell V.; Roach, Mack; Carroll, Peter R.



Best practice in the assessment of bladder function in infants  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to review normal developmental bladder physiology in infants and bladder dysfunction in conditions such as neurogenic bladder, posterior urethral valves and high grade vesicoureteric reflux. We contrast the classical concept that bladder function in nontoilet-trained children is thought to be ‘reflexive’ or ‘uninhibited’, with the results of more recent research showing that infants most commonly have a stable detrusor. The infant bladder is physiologically distinct from the state seen in older children or adults. The voiding pattern of the infant is characterized by an interrupted voiding stream due to lack of proper urinary sphincter relaxation during voiding. This is called physiologic detrusor sphincter dyscoordination and is different from the pathologic ‘detrusor sphincter dyssynergy’ seen in patients with neurogenic bladder. Urodynamic abnormalities in neonates born with spina bifida are common and depend on the level and severity of the spinal cord malformation. Upper neuron lesions most commonly lead to an overactive bladder with or without detrusor sphincter dyssynergy while a lower neuron lesion is associated with an acontractile detrusor with possible denervation of the external urinary sphincter. In infants with neurogenic bladder, the role of ‘early prophylactic treatment (clean intermittent catheterization and anticholinergics)’ versus initial ‘watchful waiting and treatment as needed’ is still controversial and needs more research. Many urodynamic-based interventions have been suggested in patients with posterior urethral valves and are currently under scrutiny, but their impact on the long-term outcome of the upper and lower urinary tract is still unknown. Cumulative data suggest that there is no benefit to early intervention regarding bladder function in infants with high-grade vesicoureteric reflux. PMID:25083164

Leonard, Michael; Castagnetti, Marco



Preclinical dosimetry of magnetic fluid hyperthermia for bladder cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background Despite positive efficacy, thermotherapy is not widely used in clinical oncology. Difficulties associated with field penetration and controlling power deposition patterns in heterogeneous tissue have limited its use for heating deep in the body. Heat generation using iron-oxide super-paramagnetic nanoparticles excited with magnetic fields has been demonstrated to overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this preclinical study is to investigate the feasibility of treating bladder cancer with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Methods The bladders of 25 female rats were injected with 0.4 ml of Actium Biosystems magnetite-based nanoparticles (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) via catheters inserted in the urethra. To assess the distribution of nanoparticles in the rat after injection we used the 7 T small animal MRI system (Bruker ClinScan, Bruker BioSpin MRI GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany). Heat treatments were performed with a small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) with a goal of raising bladder temperature to 42°C in <10min and maintaining for 60min. Temperatures were measured throughout the rat with seven fiberoptic temperature probes (OpSens Technologies, Quebec Canada) to characterize our ability to localize heat within the bladder target. Results The MRI study confirms the effectiveness of the catheterization procedure to homogenously distribute nanoparticles throughout the bladder. Thermal dosimetry data demonstrate our ability to controllably raise temperature of rat bladder >1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that a MFH system provides well-localized heating of rat bladder with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues.

Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea; Etienne, Wiguins; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.



Prediction of Neck Dissection Requirement After Definitive Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Background: This analysis was undertaken to assess the need for planned neck dissection in patients with a complete response (CR) of involved nodes after irradiation and to determine the benefit of a neck dissection in those with less than CR by tumor site. Methods: Our cohort included 880 patients with T1-4, N1-3M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, larynx, or hypopharynx who received treatment between 1994 and 2004. Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier Method, comparisons of rates with the log-rank test and prognostic factors by Cox's proportional hazard model. Results: Nodal CR occurred in 377 (43%) patients, of whom 365 patients did not undergo nodal dissection. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate of patients with CR was 92%. Two hundred sixty-eight of the remaining patients (53%) underwent neck dissections. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate for patients without a CR was 84%. Those who had a neck dissection fared better with 5-year actuarial regional control rates of 90% and 76% for those operated and those not operated (p < 0.001). Variables associated with poorer regional control rates included higher T and N stage, non-oropharynx cancers, non-CR, both clinical and pathological. Conclusions: With 92% 5-year neck control rate without neck dissection after CR, there is little justification for systematic neck dissection. The addition of a neck dissection resulted in higher neck control after partial response though patients with viable tumor on pathology specimens had poorer outcomes. The identification of that subgroup that benefits from additional treatment remains a challenge.

Thariat, Juliette [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology/IBDC CNRS UMR, Cancer Center Antoine-Lacassagne, University Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice, Cedex 2 (France); Ang, K. Kian; Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ahamad, Anesa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago); Williams, Michelle D. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Myers, Jeffrey N. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); El-Naggar, Adel K. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ginsberg, Lawrence E. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Glisson, Bonnie S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medicine, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Morrison, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Weber, Randal S. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Garden, Adam S., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)



Prediction of Neck Dissection Requirement After Definitive Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND This analysis was undertaken to assess the need for planned neck dissection in patients with a complete response (CR) of involved nodes after irradiation, and to determine the benefit of a neck dissection in those with less than CR by tumor site. METHODS Our cohort included 880 patients with T1-4, N1-3M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, larynx or hypopharynx who received treatment between 1994 and 2004. Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier Method, comparisons of rates with the log-rank test and prognostic factors by Cox analyses. RESULTS Nodal CR occurred in 377 (43%) patients of whom 365 patients did not undergo nodal dissection. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate of patients with CR was 92%. Two hundred sixty-eight of the remaining patients (53%) underwent neck dissections. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate for patients without a CR was 84%. Those who had a neck dissection fared better with 5-year actuarial regional control rates of 90% and 76% for those operated and those not operated (p <.001). Variables associated with poorer regional control rates included higher T and N stage, non-oropharynx cancers, non-CR, both clinical and pathological. CONCLUSIONS With 92% 5-year neck control rate without neck dissection after CR, there is little justification for systematic neck dissection. The addition of a neck dissection resulted in higher neck control after partial response though patients with viable tumor on pathology specimens had poorer outcomes. The identification of that subgroup that benefits from additional treatment remains a challenge. PMID:22284033

Thariat, Juliette; Ang, K. Kian; Allen, Pamela K.; Ahamad, Anesa; Williams, Michelle D.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Rosenthal, David I.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Morrison, William H.; Weber, Randal S.; Garden, Adam S.



49 CFR 572.123 - Neck assembly and test procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Neck assembly and test procedure. 572.123 Section 572.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...Six-year-old Child Test Dummy, Beta Version § 572.123 Neck assembly and test procedure. (a)...



Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth  


... Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth Main Content Are You ... Problems Too? Remember Are You Being Treated With Radiation for Cancer in Your Head or Neck? If ...


Genetics Home Reference: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  


... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... January 2015 What is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma? Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that ...


Comfort effects of a new car headrest with neck support.  


This paper describes the design of a neck-/headrest to increase car comfort. Two studies were undertaken to create a new comfortable headrest with neck support. In experiment one, neck- and headrest data were gathered using 35 test subjects. The pressure distribution, stiffness of the foam material and position of the head and neck support were determined. In experiment two a full adjustable final headrest with adjustable neck support was constructed and tested with 12 subjects using a new adjustable headrest under virtual reality driving conditions. Experiment two showed that the headrest with the new/adjustable neck support was favoured by the majority of the subjects. 83% were satisfied with the stiffness of the material. 92% were satisfied with the size of the neck- and headrest. All subjects mentioned that the neck support is a comfort benefit in calm traffic conditions or on the motorway. PMID:21944482

Franz, M; Durt, A; Zenk, R; Desmet, P M A



49 CFR 572.163 - Neck assembly and test procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy § 572.163 Neck assembly and test procedure. The neck assembly is...



Bladder Cancer-associated Protein, a Potential Prognostic Biomarker in Human Bladder Cancer*  

PubMed Central

It is becoming increasingly clear that no single marker will have the sensitivity and specificity necessary to be used on its own for diagnosis/prognosis of tumors. Interpatient and intratumor heterogeneity provides overwhelming odds against the existence of such an ideal marker. With this in mind, our laboratory has been applying a long term systematic approach to identify multiple biomarkers that can be used for clinical purposes. As a result of these studies, we have identified and reported several candidate biomarker proteins that are deregulated in bladder cancer. Following the conceptual biomarker development phases proposed by the Early Detection Research Network, we have taken some of the most promising candidate proteins into postdiscovery validation studies, and here we report on the characterization of one such biomarker, the bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP), formerly termed Bc10. To characterize BLCAP protein expression and cellular localization patterns in benign bladder urothelium and urothelial carcinomas (UCs), we used two independent sets of samples from different patient cohorts: a reference set consisting of 120 bladder specimens (formalin-fixed as well as frozen biopsies) and a validation set consisting of 2,108 retrospectively collected UCs with long term clinical follow-up. We could categorize the UCs examined into four groups based on levels of expression and subcellular localization of BLCAP protein and showed that loss of BLCAP expression is associated with tumor progression. The results indicated that increased expression of this protein confers an adverse patient outcome, suggesting that categorization of staining patterns for this protein may have prognostic value. Finally, we applied a combinatorial two-marker discriminator using BLCAP and adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein, another UC biomarker previously reported by us, and found that the combination of the two markers correlated more closely with grade and/or stage of disease than the individual markers. The implications of these results in biomarker discovery are discussed. PMID:19783793

Moreira, José M. A.; Ohlsson, Gita; Gromov, Pavel; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Celis, Julio E.; Gromova, Irina



Bladder cancer-associated protein, a potential prognostic biomarker in human bladder cancer.  


It is becoming increasingly clear that no single marker will have the sensitivity and specificity necessary to be used on its own for diagnosis/prognosis of tumors. Interpatient and intratumor heterogeneity provides overwhelming odds against the existence of such an ideal marker. With this in mind, our laboratory has been applying a long term systematic approach to identify multiple biomarkers that can be used for clinical purposes. As a result of these studies, we have identified and reported several candidate biomarker proteins that are deregulated in bladder cancer. Following the conceptual biomarker development phases proposed by the Early Detection Research Network, we have taken some of the most promising candidate proteins into postdiscovery validation studies, and here we report on the characterization of one such biomarker, the bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP), formerly termed Bc10. To characterize BLCAP protein expression and cellular localization patterns in benign bladder urothelium and urothelial carcinomas (UCs), we used two independent sets of samples from different patient cohorts: a reference set consisting of 120 bladder specimens (formalin-fixed as well as frozen biopsies) and a validation set consisting of 2,108 retrospectively collected UCs with long term clinical follow-up. We could categorize the UCs examined into four groups based on levels of expression and subcellular localization of BLCAP protein and showed that loss of BLCAP expression is associated with tumor progression. The results indicated that increased expression of this protein confers an adverse patient outcome, suggesting that categorization of staining patterns for this protein may have prognostic value. Finally, we applied a combinatorial two-marker discriminator using BLCAP and adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein, another UC biomarker previously reported by us, and found that the combination of the two markers correlated more closely with grade and/or stage of disease than the individual markers. The implications of these results in biomarker discovery are discussed. PMID:19783793

Moreira, José M A; Ohlsson, Gita; Gromov, Pavel; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina



Infected inguinal hernia mesh presenting as pseudotumor of the bladder  

PubMed Central

Pseudotumors are uncommon benign tumors considered as a reactive inflammatory lesion. We report a case of a 53-year-old male with a history of right laparoscopic hernia repair and now referred for suspected urachal cyst. Imaging investigations revealed an abdominal mass arising from the wall of the urinary bladder. During dissection, we found a tumor arising from the urinary bladder infiltrating the posterior wall of rectus muscles and further dissection revealed presence of the previously placed inguinal mesh. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed inflammatory pseudotumor. With only one comparable case described, an infected mesh presenting as pseudotumor of the bladder is extremely rare. PMID:24235798

Dubbeling, Remco M.; Ramesh, Kamalakannan



Occupation, smoking, and alcohol in the epidemiology of bladder cancer.  

PubMed Central

We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effects of occupation, smoking, and alcohol consumption on bladder cancer risk. A total of 823 male cases and 2,469 age-matched controls were identified through the Missouri Cancer Registry. Relative risk estimates of 2.0 or greater were observed for janitors and cleaners, mechanics, miners, and printers. Current cigarette smoking was associated with a two-fold excess risk of bladder cancer, whereas alcohol consumption showed no association with bladder cancer risk. PMID:3631363

Brownson, R C; Chang, J C; Davis, J R



Urinary bladder segmentation in CT urography (CTU) using CLASS  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The authors are developing a computerized system for bladder segmentation on CTU, as a critical component for computer aided diagnosis of bladder cancer. Methods: A challenge for bladder segmentation is the presence of regions without contrast (NC) and filled with intravenous contrast (C). The authors have designed a Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS) specifically for this application. CLASS performs a series of image processing tasks: preprocessing, initial segmentation, 3D and 2D level set segmentation, and postprocessing, designed according to the characteristics of the bladder in CTU. The NC and the C regions of the bladder were segmented separately in CLASS. The final contour is obtained in the postprocessing stage by the union of the NC and C contours. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, the authors retrospectively collected 81 CTU scans, in which 40 bladders contained lesions, 26 contained diffuse wall thickening, and 15 were considered to be normal. The bladders were segmented by CLASS and the performance was assessed by rating the quality of the contours on a 10-point scale (1 = “very poor,” 5 = “fair,” 10 = “perfect”). For 30 bladders, 3D hand-segmented contours were obtained and the segmentation accuracy of CLASS was evaluated and compared to that of a single level set method in terms of the average minimum distance, average volume intersection ratio, average volume error and Jaccard index. Results: Of the 81 bladders, the average quality rating for CLASS was 6.5 ± 1.3. Thirty nine bladders were given quality ratings of 7 or above. Only five bladders had ratings under 5. The average minimum distance, average volume intersection ratio, average volume error, and average Jaccard index for CLASS were 3.5 ± 1.3 mm, (79.0 ± 8.2)%, (16.1 ± 16.3)%, and (75.7 ± 8.4)%, respectively, and for the single level set method were 5.2 ± 2.6 mm, (78.8 ± 16.3)%, (8.3 ± 33.1)%, (71.0 ± 15.4)%, respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the potential of CLASS for segmentation of the bladder. PMID:24320439

Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Law, Yuen; Cha, Kenny; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun



Tibial Metastasis from Muscle Invasive Bladder Carcinoma: An Unusual Site  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 61-year-old gentleman who presented with frank hematuria with associated weight loss and on-going left knee pain. Subsequent investigation revealed a muscle invasive bladder carcinoma with a related unusual bone metastasis. Though bone metastases form bladder carcinoma are common, frequent deposition sites include the spinal column and pelvis. This case report is to the best of our knowledge the first reported case of a tibial metastasis for relevant bladder carcinoma. Furthermore, we reviewed the literature, relevant diagnostic and management surrounding such occurrences. PMID:24917780

Brennan, David; Kelly, Michael E.; Nason, Gregory J.; Collins-Smyth, Coilin; McGuire, Barry B.; Lennon, Gerald M.



[Pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation of the bladder-case report].  


A 66-year-old man with a history of sporadic von Recklinghausen' s disease was treated for pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation in the bladder. The patient had a history of repetitive recurrence of bladder carcinoma requiring transurethral resection (TUR) 4 times and 1 course of intravesical BCG instillation. Three months after the fourth TUR, an intravesical solid mass 4 cm in diameter was detected. Suspicion of recurrent bladder carcinoma led to a fifth TUR procedure. Pathological findings showed submucosal growth of myofibroblasts with myxoidal stroma and we made a diagnosis of Pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation. The patient was well with no evidence of recurrence after 1 year. PMID:23552757

Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Ito, Fumio; Goya, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Koji; Kanemitsu, Izumi; Yokota, Narushi; Nakazawa, Hayakazu; Fujibayashi, Mariko



Emerging Families of Ion Channels Involved in Urinary Bladder Nociception  

PubMed Central

The expression of multiple ion channels and receptors is essential for nociceptors to detect noxious stimuli of a thermal, mechanical or chemical nature. The peripheral sensory transduction systems of the urinary bladder include sensory nerve endings, urothelial cells and others whose location is suitable for transducing mechanical and chemical stimuli. There is an increasing body of evidence implicating the Deg/ENaC and TRP channel families in the control of bladder afferent excitability under physiological and pathological conditions. Pharmacological interventions targeting these ion channels may provide a new strategy for the treatment of pathological bladder sensation and pain.

Araki, Isao; Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu; Kobayashi, Hideki; Mochizuki, Tsutomu; Du, Shuqi; Okada, Yusaku; Takeda, Masayuki



Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.



A multi tracer analysis of thermosphere to stratosphere descent triggered by the 2013 Stratospheric Sudden Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

winter observations in 2013 by the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE) show significant transport from the lower-thermosphere to the stratosphere of air enriched in nitric oxide, but depleted in water and methane. The transport is triggered by the Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SSW) on 11 January and is continuously tracked for over 3 months. Ultimately, evidence for lower thermospheric air is seen at 40 km in mid-April. Area integrated nitric oxide (NO) fluxes are compared with previous events in 2004, 2006, and 2009, to show that this event is the second largest in the past 10 years. The SOFIE data are combined with a meteorological analysis to infer descent rates from 40 to 90 km. The descent profile initially peaks near 75 km, shifting downward by approximately 5 km per 10 days. Our work demonstrates the utility of SOFIE tracer measurements in diagnosing vertical transport from the stratosphere to the edge of space.

Bailey, S. M.; Thurairajah, B.; Randall, C. E.; Holt, L.; Siskind, D. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Venkataramani, K.; Hervig, M. E.; Rong, P.; Russell, J. M.



Post2 End-to-End Descent and Landing Simulation for ALHAT Design Analysis Cycle 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ALHAT project is an agency-level program involving NASA centers, academia, and industry, with a primary goal to develop a safe, autonomous, precision-landing system for robotic and crew-piloted lunar and planetary descent vehicles. POST2 is used as the 6DOF descent and landing trajectory simulation for determining integrated system performance of ALHAT landing-system models and lunar environment models. This paper presents updates in the development of the ALHAT POST2 simulation, as well as preliminary system perf