Sample records for bladder neck descent

  1. Primary bladder neck obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Blaivas; L. J. Norlen

    1984-01-01

    Primary bladder neck obstruction is not uncommon in young and middle age men. The symptoms are confounding and routine urologic investigation including cystometry, uroflow, voiding cystourethrography and cystourethroscopy often leads to an erroneous diagnosis of “psychogenic voiding dysfunction”, “neurogenic bladder” or “prostatitis”. An accurate diagnosis can be obtained by the simultaneous measurement of detrusor pressure and uroflow, preferably accompanied by

  2. Bladder Neck Slings for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Lenaine Westney

    \\u000a The title of this chapter reflects the need to specify anatomical placement when discussing slings. A decade ago, such a distinction\\u000a was unnecessary as bladder neck positioning was standard. The birth, continued evolution, and success of the midurethral sling\\u000a have altered the role of the bladder neck sling. This chapter discusses the history, applications, patient selection, technique,\\u000a materials success rates,

  3. [Obstructive bladder neck syndrome in women].

    PubMed

    Pavlica, P; Viglietta, G; Ramini, R; Barozzi, L; Cuzzocrea, D; Romagnoli, P

    1989-05-01

    Primary bladder neck obstruction in women is quite rare and its symptoms--dysuria, frequency, and urgency--are equivocal. Routine radiological investigations alone do not allow a diagnosis to be made, due to the lack of simultaneous measurements of detrusor pressure and urine flow. A precise diagnosis is thus to be obtained by synchronous video urodynamic studies which allow the depiction of nonfunneling or tight bladder neck during the entire phase of detrusor contraction, of bladder trabeculae and diverticula, vesico-ureteral reflux, long micturition time and incomplete voiding. When these radiological signs are associated with a rise in detrusor voiding pressure over 60 cm of water and with peak urine flow lower than 15 ml/s, the diagnosis of bladder neck obstruction is unquestionable, and the appropriate pharmacologic/endoscopic treatment can be administered. PMID:2748961

  4. Bladder Neck Closure for Treating Pediatric Incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hoebeke; P. De Kuyper; H. Goeminne; E. Van Laecke; K. Everaert

    2000-01-01

    Aims of Study: In order to evaluate the effects of bladder neck closure (BNC) for treatment of pediatric incontinence, on the quality of life of those children, we reviewed the files of 17 children who underwent this procedure during the last 5 years. Information on previous surgery before BNC, continence and complications after BNC and patient satisfaction are gathered.Material and

  5. Bladder neck disease and kidney damage.

    PubMed

    Mudoni, Anna; Caccetta, Francesco; Caroppo, Maurizio; Musio, Fernando; Accogli, Antonella; Zacheo, Maria Dolores; Burzo, Domenica Maria Lucia; Carluccio, Giancamillo; Nuzzo, Vitale

    2014-12-01

    Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) was first described in men by Marion in 1933. The precise cause of PBNO has not been clearly elucidated. This paper review the theories on etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and treatments for PBNO. Also this paper focuses on management of patients with complications like acute urine retention, hydroureteronephrosis and severe renal failure. The treatment options for men and women with PBNO include careful clinical evaluation, pharmacotherapy with alpha-blockers and surgical intervention. PMID:25641480

  6. Bladder exstrophy: Comparison of anatomical bladder neck repair with innervation preserving sphincteroplasty versus Young-Dees-Leadbetter bladder neck reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Archika; Kureel, Shiv Narain; Wakhlu, Ashish; Rawat, Jiledar

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the outcome of innervation preserving sphincteroplasty along with anatomical bladder neck reconstruction (IPS-ABNR) compared to classic Young-Dees-Leadbetter (YDL) bladder neck reconstruction in exstrophy with insufficient bladder capacity requiring detubularized-ileocystoplasty. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male patients of exstrophy bladder who required ileocystoplasty from 2004 to 2010 were randomized into group A (n = 7) and group B (n = 9). After detubularized-ileocystoplasty with Mitrofanoff stoma and ureteric reimplantation in all, group A received YDL bladder neck repair while group B received IPS-ABNR repair through a midline scrotoperineal approach. Outcome measurement included operative and postoperative problems, continence, and upper tract status. Results: In group A, two had incompetent bladder neck with gross incontinence, while four had a dry interval of more than 3 h without the ability of voiding per urethra. In group B, seven patients had dry interval of more than 3 h with an ability of urethral voiding and midstream holding in five. Conclusions: Exstrophy patients requiring augmentation cystoplasty and repaired with IPS-ABNR can achieve dynamic bladder outlet resistance with adequate leak point pressure and ability to void voluntarily with midstream holding capability. The children had the satisfaction of voiding per urethra with ability to stop in midstream similar to that in normal children. PMID:23798810

  7. [Transurethral incision in primary bladder neck obstruction].

    PubMed

    Ne?kov, K; Panchev, P

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-one patients presenting primary obstruction of the neck of the urinary bladder are subjected to transurethral operative intervention and postoperative follow-up study in the period 1986 through 1990. The indications for performing transurethral incision of the bladder neck are established on the basis of subjective complaints against the background of data from uroflowmetry, miction cystourethrography and endoscopic study of the lower urinary ways. The obtained results point to an improvement of the subjective complaints in 74 per cent of the cases. In 78 per cent of the patients peak urinary flow exceeds 15 ml/sec. Repeated transurethral incision is necessitated in 8.1 per cent, and transurethral resection in the postoperative period is done in twelve patients (19.6 per cent). Postoperative strictures of the urethra are discovered in 8 patients (13.1 per cent), and retrograde ejaculation is documented in three patients (8.5 per cent) over the maximum observation term of 64 months. Postoperative hospitalization is average 3.2 days (range 2.7 to 5.9 days). PMID:8531427

  8. Bladder neck incompetence at posterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Koraitim, Mamdouh M.

    2015-01-01

    The finding of an incompetent bladder neck (BN) at the time of posterior urethroplasty will necessarily exacerbate the already difficult situation. In such cases the aim of the treatment is not only to restore urethral continuity by end-to-end urethral anastomosis, but also to restore the function of the BN to maintain urinary continence. Fortunately, the incidence of incompetence of the BN at posterior urethroplasty is uncommon, usually ?4.5%. It seems that pelvic fracture-related BN injuries, in contrast to urethral injuries which result from a shearing force, are due to direct injury by the sharp edge of the fractured and displaced pubic bone. The risk of injuries to the BN is greater in children, in patients with a fracture involving both superior and inferior pubic rami on the same side, and in those managed initially by primary realignment. An incompetent BN is suspected by finding an open rectangular BN on cystography, and a fixedly open BN on suprapubic cystoscopy. An incompetent BN can be treated either subsequent to or concomitant with the urethral repair, according to whether a perineal or a perineo-abdominal urethroplasty is used, respectively. Several options have been reported to treat pelvic fracture-related BN incompetence, including reconstructing the BN, forming a new sphincter by tubularisation of a rectangular flap of the anterior bladder wall, and mechanical occlusion by an artificial sphincter or collagen injection. Reconstruction of the BN by the Young-Dees-Leadbetter?? procedure probably provides the most successful results. PMID:26019982

  9. Transurethral incision of the bladder neck in a woman with primary bladder neck obstruction after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Marki?, Dean; Valen?i?, Maksim; Mari?i?, Anton; Krpina, Kristian; Raheli?, Dražen; Ahel, Juraj; Rubini?, Nino; Orli?, Lidija; Ra?ki, Sanjin

    2015-01-01

    Voiding dysfunction is frequently seen in the early posttransplant period. Among other causes, this condition can arise due to bladder outlet obstruction. Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) is a possible but very rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction. We present the case of a 52-year-old woman who, after kidney transplantation, presented with PBNO. The diagnosis was established based on symptoms, uroflowmetry, and multichannel urodynamics with electromyography. The transurethral incision of the bladder neck was made at the 5- and 7-o'clock position. After the operation, the maximal flow rate was significantly increased, and postvoid residual urine was decreased compared to the preoperative findings. The patient was followed for 5 years, and her voiding improvement is persistent. This is the first reported case of PBNO treated with a transurethral incision of the bladder neck in a posttransplantation female patient. PMID:25861513

  10. Transurethral Incision of the Bladder Neck in a Woman with Primary Bladder Neck Obstruction after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Marki?, Dean; Valen?i?, Maksim; Mari?i?, Anton; Krpina, Kristian; Raheli?, Dražen; Ahel, Juraj; Rubini?, Nino; Orli?, Lidija; Ra?ki, Sanjin

    2015-01-01

    Voiding dysfunction is frequently seen in the early posttransplant period. Among other causes, this condition can arise due to bladder outlet obstruction. Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) is a possible but very rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction. We present the case of a 52-year-old woman who, after kidney transplantation, presented with PBNO. The diagnosis was established based on symptoms, uroflowmetry, and multichannel urodynamics with electromyography. The transurethral incision of the bladder neck was made at the 5- and 7-o'clock position. After the operation, the maximal flow rate was significantly increased, and postvoid residual urine was decreased compared to the preoperative findings. The patient was followed for 5 years, and her voiding improvement is persistent. This is the first reported case of PBNO treated with a transurethral incision of the bladder neck in a posttransplantation female patient. PMID:25861513

  11. Transurethral Incision of the Bladder Neck Using KTP in the Treatment of Bladder Neck Obstruction in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Fu; Yue-Min Xu

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To study the results and complications of the potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP, green) laser during transurethral incision of the bladder neck in the treatment of female voiding dysfunction due to bladder neck obstruction. Methods: A total of 40 women (43–79 years of age) with obstruction were identified. Patients with neurogenic, traumatic, or iatrogenic causes of obstruction were excluded. Preoperative investigations included

  12. Primary bladder neck obstruction in men and women.

    PubMed

    Nitti, Victor W

    2005-01-01

    Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) is a condition in which the bladder neck does not open appropriately or completely during voiding. Although the true prevalence of PBNO is difficult to ascertain, studies in both men and women with voiding dysfunction demonstrate a marked prevalence of the condition. Symptoms caused by PBNO include storage symptoms (frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, nocturia) and voiding symptoms (decreased force of stream, hesitancy, incomplete emptying). There are multiple theories as to the etiology of PBNO, including muscular and neurologic dysfunction and fibrosis. The diagnosis of PBNO can be made precisely with videourodynamics, urodynamic testing with simultaneous pressure-flow measurement, and visualization of the bladder neck during voiding. Treatments vary from watchful waiting to medical therapy to surgery, depending on the severity of symptoms, urodynamic findings, and response to therapy. This article reviews the current state of the art with respect to the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of PBNO. PMID:16985885

  13. Primary Bladder Neck Obstruction in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Nitti, Victor W

    2005-01-01

    Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) is a condition in which the bladder neck does not open appropriately or completely during voiding. Although the true prevalence of PBNO is difficult to ascertain, studies in both men and women with voiding dysfunction demonstrate a marked prevalence of the condition. Symptoms caused by PBNO include storage symptoms (frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, nocturia) and voiding symptoms (decreased force of stream, hesitancy, incomplete emptying). There are multiple theories as to the etiology of PBNO, including muscular and neurologic dysfunction and fibrosis. The diagnosis of PBNO can be made precisely with videourodynamics, urodynamic testing with simultaneous pressure-flow measurement, and visualization of the bladder neck during voiding. Treatments vary from watchful waiting to medical therapy to surgery, depending on the severity of symptoms, urodynamic findings, and response to therapy. This article reviews the current state of the art with respect to the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of PBNO. PMID:16985885

  14. Characterization of Primary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Immunohistochemical and Gene Expression Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitaly Margulis; Victor K. Lin; Shih-Ya Wang; Jian Tang; Philippe E. Zimmern

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pathophysiology of primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) remains poorly understood. We postulated abnormal smooth muscle (SM) differentiation and disorganization of bladder neck musculature as key features of PBNO pathophysiology. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis and gene expression profiles of bladder neck specimens derived from 11 patients urodynamically diagnosed with PBNO, 4 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and 2

  15. Pemetrexed in bladder, head and neck, and cervical cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Paz-Ares; Eva Ciruelos; Rocío García-Carbonero; Daniel Castellano; Ana Lopez-Martín; Hernán Cortés-Funes

    2002-01-01

    Pemetrexed is a novel multitargeted antifolate analog. The drug has shown encouraging activity in a wide range of solid tumors, including cervix, head and neck, and bladder carcinomas, which are the focus of this review. Toxicity, particularly hematologic, is higher in patients with these tumor types than in other populations exposed to pemetrexed. Supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12

  16. A comparison of bladder neck preservation and bladder neck reconstruction for urinary incontinence after radical retro pubic prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Izadpanahi, Mohammad Hossein; Honarmand, Ramin; Khorrami, Mohammad Hataf; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza; Sichani, Mehrdad Mohammadi; Alizadeh, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and will include about 30% of all malignancies in men. Since the initial report of the anatomic radical prostatectomy, refinements in the surgical technique have been made. Several studies show that bladder neck preservation (BNP) during radical prostatectomy makes improve early return of urinary continence, erectile function or both. However, some clinical trials have suggested little difference between the return of continence while using modifications. In this study, we compared outcomes of BNP and bladder neck reconstruction (BNR) during radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 60 patients at a referral university hospital from March 2010 to March 2012. Study population was all patients candidate for RRP (RRP in this period. All patients divided into two groups, A and B (30 patients in each group). Group A (n = 30) who preserved bladder neck (BNP) and Group B (n = 30) who had BNR. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) before and at 2, 6, 9, 12 and18 months after surgery, anastomotic stricture symptoms, positive bladder neck margin, Gleason score and urine incontinence were compared between two groups. Also, we compared bladder neck contracture, urinary continence and positive surgical margin rates after BNP and BNR while retropubic prostatectomy in 24 months period follow-up. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.81 ± 7.15 years (range, 50-74 years). After a follow-up period of 24 months, the PSA rising was not different between the two groups. After 2 months, 19 (63.33%) of patients in A group and the same number in B group were continent (P = 0.78). Stricture of the bladder neck at the anastomosis site requiring transurethral dilation occurred in 7 (23.33%) and 3 (10.0%) patients in groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Although there was no difference in prevalence and duration of return of urinary continence after the operation between two groups, but results of our study showed that stenosis of the bladder neck was lower in BNP. Hence in the group of BNP, need for further operation and overflow incontinency due to the obstruction of urinary tract will be less likely than BNR and patients have better long time (24 months) urinary continence. PMID:25709654

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction in men.

    PubMed

    Huckabay, Chad; Nitti, Victor W

    2005-07-01

    Although primary bladder neck obstruction was first described approximately 70 years ago, it is within the past 20 years that the symptoms, signs, and methods of diagnosis and treatment have been elucidated. This article describes its typical presenting symptoms and signs that commonly may lead to a missed diagnosis for a number of years in many cases. The treatments typically available are pharmacologic or surgical. Unfortunately, most treatments have not been studied in prospective, randomized trials to assess true efficacy. The natural history of this disorder, both treated and untreated, demands much further study to determine its effect on progression of symptoms and bladder and renal function. PMID:15978226

  18. Modified Transurethral Incision of the Bladder Neck Treating Primary Bladder Neck Obstruction in Young Men: A Method to Improve Voiding Function and to Preserve Antegrade Ejaculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Shei-Dei Yang; Yao-Chou Tsai; Jen-Jih Chen; Chung-Hsin Peng; Jui-Hsiang Hsieh; Chung Cheng Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the voiding function, ejaculation status and sexual function after the novel modification of transurethral incision of the bladder neck (TIBN) treating young men with primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO). Methods: Using a videourodynamic study, PBNO was diagnosed in 33 young men 27–50 years of age who presented with chronic lower urinary tract symptoms and low urinary flow.

  19. Primary bladder neck obstruction in men, women, and children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priya Padmanabhan; Victor W. Nitti

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) has evolved over\\u000a the last 20 years. It was first identified 70 years ago, but the etiology is still unclear. There are multiple theories as\\u000a to the etiology, including muscular and neurological dysfunction and fibrosis. Over the years, many voiding parameters and\\u000a cut points and nomograms

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction in men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad Huckabay; Victor W. Nitti

    2005-01-01

    Although primary bladder neck obstruction was first described approximately 70 years ago, it is within the past 20 years that\\u000a the symptoms, signs, and methods of diagnosis and treatment have been elucidated. This article describes its typical presenting\\u000a symptoms and signs that commonly may lead to a missed diagnosis for a number of years in many cases. The treatments typically

  1. Primary bladder neck dysfunction: An overlooked entity in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil H. Grafstein; Andrew J. Combs; Kenneth I. Glassberg

    2005-01-01

    Primary bladder neck dysfunction is a non-neurogenic voiding disorder commonly diagnosed in young and middle age adult men,\\u000a but frequently overlooked in children. Because these children typically present with lower urinary tract symptoms that also\\u000a are associated with other more common forms of dysfunctional voiding, the diagnosis may be missed and treated with a variety\\u000a of empiric modalities that ultimately

  2. Effect of alfuzosin on female primary bladder neck obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Athanasopoulos; K. Gyftopoulos; K. Giannitsas; P. Perimenis

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the effect of the selective ?1-blocker alfuzosin on urodynamic parameters and quality of life in female patients with primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO).\\u000a Twenty-five women identified as having PBNO were included in the study. After the initial assessment of urodynamic parameters\\u000a and bother score index, all patients were treated with alfuzosin 5 mg twice daily for

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction in men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad Huckabay; Victor W. Nitti

    2006-01-01

    Although primary bladder neck obstruction was first described approximately 70 years ago, it is within the past 20 years that\\u000a the symptoms, signs, and methods of diagnosis and treatment have been elucidated. This article describes its typical presenting\\u000a symptoms and signs that commonly may lead to a missed diagnosis for a number of years in many cases. The treatments typically

  4. Primary bladder neck obstruction in men, women, and children.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Priya; Nitti, Victor W

    2007-09-01

    The understanding of the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) has evolved over the last 20 years. It was first identified 70 years ago, but the etiology is still unclear. There are multiple theories as to the etiology, including muscular and neurological dysfunction and fibrosis. Over the years, many voiding parameters and cut points and nomograms have been presented for diagnosis of nonneurogenic functional bladder outlet obstruction in young men. Until recently, there was a paucity of data on PBNO in women and children. Videourodynamics provide an accurate diagnosis of PBNO but for some patients are an invasive option. Treatments vary from watchful waiting to alpha-blockade to surgery, depending on the severity of symptoms, urodynamic findings, and response to medical therapy. This paper reviews the theories on etiology, incidence, presentation, and diagnostic evaluation, and briefly discusses treatment options for PBNO. PMID:17880837

  5. Bladder-neck incision for relief of obstruction after anti-incontinence surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Moloney; H. N. Fenster

    1993-01-01

    Bladder-neck resection or incision in the female has been performed for many years, with variable results. As it has not been widely accepted in the past, the authors decided to review the indications and the surgical technique. From January to December 1986, ten such operations were performed on females with documented outlet obstruction related to previous anti-incontinence procedures. Bladder neck

  6. Cystoprostatectomy as a Treatment of Prostate Cancer Involving the Bladder Neck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teruaki Kumazawa; Norihiko Tsuchiya; Mitsuru Saito; Takamitsu Inoue; Shintaro Narita; Youhei Horikawa; Takeshi Yuasa; Shigeru Satoh; Tetsuro Kato; Hiroshi Nanjyo; Tomonori Habuchi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the clinicopathological findings and short- and long-term outcomes of prostate cancer (PCa) patients with bladder neck invasion who underwent cystoprostatectomy. Patients and Methods: Between 1989 and 2005, we performed 17 cystoprostatectomies for PCa patients having bladder neck invasion without distant visceral or distant lymph node metastasis. Of the 17 patients, 11 were treated with neoadjuvant hormone therapy

  7. [Chronic urinary retention in women caused by primary bladder neck obstruction : report of two cases treated successfully with transurethral resection of bladder neck].

    PubMed

    Momose, Hitoshi; Hoshiyama, Fumiaki; Morizawa, Yosuke; Toyoshima, Yuta; Takada, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Ken; Oyama, Nobuo; Okada, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old female was referred to our hospital for the treatment of chronic urinary retention which had compelled her to continue clean intermittent self catheterization (CIC) for several years. After further examination including physical examinations, urodynamic study, cystography, and urethrocystoscopy, she was diagnosed with primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO). Transurethral resection of the bladder neck (TURBN) was performed to relieve the bladder outlet obstruction and she was free from CIC thereafter. Another 61-year-old female on CIC was also referred to our hospital and diagnosed with PBNO through detailed examinations including urodynamics. She was also successfully relieved of CIC after TURBN. Primary bladder neck obstruction is a condition which can be effectively treated by a less-invasive procedure when properly diagnosed by urodynamic examination. Urologists must keep this rare condition in mind as a possible cause of chronic urinary retention in women. PMID:23412123

  8. Effect of alfuzosin on female primary bladder neck obstruction.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulos, A; Gyftopoulos, K; Giannitsas, K; Perimenis, P

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to assess the effect of the selective alpha(1)-blocker alfuzosin on urodynamic parameters and quality of life in female patients with primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO). Twenty-five women identified as having PBNO were included in the study. After the initial assessment of urodynamic parameters and bother score index, all patients were treated with alfuzosin 5 mg twice daily for 8 weeks. After this period of time, the patients were reassessed with the same methodology as pretreatment. Symptoms subjectively improved, and patients' satisfaction significantly increased in 64% of the patients (16 out of 25). Most urodynamic parameters were also significantly improved after treatment with alfuzosin. Alfuzosin significantly improved urodynamic parameters and alleviated bother score in almost two thirds of patients with PBNO and can be an effective first-line treatment of this situation. PMID:18982236

  9. Modified anterior approach to the bladder neck: simple and reproducible procedure for anterior bladder neck transection during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Shimbo, Masaki; Hattori, Kazunori; Endo, Fumiyasu; Matsushita, Kazuhito; Iwabuchi, Toshihisa; Tobisu, Kenichi; Muraishi, Osamu

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of a simple technique for identifying the initial cutting point of the bladder neck during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. To precisely identify the prostatovesical junction, we first pulled the anterior bladder wall in an upward direction with the second arm to identify the precise location of the prostatovesical junction where anterior bladder neck dissection is initiated. After one experienced surgeon had established this technique, three surgeons who were less experienced in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy utilized this method for 50 consecutive robot-assisted radical prostatectomy cases. The pathological results and the time required to transect the anterior bladder wall were evaluated. There were no cases of positive resection margin on the site of bladder neck. The mean resection time was not significantly different when comparing less experienced surgeons with the experienced surgeon (P?=?0.29). In conclusion, this method is a simple and reproducible way to identify the bladder neck during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. This technique is also useful (for laparoscopic or open radical prostatectomy) even in difficult scenarios, such as post-transurethral resection of prostate cases. PMID:24825076

  10. Unilateral transurethral incision for primary bladder neck obstruction: symptom relief and fertility preservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wachira Kochakarn; Panuwat Lertsithichai

    2003-01-01

    Our aim was to review the results of unilateral transurethral incision (TUI) of the bladder neck for the treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction. A total of 35 patients with the mean age of 40.31 years were included in the study. The international prostate symptom score (I-PSS), quality of life (QoL) score, uroflowmetry and sperm count were determined. The mean preoperative

  11. Obstructive Primary Bladder Neck Disease: Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of ?1-Blockers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cisternino; G. Zeccolini; A. Calpista; V. De Marco; T. Prayer Galetti; M. Iafrate; W. Artibani

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy and safety of using ?1-adrenergic blockers for treating primary bladder neck obstruction in young and middle-aged men was assessed as the first therapeutic step, before surgery, in a symptomatic non-neurogenic selected group of patients. Materials and Methods: From January 1995 to December 2001, primary bladder neck obstruction was diagnosed in 41 men whose average age was 43

  12. Bladder neck incision using a 70 W 2 micron continuous wave laser (RevoLix)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Bach; Thomas R. W. Herrmann; Christian Cellarius; Andreas J. Gross

    2007-01-01

    Postoperative bladder neck contracture continues to be a frequently occurring problem. Bladder neck incision (BNI) continues\\u000a to be the standard mode of treatment. However, the recurrence rate appears to be high. Therefore alternative treatment options\\u000a are still needed. We report about initial experience with the RevoLix 2 micron continuous wave laser for BNI after a 1-year\\u000a follow-up. Fourteen patients with

  13. Long-term chronic complications from Stamey endoscopic bladder neck suspension: a case series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariana Smith; Eric Rovner

    2006-01-01

    Purpose\\/objective Long-term complications from anti-incontinence surgical procedures are rarely reported. We report on delayed presentation of complications relating to the synthetic bolster placed for the Stamey bladder neck suspension. Materials and methods: Patients undergoing re-operative surgery following prior Stamey endoscopic bladder neck suspension were selected from a surgical database. Four women with lower urinary tract and\\/or vaginal symptoms following prior

  14. Transurethral marking incision of the bladder neck: a helpful technique in robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy involving post-transurethral resection of the prostate and cancers protruding into the bladder neck

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bladder neck transection is one of the most difficult procedures for robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP), particularly in patients who have undergone previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P), and in those with large median lobes or prostate cancer protruding into the bladder neck. To ensure negative surgical margins and safely preserve the ureteral orifices during bladder neck transection, we propose the use of the transurethral resectoscope for making the incision in the bladder neck before initiating RALP. Thus, we developed a technique for bladder neck transection to facilitate this operation in such patients. Case presentation Two Japanese men, aged 61 and 63 years, who were diagnosed with prostate cancer, received a transurethral marking incision of the bladder neck before starting RALP; prostate cancer developed in one patient after TUR-P and the other patient had cancer protruding into the bladder neck. A transurethral resectoscope was used to closely observe the ureteral orifices and bladder necks; the bladder necks were marked to indicate the depth from the mucosa to the muscular layer. During the RALP, the bladder necks were dissected to indicate the depth of the marking incision. The surgical margins were negative and perioperative complications did not occur. The Foley catheters were removed on postoperative day 6, according to the usual protocol. No urinary leakage from the anastomosis sites was observed. Conclusion This technique, involving the use of an ordinary transurethral resectoscope, may be an easy procedure to ensure negative surgical margins, safely preserve the ureteral orifices, avoid increasing the bladder neck diameter, and achieve a good quality vesicourethral anastomosis that prevents the risk of suture-related tissue tears. PMID:23957857

  15. Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahallal, Youness; Mellas, Soufiane; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000?mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male. PMID:22606637

  16. Bladder Neck Rupture Following Perineal Bull Horn Injury: A Surgical Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Fernandez, B.; Diaz-Alferez, F.J.; Garcia-Garcia, M.A.; Herrero-Polo, M.; Velasquez-Saldarriaga, J.F.; Lorenzo-Gomez, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic-abdominal injuries caused by goring are serious lesions which require rapid diagnosis and urgent treatment in the context of a polytraumatized patient. The simultaneous rupture of both the bladder and the prostatic-membranous urethra occurs in 10%–29% of males with pelvic fractures but bladder neck injuries in adults are rarer. Unstable pelvic fractures, bilateral fractures of the ischiopubic branches (also referred to as fractures from falling astride) and the diastasis of the pubic symphysis are those that have the greatest likelihood of injuring both the posterior urethra and the bladder. We present a case of perineal bull horn injury with muscle laceration, bone fractures, scrotal avulsion and rupture of the bladder neck involving the right ureter which required two operations to be repaired. PMID:23066348

  17. Effect of abdominal and pelvic floor tasks on muscle activity, abdominal pressure and bladder neck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baerbel Junginger; Kaven Baessler; Ruth Sapsford; Paul W. Hodges

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis  Although the bladder neck is elevated during a pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction, it descends during straining. This study\\u000a aimed to investigate the relationship between bladder neck displacement, electromyography (EMG) activity of the pelvic floor\\u000a and abdominal muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during different pelvic floor and abdominal contractions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Nine women without PFM dysfunction performed maximal, gentle and

  18. Bladder neck incision using a 70 W 2 micron continuous wave laser (RevoLix).

    PubMed

    Bach, Thorsten; Herrmann, Thomas R W; Cellarius, Christian; Gross, Andreas J

    2007-06-01

    Postoperative bladder neck contracture continues to be a frequently occurring problem. Bladder neck incision (BNI) continues to be the standard mode of treatment. However, the recurrence rate appears to be high. Therefore alternative treatment options are still needed. We report about initial experience with the RevoLix 2 micron continuous wave laser for BNI after a 1-year follow-up. Fourteen patients with a second or third recurrence of bladder neck contracture after primary surgery were included into the trial. All patients reported high-grade obstruction and residual urine. BNI was performed using a 70 W 2-micron continuous wave laser (RevoLix). This laser utilizes the thulium as an active ion. Laser incisions were applied in 5 and 7o'clock lithotomy position. Remaining tissue was vaporized. Assessed outcomes were improvement in AUA-symptom-score, quality of life index and uroflowmetry, measured preoperatively, after 2 and 12 months postoperatively. Mean operating time was 7 min, mean catheterization time was 6.5 h. The mean maximum uroflow-rate improved from 9 ml/s preoperatively to 23 ml/s. AUA-symptom score improved from 22 to 8 points and quality of life index improved from four to one. Two patients developed restenosis so far. Although longer follow-up and larger sample size are needed, BNI with the RevoLix laser is a fast, safe and promising procedure in recurrent bladder neck sclerosis. PMID:17473926

  19. Unilateral transurethral incision for primary bladder neck obstruction: symptom relief and fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Kochakarn, Wachira; Lertsithichai, Panuwat

    2003-08-01

    Our aim was to review the results of unilateral transurethral incision (TUI) of the bladder neck for the treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction. A total of 35 patients with the mean age of 40.31 years were included in the study. The international prostate symptom score (I-PSS), quality of life (QoL) score, uroflowmetry and sperm count were determined. The mean preoperative I-PSS was 32.1 points, peak urine flow rate was 7.8 cc/s and sperm count was 59.2 million/cc. There was a 28% reduction of I-PSS at 3 months, 38% at 6 months and 55% at 1 year. The urine peak flow rate increased by 54% at 3 months, 83% at 6 months and 95% at 1 year. The reduction in the sperm count was 63% at 6 months and 69% at 1 year. The QoL score improved significantly after 1 year compared with the preoperative period. Unilateral TUI of the bladder neck is an effective treatment for primary bladder neck obstruction. However, the postoperative sperm count is significantly reduced at 6-12 months (18-21 million/cc) but is probably sufficient for adequate fertility. PMID:12783172

  20. Biomechanical study on the bladder neck and urethral positions: simulation of impairment of the pelvic ligaments.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Sofia; Parente, Marco; Mascarenhas, Teresa; da Silva, Ana Rita Gomes; Ramos, Isabel; Jorge, Renato Natal

    2015-01-21

    Excessive mobility of the bladder neck and urethra are common features in stress urinary incontinence. We aimed at assessing, through computational modelling, the bladder neck position taking into account progressive impairment of the pelvic ligaments. Magnetic resonance images of a young healthy female were used to build a computational model of the pelvic cavity. Appropriate material properties and constitutive models were defined. The impairment of the ligaments was simulated by mimicking a reduction in their stiffness. For healthy ligaments, valsalva maneuver led to an increase in the ? angle (between the bladder neck-symphysis pubis and the main of the symphysis) from 91.8° (at rest) to 105.7°, and 5.7 mm of bladder neck dislocation, which was similar to dynamic imaging of the same woman (? angle from 80° to 103.3°, and 5mm of bladder neck movement). For 95% impairment, they enlarged to 124.28° and 12 mm. Impairment to the pubourethral ligaments had higher effect than that of vaginal support (115° vs. 108°, and 9.1 vs. 7.3mm). Numerical simulation could predict urethral motion during valsalva maneuver, for both healthy and impaired ligaments. Results were similar to those of continent women and women with stress urinary incontinence published in the literature. Biomechanical analysis of the pubourethral ligaments complements the biomechanical study of the pelvic cavity in urinary incontinence. It may be useful in young women presenting stress urinary incontinence without imaging evidence of urethral and muscle lesions or organ descend during valsalva, and for whom fascial damage are not expected. PMID:25527889

  1. The Effects of Vaginal Delivery and Cesarean Section on Bladder Neck Mobility and Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Demirci; S. Ozden; Z. Alpay; E. Tozk?r Demirci; S. Ayas

    2001-01-01

    :   We investigated the effects of vaginal delivery (VD) and cesarean section (CS) on bladder neck (BN) mobility and genuine\\u000a stress incontinence (GSI). Of the 230 patients included in the study, 95 had CS, 95 had VD and the remaining 40 continent\\u000a nulliparous women served as controls. In both the CS and the VD groups 40 women had delivered once,

  2. "Tips and tricks" in secondary bladder neck sclerosis’ bipolar plasma vaporization approach

    PubMed Central

    Moldoveanu, C; Geavlete, B; St?nescu, F; Jecu, M; Adou, L; Bulai, C; Ene, C; Geavlete, P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS) represents a common late complication of prostate surgery, however so far insufficiently assessed in the available literature. More over, the previously attempted and analyzed therapeutic modalities failed to achieve acknowledgement as standard treatment for this particular pathology. Methods: The bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) was introduced as a viable mean of removing the obstructing scar formation in a gradual fashion. Several "tips and tricks" were described as particularly useful in optimizing the plasma corona vaporization effect. The proper BPV technique is simple and safe while closely relying on certain surgical steps, the simultaneous vaporization and coagulation processes and a superior endoscopic vision. Recent technological advances created the premises for further improvements. Results: The plasma-button vaporization is characterized by a satisfactory surgical speed, remote intraoperative bleeding risks, high-quality endoscopic visibility as well as the achievement of a complete sclerotic tissue removal. Within a short learning curve, a superior final aspect of the prostatic fossa and bladder neck is obtained at the end of surgery. The continuous plasma vaporization mode provides additional technical advantages. The previously described drawbacks of transurethral incision or resection seem to have been overcome by the practical features of the plasma vaporization process. Conclusions: The BPV technique outlines a promising modality of efficiently ablating the obstructing fibrous tissue in secondary BNS patients. The simplicity and safety of the bipolar vaporization approach, together with the thorough obstructing scar removal in a radical fashion, create the premises for a favorable long term BPV clinical outcome. PMID:24146686

  3. The Musculature of the Bladder-neck of the Male in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Macalpine, J. B.

    1934-01-01

    Two muscles, one voluntary the other involuntary, and an inch or more apart, exist at the bladder-neck, both functioning as sphincters. This dual musculature is explained by the emergence of the ejaculatory ducts between them. If both these muscles are open when semen is discharged, secretion may escape into the bladder or to the exterior; also any urine in the bladder would flow out. The internal sphincter is usually tightly contracted during ejaculation. Instances are given in which the internal sphincter is paralysed or injured, e.g. after operation, in prostatic hypertrophy, and in certain nervous diseases. Two instances are reported of direct injury to this localized area, with the result, in all cases, that ejaculation failed. In prostatic hypertrophy the internal sphincter is dilated by the growing adenoma, and at operation it is further stretched and perhaps cut across. Continence then depends on the external sphincter. Two cases are reported in which the external sphincter had previously been paralysed, total incontinence resulting. Recent work on the trigonal muscle; its function in opening the internal sphincter. Influence of this muscle on prostatic enlargement. In central nervous disease the dilatation of the internal sphincter resulting in funnel-neck is very common. Series of cases of nervous disease examined in order to determine the frequency of this sign are reported. Other cases occurring apart from nervous disease are also reported. The part played by the sphincters in ejaculation is discussed and illustrated by reports of further cases of paralysis of the sphincter. It is shown that in the normal way the external sphincter weakens during coitus, and especially during ejaculation, but when the internal sphincter is paralysed no weakening is evident. Penile erection is associated with spasm of the internal sphincter, and spasm of the internal sphincter is produced by irritation, e.g. vesical stone may produce priapism. The varying types of adenoma bear different relationship to the internal sphincter. The view that submucosal glands give rise to prostatic enlargement is supported. The influence of prostatic enlargement on the internal sphincter is discussed. ImagesFig. 3 PMID:19990023

  4. Hem-O-Lok clip: a neglected cause of severe bladder neck contracture and consequent urinary incontinence after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hem-o-lok clips are widely used during robot-assisted and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy to control the lateral pedicles. There are a few reports of hem-o-lok clip migration into the bladder or vesico-urethral anastomosis and only four cases of hem-o-lok clip migration resulting into bladder neck contracture. Herein, we describe the first case, to our knowledge, of hem-o-lok clip migration leading to severe bladder neck contracture and subsequent stress urinary incontinence. Case presentation A 62-year-old Caucasian man underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for a T1c Gleason 8 prostate cancer. One month after surgery the patient was fully continent; however, three months later, he presented with acute urinary retention requiring suprapubic drainage. Urethroscopy showed a hem-o-lok clip strongly attached to the area between the vesico-urethral anastomosis and the urethral sphincter and a severe bladder neck contracture behind it. Following cold-knife urethral incision and clip removal, the bladder neck contracture was widely resected. At 3-month follow-up, the patient voided spontaneously with a peak flow rate of 9.5 ml/sec and absence of post-void residual urine, but leaked 240 ml urine at the 24-hour pad test. To date, at 1-year follow-up, his voiding situation remains unchanged. Conclusions The present report provides further evidence for the risk of hem-o-lok clip migration causing bladder neck contracture, and is the first to demonstrate the potential of such complication to result into stress urinary incontinence. PMID:24555468

  5. Contemporary role of autologous fascial bladder neck slings: a urology perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Melissa R

    2012-08-01

    Fascial slings remain a successful and durable option for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). With limited risk of disease transmission, extrusion, or complications associated with mesh, use of autologous fascia is an attractive option, particularly for complex reconstructive cases. With generally robust outcomes, pubovaginal slings also continue to be a viable option for treatment of primary SUI after appropriate patient counseling regarding risks of bladder outlet obstruction and de novo urgency symptoms. PMID:22877714

  6. Percutaneous bladder neck suspension.

    PubMed

    Leach, G E; Appell, R

    1996-08-01

    The early results after PBNS are extremely encouraging. The procedure is easy to learn, is performed rapidly on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia if desired, and has minimal postoperative morbidity. Continued objective follow up is critical to define the long-term efficacy of this promising technique. PMID:8701564

  7. A bladder-neck support prosthesis for women with stress and mixed incontinence 1 1 Financial Disclosure Supported by a research grant from Johnson & Johnson Medical, Inc., which originally marketed the device tested. Rights were subsequently sold to UroMed Corp., which currently markets the device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Willy Davila; Durwood Neal; Nicolette Horbach; Jorge Peacher; J. Darryl Doughtie; Mickey Karram

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a bladder-neck support prosthesis, a vaginal device designed to support the bladder neck, in women with genuine stress and mixed incontinence.Methods: For enrollment, incontinent women underwent a history, physical examination including cotton-swab test, urinalysis, postvoid residual urine, and multichannel urodynamic testing. Those with genuine stress incontinence or mixed incontinence and urethral hypermobility

  8. Steepest Descent

    SciTech Connect

    Meza, Juan

    2010-02-12

    The steepest descent method has a rich history and is one of the simplest and best known methods for minimizing a function. While the method is not commonly used in practice due to its slow convergence rate, understanding the convergence properties of this method can lead to a better understanding of many of the more sophisticated optimization methods. Here, we give a short introduction and discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of this method. Some recent results on modified versions of the steepest descent method are also discussed.

  9. Descent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Y. I.

    1985-01-01

    The creation of descent vehicles marked a new stage in the development of cosmonautics, involving the beginning of manned space flight and substantial progress in space research on the distant bodies of the Solar System. This booklet describes these vehicles and their structures, systems, and purposes. It is intended for the general public interested in modern problems of space technology.

  10. Bipolar plasma vaporization versus monopolar TUR and “cold-knife" TUI in secondary bladder neck sclerosis – An evidence based, retrospective critical comparison in a single center clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Moldoveanu, C; Geavlete, B; Jecu, M; Stanescu, F; Adou, L; Bulai, C; Ene, C; Geavlete, P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A long term, retrospective study was performed aiming to outline a critical comparison concerning the efficacy, safety and durability of the bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV), standard monopolar transurethral resection (TUR) and “cold-knife" “star" transurethral incision (TUI) in secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS) cases. Materials & Methods: Of the 126 patients included in the trial based on maximum flow rate (Qmax) below 10 mL/s and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) over 19, classical resection was performed in 46 cases, “cold-knife" TUI in 37 cases and bipolar vaporization in 43 patients. The evaluation protocol comprised IPSS, QoL (quality of life) score, Qmax and PVR (post-voiding residual urinary volume) assessment performed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after the initial intervention. Results: Significant intraoperative complications (capsular perforation – 8.7%; bleeding – 4.3%) occurred secondary to monopolar resection. “Star" TUI was the fastest technique, followed by plasma-button vaporization (7.2 and 11.4 versus 16.5 minutes). BPV and TUI patients benefitted from the shortest catheterization periods (0.75 and 1 versus 2.0 days) and hospital stays (1.0 and 1.25 versus 2.0 days). Immediate postoperative adverse events consisted of hematuria (6.5% of the TUR cases) and acute urinary retention (8.1% of the TUI group). Significantly higher long term BNS recurrence rates requiring re-treatment were established in the TUI (18.7%) and TUR (12.8%) series by comparison to BPV (5.4%). Among patients that completed the follow-up protocol, equivalent IPSS, QoL, Qmax and PVR features were determined in the 3 study arms. Conclusions: The plasma vaporization approach was confirmed as a successful match to conventional TUR and “cold-knife" TUI in terms of surgical safety profile, postoperative recovery, therapeutic durability and urodynamic and symptom score parameters. PMID:24653766

  11. Bladder cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, H. Y.; Griffiths, T. R.; Neal, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in England and Wales. The most common presenting symptom is macroscopic haematuria. The management options for superficial and invasive bladder cancer depend on the stage at presentation. Most superficial bladder cancers are managed by transurethral resection and cytoscopic follow-up. The prognosis for patients with invasive bladder cancer is less good. The role of chemical, radiotherapeutic and surgical intervention are discussed. PMID:9015464

  12. Neurogenic Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Dorsher, Peter T.; McIntosh, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented. PMID:22400020

  13. Bladder Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

  14. Bladder outlet obstruction in women: functional causes.

    PubMed

    King, Ashley B; Goldman, Howard B

    2014-09-01

    Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women has received less focus in the past, as compared with BOO in men; however, more recently, studies have further examined BOO and voiding dysfunction in women to define the various etiologies, diagnostic criteria, and treatment strategies. The differential diagnosis in women is broad and includes anatomic, neurologic, and functional etiologies. This review focuses on the functional etiologies, including dysfunctional voiding, Fowler's syndrome, and primary bladder neck obstruction in adult women. PMID:25059639

  15. Effect of distension on adrenergic innervation of the rat urinary bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tammela; L. Lasanen; T. Waris

    1990-01-01

    The effect of distension on adrenergic innervation was investigated in the rat urinary bladder. Bladders were distended for 3 h by forced diuresis and ballon obstruction, and specimens were taken from the bladder dome, body and neck for the demonstration of glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence of catecholamines. Depletion of catecholamines started after 10 h and was almost complete after 2 days.

  16. Bladder Diary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PFDs Videos Bookmark These Websites Helpful Organizations Bladder Diary This is a very helpful tool to keep ... your doctor. At the beginning of treatment, these diaries are helpful in establishing the nature and severity ...

  17. Intramuscular nerve distribution in bladder and the relationship between intramuscular ganglia and bladder function in man and dog

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zeju; Xu, Qian; Lu, Li; Luo, Xu; Fu, Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    In clinical, the relationship between bladder intramuscular nerve and function is also elusive. This study aims to compare the bladder intramuscular nerve distribution and its characteristics and significance in human and dog. Eleven dogs’ bladders were stained by Sihler’s and HE techniques. Fifteen human bladders were adopted by Sihler’s staining, using 10% formaldehyde to fix 12 weeks, 7 by HE dyeing fixes 24 hours. Results indicated that man’s bladder was triangularpyramid-shaped. While dog’s bladder was spherical-shaped and its muscle fibers arrange were irregularly shaped. Longitudinal muscle of the outer layer is fleshy, the terminal is at the bladder neck without exception, and vesical trigone has relatively obvious three layers of structure. After dyeing dog’s bladder was transparent jelly, the nerve was purple color, enter bladder at the ureter-bladder junction with different forms. Man’s bladder nerves, no ganglion, were more trivial than that of dogs, and with smaller branches, the large nerve ganglion. The links with the nerve fibers and forms the network on the dog’s bladder wall, and the nerve fibers crosses comparatively little on both the left and right sides in the midline. The right nerve branch gains advantage on the man’s bladder wall, the situations is opposite on the dog’s. In conclusion, bladder nerves which scatter to the bladder wall have branches to lower ureter at the ureter-bladder junction, the structure and distribution of intramuscular nerves are different, the existence of intramuscular ganglia is relating to the bladder function both in man and dog. PMID:25664008

  18. Bladder Exstrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Urologic Conditions Search Conditions Common Conditions What is Urology? The Urinary Tract System Free Patient Education Materials ... neck and sphincter. Share About This Content The Urology Care Foundation is in the process of re- ...

  19. Factors controlling testis descent.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L

    2008-12-01

    Descent of the testis from an intra-abdominal site in foetal life to an extracorporeal location after birth is a mandatory developmental process to ensure that the mature testis promotes normal spermatogenesis. The two phases of transabdominal and inguinoscrotal descent occur approximately during the first and last thirds of gestation respectively. Key anatomical events to release the testis from its urogenital ridge location and to guide the free gonad into the scrotum are the degeneration of the cranio-suspensory ligament and a thickening of the gubernaculum. Androgens play a role in both these processes, particularly with respect to enabling the testis to traverse the inguinal canal in the final phase of descent. Experiments in animals suggest that androgens mediate this effect via the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide by the genitofemoral nerve, but direct evidence for such a mechanism is lacking in humans. The transabdominal phase of descent is under the control of insulin-like 3 (INSL3), a product of the Leydig cells. Definitive evidence of its role in rodent testis descent is illustrated by the phenotype of bilateral cryptorchidism in Insl3-/- null mice. Circulating levels of INSL3 are higher in boys at puberty, are undetectable in girls and are lower in boys with undescended testes. A minority also have a mutation either in the INSL3 gene or affecting its receptor gene, relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 (LGRF8). Other factors that may play a role in testis descent include the anti-Mullerian hormone and members of the HOX gene family. Evidence that the prevalence of undescended testis may be increasing provides a phenotypic readout for the effects of postulated chemicals in the environment interfering in some way with the action of factors that control testis descent. Epidemiological studies point to profound geographical variations in prevalence in countries such as Denmark and Finland. Associations have been found with levels of chemicals labelled as endocrine disruptors being higher in breast milk samples from mothers with cryptorchid boys when compared with controls. The adverse effects of these compounds (e.g. bisphenol A) can be replicated in the offspring of dams exposed during pregnancy. A sensitive marker of an anti-androgen effect of a compound is a reduction in the anogenital distance, an anthropometric measurement that is significantly greater in males compared with females. The observation of an association between the anogenital distance in infant boys and the level of pesticides in the urine of their mothers in late gestation indicates that this has the potential to be a useful surrogate marker of the effects of environmental chemicals on testis descent in human population studies. The rightful place for the testis at birth is in the scrotum in order to provide the temperature differential essential for normal spermatogenesis. Appropriate screening programmes and early surgical intervention are the prerequisites to ensure optimal fertility in adulthood and a considerably lessened risk of testis cancer. PMID:18647820

  20. The stamey endoscopic bladder neck suspension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Griffith-Jones; G. J. Jarvis

    1992-01-01

    The Stamey procedure has gained a favourable reputation as a highly effective operation for the treatment of genuine stress incontinence in the female. Technical ease, short operating time, brief hospitalization and minimal postoperative morbidity have all been claimed as particular advantages of this procedure. With correct patient selection and attention to operative detail, this technique has much to offer both

  1. Giant Urinary Bladder Diverticula presenting as Epigastric Mass and Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Jayant, Kumar; Barapatra, Yogesh; Rani, Jyotsana; Agrawal, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bladder diverticulum is a result of bladder mucosa and submucosa herniation through the muscularis propria of bladder wall. Bladder diverticula are mostly seen in the elderly men in association with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Case Presentation: A 74-year-old man presented with complaints of vague epigastric discomfort, dyspepsia, and mild lower urinary tract symptoms. An ultrasonography of the abdomen showed bilateral hydroureteronephrosis, large cystic lesion with the size of 26.3 × 20.5 cm and in continuation of urinary bladder and prostate of 70 mL volume. Voiding cystourethrogram revealed a large diverticulum with its neck communicating with bladder on posterior aspect. Abdominopelvic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed bilateral hydronephrosis with large bladder diverticulum of 27.3 × 21.5 cm in size with smooth diverticular wall. On cystoscopy, the neck of diverticulum was seen at the posterior wall of bladder. Open prostatectomy and diverticulectomy were done simultaneously (Figure 3). Postoperative course was uneventful. The histopathological assessment showed features of chronic inflammation without any evidence of malignancy. On the third postoperative day, the urethral catheter was removed and suprapubic catheter was clamped. Patient was voiding well and cystography done on day 12 revealed smooth bladder contour without any leakage; hence, suprapubic catheter was removed. Patient was discharged in satisfactory condition. Conclusions: The elderly men are at high risk of developing bladder diverticulum, which may be due to high prevalence BPH in this group. Although presentation of bladder diverticulum is nonspecific, its effect on renal system is significant. Therefore, awareness of patients and physicians is necessary to prevent its consequences. PMID:25695022

  2. Stem Cell Therapy in Bladder Dysfunction: Where Are We? And Where Do We Have to Go?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Rae; Song, Yun Seob; Lee, Hong Jun

    2013-01-01

    To date, stem cell therapy for the bladder has been conducted mainly on an experimental basis in the areas of bladder dysfunction. The therapeutic efficacy of stem cells was originally thought to be derived from their ability to differentiate into various cell types. Studies about stem cell therapy for bladder dysfunction have been limited to an experimental basis and have been less focused than bladder regeneration. Bladder dysfunction was listed in MESH as “urinary bladder neck obstruction”, “urinary bladder, overactive”, and “urinary bladder, neurogenic”. Using those keywords, several articles were searched and studied. The bladder dysfunction model includes bladder outlet obstruction, cryoinjured, diabetes, ischemia, and spinal cord injury. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), and skeletal muscle derived stem cells (SkMSCs) are used for transplantation to treat bladder dysfunction. The main mechanisms of stem cells to reconstitute or restore bladder dysfunction are migration, differentiation, and paracrine effects. The aim of this study is to review the stem cell therapy for bladder dysfunction and to provide the status of stem cell therapy for bladder dysfunction. PMID:24151627

  3. Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Darracott, John

    1979-01-01

    Most neck pain is treated with a varying degree of confidence and success. A better understanding of what constitutes neck pain, a pertinent history and examination, critical interpretation of investigations and treatment modalities will provide family physicians, who treat the majority of these patients, with a confident disciplined approach which can reduce morbidity.

  4. Terminal Descent Sensor Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis W.

    2009-01-01

    Sulcata software simulates the operation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) radar terminal descent sensor (TDS). The program models TDS radar antennas, RF hardware, and digital processing, as well as the physics of scattering from a coherent ground surface. This application is specific to this sensor and is flexible enough to handle end-to-end design validation. Sulcata is a high-fidelity simulation and is used for performance evaluation, anomaly resolution, and design validation. Within the trajectory frame, almost all internal vectors are represented in whatever coordinate system is used to represent platform position. The trajectory frame must be planet-fixed. The platform body frame is specified relative to arbitrary reference points relative to the platform (spacecraft or test vehicle). Its rotation is a function of time from the trajectory coordinate system specified via dynamics input (file for open loop, callback for closed loop). Orientation of the frame relative to the body is arbitrary, but constant over time. The TDS frame must have a constant rotation and translation from the platform body frame specified at run time. The DEM frame has an arbitrary, but time-constant, rotation and translation with respect to the simulation frame specified at run time. It has the same orientation as sigma0 frame, but is possibly translated. Surface sigma0 has the same arbitrary rotation and translation as DEM frame.

  5. Urinary Bladder Adenocarcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bladder adenocarcinoma begins in the cells of glandular structures lining body organs and spreads to the bladder. After treatment, ... cancerous, or malignant, tumor originating in a glandular structure. ... the body. Pathologist: A physician who examines tissues and fluids ...

  6. Bladder function - neurological control

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... with urine, sensory nerves send impulses to the brain indicating that the bladder is full. The sensory ... cord to relay this information. In turn, the brain sends impulses back to the bladder instructing the ...

  7. The aging bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Finkbeiner

    1993-01-01

    Urinary bladder function changes with aging. In the older population symptoms of increased diurnal frequency, incontinence and\\/or retention are most prevalent. Objective measurements of bladder function in the aged reveal a high incidence of detrusor hyperactivity and decrease in flow rates. Intrinsic changes of the anatomy and neuropharmacology of the bladder associated with aging are noted in animal models and

  8. Nutrition and bladder cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo La Vecchia; Eva Negri

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and bladder cancer is reviewed. A role of diet and nutrition in bladder carcinogenisis is plausible since most substances or metabolites, including carcinogens, are excreted through the urinary tract. Ecologic studies on populations have found positive correlations between fats and oils and bladder cancer, but these are reflected only partly in the international

  9. Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-22

    Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer

  10. Descent into theDescent into theDescent into theDescent into the Hell of VenusHell of VenusHell of VenusHell of Venus

    E-print Network

    Alfonseca, Manuel

    Descent into theDescent into theDescent into theDescent into the Hell of VenusHell of VenusHell of VenusHell of Venus Manuel AlfonsecaManuel AlfonsecaManuel AlfonsecaManuel Alfonseca #12;Manuel Alfonseca 2 #12;Descent into the Hell of Venus 3 DESCENT INTO THE HELL OF VENUS Manuel Alfonseca All Rights

  11. Lunar Module Descent Mission Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan W. Wilhite; John Wagner; Robert Tolson; Marina Mazur Moen

    2008-01-01

    Various lunar descent trajectories were analyzed that include the optimization of the Apollo constrained mission trajectory, a fully optimized minimum energy trajectory, and a optimal, constrained trajectory using current instrumentation technology. Trade studies were conducted to determine the impacts of mission assumptions, pilot in the loop\\/automated flight demands, and additional constraints for the present recurring missions to the same outpost

  12. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice. PMID:21775962

  13. Biomatrices for bladder reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsueh-Kung; Madihally, Sundar V; Palmer, Blake; Frimberger, Dominic; Fung, Kar-Ming; Kropp, Bradley P

    2015-03-01

    There is a demand for tissue engineering of the bladder needed by patients who experience a neurogenic bladder or idiopathic detrusor overactivity. To avoid complications from augmentation cystoplasty, the field of tissue engineering seeks optimal scaffolds for bladder reconstruction. Naturally derived biomaterials as well as synthetic and natural polymers have been explored as bladder substitutes. To improve regenerative properties, these biomaterials have been conjugated with functional molecules, combined with nanotechology, or seeded with exogenous cells. Although most studies reported complete and functional bladder regeneration in small-animal models, results from large-animal models and human clinical trials varied. For functional bladder regeneration, procedures for biomaterial fabrication, incorporation of biologically active agents, introduction of nanotechnology, and application of stem-cell technology need to be standardized. Advanced molecular and medical technologies such as next generation sequencing and magnetic resonance imaging can be introduced for mechanistic understanding and non-invasive monitoring of regeneration processes, respectively. PMID:25477305

  14. Non-communicating multiseptate gall bladder and choledochal cyst: a case report and review of publications.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, C E; Howard, E R; Driver, M; Murray-Lyon, I M

    1993-01-01

    A 14 year old girl with multiseptate gall bladder and cystic dilatation of the biliary tree is presented. This is the 20th published case report of patients with multiseptate gall bladder and only the second to be associated with a choledochal cyst. The cystic spaces of the gall bladder did not communicate with the neck of the gall bladder or the rest of the biliary tree, and this unusual feature has not been previously described. A multiseptate gall bladder with a normal biliary tree commonly causes symptoms suggestive of cholecystitis, although gall stones are seldom present. Diagnosis is confirmed by an oral cholecystogram or ultrasound scan that may show the fine intraluminal septae, and these features should be looked for in patients with biliary symptoms without biliary calculi. Cholecystectomy is curative for the isolated gall bladder anomaly but hepaticojejunostomy may be necessary for an associated choledochal cyst. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8314522

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Bladder cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Bladder cancer On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Glossary definitions Reviewed January 2007 What is bladder cancer? Bladder cancer is a disease in which certain ...

  16. Female bladder exstrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Crankson; S. Ahmed

    1997-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy is one of the most challenging congenital urinary tract abnormalities. Apart from the open bladder the patient\\u000a also has various other abnormalities, including urogenital, musculoskeletal and anorectal defects. The size of the exstrophic\\u000a bladder varies from patient to patient. In the female the clitoris is bifid and the vagina is anteriorly placed. In this paper\\u000a various aspects of

  17. Bladder outlet obstruction in women: iatrogenic, anatomic, and neurogenic.

    PubMed

    McCrery, Rebecca J; Appell, Rodney A

    2006-09-01

    This paper outlines the presentation, evaluation, and management of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women as it relates to iatrogenic, anatomic, and neurogenic causes. Attention is given to the different diagnostic criteria used by various authors in their case series and studies. The lack of standardization with regard to the diagnosis of BOO in women emphasizes the fact that BOO is often a clinical diagnosis that is made by taking into account the history, physical examination, imaging of the lower urinary tract, and urodynamic pressure-flow parameters. Individual obstructive conditions including urethral stricture, postsurgical obstruction, primary bladder neck obstruction, pelvic organ prolapse, and neurogenic causes are addressed briefly. PMID:16959175

  18. Developments in bladder cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Denis, L. (Dept. of Urology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, A.Z. Middelheim, Antwerp (BE)); Niijima, T. (Dept. of Urology, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (JP)); Prout, G. (Dept. of Urology, Harvard Univ., Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)); Schroder, F.H. (Dept. of Urology, Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (NL))

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Guidelines for Radiation Therapy in Clinical Research on Bladder Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Situ; Policy on Monitoring and Reporting Results; Standardization of Protocol Format; and The Role of Cytology in the Diagnosis, Detection and Follow-up of Bladder Cancer.

  19. Management of overactive bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dev M. Gulur; Marcus J. Drake

    2010-01-01

    Many people are affected by urinary urgency, which can be highly bothersome. Urgency is the cornerstone symptom of overactive bladder (OAB), commonly occurring in conjunction with urinary frequency and nocturia. Once other medical causes of similar symptoms have been excluded, first-line OAB management comprises fluid intake advice and bladder training, supplemented by antimuscarinic drugs if necessary. Urodynamic confirmation of the

  20. Algorithm for Fuel-Conservative Airplane Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Federal Aviation Administration implementing automated, time-based metering form of air-traffic control (ATC) with profile-descent procedures for arrivals into terminal area. Measures provide fuel savings by matching arrival of airplanes to airport acceptance rate through time-control computations and allowing pilot to descend at his discretion from cruise altitude to designated metering-fix altitude in idle-thrust clean configuration. Airborne descent algorithm developed compatible with time-based metering and profile-descent procedures and designed to improve accuracy of delivering airplane during fuel-efficient descent to metering fix at time designated by the ATC system.

  1. Consert during the Philae Descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, Alain; Berquin, Yann; Blazquez, Alejandro; Antoine Foulon, Marc; Hahnel, Ronny; Hegler, Sebastian; Jurado, Eric; Kofman, Wlodek; Plettemeier, Dirk; Rogez, Yves; Statz, Christoph; Zine, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    The CONSERT experiment on board Rosetta and Philae is to perform the tomography of the 67P/CG comet nucleus measuring radio waves transmission from the Rosetta S/C to the Philae Lander and using the 67P nucleus rotation to cover different geometries. CONSERT will operate during the Philae descent. This geometry strongly differs from the "nominal" bistatic tomography where the orbiter is on the opposite side of the nucleus by regard to the lander. During the descent, CONSERT will measure direct wave propagating from orbiter to lander and waves reflected / scattered by the 67P surface and subsurface. This signal will provide information of the greatest interest for both scientific investigations of 67P and technical operations of Philae. The landing site position is known a priori with a large ellipse of dispersion due to uncertainties on the Rosetta velocity and Rosetta/Philae separation strength. This dispersion is increased by the difference between nominal and emergency separation strength. An accurate estimation of the landing position as soon as possible after landing is of the greatest interest to optimize Philae operation during FSS. So propagation delay of the direct and reflected waves measured by CONSERT will help to reconstruct the descent geometry in order to more precisely estimate the landing position. The reflected signal is determined by the surface properties: its dielectric permittivity, its roughness and layering. The signal power inversion will allow to map surface properties especially in the vicinity of the landing site. This paper details the measurement configuration. It presents the data retrieval based on Monte-Carlo simulation using Metropolis-Hastings algorithm and expected performances for both science and operations.

  2. Descent theory for semiorthogonal decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Elagin, Alexei D

    2012-05-31

    We put forward a method for constructing semiorthogonal decompositions of the derived category of G-equivariant sheaves on a variety X under the assumption that the derived category of sheaves on X admits a semiorthogonal decomposition with components preserved by the action of the group G on X. This method is used to obtain semiorthogonal decompositions of equivariant derived categories for projective bundles and blow-ups with a smooth centre as well as for varieties with a full exceptional collection preserved by the group action. Our main technical tool is descent theory for derived categories. Bibliography: 12 titles.

  3. Bladder operated robotic joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a robotic joint which is operated by inflatable bladders and which can be used in applications where it is desired to move or hold an object. A support block supports an elongated plate to which is pivotally attached a finger. A tension strip passes over a lever attached to the finger and is attached at its ends to the support block on opposite sides of the plate. Bladders positioned between the plate and the tension strip on opposite sides of the plate can be inflated by pumps to pivot the finger, with one of the bladders being inflated while the other is being deflated.

  4. 43 CFR 10.14 - Lineal descent and cultural affiliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...procedures for determining lineal descent and cultural affiliation...Criteria for determining lineal descent. A lineal descendant...manufacture and distribution methods for the earlier group, or...Standard of proof. Lineal descent of a present-day...

  5. 43 CFR 10.14 - Lineal descent and cultural affiliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...procedures for determining lineal descent and cultural affiliation...Criteria for determining lineal descent. A lineal descendant...manufacture and distribution methods for the earlier group, or...Standard of proof. Lineal descent of a present-day...

  6. Bladder outlet obstruction in women: definition and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Groutz, A; Blaivas, J G; Chaikin, D C

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of bladder outlet obstruction in women is unknown and most probably has been underestimated. Moreover, there are no standard definitions for the diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction in women. Our study was conducted to define as well as to examine the clinical and urodynamic characteristics of bladder outlet obstruction among women referred for evaluation of voiding symptoms. Bladder outlet obstruction was defined as a persistent, low, maximum "free" flow rate of <12 mL/s in repeated non-invasive uroflow studies, combined with high detrusor pressure at a maximum flow (p(det.Q)(max) >20 cm H(2)O) during detrusor pressure-uroflow studies. A urodynamic database of 587 consecutive women identified 38 (6.5%) women with bladder outlet obstruction. The mean age of the patients was 63.9 +/- 17.5 years. The mean maximum "free" flow, voided volume, and residual urinary volume were 9.4 +/-3.9 mL/s, 144. 9 +/- 72.7 mL, and 86.1 +/- 98.8 mL, respectively. The mean p(det. Q)(max) was 37.2 +/- 19.2 cm H(2)O. Previous anti-incontinence surgery and severe genital prolapse were the most common etiologies, accounting for half of the cases. Other, less common, etiologies included urethral stricture (13%), primary bladder neck obstruction (8%), learned voiding dysfunction (5%), and detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia (5%). Symptomatology was defined as mixed obstructive and irritative in 63% of the patients, isolated irritative in 29%, and isolated obstructive in other 8%. In conclusion, bladder outlet obstruction in women appears to be more common than was previously recognized, occurring in 6.5% of our patients. Micturition symptoms relevant to bladder outlet obstruction are non-specific, and a full urodynamic evaluation is essential in making the correct diagnosis and formulating a treatment plan. PMID:10797578

  7. (Co)Simplicial Descent Categories

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Beatriz Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    This paper contains the notion of simplicial descent category. Such a category D is endowed with a class of equivalences and a `simple functor' from the category of simplicial objects in D to D. They are presented as a complementary tool to study the associated homotopy category. Some examples of such simple functors are the total complex of a double complex, the (fat) geometric realization, Deligne's simple of mixed Hodge complexes and Navarro's Thom-Whitney simple of commutative differential graded algebras. They (and other related simples), provide simplicial descent structures on the categories of chain complexes over an additive/abelian category, simplicial sets, topological spaces, filtered cochain complexes, differential graded algebras over a commutative ring, commutative differential graded algebras over a field of characteristic 0, DG-modules over a DG-category and mixed Hodge complexes. We summarize (and improve) here part of author's Ph.D. thesis (arXiv:0804.2154v1). The factorization axiom of sim...

  8. Managing Bladder Incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and dignity ? Avoid fluids or foods that contain caffeine (soft drinks, coffee, tea or chocolate) ? Avoid alcohol as it can over stimulate the bladder ? Ask your nurse about ? Exercises that can help develop more control ? Medications that ...

  9. Predictability of Top of Descent Location for Operational Idle-Thrust Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stell, Laurel L.

    2010-01-01

    To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the trajectory predictor and its uncertainty models, commercial flights executed idle-thrust descents at a specified descent speed, and the recorded data included the specified descent speed profile, aircraft weight, and the winds entered into the FMS as well as the radar data. The FMS computed the intended descent path assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and the controllers and pilots then endeavored to allow the FMS to fly the descent to the meter fix with minimal human intervention. The horizontal flight path, cruise and meter fix altitudes, and actual TOD location were extracted from the radar data. Using approximately 70 descents each in Boeing 757 and Airbus 319/320 aircraft, multiple regression estimated TOD location as a linear function of the available predictive factors. The cruise and meter fix altitudes, descent speed, and wind clearly improve goodness of fit. The aircraft weight improves fit for the Airbus descents but not for the B757. Except for a few statistical outliers, the residuals have absolute value less than 5 nmi. Thus, these predictive factors adequately explain the TOD location, which indicates the data do not include excessive noise.

  10. The fibromyalgia bladder index.

    PubMed

    Brand, Kaye; Littlejohn, Geoffrey; Kristjanson, Linda; Wisniewski, Stan; Hassard, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an existing outcome measure, the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Index (ICSI/ICPI), is a valid, reliable, and clinically relevant instrument to assess the sensory urinary symptoms in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). Ninety women with American College of Rheumatology 90 FM and who had at least two sensory bladder symptoms participated in the study. All underwent urological screening to exclude lower urinary tract pathology. All participants completed the following: ICSI/ICPI, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36, King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), and Vulval Symptom Assessment Scale. Assessment was made for internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Factor analysis was used to assess the internal structure of the scale. Factor analysis displayed two separate components of symptom and problem combinations as distinct from the original ICSI/ICPI developed for the interstitial cystitis population. The eight items of the index configured differently and formed two subscales of a newly developed Fibromyalgia Bladder Index. The two subscales of this index include the Bladder Urgency and Pain Subscale and the Bladder Frequency and Nocturia Subscale. This index has high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.81), test-retest reliability showing intraclass correlation of 0.85, and high concurrent validity through correlations between the Fibromyalgia Bladder Index and the KHQ (0.735, p = 0.000) and the FIQ (0.433, p = 0.000). This more specific configuration of the ICSI/ICPI better reflects FM bladder symptomatology. The Fibromyalgia Bladder Index is a validated FM-specific instrument that captures information about the sensory bladder symptoms and their impact in this fibromyalgia population. This instrument should allow for better understanding and management of this important fibromyalgia-associated problem. PMID:17476564

  11. Epidemiology of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Malats, Núria; Real, Francisco X

    2015-04-01

    Bladder cancer incidence is higher in old men, shows geographic variation, and is mostly an environmental disease. Cigarette smoking, occupational exposures, water arsenic, Schistosoma haematobium infestation, and some medications are the best established risk factors. Low-penetrance genetic factors also contribute to its origin, some through interaction with environmental factors. Bladder cancer has high prevalence and a low mortality, being largely a chronic disease. Data on environmental and genetic factors involved in the disease outcome are inconclusive. PMID:25836927

  12. Neurogenic bladder in infants and children—a new challenge for the radiologist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Fotter

    1996-01-01

    a complex meshwork of smooth muscle. Viscoelastic properties of the normal detrusor allow it to stretch significantly without a significant rise in tension pressure. Detrusor fibers continue into the bladder neck and surround the proximal urethra. Those smooth muscle fibers are under voluntary control. The urethral sphincter mechanism has smooth and striated muscle fibers. The smooth muscle fibers are the

  13. Bladder afferent hyperexcitability in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Naoki; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Sugino, Yoshio; Kawamorita, Naoki; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Chancellor, Michael B; Tyagi, Pradeep; Ogawa, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. PMID:24807488

  14. Descent heuristics for unconstrained minimization 1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    2008-08-14

    f gets smaller) because negative curvature hints that long descent steps may ..... Network Localization Problems with distance measurements (as described for example .... the Semidefinite Programming Relaxation Solution for Ad Hoc Wireless.

  15. Feature Clustering for Accelerating Parallel Coordinate Descent

    SciTech Connect

    Scherrer, Chad; Tewari, Ambuj; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Haglin, David J.

    2012-12-06

    We demonstrate an approach for accelerating calculation of the regularization path for L1 sparse logistic regression problems. We show the benefit of feature clustering as a preconditioning step for parallel block-greedy coordinate descent algorithms.

  16. Lunar descent using sequential engine shutdown

    E-print Network

    Springmann, Philip N

    2006-01-01

    The notion of sequential engine shutdown is introduced and its application to lunar descent is motivated. The concept calls for the utilization of multiple fixed thrust engines in place of a single continuously throttleable ...

  17. Descent relations in cubic superstring field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, I. Y.; Gorbachev, R.; Medvedev, P. B.; Rychkov, D. V.

    2008-01-01

    The descent relations between string field theory (SFT) vertices are characteristic relations of the operator formulation of SFT and they provide self-consistency of this theory. The descent relations langleV2|V1rangle and langleV3|V1rangle in the NS fermionic string field theory in the ? and discrete bases are established. Different regularizations and schemes of calculations are considered and relations between them are discussed.

  18. Apollo experience report: Descent propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammock, W. R., Jr.; Currie, E. C.; Fisher, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    The propulsion system for the descent stage of the lunar module was designed to provide thrust to transfer the fully loaded lunar module with two crewmen from the lunar parking orbit to the lunar surface. A history of the development of this system is presented. Development was accomplished primarily by ground testing of individual components and by testing the integrated system. Unique features of the descent propulsion system were the deep throttling capability and the use of a lightweight cryogenic helium pressurization system.

  19. [Neurotherapy of the hyperactive bladder].

    PubMed

    Jünemann, K P; De Geeter, P; Persson, C; Melchior, H

    1986-09-01

    Results in the treatment of non-neurogenic bladder hyperactivity are unsatisfactory. However, the first promising results from neurostimulation and our own findings in the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the lower urinary tract have led us to consider peripheral neurostimulation of the S2 - dorsal root or dorsal nerve of the penis for treating patients with hyperactive bladder dysfunction. We report on the first 14 cases treated by peripheral neurostimulation and S2-dorsal root blockade with local anesthesia for bladder hyperactivity. The bladder function became normal, and the bladder capacity increased up to 400% under neurotherapy. The methods, results and complications are discussed. PMID:3491456

  20. Descent Advisor Preliminary Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were: (1) to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional and flight-management system equipped jet transports, (2) to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and (3) to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 seconds late with a standard deviation of 13.1 seconds. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  1. Pelvic floor descent in females: comparative study of colpocystodefecography and dynamic fast MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Vanbeckevoort, D; Van Hoe, L; Oyen, R; Ponette, E; De Ridder, D; Deprest, J

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare fast dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with colpocystodefecography (CCD) in the evaluation of pelvic floor descent in women. Thirty-five women with clinical evidence of pelvic floor descent were studied. A fast single-shot MR sequence was performed in the supine position during pelvic floor relaxation and during maximal pelvic strain. On the same day, a dynamic CCD was performed with the patient seated on a stool-chair. The degree of descent of the bladder, vagina, and anorectal junction was evaluated as the vertical distance between the pubococcygeal line and the bladder base, the vaginal vault, and the anorectal junction, respectively. A bulge of more than 3 cm measured as the distance between the extended line of the anterior border of the anal canal and the tip of the rectocele was interpreted as a rectocele. MRI was compared with CCD during maximal pelvic strain (CCD 1) and during voiding and defecation (CCD II). CCD was considered as the gold standard. Compared with clinical examination, CCD I showed a larger number of involved compartments, except for the middle compartment. CCD II was superior to clinical examination in all cases. In comparison with CCD I and especially CCD II, MRI had a lower sensitivity, especially for the anterior and middle compartment. Even four enteroceles seen on CCD II were not detected by MRI. When CCD I and CCD II were compared, a cystocele, a vaginal vault prolapse, an enterocele, and a rectocele were more readily seen on CCD II than with CCD I. When compared with CCD, supine dynamic MRI is unreliable, especially in the anterior and middle compartment. Even in the detection of enteroceles CCD was superior to MRI. In general, the best results with MRI can be expected for evaluation of the rectum. PMID:10194705

  2. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... increases your risk. In fact, 85 percent of head and neck cancers are linked to tobacco use, including smoking ...

  3. Robotic Anastomoses and Bladder Neck Reconstruction Following Radical Prostatectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc C. Smaldone; Tina K. Schuster; Stephen V. Jackman

    \\u000a With the introduction of robotic-assisted technology, there has been a dramatic evolution of minimally invasive prostate cancer\\u000a surgery. Rapidly gaining popularity in both the United States and abroad, advantages of the robotic platform include enhanced\\u000a stereoscopic depth of field vision and dexterity facilitating precise suturing for reconstruction. In addition to the conventional\\u000a benefits of laparoscopy including reduced blood loss and

  4. Neck dissections: radical to conservative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Harish; M. S. Ramaiah

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck dissection is an important surgical procedure for the management of metastatic nodal disease in the neck. The gold standard of neck nodal management has been the radical neck dissection. Any modification in the neck dissection is always compared with this standard. Over the last few decades, in order to alleviate the morbidity of radical neck dissection, several modifications

  5. Reference energy-altitude descent guidance: Simulator evaluation. [aircraft descent and fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbot, K. H.; Knox, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Descent guidance was developed to provide a pilot with information to ake a fuel-conservative descent and cross a designated geographical waypoint at a preselected altitude and airspeed. The guidance was designed to reduce fuel usage during the descent and reduce the mental work load associated with planning a fuel-conservative descent. A piloted simulation was conducted to evaluate the operational use of this guidance concept. The results of the simulation tests show that the use of the guidance reduced fuel consumption and mental work load during the descent. Use of the guidance also decreased the airspeed error, but had no effect on the altitude error when the designated waypoint was crossed. Physical work load increased with the use of the guidance, but remained well within acceptable levels. The pilots found the guidance easy to use as presented and reported that it would be useful in an operational environment.

  6. Overactive bladder in males

    PubMed Central

    Dmochowski, Roger R.; Gomelsky, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms is considerable in both men and women and the impact on quality of life (QOL) is equally substantial. Ironically, despite nearly equal prevalence, OAB symptoms in men are infrequently treated, and often with medical therapies aimed at bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). In this review, we examine the pathophysiology of OAB and its evaluation in the context of benign prostatic hypertrophy and concomitant BOO. We then consider the efficacy and safety of individual therapeutic options for lower urinary tract symptoms in men, focusing on the mainstays of medical therapy: ?-adrenergic blockers, 5-? reductase inhibitors, and antimuscarinic agents. Finally, we aim to comment on new therapeutic strategies and targets that may one day be available for the treatment of male OAB. PMID:21789068

  7. Management of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, D; Huben, R

    1995-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a paradigm of malignancy, representing the spectrum from localized to metastatic disease, and manifesting varied histologic types, including transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Preclinical and clinical data suggest that a common stem cell of origin gives rise to the different histologic types and that these patterns are of clonal origin. Localized bladder cancer is managed optimally by transurethral resection, with or without adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy. Invasive cancer or relapsed superficial disease may require more radical surgery or radical radiotherapy. In recent years, the evolution of techniques of continent urinary diversion or of bladder replacement has revolutionized the management of invasive disease. However, the 5-year survival for invasive bladder cancer is still approximately 50%, and innovative strategies have been developed, combining definitive local treatment and systemic chemotherapy, in an attempt to improve survival. For patients with metastatic disease, the combination of methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (the MVAC regimen) has achieved response rates as high as 70% but with a median survival of only 12 months. Until cure rates are improved, one of the hallmarks of effective management of metastatic disease will remain the provision of thorough and well-structured palliative treatment programs. Recently, the introduction of new agents (such as paclitaxel, gallium, ifosfamide, and gemcitabine) has led to promising response rates, and further clinical trials of these agents alone and in combination are in progress. In addition, an improved understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to treatment, including the implications of the expression of p-glycoprotein, p53 proteins, and other biochemical predictors of outcome, and of strategies to overcome such resistance, may lead to more effective management of advanced disease. Furthermore, real progress will be made only through the application of well-designed clinical trials to test the efficacy and toxicity of the new strategies of treatment. PMID:7768113

  8. Pharmacogenomics in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dancik, Garrett M.; Theodorescu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a common cancer worldwide. For patients presenting with muscle-invasive disease, the five year survival rate is approximately 50%. Cisplatinum-based combination chemotherapy is recommended in the neoadjuvant setting prior to cystectomy and is also the first line in the metastatic setting. However, the survival benefit of such therapy is modest. The identification of pharmacogenomic biomarkers would enable the rational and personalized treatment of patients by selecting those patients that would benefit most from such therapies sparing others the unnecessary toxicity. Conventional therapies would be recommended for an expected responder while a non-responder would be considered for alternative therapies selected on the basis of the individual’s molecular profile. Although few effective bladder cancer therapies have been introduced in the past 30 years, several targeted therapies against the molecular drivers of bladder cancer appear promising. This review summarizes pharmacogenomic biomarkers that require further investigation and/or prospective evaluation, publicly available tools for drug discovery and biomarker identification from in vitro data, and targeted agents that have been evaluated in preclinical models. PMID:24360659

  9. A case of severe bladder wall hypertrophy: bladder cancer or sequela of bladder outlet obstruction?

    PubMed

    Tyson, Mark; French, Margaret; McNulty, Nancy; Lerner, Lori

    2009-02-01

    Angiosarcomas are soft tissue malignancies of connective tissue origin with rapid hematogenous spread, but are extremely uncommon primary tumors of the bladder with approximately ten reported cases in the 20th century. We report a 59-year-old man with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and gross hematuria who underwent a bladder biopsy for a markedly thickened bladder wall on CT scan. Biopsy specimens demonstrated deep vascular malformations that were concerning for a malignancy. Intense pathological review was initially not definitive and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed for his symptoms. Interestingly, surgery reversed the bladder process. This case serves as a unique example of how the sequelae of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) can resemble a malignant process on presentation but represent no more than hypertrophic adaptations in the bladder wall musculature of a patient with BPH and significant outlet obstruction. PMID:19222895

  10. Accelerating Stochastic Gradient Descent using Predictive Variance Reduction

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Rie

    Accelerating Stochastic Gradient Descent using Predictive Variance Reduction Rie Johnson RJ variance reduction method for stochastic gradient descent which we call stochastic variance reduced convergence asymptotically due to the inherent variance. To remedy this prob- lem, we introduce an explicit

  11. Evidence for Bladder Urothelial Pathophysiology in Functional Bladder Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Keay, Susan K.; Birder, Lori A.; Chai, Toby C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of the role of urothelium in regulating bladder function is continuing to evolve. While the urothelium is thought to function primarily as a barrier for preventing injurious substances and microorganisms from gaining access to bladder stroma and upper urinary tract, studies indicate it may also function in cell signaling events relating to voiding function. This review highlights urothelial abnormalities in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), feline interstitial cystitis (FIC), and nonneurogenic idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). These bladder conditions are typified by lower urinary tract symptoms including urinary frequency, urgency, urgency incontinence, nocturia, and bladder discomfort or pain. Urothelial tissues and cells from affected clinical subjects and asymptomatic controls have been compared for expression of proteins and mRNA. Animal models have also been used to probe urothelial responses to injuries of the urothelium, urethra, or central nervous system, and transgenic techniques are being used to test specific urothelial abnormalities on bladder function. BPS/IC, FIC, and OAB appear to share some common pathophysiology including increased purinergic, TRPV1, and muscarinic signaling, increased urothelial permeability, and aberrant urothelial differentiation. One challenge is to determine which of several abnormally regulated signaling pathways is most important for mediating bladder dysfunction in these syndromes, with a goal of treating these conditions by targeting specific pathophysiology. PMID:24900993

  12. Bladder augmentation using allogenic bladder submucosa seeded with cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Yoo; Jun Meng; Frank Oberpenning; Anthony Atala

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. The search for a suitable material to reconstruct the genitourinary tract has been a challenging task. Bowel has been widely used for urinary tract reconstruction, despite its subsequent complications. We investigated the possibility of using allogenic bladder submucosa, a tissue consisting of nonimmunogenic acellular collagen, either with or without cells, as a material for bladder augmentation.Methods. Partial cystectomies were

  13. Bladder repair following iatrogenic cystotomy in irradiated small capacity bladders

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Jia Yi; Durai, Pradeep; Wu, Mei Wen Fiona; Tiong, Ho Yee

    2015-01-01

    During laparotomy in a previously irradiated and operated pelvis, incidental cystotomies can occur and a tension-free, watertight, two- or three-layer closure of the bladder may be impossible. We herein report two cases of iatrogenic defects of the bladders in post-irradiated pelvises and compare the two different methods of bladder repair employed – an ileal augmentation segment used in the first case and bovine pericardial graft used in the second. Successful closures of the bladder defects were achieved in both cases. Native irradiated bowel and bovine pericardium can be useful substitutes in situations involving bladder defects in a previously irradiated pelvis. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches are also herein discussed. PMID:25820861

  14. Neck characteristic parameters mathematical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijun Jiang; Wenbin Zhang; Ming Xia; Xuanyi Hou

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to develop some neck characteristic parameters and to build virtual neck model of individual that can be used in the collar design of virtual fashion design. Through principal component factor analysis for the 3D neck anthropometric measurements of 200 female graduate students aged between 22 and 27, the paper presents some neck characteristic parameters, such as neck

  15. Ka-Band Radar Terminal Descent Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, Brian; Berkun, Andrew; Tope, Michael; Andricos, Constantine; Okonek, Joseph; Lou, Yunling

    2007-01-01

    The terminal descent sensor (TDS) is a radar altimeter/velocimeter that improves the accuracy of velocity sensing by more than an order of magnitude when compared to existing sensors. The TDS is designed for the safe planetary landing of payloads, and may be used in helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft requiring high-accuracy velocity sensing

  16. On the Convergence of Decentralized Gradient Descent

    E-print Network

    Kun Yuan, Qing Ling, Wotao Yin

    2014-02-07

    We study the decentralized gradient descent method in which each agent i ... †W. Yin is with Department of Mathematics, University of California, Los .... The recent research interest in big data processing also motivates ...... these noise-polluted case to design either centralized [13] or decentralized basis pursuit algorithms.

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with bladder cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Jonine D.; Ye, Yuanqing; Siddiq, Afshan; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Cortessis, Victoria K.; Kooperberg, Charles; Cussenot, Olivier; Benhamou, Simone; Prescott, Jennifer; Porru, Stefano; Dinney, Colin P.; Malats, Núria; Baris, Dalsu; Purdue, Mark; Jacobs, Eric J.; Albanes, Demetrius; Wang, Zhaoming; Deng, Xiang; Chung, Charles C.; Tang, Wei; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ljungberg, Börje; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Travis, Ruth; Tjønneland, Anne; Brenan, Paul; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Riboli, Elio; Conti, David; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Stern, Mariana C.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Van Den Berg, David; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hohensee, Chancellor; Rodabough, Rebecca; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Roupret, Morgan; Comperat, Eva; Chen, Constance; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara; Carta, Angela; Pavanello, Sofia; Arici, Cecilia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Kamat, Ashish M.; Lerner, Seth P.; Barton Grossman, H.; Lin, Jie; Gu, Jian; Pu, Xia; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdette, Laurie; Wheeler, William; Kogevinas, Manolis; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Johnson, Alison; Schned, Alan; Armenti, Karla R.; Hosain, G.M.; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Ryan Diver, W.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Haiman, Chris A.; Landi, Maria T.; Caporaso, Neil; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Vineis, Paolo; Wu, Xifeng; Silverman, Debra T.; Chanock, Stephen; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 11 independent susceptibility loci associated with bladder cancer risk. To discover additional risk variants, we conducted a new GWAS of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with two independently published bladder cancer GWAS, resulting in a combined analysis of 6911 cases and 11 814 controls of European descent. TaqMan genotyping of 13 promising single nucleotide polymorphisms with P < 1 × 10?5 was pursued in a follow-up set of 801 cases and 1307 controls. Two new loci achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs10936599 on 3q26.2 (P = 4.53 × 10?9) and rs907611 on 11p15.5 (P = 4.11 × 10?8). Two notable loci were also identified that approached genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 on 20p12.2 (P = 7.13 × 10?7) and rs4510656 on 6p22.3 (P = 6.98 × 10?7); these require further studies for confirmation. In conclusion, our study has identified new susceptibility alleles for bladder cancer risk that require fine-mapping and laboratory investigation, which could further understanding into the biological underpinnings of bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:24163127

  18. Abnormalities of the fetal bladder.

    PubMed

    Yiee, Jenny; Wilcox, Duncan

    2008-06-01

    This review aims to outline the management of a fetus in whom a distended bladder or an absent bladder has been identified during prenatal fetal screening. The causes, pre-delivery and immediate post-delivery treatment options are discussed, as well as prognosis. PMID:18053783

  19. T1 GIII Bladder Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Zungri; Levin Martinez; Eloisio A. Da Silva; Daniel Pesqueira; Ana de la Fuente Buceta; Beatriz Pereiro

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Transurethral resection (TUR) is the elective procedure in the treatment of superficial bladder tumor. The association of intravesical chemotherapy has no influence on survival and cause specific survival. This study was carried out to determine the evolution of T1 GIII bladder carcinoma treated with TUR only. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 42 consecutive patients with

  20. A Descent Rate Control Approach to Developing an Autonomous Descent Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Travis D.

    Circular parachutes have been used for aerial payload/personnel deliveries for over 100 years. In the past two decades, significant work has been done to improve the landing accuracies of cargo deliveries for humanitarian and military applications. This dissertation discusses the approach developed in which a circular parachute is used in conjunction with an electro-mechanical reefing system to manipulate the landing location. Rather than attempt to steer the autonomous descent vehicle directly, control of the landing location is accomplished by modifying the amount of time spent in a particular wind layer. Descent rate control is performed by reversibly reefing the parachute canopy. The first stage of the research investigated the use of a single actuation during descent (with periodic updates), in conjunction with a curvilinear target. Simulation results using real-world wind data are presented, illustrating the utility of the methodology developed. Additionally, hardware development and flight-testing of the single actuation autonomous descent vehicle are presented. The next phase of the research focuses on expanding the single actuation descent rate control methodology to incorporate a multi-actuation path-planning system. By modifying the parachute size throughout the descent, the controllability of the system greatly increases. The trajectory planning methodology developed provides a robust approach to accurately manipulate the landing location of the vehicle. The primary benefits of this system are the inherent robustness to release location errors and the ability to overcome vehicle uncertainties (mass, parachute size, etc.). A separate application of the path-planning methodology is also presented. An in-flight path-prediction system was developed for use in high-altitude ballooning by utilizing the path-planning methodology developed for descent vehicles. The developed onboard system improves landing location predictions in-flight using collected flight information during the ascent and descent. Simulation and real-world flight tests (using the developed low-cost hardware) demonstrate the significance of the improvements achievable when flying the developed system.

  1. Prophylactic neck irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rabuzzi, D.D.; Chung, C.T.; Sagerman, R.H.

    1980-08-01

    Treatment of subclinical cervical metastases from advanced squamous carcinomas of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, oral cavity, hypopharynx, and larynx remains contentious. Watchful waiting, elective neck surgery, and more recently, neck irradiation all have their advocates. The possibility of sterilization of the neck showing no clinical signs of metastasis has been especially appealing in concept. With this in mind, and by use of an external high-dose megavoltage technique, radiation therapy was used in 152 patients with clinically negative necks at the Upstate Medical Center from 1968 to 1977. Lymph node failures were extremely low (4%) when wide-field radiation ports were used and the primary lesion controlled.

  2. Immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fuge, Oliver; Vasdev, Nikhil; Allchorne, Paula; Green, James SA

    2015-01-01

    It is nearly 40 years since Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) was first used as an immunotherapy to treat superficial bladder cancer. Despite its limitations, to date it has not been surpassed by any other treatment. As a better understanding of its mechanism of action and the clinical response to it have evolved, some of the questions around optimal dosing and treatment protocols have been answered. However, its potential for toxicity and failure to produce the desired clinical effect in a significant cohort of patients presents an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. This review summarizes the evidence behind the established mechanism of action of BCG in bladder cancer, highlighting the extensive array of immune molecules that have been implicated in its action. The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain. The problems of toxicity and non-responders to BCG have led to development of new techniques aimed at addressing these pitfalls. The progress made in the laboratory has led to the identification of novel targets for the development of new immunotherapies. This includes the potential augmentation of BCG with various immune factors through to techniques avoiding the use of BCG altogether; for example, using interferon-activated mononuclear cells, BCG cell wall, or BCG cell wall skeleton. The potential role of gene, virus, or photodynamic therapy as an alternative to BCG is also reviewed. Recent interest in the immune check point system has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies against proteins involved in this pathway. Early findings suggest benefit in metastatic disease, although the role in superficial bladder cancer remains unclear. PMID:26000263

  3. Bladder autoaugmentation: early clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, P C; Snow, B W

    1989-08-01

    A surgical technique is described in which detrusor muscle over the entire dome of the bladder is excised while leaving the bladder epithelium intact. A large epithelial bulge is created, which functions to augment the storage properties of the bladder without using bowel, and it is referred to as "autoaugmentation". Seven patients have undergone autoaugmentation of whom 5 have excellent clinical results while 1 has modest improvement. The remaining patient was a technical failure. Postoperative urodynamics in 5 patients demonstrated improved bladder capacity in 3 and markedly improved bladder storage pressures in 4 compared to preoperative studies. The technical aspects of the procedure and patient management are discussed. Autoaugmentation offers potential advantages over enterocystoplasty, is simple to perform, does not preclude future enterocystoplasty if needed and may be a reasonable alternative to conventional augmentation in selected patients. PMID:2746767

  4. Medical management of overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ubee, Sarvpreet S.; Manikandan, Ramaswamy; Singh, Gurpreet

    2010-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB), as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat. PMID:20877608

  5. Inguinal Herniation of the Urinary Bladder Presenting as Recurrent Urinary Retention

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Amit; Roy-Shapira, Aviel; Shelef, Ilan; Shaked, Gadi; Koyfman, Leonid; Borer, Abraham; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal is an uncommon finding, observed in 0.5–4% of inguinal hernias (Curry (2000)). It is usually associated with other conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressure such as bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy. Consequently, in men, it is usually associated with some degree of urinary retention. We present a 42-year-old man in whom herniation of the urinary bladder was the cause of urinary retention, and not vice versa. The patient was on tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNFA) (Etanercept) for severe Ankylosing spondylitis. Initially, the urinary retention was thought to be a side effect of the medication, but after the drug was discontinued, urinary retention persisted. CT and MRI demonstrated huge herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal. Immediately after the hernia was repaired, bladder function was restored. TNF treatment was restarted, and no further urinary symptoms were observed in the next two years of follow-up. In this case, the primary illness and its treatment were distracting barriers to early diagnosis and treatment. In younger patients with a large hernia who develop unexpected urinary retention, herniation of the urinary bladder should be highly considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26075132

  6. Inguinal Herniation of the Urinary Bladder Presenting as Recurrent Urinary Retention.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Amit; Roy-Shapira, Aviel; Shelef, Ilan; Shaked, Gadi; Brotfain, Evgeni; Koyfman, Leonid; Borer, Abraham; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal is an uncommon finding, observed in 0.5-4% of inguinal hernias (Curry (2000)). It is usually associated with other conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressure such as bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy. Consequently, in men, it is usually associated with some degree of urinary retention. We present a 42-year-old man in whom herniation of the urinary bladder was the cause of urinary retention, and not vice versa. The patient was on tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNFA) (Etanercept) for severe Ankylosing spondylitis. Initially, the urinary retention was thought to be a side effect of the medication, but after the drug was discontinued, urinary retention persisted. CT and MRI demonstrated huge herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal. Immediately after the hernia was repaired, bladder function was restored. TNF treatment was restarted, and no further urinary symptoms were observed in the next two years of follow-up. In this case, the primary illness and its treatment were distracting barriers to early diagnosis and treatment. In younger patients with a large hernia who develop unexpected urinary retention, herniation of the urinary bladder should be highly considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26075132

  7. Bladder Injury During Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tarney, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean section is the most common surgery performed in the United States with over 30% of deliveries occurring via this route. This number is likely to increase given decreasing rates of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) and primary cesarean delivery on maternal request, which carries the inherent risk for intraoperative complications. Urologic injury is the most common injury at the time of either obstetric or gynecologic surgery, with the bladder being the most frequent organ damaged. Risk factors for bladder injury during cesarean section include previous cesarean delivery, adhesions, emergent cesarean delivery, and cesarean section performed at the time of the second stage of labor. Fortunately, most bladder injuries are recognized at the time of surgery, which is important, as quick recognition and repair are associated with a significant reduction in patient mortality. Although cesarean delivery is a cornerstone of obstetrics, there is a paucity of data in the literature either supporting or refuting specific techniques that are performed today. There is evidence to support double-layer closure of the hysterotomy, the routine use of adhesive barriers, and performing a Pfannenstiel skin incision versus a vertical midline subumbilical incision to decrease the risk for bladder injury during cesarean section. There is also no evidence that supports the creation of a bladder flap, although routinely performed during cesarean section, as a method to reduce the risk of bladder injury. Finally, more research is needed to determine if indwelling catheterization, exteriorization of the uterus, and methods to extend hysterotomy incision lead to bladder injury. PMID:24876830

  8. Optimal spline regression utilizing steepest descent 

    E-print Network

    Flora, Eric Shirley

    1975-01-01

    fit so that the L2 error as a function of the knots is minimized. The method includes a density method to obtain an original guess for the knot placement. This will then be improved upon by applying steepest descent to the L2 error as a function... special thanks goes to Hew L. Packard for the excellent graphics. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION Page II. NORMALIZED B-SPLINES-PROPERTIES AND CALCULATIONS. . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . , , . . . . , . . . 3 2. Divided Differences 3...

  9. Gradient Descent and Radial Basis Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mercedes Fernández-redondo; Joaquín Torres-sospedra; Carlos Hernández-espinosa

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper, we present experiments comparing different training algorithms for Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural networks.\\u000a In particular we compare the classical training which consists of an unsupervised training of centers followed by a supervised\\u000a training of the weights at the output, with the full supervised training by gradient descent proposed recently in same papers.\\u000a We conclude that a

  10. Simulating Descent and Landing of a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Jain, Abhinandan; Martin, Bryan; Lim, Christopher; Henriquez, David; McMahon, Elihu; Sohl, Garrett; Banerjee, Pranab; Steele, Robert; Bentley, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    The Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent, and Surface landing (DSENDS) software performs high-fidelity simulation of the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of a spacecraft into the atmosphere and onto the surface of a planet or a smaller body. DSENDS is an extension of the DShell and DARTS programs, which afford capabilities for mathematical modeling of the dynamics of a spacecraft as a whole and of its instruments, actuators, and other subsystems. DSENDS enables the modeling (including real-time simulation) of flight-train elements and all spacecraft responses during various phases of EDL. DSENDS provides high-fidelity models of the aerodynamics of entry bodies and parachutes plus supporting models of atmospheres. Terrain and real-time responses of terrain-imaging radar and lidar instruments can also be modeled. The program includes modules for simulation of guidance, navigation, hypersonic steering, and powered descent. Automated state-machine-driven model switching is used to represent spacecraft separations and reconfigurations. Models for computing landing contact and impact forces are expected to be added. DSENDS can be used as a stand-alone program or incorporated into a larger program that simulates operations in real time.

  11. Mars Exploration Entry, Descent and Landing Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert D.; Manning, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The United States has successfully landed five robotic systems on the surface of Mars. These systems all had landed mass below 0.6 metric tons (t), had landed footprints on the order of hundreds of km and landed at sites below -1.4 km MOLA elevation due the need to perform entry, descent and landing operations in an environment with sufficient atmospheric density. At present, robotic exploration systems engineers are struggling with the challenges of increasing landed mass capability to 0.8 t while improving landed accuracy to tens of km and landing at a site as high as +2 km MOLA elevation for the Mars Science Laboratory project. Meanwhile, current plans for human exploration of Mars call for the landing of 40-80 t surface elements at scientifically interesting locations within close proximity (tens of m) of pre-positioned robotic assets. This paper summarizes past successful entry, descent and landing systems and approaches being developed by the robotic Mars exploration program to increased landed performance (mass, accuracy and surface elevation). In addition, the entry, descent and landing sequence for a human exploration system will be reviewed, highlighting the technology and systems advances required.

  12. The overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Foon, Richard; Drake, Marcus J.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary urgency and the associated symptoms which comprise overactive bladder are prevalent amongst the general population and adversely affect quality of life. Disease management consists of a sequential series of options starting with behavioural and lifestyle techniques, pharmacological management (antimuscarinics) and, in severe cases, surgical treatment (urinary diversion, neuromodulation, augmentation cystoplasty and detrusor myectomy). There is increasing recognition of pathophysiological mechanisms in the urothelium, interstitial cells and afferent neurons allowing the importance of peripheral integrative interaction to be identified. The hierarchy of the central nervous system control adds additional complexity to understanding the oflower urinary tract function. Some newer methods of treatment include Botulinum toxin A intramural injections, oral beta-3 adrenergic agonists and rho-kinase inhibitors. The lack of a disease generating hypothesis, the lack of animal models for disease and the subjective nature of the central symptom (urgency) still pose considerable theoretical and scientific hurdles that need to be overcome in the treatment of this condition. PMID:21789091

  13. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  14. Neck dissections: radical to conservative

    PubMed Central

    Harish, K

    2005-01-01

    Background Neck dissection is an important surgical procedure for the management of metastatic nodal disease in the neck. The gold standard of neck nodal management has been the radical neck dissection. Any modification in the neck dissection is always compared with this standard. Over the last few decades, in order to alleviate the morbidity of radical neck dissection, several modifications and conservative procedures have been advocated. These procedures retain certain lymphatic or non-lymphatic structures and have been shown not to compromise oncological safety. Methods A literature search of the Medline was carried out for all articles on neck dissections. The articles were systematically reviewed to analyze and trace the evolution of neck dissection. These were then categorized to address the nomenclature, management of node positive and node negative neck including those who had received chemoradiation. Results The present article discusses the neck nodal nomenclature, the radical neck dissection, its modifications and migration to more conservative procedures and possible advances in the near future. Conclusion Radical neck dissection is now replaced with modified radical neck dissections in most situations. Attempts are being made to replace modified radical neck dissections with selective neck dissections for early node positivity. Sentinel node biopsy is being studied to address the issue of node negative neck. More conservative surgeries are likely to replace the 'radical' surgeries of bygone era. This process is facilitated by earlier detection of the disease and better understanding of cancer biology. PMID:15836786

  15. Current management of bladder exstrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Mourtzinos; Joseph G. Borer

    2004-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy is a complex anomaly involving the urinary, genital, and intestinal tracts and the musculoskeletal system.\\u000a The diagnosis is made typically at the newborn examination or on fetal ultrasonography that is performed by an experienced\\u000a observer. Management of bladder exstrophy presents several challenges, beginning with initial repair using the more conventional\\u000a staged approach or the recently re-popularized complete primary

  16. Pharmacological Therapy for Overactive Bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mallory Reeves; Eric S. Rovner; Alan J. Wein

    \\u000a Multiple classes of drugs, drug therapies, and other pharmacological agents are potentially useful to decrease bladder contractility\\u000a or decrease sensation and thereby treat overactive bladder (OAB) (see Table 1), but few have been utilized clinically (1). Antimuscarinic agents are the only oral class of drugs that have demonstrated proof of concept in managing this disorder\\u000a and remain the most commonly

  17. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Sillén, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB) and the dysfunctional voiding (DV), have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome), most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES) are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB), with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed. PMID:19009037

  18. Multidisciplinary Treatment of the Neck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Remco de Bree; Johannes A. Langendijk; C. René Leemans

    \\u000a Because the degree of lymph nodes metastases is the most important prognostic factor and recurrence in the neck is generally\\u000a incurable, management of the neck has become one of the most actively debated topics in the field of head and neck oncology.\\u000a Treatment of the neck, i.e., surgical (neck dissection with or without postoperative (chemo)radiotherapy) or nonsurgical (irradiation\\u000a with or

  19. Talar neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Berlet, G C; Lee, T H; Massa, E G

    2001-01-01

    Clinical management of talar neck fractures is complex and fraught with complications. As Gaius Julius Caesar stated: "The die is cast"; often the outcome of a talar neck fracture is determined at the time of injury. The authors believe, however, that better results can be achieved by following some simple guidelines. The authors advocate prompt and precise anatomic surgical reduction, preferring the medial approach with secondary anterolateral approach. Preservation of blood supply can be achieved by a thorough understanding of vascular pathways and efforts to stay within appropriate surgical intervals. The authors advocate bone grafting of medial neck comminution (if present) to prevent varus malalignment and rigid internal fixation to allow for joint mobilization postoperatively. These guidelines may seem simple, but when dealing with the complexity of talar neck fractures, the foot and ankle surgeon needs to focus and rely on easily grasped concepts to reduce poor outcomes. PMID:11465133

  20. APOLLO 11: Lunar Module Separates for descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Separation of the Lunar module for descent to the Lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 11:'The eagle Has Landed'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLLO 11: First manned lunar landing and return to Earth with Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin. Landed in the Sea of Tranquilityon July 20, 1969; deployed TV camera and EASEP experiments, performed lunar surface EVA, returned lunar soil samples. Mission Duration 195 hrs 18 min 35sec

  1. A steepest descents method for reentry optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrus, J. F.; Suchomel, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A steepest descents optimization program is applied to the problem of a lifting vehicle entering the earth's atmosphere. The program employs penalty functions representing terminal conditions and inflight inequality constraints. During each iteration, it reduces a single performance measure which is the sum of the performance index and the penalty functions. Therefore, only one set of adjoint equations must be integrated per iteration. Values of weight factors, multiplying the penalty functions, are automatically adjusted before each iteration in order that the penalty functions will approach acceptable values. This method is shown to be a form of the classical Lagrange multiplier methods.

  2. System for Estimating Horizontal Velocity During Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Andrew; Cheng, Yang; Wilson, Reg; Goguen, Jay; Martin, Alejandro San; Leger, Chris; Matthies, Larry

    2007-01-01

    The descent image motion estimation system (DIMES) is a system of hardware and software, designed for original use in estimating the horizontal velocity of a spacecraft descending toward a landing on Mars. The estimated horizontal velocity is used in generating rocket-firing commands to reduce the horizontal velocity as part of an overall control scheme to minimize the landing impact. DIMES can also be used for estimating the horizontal velocity of a remotely controlled or autonomous aircraft for purposes of navigation and control.

  3. Regression Analysis of Top of Descent Location for Idle-thrust Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stell, Laurel; Bronsvoort, Jesper; McDonald, Greg

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, multiple regression analysis is used to model the top of descent (TOD) location of user-preferred descent trajectories computed by the flight management system (FMS) on over 1000 commercial flights into Melbourne, Australia. The independent variables cruise altitude, final altitude, cruise Mach, descent speed, wind, and engine type were also recorded or computed post-operations. Both first-order and second-order models are considered, where cross-validation, hypothesis testing, and additional analysis are used to compare models. This identifies the models that should give the smallest errors if used to predict TOD location for new data in the future. A model that is linear in TOD altitude, final altitude, descent speed, and wind gives an estimated standard deviation of 3.9 nmi for TOD location given the trajec- tory parameters, which means about 80% of predictions would have error less than 5 nmi in absolute value. This accuracy is better than demonstrated by other ground automation predictions using kinetic models. Furthermore, this approach would enable online learning of the model. Additional data or further knowl- edge of algorithms is necessary to conclude definitively that no second-order terms are appropriate. Possible applications of the linear model are described, including enabling arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the FMS even in congested airspace. In particular, a model for TOD location that is linear in the independent variables would enable decision support tool human-machine interfaces for which a kinetic approach would be computationally too slow.

  4. Renal transplantation in augmented bladders.

    PubMed

    Pereira, P López; Urrutia, M J Martínez; Lobato, R; Jaureguizar, E

    2014-08-01

    Not many years ago, children with congenital abnormalities of the lower urinary tract or with bladder dysfunction were denied renal transplantation because they were considered very high-risk recipients. However, in the past few decades, we learned that in children with poorly compliant, low-capacity bladders, augmentation cystoplasty (AC) can create a compliant, low-pressure reservoir that helps preserve the kidney graft. Although the incidence of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) may be greater in pediatric transplant recipients with an AC than in those without, UTI is related more to noncompliance with clean intermittent catheterization or vesicoureteral reflux to the native kidney or graft than to the AC itself, and usually does not lead to impairment of graft function. Today, children with a bladder reconstruction may undergo transplantation with the same outcome (graft survival and function) as those with normal bladders, although there is some possibility of malignant transformation in the intestinal segment used to augment the bladder in these patients. PMID:24916328

  5. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  6. Krylov Subspace Descent for Deep Learning

    E-print Network

    Vinyals, Oriol

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a second order optimization method to learn models where both the dimensionality of the parameter space and the number of training samples is high. In our method, we construct on each iteration a Krylov subspace formed by the gradient and an approximation to the Hessian matrix, and then use a subset of the training data samples to optimize over this subspace. As with the Hessian Free (HF) method of [7], the Hessian matrix is never explicitly constructed, and is computed using a subset of data. In practice, as in HF, we typically use a positive definite substitute for the Hessian matrix such as the Gauss-Newton matrix. We investigate the effectiveness of our proposed method on deep neural networks, and compare its performance to widely used methods such as stochastic gradient descent, conjugate gradient descent and L-BFGS, and also to HF. Our method leads to faster convergence than either L-BFGS or HF, and generally performs better than either of them in cross-validation accuracy. It ...

  7. The importance of bladder wall thickness in the assessment of overactive bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison H. Blatt; Lewis Chan

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of bladder wall thickness using ultrasound has been postulated to contribute diagnostic information in patients\\u000a with voiding dysfunction. In particular, several studies have focused on this tool’s role in patients with overactive bladder\\u000a and detrusor overactivity. Given the evidence that increasing bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor overactivity cause detrusor\\u000a hypertrophy, bladder wall thickness and its derivative, ultrasound-estimated bladder

  8. Bladder sensory desensitization decreases urinary urgency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Silva; João Silva; Helder Castro; Frederico Reis; Paulo Dinis; António Avelino; Francisco Cruz

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bladder desensitization has been investigated as an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity. Most open and controlled clinical trials conducted with intravesical RTX showed that desensitization delays the appearance of involuntary detrusor contractions during bladder filling and decreases the number of episodes of urgency incontinence. Urgency is being recognised as the fundamental symptom of overactive bladder (OAB), a symptomatic

  9. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Chen, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently places the Curiosity rove on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview to the MSL entry, descent and landing system design and preliminary flight performance results.

  10. Coefficient of Kinetic Friction of Snow Skis during Turning Descents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahashi, Toshio; Ichino, Shoji

    1998-02-01

    On a snow plane, descents were performed by snow plows, stem turns, parallel turns and wedelns. The descents were photographed in sequence and these were used to draw the loci of the skis. Coefficients of kinetic friction between the skis and the snow during the turns were obtained from the loci; their values were between 0.01 and 0.3.

  11. Bladder outlet obstruction in women

    PubMed Central

    Yande, Shirish; Joshi, Maya

    2011-01-01

    Bladder outlet obstruction in females remains a poorly understood condition and is much rarer as compared to males. More difficult is the objective diagnosis of this condition. There is no general agreement on the Urodynamic parameters to define the condition with certainty. A number of conditions are involved particularly in urinary retention in females are not completely understood. Besides, external sphincter dysfunction and post surgical retentions add another group of conditions which are distinct from retentions seen in the males. This article takes a review of various aetiological factors of Bladder outlet obstruction in women. An attempt is made to standardise the Urodynamic parameters for use in females, based on our data and experimentation on the models of the bladder and urethra. This article also takes a review of uncommon conditions such as Fowler's syndrome which often complicate evaluation of this condition. PMID:21897733

  12. Urinary markers for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Zachary L.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer has the fifth highest incidence of all malignancies in the United States, with a propensity to recur, requiring lifelong surveillance after diagnosis. Urinary markers of disease have been of extreme interest in this field in an effort to simplify surveillance schedules and improve early detection of tumors. Many markers have been described, but most remain investigational. However, some markers have undergone clinical trials and are approved for clinical use. In this review, urinary markers and their application for screening and surveillance of bladder cancer are discussed. PMID:23864929

  13. Vertical neck lifting.

    PubMed

    Jacono, Andrew A; Talei, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    The authors' vertical neck lifting procedure is an extended deep plane facelift, which elevates the skin and SMAS-platysma complex as a composite unit. The goal is to redrape cervicomental laxity vertically onto the face rather than laterally and postauricularly. The authors consider this an extended technique because it lengthens the deep plane flap from the angle of the mandible into the neck to release the cervical retaining ligaments that limit platysmal redraping. This technique does not routinely use midline platysmal surgery because it counteracts the extent of vertical redraping. A majority of aging face patients are good candidates for this procedure in isolation, but indications for combining vertical neck lifting with submental surgery are elucidated. PMID:24745389

  14. Head and Neck Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Shashanka, R.; Smitha, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma appears to be increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world over the past 30–40 years and continues to increase in the United States, Canada, Australia, Asia, and Europe. The behavior of head and neck melanoma is aggressive, and it has an overall poorer prognosis than that of other skin sites. The authors review the published literature and text books, intending to give an overall picture of malignant melanomas of the head and neck and a special emphasis on treatment considerations with controversies in treatment including biopsy, radiation therapy, sentinel node biopsy, and nodal dissection. PMID:22570796

  15. Chenopod salt bladders deter insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    LoPresti, E F

    2014-03-01

    Trichomes on leaves and stems of certain chenopods (Chenopodiaceae) are modified with a greatly enlarged apical cell (a salt bladder), containing a huge central vacuole. These structures may aid in the extreme salt tolerance of many species by concentrating salts in the vacuole. Bladders eventually burst, covering the leaf in residue of bladder membranes and solid precipitates. The presence of this system in non-halophytic species suggests additional functions. I tested the novel hypothesis that these bladders have a defensive function against insect herbivores using choice, no choice, and field tests. Generalist insect herbivores preferred to feed on leaves without salt bladders in choice tests. In no choice tests, herbivores consumed less leaf matter with bladders. In a field test, leaves from which I had removed bladders suffered greater herbivory than adjacent leaves with bladders. Solutions containing bladders added to otherwise preferred leaves deterred herbivores, suggesting a water-soluble chemical component to the defense. This bladder system has a defensive function in at least four genera of chenopods. Salt bladders may be a structural defense, like spines or domatia, but also have a chemical defense component. PMID:24241642

  16. Distributed Control by Lagrangian Steepest Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Bieniawski, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Often adaptive, distributed control can be viewed as an iterated game between independent players. The coupling between the players mixed strategies, arising as the system evolves from one instant to the next, is determined by the system designer. Information theory tells us that the most likely joint strategy of the players, given a value of the expectation of the overall control objective function, is the minimizer of a function o the joint strategy. So the goal of the system designer is to speed evolution of the joint strategy to that Lagrangian mhimbhgpoint,lowerthe expectated value of the control objective function, and repeat Here we elaborate the theory of algorithms that do this using local descent procedures, and that thereby achieve efficient, adaptive, distributed control.

  17. Error Analysis of Stochastic Gradient Descent Ranking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

    2012-12-31

    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error. PMID:23292808

  18. Error analysis of stochastic gradient descent ranking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

    2013-06-01

    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error. PMID:24083315

  19. Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.

  20. Bladder cancer: new TUR techniques.

    PubMed

    Wilby, Daniel; Thomas, Kay; Ray, Eleanor; Chappell, Barnaby; O'Brien, Timothy

    2009-06-01

    Transurethral resection of bladder tumours (TURBT) using a wire loop remains the gold-standard treatment for bladder tumours, but it is associated with unacceptably high early recurrence rates after first resection. Improvements to standard resection techniques and a range of optical and technological advances offer exciting possibilities for improving outcomes. Early second resection has been shown to reduce recurrence rates, and increase response to intravesical chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. It should be considered in most high-risk non-muscle invasive cancers (T1; G3; multifocal) being managed by bladder conservation. Newer energy sources, such as laser, may facilitate day case management of bladder tumours using local anaesthesia in select groups of patients. The novel technique of photodynamic diagnosis improves tumour detection, and quality of resection, and is likely to become the standard for initial tumour management. The traditional 'incise and scatter' resection technique goes against all oncological surgical principles. En-bloc resection of tumours would be far preferable and demands further development and evaluation. The technique of TURBT needs to evolve to allow first-time clearance of disease and low recurrence rates. PMID:19259684

  1. Ultrasonic lithotripsy of bladder stones.

    PubMed

    Cetin, S; Ozgür, S; Yazicio?lu, A; Unsal, K; Ilker, Y

    1988-01-01

    In the second half of 1985, 15 patients with 25 bladder stones were treated with Lutzeyer's Ultrasonic Lithotriptor. Of the patients 13 underwent additional operations, mostly transurethral resection of the prostate. The average duration of lithotripsy was 30.5 minutes. Some difficulties were experienced especially when drilling hard stones and as a complication late urethral bleeding occurred in one patient. PMID:3170106

  2. Novel biomarkers for overactive bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iram Afshan; Alexandros Derpapas; Gopalan Vijaya; Vik Khullar; Rufus Cartwright

    2011-01-01

    Biomarkers constitute any objectively measurable indicator of a biological process. The classic biomarker used in the diagnosis of overactive bladder (OAB) has been detrusor overactivity, which is assessed urodynamically. In the search for a reliable, noninvasive alternative to urodynamics, interest has focused on genetic, imaging, and urinary factors. Along with other cytokines detectable in urine, prostaglandin E2 and nerve growth

  3. Bladder injury during transobturator sling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Minaglia; BegÜm Özel; Carl Klutke; Charles Ballard; John Klutke

    2004-01-01

    The new minimally invasive transobturator sling for surgical treatment of female genuine stress urinary incontinence is designed to reproduce the natural suspension of the urethral fascia while eliminating the need for retropubic needle passage. We report 3 cases of bladder perforation during the transobturator sling procedure. All injuries were identified intraoperatively by cystoscopy, and successful reinsertion of the mesh was

  4. Planetary entry, descent, and landing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichkhadze, K.; Vorontsov, V.; Polyakov, A.; Ivankov, A.; Taalas, P.; Pellinen, R.; Harri, A.-M.; Linkin, V.

    2003-04-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is intended for landing on the Martian surface in order to monitor the atmosphere at landing point for one Martian year. MMLs shall become the basic elements of a global network of meteorological mini-landers, observing the dynamics of changes of the atmospheric parameters on the Red Planet. The MML main scientific tasks are as follows: (1) Study of vertical structure of the Martian atmosphere throughout the MML descent; (2) On-surface meteorological observations for one Martian year. One of the essential factors influencing the lander's design is its entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequence. During Phase A of the MML development, five different options for the lander's design were carefully analyzed. All of these options ensure the accomplishment of the above-mentioned scientific tasks with high effectiveness. CONCEPT A (conventional approach): Two lander options (with a parachute system + airbag and an inflatable airbrake + airbag) were analyzed. They are similar in terms of fulfilling braking phases and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. CONCEPT B (innovative approach): Three lander options were analyzed. The distinguishing feature is the presence of inflatable braking units (IBU) in their configurations. SELECTED OPTION (innovative approach): Incorporating a unique design approach and modern technologies, the selected option of the lander represents a combination of the options analyzed in the framework of Concept B study. Currently, the selected lander option undergoes systems testing (Phase D1). Several MMLs can be delivered to Mars in frameworks of various missions as primary or piggybacking payload: (1) USA-led "Mars Scout" (2007); (2) France-led "NetLander" (2007/2009); (3) Russia-led "Mars-Deimos-Phobos sample return" (2007); (4) Independent mission (currently under preliminary study); etc.

  5. Gossypiboma of the Neck Mimicking an Isolated Neck Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu Jin; Lim, Jae-Yol; Choi, Jeong-Seok

    2013-01-01

    A gossypiboma (also called textiloma or retained surgical sponge) of the neck is rarely reported compared to intraabdominal or intrathoracic gossypibomas and also can be misdiagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes. A patient was referred to our clinic for a supraclavicular neck mass 6 months after thyroidectomy and neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma in another hospital. It was initially considered an isolated neck recurrence, but it was finally diagnosed as gossypiboma by a pathological examination of the surgically-excised specimen. Characteristic findings of computed tomography or positron emission tomography/computed tomography might be helpful to differentiate the gossypiboma from malignant neck mass or other inflammatory conditions. It is essential for clinicians to be aware of this disease entity in differential diagnosis of neck recurrence because a gossypiboma in the neck can be misinterpreted as a malignancy to induce unwarranted radical surgery. PMID:24353871

  6. Gossypiboma of the neck mimicking an isolated neck recurrence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu Jin; Lim, Jae-Yol; Choi, Jeong-Seok; Kim, Young-Mo

    2013-12-01

    A gossypiboma (also called textiloma or retained surgical sponge) of the neck is rarely reported compared to intraabdominal or intrathoracic gossypibomas and also can be misdiagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes. A patient was referred to our clinic for a supraclavicular neck mass 6 months after thyroidectomy and neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma in another hospital. It was initially considered an isolated neck recurrence, but it was finally diagnosed as gossypiboma by a pathological examination of the surgically-excised specimen. Characteristic findings of computed tomography or positron emission tomography/computed tomography might be helpful to differentiate the gossypiboma from malignant neck mass or other inflammatory conditions. It is essential for clinicians to be aware of this disease entity in differential diagnosis of neck recurrence because a gossypiboma in the neck can be misinterpreted as a malignancy to induce unwarranted radical surgery. PMID:24353871

  7. Cone Beam CT Imaging Analysis of Interfractional Variations in Bladder Volume and Position During Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Yee; Matthew Parliament; Satyapal Rathee; Sunita Ghosh; Lawrence Ko; Brad Murray

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify daily bladder size and position variations during bladder cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten bladder cancer patients underwent daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging of the bladder during radiotherapy. Bladder and planning target volumes (bladder\\/PTV) from CBCT and planning CT scans were compared with respect to bladder center-of-mass shifts in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z

  8. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-30

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

  9. COUNTING DESCENTS, RISES, AND LEVELS, WITH PRESCRIBED FIRST ELEMENT, IN WORDS

    E-print Network

    Kitaev, Sergey

    COUNTING DESCENTS, RISES, AND LEVELS, WITH PRESCRIBED FIRST ELEMENT, IN WORDS Sergey Kitaev1 the distribution of descents, levels, and rises according to whether the first letter of the descent, rise 0654060 1 #12;2 COUNTING DESCENTS, RISES, AND LEVELS, WITH PRESCRIBED FIRST ELEMENT, IN WORDS Subsequently

  10. A multi-stage genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies multiple susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Nathaniel; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Malats, Nuria; Wu, Xifeng; Figueroa, Jonine; Real, Francisco X; Van Den Berg, David; Matullo, Giuseppe; Baris, Dalsu; Thun, Michael; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vineis, Paolo; De Vivo, Immaculata; Albanes, Demetrius; Purdue, Mark P; Rafnar, Thorunn; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Kiltie, Anne E; Cussenot, Olivier; Golka, Klaus; Kumar, Rajiv; Taylor, Jack A; Mayordomo, Jose I; Jacobs, Kevin B; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Zhaoming; Fu, Yi-Ping; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Burdette, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Wheeler, William; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Schned, Alan; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Jacobs, Eric J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Cortessis, Victoria K; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Pike, Malcolm C; Stern, Mariana C; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hunter, David; McGrath, Monica; Dinney, Colin P; Czerniak, Bogdan; Chen, Meng; Yang, Hushan; Vermeulen, Sita H; Aben, Katja K; Witjes, J Alfred; Makkinje, Remco R; Sulem, Patrick; Besenbacher, Soren; Stefansson, Kari; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul; Panico, Salvatore; Navarro, Carmen; Allen, Naomi E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria Teresa; Canzian, Federico; Ljungberg, Borje; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Bishop, David T; Teo, Mark T W; Knowles, Margaret A; Guarrera, Simonetta; Polidoro, Silvia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Allione, Alessandra; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Dietrich, Holger; Fletcher, Tony; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugen; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Bolick, Sophia C E; Godfrey, Ashley; Xu, Zongli; Sanz-Velez, José I; García-Prats, María D; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Porru, Stefano; Benhamou, Simone; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Silverman, Debra T; Chanock, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 589,299 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,532 cases and 5,120 controls of European descent (5 studies) followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,381 cases and 48,275 controls (16 studies). In a combined analysis, we identified three new regions associated with bladder cancer on chromosomes 22q13.1, 19q12 and 2q37.1; rs1014971, (P=8×10?12) maps to a non-genic region of chromosome 22q13.1; rs8102137 (P=2×10?11) on 19q12 maps to CCNE1; and rs11892031 (P=1×10?7) maps to the UGT1A cluster on 2q37.1. We confirmed four previous GWAS associations on chromosomes 3q28, 4p16.3, 8q24.21 and 8q24.3, validated previous candidate associations for the GSTM1 deletion (P=4×10?11) and a tag SNP for NAT2 acetylation status (P=4×10?11), as well as demonstrated smoking interactions with both regions. Our findings on common variants associated with bladder cancer risk should provide new insights into mechanisms of carcinogenesis. PMID:20972438

  11. Fetal Bladder Wall Regeneration with a Collagen Biomatrix and Histological Evaluation of Bladder Exstrophy in a Fetal Sheep Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc A. J. Roelofs; Alex J. Eggink; Christina A. Hulsbergen-van de Kaa; Rene M. H. Wijnen; Toin H. van Kuppevelt; Herman T. B. van Moerkerk; A. Jane Crevels; Alex Hanssen; Fred K. Lotgering; Paul P. van den Berg; Wout F. J. Feitz

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate histological changes in an animal model for bladder exstrophy and fetal repair of the bladder defect with a molecular-defined dual-layer collagen biomatrix to induce fetal bladder wall regeneration. Methods: In 12 fetal lambs the abdominal wall and bladder were opened by a midline incision at 79 days’ gestation. In 6 of these lambs an uncorrected bladder exstrophy

  12. A Coordinate Descent Algorithm for Learning Compact Ranking Functions

    E-print Network

    Singer, Yoram

    A Coordinate Descent Algorithm for Learning Compact Ranking Functions Mark Stevens stevensm@google.com Samy Bengio bengio@google.com Yoram Singer singer@google.com Abstract Algorithms for learning to rank

  13. 14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...be determined for the most critical uncontrolled descent that can result from any single failure of the heater assembly, fuel cell system, gas value system, or maneuvering vent system, or from any single tear in the balloon envelope between...

  14. Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coopenbarger, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

  15. Randomized coordinate descent methods for big data optimization 

    E-print Network

    Takac, Martin

    2014-07-01

    This thesis consists of 5 chapters. We develop new serial (Chapter 2), parallel (Chapter 3), distributed (Chapter 4) and primal-dual (Chapter 5) stochastic (randomized) coordinate descent methods, analyze their complexity ...

  16. Ascent/descent ancillary data production user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brans, H. R.; Seacord, A. W., II; Ulmer, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Product, also called the A/D BET because it contains a Best Estimate of the Trajectory (BET), is a collection of trajectory, attitude, and atmospheric related parameters computed for the ascent and descent phases of each Shuttle Mission. These computations are executed shortly after the event in a post-flight environment. A collection of several routines including some stand-alone routines constitute what is called the Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Production Program. A User's Guide for that program is given. It is intended to provide the reader with all the information necessary to generate an Ascent or a Descent Ancillary Data Product. It includes descriptions of the input data and output data for each routine, and contains explicit instructions on how to run each routine. A description of the final output product is given.

  17. TRAJECTORIES OF DESCENT 1. Introduction. The intuitive notion ...

    E-print Network

    2012-12-21

    study slight relaxations of two influential notions of steepest descent curves — curves of maximal slope and .... motivated by the desire to make the basic ideas and the techniques as clear as possible ... Section 2 is a self-contained treatment

  18. The Effect of Bladder Outlet Obstruction Treatment on Ultrasound-Determined Bladder Wall Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Tubaro, Andrea; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Trucchi, Alberto; Palleschi, Giovanni; Miano, Lucio

    2005-01-01

    Detrusor hypertrophy associated with bladder outlet obstruction can be imaged on suprapubic ultrasound, and bladder mass can be quantified from the evaluation of bladder wall thickness and bladder volume. Bladder wall hypertrophy has been found to be correlated with detrusor function. Independent studies have shown that surgical treatment of benign prostatic obstruction results in a significant decrease of bladder mass. Preliminary data suggest the possibility that medical treatment with ?-adrenergic antagonists might also produce a reduction of bladder wall hypertrophy, although confirmation is still awaited. The development of dedicated automated ultrasound systems for the evaluation of bladder mass might result in the use of such parameters in clinical trials of treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia and ultimately in daily urologic practice. PMID:16986028

  19. Ultrasound and Biomarker Tests in Predicting Cancer Aggressiveness in Tissue Samples of Patients With Bladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-07

    Bladder Papillary Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage 0a Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage 0is Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer With Carcinoma In Situ; Stage I Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage II Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage III Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma

  20. An accelerated random coordinate descent algorithm for compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongfang; Zhang, Ningtao

    2011-10-01

    This paper introduces a new accelerated random coordinate descent algorithm for solving problems in the field of compressive sensing, and more generally, in the field of signal and image reconstruction from indirect or incomplete measurements. This algorithm is inspired by recent progress in convex optimization development of coordinate descent. Our method is very efficient for solving compressive sensing data recovery problems. Numerical experiments show the performance of our algorithm to solve high-dimensional optimization problems.

  1. Testicular descent: INSL3, testosterone, genes and the intrauterine milieu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina M. Main; Jorma Toppari; Niels E. Skakkebæk; Katrine Bay

    2011-01-01

    Complete testicular descent is a sign of, and a prerequisite for, normal testicular function in adult life. The process of testis descent is dependent on gubernacular growth and reorganization, which is regulated by the Leydig cell hormones insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and testosterone. Investigation of the role of INSL3 and its receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), has contributed substantially

  2. The Descent Set and Connectivity Set of a Permutation 1

    E-print Network

    )} = #(S) #{w # S n : S # D(w)} = n! #(S) . Proof. The result for D(w) is well­known, e.g., [6, Prop. 1The Descent Set and Connectivity Set of a Permutation 1 Richard P. Stanley 2 Department August 2005 Abstract The descent set D(w) of a permutation w of 1, 2, . . . , n is a standard and well

  3. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Patra, Phani B; Patra, Sayani

    2015-05-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  4. [Diagnosis of overactive bladder (OAB)].

    PubMed

    Kurosch, M; Mager, R; Gust, K; Brandt, M; Borgmann, H; Haferkamp, A

    2015-03-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom complex which is present in approximately 17% of the European population. It is observed in the presence or absence of incontinence (wet or dry) and is associated with a high degree of psychological stress as well as high costs for the healthcare system. Myogenic, urothelial and neurogenic factors lead to frequently unknown changes of muscular, neural and connective tissue. The diagnosis of OAB is empirical and can be used as a basis for initial treatment, while lower urinary tract symptoms have to be evaluated up front. As there are no established biomarkers for OAB, a definitive diagnosis is problematic. It is important to carry out routine diagnostics including a detailed medical history and if needed urodynamic evaluation of the patient. Therapy of OAB will be the topic of a further continuing medical education (CME) article entitled "Therapy of overactive bladder (OAB)". PMID:25716688

  5. Pharmacologic management of overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Sum; Hilas, Olga

    2007-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a prevalent and costly condition that can affect any age group. Typical symptoms include urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence and nocturia. OAB occurs as a result of abnormal contractions of the bladder detrusor muscle caused by the stimulation of certain muscarinic receptors. Therefore, antimuscarinic agents have long been considered the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for OAB. Currently, there are five such agents approved for the management of OAB in the United States: oxybutynin, tolterodine, trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin. This article summarizes the efficacy, contraindications, precautions, dosing and common side effects of these agents. All available clinical trials on trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin were reviewed to determine its place in therapy. PMID:18044184

  6. Bladder tumors: virtual MR cystoscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Suleyman; E. Yekeler; M. Dursun; U. O. Zorba; M. Tunc; A. Tunaci; B. Acunas

    2006-01-01

    Virtual cystoscopy is a promising new technique based on computer-simulated rendering of the inner surface of the urinary\\u000a bladder using volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data, thus enabling maneuvers that normally are not possible with\\u000a conventional cystoscopy. Due to several distinct advantages over conventional cystoscopy such as minimal invasiveness, evaluation\\u000a of the urethral orifice from a cranial point of view

  7. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Black; Gordon A. Brown; H. Barton Grossman; Colin P. Dinney

    2006-01-01

    The 30–45% failure rate after radical cystoprostatectomy mandates that we explore and optimize multimodal therapy to achieve better disease control in these patients. Cisplatin-based multi-agent combination chemotherapy has been used with success in metastatic disease and has therefore also been introduced in patients with high-risk but non-metastatic bladder cancer. There is now convincing evidence that chemotherapy given pre-operatively can improve

  8. Intravesical Treatments for Overactive Bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig B. Slotoroff; Dolores Shupp-Byrne; Patrick J. Shenot

    \\u000a Overactive bladder (OAB) is a recently defined symptom complex that includes urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence,\\u000a urinary frequency (voiding eight or more times in a 24-h period), and nocturia (awakening two or more times at night to void)\\u000a (1–3). The overall prevalence of OAB in Western Europe and the United States is 16–17% (4,5). The symptoms of OAB

  9. Management of refractory overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Giarenis, I; Cardozo, L

    2013-02-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a clinical syndrome describing the symptom complex of urgency, with or without urgency incontinence and is usually associated with frequency and nocturia. It is a common, under-diagnosed and therefore under-treated condition which can have a detrimental effect on physical functioning and psychological well-being. Initial treatment of OAB includes lifestyle advice, behavioural modifications, bladder retraining and pelvic floor muscle training, usually in combination with antimuscarinic agents. However, approximately 40% either do not achieve an acceptable level of therapeutic benefit or remain completely refractory to treatment. Our review will focus on the management of this challenging group of women with refractory OAB. For those women with persistent symptoms following conservative therapy, a thorough clinical assessment and appropriate investigations are required. Treatment of any underlying pathology should be considered. The introduction of bladder selective antimuscarinic agents, extended release formulations, alternative routes of administration or use of other drugs could be explored. Modalities such as intravesical Botulinum toxin, neuromodulation (peripheral or sacral) may be offered. Finally, when all other options have been explored and proven unsuccessful, inappropriate or not feasible, reconstructive surgery or catheter insertion (suprapubic or transurethral) can be considered as a last resort. PMID:23412019

  10. Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoelscher, Brian R.

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing simulation was created over the past two years to serve as the primary Crew Exploration Vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) design and analysis tool at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) simulation is a six degree-of-freedom tool with a unique design architecture which has a high level of flexibility. This paper describes the decision history and motivations that guided the creation of this simulation tool. The capabilities of the models within ANTARES are presented in detail. Special attention is given to features of the highly flexible GN&C architecture and the details of the implemented GN&C algorithms. ANTARES provides a foundation simulation for the Orion Project that has already been successfully used for requirements analysis, system definition analysis, and preliminary GN&C design analysis. ANTARES will find useful application in engineering analysis, mission operations, crew training, avionics-in-the-loop testing, etc. This paper focuses on the entry simulation aspect of ANTARES, which is part of a bigger simulation package supporting the entire mission profile of the Orion vehicle. The unique aspects of entry GN&C design are covered, including how the simulation is being used for Monte Carlo dispersion analysis and for support of linear stability analysis. Sample simulation output from ANTARES is presented in an appendix.

  11. Is Bladder Tumor Location Associated with Prostate Cancer Detection after Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Instillation?

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sungwoo; Kim, Seong-Cheol; Kwon, Taekmin; Jeong, In Gab; Kim, Choung-Soo; Ahn, Hanjong; Hong, Jun Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bladder tumor (BT) location on prostate cancer (PCa) detection in patients with elevated PSA levels after intravesical BCG instillation. Methods Between February 2004 and January 2013 prostate biopsies were performed in 59 non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients whose PSA level were elevated (?3 ng/ml) after a 6 week course of intravesical BCG (Oncotice, 12.5 mg in 50 ml normal saline). Differences in PCa detection according to the BT location [bladder neck and/or trigone (Group 1, n?=?22) vs. other locations (Group 2, n?=?37)] were evaluated. The Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to evaluate the association between categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results A total of 14 patients (23.7%) were diagnosed with PCa. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) PSA before intravesical BCG instillation and prostate biopsy were 1.36±1.04 ng/ml in Group 1 and 1.09±1.12 ng/ml in Group 2 (P?=?0.633), and 6.05±3.57 ng/ml in Group 1 and 5.13±3.88 ng/ml in Group 2 (P?=?0.378), respectively. Interestingly, whereas PCa was detected upon biopsy in only one patient in Group 1 (4.5%), 13 cases were detected in Group 2 (35.1%) (P?=?0.009). Conclusions PCa detection after intravesical BCG was highly associated with BT location. Prostate biopsy should therefore be considered when PSA level is elevated after BCG instillation and his BT is located far from the bladder neck. PMID:25072158

  12. Developmental biomechanics of neck musculature

    PubMed Central

    Lavallee, Amy V.; Ching, Randal P.; Nuckley, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Neck mechanics is central to head injury prevention since it is the musculoskeletal neck, which dictates the position and movement of the head. In the US, traumatic injury is the leading cause of death for children; however prevention is hampered by the lack of data concerning the mechanics of the immature head-and-neck. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify neck muscle strength and endurance across the maturation spectrum and correlate these with head-and-neck anthropometry. A factorial study was performed on 91 human subjects measuring head-and-neck anthropometry and neck strength and endurance in three bending directions (flexion, extension, and lateral) as a function of age (6–23 years). Using a custom device, neck maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force was measured in triplicate. Next, neck muscle endurance (sustained effort) was measured as the subjects’ ability to maintain 70% of peak force over 30 s. Linear regression of peak force and endurance as a function of age revealed each direction to significantly (p<0.0001) increase with age. The MVC force, averaged across all directions and normalized to the adult values, exhibits the following maturation curve: %MVC Force= ?0.0879(age)2+6.018(age)+8.120. Neck muscle strength, similar between young males and females, becomes disparate in adolescence and adulthood with males exhibiting greater strength. Bending direction differences were also found with extension strength being the greatest regardless of age and sex. Furthermore, neck circumference appears predictive of neck strength and endurance in children. Together, these relationships may facilitate improved design of injury prevention interventions. PMID:23127787

  13. Neck Influence on Fission Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Gherghescu, Radu A.; Poenaru, D. N. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), P O Box MG-6, RO 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2008-01-24

    The neck region generates a microscopic potential, derived in correlation with the necking region within the fission-like shape on the potential theory basis. The whole microscopic potential is of the two-center type, yielding the evolution of proton and neutron level schemes from one parent to two completely separated fragment nuclei. The shell corrections are calculated using the neck in single-particle levels. The total deformation energy is obtained from the macroscopic-microscopic method. As an application, dynamic calculation is performed for the fission of {sup 236}Pu, using the multidimensional minimization within the total space of deformation of two spheroids joined by a smoothed necking region.

  14. CKD and bladder problems in children.

    PubMed

    Penna, Frank J; Elder, Jack S

    2011-09-01

    Approximately 35% of children with CKD who require renal replacement therapy have a significant urological abnormality, including posterior urethral valves, a neuropathic bladder, prune belly syndrome, Hinman syndrome, or severe vesicoureteral reflux. In such children, abnormal bladder function can have a significant deleterious effect on the renal function. In children with bladder outlet obstruction, bladder compliance and capacity often are abnormal, and a sustained intravesical pressure of >40 cm H(2)O impedes drainage from the upper urinary tract. Consequently, in these conditions, regular evaluation with renal sonography, urodynamics, urine culture, and serum chemistry needs to be performed. Pediatric urological care needs to be coordinated with pediatric nephrologists. Many boys with posterior urethral valves have severe polyuria, resulting in chronic bladder overdistension, which is termed as valve bladder. In addition to behavioral modification during the day, such patients may benefit from overnight continuous bladder drainage, which has been shown to reduce hydronephrosis and stabilize or improve renal function in most cases. In children with a neuropathic bladder, detrusor-sphincter-dyssynergia is the most likely cause for upper tract deterioration due to secondary vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Pharmacologic bladder management and frequent intermittent catheterization are necessary. In some cases, augmentation cystoplasty is recommended; however, this procedure has many long-term risks, including UTI, metabolic acidosis, bladder calculi, spontaneous perforation, and malignancy. Nearly half of children with prune belly syndrome require renal replacement therapy. Hinman syndrome is a rare condition with severe detrusor-sphincter discoordination that results in urinary incontinence, encopresis, poor bladder emptying, and UTI, often resulting in renal impairment. Children undergoing evaluation for renal transplantation need a thorough evaluation of the lower urinary tract, mostly including a voiding cystourethrogram and urodynamic studies. PMID:21896378

  15. Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Print to PDF Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Approved by the Cancer. ... Emotions Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck ...

  16. Bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma: a difficult differential diagnosis with primary bladder adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bladder metastases from lung adenocarcinoma are extremely rare; in the seven previously reported cases, the finding of an intact epithelium overlying the bladder tumour was considered suggestive of a secondary lesion. We describe the first case of bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma whereby endoscopic appearance was strongly consistent with primary bladder cancer, thus complicating the differential diagnosis with primary bladder adenocarcinoma. Case report A 65-year-old woman with a 13-year history of clean intermittent catheterization was diagnosed with a right lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to mediastinal and right supraclavicular nodes, as well as to the left lung, and treated with six cycles of cisplatin/pemetrexed, followed by six cycles of pemetrexed only. The 18-month follow-up computed tomography revealed several solid lesions of the bladder wall and she was scheduled for transurethral resection of bladder tumours. Endoscopic appearance was strongly consistent with primary bladder cancer but a thorough pathologic evaluation allowed the diagnosis of bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. Conclusions Differentiating primary bladder adenocarcinoma from metastatic adenocarcinoma lesions can be difficult. An endoscopic appearance consistent with primary bladder cancer further complicates the differential diagnosis, which heavily relies on pathologic evaluation and specific immunohistochemical staining. PMID:24716732

  17. Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill' (QTVR)

    In late November 2005 while descending 'Husband Hill,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the most detailed panorama so far of the 'Inner Basin,' the rover's next target destination. Spirit acquired the 405 individual images that make up this 360-degree view of the surrounding terrain using five different filters on the panoramic camera. The rover took the images on Martian days, or sols, 672 to 677 (Nov. 23 to 28, 2005 -- the Thanksgiving holiday weekend).

    This image is an approximately true-color rendering using camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. Seams between individual frames have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

    'Home Plate,' a bright, semi-circular feature scientists hope to investigate, is harder to discern in this image than in earlier views taken from higher up the hill. Spirit acquired this more oblique view, known as the 'Seminole panorama,' from about halfway down the south flank of Husband Hill, 50 meters (164 feet) or so below the summit. Near the center of the panorama, on the horizon, are 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill,' named, like Husband Hill, in honor of the fallen astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. Husband Hill is visible behind the rover, on the right and left sides of the panorama. An arc of rover tracks made while avoiding obstacles and getting into position to examine rock outcrops can be traced over a long distance by zooming in to explore the panorama in greater detail.

    Spirit is now significantly farther downhill toward the center of this panorama, en route to Home Plate and other enigmatic soils and outcrop rocks in the quest to uncover the history of Gusev Crater and the 'Columbia Hills.'

  18. Femoral neck stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Konetsky, Michael; Miller, Joseph; Tripp, Courtney

    2013-04-01

    The patient was a 19-year-old woman who recently completed a military basic training program. She was evaluated by a physical therapist in a direct-access capacity for a chief complaint of anterior right hip pain that limited her ability to run. Due to the limited sensitivity of radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging of the right hip was obtained, which revealed a stress fracture of the right distal femoral neck.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2013;43(4):275. doi:10.2519/jospt.2013.0407. PMID:23542438

  19. Prenatally diagnosed patent urachus with bladder prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Futoshi Matsui; Fumi Matsumoto; Kenji Shimada

    2007-01-01

    We report 2 cases of patent urachus with bladder prolapse, which has a characteristic finding of “disappearance of cyst” antenatally. In the first case, a 34-year-old woman presented at 14 weeks gestation for evaluation of a cyst. Prenatal ultrasonography revealed a cystic mass at the base of the umbilical cord, communicating with the bladder. At 26 weeks gestation, the cyst

  20. The epidemiology of bladder and kidney cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghislaine Scélo; Paul Brennan

    2007-01-01

    Bladder and kidney cancer together account for about 5% of cancers worldwide, and represent the 9th and 14th most common cancers in terms of absolute numbers, respectively. Our knowledge of these two cancers, however, indicates that they have strikingly different etiology. A number of important occupational, lifestyle and genetic factors have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis, which have greatly increased

  1. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Yagnik, Vipul; Chadha, Amit; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Keyuri

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of bladder is an uncommon benign tumor of bladder, which is of unknown neoplastic potential, characterized by spindle cell proliferation with characteristic fibroinflammatory and pseudosarcomatous appearance. Essential criteria for the diagnosis of IMT are: spindle myoepithelial cell proliferation and lymphocytic infiltrate. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. PMID:20882160

  2. Epidemiology and genetic susceptibility to bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xifeng; Ros, Martine M; Gu, Jian; Kiemeney, Lambertus

    2008-11-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer varies considerably among countries; the highest incidence rates are in Western communities. The variation in occurrence can partly be explained by differences in registration and coding practices of pTa tumours. Factors that modify the occurrence of bladder cancer are smoking and exposure to many kinds of carcinogenic substances in the workplace. Evidence also exists for radiotherapy to the pelvis, infection with Schistosoma haematobium, and certain medications as risk factors for bladder cancer. Despite enormous efforts, other important environmental or lifestyle factors that clearly and consistently increase or decrease the risk of bladder cancer have not been identified. Bladder cancer in first-degree relatives doubles the risk of bladder cancer; this increased risk might be due to high-penetrance susceptibility genes in a small subset of families, but most of this risk is probably caused by common lower-penetrance DNA variants that influence risk through one or more different cancer pathways. In the next 2 years genome-wide association scans will probably yield important new information on such variants. This might also facilitate new studies on lifestyle factors restricted to groups of susceptible people. In the future it will also be necessary to pay more attention to potential risk factors for different types of bladder cancer, more specifically low- vs high-grade cancer. The ultimate goal is to build a risk-prediction model by integrating environmental and genetic factors that can project individualized probabilities of developing bladder cancer. PMID:19035883

  3. Photodynamic management of bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, A.; Stepp, H.; Beyer, W.; Pongratz, T.; Sroka, R.; Bader, M.; Kriegmair, M.; Zaak, D.; Waidelich, R.; Karl, A.; Hofstetter, A.; Stief, C.; Baumgartner, R.

    2009-06-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is among the most expensive oncological diseases. Any improvement in diagnosis or therapy carries a high potential for reducing costs. Fluorescence cystoscopy relies on a selective formation of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) or more general photoactive porphyrins (PAP) in malignant urothelium upon instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its hexyl-derivative h-ALA. Fluorescence cystoscopy equipment has been developed with the aim to compensate for the undesired distortion caused by the tissue optical properties by displaying the red fluorescence simultaneously with the backscattered blue light. Many clinical studies proved a high sensitivity in detecting flat carcinoma in situ and small papillary malignant tumours. As a result, recurrence rates were significantly decreased in most studies. The limitation lies in a low specificity, caused by false positive findings at inflamed bladder wall. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently being investigated as a promising tool to overcome this limitation. H-ALA-PDT (8 or 16 mM h-ALA in 50 ml instillation for 1-2 h, white light source, catheter applicator) has recently been investigated in a phase I study. 17 patients were applied 100 J/cm2 (3 patients received incrementing doses of 25 - 50 - 100 J/cm2) during approx. 1 hour irradiation time in 3 sessions, 6 weeks apart. PDT was performed without any technical complications. Complete photobleaching of the PpIX-fluorescence, as intended, could be achieved in 43 of 45 PDT-sessions receiving 100 J/cm2. The most prominent side effects were postoperative urgency and bladder pain, all symptoms being more severe after 16 mM h-ALA. Preliminary evaluation shows complete response assessed at 3 months after the third PDT-session (i.e. 6 months after first treatment) in 9 of 12 patients. 2 of these patients were free of recurrence until final follow-up at 84 weeks.

  4. Bladder cancer documentation of causes: multilingual questionnaire, 'bladder cancer doc'.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Abreu-Villaca, Yael; Anbari Attar, Rowshanak; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Aslam, Muhammad; Basaran, Nursen; Belik, Rouslana; Butryee, Chaniphun; Dalpiaz, Orietta; Dzhusupov, Keneshbek; Ecke, Thorsten H; Galambos, Henrieta; Galambos, Henrieta; Gerilovica, Helena; Gerullis, Holger; Gonzalez, Patricia Casares; Goossens, Maria E; Gorgishvili-Hermes, Lela; Heyns, Chris F; Hodzic, Jasmin; Ikoma, Fumihiko; Jichlinski, Patrice; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Martinova, Irina; Mittal, Rama Devi; Ravichandran, Beerappa; Romics, Imre; Roy, Bidyut; Rungkat-Zakaria, Fransiska; Rydzynski, Konrad; Scutaru, Cristian; Shen, Jianhua; Soufi, Maria; Toguzbaeva, Karlygash; Vu Duc, Trinh; Widera, Agata; Wishahi, Mohamed; Hengstler, Jan G

    2012-01-01

    There is a considerable discrepancy between the number of identified occupational-related bladder cancer cases and the estimated numbers particularly in emerging nations or less developed countries where suitable approaches are less or even not known. Thus, within a project of the World Health Organisation Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health, a questionnaire of the Dortmund group, applied in different studies, was translated into more than 30 languages (Afrikaans, Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, Czech, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Korean, Latvian, Malay, Persian (Farsi), Polish, Portuguese, Portuguese/Brazilian, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Spanish, Spanish/Mexican, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Urdu, Vietnamese). The bipartite questionnaire asks for relevant medical information in the physician's part and for the occupational history since leaving school in the patient's part. Furthermore, this questionnaire is asking for intensity and frequency of certain occupational and non-occupational risk factors. The literature regarding occupations like painter, hairdresser or miner and exposures like carcinogenic aromatic amines, azo dyes, or combustion products is highlighted. The questionnaire is available on www.ifado.de/BladderCancerDoc. PMID:22652680

  5. Urinary bladder lesions in bovine enzootic haematuria.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, T; Pinto, C; Peleteiro, M C

    2006-05-01

    In cattle, bracken fern chronic toxicity is characterized by the presence of multiple tumours in the bladder (bovine enzootic haematuria). From October 1999 to March 2003, 433 urinary bladders with macroscopical lesions were collected in the slaughterhouse of São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal), an endemic area where Pteridium aquilinum infestation in pastures is high. Bladder lesions were divided into three main categories (inflammatory lesions, non-neoplastic epithelial abnormalities and tumours) and described in detail. In some cases, neoplastic growth was confined to a single site, but in most cases multiple tumours developed within the same bladder. Epithelial tumours alone were present in 51.2% of the affected bladders, mesenchymal tumours alone in 17.4%, and both epithelial and mesenchymal tumours in the remaining 31.4%. The large number of tumours examined (870) revealed new categories not yet included in other veterinary classification systems, namely, inverted papilloma, papillary neoplasm of apparent low malignant potential, and haemangioendothelioma. PMID:16714029

  6. Head and Neck Mucosal Melanoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Mendenhall; Robert J. Amdur; Russell W. Hinerman; John W. Werning; Douglas B. Villaret; Nancy Price Mendenhall

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss the optimal treatment and outcomes for head and neck mucosal melanoma. Methods: Review the pertinent literature. Results: Head and neck mucosal melanoma is a rare entity com- prising less than 1% for all Western melanomas. It usually arises in the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and oral cavity. The optimal treatment is

  7. A Non-Invasive Bladder Sensory Test Supports a Role for Dysmenorrhea Increasing Bladder Noxious Mechanosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    TU, Frank F.; EPSTEIN, Aliza E.; POZOLO, Kristen E.; SEXTON, Debra L.; MELNYK, Alexandra I.; HELLMAN, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Catheterization to measure bladder sensitivity is aversive and hinders human participation in visceral sensory research. Therefore, we sought to characterize the reliability of sonographically-estimated female bladder sensory thresholds. To demonstrate this technique’s usefulness, we examined the effects of self-reported dysmenorrhea on bladder pain thresholds. Methods Bladder sensory threshold volumes were determined during provoked natural diuresis in 49 healthy women (mean age 24 ± 8) using three-dimensional ultrasound. Cystometric thresholds (Vfs – first sensation, Vfu – first urge, Vmt – maximum tolerance) were quantified and related to bladder urgency and pain. We estimated reliability (one-week retest and interrater). Self-reported menstrual pain was examined in relationship to bladder pain, urgency and volume thresholds. Results Average bladder sensory thresholds (mLs) were Vfs (160±100), Vfu (310±130), and Vmt (500±180). Interrater reliability ranged from 0.97–0.99. One-week retest reliability was Vmt = 0.76 (95% CI 0.64–0.88), Vfs = 0.62 (95% CI 0.44–0.80), and Vfu = 0.63, (95% CI 0.47–0.80). Bladder filling rate correlated with all thresholds (r = 0.53–0.64, p < 0.0001). Women with moderate to severe dysmenorrhea pain had increased bladder pain and urgency at Vfs and increased pain at Vfu (p’s < 0.05). In contrast, dysmenorrhea pain was unrelated to bladder capacity. Discussion Sonographic estimates of bladder sensory thresholds were reproducible and reliable. In these healthy volunteers, dysmenorrhea was associated with increased bladder pain and urgency during filling but unrelated to capacity. Plausibly, dysmenorrhea sufferers may exhibit enhanced visceral mechanosensitivity, increasing their risk to develop chronic bladder pain syndromes. PMID:23370073

  8. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18)(q21: 21). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment. PMID:24511310

  9. Mars Smart Lander Simulations for Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striepe, S. A.; Way, D. W.; Balaram, J.

    2002-01-01

    Two primary simulations have been developed and are being updated for the Mars Smart Lander Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). The high fidelity engineering end-to-end EDL simulation that is based on NASA Langley's Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) and the end-to-end real-time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation testbed, which is based on NASA JPL's (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing (DSENDS). This paper presents the status of these Mars Smart Lander EDL end-to-end simulations at this time. Various models, capabilities, as well as validation and verification for these simulations are discussed.

  10. Flight Data Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Elmain M.; Winterhalter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Daniel Winterhalter, NASA Engineering and Safety Center Chief Engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsor a 3-year effort to collect entry, descent, and landing material and to establish a NASA-wide archive to serve the material. The principle focus of this task was to identify entry, descent, and landing repository material that was at risk of being permanently lost due to damage, decay, and undocumented storage. To provide NASA-wide access to this material, a web-based digital archive was created. This document contains the outcome of the effort.

  11. A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities

    E-print Network

    Patriksson, Michael

    A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities Michael describes the problem and the choices of cost approximating mappings and merit functions. The taxonomy. Taxonomy, classification, nonlinear programs, variational inequalities, descent algo­ rithms, cost

  12. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Taweel, Waleed Al; Seyam, Raouf

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury.

  13. Neck Pain following Laminoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, Addisu; Park, Moon-Soo; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Song, Kwang Sup; Kim, Han Jo; Riew, K. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data. Objective?To compare preoperative and postoperative neck pain following laminoplasty using the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Methods?Seventy-two patients undergoing laminoplasty from 2006 to 2009 at a single institution were identified. Thirty-four patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up who completed preoperative, 6-week, and 1-year postoperative NDI questionnaires were enrolled. Demographic data and surgical data including estimated blood loss (EBL), length of surgery, number of laminoplasty levels, complications, and length of hospitalization were collected. Results?Mean age was 62 years (range: 34 to 88), mean follow-up was 17 months (range: 12 to 31), and there were 21 men and 13 women. Diagnoses were cervical spondylotic myelopathy (n?=?26), ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (n?=?6), and central cord syndrome (n?=?2). Mean EBL was 120 mL (range: 50 to 200), and mean surgical time was 152 minutes (range: 70 to 240). Average number of laminoplasty levels was 3 (range: 1 to 5). The open door technique was used, and 24/34 (71%) did not have laminoplasty at C3 and C7. No intraoperative complications were noted, and average hospital stay was 1.6 days (range: 1 to 7). Significant improvement in NDI total score was noted at 1?year (p?

  14. The vertebrate urinary bladder: osmoregulatory and other uses.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The bladder may serve more biological uses than simple storage. The importance of bladder functions can be inferred from its presence among vertebrates, its anatomy and histology. From an evolutionary perspective, bladders have evolved at least twice in the vertebrates. The variability of permeability of the urinary bladder to water and solutes among species is discussed. Finally, the urinary bladder may play an osmoregulatory role. PMID:538956

  15. Evaluating Variations of Bladder Volume Using an Ultrasound Scanner in Rectal Cancer Patients during Chemoradiation: Is Protocol-Based Full Bladder Maintenance Using a Bladder Scanner Useful to Maintain the Bladder Volume?

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hong In; Chung, Yoonsun; Chang, Jee Suk; Lee, Joo Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The maintenance of full bladder is important to reduce radiation-induced toxicities and maintain the therapeutic consistency in locally advanced rectal cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy (RT). So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of protocol-based full bladder maintenance by assessing bladder volume variation using an ultrasound bladder scanner to maintain bladder volume. Materials and Methods From March 2011 to May 2011, twenty consecutive rectal cancer patients receiving external beam RT participated in this prospective study. Protocol-based full bladder maintenance consisted of education, training and continuous biofeedback by measuring bladder volume. Bladder volume was measured by bladder scan immediately before simulation CT scan and before each treatment three times weekly during the RT period. The relative bladder volume change was calculated. Intra-patient bladder volume variations were quantified using interquartile range (IQR) of relative bladder volume change in each patient. We compared intra-patient bladder volume variations obtained (n=20) with data from our previous study patients (n=20) performing self-controlled maintenance without protocol. Results Bladder volumes measured by bladder scan highly correlated with those on simulation CT scan (R=0.87, p<0.001). Patients from this study showed lower median IQR of relative bladder volume change compared to patients of self-controlled maintenance from our previous study, although it was not statistically significant (median 32.56% vs. 42.19%, p=0.058). Upon logistic regression, the IQR of relative bladder volume change was significantly related to protocol-based maintenance [relative risk 1.045, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.004-1.087, p=0.033]. Protocol-based maintenance included significantly more patients with an IQR of relative bladder volume change less than 37% than self-controlled maintenance (p=0.025). Conclusion Our findings show that bladder volume could be maintained more consistently during RT by protocol-based management using a bladder scan. PMID:26039198

  16. Adjunctive procedures to neck rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Mark M; Chan, David

    2014-05-01

    Rejuvenation of the neck often requires more than just a neck lift. Various steps and procedures exist to enhance the surgical technique or overall result. Fibrin sealants can be used to improve the recovery process and obviate the need for drain placement. Chin augmentation can be a critical part of creating a more refined neckline. Submandibular gland excision has been put forth as helpful to the overall aesthetic result. A low and anteriorly positioned hyoid bone creates an unattractive neckline that is difficult to treat. This article focuses on techniques beyond lifting and resurfacing that may enhance neck rejuvenation. PMID:24745385

  17. Appendix carcinoma invading the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Dahms, S E; Hohenfellner, M; Eggersmann, C; Lampel, A; Golz, R; Thüroff, J W

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of an appendix carcinoma invading the urinary bladder. In contrast to other bowel tumors invading the bladder, history and symptoms were consistent with a primary bladder tumor. This is due to the unique anatomical position of the appendix where the tumor did not hinder passage of bowel contents or cause melena. Findings on physical examination as well as diagnostic imaging and transurethral resection were inconclusive. Consideration of local progression of an appendix carcinoma is an important differential diagnosis. In contrast to other vesical or extravesical T4 tumors, the appendix carcinoma offers a good chance for resection en bloc by right-sided hemicolectomy and partial cystectomy. PMID:9096277

  18. Bladder reconstruction: The past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    EL-TAJI, OMAR M.S.; KHATTAK, ALTAF Q.; HUSSAIN, SYED A.

    2015-01-01

    Ileal conduit urinary diversion is the gold standard treatment for urinary tract reconstruction following cystectomy. This procedure uses gastrointestinal segments for bladder augmentation, a technique that is often associated with significant complications. The substantial progression in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine over the previous two decades has resulted in the development of techniques that may lead to the construction of functional de novo urinary bladder substitutes. The present review identifies and discusses the complications associated with current treatment options post-cystectomy. The current techniques, achievements and perspectives of the use of biomaterials and stem cells in the field of urinary bladder reconstruction are also reviewed. PMID:26170968

  19. [Classification and natural history of bladder tumors].

    PubMed

    Allory, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Urinary bladder tumors are mainly of urothelial type. Classifications include stage and grade to provide with the required prognostic factors and help to select the most adequate treatment. Though somatic mutations in bladder tumors are known, their used for targeted therapy are restricted to clinical trials. Upper urinary tract tumors are classified as urinary bladder tumor at histological level, but tumor staging is specified according to calyx, renal pelvis or ureter location; in young patients with upper urinary tract tumor, a Lynch syndrome should be eliminated. PMID:25668829

  20. Constrained trajectory optimization for lunar landing during the powered descent phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bong-Gyun Park; Daekyu Sangt; Min-Jea Tahku

    2009-01-01

    To design the more accurate trajectory of a soft lunar landing, the constraints on the powered descent sub-phase, such as a breaking phase, an approach phase, a terminal descent phase, have to be considered. In this paper, the trajectory optimization of the lunar landing was performed considering constraints on the sub-phase of the powered descent phase. To convert the optimal

  1. The Huygens Descent Trajectory Working Group and the Reconstruction of the Huygens Probe Entry and Descent Trajectory at Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.; Kazeminejad, Bobby; Lebreton*, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Cassini/Huygens, a flagship mission to explore the rings, atmosphere, magnetic field, and moons that make up the Saturn system, is a joint endeavor of NASA, the European Space Agency, and Agenzia Spaziale Italiana. Comprising two spacecraft - a Saturn orbiter built by NASA and a Titan entry/descent probe built by the European Space Agency - Cassini/Huygens was launched in October 1997 and arrived at Saturn in 2004. The Huygens probe parachuted to the surface of Titan in January 2005. During the descent, six science instruments provided measurements of Titan's atmosphere, clouds, and winds, and photographed Titan's surface. It was recognized early in the Huygens program that to correctly interpret and correlate results from the probe science experiments and to provide a reference set of data for ground truth calibration of the Cassini orbiter remote sensing observations, an accurate reconstruction of the probe entry and descent trajectory and surface landing location would be necessary. The Huygens Descent Trajectory Working Group (DTWG) was chartered in 1996 as a subgroup of the Huygens Science Working Team. With membership comprising representatives from all the probe engineering and instrument teams as well as representatives of industry and the Cassini and Huygens Project Scientists, the DTWG presented an organizational framework within which instrument data was shared, the entry and descent trajectory reconstruction implemented, and the trajectory reconstruction efficiently disseminated. The primary goal of the Descent Trajectory Working Group was to develop retrieval methodologies for the probe descent trajectory reconstruction from the entry interface altitude of 1270 km to the surface using navigation data, and engineering and science data acquired by the instruments on the Huygens Probe, and to provide a reconstruction of the Huygens probe trajectory from entry to the surface of Titan that is maximally consistent with all available engineering and science data sets. The official project entry and descent trajectory reconstruction effort was published by the DTWG in 2007. A revised descent trajectory was released in 2010 that accounts for updated measurements of Titan's pole coordinates derived from radar images of Titan taken during Cassini flybys after 2007. The effect of the updated pole positions on Huygens is a southward shift of the trajectory by about 0.3 degrees with a much smaller effect of less than 0.01 degree in the zonal (west to east) direction. The revised Huygens landing coordinates of 192.335 degrees West and 10.573 degrees South with longitude and latitude residuals of respectively 0.035 degrees and 0.007 degrees, respectively, are in excellent agreement with results of recent landing site investigations using visual and radar images from the Cassini VIMS instrument. Acknowledgements *J.-P.L's work was performed while at ESA/ESTEC. DA and BK would like to express appreciation to the European Space Agency's Research and Scientific Support Department for funding the Descent Trajectory Working Group. The work of the Descent Trajectory Working Group would not have been possible without the dedicated efforts of all the Huygens principal investigators and their teams, and the science and engineering data provided from each experiment team, including M. Fulchignoni and the HASI Team, H. Niemann and the GCMS Team, J. Zarnecki and the SSP Team, M. Tomasko and the DISR Team, M. Bird and the DWE Team, and G. Israel and the ACP Team. Additionally, special thanks for many years of support to D.L. Matson, R.T. Mitchell, M. Pérez-Ayúcar, O. Witasse; J. Jones, D. Roth, N. Strange on the Cassini Navigation Team at JPL; A.-M. Schipper and P. Couzin at Thales Alenia; C. Sollazzo, D. Salt, J. Wheadon and S. Standley from the Huygens Ops Team; and R. Trautner and H. Svedhem on the Radar Team at ESTEC.

  2. On the Convergence of Block Coordinate Descent Type Methods

    E-print Network

    Beck, Amir

    On the Convergence of Block Coordinate Descent Type Methods Amir Beck and Luba Tetruashvili April to a certain block taken in a cyclic order. Global sublinear rate of convergence of this method is established also prove a sublinear rate of convergence result for the so-called alternating minimization method

  3. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Consortium is collaborating on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer among this population. These investigators are interested in understanding the complex multifactorial causes of prostate cancer etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry worldwide.

  4. Elderhostels: Teaching and Learning with Americans of German Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichmann, Eberhard; Reichmann, Ruth M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes three workshops designed for an Elderhostel program whose audience is largely Americans of German descent and the grandparents of today's students. The workshop topics include an introduction to the German-American experience and German-American studies; German American customs, beliefs, and traditions; and German-American genealogy,…

  5. Robust Wideband Beamforming by the Hybrid Steepest Descent Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Slavakis; Isao Yamada

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses the hybrid steepest descent method (HSDM) to design robust smart antennas. Several design criteria as well as robustness are mathematically described by a finite collection of closed convex sets in a real Euclidean space. Desirable beamformers are defined as points of the generalized convex feasible set which is well defined even in the case of inconsistent design

  6. The Challenge of Mars EDL (Entry, Descent, and Landing)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sostaric, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the some of the challenges of Martian atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) on the surface of Mars. It reviews some of the technological difficulties, and some solutions that are being developed for future unmanned missions with larger payloads than previous landers, and ultimately human spacecraft landing.

  7. A model to 4D descent trajectory guidance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Miguel Canino Rodríguez; Luis Gómez Déniz; Jesús García Herrero; Juan Besada Portas

    2007-01-01

    Current standard arrival routes or STARs will require in next years more flexibility to handle the increase of aircraft arrivals and to minimize the related environmental impact applying continuous descent trajectories at idle thrust. To do that, a global optimized 4D trajectory must be followed from the given aircraft position to the terminal gate and tracked in real time. 4D

  8. A random coordinate descent algorithm for optimization problems ...

    E-print Network

    2013-02-06

    Abstract In this paper we propose a variant of the random coordinate descent method for ... chines (where h is the indicator function of some box constrained set) [10,14] and composite ..... distance is finite for the initial iterate x0. Now, we prove ...

  9. Optical diffusion tomography by iterative-coordinate-descent

    E-print Network

    , and its potential for imaging, as an alter- native to x-ray or ultrasonic tomography, in highly scat lower health risks than x-ray radia- tion. Also, suitable sources and detectors are relativelyOptical diffusion tomography by iterative- coordinate-descent optimization in a Bayesian framework

  10. Simulation Results for Airborne Precision Spacing along Continuous Descent Arrivals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a fast-time simulation experiment and a high-fidelity simulator validation with merging streams of aircraft flying Continuous Descent Arrivals through generic airspace to a runway at Dallas-Ft Worth. Aircraft made small speed adjustments based on an airborne-based spacing algorithm, so as to arrive at the threshold exactly at the assigned time interval behind their Traffic-To-Follow. The 40 aircraft were initialized at different altitudes and speeds on one of four different routes, and then merged at different points and altitudes while flying Continuous Descent Arrivals. This merging and spacing using flight deck equipment and procedures to augment or implement Air Traffic Management directives is called Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing, an important subset of a larger Airborne Precision Spacing functionality. This research indicates that Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing initiated while at cruise altitude and well prior to the Terminal Radar Approach Control entry can significantly contribute to the delivery of aircraft at a specified interval to the runway threshold with a high degree of accuracy and at a reduced pilot workload. Furthermore, previously documented work has shown that using a Continuous Descent Arrival instead of a traditional step-down descent can save fuel, reduce noise, and reduce emissions. Research into Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing is a cooperative effort between government and industry partners.

  11. On the Convergence of Descent Methods for Monotone Variational Inequalities

    E-print Network

    Patriksson, Michael

    of applications in the mathematical and engineering sciences, for example in partial differential equations, equilibrium problems in games, economics and transportation analysis, and nonlinear pro­ gramming, a sufficient decrease in a merit function is obtained through a line search in a feasible descent direction

  12. On the Convergence of Descent Methods for Monotone Variational Inequalities

    E-print Network

    Patriksson, Michael

    its special cases) has a large variety * *of applications in the mathematical and engineering and transportation analysis, and nonli* *near pro- gramming. It is a well-known fact that the problem [VIP(F, X through a line search in a feasible descent direction; natural choices of merit* * functions are f and f

  13. A Portfolio of Outstanding Americans of Mexican Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelevier, Benjamin, Jr.

    A cross section of Mexican American achievement is presented in a portfolio of 37 portraits of outstanding Americans of Mexican descent. Drawn in black and white on heavy paper stock by Mr. David L. Rodriguez, the sketches are suitable for display purposes. With the likenesses are biographical sketches in both English and Spanish which were…

  14. S2CD: Semi-Stochastic Coordinate Descent Jakub Konecny

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    .richtarik@ed.ac.uk Abstract We propose a novel reduced variance method--semi-stochastic coordinate descent (S2CD that the method enjoys a reduced variance property. The complexity of the method is the sum of two terms: O(n log convex functions: f(x) = 1 n i fi(x). Our method first performs a deterministic step (computation

  15. Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent. PMID:24636222

  16. LANDER program manual: A lunar ascent and descent simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    LANDER is a computer program used to predict the trajectory and flight performance of a spacecraft ascending or descending between a low lunar orbit of 15 to 500 nautical miles (nm) and the lunar surface. It is a three degree-of-freedom simulation which is used to analyze the translational motion of the vehicle during descent. Attitude dynamics and rotational motion are not considered. The program can be used to simulate either an ascent from the Moon or a descent to the Moon. For an ascent, the spacecraft is initialized at the lunar surface and accelerates vertically away from the ground at full thrust. When the local velocity becomes 30 ft/s, the vehicle turns downrange with a pitch-over maneuver and proceeds to fly a gravity turn until Main Engine Cutoff (MECO). The spacecraft then coasts until it reaches the requested holding orbit where it performs an orbital insertion burn. During a descent simulation, the lander begins in the holding orbit and performs a deorbit burn. It then coasts to pericynthion, where it reignites its engines and begins a gravity turn descent. When the local horizontal velocity becomes zero, the lander pitches up to a vertical orientation and begins to hover in search of a landing site. The lander hovers for a period of time specified by the user, and then lands.

  17. Solifenacin in overactive bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher K

    2006-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is a prevalent condition, increasingly recognised as a cause of reduced quality of life that places a substantial economic burden on healthcare provision. While antimuscarinic agents are the therapy of choice for OAB, their use is associated with a number of drawbacks, not least of which is the high rate of adverse events, which is intimately linked with poor compliance with treatment. Solifenacin succinate is a novel antimuscarinic agent approved in Europe and the US for the treatment of men and women with OAB. The recommended starting dose of solifenacin is 5 mg once daily and, if needed, the dose may be increased to 10 mg once daily. In multiple clinical trials, solifenacin treatment has been associated with statistically significant reductions in all key symptoms of OAB (notably frequency, urgency and incontinence) as well as increases in volume voided. Solifenacin has been shown to be well tolerated, producing few adverse effects, which are usually mild in nature. Furthermore, possibly because of this favourable efficacy and tolerability, solifenacin treatment has been associated with a high rate of patient persistence with therapy, with 81% of 1802 patients who completed 12-week, double-blind trials enrolling in and completing a 40-week open-label extension study. Solifenacin has been shown to display selectivity for bladder versus salivary tissue in vitro, and studies in healthy men have shown that absorption is slow but extensive with an absolute bioavailability of 88%. Solifenacin is a well tolerated and efficacious agent for the treatment of OAB, significantly reducing symptoms and improving patients' quality of life. PMID:16451092

  18. Simultaneous transurethral resection of bladder cancer and prostate may reduce recurrence rates: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    LI, SHENG; ZENG, XIAN-TAO; RUAN, XIAO-LAN; WANG, XING-HUAN; GUO, YI; YANG, ZHONG-HUA

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recurrence rate of simultaneous transurethral resection of bladder cancer and prostate (TURBT+TURP) in the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE and the ISI Web of Knowledge databases from their establishment until March 2012, to collect all the original studies on TURBT+TURP vs. TURBT alone in the treatment of NMIBC with BPH. After screening the literature, methodological quality assessment and data extraction was conducted independently by two reviewers and meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.1 software. The quality of data was assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Eight studies, including seven non-randomized concurrent controlled trials (NRCCTs) and one randomized controlled trial (RCT), involving a total of 1,372 patients met the criteria. Meta-analyses of NRCCTs showed that in the TURBT+TURP group, overall recurrence rates were lower [odds ratio (OR), 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60–0.96; P=0.02] and the difference was statistically significant. The postoperative recurrence rate in the prostatic fossa/bladder neck (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64–1.45; P=0.86) and bladder tumor progression rates (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.49–1.87; P=0.91) were similar between the TURBT+TURP and TURBT groups, but the difference was not significant. According to the GRADE approach, the level of evidence was moderate or low. Only one RCT demonstrated that overall postoperative tumor recurrence rates, recurrence rates at prostate fossa/bladder neck and bladder tumor progression rates between simultaneous groups and control groups were almost equal. There was no significant difference (P>0.05), and the level of evidence was moderate. For patients with NMIBC and BPH, simultaneous resection did not increase the overall recurrence rate of bladder tumors, it also did not cause metastasis and tumor progression, but it may reduce the recurrence rate. However, due to the low quality of investigations included in the present study, careful selection was necessary, and more large-scale and high-quality randomized controlled trials are also required for further confirmation. PMID:23170127

  19. Simultaneous transurethral resection of bladder cancer and prostate may reduce recurrence rates: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Ruan, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Xing-Huan; Guo, Yi; Yang, Zhong-Hua

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recurrence rate of simultaneous transurethral resection of bladder cancer and prostate (TURBT+TURP) in the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE and the ISI Web of Knowledge databases from their establishment until March 2012, to collect all the original studies on TURBT+TURP vs. TURBT alone in the treatment of NMIBC with BPH. After screening the literature, methodological quality assessment and data extraction was conducted independently by two reviewers and meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.1 software. The quality of data was assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Eight studies, including seven non-randomized concurrent controlled trials (NRCCTs) and one randomized controlled trial (RCT), involving a total of 1,372 patients met the criteria. Meta-analyses of NRCCTs showed that in the TURBT+TURP group, overall recurrence rates were lower [odds ratio (OR), 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-0.96; P=0.02] and the difference was statistically significant. The postoperative recurrence rate in the prostatic fossa/bladder neck (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.45; P=0.86) and bladder tumor progression rates (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.49-1.87; P=0.91) were similar between the TURBT+TURP and TURBT groups, but the difference was not significant. According to the GRADE approach, the level of evidence was moderate or low. Only one RCT demonstrated that overall postoperative tumor recurrence rates, recurrence rates at prostate fossa/bladder neck and bladder tumor progression rates between simultaneous groups and control groups were almost equal. There was no significant difference (P>0.05), and the level of evidence was moderate. For patients with NMIBC and BPH, simultaneous resection did not increase the overall recurrence rate of bladder tumors, it also did not cause metastasis and tumor progression, but it may reduce the recurrence rate. However, due to the low quality of investigations included in the present study, careful selection was necessary, and more large-scale and high-quality randomized controlled trials are also required for further confirmation. PMID:23170127

  20. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePLUS

    ... History AHNS Leadership Past Presidents In Memory Professionalism & Ethics Find A Specialist Humanitarian Efforts AHNS Staff Meetings ... ahns -dot- info Return to top of page Copyright © 2015 American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and ...

  1. Measurement of CPAS Main Parachute Rate of Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown. Flight test performance must be measured to a high degree of accuracy to ensure this requirement is met with the most efficient design possible. Although the design includes three CPAS Main parachutes, the requirement is that the system must not exceed 33 ft/s under two Main parachutes, should one of the Main parachutes fail. Therefore, several tests were conducted with clusters of two Mains. All of the steady-state rate of descent data are normalized to standard sea level conditions and checked against the limit. As the Orion design gains weight, the system is approaching this limit to within measurement precision. Parachute "breathing," cluster interactions, and atmospheric anomalies can cause the rate of descent to vary widely and lead to challenges in characterizing parachute terminal performance. An early test had contradictory rate of descent results from optical trajectory and Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS). A thorough analysis of the data sources and error propagation was conducted to determine the uncertainty in the trajectory. It was discovered that the Time Space Position Information (TSPI) from the optical tracking provided accurate position data. However, the velocity from TPSI must be computed via numerical differentiation, which is prone to large error. DGPS obtains position through pseudo-range calculations from multiple satellites and velocity through Doppler shift of the carrier frequency. Because the velocity from DGPS is a direct measurement, it is more accurate than TSPI velocity. To remedy the situation, a commercial off-the-shelf product that combines GPS and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was purchased to significantly improve rate of descent measurements. This had the added benefit of solving GPS dropouts during aircraft extraction. Statistical probability distributions for CPAS Main parachute rate of descent and drag coefficient were computed and plotted. Using test data, a terminal rate of descent at splashdown can be estimated as a function of canopy loading.

  2. Asymptomatic Bladder Metastasis from Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Di Fino, Giuseppe; Massenio, Paolo; Ruocco, Nicola; Bufo, Pantaleo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common nondermatologic cancer in women. Common metastatic sites include lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bone. Metastases to the bladder are extremely rare, with all reported cases presenting with urinary symptoms. Case Report. Herein, we report the first case of completely asymptomatic bladder metastasis from breast cancer, occasionally revealed, 98 months after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, by a follow-up computed tomography scanning showing thickening of left bladder wall and grade II left hydronephrosis. A positive staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Discussion. The reported case confirms that bladder metastases from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor and, for the first time, points out they can be asymptomatic. Conclusion. Such data support the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected. PMID:24716084

  3. Asymptomatic bladder metastasis from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cormio, Luigi; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Massenio, Paolo; Liuzzi, Giuseppe; Ruocco, Nicola; Bufo, Pantaleo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common nondermatologic cancer in women. Common metastatic sites include lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bone. Metastases to the bladder are extremely rare, with all reported cases presenting with urinary symptoms. Case Report. Herein, we report the first case of completely asymptomatic bladder metastasis from breast cancer, occasionally revealed, 98 months after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, by a follow-up computed tomography scanning showing thickening of left bladder wall and grade II left hydronephrosis. A positive staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Discussion. The reported case confirms that bladder metastases from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor and, for the first time, points out they can be asymptomatic. Conclusion. Such data support the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected. PMID:24716084

  4. Neck dissection: present and future?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfio Ferlito; Carl E. Silver; Alessandra Rinaldo

    2008-01-01

    A number of issues are at the forefront of current considerations in surgical treatment of the neck in head and neck cancer.\\u000a These include proposed new definitions of lymph node levels that will lend themselves to clinical and radiographic examination,\\u000a the possibility of employing molecular studies to supply information on the metastatic potential of the primary tumor in the\\u000a clinically

  5. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Koryanov, Valeri; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valeri; Martynov, Maxim; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Victor; Martin, Susana

    2015-04-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface. Our development and assessments show clearly that this kind of inflatable technology originally developed for the Martian atmosphere, is feasible for use by Earth entry and descent applications. The preliminary results are highly promising indicating that the current Mars probe design could be used as it is for the Earth. According tp our analyses, the higher atmospheric pressure at an altitude of 12 km and less requires an additional pressurizing device for the in atable system increasing the entry mass by approximately 2 kg. These analyses involved the calculation of 120 different atmospheric entry and descent trajectories. The analysis of the existing technologies and current trends have indicated that the kind of inflatable technology pursued by RITD has high potential to enhance the European space technology expertise. This kind of technology is clearly feasible for utilization by Earth entry and descent applications.

  6. Overactive bladder symptoms following urethrolysis procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan S. Starkman

    2009-01-01

    Female bladder outlet obstruction following stress urinary incontinence surgery is well described but requires a high index\\u000a of suspicion given that patients often present clinically with both overactive bladder (OAB) and voiding symptoms. Furthermore,\\u000a only 25% of patients have frank urinary retention that requires indwelling or clean intermittent catheterization. Historically,\\u000a urethrolysis and sling lysis procedures ameliorate obstructive voiding symptoms with

  7. Genetic Marker Identified for Aggressive Bladder Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers led by Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Ph.D., in DCEG's Laboratory of Translational Genomics, have identified the first genetic variant associated with risk of aggressive bladder cancer. The variant, rs7257330, is in the promoter region of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes for cyclin E protein, a cell cycle regulator. This result comes from a fine-mapping analysis of data from two bladder cancer genome-wide association studies and functional studies.

  8. Darifenacin in the treatment of overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Haab, Francois

    2005-07-01

    Darifenacin is a novel muscarinic M(3) selective receptor antagonist developed for the once-daily treatment of overactive bladder, a chronic, debilitating and highly prevalent condition affecting adults of all ages. Preclinical research has confirmed the pharmacological profile of darifenacin as a potent antimuscarinic agent with up to 59-fold higher affinity for M(3) receptors than other muscarinic receptor subtypes and selectivity for the bladder over other tissues expressing these receptors. Extensive research in large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated that darifenacin, at doses of 7.5 and 15 mg once daily (q.d.), is efficacious in the treatment of overactive bladder, improving the core symptoms of urinary urgency, urge incontinence, increased micturition frequency and bladder capacity. In addition, post-hoc analyses have shown that many patients can achieve clinically meaningful continence levels, e.g., > or =90% reduction in incontinence episodes or > or =7 consecutive dry days. These results are supported by significant improvements in quality of life, which have paralleled the overactive bladder symptom reductions. Both fixed and flexible darifenacin dosing regimens produce these beneficial effects, which extend to the more vulnerable population of older patients. Hence, in conjunction with data showing that this agent has a good safety and tolerability profile, these findings indicate that darifenacin may provide an effective alternative pharmacotherapy for the treatment of patients with overactive bladder. PMID:16193097

  9. What is the correct staging and treatment strategy for locally advanced prostate cancer extending to the bladder?

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Özgür Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Ürkmez, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    In locally advanced prostate cancer with bladder invasion, frequently encountered problems such as bleeding, urinary retention, hydronephrosis, and pain create distress for the patients. Therefore patients' quality of life is disrupted and duration of hospitalization is prolonged. Relevant literature about accurate staging and treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with bladder invasion was investigated. Locally advanced prostate cancer can present as a large-volume aggressive tumor extending beyond boundaries of prostate gland, and involving neighboring structures which can be involved as recurrence(s) following initial local therapy. Survival times of these patients can range between 5 and 8 years. Their common characteristics are adverse and severe local symptoms unfavorably affecting quality of life Control of local symptoms and their effective palliation are independent clinical targets influencing survival outcomes of these patients. The treatment outcomes of locally advanced prostate cancer into the bladder are currently debatable. Although in the current TNM classification, it is defined in T4a, we think that this may be categorized as a subgroup of T3 and thus encourage surgeons for the indication of radical surgeries (radical prostatectomy, radical cystoprostatectomy) in selected patient populations after discussing issues concerning consequences of the treatment alternatives, and expectations with the patients. Cystoprostatectomy followed by immediate androgen deprivation therapy may be a feasible option for selected patients with previously untreated prostate cancer involving the bladder neck because of excellent local control and long term survival. PMID:26150029

  10. Flight Management System Execution of Idle-Thrust Descents in Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stell, Laurel L.

    2011-01-01

    To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the trajectory predictor and its error models, commercial flights executed idle-thrust descents, and the recorded data includes the target speed profile and FMS intent trajectories. The FMS computes the intended descent path assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and any intervention by the controllers that alters the FMS execution of the descent is recorded so that such flights are discarded from the analysis. The horizontal flight path, cruise and meter fix altitudes, and actual TOD location are extracted from the radar data. Using more than 60 descents in Boeing 777 aircraft, the actual speeds are compared to the intended descent speed profile. In addition, three aspects of the accuracy of the FMS intent trajectory are analyzed: the meter fix crossing time, the TOD location, and the altitude at the meter fix. The actual TOD location is within 5 nmi of the intent location for over 95% of the descents. Roughly 90% of the time, the airspeed is within 0.01 of the target Mach number and within 10 KCAS of the target descent CAS, but the meter fix crossing time is only within 50 sec of the time computed by the FMS. Overall, the aircraft seem to be executing the descents as intended by the designers of the onboard automation.

  11. Targeting canine bladder transitional cell carcinoma with a human bladder cancer-specific ligand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if a human bladder cancer-specific peptide named PLZ4 can target canine bladder cancer cells. Experimental Design The binding of PLZ4 to five established canine invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell lines and to normal canine bladder urothelial cells was determined using the whole cell binding assay and an affinitofluorescence assay. The WST-8 assay was performed to determine whether PLZ4 affected cell viability. In vivo tumor-specific homing/targeting property and biodistribution of PLZ4 was performed in a mouse xenograft model via tail vein injection and was confirmed with ex vivo imaging. Results PLZ4 exhibited high affinity and specific dose-dependent binding to canine bladder TCC cell lines, but not to normal canine urothelial cells. No significant changes in cell viability or proliferation were observed upon incubation with PLZ4. The in vivo and ex vivo optical imaging study showed that, when linked with the near-infrared fluorescent dye Cy5.5, PLZ4 substantially accumulated at the canine bladder cancer foci in the mouse xenograft model as compared to the control. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance PLZ4 can specifically bind to canine bladder cancer cells. This suggests that the preclinical studies of PLZ4 as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic agent can be performed in dogs with naturally occurring bladder cancer, and that PLZ4 can possibly be developed in the management of canine bladder cancer. PMID:21272294

  12. Cone Beam CT Imaging Analysis of Interfractional Variations in Bladder Volume and Position During Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Don, E-mail: dony@ualberta.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Parliament, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Rathee, Satyapal [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Ghosh, Sunita [Department of Experimental Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Ko, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Murray, Brad [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify daily bladder size and position variations during bladder cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten bladder cancer patients underwent daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging of the bladder during radiotherapy. Bladder and planning target volumes (bladder/PTV) from CBCT and planning CT scans were compared with respect to bladder center-of-mass shifts in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z (superior-inferior) coordinates, bladder/PTV size, bladder/PTV margin positions, overlapping areas, and mutually exclusive regions. Results: A total of 262 CBCT images were obtained from 10 bladder cancer patients. Bladder center of mass shifted most in the y coordinate (mean, -0.32 cm). The anterior bladder wall shifted the most (mean, -0.58 cm). Mean ratios of CBCT-derived bladder and PTV volumes to planning CT-derived counterparts were 0.83 and 0.88. The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume (+- standard deviation [SD]) outside the planning CT counterpart was 29.24 cm{sup 3} (SD, 29.71 cm{sup 3}). The mean planning CT-derived bladder volume outside the CBCT counterpart was 47.74 cm{sup 3} (SD, 21.64 cm{sup 3}). The mean CBCT PTV outside the planning CT-derived PTV was 47.35 cm{sup 3} (SD, 36.51 cm{sup 3}). The mean planning CT-derived PTV outside the CBCT-derived PTV was 93.16 cm{sup 3} (SD, 50.21). The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume outside the planning PTV was 2.41 cm{sup 3} (SD, 3.97 cm{sup 3}). CBCT bladder/ PTV volumes significantly differed from planning CT counterparts (p = 0.047). Conclusions: Significant variations in bladder and PTV volume and position occurred in patients in this trial.

  13. Endoscopic snare resection of bladder tumors: evaluation of an alternative technique for bladder tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Matthew J; Vricella, Gino J; MacLennan, Gregory; Buehner, Peter; Ponsky, Lee E

    2012-06-01

    Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) is the standard of care for initial bladder tumor management. In response to its shortcomings, we propose an alternative technique for tumor resection and retrieval: The endoscopic snare resection of bladder tumor (ESRBT). Eleven tumors managed by ESRBT were reviewed retrospectively. Via cystoscopy, tumors were resected en bloc with an electrosurgical polypectomy snare and retrieved transurethrally. Safety and efficacy were assessed by clinical and pathologic outcomes. ESRBT was highly effective for appropriate tumors. Tumor size and location varied: Two small, six medium, three large; six lateral wall, two dome, two trigone, one posterior wall. Half of initial urothelial carcinoma specimens contained muscle. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications (mean follow-up: 17 mos; range 10-25 mos). ESRBT is a feasible technique for the resection of pedunculated bladder tumors. It offers evident and theoretical advantages over TURBT and may augment bladder tumor management. Further study is needed. PMID:22390750

  14. Primary carcinoid tumors of the urinary bladder and prostatic urethra: a clinicopathologic study of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-bei; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2011-03-01

    Primary carcinoid tumors of the urinary bladder are exceedingly rare. Although they have been considered to be potentially malignant neuroendocrine neoplasms, some previously reported cases were associated with a carcinoma component that might have altered the outcome. Only 8 histologically well-documented cases of pure carcinoid tumors of the bladder and 1 of the prostatic urethra have been reported in the literature. In this study, we describe 6 additional primary pure carcinoid tumors arising in the bladder (5 cases) or prostatic urethra (1 case). Patients (4 male, 2 female) ranged in age from 45 to 60 years (average, 55 y) and presented with hematuria (n = 5 of 6), obstruction (n = 1 of 6), or for concurrent genitourinary disease (n = 1 of 6). All 6 cases shared gross and microscopic findings. Cystoscopic examination showed small, smooth surfaced, or polypoid nodules. The 5 cases in the bladder were all located within or near the trigone and bladder neck region. Microscopically, these 6 tumors were subepithelial and confined within the lamina propria, associated with adjacent cystitis cystica et glandularis. The tumors were composed of uniform, cuboidal, or columnar cells with finely stippled chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli in a prominent pseudoglandular pattern composed of acinar and cribriform structures. The cells had moderate-to-abundant cytoplasm and basally located Paneth cell-like eosinophilic granules. Although occasional atypical cells with prominent nucleoli could be seen, mitotic activity was absent or rare and cases lacked necrosis. Neuroendocrine differentiation was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in all 6 cases. All tumors were completely excised by biopsies. There was no evidence of disease recurrence or progression in all 6 patients, including 3 patients who had clinical follow-up for >4 years. Primary pure carcinoid tumors of the urinary bladder (and prostatic urethra) have distinct pathologic characteristics, with their prominent pseudoglandular features leading to difficulty in diagnosis. They are likely to have a very favorable clinical outcome, and should be distinguished from mixed carcinoid tumors or urothelial carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation that show focal carcinoid-like histologic features. PMID:21317716

  15. Mirabegron for overactive bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    Urinary incontinence, the involuntary leakage of urine, can result from abnormalities of the urinary tract or may be caused by other conditions and is sub-divided into a number of classifications including stress incontinence and urge urinary incontinence.(1) Urge urinary incontinence (UUI) is involuntary urine leakage accompanied by urgency of micturition.(2) Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is defined as urgency occurring with or without UUI and usually occurs with frequency and nocturia.(1) Wet OAB is associated with UUI, while dry OAB is not associated with incontinence. Current drug therapy for OAB involves the use of an antimuscarinic drug, of which there are a number available, such as oxybutynin, darifenacin, solifenacin and tolterodine.(1,3) ?Mirabegron is the first of a new class of drug, beta-3-adrenoreceptor agonists, licensed for symptomatic treatment of urgency, increased micturition frequency and/or urgency incontinence as may occur in adult patients with OAB syndrome.(4) Here we review the evidence for mirabegron. PMID:23949821

  16. En bloc transurethral resection of bladder lesions: a trick to retrieve specimens up to 4.5 cm.

    PubMed

    Naselli, Angelo; Introini, Carlo; Germinale, Francesco; Spina, Bruno; Puppo, Paolo

    2012-03-01

    The present technique maintains the integrity of voluminous lesions during extraction. Pathological analysis is consequently improved and a proper evaluation of the surgical margins is also possible. Papillary lesions of up to 4.5 cm are amenable to en bloc resection and extraction, while solid lesions comply less well with the urethra and sometimes are very difficult to extract. Nevertheless, the main limitation of the technique remains that lesions originating from the bladder neck are not amenable to en bloc resection,while particular attention should be paid during resection of lesions involving the ureteric orifice to avoid ureteric stripping. PMID:22360804

  17. A Symmetric Time-Varying Cluster Rate of Descent Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    A model of the time-varying rate of descent of the Orion vehicle was developed based on the observed correlation between canopy projected area and drag coefficient. This initial version of the model assumes cluster symmetry and only varies the vertical component of velocity. The cluster fly-out angle is modeled as a series of sine waves based on flight test data. The projected area of each canopy is synchronized with the primary fly-out angle mode. The sudden loss of projected area during canopy collisions is modeled at minimum fly-out angles, leading to brief increases in rate of descent. The cluster geometry is converted to drag coefficient using empirically derived constants. A more complete model is under development, which computes the aerodynamic response of each canopy to its local incidence angle.

  18. A conjugate gradient method with descent direction for unconstrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Gonglin; Lu, Xiwen; Wei, Zengxin

    2009-11-01

    A modified conjugate gradient method is presented for solving unconstrained optimization problems, which possesses the following properties: (i) The sufficient descent property is satisfied without any line search; (ii) The search direction will be in a trust region automatically; (iii) The Zoutendijk condition holds for the Wolfe-Powell line search technique; (iv) This method inherits an important property of the well-known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) method: the tendency to turn towards the steepest descent direction if a small step is generated away from the solution, preventing a sequence of tiny steps from happening. The global convergence and the linearly convergent rate of the given method are established. Numerical results show that this method is interesting.

  19. Efficient Sensor Placement Optimization Using Gradient Descent and Probabilistic Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Vahab; Lévesque, Julien-Charles; Gagné, Christian; Parizeau, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We are proposing an adaptation of the gradient descent method to optimize the position and orientation of sensors for the sensor placement problem. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the combination of gradient descent optimization with a realistic model, which considers both the topography of the environment and a set of sensors with directional probabilistic sensing. The performance of this approach is compared with two other black box optimization methods over area coverage and processing time. Results show that our proposed method produces competitive results on smaller maps and superior results on larger maps, while requiring much less computation than the other optimization methods to which it has been compared. PMID:25196164

  20. Helicopter optimal descent and landing after power loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal control solution is obtained for the descent and landing of a helicopter after the loss of power in level flight. The model considers the helicopter vertical velocity, horizontal velocity, and rotor speed; and it includes representations of ground effect, rotor inflow time lag, pilot reaction time, rotor stall, and the induced velocity curve in the vortex ring state. The control (rotor thrust magnitude and direction) required to minimize the vertical and horizontal velocity at contact with the ground is obtained using nonlinear optimal control theory. It is found that the optimal descent after power loss in hover is a purely vertical flight path. Good correlation, even quantitatively, is found between the calculations and (non-optimal) flight test results.

  1. Scaling Up Coordinate Descent Algorithms for Large ?1 Regularization Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Scherrer, Chad; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tewari, Ambuj; Haglin, David J.

    2012-07-03

    We present a generic framework for parallel coordinate descent (CD) algorithms that has as special cases the original sequential algorithms of Cyclic CD and Stochastic CD, as well as the recent parallel Shotgun algorithm of Bradley et al. We introduce two novel parallel algorithms that are also special cases---Thread-Greedy CD and Coloring-Based CD---and give performance measurements for an OpenMP implementation of these.

  2. A Variable Neighbourhood Descent Algorithm for the Redundancy Allocation Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Chia Liang; Chia-Chuan Wu

    This paper presents the first known application of a meta-heuristic algorithm, variable neighbour- hood descent (VND), to the redundancy allocation problem (RAP). The RAP, a well-known NP-hard problem, has been the subject of much prior work, generally in a restricted form where each subsystem must consist of identical components. The newer meta-heuristic methods overcome this limitation and offer a practical

  3. Energy and emission assessments of continuous descent approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enis T. Turgut; Oznur Usanmaz; Ali Ozan Canarslanlar; Ozlem Sahin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Continuous descent approach (CDA) is a method, which allows the aircraft flying its individual optimal vertical profile down to runway threshold with engines operating at low-thrust power. The main objective of this paper is to provide less-fuel consumption, less noise and less emission with using CDA procedures instead of conventional procedures. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Conventional and CDA procedures were

  4. [Venereal condylomata acuminata of the bladder. Apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Ibn Attya, A; El Mamoun, M; Koutani, A; El Khadir, K; Hachimi, M; Lakrissa, A

    1996-01-01

    The authors report two cases of condylomas of the bladder. They describe the histological, clinical, radiological and endoscopical aspects of this exceptional injury of the bladder. The prognostic and treatment are discussed. PMID:8763607

  5. What Are the Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause their bodies to be slow to break down certain toxins, which can make them more likely to develop bladder cancer. A small number of people inherit a gene syndrome that increases their risk for bladder cancer. For ...

  6. Continent ileal bladder: an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Leisinger, H J; Schauwecker, H; Schmucki, O; Hauri, D; Mayor, G; Säuberli, H

    1975-01-01

    A method for constructing a continent ileal bladder has been tested in dogs. The requirements for a continent ileal bladder: continence, reservoir function, prevention of reflux, could be fulfilled in our experimental study. PMID:1233168

  7. Noninvasive electromagnetic detection of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Cormio, Luigi; Vedruccio, Clarbruno; Leucci, Giorgio; Massenio, Paolo; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Vincenzo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Normal and neoplastic human tissues have different electromagnetic properties. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive electromagnetic detection of bladder cancer (BC) by the tissue-resonance interaction method (TRIM-prob). Patients and Methods. Consecutive patients were referred for cystoscopy because of (i) microscopic or gross hematuria and/or irritative voiding symptoms and (ii) bladder ultrasounds and urinary cytology findings negative or just suspicious of malignancy. Patients were first submitted to TRIM-prob bladder scanning by a single investigator and then to cystoscopy by another investigator blind to TRIM-prob data. Results. In 125 evaluated patients cystoscopy was positive for BC in 47 and negative in the remaining 78; conversely, TRIM-prob bladder scanning was positive for BC in 53 and negative in 72. In particular, TRIM-prob scanning yielded 7 false positives and only one false negative; therefore, its overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 97.9%, 89.9%, 86.8%, 98.6%, and 93.6%, respectively. Conclusions. TRIM-prob bladder scanning was a simple and quite accurate method for non-invasive electromagnetic detection of BC. If the elevated positive and negative predictive values will be replicated in further well-designed studies, it could be used to screen asymptomatic patients at high risk of BC. PMID:24563795

  8. Noninvasive Electromagnetic Detection of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cormio, Luigi; Vedruccio, Clarbruno; Leucci, Giorgio; Massenio, Paolo; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Vincenzo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Normal and neoplastic human tissues have different electromagnetic properties. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive electromagnetic detection of bladder cancer (BC) by the tissue-resonance interaction method (TRIM-prob). Patients and Methods. Consecutive patients were referred for cystoscopy because of (i) microscopic or gross hematuria and/or irritative voiding symptoms and (ii) bladder ultrasounds and urinary cytology findings negative or just suspicious of malignancy. Patients were first submitted to TRIM-prob bladder scanning by a single investigator and then to cystoscopy by another investigator blind to TRIM-prob data. Results. In 125 evaluated patients cystoscopy was positive for BC in 47 and negative in the remaining 78; conversely, TRIM-prob bladder scanning was positive for BC in 53 and negative in 72. In particular, TRIM-prob scanning yielded 7 false positives and only one false negative; therefore, its overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 97.9%, 89.9%, 86.8%, 98.6%, and 93.6%, respectively. Conclusions. TRIM-prob bladder scanning was a simple and quite accurate method for non-invasive electromagnetic detection of BC. If the elevated positive and negative predictive values will be replicated in further well-designed studies, it could be used to screen asymptomatic patients at high risk of BC. PMID:24563795

  9. Entry, Descent, and Landing Performance of the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Prince, Jill L.; Wueen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander successfully landed on the northern arctic plains of Mars. An overview of a preliminary reconstruction analysis performed on each entry, descent, and landing phase to assess the performance of Phoenix as it descended is presented and a comparison to pre-entry predictions is provided. The landing occurred 21 km further downrange than the predicted landing location. Analysis of the flight data revealed that the primary cause of Phoenix s downrange landing was a higher trim total angle of attack during the hypersonic phase of the entry, which resulted in Phoenix flying a slightly lifting trajectory. The cause of this higher trim attitude is not known at this time. Parachute deployment was 6.4 s later than prediction. This later deployment time was within the variations expected and is consistent with a lifting trajectory. The parachute deployment and inflation process occurred as expected with no anomalies identified. The subsequent parachute descent and powered terminal landing also behaved as expected. A preliminary reconstruction of the landing day atmospheric density profile was found to be lower than the best apriori prediction, ranging from a few percent less to a maximum of 8%. A comparison of the flight reconstructed trajectory parameters shows that the actual Phoenix entry, descent, and landing was close to pre-entry predictions. This reconstruction investigation is currently ongoing and the results to date are in the process of being refined.

  10. Head and Neck International Group (HNIG)

    Cancer.gov

    The Head and Neck International Group was established in 2014 with the mission to promote and conduct high quality head and neck cancer clinical trials worldwide to improve outcomes in patients diagnosed with these diseases.

  11. Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administration (FDA) for cancer that arises in the head or neck region (in the nasal cavity, sinuses, lips, mouth, ... Information summaries. There may be drugs used in head and neck cancer that are not listed here.

  12. Neck dissection: current concepts and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rigual, Nestor R; Wiseman, Sam M

    2004-01-01

    For individuals diagnosed with head and neck cancer, neck dissection may be performed for therapy or disease staging. The classification of neck dissection and the definition of precise anatomic landmarks have allowed for this operation, and its many variations, to become standardized world-wide. SLNBX shows promise in its ability to accurately stage NO head and neck cancer and may allow patients with no micro metastatic disease to avoid neck dissection. Before this technique becomes adopted into routine clinical practice, however, it must first be prospectively scrutinized in large patient populations. Regardless of the future role of SLNBX in the management of head and neck cancer, currently it is only through a complete understanding of the clinical, theoretic, and technical aspects of neck dis-section that surgeons may benefit individual patients and the head and neck cancer patient population as a whole. PMID:15062367

  13. Involvement of STAT3 in bladder smooth muscle hypertrophy following bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Osamu; Asanuma, Masato; Yokoyama, Teruhiko; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Ogawa, Norio; Kumon, Hiromi

    2006-12-01

    We examined the involvement of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in bladder outlet obstruction (BOO)-induced bladder smooth muscle hypertrophy using a rat in vivo and in vitro study. BOO induced increases in bladder weight and bladder smooth muscle thickness 1 week after the operation. By using antibody microarrays, 64 of 389 proteins blotted on the array met our selection criteria of an INR value between > or = 2.0 and < or = 0.5. This result revealed up-regulation of transcription factors, cell cycle regulatory proteins, apoptosis-associated proteins and so on. On the other hand, down-regulation (INR value < or = 0.5) of proteins was not found. In a profiling study, we found an increase in the expression of STAT3. A significant increase in nuclear phosphorylated STAT3 expression was confirmed in bladder smooth muscle tissue by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Cyclical stretch-relaxation (1 Hz) at 120% elongation significantly increased the expression of STAT3 and of alpha-smooth muscle actin in primary cultured bladder smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, the blockade of STAT3 expression by the transfection of STAT3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly prevented the stretch-induced increase in alpha-smooth muscle actin expression. These results suggest that STAT3 has an important role in the induction of bladder smooth muscle hypertrophy. PMID:17189973

  14. Imaging in Bladder Cancer: Present Role and Future Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Totaro; Francesco Pinto; Antonio Brescia; Marco Racioppi; Emanuele Cappa; Daniele D’Agostino; Andrea Volpe; Emilio Sacco; Giuseppe Palermo; AnnaLia Valentini; PierFrancesco Bassi

    2010-01-01

    Advances in imaging have an increasingly significant role in the diagnosis, staging and restaging of patients with bladder cancer. This paper reviews the current use of imaging in bladder neoplasms, comparing the different radiologic investigations, and discusses the potential applications of novel imaging techniques in the management of patients with bladder cancer.

  15. Posterior Urethral Valves, Pressure Pop-offs and Bladder Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Kaefer; Mark C. Adams; Richard C. Rink

    1995-01-01

    The pop-off mechanisms that sometimes occur with posterior urethral valves have well recognized implications for renal function, such that 1 or both kidneys can be protected from the deleterious effects of elevated bladder pressures. What has not been defined is the significance, if any, of pressure pop-offs to the developing bladder and ultimate bladder function. To answer this question we

  16. What I Need to Know about Bladder Control for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a sign that something is wrong. It's a medical problem, and a doctor or nurse can help. [ Top ] How does the bladder work? Parts of the bladder control system. The bladder is a balloon-shaped organ that stores and releases urine. It ...

  17. Neuroselective Current Perception Threshold Evaluation of Bladder Mucosal Sensory Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Ukimura; So Ushijima; Hisashi Honjo; Tsuyoshi Iwata; Kei Suzuki; Naoki Hirahara; Koji Okihara; Yoichi Mizutani; Akihiro Kawauchi; Tsuneharu Miki

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate human bladder mucosal sensory function by neuroselective Current Perception Threshold (CPT) measures from healthy and neuropathic bladders.Methods: Eight healthy volunteers and 38 patients with urinary symptoms underwent conventional urodynamic tests including water-filling cystometry and ice water test. Standardized neuroselective CPT measures were obtained from the left index finger and the mucosa of the posterior bladder wall. Three

  18. Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, Alejandro M.; Burkhart, Paul D.; mendeck, Gavin F.

    2006-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of Mars. This paper describes the current MSL EDL system performance as predicted by end-to-end EDL simulations, highlights the sensitivity of this baseline performance to several key environmental assumptions, and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering such an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

  19. Radiation therapy-associated invasive bladder tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Sella, A.; Dexeus, F.H.; Chong, C.; Ro, J.Y.; Logothetis, C.J.

    1989-03-01

    Radiotherapy-associated bladder carcinoma was found in 3.7 percent of 244 cases of advanced urothelial carcinoma. Average age at diagnosis of the bladder tumor was 63.1 years, with a mean of 20.5 years between radiation treatment and diagnosis. All 9 patients presented with gross hematuria. Eight patients had transitional cell carcinoma, 7/8 (87.5%) also had vascular or lymphatic invasion, and 1 was adenocarcinoma. Mean survival was 15.4 months (range 1-40 mos.), with a 55.5 percent one-year disease-free survival after diagnosis. Four patients died of bladder tumor, 4 were alive with no evidence of disease, and 1 was alive with metastasis.

  20. Neural reconstruction methods of restoring bladder function

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M.; Barbe, Mary F.; de Groat, William C.; Brown, Justin M.; Tuite, Gerald F.; Corcos, Jacques; Fecho, Susan B.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, diverse studies have focused on the development of surgical strategies to restore function of a decentralized bladder after spinal cord or spinal root injury via repair of the original roots or by transferring new axonal sources. The techniques included end-to-end sacral root repairs, transfer of roots from other spinal segments to sacral roots, transfer of intercostal nerves to sacral roots, transfer of various somatic nerves to the pelvic or pudendal nerve, direct reinnervation of the detrusor muscle, or creation of an artificial reflex pathway between the skin and the bladder via the central nervous system. All of these surgical techniques have demonstrated specific strengths and limitations. The findings made to date already indicate appropriate patient populations for each procedure, but a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of each technique to restore urinary function after bladder decentralization is required to guide future research and potential clinical application. PMID:25666987

  1. Bladder volume estimation from electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Schlebusch, T; Nienke, S; Leonhardt, S; Walter, M

    2014-09-01

    Non-invasive estimation of bladder volume is required to progress from scheduled voiding to a demand-driven emptying scheme for patients with impaired bladder volume sensation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a promising candidate for the non-invasive monitoring of bladder volume. This article focuses on four estimation algorithms used to map recorded EIT data to a volume estimate. Two different approaches are presented: the tomographic algorithms (one based on global impedance, the other on equivalent circular diameter) rely on the reconstruction of a tomographic image and then extract a volume estimate, whereas the parametric algorithms (one based on neural networks, the other on the singular value difference method) directly map the raw data to a volume estimate. The four algorithms presented here are evaluated for volume estimation error, noise tolerance and suppression of varying urine conductivity based on finite element simulation data. PMID:25139037

  2. Bladder perforation during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, P D; Hickey, L; Lawen, J G

    2004-12-01

    We present two cases of bladder perforation during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy at our institution. Neither of the surgeries was otherwise complicated, and the diagnoses were made post-operatively. The kidneys were extracted through a Pfannenstiel incision and used blunt dissection to penetrate the peritoneum. Both patients had previous tubal ligations, adhesions from which may have increased the chance of injury. We believe that this is a previously unreported complication that merits attention. Care should be taken with the peritoneal incision and dissection as the bladder may be susceptible to injury. PMID:15636672

  3. Treating overactive bladder in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Wagg, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of the overactive bladder (OAB) symptom complex increases with age. Older people also appear to experience more severe incontinence syndromes, including OAB, than their younger counterparts. Older patients are more likely than younger individuals to ask for medication for bladder problems and to require higher doses of medication. Conventional treatment for OAB with conservative and lifestyle measures in combination with antimuscarinic pharmacotherapy is effective in older people. Although there is a theoretical potential for cognitive impairment with antimuscarinic agents, the newer antimuscarinics are cognitively safe in cognitively intact older people. PMID:21989530

  4. Effects of curcumin on bladder cancer cells and development of urothelial tumors in a rat bladder carcinogenesis model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binqiang Tian; Zhiping Wang; Yingmei Zhao; Degui Wang; Yonggang Li; Li Ma; Xiaoming Li; Jing Li; Nan Xiao; Junqiang Tian; Ronald Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    Curcumin, a well-known dietary pigment derived from Curcuma longa, inhibited growth of several types of malignant cells both in vivo and in vitro. Its effects on cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in human bladder cancer cell lines and intravesical activity in a rat bladder tumor model were studied. Exposure of human bladder cancer cells to curcumin resulted in

  5. Endoscopic neck surgery: expanding horizons.

    PubMed

    Chowbey, P K; Mann, V; Khullar, R; Sharma, A; Baijal, M; Vashistha, A

    1999-10-01

    There have now been several attempts at neck exploration using minimally invasive surgery. These encouraging reports paved the way for the authors to attempt endoscopic neck surgery. Having the necessary technical expertise in minimally invasive surgery with an experience of more than 6000 laparoscopic procedures, they attempted endoscopic parathyroidectomy in three patients with hyperparathyroidism. Of these, two had a hyperfunctioning adenoma and one had parathyroid hyperplasia. The hyperfunctioning tissue was accurately localized using a 99Tc-thallium subtraction scan. It was possible to localize and dissect the parathyroid tissue in two of the three patients. One patient required an open hemithyroidectomy before the adenoma could be localized and excised. The total operative time averaged 113 min. The working space was found to be adequate provided good hemostasis was maintained. The magnification proved excellent in identifying and defining important neck structures. Sufficient mobilization of the lateral thyroid lobe for access to the tracheoesophageal groove was found to be technically very difficult. No subcutaneous emphysema was observed beyond the neck region, and none lasted beyond 24 h. Cosmesis was acceptable to both the patient and the surgeon. PMID:10522533

  6. Fgfr2 is integral for bladder mesenchyme patterning and function.

    PubMed

    Walker, K A; Ikeda, Y; Zabbarova, I; Schaefer, C M; Bushnell, D; De Groat, W C; Kanai, A; Bates, C M

    2015-04-15

    While urothelial signals, including sonic hedgehog (Shh), drive bladder mesenchyme differentiation, it is unclear which pathways within the mesenchyme are critical for its development. Studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor receptor (Fgfr)2 is necessary for kidney and ureter mesenchymal development. The objective of the present study was to determine the role of Fgfr2 in the bladder mesenchyme. We used Tbx18cre mice to delete Fgfr2 in the bladder mesenchyme (Fgfr2(BM-/-)). We performed three-dimensional reconstructions, quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, immunolabeling, ELISAs, immunoblot analysis, void stain on paper, ex vivo bladder sheet assays, and in vivo decerebrated cystometry. Compared with control bladders, embryonic day 16.5 (E16.5) Fgfr2(BM-/-) bladders had thin muscle layers with less ?-smooth muscle actin and thickened lamina propria with increased collagen type Ia and IIIa that intruded into the muscle. The reciprocal changes in mutant layer thicknesses appeared partly due to a cell fate switch. From postnatal days 1 to 30, Fgfr2(BM-/-) bladders demonstrated progressive muscle loss and increased collagen expression. Postnatal Fgfr2(BM-/-) bladder sheets exhibited decreased agonist-mediated contractility and increased passive stretch tension versus control bladder sheets. Cystometry revealed high baseline and threshold pressures and shortened intercontractile intervals in Fgfr2(BM-/-) versus control bladders. Mechanistically, whereas Shh expression appeared normal, mRNA and protein readouts of hedgehog activity were increased in E16.5 Fgfr2(BM-/-) versus control bladders. Moreover, E16.5 Fgfr2(BM-/-) bladders exhibited higher levels of Cdo and Boc, hedgehog coreceptors that enhance sensitivity to Shh, compared with control bladders. In conclusion, loss of Fgfr2 in the bladder mesenchyme leads to abnormal bladder morphology and decreased compliance and contractility. PMID:25656370

  7. [Aponeurotic suspension of the bladder neck as elective treatment of minimal stress urinary incontinence in women].

    PubMed

    Serrate, R; Gutiérrez, R; Rius, G; Prats, J; Wahab, A; Regué, R

    1995-01-01

    To correct urine incontinence at minimal exertion in woman, most especially in those who have undergone unsuccessful vaginal techniques, we advice the aponeurotic suspension of the vesical cervix, with anchorage, in fixed tissue (Cooper's ligament or ischiopubic branch) in order to avoid displacement of the supporting band and new drops of the vesical cervix, with incontinence relapse in the long run. Since 1983 this procedure has been performed in 400 women, with various degrees of urinary incontinence on exertion, 140 of whom had previously undergone other procedures. Our results have been completely successful in 383 patient who at year from surgery no longer presented urinary incontinence of any degree. These good results lead us to recommend this procedure as the most suitable to solve urinary incontinence at minimal exertion, relapses and that associated to feeling of urgency in many occasions. PMID:7717155

  8. Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix invading the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Remon; Furuya, Yuzo; Akashi, Takuya; Okumura, Akiou; Fuse, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of adenocarcinoma of the appendix invading the urinary bladder in a 75-year-old man. Although cystoscopic examination and computed tomography suggested a primary or secondary bladder tumor, repeated transurethral bladder biopsy could not confirm the neoplasm. At operation a primary neoplasm of the appendix invading the bladder was discovered and en bloc resection of the urinary bladder with the adherent cecum followed by an ileocolonic anastomosis and ureterocutaneostomy was performed. The patient died of carcinoma 13 months later. PMID:17160444

  9. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-25

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  10. Treatment of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis by ultrasound-controlled bladder training.

    PubMed

    Christ, K F; Kornhuber, H H

    1980-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder dysfunction, the main cause of chronic urinary tract infections in multiple sclerosis (MS), is efficiently treated by bladder training with ultrasound control of the residual urine. However, the beneficial effects of bladder training in the hospital are often lost within a short time when the patient returns to his home. Reexamination at home of 97 MS patients with increased residual urine and/or chronic urinary tract infections showed that the group which claimed to continue bladder training at home had significantly less residual urine at home than the group which did not continue bladder training at home. The residual urine decreased from 210 ml on average to almost normal while the patients did bladder training in the hospital, but the volume nearly doubled within a short time at home. Thus, more decentralized rehabilitation by family members, volunteer personnel or local nurses is necessary. Decentralized symptomatic therapy is the most efficient treatment of MS at present. Family members. volunteers, and local nurses, however, need training. Without these improvements in decentralized rehabilitation the hospital treatment of MS is of little benefit because urinary tract infection quickly recurs at home. For efficient bladder training the patient needs feedback regarding the residual urine; this can be provided with minimum risk by ultrasound sonocystography. In those rare cases in which bladder training does not work, intermittent catheterization must be carried out by the patients or their families, volunteer personnel or a local nurse. A continuous indwelling catheter should not be used. antibiotic treatment should be applied only on the basis of a precise bacteriological diagnosis. PMID:7416934

  11. Discordance Between Preoperative and Postoperative Bladder Cancer Location: Implications for Partial-Bladder Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Tucker, Kai; Conway, Robert Greg; He, Jiwei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzzo, Thomas [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Malkowicz, S. Bruce [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John, E-mail: christojo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: There is strong interest in partial-bladder radiation whether as a boost or definitive therapy to limit long-term toxicity. It is unclear that a standard preoperative examination can accurately identify all sites of disease within the bladder. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between preoperative localization of bladder tumors with postoperative findings to facilitate partial-bladder radiation techniques when appropriate. Methods and Materials: We examined patients with clinically staged T1-T4 invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or TCC with variant histology with no history of radiation or partial cystectomy undergoing radical cystectomy. Patients were scored as “under-detected” if a bladder site was involved with invasive disease (?T1) at the time of cystectomy, but not identified preoperatively. Patients were additionally scored as “widely under-detected” if they had postoperative lesions that were not identified preoperatively in a given site, nor in any adjacent site. Rates of under-detected and widely under-detected lesions, as well as univariate and multivariate association between clinical variables and under-detection, were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: Among 222 patients, 96% (213/222) had at least 1 area of discordance. Fifty-eight percent of patients were under-detected in at least 1 location, whereas 12% were widely under-detected. Among 24 patients with a single site of disease on preoperative evaluation, 21/24 (88%) had at least 1 under-detected lesion and 14/24 (58%) were widely under-detected. On multivariate analysis, only solitary site of preoperative disease was associated with increased levels of under-detection of invasive disease (OR = 4.161, 95% CI, 1.368-12.657). Conclusion: Our study shows a stark discordance between preoperative and postoperative localization of bladder tumors. From a clinical perspective, incomplete localization of all sites of disease within the bladder may lead to marginal misses when a partial-bladder technique is used.

  12. Ultrasound bladder vibrometry method for measuring viscoelasticity of the bladder wall.

    PubMed

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Qiang, Bo; Urban, Matthew W; de Araujo Vasconcelo, Luiz Henrique; Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2013-04-21

    Increase in bladder stiffness could be associated with various pathophysiologic conditions. Measuring bladder viscoelasticity could be an important step towards understanding various disease processes and improving patient care. Here, we introduce ultrasound bladder vibrometry (UBV), a novel method for rapid and noninvasive measurement of bladder wall viscoelasticity. UBV uses acoustic radiation force to excite mechanical waves in the bladder wall and track the motion using ultrasound pulse-echo techniques. Fourier domain analysis of the tissue motion versus time is used to calculate the phase velocity dispersion (change of phase velocity as a function of frequency). The measured phase velocity dispersion is fit with the antisymmetric Lamb wave model to estimate tissue elasticity and viscosity. We used finite element analysis of viscoelastic plate deformation to investigate the effect of curvature on Lamb wave dispersion and showed that the effects of curvature are negligible. The feasibility of the UBV technique was demonstrated in ex vivo and in vivo settings. Elasticity and viscosity of excised pig at various filling volumes (V) and pressures (p) were found to be µ1 = 9.6 kPa and µ2 = 0.2 Pa s (V = 187 ml and p = 8.6 mmHg), µ1 = 48.7 kPa and µ2 = 3.5 Pa s (V = 267 ml and p = 17.6 mmHg), and µ1 = 106.9 kPa and µ2 = 1.5 Pa s (V = 327 ml and p = 27.6 mmHg) respectively. Transabdominal measurements in an anesthetized pig found values of bladder elasticity µ1 = 26.1 kPa and viscosity µ2 = 0.9 Pa s and demonstrate the ability of UBV to perform in vivo measurements. The results presented in this paper introduce a novel technique for measuring mechanical properties of the bladder and lay the foundation for further investigation of the effects of pathology on bladder viscoelasticity. PMID:23552842

  13. Alterations in cholinergic and neuropeptide innervation of urinary bladder following partial bladder outlet obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Chertin; U. Rolle; S. Cascio; P. Puri

    2003-01-01

    Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in infancy. Bladder instability, poor compliance and myogenic failure are responsible for the poor long-term prognosis in these patients. Previous studies have reported abundance of sensory neuropeptides, e.g. substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) nerves in the urinary

  14. Impact of behaviour and lifestyle on bladder health.

    PubMed

    Burgio, K L; Newman, D K; Rosenberg, M T; Sampselle, C

    2013-06-01

    Bladder conditions, including UTI, UI, and bladder cancer, are highly prevalent and affect a wide range of populations. There are a variety of modifiable behavioral and lifestyle factors that influence bladder health. Some factors, such as smoking and obesity, increase the risk or severity of bladder conditions, whereas other factors, such as pelvic floor muscle exercise, are protective. Although clinical practice may be assumed to be the most appropriate ground for education on behavioral and lifestyle factors that influence bladder health, it is also crucial to extend these messages into the general population through public health interventions to reach those who have not yet developed bladder conditions and to maximize the prevention impact of these behaviors. Appropriate changes in these factors have the potential for an enormous impact on bladder health if implemented on a population-based level. PMID:23679903

  15. Neurophysiological modeling of bladder afferent activity in the rat overactive bladder model.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Mahipal; van Asselt, Els; van Mastrigt, Ron; Clavica, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    The overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome-based urinary dysfunction characterized by "urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia". Earlier we developed a mathematical model of bladder nerve activity during voiding in anesthetized rats and found that the nerve activity in the relaxation phase of voiding contractions was all afferent. In the present study, we applied this mathematical model to an acetic acid (AA) rat model of bladder overactivity to study the sensitivity of afferent fibers in intact nerves to bladder pressure and volume changes. The afferent activity in the filling phase and the slope, i.e., the sensitivity of the afferent fibers to pressure changes in the post-void relaxation phase, were found to be significantly higher in AA than in saline measurements, while the offset (nerve activity at pressure ~0) and maximum pressure were comparable. We have thus shown, for the first time, that the sensitivity of afferent fibers in the OAB can be studied without cutting nerves or preparation of single fibers. We conclude that bladder overactivity induced by AA in rats is neurogenic in origin and is caused by increased sensitivity of afferent sensors in the bladder wall. PMID:25782438

  16. Neoadjuvant (induction) chemotherapy in advanced bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Türkeri, L; Ilker, Y; Sim?ek, F; Akda?, A

    1993-01-01

    Traditional approaches for the treatment of locally advanced bladder tumours may not be sufficient enough. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, a new modality, may be beneficial by enhancing the local and systemic control of the disease. The background of this new modality and early results of various trials are discussed. PMID:8225827

  17. Application of bladder acellular matrix in urinary bladder regeneration: the state of the art and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Gubanska, Iga; Drewa, Gerard; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Construction of the urinary bladder de novo using tissue engineering technologies is the "holy grail" of reconstructive urology. The search for the ideal biomaterial for urinary bladder reconstruction has been ongoing for decades. One of the most promising biomaterials for this purpose seems to be bladder acellular matrix (BAM). In this review we determine the most important factors, which may affect biological and physical properties of BAM and its regeneration potential in tissue engineered urinary bladder. We also point out the directions in modification of BAM, which include incorporation of exogenous growth factors into the BAM structure. Finally, we discuss the results of the urinary bladder regeneration with cell seeded BAM. PMID:25793199

  18. Application of Bladder Acellular Matrix in Urinary Bladder Regeneration: The State of the Art and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Drewa, Gerard; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Construction of the urinary bladder de novo using tissue engineering technologies is the “holy grail” of reconstructive urology. The search for the ideal biomaterial for urinary bladder reconstruction has been ongoing for decades. One of the most promising biomaterials for this purpose seems to be bladder acellular matrix (BAM). In this review we determine the most important factors, which may affect biological and physical properties of BAM and its regeneration potential in tissue engineered urinary bladder. We also point out the directions in modification of BAM, which include incorporation of exogenous growth factors into the BAM structure. Finally, we discuss the results of the urinary bladder regeneration with cell seeded BAM. PMID:25793199

  19. Entry, Descent, and Landing for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Michelle M.; DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of a human mission to Mars is landing safely on the Martian surface. Mars has such low atmospheric density that decelerating large masses (tens of metric tons) requires methods that have not yet been demonstrated, and are not yet planned in future Mars missions. To identify the most promising options for Mars entry, descent, and landing, and to plan development of the needed technologies, NASA's Human Architecture Team (HAT) has refined candidate methods for emplacing needed elements of the human Mars exploration architecture (such as ascent vehicles and habitats) on the Mars surface. This paper explains the detailed, optimized simulations that have been developed to define the mass needed at Mars arrival to accomplish the entry, descent, and landing functions. Based on previous work, technology options for hypersonic deceleration include rigid, mid-L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) aeroshells, and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (IADs). The hypersonic IADs, or HIADs, are about 20% less massive than the rigid vehicles, but both have their technology development challenges. For the supersonic regime, supersonic retropropulsion (SRP) is an attractive option, since a propulsive stage must be carried for terminal descent and can be ignited at higher speeds. The use of SRP eliminates the need for an additional deceleration system, but SRP is at a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) in that the interacting plumes are not well-characterized, and their effect on vehicle stability has not been studied, to date. These architecture-level assessments have been used to define the key performance parameters and a technology development strategy for achieving the challenging mission of landing large payloads on Mars.

  20. Powered Descent Guidance with General Thrust-Pointing Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M., III; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) algorithm and software for generating Mars pinpoint or precision landing guidance profiles has been enhanced to incorporate thrust-pointing constraints. Pointing constraints would typically be needed for onboard sensor and navigation systems that have specific field-of-view requirements to generate valid ground proximity and terrain-relative state measurements. The original PDG algorithm was designed to enforce both control and state constraints, including maximum and minimum thrust bounds, avoidance of the ground or descent within a glide slope cone, and maximum speed limits. The thrust-bound and thrust-pointing constraints within PDG are non-convex, which in general requires nonlinear optimization methods to generate solutions. The short duration of Mars powered descent requires guaranteed PDG convergence to a solution within a finite time; however, nonlinear optimization methods have no guarantees of convergence to the global optimal or convergence within finite computation time. A lossless convexification developed for the original PDG algorithm relaxed the non-convex thrust bound constraints. This relaxation was theoretically proven to provide valid and optimal solutions for the original, non-convex problem within a convex framework. As with the thrust bound constraint, a relaxation of the thrust-pointing constraint also provides a lossless convexification that ensures the enhanced relaxed PDG algorithm remains convex and retains validity for the original nonconvex problem. The enhanced PDG algorithm provides guidance profiles for pinpoint and precision landing that minimize fuel usage, minimize landing error to the target, and ensure satisfaction of all position and control constraints, including thrust bounds and now thrust-pointing constraints.

  1. Regularization Paths for Generalized Linear Models via Coordinate Descent

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jerome; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Rob

    2010-01-01

    We develop fast algorithms for estimation of generalized linear models with convex penalties. The models include linear regression, two-class logistic regression, and multinomial regression problems while the penalties include ?1 (the lasso), ?2 (ridge regression) and mixtures of the two (the elastic net). The algorithms use cyclical coordinate descent, computed along a regularization path. The methods can handle large problems and can also deal efficiently with sparse features. In comparative timings we find that the new algorithms are considerably faster than competing methods. PMID:20808728

  2. Shuttle program: OFT ascent/descent ancillary data requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. C., Jr.; Knoedler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements are presented for the ascent/descent (A/D) navigation and attitude-dependent ancillary data products to be generated for the space shuttle orbiter in support of the orbital flight test (OFT) flight test requirements, MPAD guidance and navigation performance assessment, and the mission evaluation team. The A/D ancillary data support for OFT mission evaluation activities is confined to providing postflight position, velocity, attitude, and associated navigation and attitude derived parameters for the Orbiter over particular flight phases and time intervals.

  3. Probiotics, dendritic cells and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Feyisetan, Oladapo; Tracey, Christopher; Hellawell, Giles O

    2012-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The suppressor effect of probiotics on superficial bladder cancer is an observed phenomenon but the specific mechanism is poorly understood. The evidence strongly suggests natural killer (NK) cells are the anti-tumour effector cells involved and NK cell activity correlates with the observed anti-tumour effect in mice. It is also known that dendritic cells (DC) cells are responsible for the recruitment and mobilization of NK cells so therefore it may be inferred that DC cells are most likely to be the interphase point at which probiotics act. In support of this, purification of NK cells was associated with a decrease in NK cells activity. The current use of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin in the management of superficial bladder cancer is based on the effect of a localised immune response. In the same way, understanding the mechanism of action of probiotics and the role of DC may potentially offer another avenue via which the immune system may be manipulated to resist bladder cancer. Probiotic foods have been available in the UK since 1996 with the arrival of the fermented milk drink (Yakult) from Japan. The presence of live bacterial ingredients (usually lactobacilli species) may confer health benefits when present in sufficient numbers. The role of probiotics in colo-rectal cancer may be related in part to the suppression of harmful colonic bacteria but other immune mechanisms are involved. Anti-cancer effects outside the colon were suggested by a Japanese report of altered rates of bladder tumour recurrence after ingestion of a particular probiotic. Dendritic cells play a central role to the general regulation of the immune response that may be modified by probiotics. The addition of probiotics to the diet may confer benefit by altering rates of bladder tumour recurrence and also alter the response to immune mechanisms involved with the application of intravesical treatments (bacille Calmette-Guérin). PMID:22176770

  4. Afatinib inhibits proliferation and invasion and promotes apoptosis of the T24 bladder cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    TANG, YUNHUA; ZHANG, XIANGYANG; QI, FAN; CHEN, MINGFENG; LI, YUAN; LIU, LONGFEI; HE, WEI; LI, ZHUO; ZU, XIONGBING

    2015-01-01

    Afatinib is a highly selective, irreversible inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human EGFR 2 (HER-2). Although preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that afatinib has antitumor activity and clinical efficacy in non-small cell lung carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and breast cancer, there are few studies investigating its inhibitory effect on human bladder carcinoma cells. In this study, the antitumor effect of afatinib was investigated on the T24 bladder cancer cell line. The T24 bladder cancer cell line was treated with afatinib at various concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 µmol/l). MTT assay was used to estimate the proliferation of the T24 cells; flow cytometric analysis was used to estimate the effect of afatinib on T24 cell apoptosis; cell invasion ability was assessed by a Transwell invasion assay; and western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Akt, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. The MTT assay demonstrated that afatinib inhibited the proliferation of T24 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cell apoptosis rate increased as the concentration of afatinib increased. The cell invasion assay indicated that afatinib treatment significantly inhibited the invasive behavior of T24 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis showed that with increasing afatinib concentrations, Bcl-2, phosphorylated (p)-ERK1/2, p-Akt, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression levels were significantly decreased, whereas total (t)-ERK1/2 and t-Akt expression levels remained basically unchanged, and Bax expression levels were greatly increased. The results indicate that afatinib inhibits the proliferation and invasion of T24 cells in vitro and induces the apoptosis of these cells by inhibiting the EGFR signaling network.

  5. Neck Dissection Through a Facelift Incision

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Thuy-Anh N.; Eliades, Steven J.; Ha, Patrick K.; Fakhry, Carole; Saunders, John M.; Califano, Joseph A.; Blanco, Ray G. F.

    2013-01-01

    Obectives/Hypothesis To determine the feasibility and safety of neck dissection through a facelift incision. Study Design Prospective case series. Methods Cadavers and live subjects underwent neck dissection using a facelift incision with and without endoscopic assistance. In the live facelift neck dissection (FLND), the preoperative surgical indications, staging, adjuvant therapy, intraoperative technical procedure, pathology reports on lymph nodes, and short-term outcomes were reviewed. Results FLND was successfully performed in four cadavers and four live subjects, including selective (less than five neck levels removed) and comprehensive (levels I–V removed) neck dissections. All levels were accessible through this approach, with additional retraction required for levels I and IV. Endoscopic assistance was required in one neck dissection for adequate visualization. Short-term complications and number of excised lymph nodes were comparable to those from traditional neck dissection approaches. Conclusions Open neck dissection through a facelift incision is feasible and offers an alternate approach to traditional incisions. This can be performed without requiring robotic assistance and with endoscopic assistance only in certain cases. Endoscopic assistance can offer enhanced visualization of the surgical field and complement open direct approaches in neck dissection. Although FLND offers improved cosmetic outcomes when compared to those of traditional neck incisions, further study is required to determine its efficacy and indications. PMID:23023877

  6. Gemcitabine, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin in Metastatic or Unresectable Bladder Cancer With Decreased Kidney Function

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-19

    Distal Urethral Cancer; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Proximal Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder; Urethral Cancer Associated With Invasive Bladder Cancer

  7. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Descent and Landing Simulation Using DSENDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, P. Daniel; Casoliva, Jordi; Balaram, Bob

    2013-01-01

    The most recent planetary science mission to Mars was Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) with the Curiosity rover, launched November 26, 2011 and landed at Gale Crater on August 6, 2012. This spacecraft was the first use at Mars of a complete closed-loop Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) system, including guided entry with a lifting body that greatly reduces dispersions during the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) phase to achieve a 25 km X 20 km landing error relative to the selected Gale Crater landing target. In order to confirm meeting the above landing criteria, high-fidelity simulation of the EDL phase is required. The tool used for 6DOF EDL trajectory verification analysis is Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing (DSENDS), which is a high-fidelity simulation tool from JPLs Dynamics and Real-Time Simulation Laboratory for the development, test and operations of aero-flight vehicles. DSENDS inherent capability is augmented for MSL with project-specific models of atmosphere, aerodynamics, sensors and thrusters along with GN&C flight software to enable high-fidelity trajectory simulation. This paper will present the model integration and independent verification experience of the JPL EDL trajectory analysis team.

  8. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Descent and Landing Simulation Using DSENDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, P. Daniel; Casoliva, Jordi; Balaram, Bob

    2013-01-01

    The most recent planetary science mission to Mars is Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) with the Curiosity rover, launched November 26, 2011 and landed at Gale Crater on August 6, 2012. This spacecraft was the first use at Mars of a complete closed-loop Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) system, including guided entry with a lifting body that greatly reduces dispersions during the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) phase to achieve a 25 km x 20 km landing error relative to the selected Gale Crater landing target. In order to confirm meeting the above landing criteria, high-fidelity simulation of the EDL phase is required. The tool used for 6DOF EDL trajectory verification analysis is Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing (DSENDS), which is a high-fidelity simulation tool from JPLs Dynamics and Real-Time Simulation Laboratory for the development, test and operations of aero-flight vehicles. DSENDS inherent capability is augmented for MSL with project-specific models of atmosphere, aerodynamics, sensors and thrusters along with GN&C flight software to enable high-fidelity trajectory simulation. This paper will present the model integration and independent verification experience of the JPL EDL trajectory analysis team.

  9. Mars Exploration Rover Terminal Descent Mission Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Queen, Eric M.

    2004-01-01

    Because of NASA's added reliance on simulation for successful interplanetary missions, the MER mission has developed a detailed EDL trajectory modeling and simulation. This paper summarizes how the MER EDL sequence of events are modeled, verification of the methods used, and the inputs. This simulation is built upon a multibody parachute trajectory simulation tool that has been developed in POST I1 that accurately simulates the trajectory of multiple vehicles in flight with interacting forces. In this model the parachute and the suspended bodies are treated as 6 Degree-of-Freedom (6 DOF) bodies. The terminal descent phase of the mission consists of several Entry, Descent, Landing (EDL) events, such as parachute deployment, heatshield separation, deployment of the lander from the backshell, deployment of the airbags, RAD firings, TIRS firings, etc. For an accurate, reliable simulation these events need to be modeled seamlessly and robustly so that the simulations will remain numerically stable during Monte-Carlo simulations. This paper also summarizes how the events have been modeled, the numerical issues, and modeling challenges.

  10. Fast Descent Methods for LPs With No Matrix Inversions Katta G. Murty

    E-print Network

    Murty, Katta G.

    Fast Descent Methods for LPs With No Matrix Inversions Katta G. Murty Department of IOE, University Programming (LP), Interior point methods (IPMs) , ball centers of a polytope, solving LPs by descent methods. It needed the solution of LPs in real time on GPUs ("Graphical Processing Units", the hot new topic in high

  11. Fast Descent Methods for LPs With No Matrix Inversions Katta G. Murty

    E-print Network

    Murty, Katta G.

    Fast Descent Methods for LPs With No Matrix Inversions Katta G. Murty Department of IOE, University of a polytope, solving LPs by descent methods without using matrix inversions. In Memorium: We dedicate is the graphics application posed by Watson [2010] recently. It needed the solution of LPs in real time on GPUs

  12. Algorithmic Operations Research Vol.7 (2013) 5154 Fast Descent Methods for LPs With No Matrix Inversions

    E-print Network

    Murty, Katta G.

    2013-01-01

    Algorithmic Operations Research Vol.7 (2013) 51­54 Fast Descent Methods for LPs With No Matrix. Key words: Linear Programming (LP), Interior point methods (IPMs) , solving LPs by descent methods to develop fast algorithms for LP without using matrix inversion operations. SMs consider LPs in the form

  13. ENUMERATION OF PARTITIONS BY RISES, LEVELS AND DESCENTS Toufik Mansour and Augustine O. Munagi

    E-print Network

    Breuer, Florian

    ENUMERATION OF PARTITIONS BY RISES, LEVELS AND DESCENTS Toufik Mansour and Augustine O. Munagi of integers, we study this statistic among the set partitions, as well as the numbers of rises and levels. We the statistics of numbers of rises, levels and descents among set partitions expressed as canonical sequences

  14. Prostate Cancer in Men of African Descent: Opportunities for Global Research Collaborations

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer disproportionately affects men of African descent in terms of incidence, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. Significant knowledge gaps exist about the factors that predict disparities in prostate cancer incidence and outcomes between men of African descent and other ethnic or racial groups.

  15. Ethnic Identity and Acculturative Stress as Mediators of Depression in Students of Asian Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantrip, Crystal; Mazzetti, Francesco; Grasso, Joseph; Gill, Sara; Miller, Janna; Haner, Morgynn; Rude, Stephanie; Awad, Germine

    2015-01-01

    This study underscored the importance of addressing the well-being of college students of Asian descent, because these students had higher rates of depression and lower positive feelings about their ethnic group compared with students of European descent, as measured by the Affirmation subscale of the Ethnic Identity Scale. Affirmation mediated…

  16. Lossless Convexification of Powered-Descent Guidance with Non-Convex Thrust Bound and Pointing Constraints

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brian C.

    -efficient, convex formulation of PDG (Powered-Descent Guidance) for Mars pinpoint and pre- cision landing has been-of-view requirements during landing. I. INTRODUCTION A typical Mars EDL (Entry, Descent and Landing) consists of a hypersonic entry phase, a parachute phase and a landing phase. The landing phase typically implements either

  17. The Role of la Familia for Women of Mexican Descent Who Are Leaders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizondo, Sandra Gray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe the role of "la familia" for women of Mexican descent as it relates to their development as leaders and their leadership in academia. Purposeful sampling was utilized to reach the goal of 18 participants who were female academic leaders of Mexican descent teaching full time in…

  18. A dynamic continuous descent approach methodology for low noise and emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Alam; M. H. Nguyen; H. A. Abbass; C. Lokan; M. Ellejmi; S. Kirby

    2010-01-01

    Continuous Descent Approaches (CDAs) can significantly reduce fuel burn and noise impact by keeping arriving aircraft at their cruise altitude for longer than during conventional approaches(to descend as late as possible)and then having them make a continuous descent to the runway at near idle thrust with no level flight segments. The CDA procedures are fixed routes that are vertically optimized.

  19. Analysis of AIRE Continuous Descent Arrival operations at Atlanta and Miami

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin R. Sprong; Kathryn A. Klein; C. Shiotsuki; J. Arrighi; S. Liu

    2008-01-01

    A continuous descent arrival (CDA) is a cockpit based flight technique characterized by operations that descend continuously at or near idle power settings resulting in reduced noise and emissions compared to standard stair-step arrival techniques. The development of published optimized profile descent (OPD) procedures that permit use of the CDA technique is generally considered to be a key step in

  20. Chart of Galileo's atmospheric probe entry/descent events at Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Chart titled GALILEO ENTRY/DESCENT EVENTS traces the atmospheric probe of the Galileo spacecraft into Jupiter's atmosphere. Entry/descent events are charted from pre-entry to completion of reference mission with altitude (vertical axis) and time (horizontal axis) indicated.

  1. Evidence of pudendal neuropathy in patients with perineal descent and chronic straining at stool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E S Kiff; P R Barnes; M Swash

    1984-01-01

    In 17 women with chronic constipation, and abnormal perineal descent on straining at stool, there was more severe neurogenic damage to the external anal sphincter muscle and to its pudendal innervation in those patients with a long history than in those with a short history. These results suggest that recurrent trauma to the pudendal nerves can occur during perineal descent,

  2. Urinary bladder distention evoked visceromotor responses as a model for bladder pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Katelyn E; Stratton, Jarred M; Kolber, Benedict J

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 3-8 million people in the United States suffer from interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a debilitating condition characterized by increased urgency and frequency of urination, as well as nocturia and general pelvic pain, especially upon bladder filling or voiding. Despite years of research, the cause of IC/BPS remains elusive and treatment strategies are unable to provide complete relief to patients. In order to study nervous system contributions to the condition, many animal models have been developed to mimic the pain and symptoms associated with IC/BPS. One such murine model is urinary bladder distension (UBD). In this model, compressed air of a specific pressure is delivered to the bladder of a lightly anesthetized animal over a set period of time. Throughout the procedure, wires in the superior oblique abdominal muscles record electrical activity from the muscle. This activity is known as the visceromotor response (VMR) and is a reliable and reproducible measure of nociception. Here, we describe the steps necessary to perform this technique in mice including surgical manipulations, physiological recording, and data analysis. With the use of this model, the coordination between primary sensory neurons, spinal cord secondary afferents, and higher central nervous system areas involved in bladder pain can be unraveled. This basic science knowledge can then be clinically translated to treat patients suffering from IC/BPS. PMID:24798516

  3. Common theme for drugs effective in overactive bladder treatment: Inhibition of afferent signaling from the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Brandy; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The overactive bladder syndrome and detrusor overactivity are conditions that can have major effects on quality of life and social functioning. Antimuscarinic drugs are still first-line treatment. These drugs often have good initial response rates, but adverse effects and decreasing efficacy cause long-term compliance problems, and alternatives are needed. The recognition of the functional contribution of the urothelium/suburothelium, the autonomous detrusor muscle activity during bladder filling and the diversity of nerve transmitters involved has sparked interest in both peripheral and central modulation of overactive bladder syndrome/detrusor overactivity pathophysiology. Three drugs recently approved for treatment of overactive bladder syndrome/detrusor overactivity (mirabegron, tadalafil and onabotulinum toxin A), representing different pharmacological mechanisms; that is, ?-adrenoceptor agonism, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition, and inhibition of nerve release of efferent and afferent transmitters, all seem to have one effect in common: inhibition of the afferent nervous activity generated by the bladder during filling. In the present review, the different mechanisms forming the pharmacological basis for the use of these drugs are discussed. PMID:23072271

  4. Bladder training in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Menon, E B; Tan, E S

    1992-11-01

    Immediately following severe injury to the spinal cord or conus medullaris, there is a stage of flaccid paralysis of the bladder. The smooth muscle of the detrusor and rectum is affected. Drainage of the bladder is very important in the early care of such patients. From August 1989 to August 1990, 55 spinal cord injury patients were studied on admission to our department. The current bladder training method used for these patients is presented. A patient was deemed to have been successfully bladder trained when catheter-free, continent, and able to consistently maintain a residual volume of 100 mL or less with the aid of tapping and compression. On discharge 45 patients (82%) were successfully bladder trained, 8 (15%) employed a regimen of clean intermittent self-catheterization, and 2 went home/institutional care with an indwelling catheter. The material presented is applicable to any type of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. PMID:1441039

  5. Urine-based assays for the detection of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Villicana, Patrick; Whiting, Bryant; Goodison, Steve; Rosser, Charles J

    2009-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. Furthermore, nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer has a 70% rate of recurrence, making it a considerable strain to the healthcare system. Patients with bladder cancer require repeat cystoscopic examinations of the bladder to monitor for tumor recurrence. The reason these patients have to undergo these costly, painful, invasive procedures is owing to the absence of accurate urine-based assays to detect the presence of bladder cancer noninvasively. Consequently, the development of a urine-based test to detect bladder cancer would be of tremendous benefit to both patients and healthcare systems. This article reports some of the more prominent urine markers in use today. In addition, the article will highlight some new technologies that are used to investigate novel urinary markers. PMID:20161673

  6. Dynamics of liquid sloshing in upright and inverted bladdered tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, F. T.; Kana, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    A system identification methodology was used to examine the dynamics of liquid sloshing in the upright and inverted bladdered hydrazine tanks of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, (TDRS) and to evaluate the effects of bladder stiffness on the sloshing parameters. Mechanical models of the two systems were developed using the numerical values derived from static stability tests and from slosh frequency response tests of a full-size model tank fitted with a prototype bladder. For the upright tank (liquid below the bladder) a modified conventional pendulum was used. In the inverted tank (liquid above the bladder) where sloshing is unconventional due to the highly nonsymmetrical orientation of the liquid held by the bladder, a mechanical model using an inverted pendulum which is able to undergo small oscillations as well as large reorientations was necessary. Both thrusting and low-gravity conditions are considered.

  7. Hanging Bladder calculi Secondary to Misplaced Surgical Suture

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Ali; Mostafavi, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Bladder calculi, a rare condition in the pediatric population, occur most commonly as a result of either migration from the kidney or urinary stasis in the bladder. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) secondary to bladder calculi formation on the sutures from a previous herniorrhaphy.A 3-year-old boy with previous history of herniorrhaphy presented with recurrent episodes of urinary tract infection, resistant to antibiotic therapy. Physical examination was unremarkable. Ultrasonography (US) showed an echogenic fixed intra-luminal lesion in the bladder. Cystoscopic evaluation was performed and confirmed presence of calculi forming around several permanent silk sutures fixed to the bladder wall. The patient undergone cystotomy and the calculi were resected. The stone analysis revealed 80% uric acid calculi. The final diagnosis was of bladder calculi due to remnant suture from past herniorrhaphy.

  8. Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science DMTCS vol. 10:3, 2008, 122 Counting descents, rises, and levels, with

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , rises, and levels, with prescribed first element, in words Sergey Kitaev1 and Toufik Mansour2 and Jeff of descents, levels, and rises according to whether the first letter of the descent, rise, or level lies in Ni some of the results by Burstein and Mansour. Keywords: descent, level, rise, set partition, word

  9. Functional neck dissection for the clinically negative neck: effectiveness and controversies.

    PubMed

    Lassaletta, Luis; García-Pallarés, Marta; Morera, Eduardo; Salinas, Silvia; Bernáldez, Ricardo; Patrón, Mercedes; Gavilán, Javier

    2002-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of functional neck dissection in controlling metastasis to the clinically negative (cN0) neck, focusing on recurrences in the pathologically negative (pN0) neck and the role of extracapsular spread in the cN0 neck. A series of 172 patients (253 dissected fields) treated for cN0 laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer with a 5-year minimum follow-up is presented. Occult metastasis was observed in 30% of the patients. Extracapsular spread was present in 39% of the positive nodes. The neck recurrence rate was 5.2%. Surgical specimens from cases of neck recurrence in pN0 necks were reevaluated for micrometastasis by immunostaining with antibody for cytokeratins. The immunohistochemical findings were positive in 1 of 4 cases. Functional neck dissection provides good neck control and survival rates for the cN0 neck. The accurate prognostic significance of extracapsular spread in cN0 necks is still unknown. Micrometastasis alone may be insufficient to explain recurrences in pN0 necks. PMID:11860071

  10. Conservative management of advanced bladder cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lekili; A. R. Ayder; S. Minareci; S. Nergis; M. N. Durgun

    1995-01-01

    Between January 1991 and October 1993, 32 consecutive patients with documented primary bladder tumours invading muscle received\\u000a 3 cycles of methotrexate, vinblastin, doxorubicin and cisplatin (MVAC). The disease was re-staged by bimanual examination\\u000a with the patient under anaesthesia, CT scanning and transurethral biopsy or resection. Of the 32 patients 2 underwent total\\u000a or partial cystectomy and 30 did not, because

  11. [Bladder pheochromocytoma and pregnancy. A case report].

    PubMed

    Bouziani, A; Zidi, B; Kamoun, N; Tissaoui, K; Ben Hamadi, F; Bahri, M; Ben Ayed, M

    1993-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 31-year old patient who successfully completed a pregnancy despite unsuspected bladder pheochromocytoma. After delivery, the patient required care post-partum due to serious hemodynamic problems. Hypertension had been attributed to toxemia of pregnancy. The authors recall the diagnostic difficulties of tumors of this type, and the means which can be used for topographical diagnosis and the precautions to be taken before this tumor can be treated surgically. PMID:8351462

  12. Overactive Bladder and Outlet Obstruction in Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doreen E. Chung; Jaspreet S. Sandhu

    2011-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), overactive bladder, (OAB), and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are very commonly experienced\\u000a in men. The mainstay of pharmacotherapy for OAB is the antimuscarinic class of drugs. There has been reluctance to prescribe\\u000a these agents to men with BPH due to the risk of precipitating urinary retention. Several trials have supported the efficacy\\u000a and safety of

  13. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Devices § 882.5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Devices § 882.5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder...

  15. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Devices § 882.5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder...

  16. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Devices § 882.5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder...

  17. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Devices § 882.5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation...Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder...

  18. Screening for Bladder Cancer: Recommendations from the U.S.Preventive Services Task Force

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms that are also common with other conditions. Risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking; family history of bladder cancer; and working in the chemical, rubber, or leather industries. Screening tests that might ?nd bladder cancer before ...

  19. The in vivo Formation of N-Nitrosamines in the Rat Bladder and their Subsequent Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Hawksworth, G.; Hill, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments are described which demonstrate the production of nitrosamine in vivo in the bladder of rats with experimental bladder infections. The absorption of nitrosamines from the bladder into the circulating blood is also described. PMID:4605274

  20. Evaluation of vertical profiles to design continuous descent approach procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, Priyank

    The current research focuses on predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA), which is among the key concepts of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The idle-thrust CDA is a fuel economical, noise and emission abatement procedure, but requires increased separation to accommodate for variability and uncertainties in vertical and speed profiles of arriving aircraft. Although a considerable amount of researches have been devoted to the estimation of potential benefits of the CDA, only few have attempted to explain the predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of CDA. The analytical equations derived using flight dynamics and Base of Aircraft and Data (BADA) Total Energy Model (TEM) in this research gives insight into dependency of vertical profile of CDA on various factors like wind speed and gradient, weight, aircraft type and configuration, thrust settings, atmospheric factors (deviation from ISA (DISA), pressure and density of the air) and descent speed profile. Application of the derived equations to idle-thrust CDA gives an insight into sensitivity of its vertical profile to multiple factors. This suggests fixed geometric flight path angle (FPA) CDA has higher degree of predictability and lesser variability at the cost of non-idle and low thrust engine settings. However, with optimized design this impact can be overall minimized. The CDA simulations were performed using Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) based on radar-track and aircraft type data (BADA) of the real air-traffic to some of the busiest airports in the USA (ATL, SFO and New York Metroplex (JFK, EWR and LGA)). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA shows 1) mean geometric FPAs derived from various simulated vertical profiles are consistently shallower than 3° glideslope angle and 2) high level of variability in vertical profiles of idle-thrust CDA even in absence of uncertainties in external factors. Analysis from operational feasibility perspective suggests that two key features of the performance based Flight Management System (FMS) i.e. required time of arrival (RTA) and geometric descent path would help in reduction of unpredictability associated with arrival time and vertical profile of aircraft guided by the FMS coupled with auto-pilot (AP) and auto-throttle (AT). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA also suggests that for procedure design window type, 'AT or above' and 'AT or below' altitude and FPA constraints are more realistic and useful compared to obsolete 'AT' type altitude constraint.

  1. Urothelial effects of oral agents for overactive bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Erik Andersson; Claudius Fullhase; Roberto Soler

    2008-01-01

    The cholinergic system of the bladder includes muscarinic receptors distributed to detrusor myocytes and structures within\\u000a mucosa including bladder afferent (sensory) nerves. The receptors have been shown to be involved in afferent signaling from\\u000a the bladder, but it has not been established to what extent effects on this mucosal signaling pathway contribute to the therapeutic\\u000a efficacy of the clinically used

  2. Alterations in muscarinic receptor subtype function in the bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan S. Braverman

    2009-01-01

    Acetylcholine released from nerves mediates smooth muscle contraction of the bladder. This contractile response is primarily\\u000a mediated by the M3 receptor subtype in most smooth muscles, including the bladder. Anticholinergics are one of the primary treatments for overactive\\u000a bladder. The target for these anticholinergics may be muscarinic receptors in the detrusor muscle, the urothelial layer, or\\u000a even presynaptic nerves. This

  3. Pharmacological Effects of Darifenacin on Human Isolated Urinary Bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Miyamae; Masaki Yoshida; Shigetaka Murakami; Hitoshi Iwashita; Masayuki Ohtani; Koichi Masunaga; Shoichi Ueda

    2003-01-01

    Darifenacin [(S)-2--2,2-diphenylacetamide] is a novel antimuscarinic drug currently undergoing phase III trials for the treatment of overactive bladder. We investigated the functional antagonist potency of darifenacin, and the antimuscarinic drugs propiverine, oxybutynin and atropine, on human detrusor smooth muscle. Urinary bladder specimens were obtained from 20 patients who underwent total cystectomy for malignant bladder tumor. Using an organ-bath technique, the

  4. Bladder-Sparing Surgery in Locally Advanced Nonurological Pelvic Malignancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Siva Prasad; K. N. Chacko; D. Antony; G. Lionel; N. S. Kekre; G. Gopalakrishnan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The urinary bladder is commonly involved in pelvic malignancy. The incidence of apparent extension into adjacent organs in locally advanced colorectal malignancy is 5–12%. It is not known with other pelvic malignancy. No guidelines are available for its management. Often a dilemma exists between cystectomy and a bladder-sparing procedure. We studied the validity of bladder-sparing surgery (BSS) in locally

  5. Impact of gender on bladder cancer incidence, staging, and prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harun Fajkovic; Joshua A. Halpern; Eugene K. Cha; Atessa Bahadori; Thomas F. Chromecki; Pierre I. Karakiewicz; Eckart Breinl; Axel S Merseburger; Shahrokh F. Shariat

    Introduction  While patient gender is an important factor in the clinical decision-making for the management of bladder cancer, there are\\u000a minimal evidence-based recommendations to guide health care professionals. Recent epidemiologic and translational research\\u000a has shed some light on the complex relationship between gender and bladder cancer. Our aim was to review the literature on\\u000a the effect of gender on bladder cancer

  6. Bladder Cancer Screening in Aluminum Smelter Workers

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Oyebode A.; Slade, Martin D.; Cantley, Linda F.; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R.; Donoghue, A. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present results of a bladder cancer screening program conducted in 18 aluminum smelters in the United States from January 2000 to December 2010. Methods: Data were collected on a cohort of workers with a history of working in coal tar pitch volatile exposed areas including urine analysis for conventional cytology and ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ assay. Results: ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ and cytology in combination showed a sensitivity of 62.30%, a specificity of 92.60%, a negative predictive value of 99.90%, and a positive predictive value of 2.96%. Fourteen cases of bladder cancer were detected, and the standardized incidence ratio of bladder cancer was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.99). Individuals who tested positive on either test who were later determined to be cancer free had undergone expensive and invasive tests. Conclusions: Evidence to support continued surveillance of this cohort has not been demonstrated. PMID:25525927

  7. Acetabular morphology in bladder exstrophy complex.

    PubMed

    Nehme, Alexandre; Oakes, Daniel; Perry, Matthew J; Hawatmeh, Salim I; Trousdale, Robert T

    2007-05-01

    Little information is available concerning the acetabular morphology in adults with a history of bladder exstrophy. We documented the pelvic anatomy in adult patients with bladder exstrophy who never had prior surgery. We retrospectively reviewed 31 patients (62 hips) seen from 1976 to 2003 for urologic problems related to bladder exstrophy without adjunctive pelvic osteotomy. There were 18 males and 13 females with an average age of 30 years at last followup. Radiographs at final followup were analyzed for lateral center-edge angle, acetabular index, head extrusion, hip center of rotation, acetabular version, retroversion index, sacral width, and interteardrop distance. Most hips (60 hips) had no arthritis. The average lateral center-edge angle, ace-tabular index, and head extrusion index were 32 degrees, 5.7 degrees, and 0.266%, respectively. Fifty-eight percent of hips had a retroverted acetabulum and 42% were neutral or anteverted. The interteardrop distance averaged 154 mm. Most patients will not have early arthritis develop, and the majority of patients (58%) have retroverted orientation of the acetabulum. PMID:17308482

  8. Optimal treatment for metastatic bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Carballido, Estrella M; Rosenberg, Jonathan E

    2014-09-01

    Metastatic bladder cancer is a lethal disease. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy, including the combination regimens gemcitabine-cisplatin and methotrexate-vinblastine-doxorubicin-cisplatin, are the standard first-line therapies. Second-line therapies have modest activity and no significant improvement in patient outcomes. Agents targeting growth, survival, and proliferation pathways have been added to cytotoxic therapy with limited added benefit to date. Modulating host immune response to cancer-associated antigens appears promising, with multiple new therapeutic approaches being pursued. Next-generation sequencing of invasive urothelial carcinoma has provided insights into the biology of this disease and potential actionable targets. Alterations in the receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras pathway and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway represent potential therapeutic targets in advanced disease, and novel agents are in development. Recent data from the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network bladder cancer cohort and other efforts suggest that mutations in chromatin-regulatory genes are very common in invasive bladder tumors, and are more frequent than in other studied tumors. The discovery of new genomic alterations challenges drug development to change the course of this disease. PMID:25056737

  9. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. 9.109 Section... § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name...section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b)...

  10. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. 9.109 Section... § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name...section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b)...

  11. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. 9.109 Section... § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name...section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b)...

  12. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. 9.109 Section... § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name...section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b)...

  13. Bladder endometriosis, a remarkable resemblance in a monozygotic twin.

    PubMed

    van Beek, J J

    2010-11-01

    It is known for many years that heritability plays a role in the development of endometriosis in many patients. Deep endometriosis of the bladder is a rare presentation of the disease and bladder endometriosis was not reported in monozygotic twin studies so far. Since monozygotic twins share the same genes, concordance and differences in presentation of endometriosis may help to discriminate between genetic and environmental determinants. The remarkable resemblance in the presentation of bladder endometriosis in this monozygotic twin seems to indicate that genetic factors are of importance in the arising of deep endometriosis in the bladder too. PMID:21125001

  14. Bladder function in congenital non-cystic spinal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Scott, J E

    1982-01-01

    Disturbances of bladder function in 11 children with congenital non-cystic spinal anomalies are described. The spinal anomalies were divided into 2 groups, segmental and dysraphic. The segmental group comprised 6 children with sacral agenesis : their bladder disturbance was characterised by incontinence without bladder distension. The dysraphic group contained 5 children who had lesions such as intra thecal lipomata or severe kypho-scoliosis : they had incontinence due to retention with overflow. Manometric studies of the bladder and urethra were helpful in differentiating the types of functional disturbance. In some children incontinence improved spontaneously, others were helped by pharmacological agents or by intermittent catheterisation. PMID:6756659

  15. Bladder endometriosis, a remarkable resemblance in a monozygotic twin

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    It is known for many years that heritability plays a role in the development of endometriosis in many patients. Deep endometriosis of the bladder is a rare presentation of the disease and bladder endometriosis was not reported in monozygotic twin studies so far. Since monozygotic twins share the same genes, concordance and differences in presentation of endometriosis may help to discriminate between genetic and environmental determinants. The remarkable resemblance in the presentation of bladder endometriosis in this monozygotic twin seems to indicate that genetic factors are of importance in the arising of deep endometriosis in the bladder too. PMID:21125001

  16. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Mediates PAR-Induced Bladder Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kouzoukas, Dimitrios E.; Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L.; Ma, Fei; Westlund, Karin N.; Hunt, David E.; Vera, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is constitutively expressed in urothelial cells that also express protease-activated receptors (PAR). Urothelial PAR1 receptors were shown to mediate bladder inflammation. We showed that PAR1 and PAR4 activator, thrombin, also mediates urothelial MIF release. We hypothesized that stimulation of urothelial PAR1 or PAR4 receptors elicits release of urothelial MIF that acts on MIF receptors in the urothelium to mediate bladder inflammation and pain. Thus, we examined the effect of activation of specific bladder PAR receptors on MIF release, bladder pain, micturition and histological changes. Methods MIF release was measured in vitro after exposing immortalized human urothelial cells (UROtsa) to PAR1 or PAR4 activating peptides (AP). Female C57BL/6 mice received intravesical PAR1- or PAR4-AP for one hour to determine: 1) bladder MIF release in vivo within one hour; 2) abdominal hypersensitivity (allodynia) to von Frey filament stimulation 24 hours after treatment; 3) micturition parameters 24 hours after treatment; 4) histological changes in the bladder as a result of treatment; 5) changes in expression of bladder MIF and MIF receptors using real-time RT-PCR; 6) changes in urothelial MIF and MIF receptor, CXCR4, protein levels using quantitative immunofluorescence; 7) effect of MIF or CXCR4 antagonism. Results PAR1- or PAR4-AP triggered MIF release from both human urothelial cells in vitro and mouse urothelium in vivo. Twenty-four hours after intravesical PAR1- or PAR4-AP, we observed abdominal hypersensitivity in mice without changes in micturition or bladder histology. PAR4-AP was more effective and also increased expression of bladder MIF and urothelium MIF receptor, CXCR4. Bladder CXCR4 localized to the urothelium. Antagonizing MIF with ISO-1 eliminated PAR4- and reduced PAR1-induced hypersensitivity, while antagonizing CXCR4 with AMD3100 only partially prevented PAR4-induced hypersensitivity. Conclusions Bladder PAR activation elicits urothelial MIF release and urothelial MIF receptor signaling at least partly through CXCR4 to result in abdominal hypersensitivity without overt bladder inflammation. PAR-induced bladder pain may represent an interesting pre-clinical model of Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS) where pain occurs without apparent bladder injury or pathology. MIF is potentially a novel therapeutic target for bladder pain in IC/PBS patients. PMID:26020638

  17. Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Relation to Bladder Cancer Risk – The Shanghai Bladder Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Li; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wang, Renwei; Nelson, Heather H.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Chan, Kenneth; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2010-01-01

    Background Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) contains tobacco carcinogens. Hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) are important isoenzymes in activation and detoxification, respectively, of tobacco carcinogens. Data on ETS and bladder cancer risk are sparse. Methods We examined the effects of ETS alone and combined with NAT2/CYP1A2 on bladder cancer risk among lifelong-nonsmokers in a case-control study involving 195 patients and 261 controls in Shanghai, China. A comprehensive history of ETS exposure was determined through in-person interviews while CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotypes by a caffeine-based urinary assay. Results ETS exposure was related to an overall statistically non-significant 38% increased bladder cancer risk. The risk increased with increasing number of cigarettes smoked by household members or number of hours per day at workplace where coworkers smoked. Compared with no ETS exposure, subjects living with smoking parents during childhood had an OR of 2.43 (95% CI=0.99–5.96) for bladder cancer. When all ETS sources were combined, the risk increased with increasing total ETS score (Ptrend = 0.03). The OR for high versus nil ETS exposure was 3.00 (95% CI =1.24–7.26). The increased risk with ETS was mainly seen among individuals possessing a CYP1A2 high efficiency and/or a NAT2 slow acetylation phenotype (Ptrend = 0.04). Conclusions ETS was associated with an increased bladder cancer risk for lifelong-nonsmokers. The association was stronger for people possessing the at-risk phenotypes of CYP1A2 and/or NAT2. Impact Reducing exposure to ETS for children and genetically more susceptible individuals could be more effective for bladder cancer prevention. PMID:21056942

  18. Mars Exploration Rovers Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Knocke, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover mission successfully landed two rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" on Mars on January 4th and 25th of 2004, respectively. The trajectory analysis performed to define the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) scenario is described. The entry requirements and constraints are presented, as well as uncertainties used in a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis to statistically assess the robustness of the entry design to off-nominal conditions. In the analysis, six-degree-of-freedom and three-degree-of-freedom trajectory results are compared to assess the entry characteristics of the capsule. Comparison of the preentry results to preliminary post-landing reconstruction data shows that all EDL parameters were within the requirements. In addition, the final landing position for both "Spirit" and "Opportunity" were within 15 km of the predicted landing location.

  19. Mars Exploration Rover: Launch, Cruise, Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, James K.; Manning, Robert M.; Adler, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Project was an ambitious effort to land two highly capable rovers on Mars and concurrently explore the Martian surface for three months each. Launched in June and July of 2003, cruise operations were conducted through January 4, 2004 with the first landing, followed by the second landing on January 25. The prime mission for the second rover ended on April 27, 2004. This paper will provide an overview of the launch, cruise, and landing phases of the mission, including the engineering and science objectives and challenges involved in the selection and targeting of the landing sites, as well as the excitement and challenges of atmospheric entry, descent and landing execution.

  20. A guidance law for hypersonic descent to a point

    SciTech Connect

    Eisler, G.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hull, D.G. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1992-05-01

    A neighboring external control problem is formulated for a hypersonic glider to execute a maximum-terminal-velocity descent to a stationary target. The resulting two-part, feedback control scheme initially solves a nonlinear algebraic problem to generate a nominal trajectory to the target altitude. Secondly, a neighboring optimal path computation about the nominal provides a lift and side-force perturbations necessary to achieve the target downrange and crossrange. On-line feedback simulations of the proposed scheme and a form of proportional navigation are compared with an off-line parameter optimization method. The neighboring optimal terminal velocity compares very well with the parameter optimization solution and is far superior to proportional navigation. 8 refs.

  1. A guidance law for hypersonic descent to a point

    SciTech Connect

    Eisler, G.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Hull, D.G. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A neighboring external control problem is formulated for a hypersonic glider to execute a maximum-terminal-velocity descent to a stationary target. The resulting two-part, feedback control scheme initially solves a nonlinear algebraic problem to generate a nominal trajectory to the target altitude. Secondly, a neighboring optimal path computation about the nominal provides a lift and side-force perturbations necessary to achieve the target downrange and crossrange. On-line feedback simulations of the proposed scheme and a form of proportional navigation are compared with an off-line parameter optimization method. The neighboring optimal terminal velocity compares very well with the parameter optimization solution and is far superior to proportional navigation. 8 refs.

  2. Analysis of Atmospheric Mesoscale Models for Entry, Descent and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kass, D. M.; Schofield, J. T.; Michaels, T. I.; Rafkin, S. C. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Toigo, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    Each Mars Exploration Rover (MER) is sensitive to the martian winds encountered near the surface during the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) process. These winds are strongly influenced by local (mesoscale) conditions. In the absence of suitable wind observations, wind fields predicted by martian mesoscale atmospheric models have been analyzed to guide landing site selection. Two different models were used, the MRAMS model and the Mars MM5 model. In order to encompass both models and render their results useful to the EDL engineering team, a series of statistical techniques were applied to the model results. These analyses cover the high priority landing sites during the expected landing times (1200 to 1500 local time). The number of sites studied is limited by the computational and analysis cost of the mesoscale models.

  3. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  4. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Alexashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2012-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behaviour of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyse and test the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favourable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  5. Increased susceptibility of estrogen-induced bladder outlet obstruction in a novel mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tam, Neville Ngai-Chung; Zhang, Xiang; Xiao, Hong; Song, Dan; Levin, Linda; Meller, Jarek; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2015-05-01

    Disorders of the prostate and lower urinary tract are common in elderly men. We investigated the role of metallothionein-1 (MT1) in prostate carcinogenesis by generating a prostate-specific, MT1-expressing mouse. Unexpectedly, genomic analyses revealed that a 12.1-kb genomic region harboring several conserved noncoding elements was unintentionally deleted, upstream of the transgene integration site in the mouse, which we named it 12.1?MT1. Male 12.1?MT1 mice chronically treated with testosterone (T) plus 17?-estradiol (E2) to induce prostate cancer exhibited no evidence of precancerous or cancerous lesions. Instead, most of them exhibited a bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) phenotype not observed in treated wild-type (WT) mice. Thus, we hypothesized that 12.1?MT1 is a novel model for studying the hormonal requirement for BOO induction. Adult male 12.1?MT1 and WT mice were treated with T, E2, bisphenol A (BPA), T+E2, or T+BPA for up to 6 months. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the prostate, bladder, and urethra were performed. No significant prostate pathologies were observed in WT or 12.1?MT1 mice treated with any of the hormone regimens. As expected, prostatic regression occurred in all E2-treated animals (WT and 12.1?MT1). Of great interest, despite a small prostate, 100% of E2-treated 12.1?MT1 mice, but only 40% of E2-treated WT mice, developed severe BOO (P<0.01). In contrast, T+E2 treatment was less effective than E2 treatment in inducing severe BOO in 12.1?MT1 mice (68%, P<0.05) and was completely ineffective in WT animals. Similarly, T, BPA, and T+BPA treatments did not induce BOO in either WT or 12.1?MT1 mice. The BOO pathology includes a thinner detrusor wall, narrowing of bladder neck and urethral lumen, and basal cell hyperplasia in the bladder body and urethra. These findings indicate that 12.1?MT1 mice exhibit enhanced susceptibility to E2-induced BOO that is independent of prostate enlargement but that is attenuated by the conjoint treatment with T. PMID:25706094

  6. Roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in the pathogenesis of octreotide induced gall bladder stones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S H Hussaini; S P Pereira; M J Veysey; C Kennedy; P Jenkins; G M Murphy; J A Wass; R H Dowling

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Octreotide treatment of acromegalic patients increases the % deoxycholic acid conjugates and the cholesterol saturation of gall bladder bile, and induces gall stone formation. AIMS--To study the roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in these phenomena. METHODS AND PATIENTS--Gall bladder emptying and mouth to caecum transit was measured in (a) control subjects and acromegalic patients given saline or

  7. Large Vaginal and Bladder Calculi in a Woman With Previous Operation of Bladder Exstrophy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli, Mahmoud; Ghoreifi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    This is to report the case of a huge vaginal stone, and bladder calculi in a 26-year-old woman with previous operation of bladder exstrophy. It seems that the vaginal stone was secondary to the remaining wire used in her previous reconstructive surgery for pelvic closure 20 years ago and now surgery is performed to remove the vaginal and bladder stones. PMID:24719809

  8. Do current bladder smooth muscle cell isolation procedures result in a homogeneous cell population? Implications for bladder tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun K. Sharma; Jena L. Donovan; Jennifer A. Hagerty; Ryan R. Sullivan; Seby L. Edassery; Daniel A. Harrington; Earl Y. Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  Conventional techniques used to harvest and culture bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been thought to yield homogeneous\\u000a populations of SMCs. In order to delineate the cellular composition of tissue derived bladder cells, this study was conducted\\u000a to determine whether current culturing techniques result in a uniform population of bladder SMCs that may be utilized for\\u000a bladder tissue engineering.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patient

  9. In vivo bladder selectivity of imidafenacin, a novel antimuscarinic agent, assessed by using an effectiveness index for bladder capacity in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takanobu Yamazaki; Yukiko Muraki; Tsuyoshi Anraku

    2011-01-01

    Imidafenacin (KRP-197) is a novel antimuscarinic agent for overactive bladder treatment. The inhibitory effect of imidafenacin\\u000a on detrusor contraction has been adopted for assessing their bladder selectivity, but this is becoming less convincing as\\u000a an effectiveness index. We, therefore, reevaluated the bladder selectivity of imidafenacin and other antimuscarinics using\\u000a their effects on the bladder capacity as an effectiveness index. Bladder

  10. Ectopic cervical thymus as a rare cause of pediatric neck mass: the role of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis. Case report.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Alper; Akdur, Pinar Ozdem?r; Celebi, Irfan; Karasu, Rabia; Yilmaz, Banu; Basak, Muzaffer

    2015-06-01

    Ectopic cervical thymus (ECT) is an uncommon cause for cervical mass in the pediatric age group. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings of the mass (located along the thymic descent pathway along the thymopharyngeal tract and has identical echostructure and signal intensities to the native thymus in the superior mediastinum) would lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis is confirmed by fine needle aspiration biopsy or histopathology after resection. The management of ECT is a conservative follow up, except in symptomatic cases with tracheal compression and histologically confirmed neoplasia where surgery is indicated. We present the case of ECT presenting as a left upper neck mass in a 12 year old girl. PMID:26052578

  11. Inter-Vertebral Flexibility of the Ostrich Neck: Implications for Estimating Sauropod Neck Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Cobley, Matthew J.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Barrett, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus). The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50). This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data. PMID:23967284

  12. Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    , such a sport injury or motor vehicle accident. More common and less dramatic causes include reaching or pulling trauma to head occurred or headache is severe. This side effect will resolve in time. Most injuriesNeck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES: Neck pain may be triggered by a specific event

  13. Molecular genetics of bladder cancer: targets for diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Baffa, R; Letko, J; McClung, C; LeNoir, J; Vecchione, A; Gomella, L G

    2006-06-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is a common tumor. While most patients presenting superficial disease can be expected to do well following treatment, still many patients will return to our office with muscle invasive and metastatic disease. Survival in advanced bladder cancer is less than 50%. Tumors of similar histologic grade and stage have variable behavior, suggesting that genetic alterations must be present to explain the diverse behavior of bladder cancer. It is hoped that through the study of the subtle genetic alterations in bladder cancer, important prognostic and therapeutic targets can be exploited. Many new diagnostic tests and gene therapy approaches rely on the identification and targeting of these unique genetic alterations. A review of literature published on the molecular genetics of bladder cancer from 1970 to the present was conducted. A variety of molecular genetic alterations have been identified in bladder cancer. Oncogenes (H-ras, erbB-2, EGFR, MDM2, C-MYC, CCND1), tumor suppressor genes (p53, Rb, p21, p27/KIP1, p16, PTEN, STK15, FHIT, FEZ1/LZTS1, bc10), telomerase, and methylation have all been studied in bladder cancer. Several have proven to be potentially useful clinical targets in the prognosis and therapy of bladder cancer such as staining for p53 and gene therapy strategies such as p53 and fez1. Clinical trials targeting HER2/neu and the EGFR pathways are underway. The UroVysion bladder cancer assay relies on FISH to detect genetic alterations in this disease. Continuing identification of the molecular genetic alterations in bladder cancer will enhance future diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder cancer. Capitalizing on these alterations will allow early detection, providing important prognostic information and unique targets for gene therapy and other therapeutic approaches. PMID:16918124

  14. Neck pain brought into focus.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hans O

    2014-01-01

    A time honored dictum states that the eyes "lead the body", i.e., that the body typically adjusts its position to compensate for an impoverished retinal image (e.g., as due to optical blur, and/or inappropriately sized visual target). But only moderate or low level of evidence exists in support of this view. Inconclusive evidence does not, however, equal negative evidence. The accommodation/vergence system does exhibit signs of overload in contemporary working life, including eye discomfort, transient myopia, altered pattern of eye-lens oscillations, and associated phoria. Accommodation/vergence overload, caused by non-ergonomic near work, may also emerge as quickly as within one regular workday. Long-term musculoskeletal consequences of high accommodation/vergence demands have nevertheless not yet been studied in any detail. A research agenda which aims to provide multi-scientific evidence for eye-neck/shoulder interactions with public health implications and which also, in addition, study the eye-neck/shoulder mechanisms and elucidates the operating characteristics, should consequently be highly warranted. This new knowledge would be useful for physiotherapists, ergonomists and opticians, who in their profession treat patients experiencing vision- and musculoskeletal disorders. If both visual and the musculoskeletal aspects are given full and equal weight in the design and evaluation of work places, it is predicted to lead to an improved quality of life for the individual worker, and an enhanced productivity for the employer. PMID:24284669

  15. Comparison of transperineal and transabdominal ultrasound in the assessment of voluntary pelvic floor muscle contractions and functional manoeuvres in continent and incontinent women.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Judith A; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Briffa, N Kathryn; Neumann, Patricia

    2007-07-01

    Transperineal (TP) and transabdominal (TA) ultrasounds were used to assess bladder neck (TP) and bladder base (TA) movement during voluntary pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction and functional tasks. A sonographer assessed 60 asymptomatic (30 nulliparous, 30 parous) and 60 incontinent (30 stress, 30 urge) women with a mean age of 43 (SD=7) years, BMI of 24 (SD=4) kg m2 and a median parity of 2 (range, 0-5), using both ultrasound methods. The mean of three measurements for bladder neck and bladder base (sagittal view) movement for each task was assessed for differences between the groups. There were no differences in bladder neck (p=0.096) or bladder base (p=0.112) movement between the four groups during voluntary PFM contraction but significant differences in bladder neck (p<0.004) and a trend towards differences in bladder base (p=0.068) movement during Valsalva and abdominal curl manoeuvre. During PFM contraction, there was a strong trend for the continent women to have greater bladder neck elevation (p=0.051), but no difference in bladder base movement (p=0.300), when compared to the incontinent women. The incontinent women demonstrated increased bladder neck descent during Valsalva and abdominal curl (p<0.001) and bladder base descent during Valsalva (p=0.021). The differences between the groups were more marked during functional activities, suggesting that comprehensive assessment of the PFM should include functional activities as well as voluntary PFM contractions. TP ultrasound was more reliable and takes measures from a bony landmark when compared to TA ultrasound, which lacks a reference point for measurements. TA ultrasound is less suitable for PFM measures during functional manoeuvres and comparisons between subjects. Few subjects were overweight so the results may not be valid in an obese population. PMID:17043739

  16. Urethral Recurrence of Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Lebret; Jean-Marie Hervé; Philippe Barré; François Gaudez; Pierre-Marie Lugagne; Michel Barbagelatta; Henry Botto

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The management of the male urethra after cystectomy for bladder cancer continues to be a dilemma. Patients who undergo a cystectomy require either urinary diversion or bladder substitution. Therefore, the use of the urethra to ensure voiding is important. On the other hand, the probable risk of urethral carcinoma recurrence is generally estimated at approximately 10%. The aim of

  17. Concepts in causality: chemically induced human urinary bladder cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald M. Lower; G. M. Jr

    1982-01-01

    A significant portion of the incidence of human urinary bladder cancer can be attributed to occupational and cultural (tobacco smoking) situations associated with exposures to various arylamines, many of which represent established human carcinogens. A brief historical overview of research in bladder cancer causality indicates that the identification of causal agents and causal mechanism has been approached and rests upon

  18. Primary lymphoma of the bladder: A unique cystoscopic appearance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Downs; A. S. Kibel; W. C. DeWolf

    1997-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the bladder is a rare disorder that occurs in the fifth to seventh decades, with a female preponderance. Although computed tomographic scanning is the best diagnostic imaging study, cystoscopic biopsy and immunoperoxidase staining are needed to make the diagnosis. Primary lymphoma of the bladder has a good prognosis and responds to a variety of therapeutic modalities. Throughout

  19. Neonatal rupture of the bladder secondary to posterior urethral valves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Johanson

    1982-01-01

    Rupture of the neonatal urinary bladder during pregnancy or delivery is an extremely rare event, in some patients seondary to posterior urethral valves. In a recent case early diagnosis facilitated prompt surgical repair. A temporary bladder fistula secured survival and micturition cystourethrography establishment of the valves, which were successfully resected at two weeks of age.

  20. Idiopathic bladder hyperactivity treated with Ditropan (oxybutynin chloride)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Nagy; A. Hamvas; D. Frang

    1990-01-01

    Ditropan (oxybutynin chloride), a tertiary amine with slight anticholinergic and marked “papaverine-like” direct spasmolytic\\u000a effects has been administered to 25 patients with idiopathic hyperactive bladder function. The drug reduced voiding frequency\\u000a and abolished urgency. Control cystometry confirmed a significant increase in bladder capacity. Oral dryness was a tolerable\\u000a side effect.

  1. Intravesical Oxybutynin: A Local Anesthetic Effect on Bladder C Afferents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEFAN DE WACHTER; JEAN-JACQUES WYNDAELE

    2003-01-01

    PurposeIntravesical oxybutynin is used to control bladder overactivity in patients who are refractory to or cannot tolerate oxybutynin given orally. Although it is clinically effective, the mode of action of intravesical oxybutynin remains unclear. We tested the influence of intravesical oxybutynin on single fiber pelvic nerve afferents from the rat bladder.

  2. MicroRNA profiling in kidney and bladder cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fedra Gottardo; Chang Gong Liu; Manuela Ferracin; George A. Calin; Matteo Fassan; Pierfrancesco Bassi; Cinzia Sevignani; Dolores Byrne; Massimo Negrini; Francesco Pagano; Leonard G. Gomella; Carlo M. Croce; Raffaele Baffa

    2007-01-01

    ObjectivesMicro-RNAs are a group of small noncoding RNAs with modulator activity of gene expression. Recently, micro-RNA genes were found abnormally expressed in several types of cancers. To study the role of the micro-RNAs in human kidney and bladder cancer, we analyzed the expression profile of 245 micro-RNAs in kidney and bladder primary tumors.

  3. Solifenacin succinate for the treatment of symptoms of overactive bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Maniscalco; Devada Singh-Franco; William R. Wolowich; Rolando Torres-Colón

    2006-01-01

    Background:Overactivity of the bladder detrusor muscle can result in urinary urgency, frequency, and incontinence. Antimuscarinic agents are the treatment of choice, as they reduce the contractility of this muscle. Solifenacin succinate (SOL) is a competitive muscarinic-receptor antagonist approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in late 2004 for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) with symptoms of urge urinary

  4. Quality indicators in the management of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Miller, David C; Weizer, Alon Z

    2013-04-01

    Bladder cancer is predominantly seen in elderly patients. With the aging United States population, the incidence and prevalence of bladder cancer are on the rise, heightening the relevance of this disease as a public health issue. Despite having one of the greatest average cancer treatment costs per patient, improvements in disease-specific survival have been subtle. Clinical guidelines based predominantly on expert opinion and randomized controlled studies offer some guidance, but adherence to these guidelines is lacking. Building awareness of quality indicators to optimize patient care represents an opportunity to improve bladder cancer outcomes. Although quality indicators exist for other disease states, widely accepted quality indicators for the management of bladder cancer have not yet been established. This article proposes an initial set of quality indicators for both non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer based on established clinical guidelines and the available literature. PMID:23584349

  5. Laparoscopic diverticulocystoplasty for low compliance bladder in a child.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Manickam; Senthil, Kallappan; Murugesan, Anandan; Pai, Mizar Ganapathy

    2012-01-01

    Low compliance bladder with a posterior urethral valve is a common association. Augmentation cystoplasty is one of the management options. We present the case report of a 4-y-old boy who presented with low compliance bladder, bladder diverticulum, right obstructive megaureter, and left grade IV reflux, 6 mo following PUV fulguration. He was managed by laparoscopic diverticulocystoplasty with right ureteric reimplantation and left detrusorrhaphy. The patient showed subjective and urodynamic improvement at 12 mo follow-up. The use of diverticulum for augmentation is advantageous, as it abides by the principle of bladder augmentation with urothelium. This is the first case report of successful use of diverticulum for laparoscopic bladder augmentation in a child. PMID:23318084

  6. Confocal reflectance imaging of excised malignant human bladder biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Kastein, Albrecht; Koenig, Frank; Sachs, Markus; Schnorr, Dietmar; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the potential of reflectance confocal scanning laser microscopy (CM) for rapid imaging of non-processed freshly excised human bladder biopsies and cystectomy specimens. Freshly excised bladder tumors from three cystectomy specimens and random biopsies from twenty patients with a history of superficial bladder tumors were imaged with CM. Additional acetic acid washing prior to CM imaging was performed in some of the samples. Confocal images were compared to corresponding routine histologic sections. CM allows imaging of unprocessed bladder tissue at a subcellular resolution. Urothelial cell layers, collagen, vessels and muscle fibers can be rapidly visualized, in native state. In this regard, umbrella cells, basement membrane elucidated. Besides obvious limitations partly due to non-use of exogenous dyes, CM imaging offers several advantages: rapid imaging of the tissue in its native state like the basement membrane, normally seen only by using immunohistopathology. Reflectance CM opens a new avenue for imaging bladder cancer.

  7. Radical Cystectomy and Orthotopic Bladder Substitution Using Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinsung

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, continent urinary diversion, especially orthotopic bladder substitutions, has become increasingly popular following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. The ultimate goal of orthotopic bladder substitution is to offer patients the best quality of life, similar to that of patients with native bladders. To achieve that purpose, surgeons should be familiar with the characteristics of good candidates for neobladders, the possible intraoperative and postoperative problems related to the surgery, and the solutions to these problems. Postoperative surveillance and instructions given to the patients also contribute to successful, functional results. Here, we reviewed the indications, pitfalls, and solutions for orthotopic bladder substitutions and the patients' quality of life after surgery. When performed properly, orthotopic continent diversion offers good quality of life with few long-term complications. Therefore, we believe it is the best option for the majority of patients requiring cystectomy. PMID:21556208

  8. [A case of true carcinosarcoma in bladder diverticulum].

    PubMed

    Hara, S; Miyazaki, S; Yamazaki, T; Hara, I; Fujisawa, M; Gohji, K; Okada, H; Arakawa, S; Kamidono, S; Hanioka, K

    1999-04-01

    We report a case of carcinosarcoma arising from a bladder diverticulum. A 71-year-old male was referred to our hospital for macroscopic hematuria. Two diverticula were identified in the left wall of the urinary bladder, one of which showed a broad-based tumor. The bladder tumor was resected using a transuretheral approach and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma. The patient underwent partial resection of the bladder including the two diverticula and the tumor. Pathological examination revealed that the resected specimen was composed of three elements, transitional cell carcinoma (G3), squamous cell carcinoma, and leiomyosarcoma. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with carcinosarcoma. He died 5 months after surgery to remove the panperitonitis carcinomatosa. This case is the 38th reported case of bladder carcinosarcoma in Japan. PMID:10363148

  9. Pathophysiology and animal modeling of underactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Smith, Phillip P.; Kuchel, George A.; de Groat, William C.; Birder, Lori A.; Chermansky, Christopher J.; Adam, Rosalyn M.; Tse, Vincent; Chancellor, Michael B.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    While the symptomology of underactive bladder (UAB) may imply a primary dysfunction of the detrusor muscle, insights into pathophysiology indicate that both myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms need to be considered. Due to lack of proper animal models, the current understanding of the UAB pathophysiology is limited, and much of what is known about the clinical etiology of the condition has been derived from epidemiological data. We hereby review current state of the art in the understanding of the pathophysiology of and animal models used to study the UAB. PMID:25238890

  10. Sexual and bladder comorbidity in women.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Giulia; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction in women is defined as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and/or sexual pain, which result in significant personal distress and may have a negative effect on a woman's health and an impact on her quality of life. A comprehensive understanding of the anatomic, neurobiologic, and psychologic mechanisms behind women's sexual function and dysfunction is of paramount importance. This chapter reviews the most frequent comorbid conditions related to urinary tract symptoms (thus including symptoms related to overactive bladder syndrome and urinary incontinence) and sexual dysfunction in women. Likewise, it considers the different disorders from the point of view of daily clinical practice. PMID:26003244

  11. Pathophysiology and animal modeling of underactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Smith, Phillip P; Kuchel, George A; de Groat, William C; Birder, Lori A; Chermansky, Christopher J; Adam, Rosalyn M; Tse, Vincent; Chancellor, Michael B; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    While the symptomology of underactive bladder (UAB) may imply a primary dysfunction of the detrusor muscle, insights into pathophysiology indicate that both myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms need to be considered. Due to lack of proper animal models, the current understanding of the UAB pathophysiology is limited, and much of what is known about the clinical etiology of the condition has been derived from epidemiological data. We hereby review current state of the art in the understanding of the pathophysiology of and animal models used to study the UAB. PMID:25238890

  12. Pathology Case Study: Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Wen-Wei

    This is a genitourinary pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 84-year-old man has a bladder outlet obstruction. Visitors are given microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in genitourinary pathology.

  13. Carcinoma of gall bladder presenting as dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhaiah, Deepti Akkihebbal; Premkumar, Jennifer Anne; Moses, Viju; Chacko, Geeta

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-related muscle diseases are usually paraneoplastic disorders. Dermatomyositis (DM) is a type of inflammatory myopathy that is strongly associated with a broad range of malignant disorders. The malignancy can occur before, concomitantly or after the onset of myositis. The malignancies most commonly associated with DM are carcinomas of ovary, lung, stomach, colorectal and pancreas, as well as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. An association of DM with carcinoma of the gall bladder (GB) is extremely rare with only two previously reported cases in the literature. We report a case of carcinoma of GB with DM as the paraneoplastic manifestation. PMID:21655205

  14. Entry, Descent, and Landing Communications for the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornfeld, Richard P.; Garcia, Mark D.; Craig, Lynn E.; Butman, Stan; Signori, Gina M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses NASA's requirement on the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander to provide spacecraft communications during entry, descent, and landing on Mars to allow the identification of probable root cause should any mission failure occur. The Phoenix mission launched on 4 August 2007 and will land on 25 May 2008 on the northern plains of Mars to conduct a three-month study of the Martian environment. The paper discusses the architectural trades in designing a communications link and surveys the entry, descent, and landing communications approaches taken by previous missions. It then discusses the Phoenix-specific constraints and degrees of freedoms and presents a novel and robust implementation approach to entry, descent, and landing communications. The overall methodology and conclusions described herein can serve as a pathfinder for the entry, descent, and landing communications architecture and implementation of future Mars landed missions.

  15. 2007 Mars Phoenix Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation and Modeling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Jill L.; Grover, Myron R.; Desai, Prasun N.; Queen, Eric M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the entry, descent, and landing of the 2007 Mars Phoenix lander. Aerodynamics characteristics along with Monte Carlo analyses are also presented for launch and landing site opportunities.

  16. Stochastic Gradient Descent for Non-smooth Optimization: Convergence Results and Optimal Averaging Schemes

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Tong

    , Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 2013. Copyright 2013 by the author(s)/owner(s). Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD Tong Zhang tzhang@stat.rutgers.edu Department of Statistics, Rutgers University, Piscataway NJ 08854

  17. Recent identity by descent in human genetic data - methods and applications 

    E-print Network

    Glodzik, Dominik

    2014-11-28

    The thesis describes algorithms for detecting regions of recent identity by descent (IBD) from human genetic data and its applications in optimising resequencing studies, genomic predictions and detecting Mendelian ...

  18. A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities

    E-print Network

    Patriksson, Michael

    A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and the choices of cost approximating mappings and merit functions. The* * taxonomy is illustrated on classical algorithms and is utilized to interrelate known alg* *orithm frameworks. Keywords. Taxonomy

  19. Descent graphs in pedigree analysis: applications to haplotyping, location scores, and marker-sharing statistics.

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, E.; Lange, K.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of stochastic methods in pedigree analysis has enabled geneticists to tackle computations intractable by standard deterministic methods. Until now these stochastic techniques have worked by running a Markov chain on the set of genetic descent states of a pedigree. Each descent state specifies the paths of gene flow in the pedigree and the founder alleles dropped down each path. The current paper follows up on a suggestion by Elizabeth Thompson that genetic descent graphs offer a more appropriate space for executing a Markov chain. A descent graph specifies the paths of gene flow but not the particular founder alleles traveling down the paths. This paper explores algorithms for implementing Thompson's suggestion for codominant markers in the context of automatic haplotyping, estimating location scores, and computing gene-clustering statistics for robust linkage analysis. Realistic numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility of the algorithms. PMID:8651310

  20. Antarctic Polar Descent and Planetary Wave Activity Observed in ISAMS CO from April to July 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. R.; Stanford, J. L.; Nakamura, N.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Taylor, F. W.; Remedios, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Antarctic polar descent and planetary wave activity in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere are observed in ISAMS CO data from April to July 1992. CO-derived mean April-to-May upper stratosphere descent rates of 15 K/day (0.25 km/day) at 60 S and 20 K/day (0.33 km/day) at 80 S are compared with descent rates from diabatic trajectory analyses. At 60 S there is excellent agreement, while at 80 S the trajectory-derived descent is significantly larger in early April. Zonal wavenumber 1 enhancement of CO is observed on 9 and 28 May, coincident with enhanced wave 1 in UKMO geopotential height. The 9 May event extends from 40 to 70 km and shows westward phase tilt with height, while the 28 May event extends from 40 to 50 km and shows virtually no phase tilt with height.

  1. DSENDS -A High-Fidelity Dynamics and Spacecraft Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface Landing12

    E-print Network

    missions. We first briefly describe the core tool capabilities in dynamics, instrument/actuator device/navigation simulation modules for hypersonic steering and powered descent. Models for landing kinematics and dynamics

  2. Fabrication Assembly and Test of the Mars Science Laboratory Descent Stage Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Morgan; Baker, Ray; Casillas, Art; Strommen, Dellon; Tanimoto, Rebekah

    2013-01-01

    The Descent Stage Propulsion System (DSPS) is the most challenging and complex propulsion system ever built at JPL. Performance requirements, such as the entry Reaction Control System (RCS) requirements, and the terminal descent requirements (3300 N maximum thrust and approximately 835,000 N-s total impulse in less than a minute), required a large amount of propellant and a large number of components for a spacecraft that had to fit in a 4.5 meter aeroshell. The size and shape of the aeroshell, along with the envelope of the stowed rover, limited the configuration options for the Descent Stage structure. The configuration and mass constraints of the Descent Stage structure, along with performance requirements, drove the configuration of the DSPS. This paper will examine some of the challenges encountered and solutions developed during the fabrication, assembly, and test of the DSPS.

  3. Challenges of Dealing With Atmospheres: Entry, Descent and Landing - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Whether landing on Mars or returning to Earth, one of the most challenging parts of any mission is the entry, descent and landing. Just think -- a spacecraft hurtling through space at thousands of ...

  4. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies and causes hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide each year. Bladder cancer is strongly associated with exposure to environmental carcinogens. It is believed that DNA damage generated by environmental carcinogens and their metabolites causes development of bladder cancer. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the major DNA repair pathway for repairing bulk DNA damage generated by most environmental carcinogens, and XPC is a DNA damage recognition protein required for initiation of the NER process. Recent studies demonstrate reduced levels of XPC protein in tumors for a majority of bladder cancer patients. In this work we investigated the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer development. The results of our HDAC inhibition study revealed that the treatment of HTB4 and HTB9 bladder cancer cells with the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) caused an increase in transcription of the XPC gene in these cells. The results of our chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies indicated that the VPA treatment caused increased binding of both CREB1 and Sp1 transcription factors at the promoter region of the XPC gene for both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. The results of our immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining studies further revealed a strong correlation between the over-expression of HDAC4 and increased bladder cancer occurrence (p < 0.001) as well as a marginal significance of increasing incidence of HDAC4 positivity seen with an increase in severity of bladder cancer (p = 0.08). In addition, the results of our caspase 3 activation studies demonstrated that prior treatment with VPA increased the anticancer drug cisplatin-induced activation of caspase 3 in both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. All of these results suggest that the HDACs negatively regulate transcription of the XPC gene in bladder cancer cells and contribute to the severity of bladder tumors. PMID:21507255

  5. Transplantation of autologous minced bladder mucosa for a one-step reconstruction of a tissue engineered bladder conduit.

    PubMed

    Reinfeldt Engberg, Gisela; Lundberg, Johan; Chamorro, Clara Ibel; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Fossum, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Surgical intervention is sometimes needed to create a conduit from the abdominal wall to the bladder for self-catheterization. We developed a method for tissue engineering a conduit for bladder emptying without in vitro cell culturing as a one-step procedure. In a porcine animal model bladder, wall tissue was excised and the mucosa was minced to small particles. The particles were attached to a tube in a 1?:?3 expansion rate with fibrin glue and transplanted back by attaching the tube to the bladder and through the abdominal wall. Sham served as controls. After 4-5 weeks, conduits were assessed in respect to macroscopic and microscopic appearance in 6 pigs. Two pigs underwent radiology before termination. Gross examination revealed a patent conduit with an opening to the bladder. Histology and immunostaining showed a multilayered transitional uroepithelium in all cases. Up to 89% of the luminal surface area was neoepithelialized but with a loose attachment to the submucosa. No epithelium was found in control animals. CT imaging revealed a patent channel that could be used for filling and emptying the bladder. Animals that experienced surgical complications did not form conduits. Minced autologous bladder mucosa can be transplanted around a tubular mold to create a conduit to the urinary bladder without in vitro culturing. PMID:24288669

  6. Transplantation of Autologous Minced Bladder Mucosa for a One-Step Reconstruction of a Tissue Engineered Bladder Conduit

    PubMed Central

    Reinfeldt Engberg, Gisela; Chamorro, Clara Ibel; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2013-01-01

    Surgical intervention is sometimes needed to create a conduit from the abdominal wall to the bladder for self-catheterization. We developed a method for tissue engineering a conduit for bladder emptying without in vitro cell culturing as a one-step procedure. In a porcine animal model bladder, wall tissue was excised and the mucosa was minced to small particles. The particles were attached to a tube in a 1?:?3 expansion rate with fibrin glue and transplanted back by attaching the tube to the bladder and through the abdominal wall. Sham served as controls. After 4-5 weeks, conduits were assessed in respect to macroscopic and microscopic appearance in 6 pigs. Two pigs underwent radiology before termination. Gross examination revealed a patent conduit with an opening to the bladder. Histology and immunostaining showed a multilayered transitional uroepithelium in all cases. Up to 89% of the luminal surface area was neoepithelialized but with a loose attachment to the submucosa. No epithelium was found in control animals. CT imaging revealed a patent channel that could be used for filling and emptying the bladder. Animals that experienced surgical complications did not form conduits. Minced autologous bladder mucosa can be transplanted around a tubular mold to create a conduit to the urinary bladder without in vitro culturing. PMID:24288669

  7. Injuries to vessels of neck.

    PubMed

    Slim, M; Akel, S

    1983-01-01

    A personal experience at the American University Medical Center with vascular neck injuries occurring between May and December 1976 is reported. Five unusual cases are presented and discussed, their ages ranging between 10 and 25 years. The causative agent was shrapnel in four and bullet in one. Four of the five cases had multiple associated injuries. The vessels involved were the carotid artery with internal jugular vein in two cases, the subclavian vein in one, the superior thyroid artery in one, and the carotid and vertebral arteries in one. The treatment consisted of a combined cervico-thoracic approach in two cases, a claviculectomy in one, suture-ligation and aneurysmectomy in four and venous graft to the artery in one. The complications consisted of postoperative bleeding in one case, partial facial nerve paresis in another, and superficial wound infection in a third. No deaths occurred among the five complicated cases presented. PMID:6672545

  8. Radiotherapy and head neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, V.K.; Griffiths, C.M.; Ray, P.; Perry, R.R.; Olson, M.H.

    1980-07-01

    The mean number of lymphocytes, response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and response to concanavalin A (Con A) in whole-blood cultures for 106 patients with head and neck cancer were 83%, 73%, and 64%, respectively, of values for healthy control individuals. During radiotherapy, lymphocyte counts declined to 44% and PHA and Con A responses declined to about one third of control values. Lymphocyte counts slowly increased after treatment to 77% of control values after two years, but responses to mitogens remained at about 40%. Responses to PHA and Con A for 38 patients who lived beyond 18 months were significantly greater before and after treatment than responses for 39 patients who died within 18 months. In general, a poor pretreatment response to PHA and Con A correlated with a poor clinical course, whereas responses near the control level indicated a good clinical course.

  9. A simple method for estimating minimum autorotative descent rate of single rotor helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, P. D.; Schroers, L. G.

    1978-01-01

    Flight test results of minimum autorotative descent rate are compared with calculations based on the minimum power required for steady level flight. Empirical correction factors are derived that account for differences in energy dissipation between these two flight conditions. A method is also presented for estimating the minimum power coefficient for level flight for any helicopter for use in the empirical estimation procedure of autorotative descent rate.

  10. Analysis of Flight Management System Predictions of Idle-Thrust Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stell, Laurel

    2010-01-01

    To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the predictor and its uncertainty models, descents from cruise to the meter fix were executed using vertical navigation in a B737-700 simulator and a B777-200 simulator, both with commercial FMSs. For both aircraft types, the FMS computed the intended descent path for a specified speed profile assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and then it controlled the avionics without human intervention. The test matrix varied aircraft weight, descent speed, and wind conditions. The first analysis in this paper determined the effect of the test matrix parameters on the FMS computation of TOD location, and it compared the results to those for the current ground predictor in the Efficient Descent Advisor (EDA). The second analysis was similar but considered the time to fly a specified distance to the meter fix. The effects of the test matrix variables together with the accuracy requirements for the predictor will determine the allowable error for the predictor inputs. For the B737, the EDA prediction of meter fix crossing time agreed well with the FMS; but its prediction of TOD location probably was not sufficiently accurate to enable idle-thrust descents in congested airspace, even though the FMS and EDA gave similar shapes for TOD location as a function of the test matrix variables. For the B777, the FMS and EDA gave different shapes for the TOD location function, and the EDA prediction of the TOD location is not accurate enough to fully enable the concept. Furthermore, the differences between the FMS and EDA predictions of meter fix crossing time for the B777 indicated that at least one of them was not sufficiently accurate.

  11. Glaucoma detection: the content of optometric eye examinations for a presbyopic patient of African racial descent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Shah; D F Edgar; P G Spry; R A Harper; A Kotecha; S Rughani; B J W Evans

    2009-01-01

    Aims:Standardised patient (SP) methodology is the gold standard for evaluating clinical practice. We investigated the content of optometric eyecare for an early presbyopic SP of African racial descent, an “at-risk” patient group for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Methods:A trained actor presented unannounced as a 44-year-old patient of African racial descent, complaining of recent near vision difficulties, to 100 community optometrists for

  12. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Development Challenges and Preliminary Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent, and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview of the MSL entry, descent, and landing system, a discussion of a subset of its development challenges, and include a discussion of preliminary results of the flight reconstruction effort.

  13. Steepest Descent Trajectories on Isosurfaces of the Scalar Field and of Fluctuations of the Scalar Curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasukov, V. V.; Moldovanova, E. A.; Il'kin, E. E.; Novoselov, V. V.; Rozhkova, S. V.; Rozhkova, O. V.

    2015-05-01

    It has been shown that steepest descent trajectories on an isosurface of the scalar field or of fluctuations of the scalar curvature can serve as the geometric skeleton of galaxies, these trajectories simultaneously being isolines of the isosurface. Isolines and isosurfaces can generate matter via the mechanism of spontaneous emission of the Lemaître-Friedmann primordial atom. Steepest descent trajectories on an isosurface of fluctuations of the scalar curvature can also serve as the skeleton of quantum inhomogeneities of the density in GTR.

  14. Penetrating Neck Trauma: Review of 192 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodie, Mohsen; Sanei, Behnam; Moazeni-Bistgani, Mohammad; Namgar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background The neck region contains a high density of vital organ structures within a relatively small and unprotected anatomic region, making it one of the most vulnerable areas of the body for all types of injuries. Objectives In this article, we studied penetrating neck trauma cases in Alzahra Hospital over a 10-year period. Patients and Methods In this retrospective, descriptive, analytical study, penetrating neck trauma cases admitted to Alzahra Hospital between April 2000 and April 2010 were analyzed for epidemiology, mechanism of trauma, zone of trauma, therapeutic method, injuries to other organs, complications, and mortality. Results Among 192 penetrating neck injuries, the mean age at the time of injury was 25.08 ± 15.02 years. Of these cases, 96.4% occurred in men. The most common mechanisms of trauma was stab wounds (85.93%). In 56.3% of penetrating neck injuries, zone 2 was involved. Neck exploration was positive in 84.4% of cases, and 52.1% of patients underwent surgery. Vascular exploration was the most common cause of surgery (67.2% of patients). The most common surgical intervention was vein ligation (50.8% of cases). In 11.98% of cases, another organ injury occurred simultaneously, and chest injury was the most common coexisting problem (65.2%). Complications were reported in 9.3% of patients, and the need for intubation was the most common complication (5.2% of patients). Mortality rate was 1.5%. Conclusions According to the findings of this study, the most common cause of penetrating neck injuries was stab wounds, and the majority of patients were young men, therefore, preventive measures should be implemented. Because of fatal complications associated with neck injuries, we recommend early neck exploration in unstable cases or when injuries are deeper than the platysma. PMID:24719835

  15. Endovascular Embolization of Head and Neck Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Marc A.; Badruddin, Aamir; Zaidat, Osama O.; Darkhabani, Ziad; Pandya, Dhruvil J.; Lynch, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular tumor embolization as adjunctive therapy for head and neck cancers is evolving and has become an important part of the tools available for their treatment. Careful study of tumor vascular anatomy and adhering to general principles of intra-arterial therapy can prove this approach to be effective and safe. Various embolic materials are available and can be suited for a given tumor and its vascular supply. This article aims to summarize current methods and agents used in endovascular head and neck tumor embolization and discuss important angiographic and treatment characteristics of selected common head and neck tumors. PMID:22022319

  16. Pathology Case Study: Anterior Cervical Neck Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schubert, Eric

    This is a head & neck pathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old male has an increasing neck mass with a choking feeling. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in head and neck pathology.

  17. The Huygens Probe Descent Trajectory Working Group: Organizational framework, goals, and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.; Kazeminejad, Bobby; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Witasse, Olivier; Pérez-Ayúcar, Miguel; Matson, Dennis L.

    2007-11-01

    Cassini/Huygens, a flagship mission to explore the rings, atmosphere, magnetic field, and moons that make up the Saturn system, is a joint endeavor of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the European Space Agency, and Agenzia Spaziale Italiana. Comprising two spacecraft - a Saturn orbiter built by NASA and a Titan entry/descent probe built by the European Space Agency - Cassini/Huygens was launched in October 1997. The Huygens probe parachuted to the surface of Titan in January 2005. During the descent, six science instruments provided in situ measurements of Titan's atmosphere, clouds, and winds, and photographed Titan's surface. To correctly interpret and correlate results from the probe science experiments, and to provide a reference set of data for ground-truth calibration of orbiter remote sensing measurements, an accurate reconstruction of the probe entry and descent trajectory and surface landing location is necessary. The Huygens Descent Trajectory Working Group was chartered in 1996 as a subgroup of the Huygens Science Working Team to develop and implement an organizational framework and retrieval methodologies for the probe descent trajectory reconstruction from the entry altitude of 1270 km to the surface using navigation data, and engineering and science data acquired by the instruments on the Huygens Probe. This paper presents an overview of the Descent Trajectory Working Group, including the history, rationale, goals and objectives, organizational framework, rules and procedures, and implementation.

  18. Supervised descent method with low rank and sparsity constraints for robust face alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yubao; Hu, Bin; Deng, Jiankang; Li, Xing

    2015-03-01

    Supervised Descent Method (SDM) learns the descent directions of nonlinear least square objective in a supervised manner, which has been efficiently used for face alignment. However, SDM still may fail in the cases of partial occlusions and serious pose variations. To deal with this issue, we present a new method for robust face alignment by utilizing the low rank prior of human face and enforcing sparse structure of the descent directions. Our approach consists of low rank face frontalization and sparse descent steps. Firstly, in terms of the low rank prior of face image, we recover such a low-rank face from its deformed image and the associated deformation despite significant distortion and corruption. Alignment of the recovered frontal face image is more simple and effective. Then, we propose a sparsity regularized supervised descent model by enforcing the sparse structure of the descent directions under the l1constraint, which makes the model more effective in computation and robust to partial occlusion. Extensive results on several benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed method is robust to facial occlusions and pose variations

  19. Current philosophy in the surgical management of neck metastases for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Coskun, H Hakan; Medina, Jesus E; Robbins, K Thomas; Silver, Carl E; Strojan, Primož; Teymoortash, Afshin; Pellitteri, Phillip K; Rodrigo, Juan P; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Shaha, Ashok R; Suárez, Carlos; Hartl, Dana M; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P; Hamoir, Marc; Pitman, Karen T; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2015-06-01

    Neck dissection is an important treatment for metastases from upper aerodigestive carcinoma; an event that markedly reduces survival. Since its inception, the philosophy of the procedure has undergone significant change from one of radicalism to the current conservative approach. Furthermore, nonsurgical modalities have been introduced, and, in many situations, have supplanted neck surgery. The refinements of imaging the neck based on the concept of neck level involvement has encouraged new philosophies to evolve that seem to benefit patient outcomes particularly as this relates to diminished morbidity. The purpose of this review was to highlight the new paradigms for surgical removal of neck metastases using an evidence-based approach. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 37: 915-926, 2015. PMID:24623715

  20. Comparison of three different transducer concepts for acoustic bladder volume measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. W. Merks; C. T. Lancee; N. Bom; N. de Jong

    2005-01-01

    In a preceding study the importance of noninvasive bladder volume measurements was addressed, and a new technique to measure the bladder volume on the basis of nonlinear ultrasound wave propagation was validated. It was shown that the harmonic level generated at the posterior bladder wall increases for larger bladder volumes. The objective of this study is to design an optimal

  1. The Immediate Effect of Castration on Female Rabbit Bladder Blood Flow and Tissue Oxygenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Badger; Catherine Whitbeck; Barry Kogan; Paul Chichester; Robert M. Levin

    2006-01-01

    Background: The female urinary bladder is a target organ for estrogen. Reductions in circulating estrogen have been associated with urothelial and vaginal atrophy and bladder disorders including incontinence and increased incidence of bladder infections. We determined the effect of short-term ovariectomy on sex hormones, bladder blood flow, and tissue oxygenation in the rabbit model. Materials and Methods: Female New Zealand

  2. Bladder cancer and urinary Schistosomiasis in Angola

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Jacinta; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis haematobia is among the most prevalent parasitosis in Angola. The pathology is characterized by serious and irreversible lesions in the urogenital tract induced by chronic infection with the parasite that can eventually lead to squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Considering the frequency and severe morbidity observed, even in younger ages, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and morbidity of S. haematobium infection in Angola. A baseline survey was conducted between November 2007 and February 2008. A randomly sample of 300 inhabitants aged 15 to 75 years old participated in this study. Prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 71.7 % (215/300). Infection was higher in females (56.3 %) but no significant difference was found in prevalence and intensity between gender and age groups. The predominant selfreported symptoms were dysuria (91.2 %), hypogastralgia (88.7 %) and haematuria (87.1%) and these symptoms were strongly associated with S. haematobium infection (p<0.05). Ultrasound and cystoscopy examinations performed in a sub-sample of 29 individuals revealed pathological conditions at the urinary tract in all examined. Considering the high prevalence of S. haematobium infections in Angola and schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer, our results indicate that this population should be targeted for follow up and implementation of measures for treatment and control of schistosomiasis.

  3. Prospective pharmacologic therapies for the overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and detrusor overactivity (DO) are all conditions that can have major effects on quality of life and social functioning. Antimuscarinic drugs are first-line treatment–they often have good initial response rates, but adverse effects and decreasing efficacy cause long-term compliance problems, and alternatives are needed. The recognition of the functional contribution of the urothelium, the spontaneous myocyte activity during bladder filling, and the diversity of nerve transmitters has sparked interest in both peripheral and central modulation of LUTS/OAB/DO pathophysiology. There may be several new possibilities to treat LUTS/OAB/DO. ?3-AR agonists (YM178), PDE 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil), vitamin D analogs (elocalcitol), combinations (?1-AR antagonist?+?antimuscarinic), and drugs with a central mode of action (tramadol, aprepitant) all have Randomized controlled trial (RCT) documented efficacy. Which of these therapeutic principles will be developed to clinically useful treatments remains to be established. PMID:21789056

  4. Polymeric Bladder for Storing Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, David H.; Harvey, Andrew C.; Leary, William

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system for storing oxygen in liquid form and dispensing it in gaseous form is based on (1) initial subcooling of the liquid oxygen; (2) containing the liquid oxygen in a flexible vessel; (3) applying a gas spring to the flexible vessel to keep the oxygen compressed above the saturation pressure and, thus, in the liquid state; and (4) using heat leakage into the system for vaporizing the oxygen to be dispensed. In a typical prior system based on these principles, the flexible vessel is a metal bellows housed in a rigid tank, and the gas spring consists of pressurized helium in the tank volume surrounding the bellows. Unfortunately, the welds in the bellows corrugations are subject to fatigue, and, because bellows have large ullage, a correspondingly large fraction of the oxygen content cannot be expelled. In the proposed system, the flexible vessel would be a bladder made of a liquid- crystal polymer (LCP). (LCPs are strong and compatible with liquid oxygen.) In comparison with a metal bellows, a polymeric bladder would have less ullage and would weigh less. In experiments involving fatigue cycling at liquid-nitrogen temperatures, two LCPs were found to be suitable for this application.

  5. Whole-Pelvis or Bladder-Only Chemoradiation for Lymph Node-Negative Invasive Bladder Cancer: Single-Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tunio, Mutahir A., E-mail: drmutahirtonio@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan); Hashmi, Altaf [Department of Urology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan); Qayyum, Abdul [Department of Medical Oncology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan); Mohsin, Rehan [Department of Urology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan); Zaeem, Ahmed [Department of Medical Physics, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Whole-pelvis (WP) concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) is the standard bladder preserving option for patients with invasive bladder cancer. The standard practice is to treat elective pelvic lymph nodes, so our aim was to evaluate whether bladder-only (BO) CCRT leads to results similar to those obtained by standard WP-CCRT. Methods and Materials: Patient eligibility included histopathologically proven muscle-invasive bladder cancer, lymph nodes negative (T2-T4, N-) by radiology, and maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumor with normal hematologic, renal, and liver functions. Between March 2005 and May 2006, 230 patients were accrued. Patients were randomly assigned to WP-CCRT (120 patients) and BO-CCRT (110 patients). Data regarding the toxicity profile, compliance, initial complete response rates at 3 months, and occurrence of locoregional or distant failure were recorded. Results: With a median follow-up time of 5 years (range, 3-6), WP-CCRT was associated with a 5-year disease-free survival of 47.1% compared with 46.9% in patients treated with BO-CCRT (p = 0.5). The bladder preservation rates were 58.9% and 57.1% in WP-CCRT and BO-CCRT, respectively (p = 0.8), and the 5-year overall survival rates were 52.9% for WP-CCRT and 51% for BO-CCRT (p = 0.8). Conclusion: BO-CCRT showed similar rates of bladder preservation, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates as those of WP-CCRT. Smaller field sizes including bladder with 2-cm margins can be used as bladder preservation protocol for patients with muscle-invasive lymph node-negative bladder cancer to minimize the side effects of CCRT.

  6. Beaconless stochastic parallel gradient descent laser beam control: numerical experiments.

    PubMed

    Piatrou, Piotr; Roggemann, Michael

    2007-09-20

    We apply a target-in-the-loop strategy to the case of adaptive optics beam control in the presence of strong atmospheric turbulence for air-to-ground directed energy laser applications. Using numerical simulations we show that in the absence of a cooperative beacon to probe the atmosphere it is possible to extract information suitable for effective beam control from images of the speckled and strongly turbulence degraded intensity distribution of the laser energy at the target. We use a closed-loop, single-deformable-mirror adaptive optics system driven by a target-in-the-loop stochastic parallel gradient descent optimization algorithm minimizing a mean-radius performance metric defined on the image of the laser beam intensity distribution formed at the receiver. We show that a relatively low order 25-channel zonal adaptive optical beam control system controlled in this way is capable of achieving a high degree of turbulence compensation with respect to energy concentration if the tilt can be corrected separately. PMID:17882306

  7. Evolution and ecology of directed aerial descent in arboreal ants.

    PubMed

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Directed aerial descent (DAD) is used by a variety of arboreal animals to escape predators, to remain in the canopy, and to access resources. Here, we build upon the discovery of DAD in ants of tropical canopies by summarizing its known phylogenetic distribution among ant genera, and within both the subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae and the genus Cephalotes. DAD has multiple evolutionary origins in ants, occurring independently in numerous genera in the subfamilies Myrmicinae, Formicinae, and Pseudomyrmecinae. Ablation experiments and video recordings of ants in a vertical wind tunnel showed that DAD in Cephalotes atratus is achieved via postural changes, specifically orientation of the legs and gaster. The occurrence of DAD in Formicinae indicates that the presence of a postpetiole is not essential for the behavior. Evidence to date indicates that gliding behavior is accomplished by visual targeting mediated by the compound eyes, and is restricted to diurnally active ants that nest in trees. Occlusion of ocelli in Pseudomyrmex gracilis workers had no effect on their success or performance in gliding. Experimental assessment of the fate of ants that fall to the understory showed that ants landing in water are 15 times more likely to suffer lethal attacks than are ants landing in leaf litter. Variation in both the aerodynamic mechanisms and selective advantages of DAD merits further study given the broad taxonomic diversity of arboreal ants that engage in this intriguing form of flight. PMID:21562023

  8. HLA Type Inference via Haplotypes Identical by Descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setty, Manu N.; Gusev, Alexander; Pe'Er, Itsik

    The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes play a major role in adaptive immune response and are used to differentiate self antigens from non self ones. HLA genes are hyper variable with nearly every locus harboring over a dozen alleles. This variation plays an important role in susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases and needs to be matched on for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, HLA typing by serological methods is time consuming and expensive compared to high throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data. We present a new computational method to infer per-locus HLA types using shared segments Identical By Descent (IBD), inferred from SNP genotype data. IBD information is modeled as graph where shared haplotypes are explored among clusters of individuals with known and unknown HLA types to identify the latter. We analyze performance of the method in a previously typed subset of the HapMap population, achieving accuracy of 96% in HLA-A, 94% in HLA-B, 95% in HLA-C, 77% in HLA-DR1, 93% in HLA-DQA1 and 90% in HLA-DQB1 genes. We compare our method to a tag SNP based approach and demonstrate higher sensitivity and specificity. Our method demonstrates the power of using shared haplotype segments for large-scale imputation at the HLA locus.

  9. Engineering description of the ascent/descent bet product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seacord, A. W., II

    1986-01-01

    The Ascent/Descent output product is produced in the OPIP routine from three files which constitute its input. One of these, OPIP.IN, contains mission specific parameters. Meteorological data, such as atmospheric wind velocities, temperatures, and density, are obtained from the second file, the Corrected Meteorological Data File (METDATA). The third file is the TRJATTDATA file which contains the time-tagged state vectors that combine trajectory information from the Best Estimate of Trajectory (BET) filter, LBRET5, and Best Estimate of Attitude (BEA) derived from IMU telemetry. Each term in the two output data files (BETDATA and the Navigation Block, or NAVBLK) are defined. The description of the BETDATA file includes an outline of the algorithm used to calculate each term. To facilitate describing the algorithms, a nomenclature is defined. The description of the nomenclature includes a definition of the coordinate systems used. The NAVBLK file contains navigation input parameters. Each term in NAVBLK is defined and its source is listed. The production of NAVBLK requires only two computational algorithms. These two algorithms, which compute the terms DELTA and RSUBO, are described. Finally, the distribution of data in the NAVBLK records is listed.

  10. Preliminary Study of a Model Rotor in Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, K. W.; Tung, C.; Sharpe, D. L.; Huang, S.; Hendley, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    Within a program designed to develop experimental techniques for measuring the trajectory and structure of vortices trailing from the tips of rotor blades, the present preliminary study focuses on a method for quantifying the trajectory of the trailing vortex during descent flight conditions. This study also presents rotor loads and blade surface pressures for a range of tip-path plane angles and Mach numbers. Blade pressures near the leading edge and along the outer radius are compared with data obtained on the same model rotor, but in open jet facilities. A triangulation procedure based on two directable laser-light sheets, each containing an embedded reference, proved effective in defining the spatial coordinates of the trailing vortex. When interrogating a cross section of the flow that contains several trailing vortices, the greatest clarity was found to result when the flow is uniformly seeded. Surface pressure responses during blade-vortex interactions appeared equally sensitive near the leading edge and along the outer portion of the blade, but diminished rapidly as the distance along the blade chord increased. The pressure response was virtually independent of whether the tip-path plane angle was obtained through shaft tilt or cyclic pitch. Although the shape and frequency of the pressure perturbations on the advancing blade during blade-vortex interaction are similar to those obtained in open-jet facilities, the angle of the tip-path plane may need to be lower than the range covered in this study.

  11. Development of a Mars Airplane Entry, Descent, and Flight Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James E.; Tartabini, Paul V.

    2001-01-01

    An entry, descent, and flight (EDF) trajectory profile for a Mars airplane mission is defined as consisting of the following elements: ballistic entry of an aeroshell; supersonic deployment of a decelerator parachute; subsonic release of a heat shield; release, unfolding, and orientation of an airplane to flight attitude; and execution of a pull up maneuver to achieve trimmed, horizontal flight. Using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) a trajectory optimization problem was formulated. Model data representative of a specific Mars airplane configuration, current models of the Mars surface topography and atmosphere, and current estimates of the interplanetary trajectory, were incorporated into the analysis. The goal is to develop an EDF trajectory to maximize the surface-relative altitude of the airplane at the end of a pull up maneuver, while subject to the mission design constraints. The trajectory performance was evaluated for three potential mission sites and was found to be site-sensitive. The trajectory performance, examined for sensitivity to a number of design and constraint variables, was found to be most sensitive to airplane mass, aerodynamic performance characteristics, and the pull up Mach constraint. Based on the results of this sensitivity study, an airplane-drag optimized trajectory was developed that showed a significant performance improvement.

  12. STS-40 descent BET products: Development and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakes, Kevin F.; Wood, James S.; Findlay, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Descent Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) Data were generated for the final Orbiter Experiments Flight, STS-40. This report discusses the actual development of these post-flight products: the inertial BET, the Extended BET, and the Aerodynamic BET. Summary results are also included. The inertial BET was determined based on processing Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRSS) coherent Doppler data in conjunction with observations from eleven C-band stations, to include data from the Kwajalein Atoll and the usual California coastal radars, as well as data from five cinetheodolite cameras in the vicinity of the runways at EAFB. The anchor epoch utilized for the trajectory reconstruction was 53,904 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) seconds which corresponds to an altitude at epoch of approximately 708 kft. Atmospheric data to enable development of an Extended BET for this mission were upsurped from the JSC operational post-flight BET. These data were evaluated based on Space Shuttle-derived considerations as well as model comparisons. The Aerodynamic BET includes configuration information, final mass properties, and both flight-determined and predicted aerodynamic performance estimates. The predicted data were based on the final pre-operational databook, updated to include flight determined incrementals based on an earlier ensemble of flights. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are presented and correlated versus statistical results based on twenty-two previous missions.

  13. Neck flexor muscle strength, efficiency, and relaxation times in normal subjects and subjects with unilateral neck pain and headache

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela M. Barton; Keith C. Hayes

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To determine the test-retest reliability of a new method for measuring muscular strength, efficiency, and relaxation times of the neck flexor musculature of healthy adults, and to compare these neck flexor muscle properties in subjects who have unilateral neck pain and headache with those in controls.Design: Subjects lay supine and isometrically flexed their necks against a force transducer attached

  14. Surgical outcome of carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder: A review

    PubMed Central

    Okabayashi, Takehiro; Sun, Zhao-Li; Montgomey, Robert A; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma, which comprises less than one percent of all gall bladder neoplasms, is characterized by the presence of variable proportions of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Recently, several reports have described patients suffering from carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder. However, there are no large studies regarding the clinicopathologic features, therapeutic management, and surgical outcome of this disease because the number of patients who undergo resection of gall bladder carcinosarcoma at a single institution is limited. A Medline search was performed using the keywords ‘gall bladder’ and ‘carcinosarcoma’. Additional articles were obtained from references within the papers identified by the Medline search. Optimal adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy protocols for carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder have not been established. Curative surgical resection offers the only chance for long-term survival from this disease. The outcome of 36 patients who underwent surgical resection for carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder was poor; the 3-year overall survival rate was only 31.0% and the median survival time was 7.0 mo. Since the postoperative prognosis of carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder is worse than that of adenocarcinoma, new adjuvant chemotherapies and/or radiation techniques are essential for improvement of surgical outcome. PMID:19842216

  15. Head and neck mucosal melanoma: a review.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Silvia V; Fernandes, Juliana D; Hsieh, Ricardo; Coutinho-Camillo, Claudia M; Bologna, Sheyla; Sangueza, Martin; Nico, Marcello M S

    2014-07-01

    Head and neck mucosal melanoma (MM) is an aggressive and rare neoplasm of melanocytic origin. To date, few retrospective series and case reports have been reported on MM. This article reviews the current evidence on head and neck MM and the molecular pathways that mediate the pathogenesis of this disease. Head and neck MM accounts for 0.7%-3.8% of all melanomas and involve (in decreasing order of frequency) the sinonasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus. Although many studies have examined MM of the head and neck and the underlying molecular pathways, individual genetic and molecular alterations were less investigated. Further studies are needed to complement existing data and to increase our understanding of melanocytes tumorigenesis. PMID:24423929

  16. Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for head and neck cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Preclinical dosimetry of magnetic fluid hyperthermia for bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea; Etienne, Wiguins; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-02-01

    Background Despite positive efficacy, thermotherapy is not widely used in clinical oncology. Difficulties associated with field penetration and controlling power deposition patterns in heterogeneous tissue have limited its use for heating deep in the body. Heat generation using iron-oxide super-paramagnetic nanoparticles excited with magnetic fields has been demonstrated to overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this preclinical study is to investigate the feasibility of treating bladder cancer with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Methods The bladders of 25 female rats were injected with 0.4 ml of Actium Biosystems magnetite-based nanoparticles (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) via catheters inserted in the urethra. To assess the distribution of nanoparticles in the rat after injection we used the 7 T small animal MRI system (Bruker ClinScan, Bruker BioSpin MRI GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany). Heat treatments were performed with a small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) with a goal of raising bladder temperature to 42°C in <10min and maintaining for 60min. Temperatures were measured throughout the rat with seven fiberoptic temperature probes (OpSens Technologies, Quebec Canada) to characterize our ability to localize heat within the bladder target. Results The MRI study confirms the effectiveness of the catheterization procedure to homogenously distribute nanoparticles throughout the bladder. Thermal dosimetry data demonstrate our ability to controllably raise temperature of rat bladder >1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that a MFH system provides well-localized heating of rat bladder with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues.

  18. Spinal metastasis in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of head and neck cancer is relatively low in developed countries and highest in South East Asia. Notwithstanding advances in surgery and radiotherapy over the past several decades, the 5-year survival rate for head and neck cancer has stagnated and remains at 50–55%. This is due, in large part, to both regional and distant disease spread, including spinal metastasis. Spinal metastasis from head and neck cancer is rare, has a poor prognosis and can significantly impede end-stage quality of life; normally only palliative care is given. This study aims to conduct a systematic review of the evidence available on management of spinal metastasis from head and neck cancer and to use such evidence to draw up guiding principles in the management of the distant spread. Methods Systematic review of the electronic literature was conducted regarding the management of spinal metastasis of head and neck malignancies. Results Due to the exceptional rarity of head and neck cancers metastasizing to the spine, there is a paucity of good randomized controlled trials into the management of spinal metastasis. This review produced only 12 case studies/reports and 2 small retrospective cohort studies that lacked appropriate controls. Conclusion Management should aim to improve end-stage quality of life and maintain neurological function. This review has found that radiotherapy +/? medical adjuvant is considered the principle treatment of spinal metastasis of head and neck cancers. There is an absence of a definitive treatment protocol for head and neck cancer spinal metastasis. Our failure to find and cite high-quality scientific evidence only serves to stress the need for good quality research in this area. PMID:22716187

  19. Prevention of head and neck cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry A. Day; Angela Chi; Brad Neville; James R. Hebert

    2005-01-01

    In the vast majority of cases, head and neck cancer is a preventable disease. The relationship between tobacco and alcohol\\u000a and these cancers is well established. Despite efforts aimed at reduction of risk factor exposure and early detection methods,\\u000a head and neck cancer remains one of the more common cancers worldwide. Recent advances in molecular techniques have provided\\u000a a framework

  20. Urinary bladder segmentation in CT urography (CTU) using CLASS

    PubMed Central

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Law, Yuen; Cha, Kenny; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are developing a computerized system for bladder segmentation on CTU, as a critical component for computer aided diagnosis of bladder cancer. Methods: A challenge for bladder segmentation is the presence of regions without contrast (NC) and filled with intravenous contrast (C). The authors have designed a Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS) specifically for this application. CLASS performs a series of image processing tasks: preprocessing, initial segmentation, 3D and 2D level set segmentation, and postprocessing, designed according to the characteristics of the bladder in CTU. The NC and the C regions of the bladder were segmented separately in CLASS. The final contour is obtained in the postprocessing stage by the union of the NC and C contours. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, the authors retrospectively collected 81 CTU scans, in which 40 bladders contained lesions, 26 contained diffuse wall thickening, and 15 were considered to be normal. The bladders were segmented by CLASS and the performance was assessed by rating the quality of the contours on a 10-point scale (1 = “very poor,” 5 = “fair,” 10 = “perfect”). For 30 bladders, 3D hand-segmented contours were obtained and the segmentation accuracy of CLASS was evaluated and compared to that of a single level set method in terms of the average minimum distance, average volume intersection ratio, average volume error and Jaccard index. Results: Of the 81 bladders, the average quality rating for CLASS was 6.5 ± 1.3. Thirty nine bladders were given quality ratings of 7 or above. Only five bladders had ratings under 5. The average minimum distance, average volume intersection ratio, average volume error, and average Jaccard index for CLASS were 3.5 ± 1.3 mm, (79.0 ± 8.2)%, (16.1 ± 16.3)%, and (75.7 ± 8.4)%, respectively, and for the single level set method were 5.2 ± 2.6 mm, (78.8 ± 16.3)%, (8.3 ± 33.1)%, (71.0 ± 15.4)%, respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the potential of CLASS for segmentation of the bladder. PMID:24320439

  1. Emerging Families of Ion Channels Involved in Urinary Bladder Nociception

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Isao; Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu; Kobayashi, Hideki; Mochizuki, Tsutomu; Du, Shuqi; Okada, Yusaku; Takeda, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    The expression of multiple ion channels and receptors is essential for nociceptors to detect noxious stimuli of a thermal, mechanical or chemical nature. The peripheral sensory transduction systems of the urinary bladder include sensory nerve endings, urothelial cells and others whose location is suitable for transducing mechanical and chemical stimuli. There is an increasing body of evidence implicating the Deg/ENaC and TRP channel families in the control of bladder afferent excitability under physiological and pathological conditions. Pharmacological interventions targeting these ion channels may provide a new strategy for the treatment of pathological bladder sensation and pain.

  2. Photoacoustic imaging of the bladder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Aya; Vaithilingam, Srikant; Chung, Benjamin I; Oralkan, Omer; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2013-07-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a promising new technology that combines tissue optical characteristics with ultrasound transmission and can potentially visualize tumor depth in bladder cancer. We imaged simulated tumors in 5 fresh porcine bladders with conventional pulse-echo sonography and photoacoustic imaging. Isoechoic biomaterials of different optical qualities were used. In all 5 of the bladder specimens, photoacoustic imaging showed injected biomaterials, containing varying degrees of pigment, better than control pulse-echo sonography. Photoacoustic imaging may be complementary to diagnostic information obtained by cystoscopy and urine cytologic analysis and could potentially obviate the need for biopsy in some tumors before definitive treatment. PMID:23804347

  3. [Combined therapy for patients with invasive bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Startsev, V Iu; Karelin, M I

    2003-01-01

    Organ preservation has been investigated inmuscle-invasivebladder cancer over the past years as an alternative to standard radical cystectomy. However, the morbidity of radical cystectomy and early reports of good results of radical transuretheral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT) have stimulated interest in combined treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Organ preservation requires a trimodal schedule, including transuretheral surgery, mega voltage radical external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT). Our results point to the effectiveness of combined therapy of urinary bladder in old patients with invasive, advanced cancer (stage T2). These results demonstrate the effectness of intra-arterial ACT when used in combination with EBRT. PMID:12785212

  4. Shake rattle and roll: the bony labyrinth and aerial descent in squamates.

    PubMed

    Boistel, Renaud; Herrel, Anthony; Lebrun, Renaud; Daghfous, Gheylen; Tafforeau, Paul; Losos, Jonathan B; Vanhooydonck, Bieke

    2011-12-01

    Controlled aerial descent has evolved many times independently in vertebrates. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are unusual in that respect due to the large number of independent origins of the evolution of this behavior. Although some squamates such as flying geckos of the genus Ptychozoon and the flying dragons of the genus Draco show obvious adaptations including skin flaps or enlarged ribs allowing them to increase their surface area and slow down their descent, many others appear unspecialized. Yet, specializations can be expected at the level of the sensory and neural systems allowing animals to maintain stability during controlled aerial descent. The vestibular system is a likely candidate given that it is an acceleration detector and is well-suited to detect changes in pitch, roll and yaw. Here we use conventional and synchrotron ?CT scans to quantify the morphology of the vestibular system in squamates able to perform controlled aerial descent compared to species characterized by a terrestrial or climbing life style. Our results show the presence of a strong phylogenetic signal in the data with the vestibular system in species from the same family being morphologically similar. However, both our shape analysis and an analysis of the dimensions of the vestibular system showed clear differences among animals with different life-styles. Species able to perform a controlled aerial descent differed in the position and shape of the inner ear, especially of the posterior ampulla. Given the limited stability of squamates against roll and the fact that the posterior ampulla is tuned to changes in roll this suggests an adaptive evolution of the vestibular system in squamates using controlled aerial descent. Future studies testing for similar differences in other groups of vertebrates known to use controlled aerial descent are needed to test the generality of this observation. PMID:21700578

  5. Nomograms Predicting Response to Therapy and Outcomes After Bladder-Preserving Trimodality Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coen, John J., E-mail: jcoen@harthosp.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Paly, Jonathan J.; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kaufman, Donald S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heney, Niall M. [Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Spiegel, Daphne Y.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Selective bladder preservation by use of trimodality therapy is an established management strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Individual disease features have been associated with response to therapy, likelihood of bladder preservation, and disease-free survival. We developed prognostic nomograms to predict the complete response rate, disease-specific survival, and likelihood of remaining free of recurrent bladder cancer or cystectomy. Methods and Materials: From 1986 to 2009, 325 patients were managed with selective bladder preservation at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and had complete data adequate for nomogram development. Treatment consisted of a transurethral resection of bladder tumor followed by split-course chemoradiation. Patients with a complete response at midtreatment cystoscopic assessment completed radiation, whereas those with a lesser response underwent a prompt cystectomy. Prognostic nomograms were constructed predicting complete response (CR), disease-specific survival (DSS), and bladder-intact disease-free survival (BI-DFS). BI-DFS was defined as the absence of local invasive or regional recurrence, distant metastasis, bladder cancer-related death, or radical cystectomy. Results: The final nomograms included information on clinical T stage, presence of hydronephrosis, whether a visibly complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor was performed, age, sex, and tumor grade. The predictive accuracy of these nomograms was assessed. For complete response, the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve was 0.69. The Harrell concordance index was 0.61 for both DSS and BI-DFS. Conclusions: Our nomograms allow individualized estimates of complete response, DSS, and BI-DFS. They may assist patients and clinicians making important treatment decisions.

  6. Efficient clustering of identity-by-descent between multiple individuals

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yu; Browning, Brian L.; Browning, Sharon R.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Most existing identity-by-descent (IBD) detection methods only consider haplotype pairs; less attention has been paid to considering multiple haplotypes simultaneously, even though IBD is an equivalence relation on haplotypes that partitions a set of haplotypes into IBD clusters. Multiple-haplotype IBD clusters may have advantages over pairwise IBD in some applications, such as IBD mapping. Existing methods for detecting multiple-haplotype IBD clusters are often computationally expensive and unable to handle large samples with thousands of haplotypes. Results: We present a clustering method, efficient multiple-IBD, which uses pairwise IBD segments to infer multiple-haplotype IBD clusters. It expands clusters from seed haplotypes by adding qualified neighbors and extends clusters across sliding windows in the genome. Our method is an order of magnitude faster than existing methods and has comparable performance with respect to the quality of clusters it uncovers. We further investigate the potential application of multiple-haplotype IBD clusters in association studies by testing for association between multiple-haplotype IBD clusters and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort. Using our multiple-haplotype IBD cluster approach, we found an association with a genomic interval covering the PCSK9 gene in these data that is missed by standard single-marker association tests. Previously published studies confirm association of PCSK9 with low-density lipoprotein. Availability and implementation: Source code is available under the GNU Public License http://cs.au.dk/~qianyuxx/EMI/. Contact: qianyuxx@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24363374

  7. Mars Exploration Rover Entry, Descent, and Landing: A Thermal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Sunada, Eric T.; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.; Phillip, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    Perhaps the most challenging mission phase for the Mars Exploration Rovers was the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). During this phase, the entry vehicle attached to its cruise stage was transformed into a stowed tetrahedral Lander that was surrounded by inflated airbags through a series of complex events. There was only one opportunity to successfully execute an automated command sequence without any possible ground intervention. The success of EDL was reliant upon the system thermal design: 1) to thermally condition EDL hardware from cruise storage temperatures to operating temperature ranges; 2) to maintain the Rover electronics within operating temperature ranges without the benefit of the cruise single phase cooling loop, which had been evacuated in preparation for EDL; and 3) to maintain the cruise stage propulsion components for the critical turn to entry attitude. Since the EDL architecture was inherited from Mars Pathfinder (MPF), the initial EDL thermal design would be inherited from MPF. However, hardware and implementation differences from MPF ultimately changed the MPF inheritance approach for the EDL thermal design. With the lack of full inheritance, the verification and validation of the EDL thermal design took on increased significance. This paper will summarize the verification and validation approach for the EDL thermal design along with applicable system level thermal testing results as well as appropriate thermal analyses. In addition, the lessons learned during the system-level testing will be discussed. Finally, the in-flight EDL experiences of both MER-A and -B missions (Spirit and Opportunity, respectively) will be presented, demonstrated how lessons learned from Spirit were applied to Opportunity.

  8. Atmospheric Environments for Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, Carl G.; Braun, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Scientific measurements of atmospheric properties have been made by a wide variety of planetary flyby missions, orbiters, and landers. Although landers can make in-situ observations of near-surface atmospheric conditions (and can collect atmospheric data during their entry phase), the vast majority of data on planetary atmospheres has been collected by remote sensing techniques from flyby and orbiter spacecraft (and to some extent by Earth-based remote sensing). Many of these remote sensing observations (made over a variety of spectral ranges), consist of vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature as a function of atmospheric pressure level. While these measurements are of great interest to atmospheric scientists and modelers of planetary atmospheres, the primary interest for engineers designing entry descent and landing (EDL) systems is information about atmospheric density as a function of geometric altitude. Fortunately, as described in in this paper, it is possible to use a combination of the gas-law relation and the hydrostatic balance relation to convert temperature-versus-pressure, scientific observations into density-versus-altitude data for use in engineering applications. The following section provides a brief introduction to atmospheric thermodynamics, as well as constituents, and winds for EDL. It also gives methodology for using atmospheric information to do "back-of-the-envelope" calculations of various EDL aeroheating parameters, including peak deceleration rate ("g-load"), peak convective heat rate. and total heat load on EDL spacecraft thermal protection systems. Brief information is also provided about atmospheric variations and perturbations for EDL guidance and control issues, and atmospheric issues for EDL parachute systems. Subsequent sections give details of the atmospheric environments for five destinations for possible EDL missions: Venus. Earth. Mars, Saturn, and Titan. Specific atmospheric information is provided for these destinations, and example results are presented for the "back-of-the-envelope" calculations mentioned above.

  9. [Evolution and progress in bladder replacement.

    PubMed

    Fontana, D; Destefanis, P; Cugiani, A

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, the first choice after radical cystectomy both in male and in female patients is no more urinary diversion, but bladder replacement surgery through orthotopic reconstruction. In 2006 we carried out a mail interview among Italian Urology Departments about urinary diversions and orthotopic neobladders; the choice for orthotopic neobladder had increased compared to a previous interview administered five years before. As far as the type of orthotopic neobladders are concerned, it was evident that Italian urologists prefer to use the ileal reservoir, preferably the Studer's neobladder, followed by VIP; the use of Camey II is decreasing while Y-neobladder has gained many consents, being preferred to Hautmann's reservoir. The findings of this interview suggest that the ideal orthotopic neobladder hasn't been proposed, yet, and that Italian urologists are still looking for easier and more reliable solutions. PMID:21086400

  10. Neck Strength, Position Sense, and Motion in Military Helicopter Crew With and Without Neck Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oord van den M. H. A. H; Loose de V; J. K. Sluiter; M. H. W. Frings-Dresen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Neck pain in military helicopter pilots and rear aircrew is an occupational health problem that may interfere with flying performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in the physical abilities of the cervical spines of helicopter pilots and rear aircrew with and without neck pain during the previous year. Methods: The study included 61

  11. Compative Study of Bladder Versus Enteric Drainage in Pancreas Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jiménez-Romero; A. Manrique; J. C. Meneu; F. Cambra; A. Andrés; J. M. Morales; E. González; E. Hernández; E. Morales; M. Praga; E. Gutierrez; E. Moreno

    2009-01-01

    IntroductionThere is some controversy concerning the choice of best technique for drainage of exocrine secretions in pancreas transplantation. We compared patients with bladder drainage (BD) versus those with enteric drainage (ED).

  12. Urinary proteomic profiling for diagnostic bladder cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Goodison, Steve; Rosser, Charles J; Urquidi, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The ability to detect and monitor bladder cancer in noninvasively obtained urine samples is a major goal. While a number of protein biomarkers have been identified and commercially developed, none have greatly improved the accuracy of sample evaluation over invasive cystoscopy. The ongoing development of high-throughput proteomic profiling technologies will facilitate the identification of molecular signatures that are associated with bladder disease. The appropriate use of these approaches has the potential to provide efficient biomarkers for the early detection and monitoring of recurrent bladder cancer. Identification of disease-associated proteins will also advance our knowledge of tumor biology, which, in turn, will enable development of targeted therapeutics aimed at reducing morbidity from bladder cancer. In this article, we focus on the accumulating proteomic signatures of urine in health and disease, and discuss expected future developments in this field of research. PMID:19811072

  13. Hormonal Treatment for Severe Hydronephrosis Caused by Bladder Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Efe, Erkan; Serin, Salih; Kolus, Eyüp; Ercan, Önder; Resim, Sefa

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of endometriosis cases involving the urinary system has recently increased, and the bladder is a specific zone where endometriosis is most commonly seen in the urinary system. In the case presented here, a patient presented to the emergency department with the complaint of side pain and was examined and diagnosed with severe hydronephrosis and bladder endometriosis was determined in the etiology. After the patient was pathologically diagnosed, Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) was administered to the uterine cavity. At the 12-month follow-up, endometriosis was not observed in the cystoscopy and symptoms had completely regressed. Hydronephrosis may be observed after exposure of the ureter, and silent renal function loss may develop in patients suffering from endometriosis with bladder involvement. For patients with moderate or severe hydronephrosis associated with bladder endometriosis, LNG-IUS application may be separately and successfully used after conservative surgery. PMID:25506035

  14. [Lympho-epithelioma of the bladder. Discussion of pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Gastaud, Olivier; Demailly, Manuel; Guilbert, Eric; Colombat, Magali; Petit, Jacques

    2002-04-01

    Lympoepithelioma, originally described within the nasopharynx is an undifferenciated malignant epithelial tumor with a prominent lymphoid stroma. We report a case of lymphoepithelioma of the bladder after intravesical BCG treatment for carcinoma in situ. PMID:12108352

  15. Inflatable bladder to facilitate handling of heavy objects - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Goldrick, G. J.

    1969-01-01

    Inflatable bladder facilitates the removal of heavy, highly finished metal parts from tote boxes or shipping containers. The proposed concept permits removal without danger of damage to the parts or injury to handling personnel.

  16. Primary angiosarcoma of the bladder in a young female.

    PubMed

    Warne, Richard R; Ong, Jeremy S L; Snowball, Bret; Vivian, Justin B

    2011-01-01

    Our case report pertains to a 32-year-old woman initially presenting with left flank pain and gross haematuria throughout her urinary stream. CT of her kidney/ureter/bladder (CT KUB) revealed ureteric dilatation to the level of the bladder without evidence of renal calculus and subsequently a stent was inserted. She represented a month later with contralateral flank pain, and a transuretheral resection of bladder tumour was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was epithelioid angiosarcoma. Further imaging (MRI pelvis) revealed that the tumour arose from the posterior bladder wall with local invasion and regional lymph node metastasis. Ifosfamide and epirubicin chemotherapy with single-fraction radiotherapy induced significant reduction in tumour bulk, although this initial response was followed by the development of symptoms suggestive of disease progression. She died 19 months after initial diagnosis with persistent pulmonary and vertebral metastases although no autopsy was performed. PMID:22700613

  17. Primary angiosarcoma of the bladder in a young female

    PubMed Central

    Warne, Richard R; Ong, Jeremy S L; Snowball, Bret; Vivian, Justin B

    2011-01-01

    Our case report pertains to a 32-year-old woman initially presenting with left flank pain and gross haematuria throughout her urinary stream. CT of her kidney/ureter/bladder (CT KUB) revealed ureteric dilatation to the level of the bladder without evidence of renal calculus and subsequently a stent was inserted. She represented a month later with contralateral flank pain, and a transuretheral resection of bladder tumour was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was epithelioid angiosarcoma. Further imaging (MRI pelvis) revealed that the tumour arose from the posterior bladder wall with local invasion and regional lymph node metastasis. Ifosfamide and epirubicin chemotherapy with single-fraction radiotherapy induced significant reduction in tumour bulk, although this initial response was followed by the development of symptoms suggestive of disease progression. She died 19 months after initial diagnosis with persistent pulmonary and vertebral metastases although no autopsy was performed. PMID:22700613

  18. Segmental irradiation of the bladder with neodymium YAG laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McPhee, M.S.; Mador, D.R.; Tulip, J.; Ritchie, B.; Moore, R.; Lakey, W.H.

    1982-11-01

    The Neodymium YAG laser energy source can be readily adapted for cystoscopic use by some simple modifications of existing urologic equipment. Both the fiberoptic resectoscope and a deflecting cystourethroscope have been adapted for this purpose. Fixation of the fiber tip 1 cm. from the target and use of a divergent beam of 36 degrees allows the delivery of standardized dosage to a relatively large bladder tissue volume. Animal experiments involving 35 mongrel dogs established that repetitive overlapping doses of 200 joules ech can successfully treat a large area of bladder resulting in a full thickness bladder wall injury. This technique has been used in 4 high risk patients with infiltrating bladder cancer without adverse sequelae. The ability to reliably produce a full thickness lesion may give this modality a therapeutic advantage over conventional cautery techniques especially for the treatment of residual infiltrative carcinoma.

  19. Tracer-Based Determination of Vortex Descent in the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-Juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Hurst, Dale F.; Elkins, James W.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Herman, Robert L.; Webster, Christopher R.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed analysis of available in situ and remotely sensed N2O and CH4 data measured in the 1999-2000 winter Arctic vortex has been performed in order to quantify the temporal evolution of vortex descent. Differences in potential temperature (theta) among balloon and aircraft vertical profiles (an average of 19-23 K on a given N2O or CH4 isopleth) indicated significant vortex inhomogeneity in late fall as compared with late winter profiles. A composite fall vortex profile was constructed for November 26, 1999, whose error bars encompassed the observed variability. High-latitude, extravortex profiles measured in different years and seasons revealed substantial variability in N2O and CH4 on theta surfaces, but all were clearly distinguishable from the first vortex profiles measured in late fall 1999. From these extravortex-vortex differences, we inferred descent prior to November 26: 397+/-15 K (1sigma) at 30 ppbv N2O and 640 ppbv CH4, and 28+/-13 K above 200 ppbv N2O and 1280 ppbv CH4. Changes in theta were determined on five N2O and CH4 isopleths from November 26 through March 12, and descent rates were calculated on each N2O isopleth for several time intervals. The maximum descent rates were seen between November 26 and January 27: 0.82+/-0.20 K/day averaged over 50-250 ppbv N2O. By late winter (February 26-March 12), the average rate had decreased to 0.10+/-0.25 K/day. Descent rates also decreased with increasing N2O; the winter average (November 26-March 5) descent rate varied from 0.75+/-0.10 K/day at 50 ppbv to 0.40+/-0.11 K/day at 250 ppbv. Comparison of these results with observations and models of descent in prior years showed very good overall agreement. Two models of the 1999-2000 vortex descent, SLIMCAT and REPROBUS, despite theta offsets with respect to observed profiles of up to 20 K on most tracer isopleths, produced descent rates that agreed very favorably with the inferred rates from observation.

  20. Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khochikar, Makarand V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly comparable to that is used for colon or breast and for prostate as well. PMID:21814313

  1. Global patterns of prostate cancer incidence, aggressiveness, and mortality in men of african descent.

    PubMed

    Rebbeck, Timothy R; Devesa, Susan S; Chang, Bao-Li; Bunker, Clareann H; Cheng, Iona; Cooney, Kathleen; Eeles, Rosalind; Fernandez, Pedro; Giri, Veda N; Gueye, Serigne M; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Heyns, Chris F; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue Ann; Isaacs, William; Jalloh, Mohamed; John, Esther M; Kibel, Adam S; Kidd, Lacreis R; Layne, Penelope; Leach, Robin J; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Okobia, Michael N; Ostrander, Elaine A; Park, Jong Y; Patrick, Alan L; Phelan, Catherine M; Ragin, Camille; Roberts, Robin A; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Stanford, Janet L; Strom, Sara; Thompson, Ian M; Witte, John; Xu, Jianfeng; Yeboah, Edward; Hsing, Ann W; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world. PMID:23476788

  2. Global Patterns of Prostate Cancer Incidence, Aggressiveness, and Mortality in Men of African Descent

    PubMed Central

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Devesa, Susan S.; Chang, Bao-Li; Bunker, Clareann H.; Cheng, Iona; Cooney, Kathleen; Eeles, Rosalind; Fernandez, Pedro; Giri, Veda N.; Gueye, Serigne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Heyns, Chris F.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue Ann; Isaacs, William; Jalloh, Mohamed; John, Esther M.; Kibel, Adam S.; Kidd, LaCreis R.; Layne, Penelope; Leach, Robin J.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Okobia, Michael N.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Park, Jong Y.; Patrick, Alan L.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Ragin, Camille; Roberts, Robin A.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Stanford, Janet L.; Strom, Sara; Thompson, Ian M.; Witte, John; Xu, Jianfeng; Yeboah, Edward; Hsing, Ann W.; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world. PMID:23476788

  3. Increased gall bladder volume in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    van de Meeberg, P C; Portincasa, P; Wolfhagen, F H; van Erpecum, K J; VanBerge-Henegouwen, G P

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) requires invasive procedures such as liver biopsy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). Sonographic measurement of fasting gall bladder volume, which has been reported to be enlarged in PSC, could serve as a non-invasive screening test. METHODS: Fasting gall bladder volume was studied in patients with PSC (n = 24), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, n = 13), liver cirrhosis due to other causes (n = 18), ulcerative colitis (n = 15), and healthy controls (n = 23). Meal induced gall bladder emptying was studied in patients with PSC, patients with PBC, and healthy controls. RESULTS: In patients with PSC gall bladder volume was greatly enlarged (72.9 (SEM 3.7) ml) compared with healthy controls (25.4 (1.7) ml, and patients with PBC (30.9 (2.7) ml), liver cirrhosis (31.3 (4.0) ml) or ulcerative colitis (25.8 (2.0) ml) (p < 0.0005 v all). In four patients with PSC the gall bladder wall was irregularly thickened (> 4 mm) as previously described in PSC. Postprandial residual fractions (% of fasting volume) were comparable between patients with PSC (17.5 (3.7)%) and those with PBC (23.6 (7.1%) and healthy controls (12.7 (2.3)%) Although gall bladder emptying seems normal, increased biliary pressure in patients with PSC cannot be excluded. CONCLUSION: Apart from wall thickening, patients with PSC often present with enlargement of the gall bladder. Sonographic determination of fasting gall bladder volume may be a useful, non-invasive, and easy to perform tool in the evaluation of patients suspected of having PSC. Images Figure 2 PMID:8944571

  4. Controversies in the management of T1 urothelial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, H; Cauberg, E C C; De Reijke, Th M

    2011-12-01

    T1 urothelial bladder cancers are in majority high-grade and seem to grow rapidly with the potential not only to recur, but also to progress to muscle invasion. Therefore, management discussions for patients with a high-grade T1 urothelial bladder cancer are critical. In this review, we aim to give an overview of the controversies encountered in the management of these tumors. Relevant information on T1 urothelial cell bladder cancer was identified through a literature search of published studies and review articles. Establishing an accurate diagnosis is of utmost importance in T1 bladder cancer; particularly understaging can adversely impact the survival of the patient. Therefore, a standard re-TUR is highly recommended in all T1 bladder cancer patients. On the other hand overtreatment affects the quality of life and can lead to unnecessary morbidity. The available treatment options range widely: they include transurethral resection alone with or without re-resection, adding intravesical therapy, radical cystectomy, and bladder sparing techniques using radiotherapy or combined chemoradiation. The choice and timing of the decision whether to pursue with conservative management (TUR and BCG) or to proceed with cystectomy (selected cases with adverse prognostic factors) should be continuously reconsidered on an individual patient basis. This is why the decision making is so difficult, and although we have come along a way in understanding the biological behavior of these tumors, both the choice and timing of treatment remain controversial. After ensuring that accurate staging has been done, the therapeutic options for T1 bladder tumors vary widely (from bladder sparing approaches to cystectomy) and a choice should be made based on individual patient basis. PMID:21996986

  5. A rare cyclic recurrent hematuria case; bladder endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Akp?nar, Süha; Çelebio?lu, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecological disease that is characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Although the ovaries and uterine ligaments are the most common locations, urinary tract involvement especially the bladder endometriosis is a rare entity in women of reproductive age with clinical symptoms of cyclical urgency, hematuria and suprapubic pain. We herein present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of spontaneous bladder endometriosis case with cyclical hematuria symptoms. PMID:26029655

  6. IMP3 predicts aggressive superficial urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lioudmila Sitnikova; Gary Wayne Mendese; Qin Liu; Bruce A. Woda; Di Lu; Karen A. Dresser; Sambit Mohanty; Kenneth L. Rock; Zhong Jiang

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated whether an oncofetal protein, IMP3, can serve as a new biomarker to predict progression and metastasis of early-stage urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.\\u000aEXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The expression of IMP3 in 242 patients with primary superficial bladder urothelial carcinoma and metastatic urothelial carcinoma was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Patients with primary superficial urothelial carcinoma of the

  7. Bladder Cancer Outcome and Subtype Classification by Gene Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekaterini Blaveri; Jeff P. Simko; James E. Korkola; Jeremy L. Brewer; Frederick Baehner; Kshama Mehta; Sandy DeVries; Theresa Koppie; Sunanda Pejavar; Peter Carroll; Frederic M. Waldman

    2005-01-01

    Models of bladder tumor progression have suggested that genetic alterations may determine both phenotype and clinical course.We have applied expression microarray analysis to a divergent set of bladder tumors to further elucidate the course of disease progression and to classify tumors into more homogeneous and clinically relevant subgroups. cDNA microarrays containing 10,368 human gene elements were used to characterize the

  8. Pharmacologic management of bladder dysfunction in adult women.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Women commonly experience lower urinary tract symptoms that can severely decrease quality of life. Symptoms are often associated with diagnoses such as urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, and bladder pain syndrome. Expanding evidence supports the effectiveness of many basic nursing interventions, including behavioral management education and optimal use of various pharmacologic agents. The primary focus of this article is pharmacologic treatment of urinary symptoms in women, including new and emerging agents. PMID:24502427

  9. Current and future trends in the management of overactive bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Wagg; Amitabha Majumdar; Philip Toozs-Hobson; Anand K. Patel; Christopher R. Chapple; Simon Hill

    2007-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem which increases in prevalence in association with advancing age and has a significant\\u000a adverse effect upon well-being and quality of life. It is not the “benign” condition that many take it for. Overactive bladder\\u000a (frequency–urgency syndrome) is the commonest bladder problem in late life, affecting up to 41% of over-75-year-old individuals,\\u000a and the elderly

  10. Refractory overactive bladder in men: Update on novel therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Casey K. Ng; Ricardo R. Gonzalez; Alexis E. Te

    2006-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) in men is an entity that may be challenging to diagnose and treat, especially in the presence of\\u000a bladder outlet obstruction. The application of oral medical treatments of lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign\\u000a prostatic hyperplasia has traditionally utilized ?-adrenergic blockers and 5?-reductase inhibitors. After failure of oral\\u000a medical therapies, surgical options are traditionally offered. Even

  11. Bladder cancer and reproductive factors among women in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An-Tsun Huang; Manolis Kogevinas; Debra T. Silverman; Nathaniel Rothman; Adonina Tardón; Consol Serra; Reina García-Closas; Alfredo Carrato; Kenneth P. Cantor

    2009-01-01

    Hormonal factors, possibly related to reproductive characteristics, may play a role in the risk of bladder cancer among women.\\u000a To study this, we investigated the effects of reproductive factors on female bladder cancer risk. Information on reproductive\\u000a and other risk factors was gathered in personal interviews from 152 female cases and 166 matched controls from 18 hospitals\\u000a in five regions

  12. Mesh erosion into bladder after transobturator prolapse repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Folke Flam; Menachem Alcalay

    2010-01-01

    We present three cases of mesh erosion into the bladder revealed from 5 to 36 months after cystocele repairs with Perigee®\\u000a and Prolift®, respectively. The initial procedures were in two of the cases complicated by perforation of the bladder during\\u000a the dissection. We describe different ways of treating this serious complication. Although these cases are anecdotal, it might\\u000a be prudent not

  13. Robotic removal of eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; O'Connor, Jeffrey; Mittal, Vijay K; Hurley, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Vaginal mesh erosion into the bladder after midurethral sling procedure or cystocele repair is uncommon, with only a few cases having been reported in the literature. The ideal surgical management is still controversial. Current options for removal of eroded mesh include: endoscopic, transvaginal or abdominal (either open or laparoscopic) approaches. We, herein, present the first case of robotic removal of a large eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder and discuss potential benefits and limitations of the technique. PMID:23600850

  14. Risk of Bladder Cancer Among Diabetic Patients Treated With Pioglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James D.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Peng, Tiffany; Hedderson, Monique; Bilker, Warren B.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Vaughn, David J.; Nessel, Lisa; Selby, Joseph; Strom, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Some preclinical in vivo studies and limited human data suggest a possible increased risk of bladder cancer with pioglitazone therapy. This is an interim report of an ongoing cohort study examining the association between pioglitazone therapy and the risk of bladder cancer in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study includes 193,099 patients in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California diabetes registry who were ?40 years of age between 1997 and 2002. Those with prior bladder cancer were excluded. Ever use of each diabetes medication (defined as two or more prescriptions within 6 months) was treated as a time-dependent variable. Cox regression–generated hazard ratios (HRs) compared pioglitazone use with nonpioglitazone use adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes medications, A1C, heart failure, household income, renal function, other bladder conditions, and smoking. RESULTS The group treated with pioglitazone comprised 30,173 patients. There were 90 cases of bladder cancer among pioglitazone users and 791 cases of bladder cancer among nonpioglitazone users. Overall, ever use of pioglitazone was not associated with risk of bladder cancer (HR 1.2 [95% CI 0.9–1.5]), with similar results in men and women (test for interaction P = 0.8). However, in the a priori category of >24 months of therapy, there was an increased risk (1.4 [1.03–2.0]). Ninety-five percent of cancers diagnosed among pioglitazone users were detected at early stage. CONCLUSIONS In this cohort of patients with diabetes, short-term use of pioglitazone was not associated with an increased incidence of bladder cancer, but use for more than 2 years was weakly associated with increased risk. PMID:21447663

  15. Application of new technology in bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvin C. Goh; Seth P. Lerner

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging technology may offer the ability to augment bladder cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment. Fluorescence\\u000a cystoscopy has been shown in numerous clinical studies to improve the detection of papillary and flat bladder lesions over\\u000a conventional cystoscopy. Photosensitizing agents like aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its derivative hexaminolevulinate (HAL)\\u000a have undergone the most extensive investigation. Prospective clinical trials have

  16. The surgical management of the refractory overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Vasdev, Nikhil; Biles, Benjamin D.; Sandher, Raveen; Hasan, Tahseen S.

    2010-01-01

    The refractory overactive bladder is a clinically challenging entity to manage and affects millions of people worldwide. Current surgical treatment options include botulinum toxin type A, sacral neuromodulation, and bladder reconstruction surgery all of which require careful attention to the individual patients needs and circumstances. In our paper we present a detailed up-to-date review on all the above mentioned surgical techniques from current literature and briefly describe our units experience with sacral neuromodulation. PMID:20877607

  17. Automatic Measurement of Ultrasound-Estimated Bladder Weight (UEBW) from Three-Dimensional Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Chalana, Vikram; Dudycha, Stephen; Yuk, Jong-Tae; McMorrow, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound-estimated bladder weight (UEBW) has the promise to become an important indicator for the diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction. Our goal was to develop and evaluate an approach to accurately, consistently, conveniently, and noninvasively measure UEBW using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging. A 3D image of the bladder is acquired using a handheld ultrasound machine. The infravesical region of the bladder is delineated on this 3D data set to enable the calculation of bladder volume and the bladder surface area. The outer anterior wall of the bladder is delineated to enable the calculation of the bladder wall thickness. The UEBW is measured as a product of the bladder surface area, bladder wall thickness, and bladder muscle specific gravity. The UEBW was measured on 20 healthy male subjects and each subject was imaged several times at different bladder volumes to evaluate the consistency of the UEBW measurement. Our approach measured the average UEBW among healthy subjects to be 42 g (SD = 6 g). The UEBW was found to be fairly consistent with an average standard deviation of 4 g across a single subject at different bladder volumes between 200 mL and 400 mL. Our surface area measurements show that the bladder shape is significantly nonspherical. PMID:16986025

  18. Stem cell applications for pathologies of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Noha A; Abou-Taleb, Hisham A; Orabi, Hazem

    2015-06-26

    New stem cell based therapies are undergoing intense research and are widely investigated in clinical fields including the urinary system. The urinary bladder performs critical complex functions that rely on its highly coordinated anatomical composition and multiplex of regulatory mechanisms. Bladder pathologies resulting in severe dysfunction are common clinical encounter and often cause significant impairment of patient's quality of life. Current surgical and medical interventions to correct urinary dysfunction or to replace an absent or defective bladder are sub-optimal and are associated with notable complications. As a result, stem cell based therapies for the urinary bladder are hoped to offer new venues that could make up for limitations of existing therapies. In this article, we review research efforts that describe the use of different types of stem cells in bladder reconstruction, urinary incontinence and retention disorders. In particular, stress urinary incontinence has been a popular target for stem cell based therapies in reported clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss the relevance of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the development of bladder cancer. A key subject that should not be overlooked is the safety and quality of stem cell based therapies introduced to human subjects either in a research or a clinical context. PMID:26131312

  19. Identification of potential bladder progenitor cells in the trigone.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weilun; Wilhelmina Aalders, Tilly; Oosterwijk, Egbert

    2014-09-01

    Urothelial cells are specialized epithelial cells in the bladder that serve as a barrier toward excreted urine. The urothelium consists of superficial cells (most differentiated cells), intermediate cells, and basal cells; the latter have been considered as urothelium progenitor cells. In this study, BrdU or EdU was administrated to pregnant mice during E8-E13 for 2 consecutive days when bladder development occurs. The presence of label retaining cells was investigated in bladders from offspring. In 6 months old mice ~1% of bladder cells retained labeling. Stem cell markers as defined for other tissues (e.g., p63, CD44, CD117, trop2) co-localized or were in close vicinity to label retaining cells, but they were not uniquely limited to these cells. Remarkably, label retaining cells were distributed in all three cell layers (p63+, CK7+, and CK20+) of the urothelium and concentrated in the bladder trigone. This study demonstrates that bladder progenitor cells are present in all cell layers and reside mostly in the trigone. Understanding the geographic location of slow cycling cells provides crucial information for tissue regenerative purposes in the future. PMID:24992712

  20. Minimally invasive establishment of murine orthotopic bladder xenografts.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Wolfgang; Moskalev, Igor; Janssen, Claudia; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Gust, Killian M; Awrey, Shannon; Black, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Orthotopic bladder cancer xenografts are the gold standard to study molecular cellular manipulations and new therapeutic agents in vivo. Suitable cell lines are inoculated either by intravesical instillation (model of nonmuscle invasive growth) or intramural injection into the bladder wall (model of invasive growth). Both procedures are complex and highly time-consuming. Additionally, the superficial model has its shortcomings due to the lack of cell lines that are tumorigenic following instillation. Intramural injection, on the other hand, is marred by the invasiveness of the procedure and the associated morbidity for the host mouse. With these shortcomings in mind, we modified previous methods to develop a minimally invasive approach for creating orthotopic bladder cancer xenografts. Using ultrasound guidance we have successfully performed percutaneous inoculation of the bladder cancer cell lines UM-UC1, UM-UC3 and UM-UC13 into 50 athymic nude. We have been able to demonstrate that this approach is time efficient, precise and safe. With this technique, initially a space is created under the bladder mucosa with PBS, and tumor cells are then injected into this space in a second step. Tumor growth is monitored at regular intervals with bioluminescence imaging and ultrasound. The average tumor volumes increased steadily in in all but one of our 50 mice over the study period. In our institution, this novel approach, which allows bladder cancer xenograft inoculation in a minimally-invasive, rapid and highly precise way, has replaced the traditional model. PMID:24561487

  1. Noninvasive multianalyte diagnostic assay for monitoring bladder cancer recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Neal D; Fernandez, Cecilia A; Shuber, Anthony P

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to establish the clinical performance of a urine-based assay, called a multianalyte diagnostic readout, in monitoring for bladder cancer recurrence. Methods This was a prospective, multicenter, single assessment observational study. The multianalyte diagnostic readout uses a combination of one protein and three DNA biomarkers. Urine samples from 733 patients undergoing monitoring for bladder cancer recurrence were analyzed for matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels, the presence of mutant FGFR3 DNA, and hypermethylation of the NID2 and VIM genes. The probability of a patient having (positive predictive value) or not having (negative predictive value) recurrent bladder cancer was determined by FGFR3 alone or all four biomarkers combined, respectively. Results Cystoscopy/biopsy diagnosed 63 patients with bladder cancer recurrence at the time of study assessment. The four-biomarker assay identified 237 patients as having a low probability of disease recurrence, 231 of whom were determined by cystoscopy as not having recurrent cancer, resulting in a negative predictive value of 97.5% at 90.5% sensitivity. The FGFR3 assay identified 49 patients with FGFR3 mutations, 19 of whom were confirmed by biopsy as having cancer, resulting in a positive predictive value of 38.8%, with 95.5% specificity. Conclusion The urine-based multianalyte diagnostic readout assay was able to delineate the patient population into those highly likely to have bladder cancer recurrence, those unlikely to have recurrent disease, and those with an average risk for bladder cancer recurrence. PMID:24199181

  2. Stem cell applications for pathologies of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Noha A; Abou-Taleb, Hisham A; Orabi, Hazem

    2015-01-01

    New stem cell based therapies are undergoing intense research and are widely investigated in clinical fields including the urinary system. The urinary bladder performs critical complex functions that rely on its highly coordinated anatomical composition and multiplex of regulatory mechanisms. Bladder pathologies resulting in severe dysfunction are common clinical encounter and often cause significant impairment of patient’s quality of life. Current surgical and medical interventions to correct urinary dysfunction or to replace an absent or defective bladder are sub-optimal and are associated with notable complications. As a result, stem cell based therapies for the urinary bladder are hoped to offer new venues that could make up for limitations of existing therapies. In this article, we review research efforts that describe the use of different types of stem cells in bladder reconstruction, urinary incontinence and retention disorders. In particular, stress urinary incontinence has been a popular target for stem cell based therapies in reported clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss the relevance of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the development of bladder cancer. A key subject that should not be overlooked is the safety and quality of stem cell based therapies introduced to human subjects either in a research or a clinical context. PMID:26131312

  3. Neck Rejuvenation with Fractional CO2 Laser

    PubMed Central

    Oram, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of 10,600nm fractional CO2 laser for neck aging at one month and one year after treatment. Design/Setting/Participants/Measurement: Twenty patients underwent 10,600nm fractional CO2 laser treatment over the entire neck. Clinical features of the patients were classified according to Baker classification. The degrees of skin laxity, jowling, fat deposition, and horizontal neck lines were evaluated using a 9-point scale, prior to treatment at one month and one year after the treatment. The patients were independently assessed by the authors at two different times in a blinded fashion. Results: Skin laxity, jowling, fat deposition, and horizontal neck lines scores were significantly lower than the baseline values at one month and one year. One-year follow-up values of the same parameters were still significantly lower than the baseline. No persistent complication developed after treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that fractional CO2 neck rejuvenation is an effective treatment option with long-term efficacy for patients who mainly have skin laxity and jowling together with skin surface pigmentation. PMID:25161757

  4. Aerodynamics of Reentry Vehicle Clipper at Descent Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Yu. P.; Reshetin, A. G.; Dyadkin, A. A.; Petrov, N. K.; Simakova, T. V.; Tokarev, V. A.

    2005-02-01

    From Gagarin spacecraft to reusable orbiter Buran, RSC Energia has traveled a long way in the search for the most optimal and, which is no less important, the most reliable spacecraft for manned space flight. During the forty years of space exploration, in cooperation with a broad base of subcontractors, a number of problems have been solved which assure a safe long stay in space. Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft were replaced with Soyuz supporting a crew of three. During missions to a space station, it provides crew rescue capability in case of a space station emergency at all times (the spacecraft life is 200 days).The latest modification of Soyuz spacecraft -Soyuz TMA -in contrast to its predecessors, allows to become a space flight participant to a person of virtually any anthropometric parameters with a mass of 50 to 95 kg capable of withstanding up to 6 g load during descent. At present, Soyuz TMA spacecraft are the state-of-the-art, reliable and only means of the ISS crew delivery, in-flight support and return. Introduced on the basis of many years of experience in operation of manned spacecraft were not only the principles of deep redundancy of on-board systems and equipment, but, to assure the main task of the spacecraft -the crew return to Earth -the principles of functional redundancy. That is, vital operations can be performed by different systems based on different physical principles. The emergency escape system that was developed is the only one in the world that provides crew rescue in case of LV failure at any phase in its flight. Several generations of space stations that have been developed have broadened, virtually beyond all limits, capabilities of man in space. The docking system developed at RSC Energia allowed not only to dock spacecraft in space, but also to construct in orbit various complex space systems. These include large space stations, and may include in the future the in-orbit construction of systems for the exploration of the Moon and Mars.. Logistics spacecraft Progress have been flying regularly since 1978. The tasks of these unmanned spacecraft include supplying the space station with all the necessities for long-duration missions, such as propellant for the space station propulsion system, crew life support consumables, scientific equipment for conducting experiments. Various modifications of the spacecraft have expanded the space station capabilities. 1988 saw the first, and, much to our regret, the last flight of the reusable orbiter Buran.. Buran could deliver to orbit up to 30 tons of cargo, return 20 tons to Earth and have a crew of up to 10. However, due to our country's economic situation the project was suspended.

  5. Safety of three sequential whole bladder photodynamic therapy (WBPDT) treatments in the management of resistant bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, Maria C.; Nseyo, Unyime O.

    2009-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: WBPDT has been used to treat resistant superficial bladder cancer, with clinical benefits and associated dose-dependent side effects. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the safety of three sequential WBPDT treatments in patients with resistant non-muscle invasive (NMI) bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 12 males and one female provided written informed consent in this Phase II study. Each patient received intravenous injection of Photofrin® (AXCAN Parma Inc, Canada) at 1.5 mg/kg two days prior to whole bladder laser (630nm) treatment. Assessment of safety and efficacy included weekly urinary symptoms; cystoscopy, biopsy and cytology; and measurement of bladder volume quarterly after each treatment at baseline, six and 12 months. Treatment #2 and/or #3 occurred only in the absence of bladder contracture, and/or disease progression. RESULTS: 13 patients: 12 males and one female have been enrolled and average age of enrollees is 67.1(52 - 87) years. Four patients had Ta-T1/Grade I-III tumors; two patients had CIS associated with T1/GI-III; and seven patients had carcinoma in situ (CIS) only. Three patients received 3/3 treatments, and are evaluable for toxicity; three patients received two treatments only; and seven patients received one treatment only. There was no bladder contracture; transient mild to moderate bladder irritative voiding symptoms of dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia and urgency occurred in all patients. The three evaluable patients were without evidence of disease at average of 13.1 (7-20) months. CONCLUSION: Three sequential WBPDT treatments might have a favorable toxicity profile in the management of recurrent/ refractory non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

  6. Huygens’ entry and descent through Titan's atmosphere—Methodology and results of the trajectory reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazeminejad, Bobby; Atkinson, David H.; Pérez-Ayúcar, Miguel; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Sollazzo, Claudio

    2007-11-01

    The European Space Agency's Huygens probe separated from the NASA Cassini spacecraft on 25 December 2004, after having been attached for a 7-year interplanetary journey and three orbits around Saturn. The probe reached the predefined NASA/ESA interface point on 14 January 2005 at 09:05:52.523 (UTC) and performed a successful entry and descent sequence. The probe softly impacted on Titan's surface on the same day at 11:38:10.77 (UTC) with a speed of about 4.54 m/s. The probe entry and descent trajectory was reconstructed from the estimated initial state vector provided by the Cassini Navigation team, the probe housekeeping data, and measurements from the scientific payload. This paper presents the methodology and discuss the results of the reconstruction effort. Furthermore the probe roll rate was reconstructed prior to the main entry phase deceleration pulse and throughout the entire descent phase under the main and drogue parachute.

  7. Multi-perturbation stochastic parallel gradient descent method for wavefront correction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kenan; Sun, Yang; Huai, Ying; Jia, Shuqin; Chen, Xi; Jin, Yuqi

    2015-02-01

    The multi-perturbation stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) method for adaptive optics is presented in this work. The method is based on a new architecture. The incoming beam with distorted wavefront is split into N sub-beams. Each sub-beam is modulated by a wavefront corrector and its performance metric is measured subsequently. Adaptive system based on the multi-perturbation SPGD can operate in two modes - the fast descent mode and the modal basis updating mode. Control methods of the two operation modes are given. Experiments were carried out to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method. Analysis as well as experimental results showed that the two operation modes of the multi-perturbation SPGD enhance the conventional SPGD in different ways. The fast descent mode provides faster convergence than the conventional SPGD. The modal basis updating mode can optimize the modal basis set for SPGD with global coupling. PMID:25836154

  8. Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

  9. Evolutionary analyses of non-genealogical bonds produced by introgressive descent

    PubMed Central

    Bapteste, Eric; Lopez, Philippe; Bouchard, Frédéric; Baquero, Fernando; McInerney, James O.; Burian, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    All evolutionary biologists are familiar with evolutionary units that evolve by vertical descent in a tree-like fashion in single lineages. However, many other kinds of processes contribute to evolutionary diversity. In vertical descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit is propagated by replication inside its own lineage. In what we call introgressive descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit propagates into different host structures and is replicated within these host structures. Thus, introgressive descent generates a variety of evolutionary units and leaves recognizable patterns in resemblance networks. We characterize six kinds of evolutionary units, of which five involve mosaic lineages generated by introgressive descent. To facilitate detection of these units in resemblance networks, we introduce terminology based on two notions, P3s (subgraphs of three nodes: A, B, and C) and mosaic P3s, and suggest an apparatus for systematic detection of introgressive descent. Mosaic P3s correspond to a distinct type of evolutionary bond that is orthogonal to the bonds of kinship and genealogy usually examined by evolutionary biologists. We argue that recognition of these evolutionary bonds stimulates radical rethinking of key questions in evolutionary biology (e.g., the relations among evolutionary players in very early phases of evolutionary history, the origin and emergence of novelties, and the production of new lineages). This line of research will expand the study of biological complexity beyond the usual genealogical bonds, revealing additional sources of biodiversity. It provides an important step to a more realistic pluralist treatment of evolutionary complexity. PMID:23090996

  10. Eye Movement Patterns of the Elderly during Stair Descent:Effect of Illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Satoko; Okabe, Sonoko; Nakazato, Naoko; Ohno, Yuko

    The relationship between the eye movement pattern during stair descent and illumination was studied in 4 elderly people in comparison with that in 5 young people. The illumination condition was light (85.0±30.9 lx) or dark (0.7±0.3 lx), and data of eye movements were obtained using an eye mark recorder. A flight of 15 steps was used for the experiment, and data on 3 steps in the middle, on which the descent movements were stabilized, were analyzed. The elderly subjects pointed their eyes mostly directly in front in the facial direction regardless of the illumination condition, but the young subjects tended to look down under the light condition. The young subjects are considered to have confirmed the safety of the front by peripheral vision, checked the stepping surface by central vision, and still maintained the upright position without leaning forward during stair descent. The elderly subjects, in contrast, always looked at the visual target by central vision even under the light condition and leaned forward. The range of eye movements was larger vertically than horizontally in both groups, and a characteristic eye movement pattern of repeating a vertical shuttle movement synchronous with descent of each step was observed. Under the dark condition, the young subjects widened the range of vertical eye movements and reduced duration of fixation. The elderly subjects showed no change in the range of eye movements but increased duration of fixation during stair descent. These differences in the eye movements are considered to be compensatory reactions to narrowing of the vertical visual field, reduced dark adaptation, and reduced dynamic visual acuity due to aging. These characteristics of eye movements of the elderly lead to an anteriorly leaned posture and lack of attention to the front during stair descent.

  11. A Task-Analytic Approach to the Determination of Training Requirements for the Precision Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nancy; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A task-analytic approach was used to evaluate the results from an experiment comparing two training methods for the "Precision Descent," a cockpit procedure designed to complement a new, computer-based air traffic control advisory system by allowing air traffic controllers to assign precise descent trajectories to aircraft. A task model was developed for the procedure using a methodology that represents four different categories of task-related knowledge: (1) ability to determine current flight goals; (2) ability to assess the current flight situation relative to those goals; (3) operational knowledge about flight-related tasks; and (4) knowledge about task selection. This model showed what knowledge experienced pilots already possessed, and how that knowledge was supplemented by training material provided in the two training conditions. All flight crews were given a "Precision Descent Chart" that explained the procedure's clearances and compliance requirements. This information enabled pilots to establish appropriate flight goals for the descent, and to monitor their compliance with those goals. In addition to this chart, half of the crews received a "Precision Descent Bulletin" containing technique recommendations for performing procedure-related tasks. The Bulletin's recommendations supported pilots in task selection and helped clarify the procedure's compliance requirements. Eight type-rated flight crews flew eight Precision Descents in a Boeing 747-400 simulator, with four crews in each of the two training conditions. Both conditions (Chart and Chart-with-Bulletin) relied exclusively on the use of those documents to introduce the procedure. No performance feedback was provided during the experiment. Preliminary result show better procedure compliance and higher acceptability ratings from flight crews in the Chart-with-Bulletin condition. These crews performed flight-related tasks less efficiently, however, using the simpler but less efficient methods suggested in the Bulletin. When a more efficient method was recognized, these crews tended to use the more efficient method in addition to the Bulletin's recommendation, instead of replacing it.

  12. Seasonal variation in neck and shoulder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Takala, E P; Viikari-Juntura, E; Moneta, G B; Saarenmaa, K; Kaivanto, K

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the investigation was to study the course of neck and shoulder symptoms and the predictors for these symptoms among women in light sedentary work. Postal surveys were conducted among 351 tellers (age 20-50 years) of a bank company in September, December, March, and May. The response rates were 74-90%. The outcome was the frequency of the symptoms during the previous three months. In the analysis, univariate explorations and random-effects logistic binomial regression for distinguishable responses were used. A change in the frequency of neck and shoulder symptoms was seen in 40.5% of the subjects during the follow-up period from autumn to spring. The frequency of the symptoms decreased from autumn and winter towards spring. The stability of the frequency of the symptoms was positively associated with age. Seasonal variation in symptoms should be considered when preventive programs against neck and shoulder disorders are planned and evaluated. PMID:1411369

  13. Semiautomatic bladder segmentation on CBCT using a population-based model for multiple-plan ART of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-12-21

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel semiautomatic bladder segmentation approach for selecting the appropriate plan from the library of plans for a multiple-plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) procedure. A population-based statistical bladder model was first built from a training data set (95 bladder contours from 8 patients). This model was then used as constraint to segment the bladder in an independent validation data set (233 CBCT scans from the remaining 22 patients). All 3D bladder contours were converted into parametric surface representations using spherical harmonic expansion. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in the spherical harmonic-based shape parameter space to calculate the major variation of bladder shapes. The number of dominating PCA modes was chosen such that 95% of the total shape variation of the training data set was described. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder contour of the planning CT of each patient, which was modified by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to best fit the bladder boundary in the localization CBCT image. A cost function was defined to measure the goodness of fit of the segmentation on the localization CBCT image. The segmentation was obtained by minimizing this cost function using a simplex optimizer. After automatic segmentation, a fast manual correction method was provided to correct those bladders (parts) that were poorly segmented. Volume- and distance-based metrics and the accuracy of plan selection from multiple plans were evaluated to quantify the performance of the automatic and semiautomatic segmentation methods. For the training data set, only seven PCA modes were needed to represent 95% of the bladder shape variation. The mean CI overlap and residual error (SD) of automatic bladder segmentation over all of the validation data were 70.5% and 0.39 cm, respectively. The agreement of plan selection between automatic bladder segmentation and manual delineation was 56.7%. The automatic segmentation and visual assessment took on average 7.8 and 9.7 s, respectively. In 53.4% of the cases, manual correction was performed after automatic segmentation. The manual correction improved the mean CI overlap, mean residual error and plan selection agreement to 77.7%, 0.30 cm and 80.7%, respectively. Manual correction required on average 8.4 markers and took on average 35.5 s. The statistical shape-based segmentation approach allows automatic segmentation of the bladder on CBCT with moderate accuracy. Limited user intervention can quickly and reliably improve the bladder contours. This segmentation method is suitable to select the appropriate plan for multiple-plan ART of bladder cancer. PMID:23190683

  14. Refractory overactive bladder: Beyond oral anticholinergic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Glinski, Ronald W.; Siegel, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: In this review, we discuss the treatment of refractory overactive bladder (OAB) that has not adequately responded to medication therapy and we propose an appropriate care pathway to the treatment of OAB. We also attempt to address the cost of OAB treatments. Materials and Methods: A selective expert review of the current literature on the subject of refractory OAB using MEDLINE was performed and the data is summarized. We also review our experience in treating refractory OAB. The role and outcomes of various treatment options for refractory OAB are discussed and combined therapy with oral anticholinergics is explored. Emerging remedies including intravesical botulinum toxin injection and pudendal neuromodulation are also reviewed, along with conventional surgical options. Results: In general behavioral therapy, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, magnetic therapy and posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), have shown symptom decreases in 50-80% of patients with OAB. Depending on the study, combination therapy with oral anticholinergics seems to improve efficacy of behavioral therapy and PTNS in approximately 10-30%. In multicenter, long-term randomized controlled trials, sacral neuromodulation has been shown to improve symptoms of OAB and OAB incontinence in up to 80% of the patients treated. Studies involving emerging therapies such as pudendal serve stimulation suggest that there may be a 15-20% increase in efficacy over sacral neuromodulation, but long-term studies are not yet available. Another emerging therapy, botulinum toxin, is also showing similar success in reducing OAB symptoms in 80-90% of patients. Surgical approaches, such as bladder augmentation, are a last resort in the treatment of OAB and are rarely used at this point unless upper tract damage is a concern and all other treatment options have been exhausted. Conclusion: The vast majority of OAB patients can be managed successfully by behavioral options with or without anticholinergic medications. When those fail, neuromodulation or intravesical botulinum toxin therapies are successful alternatives for most of the remaining group. We encourage practitioners responsible for the care of OAB patients to gain experience with these options. More research is needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of various OAB treatments PMID:19675795

  15. Initial Field Evaluation of Pilot Procedures for Flying CTAS Descent Clearances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Everett; Goka, Tsuyoshi; Cashion, Patricia; Feary, Michael; Graham, Holly; Smith, Nancy; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) is a new support system that is designed to assist air traffic controllers in the management of arrival traffic. CTAS will provide controllers with more information about current air traffic, enabling them to provide clearances for efficient, conflict-free descents that help achieve an orderly stream of aircraft at the final approach fix. CTAS is a computer-based system that functions as a "ground-based FMS" that can predict flight trajectories and arrival times for all incoming aircraft. CTAS uses an aircraft's cruise airspeed; current air traffic, winds and temperature; performance characteristics of the aircraft type; and individual airline preferences to create a flight profile from cruise altitude to the final approach fix. Controllers can use this flight profile to provide a descent clearance that will allow an aircraft to fly an efficient descent and merge more smoothly with other arriving aircraft. A field test of the CTAS Descent Advisor software was conducted at the Denver Center for aircraft arriving at the Stapleton International Airport from September 12-29. CTAS Descent clearances were given to a NASA flight test aircraft and to 77 airline flights that arrived during low traffic periods. For the airline portion of the field test, cockpit procedures and pilot briefing packages for both FMS equipped and unequipped aircraft were developed in cooperation with an airline. The procedures developed for the FMS equipped aircraft were to fly a VNAV descent at a controller specified speed to cross a metering fix at a specified altitude and speed. For nonFMS aircraft, the clearance also specified a CTAS calculated top-of-descent point. Some CTAS related flight deck issues included how much time was available to the pilots' for compliance, the amount of information that needed to be interpreted in the clearance and possible repercussions of misunderstandings. Data collected during the study ranged from subjective data (including the airline pilots' opinions and comments about the new descent clearances and procedures) to objective data (including observations of aircraft performance from the flight deck). This paper will present data and the resulting changes in the design of the procedures and clearance phraseology.

  16. Minimum-Cost Aircraft Descent Trajectories with a Constrained Altitude Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Minghong G.; Sadovsky, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical formula for solving the speed profile that accrues minimum cost during an aircraft descent with a constrained altitude profile is derived. The optimal speed profile first reaches a certain speed, called the minimum-cost speed, as quickly as possible using an appropriate extreme value of thrust. The speed profile then stays on the minimum-cost speed as long as possible, before switching to an extreme value of thrust for the rest of the descent. The formula is applied to an actual arrival route and its sensitivity to winds and airlines' business objectives is analyzed.

  17. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Class Simulation Overview and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and exploration or human-scale missions. The year one exploration class mission activity considered technologies capable of delivering a 40-mt payload. This paper provides an overview of the exploration class mission study, including technologies considered, models developed and initial simulation results from the EDL-SA year one effort.

  18. Prediction of Neck Dissection Requirement After Definitive Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Thariat, Juliette; Ang, K. Kian; Allen, Pamela K.; Ahamad, Anesa; Williams, Michelle D.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Rosenthal, David I.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Morrison, William H.; Weber, Randal S.; Garden, Adam S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND This analysis was undertaken to assess the need for planned neck dissection in patients with a complete response (CR) of involved nodes after irradiation, and to determine the benefit of a neck dissection in those with less than CR by tumor site. METHODS Our cohort included 880 patients with T1-4, N1-3M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, larynx or hypopharynx who received treatment between 1994 and 2004. Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier Method, comparisons of rates with the log-rank test and prognostic factors by Cox analyses. RESULTS Nodal CR occurred in 377 (43%) patients of whom 365 patients did not undergo nodal dissection. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate of patients with CR was 92%. Two hundred sixty-eight of the remaining patients (53%) underwent neck dissections. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate for patients without a CR was 84%. Those who had a neck dissection fared better with 5-year actuarial regional control rates of 90% and 76% for those operated and those not operated (p <.001). Variables associated with poorer regional control rates included higher T and N stage, non-oropharynx cancers, non-CR, both clinical and pathological. CONCLUSIONS With 92% 5-year neck control rate without neck dissection after CR, there is little justification for systematic neck dissection. The addition of a neck dissection resulted in higher neck control after partial response though patients with viable tumor on pathology specimens had poorer outcomes. The identification of that subgroup that benefits from additional treatment remains a challenge. PMID:22284033

  19. Comfort effects of a new car headrest with neck support.

    PubMed

    Franz, M; Durt, A; Zenk, R; Desmet, P M A

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a neck-/headrest to increase car comfort. Two studies were undertaken to create a new comfortable headrest with neck support. In experiment one, neck- and headrest data were gathered using 35 test subjects. The pressure distribution, stiffness of the foam material and position of the head and neck support were determined. In experiment two a full adjustable final headrest with adjustable neck support was constructed and tested with 12 subjects using a new adjustable headrest under virtual reality driving conditions. Experiment two showed that the headrest with the new/adjustable neck support was favoured by the majority of the subjects. 83% were satisfied with the stiffness of the material. 92% were satisfied with the size of the neck- and headrest. All subjects mentioned that the neck support is a comfort benefit in calm traffic conditions or on the motorway. PMID:21944482

  20. 49 CFR 572.133 - Neck assembly and test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Neck assembly and test procedure. 572.133 Section 572.133...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female Test Dummy, Alpha Version § 572.133 Neck...