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1

Bladder Neck Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bladder neck closure (BNC) is a procedure that, although not performed frequently, can be very beneficial for an appropriately\\u000a selected patient. T he t raditional role of BNC w as in the female patient with a neurogenic bladder, destroyed bladder neck,\\u000a and patulous urethra from longterm indwelling catheter drainage (1–4). Other options for urethral reconstruction using vagina or bowel have

Aaron D. Berger; Christopher E. Kelly

2

THE ROLE OF BLADDER NECK BIOPSY IN MEN UNDERGOING RADICAL RETROPUBIC PROSTATECTOMY WITH PRESERVATION OF THE BLADDER NECK  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeRadical retropubic prostatectomy is often performed with preservation of the bladder neck. We examine the incidence of benign and malignant prostatic tissue at the bladder neck margin in men undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy with preservation of the bladder neck for clinically localized prostate cancer.

HERBERT LEPOR; SAMUEL CHAN; JONATHAN MELAMED

1998-01-01

3

Bladder Neck Closure for Treating Pediatric Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims of Study: In order to evaluate the effects of bladder neck closure (BNC) for treatment of pediatric incontinence, on the quality of life of those children, we reviewed the files of 17 children who underwent this procedure during the last 5 years. Information on previous surgery before BNC, continence and complications after BNC and patient satisfaction are gathered.Material and

P. Hoebeke; P. De Kuyper; H. Goeminne; E. Van Laecke; K. Everaert

2000-01-01

4

Bladder-Neck Resection in Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within seven years, 139 patients with multiple sclerosis or allied disorders were treated with transurethral resection for stenosis of the bladder neck. Six-month follow-ups were performed in 134 patients alive at that time. At the follow-up, one-quarter of the patients were practically symptom-free, and a total of three-quarters were improved. The results were best in the group without incontinence. However,

B. E. Jakobsen; E. Pedersen; V. Grynderup

1973-01-01

5

Microscopic bladder neck involvement by prostate carcinoma in radical prostatectomy specimens is not a significant independent prognostic factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The independent prognostic importance of microscopic bladder neck involvement by prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy is questionable. We studied a cohort of 1845 patients to determine the significance of microscopic bladder neck involvement. Bladder neck involvement was defined as prostate cancer present within the coned bladder neck. We further categorized the cases as ‘true bladder neck involvement’ and ‘false bladder

Ming Zhou; Alwyn M Reuther; Howard S Levin; Sara M Falzarano; Emmanuel Kodjoe; Jonathan Myles; Eric Klein; Cristina Magi-Galluzzi

2009-01-01

6

Primary bladder neck obstruction in men, women, and children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) has evolved over\\u000a the last 20 years. It was first identified 70 years ago, but the etiology is still unclear. There are multiple theories as\\u000a to the etiology, including muscular and neurological dysfunction and fibrosis. Over the years, many voiding parameters and\\u000a cut points and nomograms

Priya Padmanabhan; Victor W. Nitti

2007-01-01

7

Post-Radical-Prostatectomy Urinary Incontinence: The Management of Concomitant Bladder Neck Contracture  

PubMed Central

Urinary incontinence postradical prostatectomy is a common problem which adversely affects quality of life. Concomitant bladder neck contracture in the setting of postprostatectomy incontinence represents a challenging clinical problem. Postprostatectomy bladder neck contracture is frequently recurrent and makes surgical management of incontinence difficult. The aetiology of bladder neck contracture and what constitutes the optimum management strategy are controversial. Here we review the literature and also present our approach.

King, Thomas; Almallah, Y. Zaki

2012-01-01

8

Quantitative assessment of bladder neck compliance by using transvaginal real-time elastography of women.  

PubMed

To assess the feasibility of using ultrasound real-time elastography (RTE) to measure bladder neck compliance, we performed real-time elastography measurements by manually applying repetitive compression with the transducer on the scan position of the bladder neck. Instant elastography index (EI) and mean EI of anterior and posterior lips of the bladder neck were calculated. The EI values of anterior and posterior lips of the bladder neck were analyzed in relation to age, body surface area, body mass index, detrusor wall thickness and length, width and thickness of the bladder neck in healthy women. The intra-observer and inter-observer repeatability of measurements in different parts of the bladder neck were assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals and Bland-Altman analysis. There were no statistically significant differences between elastography measurements made by the same or two different observers in each area measured. There was no significant difference between anterior and posterior lip thickness of the bladder neck. The distribution of the elastography measurements indicated that the anterior lip of the bladder neck was slightly harder than the posterior lip. On the whole, from the results of the study, it was clear that EIs of the bladder neck were related to age in healthy women. Stepwise multiple regression analysis results revealed that age was the only independent factor modulating compliance of the bladder neck in healthy women. It is possible to provide a reproducible semi-quantification of real-time elastography in bladder neck compliance. PMID:23849386

Ying, Huang; Da, Liu; Luo, Jiang; Li-Xia, Liu; Yu, Xia; Li-Mei, Xie; Wei-Dong, Ren

2013-07-09

9

Female epispadias managed by bladder neck plication via a perineal approach.  

PubMed

Female epispadias is a rare genitourinary anomaly characterized by urinary incontinence and typical appearance of the external genitalia. Traditional surgical approaches have involved a staged genitoplasty and interval bladder neck reconstruction. We describe further experience of a promising single-stage technique using a cystoscopically guided bladder neck plication via a perineal approach with combined genitoplasty. PMID:21767991

Lazarus, John; van den Heever, Andries; Kortekaas, Bettina; Alexander, Angus

2011-07-20

10

Intussusception of the reconstructed bladder neck leads to earlier continence after radical prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Although there is no evidence that the reconstructed bladder neck actively contributes to post-radical prostatectomy continence, we set out to determine whether buttressing sutures, which prevent the bladder neck from pulling open as the bladder fills, would result in the earlier return of urinary control.Technical Considerations. Forty-five men (mean age 57 years, range 37 to 67) with clinical localized

Patrick C Walsh; Penny L Marschke

2002-01-01

11

Bladder neck closure and suprapubic catheter placement as definitive management of neurogenic bladder  

PubMed Central

Objective Surgical management for neurogenic bladder may require abandonment of the native urethra due to intractable urinary incontinence, irreparable urethral erosion, severe scarring from previous transurethral procedures, or urethrocutaneous fistula. In these patients, bladder neck closure (BNC) excludes the native urethra and provides continence while preserving the antireflux mechanism of the native ureters. This procedure is commonly combined with ileovesicostomy or continent catheterizable stoma, with or without augmentation enterocystoplasty. Alternatively, BNC can be paired with suprapubic catheter diversion. This strategy does not require a bowel segment, resulting in shorter operative times and less opportunity for bowel-related morbidity. The study purpose is to examine preoperative characteristics, indications, complications, and long-term maintenance of renal function of BNC patients. Methods A retrospective review of medical records of 35 patients who underwent BNC with suprapubic catheter placement from 1998 to 2007 by a single surgeon (LKL) was completed. Results Neurogenic bladder was attributable to spinal cord injury in 71%, 23% had multiple sclerosis, and 9% had cerebrovascular accident. Indications for BNC included severe urethral erosion in 80%, decubitus ulcer exacerbated by urinary incontinence in 34%, urethrocutaneous fistula in 11%, and other indications in 9%. The overall complication rate was 17%. All but two patients were continent at follow-up. Forty-nine per cent of patients had imaging available for review, none of which showed deterioration of the upper tracts. Conclusions Our results suggest that BNC in conjunction with suprapubic catheter diversion provides an excellent chance at urethral continence with a reasonable complication rate.

Colli, Janet; Lloyd, L. Keith

2011-01-01

12

Prostate cancer involving the bladder neck: recurrence-free survival and implications for AJCC staging modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. In the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system, prostate cancer involving the bladder neck after radical prostatectomy is considered pT4 disease, suggesting a high risk of recurrence. The recurrence risk with pathologic invasion of the bladder neck, however, has not been definitively compared with that associated with extra-organ disease. We therefore compared the recurrence risk in

Atreya Dash; Martin G Sanda; Menggang Yu; Jeremy M. G Taylor; Alice Fecko; Mark A Rubin

2002-01-01

13

Post-operative drain output as a predictor of bladder neck contracture following radical prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Bladder neck contracture (BNC) following prostatectomy has been reported in 0.5–32% of cases. While the etiology of a BNC\\u000a is unclear, several factors have been associated with this complication, including blood loss, devascularization of bladder\\u000a neck tissue, poor mucosal apposition and urinary extravasation. To study the impact of urinary extravasation on BNC formation,\\u000a we used post-operative drain output as a

Gregory R. Hanson; Erin Odom; Lester S. Borden Jr; Nancy Neil; John M. Corman

2008-01-01

14

Transurethral marking incision of the bladder neck: a helpful technique in robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy involving post-transurethral resection of the prostate and cancers protruding into the bladder neck  

PubMed Central

Background Bladder neck transection is one of the most difficult procedures for robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP), particularly in patients who have undergone previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P), and in those with large median lobes or prostate cancer protruding into the bladder neck. To ensure negative surgical margins and safely preserve the ureteral orifices during bladder neck transection, we propose the use of the transurethral resectoscope for making the incision in the bladder neck before initiating RALP. Thus, we developed a technique for bladder neck transection to facilitate this operation in such patients. Case presentation Two Japanese men, aged 61 and 63 years, who were diagnosed with prostate cancer, received a transurethral marking incision of the bladder neck before starting RALP; prostate cancer developed in one patient after TUR-P and the other patient had cancer protruding into the bladder neck. A transurethral resectoscope was used to closely observe the ureteral orifices and bladder necks; the bladder necks were marked to indicate the depth from the mucosa to the muscular layer. During the RALP, the bladder necks were dissected to indicate the depth of the marking incision. The surgical margins were negative and perioperative complications did not occur. The Foley catheters were removed on postoperative day 6, according to the usual protocol. No urinary leakage from the anastomosis sites was observed. Conclusion This technique, involving the use of an ordinary transurethral resectoscope, may be an easy procedure to ensure negative surgical margins, safely preserve the ureteral orifices, avoid increasing the bladder neck diameter, and achieve a good quality vesicourethral anastomosis that prevents the risk of suture-related tissue tears.

2013-01-01

15

Bladder Neck Rupture Following Perineal Bull Horn Injury: A Surgical Challenge  

PubMed Central

Pelvic-abdominal injuries caused by goring are serious lesions which require rapid diagnosis and urgent treatment in the context of a polytraumatized patient. The simultaneous rupture of both the bladder and the prostatic-membranous urethra occurs in 10%–29% of males with pelvic fractures but bladder neck injuries in adults are rarer. Unstable pelvic fractures, bilateral fractures of the ischiopubic branches (also referred to as fractures from falling astride) and the diastasis of the pubic symphysis are those that have the greatest likelihood of injuring both the posterior urethra and the bladder. We present a case of perineal bull horn injury with muscle laceration, bone fractures, scrotal avulsion and rupture of the bladder neck involving the right ureter which required two operations to be repaired.

Padilla-Fernandez, B.; Diaz-Alferez, F.J.; Garcia-Garcia, M.A.; Herrero-Polo, M.; Velasquez-Saldarriaga, J.F.; Lorenzo-Gomez, M.F.

2012-01-01

16

Role of the pelvic floor in bladder neck opening and closure I: Muscle forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to identify the striated muscle forces hypothesized to assist bladder neck opening and closure in\\u000a females. Cadaveric dissection was used to identify the levator plate (LP), the anterior portion of pubococcygeus muscle (PCM),\\u000a the longitudinal muscle of the anus (LMA), and their relation to the bladder, vagina and rectum. X-ray video recordings were\\u000a made

P. E. Papa Petros; U. Ulmsten

1997-01-01

17

Suprapubic bladder neck suspension for the management of urinary incontinence in the myelodysplastic girl.  

PubMed

Four young girls with myelodysplasia who remained incontinent despite intermittent catheterization and pharmacological manipulation underwent suprapubic bladder neck suspension along with bladder augmentation. Of the patients 3 underwent augmentation for decreased detrusor compliance and 1 as a part of a planned urinary undiversion. There was a mean increase in continence length of 1 cm. and a mean increase of 49 cm. water in urethral closure pressure in all patients. All patients currently are dry on intermittent self-catheterization and oxybutinin chloride with a minimum followup of 18 months with no evidence of upper tract deterioration. Therefore, suprapubic bladder neck suspension can be used successfully in the female patient with decreased outlet resistance. The procedure is easy to perform and would be easily reversible should incontinence recur and a further operation be required. PMID:3054169

Gearhart, J P; Jeffs, R D

1988-11-01

18

Prostate cancer with bladder neck involvement: Pathologic findings with application of a new practical method for tumor extent evaluation and recurrence-free survival after radical prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies have questioned the high risk for disease recurrence in cases of bladder neck involvement by prostate cancer (pT4 disease). Design: The study was based on 141 patients submitted to radical prostatectomy. PSA-recurrence was defined as 0.5 ng\\/ml or rising at three different examinations. Bladder neck invasion was correlated to Gleason score (Results: Bladder neck invasion was seen in

Athanase Billis; Leandro L. L. Freitas; Luis A. Magna; Adil B. Samara; Ubirajara Ferreira

2004-01-01

19

The significance of microscopic bladder neck invasion in radical prostatectomies: pT4 disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  It is controversial whether microscopic invasion of the bladder neck (BN) has a high risk for biochemical progression following\\u000a radical prostatectomy (RP). The tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) classification for prostate cancer considers BN involvement\\u000a to be pT4 disease, equivalent to rectal or external sphincter invasion, however, it does not specify whether the invasion\\u000a is macroscopic or microscopic.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and

Thais Ruano; Luciana Meirelles; Leandro L. Freitas; Luis A. Magna; Ubirajara Ferreira; Athanase Billis

2009-01-01

20

Mediation by nitric oxide of neurogenic relaxation of the urinary bladder neck muscle in sheep.  

PubMed Central

1. Mechanical recordings were made in vitro from circularly oriented strips of the bladder neck muscle of sheep. In the absence of drugs, electrical field stimulation at frequencies of 0.2-1 Hz evoked clear-cut relaxations throughout 1 min stimulation periods, while higher stimulus frequencies (2-8 Hz) evoked variable responses consisting of relaxation, contraction or a mixture of both. All of the responses were abolished by tetrodotoxin (10(-6) M). 2. The contractions were reduced by guanethidine (10(-6) M) and atropine (10(-6) M), so that in the presence of these drugs clear-cut relaxations were obtained at 0.2-8 Hz stimulation, indicating that the relaxations were mediated by non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) nerves. 3. The NANC relaxations were blocked by L-NG nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis. The antagonism by L-NAME was reversed by L-arginine. 4. Another feature of the NANC relaxation was 'rebound contraction' which occurred when the stimulus was switched off. The rebound contraction was also blocked by L-NAME and restored by L-arginine. 5. The relaxations and rebound contractions were unaffected by either alpha,beta-methylene ATP (10(-5) M) or 2-methylthio ATP (10(-5) M). 6. S-Nitroso-L-cysteine, a substance which spontaneously releases NO at physiological pH, mimicked the relaxation and rebound contraction produced by nerve stimulation. 7. It is concluded that nerve-evoked relaxation of the bladder neck is mediated by NO, or a closely related substance such as S-nitroso-L-cysteine. Images Fig. 5

Thornbury, K D; Hollywood, M A; McHale, N G

1992-01-01

21

The Musculature of the Bladder-neck of the Male in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Two muscles, one voluntary the other involuntary, and an inch or more apart, exist at the bladder-neck, both functioning as sphincters. This dual musculature is explained by the emergence of the ejaculatory ducts between them. If both these muscles are open when semen is discharged, secretion may escape into the bladder or to the exterior; also any urine in the bladder would flow out. The internal sphincter is usually tightly contracted during ejaculation. Instances are given in which the internal sphincter is paralysed or injured, e.g. after operation, in prostatic hypertrophy, and in certain nervous diseases. Two instances are reported of direct injury to this localized area, with the result, in all cases, that ejaculation failed. In prostatic hypertrophy the internal sphincter is dilated by the growing adenoma, and at operation it is further stretched and perhaps cut across. Continence then depends on the external sphincter. Two cases are reported in which the external sphincter had previously been paralysed, total incontinence resulting. Recent work on the trigonal muscle; its function in opening the internal sphincter. Influence of this muscle on prostatic enlargement. In central nervous disease the dilatation of the internal sphincter resulting in funnel-neck is very common. Series of cases of nervous disease examined in order to determine the frequency of this sign are reported. Other cases occurring apart from nervous disease are also reported. The part played by the sphincters in ejaculation is discussed and illustrated by reports of further cases of paralysis of the sphincter. It is shown that in the normal way the external sphincter weakens during coitus, and especially during ejaculation, but when the internal sphincter is paralysed no weakening is evident. Penile erection is associated with spasm of the internal sphincter, and spasm of the internal sphincter is produced by irritation, e.g. vesical stone may produce priapism. The varying types of adenoma bear different relationship to the internal sphincter. The view that submucosal glands give rise to prostatic enlargement is supported. The influence of prostatic enlargement on the internal sphincter is discussed. ImagesFig. 3

Macalpine, J. B.

1934-01-01

22

Bladder Exstrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... small bladder capacity or missing bladder neck and sphincter . Reviewed: January 2011 Last updated: March 2013 You ... an image of their structure to detect abnormalities. sphincter: A round muscle that opens and closes to ...

23

Bladder Management  

MedlinePLUS

... called the bladder neck or bladder outlet. The Sphincter Muscles The internal and external sphincter muscles form a ring around the urethra to ... to contract the detrusor muscles and relax the sphincter muscles so you can void. If you can' ...

24

Unroofed Midline Prostate Cyst Misled Into a Stricture With Obliterative Bladder Neck Contracture Following a Laser Prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

We report on a case of a 67-year-old man who presented with persistent lower urinary tract symptoms following a potassium titanyl phosphate laser photoselective vaporization of prostate. Upon further diagnostic examinations were performed, he was noted to have an obliterative bladder neck contracture with an incidental, misleading, and rare presence of an unroofed midline anterior prostatic cyst presenting as a stricture. As we were presented with this case, it was imperative to address these complications of bladder neck contracture and incompletely ablated prostatic cyst. This report brings to light underestimated complicating factors in the urinary tract, and the diagnostic and therapeutic interventions we had undertaken to rectify the identified complications and improve patien's quality of life. The patient underwent internal urethrotomy, resection of prostatic cyst wall and transurethral resection of the prostate directed to improve his quality of life and prevent urinary retention.

Diaz, Richilda Red; Lee, Joo Yong; Choi, Young Deuk

2013-01-01

25

Bipolar plasma vaporization in secondary bladder neck sclerosis - initial experience with a new technique  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS) represents one of the most common long-term complications after prostate surgical treatment. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate our initial experience concerning the bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) performed in patients with secondary BNS and to assess the efficiency, safety and short-term postoperative results of this approach. Materials & Methods: Between May 2009 and May 2010, a total of 30 male patients with BNS underwent BPV and were followed for a period of 6 months. BNS was secondary to monopolar transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) in 19 cases, to open surgery for BPH (open prostatectomy) in 8 cases and to radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer in 3 cases. The follow-up protocol included the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life score (QoL), maximum flow rate (Qmax) and post-voiding residual urinary volume (RV) evaluated at 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Results: BPV was successfully performed in all cases. All patients were able to void spontaneously and were continent after catheter removal. The mean operating time was 9 minutes, the mean catheterization period was 18 hours and the mean hospital stay was 24 hours. Preoperatively and at 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery, the mean values for Qmax and RV were 7.2 ml/s and 110 ml, 23.9 ml/s and 20 ml, 23.8 ml/s and 28 ml, and 23.4 ml/s and 26 ml, respectively. Before surgery and at 1, 3 and 6 months, the IPSS and QoL scores were 22.6 and 4.1, 3.4 and 1.2, 3.6 and 1.4, and 3.7 and 1.4, respectively. Conclusions: BPV represents a valuable endoscopic treatment alternative for secondary BNS with good efficacy, reduced morbidity, fast postoperative recovery and satisfactory follow-up parameters. Abbreviations BNS – bladder neck sclerosis, BPV – bipolar plasma vaporization, TURP – transurethral resection of the prostate, IPSS – International Prostate Symptom Score, QoL – quality of life score, Qmax – maximum flow rate, RV – post-voiding residual urinary volume

Geavlete, B; Stanescu, F; Nita, Gh; Jecu, M; Moldoveanu, C; Geavlete, P

2012-01-01

26

Do bladder neck mobility and urethral sphincter function differ during pregnancy compared with during the non-pregnant state?  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess and compare urethral sphincter (US) function and bladder neck (BN) behavior in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Urethral pressure profile parameters, intravaginal-anal pressures and BN position/mobility were compared in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. It was found that pregnancy results in a decreased maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP)/area of continence at rest and at stress, decreased pressure-transmission ratio (PTR) values and backwards displacement of the bladder neck. No significant changes in intravaginal-anal pressures and BN mobility/downwards displacement were seen. Compared with stress continent pregnant patients, pregnant patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) have a lower MUCP at rest/stress and area of continence at stress, but show no difference in BN behavior. Regression analysis shows no correlation between advancing pregnancy and any of these parameters. It was concluded that pregnancy induces diminished US function and backwards displacement of the BN. Compared to continent pregnant patients, pregnant women with SUI also have a diminished US function. US parameters are not significantly modified by advancing pregnancy. PMID:9891962

Meyer, S; Bachelard, O; De Grandi, P

1998-01-01

27

The assessment of bladder neck position and mobility in continent nullipara, mulitpara, forceps-delivered and incontinent women using perineal ultrasound: A future office procedure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of spontaneous and instrumented deliveries, the baby's birthweight, the presence of stress incontinence and the woman's age and weight on bladder neck (BN) position and mobility using perineosonography, a simple non-invasive method, and to compare these results with those from continent nulliparous controls. Two hundred and fourteen women, including 74

S. Meyer; P. De Grandi; A. Schreyer; G. Caccia

1996-01-01

28

Influence of bladder neck suspension stitches on early continence after radical prostatectomy: a prospective randomized study of 180 patients.  

PubMed

Several techniques have been introduced to improve early postoperative continence. In this study, we evaluated the impact of bladder neck (vesicourethral anastomosis) suspension on the outcome of extraperitoneal endoscopic radical prostatectomy (EERPE). In this research, a total of 180 patients underwent EERPE. Group 1 included patients who underwent nerve-sparing EERPE (nsEERPE) (n=45), and Group 2 included patients who underwent nsEERPE with bladder neck suspension (BNS, n=45). Groups 3 (n=45) and 4 (n=45) included patients who received EERPE and EERPE with BNS, respectively. Patients were randomly assigned to receive BNS with their nsEERPE or EERPE procedure. Perioperative parameters were recorded, and continence was evaluated by determining the number and weight of absorbent pads (pad weighing test) on the second day after catheter removal and by a questionnaire 3 months postoperatively. Two days after catheter removal, 11.1% of Group 1, 11.1% of Group 2, 4.4% of Group 3 and 8.9% of Group 4 were continent. The average urine loss was 80.4, 70.1, 325.0 and 291.3 g for the each of these groups, respectively. At 3 months, 76.5% of Group 1 and 81.3% of Group 2 were continent. The continence figures for Group 3 and 4 were 48.5% and 43.8%, respectively. Similar overall rates were observed in all groups. In conclusion, although there are controversial reports in the literature, early continence was never observed to be significantly higher in the BNS groups when compared with the non-BNS groups, regardless of the EERPE technique performed. PMID:21909121

Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Nicolaus, Martin; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Do, Minh; Dietel, Anja; Häfner, Tim; Sakellaropoulos, George; Hicks, James; Nikoleishvili, David; Liatsikos, Evangelos

2011-09-12

29

Sonographic evaluation of the bladder neck in continent and stress-incontinent women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate a new sonographic method to measure depth and width of proximal urethral dilation during coughing and Valsalva maneuver and to report its use in a group of stress-incontinent and continent women.Methods: Fifty-eight women were evaluated, 30 with and 28 without stress incontinence proven urodynamically, with a bladder volume of 300 mL and the subjects upright. Urethral pressure

Gabriel N Schaer; Daniele Perucchini; Eva Munz; Ursula Peschers; Ossi R Koechli; John O. L DeLancey

1999-01-01

30

Treatment of Urethral/Bladder Neck Stricture After High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Prostate Cancer With Holmium: Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet Laser  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Holmium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) laser for the treatment of urethral/bladder neck strictures after high-intensity focused ultrasound for prostate cancer. Methods Between February 2007 and July 2010, Holmium: YAG laser urethrotomies were performed in eleven patients for bladder neck strictures or prostatic urethral strictures. The laser was used with a 550-µm fiber at 2 J and frequency 30 to 50 Hz. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed for medical history, perioperative and postoperative data, uroflowmetry, International Prostate Symptoms Score/quality of life, and stricture recurrence. Results At a median follow-up of 12.0 months (range, 4 to 35 months), the mean postoperative maximal flow rate and residual volume were improved significantly (P<0.05). The mean postoperative total, voiding and quality of life of international prostate symptom score were improved significantly (P<0.05). Of the 11 patients, 7 patients required one treatment, 4 patients two treatment, and 1 patients three treatment. 2 patients who had a documented urinary incontinence prior to the laser treatment subsequently required artificial urinary sphincter implantation and reported satisfaction without developing any recurrent strictures or artificial urinary sphincter erosion. All patients exhibited well-healed strictures and could void without difficulty. Conclusions Holmium: YAG laser therapy represents a safe, effective and minimally invasive treatment for urethral/bladder neck strictures occurring secondary to high-intensity focused ultrasound for prostate cancer.

Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Tae Heon; Lee, Hyo Serk; Chung, Jin Woo; Lee, Ha Na

2013-01-01

31

Bipolar plasma vaporization versus standard transurethral resection in secondary bladder neck sclerosis: a prospective, medium-term, randomized comparison  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This prospective, randomized, medium-term trial aimed to assess the efficiency, safety and postoperative results of bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) in comparison with monopolar transurethral resection (TUR) in cases of secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS). Methods: A total of 70 patients with BNS secondary to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP; 46 cases), open prostatectomy for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; 18 cases) and radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer (6 cases) were enrolled in the trial. The inclusion criteria consisted of maximum flow rate (Q max) <10 ml/s and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) >19. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after surgery by IPSS, quality of life score (QoL), Q max and postvoiding residual urinary volume (PVR). Results: The mean operation time (10.3 versus 14.9 minutes), catheterization period (0.75 versus 2.1 days) and hospital stay (1.1 versus 3.2 days) were significantly reduced in the BPV series. During the immediate postoperative follow up, recatheterization for acute urinary retention only occurred in the TUR series (5.7%). The medium-term retreatment requirements due to BNS recurrence were lower in the BPV study arm (2.8% versus 8.5%). At the 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months assessments, statistically similar parameters were found concerning the IPSS and QoL symptom scores, Q max and PVR values specific for the two therapeutic alternatives. Conclusions: BPV constitutes a valuable endoscopic treatment approach for secondary BNS. The method emphasized superior efficacy, a satisfactory safety profile and similar medium-term follow-up features when compared with standard TUR.

Geavlete, Bogdan; Moldoveanu, Cristian; Iacoboaie, Catalin

2013-01-01

32

A bladder-neck support prosthesis for women with stress and mixed incontinence 1 1 Financial Disclosure Supported by a research grant from Johnson & Johnson Medical, Inc., which originally marketed the device tested. Rights were subsequently sold to UroMed Corp., which currently markets the device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a bladder-neck support prosthesis, a vaginal device designed to support the bladder neck, in women with genuine stress and mixed incontinence.Methods: For enrollment, incontinent women underwent a history, physical examination including cotton-swab test, urinalysis, postvoid residual urine, and multichannel urodynamic testing. Those with genuine stress incontinence or mixed incontinence and urethral hypermobility

G. Willy Davila; Durwood Neal; Nicolette Horbach; Jorge Peacher; J. Darryl Doughtie; Mickey Karram

1999-01-01

33

Comparison between Two Different Two-Stage Transperineal Approaches to Treat Urethral Strictures or Bladder Neck Contracture Associated with Severe Urinary Incontinence that Occurred after Pelvic Surgery: Report of Our Experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The recurrence of urethral/bladder neck stricture after multiple endoscopic procedures is a rare complication that can follow prostatic surgery and its treatment is still controversial. Material and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed our data on 17 patients, operated between September 2001 and January 2010, who presented severe urinary incontinence and urethral/bladder neck stricture after prostatic surgery and failure of at least four conservative endoscopic treatments. Six patients underwent a transperineal urethrovesical anastomosis and 11 patients a combined transperineal suprapubical (endoscopic) urethrovesical anastomosis. After six months the patients that presented complete incontinence and no urethral stricture underwent the implantation of an artificial urethral sphincter (AUS). Results. After six months 16 patients were completely incontinent and presented a patent, stable lumen, so that they underwent an AUS implantation. With a mean followup of 50.5 months, 14 patients are perfectly continent with no postvoid residual urine. Conclusions. Two-stage procedures are safe techniques to treat these challenging cases. In our opinion, these cases could be managed with a transperineal approach in patients who present a perfect operative field; on the contrary, in more difficult cases, it would be preferable to use the other technique, with a combined transperineal suprapubical access, to perform a pull-through procedure.

Simonato, A.; Ennas, M.; Benelli, A.; Gregori, A.; Oneto, F.; Daglio, E.; Traverso, P.; Carmignani, G.

2012-01-01

34

Descent and descent groups in lovedu social structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic unit in Lovedu society is the extended family, the minimal descent group, of three, and occasionally four generations living together in a village under the control of the patriarch, or, after his death, of his son, the eldest in the chief house. It is a corporate group of considerable importance.An initial examination in this paper of situations in

Eileen Jensen Krige

1985-01-01

35

EXOMARS Descent Module GNC Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ExoMars mission is the first ESA led robotic mission of the Aurora Programme and combines technology development with investigations of major scientific interest. Italy is by far the major contributor to the mission through the strong support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). ExoMars will search for traces of past and present life, characterize the Mars geochemistry and water distribution, improve the knowledge of the Mars environment and geophysics, and identify possible surface hazards to future human exploration missions. ExoMars will also validate the technology for safe Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) of a large size Descent Module (DM) carrying a Rover with medium range surface mobility and the access to subsurface. The ExoMars project is presently undergoing its Phase B1 with Thales Alenia Space-Italia as Industrial Prime Contractor. Additionally, as Descent Module responsible, a dedicated simulation tool is under development in Thales Alenia Space-Italia, Turin site, for the end-to-end design and validation / verification of the DM Entry Descent and Landing.

Portigliotti, S.; Capuano, M.; Montagna, M.; Martella, P.; Venditto, P.

2007-08-01

36

Automatic 'Descente Infinie' Induction Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework and a methodology to build and analyse automatic provers using the 'Descente Infinie' induction princi- ple. A stronger connection between different proof techniques like those based on implicit induction and saturation is established by uniformly and explicitly representing them as applications of this principle. The framework offers a clear separation between logic and computation, by the

Sorin Stratulat

2005-01-01

37

Online learning via congregational gradient descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and analyse a populational version of stepwise gradient descent suitable for a wide range of learning problems. The algorithm is motivated by genetic algorithms which update a population of solutions rather than just a single representative as is typical for gradient descent. This modification of traditional gradient descent (as used, for example, in the backpropogation algorithm) avoids getting

Kim L. Blackmore; Robert C. Williamson; Iven M. Y. Mareels; William A. Sethares

1997-01-01

38

Emergency Descent Plans, Procedures, and Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an emergency descent to land is required, planning this descent can be challenging; decisions must be made quickly but may dramatically alter the options available later. This study examines portraying emergency descent plans to pilots as procedures in which important elements of context are highlighted. Under time pressure, pilots evaluated plans which were presented with a variety of contextual

Amy Pritchett; Jennifer Ockerman

2002-01-01

39

Descent theory for semiorthogonal decompositions  

SciTech Connect

We put forward a method for constructing semiorthogonal decompositions of the derived category of G-equivariant sheaves on a variety X under the assumption that the derived category of sheaves on X admits a semiorthogonal decomposition with components preserved by the action of the group G on X. This method is used to obtain semiorthogonal decompositions of equivariant derived categories for projective bundles and blow-ups with a smooth centre as well as for varieties with a full exceptional collection preserved by the group action. Our main technical tool is descent theory for derived categories. Bibliography: 12 titles.

Elagin, Alexei D

2012-05-31

40

Numerical analysis of the orthogonal descent method  

SciTech Connect

The author of the orthogonal descent method has been testing it since 1977. The results of these tests have only strengthened the need for further analysis and development of orthogonal descent algorithms for various classes of convex programming problems. Systematic testing of orthogonal descent algorithms and comparison of test results with other nondifferentiable optimization methods was conducted at TsEMI RAN in 1991-1992 using the results.

Shokov, V.A.; Shchepakin, M.B.

1994-11-01

41

Bladder Trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of trauma visits to the emergency room (ER), injury to the urinary bladder is not a common occurrence. Major bladder trauma,\\u000a accounts for fewer than 2% of injuries requiring surgical exploration. Mortality can be as high as 22% because of associated\\u000a multiple organ injuries rather than the extent of bladder injury (1). Overall, roughly 60% of injuries are extraperitoneal, 30%

Steven B. Brandes; Jay S. Belani

42

[Endoscopic treatment of bladder diverticula].  

PubMed

Transurethral endoscopic incision of the urinary bladder's diverticular neck has been performed in 29 patients aged 44 to 90 years (mean age 65 years). 25(86.2%) patients had verified concomitant diseases and high anesthesia risk prohibiting radical surgery. According to preoperative diagnosis, the volume of the diverticula ranged from 20 to 700 ml, the diameter of the neck--from 0.3 to 2.0 cm. 10 patients had multiple diverticula. Uroflowmetry registered the maximal urinary flow rate (Qmax) within 2.1-5.3 ml/s. In all the patients surgery was performed under epidural anesthesia, simaltaneously with transurethral resection (TUR) of benign prostatic hyperplasia in 18 patients, with TUR of the urinary bladder neck or incision of the prostate because of its sclerosis in 11 patients. In 2 cases there was also TUR of the bladder for papillary cancer involving the bladder wall and the diverticulum, in 6 cases one-stage pneumatic or mechanical cystolithotripsy was performed. No intraoperative complications occurred. After the operation all the patients resumed normal micturition. Control examination after 6-48-month follow-up Qmax rose to 14.1-23.0 ml/s. Neither ultrasound investigation nor cystography detected diverticulum in 13 patients. The size of the diverticulum diminished in size in 16 patients. Residual urine in large diverticula (14 patients) was 50 ml maximum. 12 months after the operation 1 patient developed recurrent sclerosis of the prostate with reappearance of residual urine. He was reoperated (TUR of the prostate) without incision of the neck of the diverticulum. Postoperative complications were the following: mild electric burn of the thigh (1 case), acute epididimitis treated conservatively (1 case) and early postoperative bleeding which required endoscopic revision of the bladder and coagulation of the bleeding vessel from the cut neck of the diverticulum (1 case). Thus, transurethral incision of the bladder's diverticular neck is effective and low-traumatic intervention which in patients with severe somatic pathology is an alternative to the open surgery, while in patients without such pathology it does not complicate open operation (diverticulectomy) if it becomes necessary. PMID:11785081

Martov, A G; Moskalev, A Iu; Gushchin, B L; Saliukov, R V; Al'-Musavi, Sh I; Amelin, A V

43

Bladder exstrophy.  

PubMed

Bladder exstrophy is a very rare congenital malformation in which the anterior wall of the bladder is absent, and the posterior wall is exposed externally. The differential diagnosis includes omphalocele, gastroschisis, and cloacal exstrophy. Ultrasound and Doppler examinations are the main diagnostic tools. Although mortality is low, termination of pregnancy should be discussed due to serious morbidities. PMID:22432588

Uludag, Seyfettin; Guralp, Onur; Akbas, Murat; Aydin, Yavuz; Sen, Cihat; Uludag, Sezin

2012-03-20

44

Bladder Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Symptoms include Blood in your urine A frequent urge to urinate Pain when you urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in the workplace. ...

45

Bladder exstrophy: An overview of the surgical management  

PubMed Central

Background: The surgical management of urinary bladder exstrophy is challenging. This paper describes the personal experience in a tertiary care hospital over a period exceeding a quarter of a century. Methods: During the period 1984-2010, 248 patients of the epispadias-exstrophy complex have been treated. The cases of classical bladder exstrophy (n = 210) form the basis of this paper. The stages/procedures used in the surgical reconstruction of bladder exstrophy included bladder closure with anterior abdominal wall reconstruction, bladder neck repair, ureteric reimplantation, epispadias repair and augmentation colocystoplasty in various combinations. Some of these patients had their initial operations done prior to 1984 or in other hospitals. Evaluation methods included, amongst others, clinical evaluation and urodynamic assessment. Eight patients opted out of treatment; 15 patients underwent permanent urinary diversion by either ureterosigmoidostomy or colon conduit. The remaining 187 patients were treated with bladder reconstruction, and of these, 132 patients have had at least one attempt at bladder neck reconstruction with 56 of these patients having undergone an augmentation colocystoplasty. Results: A total of 105 patients had socially acceptable continence: 57 from the bladder neck reconstruction group and 48 from the bladder augmentation group. Further attempts at continence surgery have been offered to the inadequately continent patients. Conclusions: Surgical management of bladder exstrophy demands patience and perseverance. It is possible to provide all patients with socially acceptable continence with bladder neck division and catheterizable continent stoma as the last resort. Urodynamic assessment has emerged as an essential tool in the follow-up evaluation of these patients. Anticholinergic medication with imipramine or oxybutinin is a useful adjunct in the overall management.

Bhatnagar, Veereshwar

2011-01-01

46

Asymptomatic neurogenic bladder in juvenile diabetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The present report concerns investigation of bladder disturbances in 31 juvenile diabetics. It was shown that: 1. The predominant lesion is one of neuropathy. — 2. Vesical involvement such as increased capacity and atony was demonstrated by cystometry in 27 out of the 31 cases (87%). — 3. 4 cases had neck hypertrophy. — 4. The most striking symptom was

I. Faerman; M. Maler; M. Jadzinsky; E. Alvarez; D. Fox; J. Zilbervarg; J. B. Cibeira; R. Colinas

1971-01-01

47

Curb descent testing of suspension manual wheelchairs.  

PubMed

Manual wheelchair users are subjected to whole-body vibrations (WBV) on a regular basis as they traverse obstacles and uneven surfaces. One way users could protect themselves from secondary injuries related to WBV is by using a suspension manual wheelchair. This study investigated the ability of suspension manual wheelchairs to reduce seat accelerations during curb descents of various heights (5, 10, and 15 cm). Sixteen manual wheelchairs (four suspension, four folding, four rigid, and four rigid titanium) were tested. Suspension wheelchairs transmitted significantly lower peak seat accelerations than folding wheelchairs during the 5 cm curb descents (p = 0.048) and significantly lower frequency-weighted peak seat accelerations during the 5 and 10 cm curb descents (p = 0.03 for both heights). However, when the suspension wheelchair Quickie XTR (Sunrise Medical; Carlsbad, California) was removed from the analysis, the suspension wheelchairs were not significantly different from the nonsuspension wheelchairs. When weight was considered, the suspension wheelchairs had significantly lower peak seat accelerations than the lighter rigid wheelchairs during 5 cm curb descents (p = 0.047). While suspension manual wheelchairs offer some reduction in WBV during curb descents, their limitations should be considered when a wheelchair is selected for everyday use. PMID:18566927

Kwarciak, Andrew M; Cooper, Rory A; Fitzgerald, Shirley G

2008-01-01

48

Evaluating and Improving Recursive Descent Parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time formulas are symbolic formulas which express the execution time of a program as a function of its input data and of variables representing the time to execute individual operations (e.g., push, pop, transfer, etc.). It is shown that in many cases the time formulas for recursive descent parsers may be generated automatically by a simple inspection of the parser

Jacques Cohen; Robin Sitver; David Auty

1979-01-01

49

Research Study: Sts-1 Orbiter Descent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conversion of STS-1 orbiter descent data from AVE-SESAME contact programs to the REEDA system and the reduction of raw radiosonde data is summarized. A first difference program, contact data program, plot data program, and 30 second data program were ...

J. S. Hickey

1981-01-01

50

Cognitive architecture and descent with modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against a background of recent progress in developmental neuroscience, some of which has been taken as challenging to the modularity hypothesis of Fodor (1983), this article contrasts two competing conceptions of modularity: sui generis modularity, according to which modules are treated as independent neurocognitive entities that owe nothing to one another, and descent-with-modification modularity, according to which current cognitive modules

Gary F. Marcus

2006-01-01

51

Coping with Discrimination among Mexican Descent Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current research is designed to explore the relationship among discrimination stress, coping strategies, and self-esteem among Mexican descent youth (N = 73, age 11-15 years). Results suggest that primary control engagement and disengagement coping strategies are positively associated with discrimination stress. Furthermore, self-esteem is…

Edwards, Lisa M.; Romero, Andrea J.

2008-01-01

52

Crew Procedures for Continuous Descent Arrivals Using Conventional Guidance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents results from a simulation study which investigated the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures for conducting a descent through a busy terminal area, using conventional transport-category automation. This research was part o...

D. H. Williams E. T. Lewis R. M. Oseguera-Lohr

2007-01-01

53

The Mars Exploration Rovers Descent Image Motion Estimation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descent image motion estimation system is the first machine-vision system for estimating lander velocity during planetary descent. Composed of sensors and software, DIMES features a descent imager, a radar altimeter, an inertial-measurement unit, and an algorithm for combining sensor measurements to estimate horizontal velocity - the speed across the planet's surface the lander travels as it descends. Although the sensors

Yang Cheng; Jay Goguen; Andrew Edie Johnson; Chris Leger; Larry Matthies; A. Miguel San Martin; Reg G. Willson

2004-01-01

54

Detailed Guide: Bladder Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Bladder Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » View Overview Guide » Espańol » ... the topics below to get started. What Is Bladder Cancer? What is cancer? What is bladder cancer? What ...

55

Neck Sprain  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor rule out or identify other sources of neck pain, such as spinal fractures, dislocations, arthritis, and other ... have to wear a soft collar around your neck to help support the head and relieve ... time to heal. Pain relievers such as aspirin or ibuprofen can help ...

56

Distended bladder presenting with constipation and venous obstruction: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction A distended urinary bladder has been known to cause venous obstruction or rarely bowel obstruction. We report the first case in the literature in which urinary bladder distension presented with both venous obstruction and constipation. This is an unusual presentation of urinary bladder distension and serves to broaden our differential diagnoses for a patient with clinical venous obstruction. Case presentation An 83-year-old man of African descent presented with constipation and bilateral lower limb edema. A huge abdominal mass was evident which was a large, distended urinary bladder confirmed by computed tomography. Promptly after urethral catheterization, both constipation and lower limb edema resolved. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge distended urinary bladder causing both constipation and lower limb edema has never previously been reported. Analysis of the literature revealed several factors resulting in the patient's presentation. A high level of suspicion for urinary bladder distension must be maintained for prompt diagnosis and to avoid improper management.

2012-01-01

57

Stem Cell Therapy in Bladder Dysfunction: Where Are We? And Where Do We Have to Go?  

PubMed Central

To date, stem cell therapy for the bladder has been conducted mainly on an experimental basis in the areas of bladder dysfunction. The therapeutic efficacy of stem cells was originally thought to be derived from their ability to differentiate into various cell types. Studies about stem cell therapy for bladder dysfunction have been limited to an experimental basis and have been less focused than bladder regeneration. Bladder dysfunction was listed in MESH as “urinary bladder neck obstruction”, “urinary bladder, overactive”, and “urinary bladder, neurogenic”. Using those keywords, several articles were searched and studied. The bladder dysfunction model includes bladder outlet obstruction, cryoinjured, diabetes, ischemia, and spinal cord injury. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), and skeletal muscle derived stem cells (SkMSCs) are used for transplantation to treat bladder dysfunction. The main mechanisms of stem cells to reconstitute or restore bladder dysfunction are migration, differentiation, and paracrine effects. The aim of this study is to review the stem cell therapy for bladder dysfunction and to provide the status of stem cell therapy for bladder dysfunction.

Lee, Sang-Rae; Song, Yun Seob; Lee, Hong Jun

2013-01-01

58

[Fiddler's neck].  

PubMed

The fiddler's neck is an uncommon variant of acne mechanica in violinists and violists. It is a single firm red-brown dermal nodule usually on the left side of neck. This special form of acne mechanica represents a therapeutic challenge since the triggering mechanical factors persist, unless they can be corrected by changes in positioning or modifications of the chin pad. A 72-year-old woman who had played the violin since childhood presented with a red-brown nodule on her neck for 18 months. Cushioning provided no relief. Excision of the affected area with primary closure represented one therapeutic option. Further supportive measures include improved posture to reduce the pressure between skin and instrument and interposing a neck cloth. PMID:23989244

Knierim, C; Goertz, W; Reifenberger, J; Homey, B; Meller, S

2013-10-01

59

Neck lump  

MedlinePLUS

... it. If the health care provider suspects a thyroid nodule , the following may help in diagnosis and treatment: CT scan of the head or neck Radioactive thyroid scan Thyroid biopsy If the lump is caused ...

60

Isolated Gall Bladder Perforation Following a Blunt Injury in the Abdomen  

PubMed Central

Gall bladder injuries which are caused after a blunt trauma in the abdomen are rare and they have significant mortality and morbidity when the treatment is delayed. They usually go undiagnosed until an exploratory laparotomy is done. We are reporting here a case of isolated gall bladder neck perforation, which is an uncommon finding following a blunt injury in the abdomen.

D'souza, Caren; K.R., Bhagavan; K., Rakesh

2012-01-01

61

African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES)  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate differences in visual function between the healthy eyes of people of African (AD) and European descent (ED). Methods Visual function was assessed in 393 AD and 367 ED participants selected from the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study and the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. Participants had normal appearance of the optic disc and intraocular pressure of less than 22 mm Hg. Each participant had 2 reliable 24-2 standard automated perimetry tests, and most had short-wavelength automated perimetry and frequency-doubling technology tests. The generalized estimating equation was used to adjust for intereye correlations. Results were adjusted for age, vertical cup-disc ratio, disc size, central corneal thickness, and presence of high blood pressure. Results The AD participants were younger (mean [SD] age, 46.2 [13.2] years) than the ED participants (age, 49.5 [16.6] years) (P=.003). The AD participants had worse mean deviation and pattern standard deviation and more points triggered as abnormal on the total and pattern deviation plots compared with ED participants on all tests (P<.05). A larger percentage of AD participants had confirmed abnormal glaucoma hemifield test results on standard automated perimetry only. Conclusions People of AD have significantly worse performance than people of ED on all tests of visual function. Additional research using longitudinal data is needed to determine the cause of these small but significant ancestry differences in visual function. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00221923

Racette, Lyne; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Jain, Sonia; Becerra, Lida M.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Bowd, Christopher; Weinreb, Robert N.; Boden, Catherine; Sample, Pamela A.

2010-01-01

62

African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES)  

PubMed Central

Objective To define differences in optic disc, retinal nerve fiber layer, and macular structure between healthy participants of African (AD) and European descent (ED) using quantitative imaging techniques in the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES). Methods Reliable images were obtained using stereoscopic photography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg retina tomography [HRT]), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for 648 healthy subjects in ADAGES. Findings were compared and adjusted for age, optic disc area, and reference plane height where appropriate. Results The AD participants had significantly greater optic disc area on HRT (2.06 mm2; P<.001) and OCT (2.47 mm2; P<.001) and a deeper HRT cup depth than the ED group (P<.001). Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was greater in the AD group except within the temporal region, where it was significantly thinner. Central macular thickness and volume were less in the AD group. Conclusions Most of the variations in optic nerve morphologic characteristics between the AD and ED groups are due to differences in disc area. However, differences remain in HRT cup depth, OCT macular thickness and volume, and OCT retinal nerve fiber layer thickness independent of these variables. These differences should be considered in the determination of disease status.

Girkin, Christopher A.; Sample, Pamela A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Jain, Sonia; Bowd, Christopher; Becerra, Lida M.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Racette, Lyne; Dirkes, Keri A.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.

2010-01-01

63

Appendicovesicostomy (and variations) in bladder reconstruction.  

PubMed

Bladder reconstruction using bowel segments was advanced when intermittent catheterization proved so acceptable. Access to the reservoir by way of the urethra is often not possible in children, especially boys. Implantation of the isolated appendix into the bladder remnant or colon segment similar to a ureteral reimplant provides a continence mechanism with ready catheter access (the Mitrofanoff principle). Since 1982 we have applied this principle in 41 pediatric cases of bladder reconstruction (64% boys). Primary diagnoses included bladder exstrophy (46%) and myelomeningocele (34%). Extending the concept of a flap valve continence channel with a narrow tube into the reservoir, segments of tapered ileum and ureters were also used (appendix 61%, ileum 12%, ureter 27%). Results of continence (100%) and uncomplicated catheterization (93%) have been satisfactory. Unfortunately, the longer the experience (average 3.2 years of followup), the more stone formation we experienced (32%), which is due to mucus production and bacteriuria as the stone nidus. There were 2 deaths, including 1 from a renal stone obstructing the ureter with sepsis and 1 a likely suicide. Reoperation was required for 3 stomal revisions, 2 bowel obstructions and 7 stone removals in 3 of the 6 cases in which the bladder neck was closed. Unique aspects of these reconstructions are presented, such as our current preference to bury the stoma in the umbilicus (7 cases), placement of the ureteral segment into the perineum as a neourethra and an unusual conjoined twin reconstruction. PMID:8437267

Duckett, J W; Lotfi, A H

1993-03-01

64

A class of coordinate descent methods for multiuser detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of coordinate descent methods is proposed for the joint detection of binary symbols of K users in a synchronous correlated waveform multiple-access (CWMA) channel with Gaussian noise. We consider the detection problem as one of optimizing a quadratic objective function with binary constraints on decision variables. The proposed coordinate descent methods, while still maintaining a low computational complexity,

J. Luo; G. Levchuk; K. Pattipati; P. Willett

2000-01-01

65

ASCENT AND DESCENT FOR FINITE SEQUENCES OF COMMUTING ENDOMORPHISMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homological techniques involving the Koszul complex are used to dene and explore two invariants, ascent and descent, for a nite sequence of commuting endomorphism of a mod- ule. It is shown in particular that, as in the case of a single endomorphism, if ascent and descent are both nite then they are equal, and that this niteness condition is equivalent

Luzius Grunenfelder

1999-01-01

66

A learning method of fuzzy inference rules by descent method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a learning method for fuzzy inference rules by a descent method. From input-output data gathered from specialists, the inference rules expressing the input-output relation of the data are obtained automatically. The membership functions in the antecedent part and the real number in the consequent part of the inference rules are tuned by means of the descent method.

Hiroyoshi NOMURA; I. Hayashi; N. Wakami

1992-01-01

67

Investigating Common Descent: Formulating Explanations and Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students formulate explanations and models that simulate structural and biochemical data as they investigate the misconception that humans evolved from apes. Students should recognize that present-day species evolved from earlier species and the relatedness of organisms is the result of common ancestry. They will also discover that similarities among existing organisms provide evidence for evolution, anatomical similarities of living things reflect common ancestry, and all life forms use the same basic DNA building blocks. Basic concepts also include the fact that scientists pose, test, and revise multiple hypotheses to explain what they observe, our understanding of life through time is based upon multiple lines of evidence, the similarity of DNA nucleotide sequences can be used to infer the degree of kinship between species, and anatomical evidence is also used to infer lines of descent. This site includes a list of materials and all information required for this activity.

68

African descents are more sensitive than European descents to the antitumor compounds ?-hederin and kalopanaxsaponin I.  

PubMed

?-Hederin, a natural triterpene saponin and its derivative kalopanaxsaponin I (ksI) exhibit cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines and IN VIVO tumors. We studied the genetic variants contributing to the activity of these two anticancer compounds. Cell lines derived from 30 trios of European descent (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Human, CEPH; CEU) and 30 trios of African descent (Yoruban, YRI) were used. Cytotoxicity was determined as inhibition of cell growth at increasing concentrations of ?-hederin or ksI for 24?h. In comparison to the European, the Yoruban populations revealed a higher sensitivity to ?-hederin and to ksI that can be attributed to several unique SNPs. These SNPs are located near 111 and 130 genes in the European and the Yoruban populations, respectively, raising the possibility that some of these genes contribute to the differential sensitivity to these compounds. PMID:20577945

Feller, Geva; Kugel, Aleksandra; Moonshine, Dana; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Scholz, Martin; Prüfer, Dirk; Rabinski, Tatiana; Müller, Kai J; Ofir, Rivka

2010-06-24

69

Primary bladder amyloidosis  

PubMed Central

Primary localised bladder amyloidosis is a very rare entity, with only 200 cases reported worldwide. Our case illustrates the classical presentation of isolated bladder amyloidosis with frank painless haematuria and irritative voiding symptoms.

Wilkinson, Michael; Fanning, Deirdre Mary; Flood, Hugh

2011-01-01

70

Blunt bladder injury.  

PubMed

Bladder injury should be suspected when trauma is followed by gross hematuria, suprapubic or abdominal pain, and difficulty in voiding or the inability to void. Bladder rupture with blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon; however, because of its high mortality rate, recognition of the early signs and symptoms can be life saving. The most common type of injury is a bladder contusion, which is a diagnosis of exclusion. Extraperitoneal bladder ruptures are almost exclusively associated with a pelvic fracture. PMID:23522505

Guttmann, Ivette; Kerr, Hamish A

2013-02-08

71

Local Descent Direction Vector Based Differential Evolution for Multiobjective Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential Evolution (DE) is an effective optimization method for global continuous optimization problems. Recently, we developed Local Descent Direction Vector Based Differential Evolution (LDDVDE) which uses local descent direction vectors based on the operation vectors in order to improve local search performance of DE. In this paper, we extend LDDVDE to multiobjective optimization problems. We adopt Hyper-Volume indicator to order the operation vectors to make the local descent direction vectors for the case of multiobjective optimization problems. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed through some numerical experiments for typical benchmark problems.

Kamiyama, Daichi; Tamura, Kenichi; Yasuda, Keiichiro

72

Challenge of Mars EDL (Entry, Descent, and Landing).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the some of the challenges of Martian atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) on the surface of Mars. It reviews some of the technological difficulties, and some solutions that are being developed for future unmanned m...

R. Sostaric

2010-01-01

73

14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...be determined for the most critical uncontrolled descent that can result from any single failure of the heater assembly, fuel cell system, gas value system, or maneuvering vent system, or from any single tear in the balloon envelope between...

2013-01-01

74

Head and Neck Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the neck. ... increases your risk. In fact, 85 percent of head and neck cancers are linked to tobacco use, including smoking and ...

75

Neck Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... tendons, ligaments, or nerves - can cause neck problems. Neck pain is very common. Pain may also come from ... upper arms. Muscle strain or tension often causes neck pain. The problem is usually overuse, such as from ...

76

Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder presenting as urinary retention in the female.  

PubMed

A case of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder, a rare benign tumor, in a 56-year-old female first seen with bilateral flank pain radiating to both groins, is reported. Examination showed a well developed female with obesity (260 pounds) and elevated blood pressure (132/90 mmHg). Evaluation with ultrasound, cystoscopy, urodynamics, and cytology contributed to the diagnosis of urinary bladder leiomyoma. Ultrasound detected a mass in the urinary bladder, and it was confirmed by cystoscopy to be a 5 cm to 6 cm bladder mass on the anterior bladder wall. The mass was prolapsing as a ball valve into the urethra at the level of the bladder neck. Frozen section of the mass showed it to be leiomyoma. PMID:19671234

Saunders, Susan E; Conjeski, Jacob Matthew; Zaslau, Stanley; Williams, Jim; Kandzari, Stanley J

2009-08-01

77

Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts and cerebellar tonsillar descent: short review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to analyze the association of cerebellar tonsillar descent and syringomyelia in patients with\\u000a posterior fossa arachnoid cysts. We reviewed the medical records of ten patients (mean, age 33; range, 24–49 years) diagnosed\\u000a with posterior fossa arachnoid cyst and tonsillar descent. Symptoms evolved over a mean of 12 months (range, 6 months to 3 years).\\u000a Syringomyelia was present in

Marcelo Galarza; Antonio López López-Guerrero; Juan F. Martínez-Lage

2010-01-01

78

Testicular descent: INSL3, testosterone, genes and the intrauterine milieu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete testicular descent is a sign of, and a prerequisite for, normal testicular function in adult life. The process of testis descent is dependent on gubernacular growth and reorganization, which is regulated by the Leydig cell hormones insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and testosterone. Investigation of the role of INSL3 and its receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), has contributed substantially

Katharina M. Main; Jorma Toppari; Niels E. Skakkebćk; Katrine Bay

2011-01-01

79

Gait adaptations to different paths of stair descent.  

PubMed

Gait characteristics during stair descent have been characterized for a straight descent path; however, pedestrians are likely to encounter a variety of staircase designs that allow one to descend at an angle (i.e. an oblique or monumental staircase). The purpose of this study was to determine the temporospatial lower limb joint kinematics differences between descending a staircase on straight versus oblique descent paths. Sixteen subjects (8 males, 8 females) descended a staircase under three different conditions: straight descent and at a 25° and 45° angle compare to the straight path. Cycle time, cadence, speed, step width, and step length were significantly affected by descent angle, while the proportion of the cycle dedicated to the stance and swing phases remained constant over the descent paths. Peak knee flexion angle increased by approximately 2.5° in the 45° condition compared to the 0° condition (p=0.0044); however, the remainder of the time series was unchanged. A decreased step width and increased step length occurred to allow the foot to sufficiently clear the steps. Changes in the temporospatial variables, hip joint angle and a constant stance/swing proportion demonstrates that these adaptations may be made to maintain characteristics of the gait cycle and prevent subjects from adopting an unfamiliar gait pattern. PMID:23583606

Gallagher, Kaitlin M; Vandenbussche, Jessica; Callaghan, Jack P

2013-04-11

80

Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) on the Mars Polar Lander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Descent Imager, or MARDI, experiment on the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) consists of a camera characterized by small physical size and mass (~6 × 6 × 12 cm, including baffle; <500 gm), low power requirements (<2.5 W, including power supply losses), and high science performance (1000 × 1000 pixel, low noise). The intent of the investigation is to acquire nested images over a range of resolutions, from 8 m/pixel to better than 1 cm/pixel, during the roughly 2 min it takes the MPL to descend from 8 km to the surface under parachute and rocket-powered deceleration. Observational goals will include studies of (1) surface morphology (e.g., nature and distribution of landforms indicating past and present environmental processes) (2) local and regional geography (e.g., context for other lander instruments: precise location, detailed local relief) and (3) relationships to features seen in orbiter data. To accomplish these goals, MARDI will collect three types of images. Four small images (256 × 256 pixels) will be acquired on 0.5 s centers beginning 0.3 s before MPL's heatshield is jettisoned. Sixteen full-frame images (1024 × 1024, circularly edited) will be acquired on 5.3 s centers thereafter. Just after backshell jettison but prior to the start of powered descent, a ``best final nonpowered descent image'' will be acquired. Five seconds after the start of powered descent, the camera will begin acquiring images on 4 s centers. Storage for as many as ten 800 × 800 pixel images is available during terminal descent. A number of spacecraft factors are likely to impact the quality of MARDI images, including substantial motion blur resulting from large rates of attitude variation during parachute descent and substantial rocket-engine-induced vibration during powered descent. In addition, the mounting location of the camera places the exhaust plume of the hydrazine engines prominently in the field of view.

Malin, M. C.; Caplinger, M. A.; Carr, M. H.; Squyres, S.; Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

2001-08-01

81

Large protruding bladder stone.  

PubMed

We present a unique case of a large urinary bladder stone protruding through the external urethral meatus in a 77-year-old woman, which was causing acute urinary retention, complicated by bilateral hydronephrosis, and was removed under topical anesthesia in the emergency department. Epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation and management of urinary bladder stones are briefly discussed. PMID:22639885

Smrkolj, Spela; Sedlar, Ales; Smrkolj, Tomaz

2012-05-28

82

[Bladder endocervicosis: an exceptional cause of bladder mass].  

PubMed

We report a case of a 32 year-old woman with bladder endocervicosis and ovarian endometriosis. Association of endocervicosis with endometriosis is feasible due to a müllerian origin of both entitties. Bladder endocervicosis is an exceptional entity that can be present in young women as a bladder mass like a bladder cancer. PMID:16050203

González-Satué, C; Serra Cáner, J; Armora Mani, J

2004-10-01

83

[Bladder cancer radiotherapy margins].  

PubMed

Radical cystectomy is the gold standard treatment of invasive bladder carcinoma, but conservative treatment is a serious option for selected patients. It comprises a transurethral resection, as complete as possible, before a radiation therapy of the whole bladder and pelvis, with a concomitant chemotherapy. Bladder wall movements during the treatment course lead to the use of wide margins to cover the clinical target volume. Planning target volume margins must be anisotropic to correspond to the mobility of each bladder zone: 10mm in the inferior portion, 15mm in lateral directions, and 20 to 25mm in anterior and superior directions. The development of image-guided radiotherapy and adaptative radiotherapy should lead to a reduction of these margins. Besides, partial bladder radiotherapy is showing encouraging results, by reducing the clinical target volume in well-selected patients. PMID:23969246

Régnier, E; Nguyen, T D; Beckendorf, V; Lagrange, J-L

2013-08-19

84

Painful Bladder Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Painful bladder syndrome\\/interstitial cystitis (PBS\\/IC), also known as bladder pain syndrome (BPS\\/IC), is primarily based\\u000a on symptoms of urgency, frequency, and pain in the bladder and\\/or pelvis. Its etiology is not known and clinical characteristics\\u000a vary among patients. Early recognition of BPS\\/IC is very important because the symptoms are quite disabling, affecting quality\\u000a of life and resulting in patients being

Mauro Cervigni; Franca Natale; Albert Mako; Loredana Nasta

85

Metabolomics and bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of bladder cancer is primarily made based on clinical presentation and then by direct visualization with cystoscopy. Despite the massive investments recently made to identify urinary-based assays that are able to diagnosis urothelial carcinoma, urine cytology and cystoscopy still remain the gold standard. Recently proof of principle studies have shown that noninvasive urine-based metabolomics, using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), may be able to accurately diagnosis bladder cancer. This review discusses the published studies investigating metabolomics and bladder cancer and the future potential of this developing field. PMID:21930087

Hyndman, Matthew E; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

86

Women of African Descent: Persistence in Completing Doctorates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the educational persistence of women of African descent (WOAD) in pursuit of a doctorate degree at universities in the southeastern United States. WOAD are women of African ancestry born outside the African continent. These women are heirs to an inner dogged determination and spirit to survive despite all odds (Pulliam, 2003,…

Iddrisu, Vannetta Bailey

2010-01-01

87

Correlations, Descent Measures: Drift with Migration and Mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of gene frequencies for a nested structure of genes within individuals, individuals within subpopulations, and subpopulations within populations is considered. Alternative parameterizations are provided by measures of correlation and of identity by descent, but the latter parameters provide more flexibility. The effects of population size, mating system, mutation, and migration can be incorporated into transition equations for identity

C. Clark Cockerham; B. S. Weir

1987-01-01

88

Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) on the Mars Polar Lander  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Descent Imager, or MARDI, experiment on the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) consists of a camera characterized by small physical size and mass (~6 × 6 × 12 cm, including baffle; <500 gm), low power requirements (<2.5 W, including power supply losses), and high science performance (1000 × 1000 pixel, low noise). The intent of the investigation is to

M. C. Malin; M. A. Caplinger; M. H. Carr; S. Squyres; P. Thomas; J. Veverka

2001-01-01

89

Direct Temperature Measurements during Netlander Descent on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new design for a platinum thermoresistance temperature sensor has been developed and tested in Earth's atmosphere and stratosphere. It will be one of the sensors equipping the scientific package ATMIS (Atmospheric and Meteorology Instrument System), which will be devoted to the measurement of the meteorological parameters during both the entry\\/descent phase and the surface phase, aboard the Netlanders. In

G. Colombatti; F. Angrilli; F. Ferri; A. Francesconi; M. Fulchignoni; P. F. Lion Stoppato; B. Saggi

1999-01-01

90

Pregnant Women of Mexican Descent: Constructions of Motherhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research related to pregnancy outcomes has tended to have a bio-medical focus. More recent research has begun to explore possible social and cultural influences on birth outcomes. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 28 pregnant women of Mexican descent in the Texas\\/Mexico border region to begin to describe the social and cultural contexts of pregnancy of women of Mexican ancestry.

Faith W. Lucas

2010-01-01

91

Descents and nodal load in scale-free networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The load of a node in a network is the total traffic going through it when every node pair sustains a uniform bidirectional traffic between them on shortest paths. We express nodal load in terms of the more elementary notion of a node’s descents in breadth-first-search [(BFS) or shortest-path] trees and study both the descent and nodal-load distributions in the case of scale-free networks. Our treatment is both semianalytical (combining a generating-function formalism with simulation-derived BFS branching probabilities) and computational for the descent distribution; it is exclusively computational in the case of the load distribution. Our main result is that the load distribution, even though it can be disguised as a power law through subtle (but inappropriate) binning of the raw data, is in fact a succession of sharply delineated probability peaks, each of which can be clearly interpreted as a function of the underlying BFS descents. This find is in stark contrast with previously held belief, based on which a power law of exponent -2.2 was conjectured to be valid regardless of the exponent of the power-law distribution of node degrees.

Bareinboim, Elias; Barbosa, Valmir C.

2008-04-01

92

Overview of the Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing System Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA s Phoenix Mars Lander began its journey to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida in August 2007, but its journey to the launch pad began many years earlier in 1997 as NASA s Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. In the intervening years, the entry, descent ...

B. D. Cichy M. R. Grover P. N. Desai

2008-01-01

93

Prediction of identity by descent probabilities from marker-haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of identity by descent (IBD) probabilities is essential for all methods that map quantitative trait loci (QTL). The IBD probabilities may be predicted from marker genotypes and\\/or pedigree information. Here, a method is presented that predicts IBD probabilities at a given chromosomal location given data on a haplotype of markers spanning that position. The method is based on

Theo H. E. MEUWISSEN; Mike E. GODDARD

2001-01-01

94

STS40 descent BET products: Development and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descent Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) Data were generated for the final Orbiter Experiments Flight, STS-40. This report discusses the actual development of these post-flight products: the inertial BET, the Extended BET, and the Aerodynamic BET. Summary results are also included. The inertial BET was determined based on processing Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRSS) coherent Doppler data in conjunction with

Kevin F. Oakes; James S. Wood; John T. Findlay

1991-01-01

95

Radionuclide Cystogram (Bladder Scan)  

MedlinePLUS

... as bladder scan, radionuclide cystogram is a diagnostic nuclear test that uses a solution containing radioactive material ... Kidney (Renal) Failure Kidney (Renal) Infection Kidney (Renal) Nuclear Medicine Scan Kidney (Renal) Transplantation Kidney (Renal) Trauma ...

96

Daily Bladder Diary  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources E-News Alternate Version Print PDF Version (131 KB) * Also see: Bladder Control for Women Subscribe ... might prefer looking at the Print PDF Version (131 KB) * of the diary as the print quality ...

97

Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network  

MedlinePLUS

... empower you to take action. read more > Monica Smith joins the BCAN team as the new Executive ... difference in the future of bladder cancer. Monica Smith joins the BCAN team as the new Executive ...

98

Huygens probe entry and descent trajectory analysis and reconstruction techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini/Huygens is a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/European Space Agency (ESA)/Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) mission on its way to explore the Saturnian system. The ESA Huygens Probe is scheduled to be released from the Orbiter on 25 December 2004 and enter the atmosphere of Titan on 14 January 2005. Probe delivery to Titan, arbitrarily defined to occur at a reference altitude of 1270 km above the surface of Titan, is the responsibility of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). ESA is then responsible for safely delivering the probe from the reference altitude to the surface. The task of reconstructing the probe trajectory and attitude from the entry point to the surface has been assigned to the Huygens Descent Trajectory Working Group (DTWG), a subgroup of the Huygens Science Working Team. The DTWG will use data provided by the Huygens Probe engineering subsystems and selected data sets acquired by the scientific payload. To correctly interpret and correlate results from the probe science experiments and to provide a reference set of data for possible "ground-truthing" Orbiter remote sensing measurements, it is essential that the trajectory reconstruction be performed as early as possible in the post-flight data analysis phase. The reconstruction of the Huygens entry and descent trajectory will be based primarily on the probe entry state vector provided by the Cassini Navigation Team, and measurements of acceleration, pressure, and temperature made by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI). Other data sets contributing to the entry and descent trajectory reconstruction include the mean molecular weight of the atmosphere measured by the probe Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) in the upper atmosphere and the Surface Science Package (SSP) speed of sound measurement in the lower atmosphere, accelerations measured by the Central and Radial Accelerometer Sensor Units (CASU/RASU), and the probe altitude by the two probe radar altimeters during the latter stages of the descent. In the last several hundred meters, the altitude determination will be constrained by measurements from the SSP acoustic sounder. Other instruments contributing data to the entry and descent trajectory and attitude determination include measurements of the zonal wind drift by the Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE), and probe zonal and meridional drift and probe attitude by the Descent Imager and Spectral Radiometer (DISR). In this paper, the need for and the methods by which the Huygens Probe entry and descent trajectory will be reconstructed are reviewed.

Atkinson, D. H.; Kazeminejad, B.; Gaborit, V.; Ferri, F.; Lebreton, J.-P.

2005-04-01

99

Spontaneous Bladder Perforation in an Infant Neurogenic Bladder: Laparoscopic Management  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous bladder perforation is an uncommon event in childhood. It is usually associated with bladder augmentation. We are presenting a case of bladder rupture in an infant with neurogenic bladder without prior bladder surgery. Three days after lipomyelomeningocele excision the patient showed signs and symptoms of acute abdomen. The ultrasound exploration revealed significant amount of intraperitoneal free fluid and therefore a laparoscopic exploration was performed. A posterior bladder rupture was diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. Currently, being 3 years old, she keeps successfully dry with clean intermittent catheterization. Neurogenic bladder voiding function can change at any time of its evolution and lead to complications. Early diagnosis of spontaneous bladder rupture is of paramount importance, so it is essential to think about it in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

Cabezali Barbancho, Daniel; Guerrero Ramos, Felix; Lopez Vazquez, Francisco; Aransay Bramtot, Adolfo; Gomez Fraile, Andres

2013-01-01

100

[Deep neck infections].  

PubMed

Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible. PMID:17152800

Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold

2006-01-01

101

Nerve Disease and Bladder Control  

MedlinePLUS

... signals from the brain to the bladder and sphincter. Overactive bladder. Damaged nerves may send signals to ... sudden, strong urge to urinate Poor control of sphincter muscles. Sphincter muscles surround the urethra and keep ...

102

Open wedge high tibial osteotomy: cause of patellar descent.  

PubMed

This was a retrospective review of the nine open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) done in a regional hospital in Hong Kong from 2006 to 2008. The mechanical hip-knee-ankle angle improved from average 169.5°(164°-175°) to average 183.9° (179°-187°). Patellar descent was noted in all patients postoperatively, with Blackburne-Peel (BP) index significantly changing from 0.78 (0.64-0.93) to 0.59 (0.38-0.78) (p < 0.05). This change was strongly correlated with the size of anterior bone graft (r = -0.766; p = 0.016). The patellar tendon length as measured by Insall-Salvati index was not changed (pre-operative: 1.02 (0.88-1.25), final: 1.09 (0.8-1.22) (p = 0.683)), inferring that scarring contracture of patellar tendon was not related to patellar descent. PMID:22240018

Fan, Jason C H

2012-01-12

103

Open wedge high tibial osteotomy: cause of patellar descent  

PubMed Central

This was a retrospective review of the nine open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) done in a regional hospital in Hong Kong from 2006 to 2008. The mechanical hip-knee-ankle angle improved from average 169.5°(164°-175°) to average 183.9° (179°-187°). Patellar descent was noted in all patients postoperatively, with Blackburne-Peel (BP) index significantly changing from 0.78 (0.64-0.93) to 0.59 (0.38-0.78) (p < 0.05). This change was strongly correlated with the size of anterior bone graft (r = -0.766; p = 0.016). The patellar tendon length as measured by Insall-Salvati index was not changed (pre-operative: 1.02 (0.88-1.25), final: 1.09 (0.8-1.22) (p = 0.683)), inferring that scarring contracture of patellar tendon was not related to patellar descent.

2012-01-01

104

Mars Exploration Rovers Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

th and 25 th of 2004, respectively. The trajectory analysis performed to define the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) scenario is described. The entry requirements and constraints are presented, as well as uncertainties used in a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis to statistically assess the robustness of the entry design to off-nominal conditions. In the analysis, six-degree-of-freedom and three-degree-of-freedom trajectory re-

Prasun N. Desai; Philip C. Knocke

2004-01-01

105

Scaling Up Coordinate Descent Algorithms for Large ?1 Regularization Problems  

SciTech Connect

We present a generic framework for parallel coordinate descent (CD) algorithms that has as special cases the original sequential algorithms of Cyclic CD and Stochastic CD, as well as the recent parallel Shotgun algorithm of Bradley et al. We introduce two novel parallel algorithms that are also special cases---Thread-Greedy CD and Coloring-Based CD---and give performance measurements for an OpenMP implementation of these.

Scherrer, Chad; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tewari, Ambuj; Haglin, David J.

2012-07-03

106

Dynamic MR colpocystorectography assessing pelvic-floor descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Magnetic resonance colpocystorectography (MR-CCRG) is presented in the evaluation of patients with pelvic-floor disorders.\\u000a Five healthy volunteers and 44 female patients with isolated or combined visceral descent underwent dynamic MRI and dynamic\\u000a fluoroscopy (DF). MR-CCRG was performed with the patient in a supine position using a True FISP sequence (1 image\\/1.2 s; in-plane\\u000a resolution 1.02 mm) during pelvic floor

A. Lienemann; C. Anthuber; A. Baron; P. Kohz; M. Reiser

1997-01-01

107

Continuous Steepest Descent Path for Traversing Non-convex Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper revisits the ideas of seeking unconstrained minima by following a continuous steepest descent path (CSDP). We are especially interested in the merits of such an ap- proach in regions where the objective function is non-convex and Newton-like methods become ineffective. The paper combines ODE-trajectory following with trust-region ideas to give an algorithm which performs curvilinear searches on each

S. Beddiaf

2009-01-01

108

An approximate, maximum-terminal-velocity descent to a point  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neighboring extremal control problem is formulated for a hypersonic glider to execute a maximum-terminal-velocity descent to a stationary target in a vertical plane. The resulting two-part, feedback control scheme initially solves a nonlinear algebraic problem to generate a nominal trajectory to the target altitude. Secondly, quadrature about the nominal provides the lift perturbation necessary to achieve the target downrange.

G. Richard Eisler; David G. Hull

1988-01-01

109

Anticholinergic drugs for overactive bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Anticholinergic drugs are first-line pharmacotherapy for overactive bladder syndrome. They block muscarinic receptors at the detrusor muscle, thus reducing bladder contractility. As no anticholinergic drugs are totally selective for the detrusor, adverse effects from muscarinic receptor blockade at other sites are common. New drugs with greater bladder selectivity and extended-release preparations are being developed to try to reduce these

William Kuteesa; Kate H. Moore

110

Laparoscopic bladder augmentation using stomach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of bladder augmentation with stomach, via a laparoscopic approach. The patient was a 17-year-old girl with sacral agenesis and a poorly compliant bladder. A wedge of stomach, based on the right gastroepiploic pedicle, was obtained using a stapled technique. The bladder was opened and the gastric segment was sutured in place. A needle suspension was also

Steven G. Docimo; Robert G. Moore; John Adams; Louis R. Kavoussi

1995-01-01

111

Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder with bladder stone.  

PubMed

Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign mesenchymal tumour. We describe here a case of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in a 65-year-old gentleman who presented with haematuria, passage of clots and combined obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms. The investigations revealed a vesical calculus and a mass on the left lateral wall of the urinary bladder. Cystolitholapaxy and transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. Histopathological report of the resected tumour revealed a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder. So far, a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder and a concomitant vesical calculus have not been described in literature. PMID:18803905

Farouk, Khalid; Gondal, Murtaza; Ahmad, Anis; Bano, Uzma; Khan, Amna

2008-09-01

112

Paraganglioma of urinary bladder.  

PubMed

Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder is extremely rare. In this report of a young man, hypertensive crisis and ventricular arrhythmia was provoked during cystoscopic evaluation of a bladder mass. A diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was considered following detection of high serum and urinary catecholamine levels. A preoperative meta-iodobenzylguanidine scan was, however, negative. The bladder mass was surgically removed following initiation of antihypertensive therapy. Pathological confirmation of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma was established. During a serial follow-up, serum and urine catecholamine levels were persistently elevated. This was explained by abnormalities on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan, which were considered to represent a metastatic malignant neuroendocrine tumour. The patient is on palliative chemotherapy for malignant paraganglioma. This case highlights variable presentation of pheochromocytoma, importance of having a high index of clinical suspicion for early recognition and prompt management and serious adverse consequence of a delayed diagnosis. PMID:23917361

Malik, Azhar Ali; Afandi, Bachar; Jamil, Gohar; Akhter, Syed M J

2013-08-05

113

Measurements of methane absorption by the descent imager\\/spectral radiometer (DISR) during its descent through Titan's atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

New low-temperature methane absorption coefficients pertinent to the Titan environment are presented as derived from the Huygens DISR spectral measurements combined with the in-situ measurements of the methane gas abundance profile measured by the Huygens Gas Chromatograph\\/Mass Spectrometer (GCMS). The visible and near-infrared spectrometers of the descent imager\\/spectral radiometer (DISR) instrument on the Huygens probe looked upward and downward covering

M. G. Tomasko; B. Bézard; L. Doose; S. Engel; E. Karkoschka

2008-01-01

114

Endocervicosis of the Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of endocervicosis of the bladder. The tumor was successfully resected trans-urethrally. Histopathology of this rare condition is discussed and the literature is reviewed. The natural course of this entity is poorly documented and close followup is mandatory. When endocervicosis is differentiated confidently from adenocarcinoma, local treatment may be satisfactory.

Farhad Parivar; Damien M. Bolton; Marshall L. Stoller

1995-01-01

115

Bladder Operated Robotic Joint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention is a robotic joint which is operated by inflatable bladders and which can be used in applications where it is desired to move or hold an object. A support block supports an elongated plate to which is pivotally attached a finger. A tension ...

G. A. Robertson

1992-01-01

116

Influence of behavior modification on overactive bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral interventions have been used for decades to treat urge incontinence and other symptoms of overactive bladder. Perhaps the earliest form of treatment was the bladder drill, an intensive intervention designed to increase the interval between voids to establish a normal frequency of urination and normalization of bladder function. Bladder training is a modification of bladder drill that is conducted

Kathryn L Burgio

2002-01-01

117

Chainsaw penetrating neck injury.  

PubMed

A case of chainsaw injury to the neck is described. Previous reports in the English language are exceedingly rare. A brief discussion of safety features on chain saws is followed by a review of selective vs. mandatory surgical exploration in penetrating neck trauma, including the role of ancillary diagnostic tests. PMID:7582411

Brown, A F

1995-06-01

118

Chainsaw penetrating neck injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of chainsaw injury to the neck is described. Previous reports in the English language are exceedingly rare. A brief discussion of safety features on chain saws is followed by a review of selective vs. mandatory surgical exploration in penetrating neck trauma, including the role of ancillary diagnostic tests.

A F Brown

1995-01-01

119

American Head and Neck Society  

MedlinePLUS

... Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS History AHNS Leadership Past Presidents In Memory Professionalism & Ethics AHNS Job Board Humanitarian Efforts Meetings AHNS Meetings ...

120

Factored form descent: a practical algorithm for coherence retrieval.  

PubMed

We formulate coherence retrieval, the process of recovering via intensity measurements the two-point correlation function of a partially coherent field, as a convex weighted least-squares problem and show that it can be solved with a novel iterated descent algorithm using a coherent-modes factorization of the mutual intensity. This algorithm is more memory-efficient than the standard interior point methods used to solve convex problems, and we verify its feasibility by reconstructing the mutual intensity of a Schell-model source from both simulated data and experimental measurements. PMID:23482147

Zhang, Zhengyun; Chen, Zhi; Rehman, Shakil; Barbastathis, George

2013-03-11

121

Gradient descent assimilation for the point-vortex model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data assimilation is concerned with incorporating (noisy) observations into (imperfect) models that describe the underlying dynamics of the system, in order to infer the properties of the current state, by ensuring that the assimilated trajectories are consistent with both the observations and model dynamics. For many physical systems, particularly in oceanography, observations are usually available in the form of Lagrangian (particle trajectory) data that are augmented into models describing the flow fields. The incorporation of Lagrangian data into models of flow presents several challenges concerning the potential complexity of the Lagrangian trajectories in relatively simple flow fields, for example the appearance of nonlinear effects that are triggered by the exponential rate of separation of tracer trajectories in the region of saddle points [1]. As such, standard linear-based data assimilation methods, such as the Kalman filter, can fail. A nonlinear approach known as gradient descent assimilation [2] is presented, in which analysis trajectories are found by minimising a cost function in an extended state space. The gradient descent approach is demonstrated in the context of assimilating Lagrangian tracer trajectories in two-dimensional flows of point-vortex systems. The point-vortex model plays an important role as a simplified version of many physical systems, including Bose-Einstein condensates, certain plasma configurations and inviscid turbulence, in which the model dynamics are described by a relatively simple system of nonlinear ODEs, which can exhibit regular or chaotic motion for the 2-point vortex or 3-point vortex system respectively. A set of tracer advection equations augment the point vortex model equations, allowing the observed tracer positions to update the state information about the unobserved vortex postions. The gradient descent approach to the two-point vortex system has been successfully demonstrated for the case of both full and partial observations in a wide variety of test cases. [1] K. Ide, L. Kuznetsov and C. K. R. T. Jones. Lagrangian data assimilation for point vortex systems, Journal of Turbulence, 3, 053 (2002). [2] K. Judd, L. A. Smith and A. Weisheimer. Gradient free descent: Shadowing and state estimation using limited derivative information, Physica D, 190, 153-166 (2004).

Suckling, E. B.; Smith, L. A.

2012-04-01

122

DISR imaging and the geometry of the descent of the Huygens probe within Titan's atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Descent Imager\\/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) provided 376 images during the descent to Titan and 224 images after landing. Images of the surface had scales between 150m\\/pixel and 0.4mm\\/pixel, all of which we assembled into a mosaic. The analysis of the surface and haze features in these images and of other data gave tight constraints on the geometry of the descent,

Erich Karkoschka; Martin G. Tomasko; Lyn R. Doose; Chuck See; Elisabeth A. McFarlane; Stefan E. Schröder; Bashar Rizk

2007-01-01

123

Curious foreign body in the bladder of an adolescent.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 14 year old boy who presented at our emergency department because of increasing alguria and dysuria one year after inserting a wire cable into his bladder for autoerotic purposes. Endoscopic transurethral removal of the foreign body proved to be impossible because the cable was of a stiff consistency and was trapped in scar tissue at the bladder neck. The foreign body therefore had to be extracted using a Pfannenstiel approach. Urethrocystoscopy and uroflow performed one week later were normal. Filiform intravesical foreign bodies can create particular challenges. Adequate diagnostic imaging, awareness of possible complications, and knowledge of the different available techniques are essential in planning safe extraction. PMID:23217915

De Bernardis, Gaston; Haecker, Frank-Martin

2012-12-01

124

Murine bladder wall biomechanics following partial bladder obstruction.  

PubMed

Evaluation of bladder wall mechanical behavior is important in understanding the functional changes that occur in response to pathologic processes such as partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO). In the murine model, the traditional approach of cystometry to describe bladder compliance can prove difficult secondary to small bladder capacity and surgical exposure of the bladder. Here, we explore an alternative technique to characterize murine mechanical properties by applying biaxial mechanical stretch to murine bladders that had undergone pBOO. 5-6 week old female C57/Bl6 mice were ovariectomized and subjected to pBOO via an open surgical urethral ligation and sacrificed after 4 weeks (n=12). Age matched controls (n=6) were also analyzed. Bladders were separated based on phenotype of fibrotic (n=6) or distended (n=6) at the time of harvest. Biaxial testing was performed in modified Kreb's solution at 37°C. Tissue was preconditioned to 10 cycles and mechanical response was evaluated by comparing axial strain at 50kPa. The normal murine bladders exhibited anisotropy and were stiffer in the longitudinal direction. All mice showed a loss of anisotropy after 4 weeks of pBOO. The two phenotypes observed after pBOO, fibrotic and distended, exhibited less and more extensibility, respectively. These proof-of-principle data demonstrate that pBOO creates quantifiable changes in the mechanics of the murine bladder that can be effectively quantified with biaxial testing. PMID:23998207

Chen, Joseph; Drzewiecki, Beth A; Merryman, W David; Pope, John C

2013-07-27

125

Intrapartum and postpartum bladder care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims(1) To see how well are we performing in this area, (2) To suggest changes to improve the standard of patient care.BackgroundIntrapartum and postpartum bladder care are of great clinical importance. Overdistension of the bladder can cause permanent damage of the bladder. If voiding difficulties are recognised and treated early, both short and long-term morbidity may be prevented. Currently, there

A Yulia; S Mackenzie

2011-01-01

126

High mammographic density in women of Ashkenazi Jewish descent.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Percent mammographic density (PMD) adjusted for age and BMI is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer and is known to be approximately 60 percent heritable. Here we report a finding of an association between genetic ancestry and adjusted PMD. METHODS: We selected self-identified Caucasian women in the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute Cohort whose screening mammograms placed them in the top or bottom quintiles of age- and body mass index-adjusted PMD. Our final data set included 474 women with the highest adjusted PMD and 469 with the lowest genotyped on the Illumina 1M platform. Principal component analysis (PCA) and identity-by-descent (IBD) analyses allowed us to infer the women's genetic ancestry and correlate it with adjusted PMD. RESULTS: Women of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, as defined by the first principal component (PC1) of PCA and identity-by-descent analyses, represented approximately 15 percent of the sample. Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, defined by PC1, was associated with higher adjusted PMD (p = 0.004). Using multivariate regression to adjust for epidemiologic factors associated with PMD, including age at parity and use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, did not attenuate the association. CONCLUSION: Women of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry based on genetic analysis are more likely to have high age- and BMI-adjusted PMD. Ashkenazi Jews may have a unique set of genetic variants or environmental risk factors that increase mammographic density. PMID:23668689

Caswell, Jennifer L; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A; Cummings, Steven R; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Ziv, Elad

2013-05-13

127

Guidelines on Bladder Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: On behalf of the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines for diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of bladder cancer patients were established. Criteria for recommendations were evidence based, and included aspects of cost-effectiveness and clinical feasibility.Method: A systematic literature research using Medline Services was conducted. References were weighted by a panel of experts.Results: TNM 1997 classification and WHO grading 1998

Willem Oosterlinck; Bernard Lobel; Gerhard Jakse; Per-Uno Malmström; Michael Stöckle; Cora Sternberg

2002-01-01

128

TRPs in bladder diseases  

PubMed Central

This review attempts to provide an overview of the current knowledge of TRP proteins and their possible role in bladder function and disease. At present, there are 28 transient receptor potential (TRP) channels (subdivided into 7 categories or families) which are involved in a number of functions [G.A. Hicks, TRP channels as therapeutic targets: hot property, or time to cool down? Neurogastroenterology and Motility 18, (2006) 590–594., J.D. Levine, N. Alessandri-Haber, TRP channels: targets for the relief of pain, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1772, (2007) 989–1003.]. Of those belonging to the group 1 subfamily, a number of TRPV, TRPM and TRPA proteins associated with osmoregulation, thermal, chemical and mechanical signaling mechanisms have been shown to be expressed within the lower urinary tract. Though the biological role of many of these channels in urinary bladder function still remains elusive, TRPV1 is by far the best characterized and is thought to be involved in a number of bladder disorders

Birder, Lori A.

2011-01-01

129

[Urogynecology, overactive bladder, and neurourology].  

PubMed

This overview presents new results regarding urogynecology, overactive bladder, and neurourology. The importance of interdisciplinary pelvic floor centers and Burch colposuspension are discussed. PMID:21837492

Müller, S C

2011-09-01

130

Neuropathic bladder and spinal dysraphism.  

PubMed Central

The association between spinal dysraphism and a neuropathic bladder is well known, but the diagnosis of the spinal lesion and the associated renal problems is often delayed. Four children referred with orthopaedic problems and in whom the bladder abnormally proved to be the major disability are described. Despite widely differing vertebral involvement, all had lower motor neurone neurological deficits confined to lumbar and upper sacral segments. All had unstable, variably thickened, small bladders, and it is proposed that the bladder abnormality is the result of a partial lesion of lumbosacral innervation, and not of an upper motor neurone lesion. Images Fig. 1a Fig. 1b Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Borzyskowski, M; Neville, B G

1981-01-01

131

Neck dissections: radical to conservative  

PubMed Central

Background Neck dissection is an important surgical procedure for the management of metastatic nodal disease in the neck. The gold standard of neck nodal management has been the radical neck dissection. Any modification in the neck dissection is always compared with this standard. Over the last few decades, in order to alleviate the morbidity of radical neck dissection, several modifications and conservative procedures have been advocated. These procedures retain certain lymphatic or non-lymphatic structures and have been shown not to compromise oncological safety. Methods A literature search of the Medline was carried out for all articles on neck dissections. The articles were systematically reviewed to analyze and trace the evolution of neck dissection. These were then categorized to address the nomenclature, management of node positive and node negative neck including those who had received chemoradiation. Results The present article discusses the neck nodal nomenclature, the radical neck dissection, its modifications and migration to more conservative procedures and possible advances in the near future. Conclusion Radical neck dissection is now replaced with modified radical neck dissections in most situations. Attempts are being made to replace modified radical neck dissections with selective neck dissections for early node positivity. Sentinel node biopsy is being studied to address the issue of node negative neck. More conservative surgeries are likely to replace the 'radical' surgeries of bygone era. This process is facilitated by earlier detection of the disease and better understanding of cancer biology.

Harish, K

2005-01-01

132

Chemoprevention of bladder cancer.  

PubMed

The data presented herein, although highly supportive for a protective role of various nutrients against bladder cancer, are far from definitive. Many authorities question the validity of current recommendations for nutritional chemoprevention against bladder cancer. The reason for the wide variations reported in epidemiologic studies lies in the nature of observational studies. Dietary studies are limited in their conclusions because the protection afforded by the consumption of a particular nutrient may be multifactorial, with different components of the food exerting potential chemopreventive effects. Furthermore, measuring levels of nutrients in the food intake of populations is confounded by factors that might affect these levels and also the incidence of cancer. For example, vitamin A can come from animal or vegetarian sources. Because animal fat has been identified as a potential carcinogen in man, depending on the source of the vitamin, varying levels of protection might be deduced. In addition, chemoprevention studies using dietary supplements are expected to have mild effects, and large studies would be required to confirm statistical significance. Even with agents such as intravesical chemotherapy, only half the studies achieve statistical significance [29]. Prospective randomized trials with a large sample size, longer follow-up, and an extended duration of treatment are needed to clarify the association between micronutrients and cancer protection. With these caveats in mind, several recommendations can be made. Simple measures, such as drinking more fluids (especially water), can have a profound impact on the incidence of bladder cancer. Vitamins are being extensively studied in chemopreventive trials for different cancers. There is strong evidence for a chemoprotective effect of vitamin A in bladder cancer. The authors recommend 32,000 IU/day of vitamin A initially, with lower doses (24,000 IU) for persons less than 50 kg. Because liver toxicity is a possibility with long-term administration, the dose should be decreased to 16,000 IU after 3 years. High doses of beta-carotene should be avoided based on a large clinical trial reporting a 25% increase in the number of cases of prostate cancer and a statistically significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Vitamin B6 has been studied in several clinical trials in bladder cancer. The US-based Veterans Administration cooperative study found benefit for vitamin B6 when given as a single agent. Data for vitamins C and E are insufficient to recommend either agent as stand-alone treatment. Nonetheless, each of these vitamins is known to have beneficial effects, including improved function of the immune system. It is possible that only a small percentage of patients with bladder cancer respond to vitamins B6, C, or E, yet each is safe, nontoxic, and inexpensive. In an effort to pool the efficacy of individual agents and to increase the power of study, the authors evaluated the combination of vitamins A, B6, C, and E in a double-blind trial. The observed 50% 5-year reduction in tumor recurrence was highly significant and greater than would be expected for any of the individual ingredients and suggests that combinations of nutritional agents may be most appropriate. A large-volume study along similar lines is being conducted. Among the numerous other compounds and dietary substances purported to have chemopreventive effect, soybeans, garlic, and green tea stand out as having the greatest promise and can freely be recommended to patients. For synthetically synthesized agents such as celecoxib, piroxicam, or DFMO, recommendations must be deferred until the results of clinical trials are conclusively in favor of their use. Many of the dietary factors found to be protective against bladder cancer are being investigated in other cancers and are beneficial to general health. Although naturally occurring nutrients are ideal, especially because the delicate balance of various micronutrients might be impossible to synthesize in the laboratory, the general population

Kamat, Ashish M; Lamm, Donald L

2002-02-01

133

Bladder augmentation using allogenic bladder submucosa seeded with cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The search for a suitable material to reconstruct the genitourinary tract has been a challenging task. Bowel has been widely used for urinary tract reconstruction, despite its subsequent complications. We investigated the possibility of using allogenic bladder submucosa, a tissue consisting of nonimmunogenic acellular collagen, either with or without cells, as a material for bladder augmentation.Methods. Partial cystectomies were

James J. Yoo; Jun Meng; Frank Oberpenning; Anthony Atala

1998-01-01

134

Overview of Neck Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... people who sit at desks or work at computers. Treatment Options The rehabilitation of neck injuries occurs in three phases. During the first phase, called the acute phase, physiatrists treat pain ...

135

Head and Neck Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... and mouth. Most head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, meaning they begin in the flat, squamous cells ... the deeper tissue, then it is called invasive squamous cell carcinoma. If the cancer starts in the salivary glands, ...

136

Melanoma - neck (image)  

MedlinePLUS

This melanoma on the neck is variously colored with a very darkly pigmented area found centrally. It has irregular ... be larger than 0.5 cm. Prognosis in melanoma is best defined by its depth on resection.

137

APOLLO 12 Mission Report Descent, Propulsion System Final Flight Evaluation (Supplement 5).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results are presented of the postflight analysis of the Descent propulsion system (DPS) performance during the Apollo 12 Mission. The primary objective of the analysis was to determine the steady-state performance of the DPS during the descent phase o...

R. K. Seto R. L. Barrows

1972-01-01

138

The effect of the descent technique and truck cabin layout on the landing impact forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of injuries to truckers are caused by falls during the descent from the cab of the truck. Several studies have shown that the techniques used to descend from the truck and the layout of the truck's cabin are the principal cause of injury. The goal of the present study was to measure the effects of the descent techniques

Stéphane Patenaude; Denis Marchand; Sabina Samperi; Marc Bélanger

2001-01-01

139

Parsing Expression Grammar as a Primitive Recursive-Descent Parser with Backtracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent developments in the fleld of formal languages are Parsing Expression Grammar (PEG) and packrat parsing. The PEG formalism is similar to BNF, but deflnes syntax in terms of recognizing strings, rather than constructing them. It is, in fact, precise speciflcation of a backtracking recursive- descent parser. Packrat parsing is a general method to handle backtracking in recursive-descent parsers.

Roman R. Redziejowski

2007-01-01

140

From Psychology of Race to Issue of Skin Color: Western Trivialization and Peoples of African Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the aftermath of Western colonization is the trivialization of skin color as significant issue in the psychology of peoples of African descent. Although social scientists use race as a key factor in elucidating and understanding human social conditions, skin color and its impact on the social and psychological disposition of people of African descent have been understudied. Oblivious to

Ronald E. Hall

2005-01-01

141

Effects of the Phoenix Lander descent thruster plume on the Martian surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exhaust plume of Phoenix's hydrazine monopropellant pulsed descent thrusters will impact the surface of Mars during its descent and landing phase in the northern polar region. Experimental and computational studies have been performed to characterize the chemical compounds in the thruster exhausts. No undecomposed hydrazine is observed above the instrument detection limit of 0.2%. Forty-five percent ammonia is measured

D. H. Plemmons; M. Mehta; B. C. Clark; S. P. Kounaves; L. L. Peach Jr; N. O. Renno; L. Tamppari; S. M. M. Young

2008-01-01

142

A dynamic continuous descent approach methodology for low noise and emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous Descent Approaches (CDAs) can significantly reduce fuel burn and noise impact by keeping arriving aircraft at their cruise altitude for longer than during conventional approaches(to descend as late as possible)and then having them make a continuous descent to the runway at near idle thrust with no level flight segments. The CDA procedures are fixed routes that are vertically optimized.

S. Alam; M. H. Nguyen; H. A. Abbass; C. Lokan; M. Ellejmi; S. Kirby

2010-01-01

143

Mitral annular descent velocity by tissue Doppler echocardiography as an index of global left ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitral annular descent has been described as an index of left ventricular (LV) systolic function, which is independent of endocardial definition. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging is a new technique that calculates and displays color-coded cardiac tissue velocities on-line. To evaluate mitral annular descent velocity as a rapid index of global LV function, we performed tissue Doppler imaging studies in 55

Vijay K. Gulati; William E. Katz; William P. Follansbee; John Gorcsan

1996-01-01

144

Introduction to the special issue on lesbians of African descent: contemporary perspectives.  

PubMed

This article serves as an introduction to the special issue entitled, "Lesbians of African Descent: Contemporary Perspectives." We briefly discuss our framing of this collection as a contemporary contribution to the canon of Black lesbian writing and art, and identify themes that appear to transcend both earlier and current works of lesbians of African descent. PMID:21279896

Wilson, Bianca D M; Johnson, Verlena L

2011-01-01

145

Müllerianosis of the Urinary Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Müllerianosis of the urinary bladder is a rare condition that encompasses 3 histological entities (endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis). The authors report 2 patients with bladder müllerianosis, one of whom had endometriosis and the other a history of past pelvic surgery, describe the histological and cystoscopic features, and review the literature on this condition. Mucosal hyperemia and submucosal nodules or cysts

Josefa Elizabeth Olivia Vella; Nithin Nair; Stephen Robert Ferryman; Ramanand Athavale; Pallavi Latthe; Lynn Hirschowitz

2011-01-01

146

Paraganglioma of the Urinary Bladder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of 24 previously unreported cases of paraganglioma involving the urinary bladder are described and compared with the 34 other neoplasms of this type reported or referred to in the literature. Bladder paragangliomas represent about 0.06% of all bl...

E. B. Price J. E. Leestma

1971-01-01

147

Adaptive wavefront control with asynchronous stochastic parallel gradient descent clusters.  

PubMed

A scalable adaptive optics (AO) control system architecture composed of asynchronous control clusters based on the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) optimization technique is discussed. It is shown that subdivision of the control channels into asynchronous SPGD clusters improves the AO system performance by better utilizing individual and/or group characteristics of adaptive system components. Results of numerical simulations are presented for two different adaptive receiver systems based on asynchronous SPGD clusters-one with a single deformable mirror with Zernike response functions and a second with tip-tilt and segmented wavefront correctors. We also discuss adaptive wavefront control based on asynchronous parallel optimization of several local performance metrics-a control architecture referred to as distributed adaptive optics (DAO). Analysis of the DAO system architecture demonstrated the potential for significant increase of the adaptation process convergence rate that occurs due to partial decoupling of the system control clusters optimizing individual performance metrics. PMID:16985545

Vorontsov, Mikhail A; Carhart, Gary W

2006-10-01

148

Adaptive wavefront control with asynchronous stochastic parallel gradient descent clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scalable adaptive optics (AO) control system architecture composed of asynchronous control clusters based on the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) optimization technique is discussed. It is shown that subdivision of the control channels into asynchronous SPGD clusters improves the AO system performance by better utilizing individual and/or group characteristics of adaptive system components. Results of numerical simulations are presented for two different adaptive receiver systems based on asynchronous SPGD clusters—one with a single deformable mirror with Zernike response functions and a second with tip-tilt and segmented wavefront correctors. We also discuss adaptive wavefront control based on asynchronous parallel optimization of several local performance metrics—a control architecture referred to as distributed adaptive optics (DAO). Analysis of the DAO system architecture demonstrated the potential for significant increase of the adaptation process convergence rate that occurs due to partial decoupling of the system control clusters optimizing individual performance metrics.

Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Carhart, Gary W.

2006-10-01

149

Y Chromosome Lineages in Men of West African Descent  

PubMed Central

The early African experience in the Americas is marked by the transatlantic slave trade from ?1619 to 1850 and the rise of the plantation system. The origins of enslaved Africans were largely dependent on European preferences as well as the availability of potential laborers within Africa. Rice production was a key industry of many colonial South Carolina low country plantations. Accordingly, rice plantations owners within South Carolina often requested enslaved Africans from the so-called “Grain Coast” of western Africa (Senegal to Sierra Leone). Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and central Africans (from 12 populations), 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands), 532 African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC), and 91 European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30–40% of the paternal lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European ancestry. Diverse west African ancestries and sex-biased gene flow from EAs has contributed greatly to the genetic heterogeneity of African populations throughout the Americas and has significant implications for gene mapping efforts in these populations.

Keita, Shomarka O. Y.; Kittles, Rick A.

2012-01-01

150

Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts and cerebellar tonsillar descent: short review.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the association of cerebellar tonsillar descent and syringomyelia in patients with posterior fossa arachnoid cysts. We reviewed the medical records of ten patients (mean, age 33; range, 24-49 years) diagnosed with posterior fossa arachnoid cyst and tonsillar descent. Symptoms evolved over a mean of 12 months (range, 6 months to 3 years). Syringomyelia was present in six cases. Six patients underwent a suboccipital craniectomy, three cases underwent an additional C1 laminectomy, and a further case had a limited craniectomy and tonsillar reduction. Three patients were also treated for hydrocephalus: one with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and two with endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Two patients had conservative treatment. The posterior fossa arachnoid cysts were located at the vermis-cisterna magna (n = 4), the cerebellar hemispheres (n = 2), the cerebellopontine angle (n = 3), and the quadrigeminal cistern (n = 1). A patient with achondroplasia showed features of platybasia. Associated malformations included craniofacial dysmorphism in a patient diagnosed of trichorhinophalangeal syndrome and a case with a primary temporal arachnoid cyst. After a mean follow-up of 2 years (range, 3 months to 5 years), four patients showed resolution of their neurological symptoms, and two exhibited persisting ocular findings. Headaches and nuchalgia improved in four cases and persisted in four. Syringomyelia was resolved in four patients and improved in two. Patients harboring a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst may evolve with acquired Chiari malformation and syringomyelia. Initial management should be directed to decompressing the foramen magnum and should include the resection of the arachnoid cyst's walls. A wait-and-see attitude can be implemented in selected cases. In our experience, hydrocephalus should be properly addressed before treating the arachnoid cyst. PMID:20480382

Galarza, Marcelo; López-Guerrero, Antonio López; Martínez-Lage, Juan F

2010-05-18

151

Y chromosome lineages in men of west African descent.  

PubMed

The early African experience in the Americas is marked by the transatlantic slave trade from ?1619 to 1850 and the rise of the plantation system. The origins of enslaved Africans were largely dependent on European preferences as well as the availability of potential laborers within Africa. Rice production was a key industry of many colonial South Carolina low country plantations. Accordingly, rice plantations owners within South Carolina often requested enslaved Africans from the so-called "Grain Coast" of western Africa (Senegal to Sierra Leone). Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and central Africans (from 12 populations), 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands), 532 African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC), and 91 European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30-40% of the paternal lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European ancestry. Diverse west African ancestries and sex-biased gene flow from EAs has contributed greatly to the genetic heterogeneity of African populations throughout the Americas and has significant implications for gene mapping efforts in these populations. PMID:22295064

Torres, Jada Benn; Doura, Menahem B; Keita, Shomarka O Y; Kittles, Rick A

2012-01-25

152

Assessment on EXPERT Descent and Landing System Aerodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EXPERT is a re-entry vehicle designed for validation of aero-thermodynamic models, numerical schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics codes and test facilities for measuring flight data under an Earth re-entry environment. This paper addresses the design for the descent and landing sequence for EXPERT. It includes the descent sequence, the choice of drogue and main parachutes, and the parachute deployment condition, which can be supersonic or subsonic. The analysis is based mainly on an engineering tool, PASDA, together with some hand calculations for parachute sizing and design. The tool consists of a detailed 6-DoF simulation performed with the aerodynamics database of the vehicle, an empirical wakes model and the International Standard Atmosphere database. The aerodynamics database for the vehicle is generated by DNW experimental data and CFD codes within the framework of an ESA contract to CIRA. The analysis will be presented in terms of altitude, velocity, accelerations, angle-of- attack, pitch angle and angle of rigging line. Discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each parachute deployment condition is included in addition to some comparison with the available data based on a Monte-Carlo method from a Russian company, FSUE NIIPS. Sensitivity on wind speed to the performance of EXPERT is shown to be strong. Supersonic deployment of drogue shows a better performance in stability at the expense of a larger G-load than those from the subsonic deployment of drogue. Further optimization on the parachute design is necessary in order to fulfill all the EXPERT specifications.

Wong, H.; Muylaert, J.; Northey, D.; Riley, D.

2009-01-01

153

Bladder Cancer Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bladder cancer (BC) is a worldwide health problem. In 2006 in Europe, there were an estimated 104,400 incident cases of BC\\u000a diagnosed (82,800 in men and 21,600 in women) that represent a 6.6% of the total cancers in men and 2.1% in women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of death, and especially involved with BC carcinogenesis. Tobacco smoking

Maria J. Ribal

154

14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized... (a) General. When operating a turbine engine powered airplane with a...

2013-01-01

155

Systematic evaluation of bladder cancer risk-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a chinese population.  

PubMed

Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with bladder cancer risk in populations of European descent. However, effects of these SNPs in bladder cancer have not been systemically evaluated in the Chinese population. We conducted association studies of 12 SNPs in a Chinese population of 184 cases and 962 controls. These SNPs were previously identified in European GWAS and a fine mapping study. The reported risk alleles of rs798766 on TACC3 at 4p16 and rs9624880 on MYC at 8q24 were significantly associated with increased bladder cancer risk with P-values of 0.003 and 0.03, respectively. Next, we performed a meta-analysis, by combining our study with previous association studies performed in Chinese. In the meta-analysis, the reported risk allele for four SNPs were significantly associated with increased bladder cancer risk, including rs798766 on TACC3 at 4p16, rs9624880 on MYC at 8q24, rs2294008 on PSCA at 8q24, and rs2736100 on TERT at 5p15. The meta-analysis P-values for the four SNPs ranged from 0.017 to 5.52E-05. The results from our study suggest that a sub-set of bladder cancer risk-associated SNPs identified from the European population are also associated with bladder cancer risk in the Chinese population. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are needed to further confirm our results. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22711262

Ma, Zhicheng; Hu, Qingfeng; Chen, Zhuo; Tao, Sha; Macnamara, Lindsay; Kim, Seong-Tae; Tian, Lu; Xu, Ke; Ding, Qiang; Zheng, Siqun L; Sun, Jielin; Xia, Guowei; Xu, Jianfeng

2012-06-18

156

Cervical Thymic Cyst: A Rare Differential Diagnosis in Lateral Neck Swelling  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Thymic cysts are among the rarest cysts found in the neck. Nests of thymic tissue may be found anywhere along the descent of the thymic primordia from the angle of the mandible to the mediastinum. Mediastinal extension is seen in 50% of cervical thymic cysts. Case Report. We report an uncommon case of a 15-year-old male, who noted a painless, growing mass on left side of his neck of one-year duration. Computerised tomographic scan showed a multiloculated fluid density lesion with enhancing septae in the left parapharyngeal space, extending from the level of mandible up to C7 vertebral level. Here, we discuss the surgical aspect, histopathology, and management of this rare lateral neck swelling. Discussion. Clinically, in most cases, cervical thymic lesions present as a unilateral asymptomatic neck mass, commonly on the left side of the neck, and 75% of patients present before 20 years of age. Conclusion. Thymic cyst should be included as differential diagnosis of cystic neck masses. Greater awareness among the pathologists may decrease misdiagnosis.

Shenoy, Vijendra; Kamath, M. Panduranga; Hegde, Mahesh Chandra; Rao Aroor, Raghavendra; Maller, Vijetha V.

2013-01-01

157

The Descent of Christ in Ephesians 4:9: Its Impact Upon the Use of the Apostles' Creed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confusion runs rampant when it comes to certain theological issues such as the descent of Christ in Ephesians 4:9. Over the centuries, three main interpretations have arisen to explain this enigmatic text. The possible interpretations are that the descent was the Descensus ad Infernos during which Christ visited hell during the three days that He was dead, that the descent

Matthew C Hinson

2007-01-01

158

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Bladder Tumor in a Patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare neoplasm described in several tissues and organs including genitourinary system, lung, head, and neck. The etiology of IMT is contentious, and whether it is a postinflammatory process or a true neoplasm remains controversial. To our knowledge, we report the first reported case of IMT of urinary bladder in a pediatric patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn (WHS). We also review the literature about patients with associated neoplasia.

Marte, Antonio; Indolfi, Paolo; Ficociello, Carmine; Oreste, Matilde; Bottigliero, Gaetano; Gualdiero, Giovanna; Barone, Ciro; Vigliar, Elena; Indolfi, Cristiana; Casale, Fiorina

2013-01-01

159

Hemangiopericytoma of the neck  

PubMed Central

Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is an exceedingly rare tumor of uncertain malignant potential. Approximately 300 cases of HPC have been reported since Stout and Murray described HPCs as "vascular tumors arising from Zimmerman's pericytes" in 1942. After further characterization, the WHO reclassified HPC as a fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumor. Long term follow up is mandatory because the histologic criteria for prediction of biologic behavior are imprecise. There are reports of recurrence and metastasis many years after radical resection. The head and neck incidence is less than 20%, mostly in adults. We report herein a case of HPC resected from the neck of a 74-year-old woman, who presented in our department with a painless right-sided neck mass. The mass was well circumscribed, mobile and soft during the palpation. The skin over the tumor was intact and normal. Clinical diagnosis at this time was lipoma. A neck computer tomography scan showed a large submucosal mass in the neck, which extended in the muscular sites. The tumor was completely removed by wide surgical resection. During surgery we found a highly vascularised tumor. The histopathologic examination revealed a cellular, highly vascularized tumor. The diagnosis was that of solitary fibrous tumor, cellular variant, with haemangiopericytoma-like features. The patient had normal postoperative course of healing and 24 months later she remains asymptomatic, without signs of recurrence or metastases.

2010-01-01

160

A Rare Metastasis to the Bladder  

PubMed Central

Primary bladder cancer is the fifth most common malignancy but secondary malignancies of the bladder are rare. Distinguishing primary adenocarcinomas of the bladder from secondary adenocarcinomas is difficult and relies on immunohistochemical staining. Prostate, colorectal, breast, and lung all can produce metastatic adenocarcinomas to the bladder. Further management of the malignancy varies depending on the source, thus making proper diagnosis critical. We present only the fifth documented case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung to bladder and performed a review of the literature.

Modh, Rishi A.; Corbyons, Katherine A.; Yeung, Lawrence L.

2013-01-01

161

Validation of Genome-Wide Prostate Cancer Associations in Men of African Descent  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, but these loci have been identified primarily in men of European descent. There is limited information about the role of these loci in men of African descent. Methods We identified 7,788 prostate cancer cases and controls with genotype data for 47 GWAS-identified loci. Results We identified significant associations for SNP rs10486567 at JAZF1, rs10993994 at MSMB, rs12418451 and rs7931342 at 11q13, and rs5945572 and rs5945619 at NUDT10/11. These associations were in the same direction and of similar magnitude as those reported in men of European descent. Significance was attained at all report prostate cancer susceptibility regions at chromosome 8q24, including associations reaching genome-wide significance in region 2. Conclusion We have validated in men of African descent the associations at some, but not all, prostate cancer susceptibility loci originally identified in European descent populations. This may be due to heterogeneity in genetic etiology or in the pattern of genetic variation across populations. Impact The genetic etiology of prostate cancer in men of African descent differs from that of men of European descent.

Chang, Bao-Li; Spangler, Elaine; Gallagher, Stephen; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian; Isaacs, William; Benford, Marnita L.; Kidd, LaCreis R.; Cooney, Kathleen; Strom, Sara; Ann Ingles, Sue; Stern, Mariana C.; Corral, Roman; Joshi, Amit D.; Xu, Jianfeng; Giri, Veda N.; Rybicki, Benjamin; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Kibel, Adam S.; Thompson, Ian M.; Leach, Robin J.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Stanford, Janet L.; Witte, John; Casey, Graham; Eeles, Rosalind; Hsing, Ann W.; Chanock, Stephen; Hu, Jennifer J.; John, Esther M.; Park, Jong; Stefflova, Klara; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

2010-01-01

162

Head and neck cancers manifested as deep neck infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of head and neck cancers in patients with an initial presentation of deep neck infection is unclear and may\\u000a be underestimated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the incidence of head and neck cancers initially manifested as\\u000a deep neck infection. Also, the possible risk factors and pathophysiology are discussed. This study was a retrospective medical

Yuan-Yung Lin; Chiang-Hung Hsu; Jih-Chin Lee; Hsing-Won Wang; Yaoh-Shiang Lin; Chih-Hung Wang; Chuan-Hsiang Kao; Wan-Fu Su; Yueng-Hsiang Chu

163

Donald Munro Lecture 2003. Neurogenic bladder: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

The foundation of the management of neurogenic bladder can be attributed to a pioneer in spinal cord injury medicine. Dr. Donald Munro, a neurosurgeon, who also had experience in urologic surgery, established the first Spinal Cord Injury Service of 10 beds in the Boston City hospital in the 1930s. He later became adviser to the US Army and the Veterans Administration (VA). On his recommendation, paraplegic centers were created in US army hospitals and later in the VA hospitals from 1943 to 1945. This article reviews the evolution of the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with spinal cord injuries from the past century to the present. The role of urodynamics in defining neurologic lesions is critical to the appropriate management of the voiding dysfunction. Key advances, such as the diagnosis of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD), recognition of its association with autonomic dysreflexia, and its definitive management, have been emphasized. The role of transrectal linear array sonography using a rectal probe was found useful for defining bladder outlet dysfunction during urodynamics. It also helped to recognize secondary bladder neck obstruction and diagnose false passages in the urethra. Clean technique intermittent catheterization (IC) was evaluated and recommended. In about 28% patients with DSD that led to secondary bladder neck obstruction, a consequence of IC was reported. Transurethral laser sphincterotomy (TURS) was first reported by me in 1991, and later, durable 7-year follow-up results were reported in 78% of the first 99 patients. We reported a surgical technique to lengthen the penis. We also reported the long-term success with semirigid implants in 92% of patients with SCI. This technique helped maintain external condom drainage on a small phallus and improved the sex life of patients, as well as their quality of life. The author's pertinent areas of interest in the past one-half century were aimed at recognizing specific urologic problems associated with neurologic impairment. Management was aimed at preventive care, early recognition, and timely management to reduce secondary complications and enhance quality of life. PMID:15484669

Perkash, Inder

2004-01-01

164

Müllerianosis of the urinary bladder.  

PubMed

Müllerianosis of the urinary bladder is a rare condition that encompasses 3 histological entities (endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis). The authors report 2 patients with bladder müllerianosis, one of whom had endometriosis and the other a history of past pelvic surgery, describe the histological and cystoscopic features, and review the literature on this condition. Mucosal hyperemia and submucosal nodules or cysts with associated fibrosis and distortion of the bladder wall may mimic malignancy on cystoscopy, as may the infiltrative growth pattern sometimes evident histologically. Recognition of this complex diagnostic entity is important to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate investigation. There is a clinical association with endometriosis and past pelvic surgery. PMID:21632636

Olivia Vella, Josefa Elizabeth; Nair, Nithin; Ferryman, Stephen Robert; Athavale, Ramanand; Latthe, Pallavi; Hirschowitz, Lynn

2011-06-01

165

Are neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting at work risk factors for neck pain? Results of a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting.METHODSA prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured exposure data (video recordings) of neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting posture. Neck pain was assessed

G. A. M. Ariens; P. M. Bongers; M. Douwes; M. C. Miedema; W. E. Hoogendoorn; G van der Wal; L. M. Bouter; W van Mechelen

2001-01-01

166

Biomarkers in overactive bladder.  

PubMed

A biomarker is an indicator of a particular disease. It is generally used to define the presence (diagnostic biomarker), severity, progression (prognostic biomarker) of a condition and/or its response to a specific treatment (predictive biomarker). Biomarkers can be specific cells, enzymes, hormones, genes or gene products, which can be detected and measured in parts of the body such as blood, urine or tissue. Therefore, biomarkers have been suggested to play an important role in both the clinical assessment and the management of patients, as well as in the research setting. Recently, interest has gathered in urinary biomarkers as a tool to assess overactive bladder (OAB), potentially playing a role in the diagnosis, disease progression and monitoring response to treatment. Urinary biomarkers identified so far include nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), prostaglandins, cytokines and C-reactive protein. The aim of this review was to review the published literature on biomarkers in OAB. A literature review using Pub Med, clinicaltrials.gov and the controlled trials online registries was performed from 1970 up to June 2012. The search keywords were: the International Continence Society (ICS) definition of "OAB", "nerve growth fac- tor" (NGF), "brain derived growth factor" (BDNF), "prostaglandins," "cytokines," "genetic biomarkers" and "C reactive protein".The results were limited for fully published English-language articles. The search was then subsequently expanded to include urinary biomarkers in interstitial cystitis and bladder pain where relevant. Each of the studies/articles was reviewed, interpreted and discussed to consider the role of urinary biomarkers in OAB. Using the search criteria, a total of 20 studies (animal and human) that investigated the role of urinary biomarkers in OAB were identified. Full text versions of these articles were obtained and reviewed. Studies on NGF suggested that urinary levels were higher in OAB patients and decreased with antimuscarinic and botulinum toxin treatment. BDNF studies have demonstrated raised levels in OAB and also increased levels in situations of acute bladder inflammation. The role of urinary prostaglandins, cytokines and CRP does not appear to be specific to the OAB disease process according to the current available evidence. Based on the evidence so far NGF and BDNF appear to be the most promising biomarkers in OAB. Although still in their infancy these neurotrophic factors could potentially diagnose OAB, replacing urodynamics and aiding in monitoring disease progression and response to treatment in addition to clinical symptoms. PMID:23314226

Bhide, Alka A; Cartwright, Rufus; Khullar, Vik; Digesu, G Alessandro

2013-01-12

167

Head and Neck Melanoma  

PubMed Central

The incidence of malignant melanoma appears to be increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world over the past 30–40 years and continues to increase in the United States, Canada, Australia, Asia, and Europe. The behavior of head and neck melanoma is aggressive, and it has an overall poorer prognosis than that of other skin sites. The authors review the published literature and text books, intending to give an overall picture of malignant melanomas of the head and neck and a special emphasis on treatment considerations with controversies in treatment including biopsy, radiation therapy, sentinel node biopsy, and nodal dissection.

Shashanka, R.; Smitha, B. R.

2012-01-01

168

Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator  

SciTech Connect

A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

Vicroy, D.D.; Knox, C.E.

1983-05-01

169

[Prognosis of the neurological bladders].  

PubMed

Numerous neurological diseases may hurt the neurological command of the miction and thus provoke the dysfunctions of the bladder and/or the urinary sphincter. These dysfunctions leads to annoying symptoms (incontinence, retention or both) but can also cause grave complications (renal infections, calculations, renal insufficiency, tumor of bladder). The forecast of the neurological bladders consists to prevent the urinary complications and to improve the comfort/quality of life. The initial care must be early and multidisciplinary. The objective of a low-pressure bladder emptied regularly without permanent drainage is common to all the situations. The objective of a dry and autonomous patient for the elimination of the urine is the main goal for the optimization of the quality of life. The restoration of a sexuality, a fertility, a control of the continence and the faecal exemption are also important parameters to improve of the quality of life. PMID:24176407

Boissier, R; Karsenty, G

2013-10-16

170

Evolution and ecology of directed aerial descent in arboreal ants.  

PubMed

Directed aerial descent (DAD) is used by a variety of arboreal animals to escape predators, to remain in the canopy, and to access resources. Here, we build upon the discovery of DAD in ants of tropical canopies by summarizing its known phylogenetic distribution among ant genera, and within both the subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae and the genus Cephalotes. DAD has multiple evolutionary origins in ants, occurring independently in numerous genera in the subfamilies Myrmicinae, Formicinae, and Pseudomyrmecinae. Ablation experiments and video recordings of ants in a vertical wind tunnel showed that DAD in Cephalotes atratus is achieved via postural changes, specifically orientation of the legs and gaster. The occurrence of DAD in Formicinae indicates that the presence of a postpetiole is not essential for the behavior. Evidence to date indicates that gliding behavior is accomplished by visual targeting mediated by the compound eyes, and is restricted to diurnally active ants that nest in trees. Occlusion of ocelli in Pseudomyrmex gracilis workers had no effect on their success or performance in gliding. Experimental assessment of the fate of ants that fall to the understory showed that ants landing in water are 15 times more likely to suffer lethal attacks than are ants landing in leaf litter. Variation in both the aerodynamic mechanisms and selective advantages of DAD merits further study given the broad taxonomic diversity of arboreal ants that engage in this intriguing form of flight. PMID:21562023

Yanoviak, Stephen P; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

2011-05-11

171

STS-40 descent BET products: Development and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Descent Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) Data were generated for the final Orbiter Experiments Flight, STS-40. This report discusses the actual development of these post-flight products: the inertial BET, the Extended BET, and the Aerodynamic BET. Summary results are also included. The inertial BET was determined based on processing Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRSS) coherent Doppler data in conjunction with observations from eleven C-band stations, to include data from the Kwajalein Atoll and the usual California coastal radars, as well as data from five cinetheodolite cameras in the vicinity of the runways at EAFB. The anchor epoch utilized for the trajectory reconstruction was 53,904 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) seconds which corresponds to an altitude at epoch of approximately 708 kft. Atmospheric data to enable development of an Extended BET for this mission were upsurped from the JSC operational post-flight BET. These data were evaluated based on Space Shuttle-derived considerations as well as model comparisons. The Aerodynamic BET includes configuration information, final mass properties, and both flight-determined and predicted aerodynamic performance estimates. The predicted data were based on the final pre-operational databook, updated to include flight determined incrementals based on an earlier ensemble of flights. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are presented and correlated versus statistical results based on twenty-two previous missions.

Oakes, Kevin F.; Wood, James S.; Findlay, John T.

1991-11-01

172

Experimental Study of Rotor Vortex Wakes in Descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study is performed on a three-bladed rotor model in a water towing tank. The blade pitch and rotational velocity, the rotor plane angle of attack, and the carriage speed are all varied in order to simulate a wide range of rotorcraft operating states. Circulation Reynolds numbers are of order 105 and blade Reynolds numbers are of order 104. Flow visualization is done using air bubbles or dye injected from the blade tips to mark the vortex core, showing the development of an instability on the helical vortices in the wake. PIV data provide quantitative measures of the flow field as the wake develops. Strain gages are also used to record transient load measurements, allowing a correlation to be made between the rotor performance and the development of the vortex wake. The data so far indicate that as the instability develops, the adjacent vortices merge and form thick vortex rings, especially during descent. The vorticity spreads and is periodically shed from the wake, resulting in significant fluctuations in the rotor loading.

Stack, James; Carradonna, Frank; Savas, Omer

2002-11-01

173

PASDA - a tool to design atmospheric descent bodies with parachutes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PASDA (Parachute System Design and Analysis Tool) is an unique integrated software package, funded by ESA, to design and analyse parachute based systems for space related applications and to provide the environment for collecting and storing parachute related information. PASDA supports future space science mission studies, where parachute systems are an essential part of the mission concept. Based on a sophisticated database of parachute related information for projects requiring descent in a planetary atmosphere, it assists the user in the selection, performance evaluation and specification of a parachute system for a specific mission. PASDA combines very different functions: trajectory simulation, parachute design and analysis, database tasks, graphical output, a sophisticated user interface, user guidance and software code to combine all functions. The parachute design package allows sizing of all parachute components e.g. canopy, lines, mortar, stowage volume, materials to be used, weight, etc. according to the loads derived in deployment and inflation analyses. Specific (parachute) knowledge is required to work efficiently with PASDA. However the integration of the different modules allows to let the computer perform the painstaking work of transforming outputs of one module into inputs for the next one and archiving results as numbers with description and graphics. Thus it provides an efficient integrated design and analysis approach to parachute system decelerators for studies of future space missions.

Adler, D.; Trogus, W.; Bachor, E.; Eiden, M.

1995-03-01

174

Direct Temperature Measurements during Netlander Descent on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design for a platinum thermoresistance temperature sensor has been developed and tested in Earth's atmosphere and stratosphere. It will be one of the sensors equipping the scientific package ATMIS (Atmospheric and Meteorology Instrument System), which will be devoted to the measurement of the meteorological parameters during both the entry/descent phase and the surface phase, aboard the Netlanders. In particular vertical profiles of temperature, density and pressure will allow the resolution of vertical gradients to investigate the atmospheric structure and dynamics. In view of the future missions to Mars, Netlander represents a unique chance to increase significantly the climate record both in time and in space, doubling the current knowledge of the atmospheric parameters. Furthermore is the only opportunity to conduct direct measurement of temperature and pressure (outside the boundary layer of the airbags used for the landing). The temperature sensor proposed is a platinum thermoresistance, enhancement of HASI TEM (Cassini/Huygens Mission); a substantial improvement of the performances, i.e. a faster dynamic response, has been obtained. Two different prototypes of new design sensor have been built, laboratory test are proceeding and the second one has been already flown aboard a stratospheric balloon.

Colombatti, G.; Angrilli, F.; Ferri, F.; Francesconi, A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Lion Stoppato, P. F.; Saggi, B.

1999-09-01

175

Pharmacological Therapy for Overactive Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Multiple classes of drugs, drug therapies, and other pharmacological agents are potentially useful to decrease bladder contractility\\u000a or decrease sensation and thereby treat overactive bladder (OAB) (see Table 1), but few have been utilized clinically (1). Antimuscarinic agents are the only oral class of drugs that have demonstrated proof of concept in managing this disorder\\u000a and remain the most commonly

H. Mallory Reeves; Eric S. Rovner; Alan J. Wein

176

Surgical management for overactive bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of patients with overactive bladder can be managed with office-based techniques. When medical therapy fails as\\u000a treatment for overactive bladder, surgical intervention ranging from electrical stimulation administered in the office to\\u000a extensive procedures, such as augmentation or urinary diversion, may be needed. Any surgical intervention should be tailored\\u000a to the patient with consideration of the degree of his

Rodney A. Appell; Timothy B. Boone

2007-01-01

177

Congenital bladder diverticula in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: The authors report their experience with the management of congenital bladder diverticula in children.Methods: The authors reviewed the histories of six boys (mean age, 4.4 years) in whom congenital bladder diverticula was treated from 1980 to 1996. Diverticula were unilateral in four patients and bilateral in two patients. All patients presented recurrent urinary tract infection, and two boys had

Rafael V Pieretti; Rafael V Pieretti-Vanmarcke

1999-01-01

178

Bladder cancer epidemiology and genetic susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary system. The incidence of bladder cancer of men is higher than that of women (approximately 4:1). Here, we summarize the bladder cancer-related risk factors, including environmental and genetic factors. In recent years, although the mortality rate induced by bladder cancer has been stable or decreased gradually, the public health effect may be pronounced. The well-established risk factors for bladder cancer are cigarette smoking and occupational exposure. Genetic factors also play important roles in the susceptibility to bladder cancer. A recent study demonstrated that hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer is associated with increased risk of bladder cancer. Since 2008, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been used to identify the susceptibility loci for bladder cancer. Further gene-gene or gene-environment interaction studies need to be conducted to provide more information for the etiology of bladder cancer.

Chu, Haiyan; Wang, Meilin; Zhang, Zhengdong

2013-01-01

179

Head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Cross sectional imaging fills a crucial role in the work up of squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. The radiologist can suggest important considerations in treatment planning and disease prognosis. Key areas of anatomy in radiologic staging are reviewed. PMID:23158052

Walden, Michael J; Aygun, Nafi

2013-01-01

180

Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux  

PubMed Central

In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB) and the dysfunctional voiding (DV), have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome), most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES) are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB), with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

Sillen, Ulla

2008-01-01

181

Bladder dysfunction in peripheral neuropathies.  

PubMed

Normal bladder function depends on the complex interaction of sensory and motor pathways. Bladder dysfunction can develop as a result of several neurological conditions. It can happen in a number of ways, including diabetic cystopathy, detrusor overactivity, bladder outlet obstruction, and urge and stress urinary incontinence. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy-associated bladder dysfunction. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and amyloid neuropathy are other major causes. The diagnosis of bladder dysfunction should be established by the history of neurological symptoms, neurological examination, and urological evaluation. Functional evaluation of the lower urinary tract includes cystometry, sphincter electromyography, uroflowmetry, and urethral pressure profilometry. Management of urinary symptoms in patients with bladder dysfunction is usually supportive. In some cases, alpha-blocker and/or anti-muscarinic agents are needed to help improve urinary dysfunction. Intermittent self-catheterization is needed occasionally for patients with slow and/or poor recovery. PMID:22190298

Burakgazi, Ahmet Z; Alsowaity, Bander; Burakgazi, Zeynep Aydin; Unal, Dogan; Kelly, John J

2012-01-01

182

Treatment of the neurogenic bladder in spina bifida.  

PubMed

Renal damage and renal failure are among the most severe complications of spina bifida. Over the past decades, a comprehensive treatment strategy has been applied that results in minimal renal scaring. In addition, the majority of patients can be dry for urine by the time they go to primary school. To obtain such results, it is mandatory to treat detrusor overactivity from birth onward, as upper urinary tract changes predominantly start in the first months of life. This means that new patients with spina bifida should be treated from birth by clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacological suppression of detrusor overactivity. Urinary tract infections, when present, need aggressive treatment, and in many patients, permanent prophylaxis is indicated. Later in life, therapy can be tailored to urodynamic findings. Children with paralyzed pelvic floor and hence urinary incontinence are routinely offered surgery around the age of 5 years to become dry. Rectus abdominis sling suspension of the bladder neck is the first-choice procedure, with good to excellent results in both male and female patients. In children with detrusor hyperactivity, detrusorectomy can be performed as an alternative for ileocystoplasty provided there is adequate bladder capacity. Wheelchair-bound patients can manage their bladder more easily with a continent catheterizable stoma on top of the bladder. This stoma provides them extra privacy and diminishes parental burden. Bowel management is done by retrograde or antegrade enema therapy. Concerning sexuality, special attention is needed to address expectations of adolescent patients. Sensibility of the glans penis can be restored by surgery in the majority of patients. PMID:18350321

de Jong, Tom P V M; Chrzan, Rafal; Klijn, Aart J; Dik, Pieter

2008-06-01

183

Supersonic Retropropulsion Technology Development in NASA's Entry, Descent, and Landing Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) space technology roadmap calls for new technologies to achieve human exploration of Mars in the coming decades (1). One of those technologies, termed Supersonic Retropropulsion (SRP), involves initiation of propuls...

A. Korzun A. A. Dyakonov B. Kelb D. G. Schauerhamer E. A. Post K. A. Zarchi K. T. Edquist M. N. Rhode S. A. Berry

2012-01-01

184

Final STS-35 Columbia Descent BET Products and Results for LaRC OEX Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Final STS-35 'Columbia' descent Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) products have been developed for Langley Research Center (LaRC) Orbiter Experiments (OEX) investigations. Included are the reconstructed inertial trajectory profile; the Extended BET, which co...

K. F. Oakes J. T. Findlay R. A. Jasinski J. S. Wood

1991-01-01

185

Treatment of Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

Study Design Best evidence synthesis. Objective To identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature from 1980 through 2006 on surgical interventions for neck pain alone or with radicular pain in the absence of serious pathologic disease. Summary of Background Data There have been no comprehensive systematic literature or evidence-based reviews published on this topic. Methods We systematically searched Medline for literature published from 1980 to 2006 on percutaneous and open surgical interventions for neck pain. Publications on the topic were also solicited from experts in the field. Consensus decisions were made about the scientific merit of each article; those judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our Best Evidence Synthesis. Results Of the 31,878 articles screened, 1203 studies were relevant to the Neck Pain Task Force mandate and of these, 31 regarding treatment by surgery or injections were accepted as scientifically admissible. Radiofrequency neurotomy, cervical facet injections, cervical fusion and cervical arthroplasty for neck pain without radiculopathy are not supported by current evidence. We found there is support for short-term symptomatic improvement of radicular symptoms with epidural corticosteroids. It is not clear from the evidence that long-term out comes are improved with the surgical treatment of cervical radiculopathy compared to non operative measures. However, relatively rapid and substantial symptomatic relief after surgical treatment seems to be reliably achieved. It is not evident that one open surgical technique is clearly superior to others for radiculopathy. Cervical foramenal or epidural injections are associated with relatively frequent minor adverse events (5%–20%); however, serious adverse events are very uncommon (<1%). After open surgical procedures on the cervical spine, potentially serious acute complications are seen in approximately 4% of patients. Conclusion Surgical treatment and limited injection procedures for cervical radicular symptoms may be reasonably considered in patients with severe impairments. Percutaneous and open surgical treatment for neck pain alone, without radicular symptoms or clear serious pathology, seems to lack scientific support.

Hurwitz, Eric L.; Cheng, Ivan; Carroll, Linda J.; Nordin, Margareta; Guzman, Jaime; Peloso, Paul; Holm, Lena W.; Cothe, Pierre; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Cassidy, J. David; Haldeman, Scott

2008-01-01

186

The Vega 1 and 2 probes - Operation of the descent modules in the Venus atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vega 1 and 2 descent modules entered the Venus atmosphere on June 11 and 15, 1985, respectively, at respective entry angles of 18.23 and 19.08 deg and entry velocities of 10.75 and 10.80 km\\/s. Consideration is given to the descent-module operations, including entry into the atmosphere, parachute deployment, jettisoning of the upper hemisphere, jettisoning of the lower hemisphere, jettisoning

V. A. Deriugin; V. P. Dolgopolov; V. P. Kariagin; V. M. Kovtunenko; P. S. Kremnev

1987-01-01

187

Alterations of GPI transamidase subunits in head and neck squamous carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: GPI anchor attachment is catalyzed by the GPI transamidase (GPIT) complex. GAA1, PIG-T and PIG-U are the three of five GPIT subunits. Previous studies demonstrated amplification and overexpression of GPIT subunits in bladder and breast cancer with oncogenic function. We performed an analysis of these subunits in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). RESULTS: To evaluate GAA1, PIG-T

Wei-Wen Jiang; Marianna Zahurak; Zeng-Tong Zhou; Hannah Lui Park; Zhong-Min Guo; Guo-Jun Wu; David Sidransky; Barry Trink; Joseph A Califano

2007-01-01

188

A healthy bladder: a consensus statement  

PubMed Central

A panel of experts in urology, urogynecology, nursing, and behavioral therapy convened in 2010 to discuss the importance of a healthy bladder on overall health. They determined that a consensus statement was necessary to raise awareness among the general public, healthcare providers, payors, and policymakers, with the goals of minimizing the impact of poor bladder health and stimulating primary prevention of bladder conditions. In this statement, ‘healthy’ bladder function is described, as well as internal and external factors that influence bladder health. It is suggested that primary prevention strategies should be aimed at providing education regarding normal lower urinary tract structures and functioning to the public, including patients and healthcare providers. This education may promote the achievement of optimal bladder health by increasing healthy bladder habits and behaviors, awareness of risk factors, healthcare seeking, and clinician engagement and reducing stigma and other barriers to treatment. Promoting optimal bladder health may reduce the personal, societal and economic impact of bladder conditions, including anxiety and depression and costs associated with conditions or diseases and their treatment. While adopting healthy bladder habits and behaviors and behaviors may improve or maintain bladder health, it is important to recognize that certain symptoms may indicate the presence of conditions that require medical attention; many bladder conditions are treatable with a range of options for most bladder conditions. Lastly, the authors propose clinical directives based on persuasive and convergent research to improve and maintain bladder health. The authors hope that this statement will lead to promotion and achievement of optimal bladder health, which may improve overall health and help minimize the effects of bladder conditions on the public, healthcare professionals, educators, employers, and payors. The advisors are in consensus regarding the recommendations for improving and maintaining bladder health presented herein.

Lukacz, E S; Sampselle, C; Gray, M; MacDiarmid, S; Rosenberg, M; Ellsworth, P; Palmer, M H

2011-01-01

189

A healthy bladder: a consensus statement.  

PubMed

A panel of experts in urology, urogynecology, nursing, and behavioral therapy convened in 2010 to discuss the importance of a healthy bladder on overall health. They determined that a consensus statement was necessary to raise awareness among the general public, healthcare providers, payors, and policymakers, with the goals of minimizing the impact of poor bladder health and stimulating primary prevention of bladder conditions. In this statement, 'healthy' bladder function is described, as well as internal and external factors that influence bladder health. It is suggested that primary prevention strategies should be aimed at providing education regarding normal lower urinary tract structures and functioning to the public, including patients and healthcare providers. This education may promote the achievement of optimal bladder health by increasing healthy bladder habits and behaviors, awareness of risk factors, healthcare seeking, and clinician engagement and reducing stigma and other barriers to treatment. Promoting optimal bladder health may reduce the personal, societal and economic impact of bladder conditions, including anxiety and depression and costs associated with conditions or diseases and their treatment. While adopting healthy bladder habits and behaviors and behaviors may improve or maintain bladder health, it is important to recognize that certain symptoms may indicate the presence of conditions that require medical attention; many bladder conditions are treatable with a range of options for most bladder conditions. Lastly, the authors propose clinical directives based on persuasive and convergent research to improve and maintain bladder health. The authors hope that this statement will lead to promotion and achievement of optimal bladder health, which may improve overall health and help minimize the effects of bladder conditions on the public, healthcare professionals, educators, employers, and payors. The advisors are in consensus regarding the recommendations for improving and maintaining bladder health presented herein. PMID:21923844

Lukacz, E S; Sampselle, C; Gray, M; Macdiarmid, S; Rosenberg, M; Ellsworth, P; Palmer, M H

2011-10-01

190

Overexpression of Pim-1 in bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Pim-1 is a serine-threonine kinase which promotes early transformation, cell proliferation and cell survival during tumorigenesis. Several studies have demonstrated that Pim-1 kinase play a role in different cancer types, however, the function of Pim-1 in bladder cancer is poorly understood. Methods Expression and localization of Pim-1 in human normal and malignant bladder specimens were examined by Immunohistochemistry and Pim-1 staining score was compared with several clinicopathologic parameters. To further demonstrate the biological function of Pim-1 in bladder cancer, its expression was validated in five bladder cancer cell lines by western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. Subsequent knockdown of Pim-1 was achieved by lentivirus encoding small interfering RNA, and the effect of Pim-1 on bladder cell survival and drug sensitivity were further assessed by colony formation and cell proliferation assays. Results When compared with normal epithelium, Pim-1 was overexpressed in bladder cancer epithelium, and the expression level was higher in invasive bladder cancer than Non-invasive bladder cancer specimens. Pim-1 was also detected in all the bladder cancer cell lines examined in our study. Moreover, the knockdown of Pim-1 significantly inhibited bladder cancer cell growth and also sensitized cells to chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro. Conclusions Our results in this study suggest that Pim-1 may play a role in bladder cancer initiation and progression. Since Pim-1 is also involved in bladder cancer cell survival and drug resistance, Pim-1 is a potential candidate for targeted therapy in bladder cancer.

2010-01-01

191

Cyclic coordinate descent: A robotics algorithm for protein loop closure  

PubMed Central

In protein structure prediction, it is often the case that a protein segment must be adjusted to connect two fixed segments. This occurs during loop structure prediction in homology modeling as well as in ab initio structure prediction. Several algorithms for this purpose are based on the inverse Jacobian of the distance constraints with respect to dihedral angle degrees of freedom. These algorithms are sometimes unstable and fail to converge. We present an algorithm developed originally for inverse kinematics applications in robotics. In robotics, an end effector in the form of a robot hand must reach for an object in space by altering adjustable joint angles and arm lengths. In loop prediction, dihedral angles must be adjusted to move the C-terminal residue of a segment to superimpose on a fixed anchor residue in the protein structure. The algorithm, referred to as cyclic coordinate descent or CCD, involves adjusting one dihedral angle at a time to minimize the sum of the squared distances between three backbone atoms of the moving C-terminal anchor and the corresponding atoms in the fixed C-terminal anchor. The result is an equation in one variable for the proposed change in each dihedral. The algorithm proceeds iteratively through all of the adjustable dihedral angles from the N-terminal to the C-terminal end of the loop. CCD is suitable as a component of loop prediction methods that generate large numbers of trial structures. It succeeds in closing loops in a large test set 99.79% of the time, and fails occasionally only for short, highly extended loops. It is very fast, closing loops of length 8 in 0.037 sec on average.

Canutescu, Adrian A.; Dunbrack, Roland L.

2003-01-01

192

Experiments on liquid immiscibility along tholeiitic liquid lines of descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystallization experiments have been conducted on compositions along tholeiitic liquid lines of descent to define the compositional space for the development of silicate liquid immiscibility. Starting materials have 46-56 wt% SiO2, 11.7-17.7 wt% FeOtot, and Mg-number between 0.29 and 0.36. These melts fall on the basaltic trends relevant for Mull, Iceland, Snake River Plain lavas and for the Sept Iles layered intrusion, where large-scale liquid immiscibility has been recognized. At one atmosphere under anhydrous conditions, immiscibility develops below 1,000-1,020°C in all of these compositionally diverse lavas. Extreme iron enrichment is not necessary; immiscibility also develops during iron depletion and silica enrichment. Variations in melt composition control the development of silicate liquid immiscibility along the tholeiitic trend. Elevation of Na2O + K2O + P2O5 + TiO2 promotes the development of two immiscible liquids. Increasing melt CaO and Al2O3 stabilizes a single-liquid field. New data and published phase equilibria show that anhydrous, low-pressure fractional crystallization is the most favorable condition for unmixing during differentiation. Pressure inhibits immiscibility because it expands the stability field of high-Ca clinopyroxene, which reduces the proportion of plagioclase in the crystallizing assemblage, thus enhancing early iron depletion. Magma mixing between primitive basalt and Fe-Ti-P-rich ferrobasalts can serve to elevate phosphorous and alkali contents and thereby promote unmixing. Water might decrease the temperature and size of the two-liquid field, potentially shifting the binodal (solvus) below the liquidus, leading the system to evolve as a single-melt phase.

Charlier, Bernard; Grove, Timothy L.

2012-07-01

193

Analysis of atmospheric mesoscale models for entry, descent, and landing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each Mars Exploration Rover (MER) is sensitive to the Martian winds encountered near the surface during the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) process. These winds are strongly influenced by local (mesoscale) conditions. In the absence of suitable wind observations, wind fields predicted by Martian mesoscale atmospheric models have been analyzed to guide landing site selection. In order to encompass the available models and render them useful to the EDL engineering team, a series of statistical techniques was applied to the model results. These analyses cover the high-priority landing sites during the expected landing times (1200-1500 LT). The number of sites studied is limited by the computational and analysis cost of the mesoscale models. The statistical measures concentrate on the effective mean wind (the wind as seen by the landing system) and on the vertical structure of the horizontal winds. Both aspects are potentially hazardous to the MER landing system. In addition, a number of individual wind profiles from the mesoscale model were processed into a form that can be used directly by the EDL Monte Carlo simulations. The statistical analysis indicates that the Meridiani Planum and Elysium landing sites are probably safe. The Gusev Crater and Isidis Basin sites may be safe, but further analysis by the EDL engineers will be necessary to quantify the actual risk. Finally, the winds at the Melas Chasma landing site (and presumably other Valles Marineris landing sites) are dangerous. While the statistical parameters selected for these studies were primarily of engineering and safety interest, the techniques are potentially useful for more general scientific analyses. One interesting result of the current analysis is that the depth of the convective boundary layer (and thus the resulting energy density) appears to be primarily driven by the existence of a well-organized mesoscale (or regional) circulation, primarily driven by large-scale topographic features at Mars.

Kass, D. M.; Schofield, J. T.; Michaels, T. I.; Rafkin, S. C. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Toigo, A. D.

2003-11-01

194

Pharmacogenomics of warfarin in populations of African descent.  

PubMed

Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant worldwide despite its narrow therapeutic index and the notorious inter- and intra-individual variability in dose required for the target clinical effect. Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms are major determinants of warfarin pharmacokinetic and dynamics and included in several warfarin dosing algorithms. This review focuses on warfarin pharmacogenomics in sub-Saharan peoples, African Americans and admixed Brazilians. These 'Black' populations differ in several aspects, notably their extent of recent admixture with Europeans, a factor which impacts on the frequency distribution of pharmacogenomic polymorphisms relevant to warfarin dose requirement for the target clinical effect. Whereas a small number of polymorphisms in VKORC1 (3673G > A, rs9923231), CYP2C9 (alleles *2 and *3, rs1799853 and rs1057910, respectively) and arguably CYP4F2 (rs2108622), may capture most of the pharmacogenomic influence on warfarin dose variance in White populations, additional polymorphisms in these, and in other, genes (e.g. CALU rs339097) increase the predictive power of pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithms in the Black populations examined. A personalized strategy for initiation of warfarin therapy, allowing for improved safety and cost-effectiveness for populations of African descent must take into account their pharmacogenomic diversity, as well as socio-economical, cultural and medical factors. Accounting for this heterogeneity in algorithms that are 'friendly' enough to be adopted by warfarin prescribers worldwide requires gathering information from trials at different population levels, but demands also a critical appraisal of racial/ethnic labels that are commonly used in the clinical pharmacology literature but do not accurately reflect genetic ancestry and population diversity. PMID:22676711

Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Botton, Mariana R

2013-02-01

195

?1-, ?2- and ?-adrenoceptors in the urinary bladder, urethra and prostate  

PubMed Central

We have systematically reviewed the presence, functional responses and regulation of ?1-, ?2- and ?-adrenoceptors in the bladder, urethra and prostate, with special emphasis on human tissues and receptor subtypes. ?1-Adrenoceptors are only poorly expressed and play a limited functional role in the detrusor. ?1-Adrenoceptors, particularly their ?1A-subtype, show a more pronounced expression and promote contraction of the bladder neck, urethra and prostate to enhance bladder outlet resistance, particularly in elderly men with enlarged prostates. ?1-Adrenoceptor agonists are important in the treatment of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, but their beneficial effects may involve receptors within and outside the prostate. ?2-Adrenoceptors, mainly their ?2A-subtype, are expressed in bladder, urethra and prostate. They mediate pre-junctional inhibition of neurotransmitter release and also a weak contractile effect in the urethra of some species, but not humans. Their overall post-junctional function in the lower urinary tract remains largely unclear. ?-Adrenoceptors mediate relaxation of smooth muscle in the bladder, urethra and prostate. The available tools have limited the unequivocal identification of receptor subtypes at the protein and functional levels, but it appears that the ?3- and ?2-subtypes are important in the human bladder and urethra, respectively. ?3-Adrenoceptor agonists are promising drug candidates for the treatment of the overactive bladder. We propose that the overall function of adrenoceptors in the lower urinary tract is to promote urinary continence. Further elucidation of the functional roles of their subtypes will help a better understanding of voiding dysfunction and its treatment.

Michel, Martin C; Vrydag, Wim

2006-01-01

196

Economic impact of screening for bladder cancer using bladder tumor markers: A decision analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe Food and Drug Administration recently approved the use of bladder markers such as BladderChek (NMP22; Matritech, Inc., Newton, MA) and UroVysion (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) for use in screening for bladder cancer. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the cost associated with implementing a widespread screening program using a noninvasive bladder tumor marker.

Robert S. Svatek; Arthur I. Sagalowsky; Yair Lotan

2006-01-01

197

A multi-stage genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies multiple susceptibility loci  

PubMed Central

We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 589,299 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,532 cases and 5,120 controls of European descent (5 studies) followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,381 cases and 48,275 controls (16 studies). In a combined analysis, we identified three new regions associated with bladder cancer on chromosomes 22q13.1, 19q12 and 2q37.1; rs1014971, (P=8×10?12) maps to a non-genic region of chromosome 22q13.1; rs8102137 (P=2×10?11) on 19q12 maps to CCNE1; and rs11892031 (P=1×10?7) maps to the UGT1A cluster on 2q37.1. We confirmed four previous GWAS associations on chromosomes 3q28, 4p16.3, 8q24.21 and 8q24.3, validated previous candidate associations for the GSTM1 deletion (P=4×10?11) and a tag SNP for NAT2 acetylation status (P=4×10?11), as well as demonstrated smoking interactions with both regions. Our findings on common variants associated with bladder cancer risk should provide new insights into mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

Rothman, Nathaniel; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Malats, Nuria; Wu, Xifeng; Figueroa, Jonine; Real, Francisco X; Van Den Berg, David; Matullo, Giuseppe; Baris, Dalsu; Thun, Michael; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vineis, Paolo; De Vivo, Immaculata; Albanes, Demetrius; Purdue, Mark P; Rafnar, Thorunn; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Kiltie, Anne E; Cussenot, Olivier; Golka, Klaus; Kumar, Rajiv; Taylor, Jack A; Mayordomo, Jose I; Jacobs, Kevin B; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Zhaoming; Fu, Yi-Ping; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Burdette, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Wheeler, William; Tardon, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; Garcia-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Schned, Alan; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Jacobs, Eric J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Cortessis, Victoria K; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Pike, Malcolm C; Stern, Mariana C; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hunter, David; McGrath, Monica; Dinney, Colin P; Czerniak, Bogdan; Chen, Meng; Yang, Hushan; Vermeulen, Sita H; Aben, Katja K; Witjes, J Alfred; Makkinje, Remco R; Sulem, Patrick; Besenbacher, Soren; Stefansson, Kari; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul; Panico, Salvatore; Navarro, Carmen; Allen, Naomi E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria Teresa; Canzian, Federico; Ljungberg, Borje; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Bishop, David T; Teo, Mark T W; Knowles, Margaret A; Guarrera, Simonetta; Polidoro, Silvia; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Allione, Alessandra; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Dietrich, Holger; Fletcher, Tony; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugen; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Bolick, Sophia C E; Godfrey, Ashley; Xu, Zongli; Sanz-Velez, Jose I; Garcia-Prats, Maria D; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Porru, Stefano; Benhamou, Simone; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Silverman, Debra T; Chanock, Stephen J

2010-01-01

198

Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) represents an attractive modality for treating head and neck cancers, an anatomic\\u000a site in which a multiplicity of issues arise regarding total treatment package time, retreatment, organ function preservation,\\u000a dosimetry of complex anatomic sites near critical structures, and integration with external-beam irradiation (EBRT) either\\u000a in the primary setting or in the previously irradiated patient. Pioneered in

Kenneth S. Hu; Sue Yom; Michael J. Kaplan; Rafael Martinez-Monge; Louis B. Harrison

199

The importance of bladder wall thickness in the assessment of overactive bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of bladder wall thickness using ultrasound has been postulated to contribute diagnostic information in patients\\u000a with voiding dysfunction. In particular, several studies have focused on this tool’s role in patients with overactive bladder\\u000a and detrusor overactivity. Given the evidence that increasing bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor overactivity cause detrusor\\u000a hypertrophy, bladder wall thickness and its derivative, ultrasound-estimated bladder

Alison H. Blatt; Lewis Chan

2009-01-01

200

Bladder replacement in women: A new experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bladder replacement in women is a new experience. In this article the authors reviewed in a critical way the patho-physiological principles involved in the previous male bladder replacement techniques and the results achieved both leading to the recent experience of bladder replacement in women. The authors present the recent acquirements about pelvic surgical anatomy and postcystectomy oncological radicality in female,

M. Racioppi; A. D'Addessi; A. Alcini; E. Alcini

1997-01-01

201

Update on bladder smooth-muscle physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urinary bladder responds to distension induced by a number of different stresses with rapid and substantial increases in bladder mass and concomitant alterations in the contractile responses to neuronal stimulation, pharmacological simulation by autonomic agonists, and membrane depolarization. Furosemide, sucrose, or diabetes-induced diuresis, as well as outlet obstruction and overdistension all produce similar effects on the bladder. Accompanying the

R. M. Levin; A. J. Wein; R. Buttyan; F. C. Monson; P. A. Longhurst

1994-01-01

202

Brachytherapy with Iridium–192 for Bladder Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Patients with invasive bladder cancer often need radical cystectomy with its implications on quality of life. Bladder preservation combining surgery and radiotherapy could maintain quality of life without compromising tumor control.Study Design: Twenty–eight selected patients with different stages of invasive bladder cancer were treated with preoperative external beam radiotherapy in a dosage depending on the tumor stage. Subsequently they

Hein Van Poppel; Yolande Lievens; Eric Van Limbergen; Luc Baert

2000-01-01

203

Shake rattle and roll: the bony labyrinth and aerial descent in squamates.  

PubMed

Controlled aerial descent has evolved many times independently in vertebrates. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are unusual in that respect due to the large number of independent origins of the evolution of this behavior. Although some squamates such as flying geckos of the genus Ptychozoon and the flying dragons of the genus Draco show obvious adaptations including skin flaps or enlarged ribs allowing them to increase their surface area and slow down their descent, many others appear unspecialized. Yet, specializations can be expected at the level of the sensory and neural systems allowing animals to maintain stability during controlled aerial descent. The vestibular system is a likely candidate given that it is an acceleration detector and is well-suited to detect changes in pitch, roll and yaw. Here we use conventional and synchrotron ?CT scans to quantify the morphology of the vestibular system in squamates able to perform controlled aerial descent compared to species characterized by a terrestrial or climbing life style. Our results show the presence of a strong phylogenetic signal in the data with the vestibular system in species from the same family being morphologically similar. However, both our shape analysis and an analysis of the dimensions of the vestibular system showed clear differences among animals with different life-styles. Species able to perform a controlled aerial descent differed in the position and shape of the inner ear, especially of the posterior ampulla. Given the limited stability of squamates against roll and the fact that the posterior ampulla is tuned to changes in roll this suggests an adaptive evolution of the vestibular system in squamates using controlled aerial descent. Future studies testing for similar differences in other groups of vertebrates known to use controlled aerial descent are needed to test the generality of this observation. PMID:21700578

Boistel, Renaud; Herrel, Anthony; Lebrun, Renaud; Daghfous, Gheylen; Tafforeau, Paul; Losos, Jonathan B; Vanhooydonck, Bieke

2011-06-22

204

Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to <95% of the prescribed dose. The dose distribution in the rectum and intestines was better with a 'partially empty' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm{sup 3} for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm{sup 3} for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with a 'partially empty' than with a 'full' bladder.

Majewski, Wojciech, E-mail: wmajewski1@poczta.onet.p [Department of Radiotherapy, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Wesolowska, Iwona [Department of Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy Planning, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Urbanczyk, Hubert [Department of Radiotherapy, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara [Department of Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy Planning, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Miszczyk, Leszek [Department of Radiotherapy, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland)

2009-12-01

205

Neck Influence on Fission Paths  

SciTech Connect

The neck region generates a microscopic potential, derived in correlation with the necking region within the fission-like shape on the potential theory basis. The whole microscopic potential is of the two-center type, yielding the evolution of proton and neutron level schemes from one parent to two completely separated fragment nuclei. The shell corrections are calculated using the neck in single-particle levels. The total deformation energy is obtained from the macroscopic-microscopic method. As an application, dynamic calculation is performed for the fission of {sup 236}Pu, using the multidimensional minimization within the total space of deformation of two spheroids joined by a smoothed necking region.

Gherghescu, Radu A.; Poenaru, D. N. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), P O Box MG-6, RO 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

2008-01-24

206

Global Patterns of Prostate Cancer Incidence, Aggressiveness, and Mortality in Men of African Descent  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (CaP) is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world.

Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Devesa, Susan S.; Chang, Bao-Li; Bunker, Clareann H.; Cheng, Iona; Cooney, Kathleen; Eeles, Rosalind; Fernandez, Pedro; Giri, Veda N.; Gueye, Serigne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Heyns, Chris F.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue Ann; Isaacs, William; Jalloh, Mohamed; John, Esther M.; Kibel, Adam S.; Kidd, LaCreis R.; Layne, Penelope; Leach, Robin J.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Okobia, Michael N.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Park, Jong Y.; Patrick, Alan L.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Ragin, Camille; Roberts, Robin A.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Stanford, Janet L.; Strom, Sara; Thompson, Ian M.; Witte, John; Xu, Jianfeng; Yeboah, Edward; Hsing, Ann W.; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.

2013-01-01

207

Global patterns of prostate cancer incidence, aggressiveness, and mortality in men of african descent.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (CaP) is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world. PMID:23476788

Rebbeck, Timothy R; Devesa, Susan S; Chang, Bao-Li; Bunker, Clareann H; Cheng, Iona; Cooney, Kathleen; Eeles, Rosalind; Fernandez, Pedro; Giri, Veda N; Gueye, Serigne M; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Heyns, Chris F; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue Ann; Isaacs, William; Jalloh, Mohamed; John, Esther M; Kibel, Adam S; Kidd, Lacreis R; Layne, Penelope; Leach, Robin J; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Okobia, Michael N; Ostrander, Elaine A; Park, Jong Y; Patrick, Alan L; Phelan, Catherine M; Ragin, Camille; Roberts, Robin A; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Stanford, Janet L; Strom, Sara; Thompson, Ian M; Witte, John; Xu, Jianfeng; Yeboah, Edward; Hsing, Ann W; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M

2013-02-13

208

Laparoscopic Repair of a Traumatic Bladder Rupture  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic repair of the traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture is a proven, safe, and effective technique in the appropriate setting. A 23-year-old male with traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture proven by cystogram after a motor vehicle collision was successfully repaired via a laparoscopic approach. We describe the technique in detail including 2-layer closure and follow-up care. A review of the literature using PubMed with the key words [laparoscopic repair bladder injury] AND [bladder trauma] was performed. We recommend the consideration of laparoscopic repair of the intraperitoneal bladder rupture in more trauma patients who meet criteria.

Hugo Cuadra, Rene; Ricchiuti, Daniel J.

2012-01-01

209

Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer.

Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

2011-01-01

210

Mullerianosis of the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Mullerianosis of the urinary bladder is a rare and morphologically complex tumor-like lesion, composed of several types of mullerian lesions like endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis. This disease occurs in women of reproductive age group. Implantative and metaplastic origins have been suggested in the pathogenesis.

Kudva, Ranjini; Hegde, Padmaraj

2012-01-01

211

Mullerianosis of the urinary bladder.  

PubMed

Mullerianosis of the urinary bladder is a rare and morphologically complex tumor-like lesion, composed of several types of mullerian lesions like endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis. This disease occurs in women of reproductive age group. Implantative and metaplastic origins have been suggested in the pathogenesis. PMID:22919142

Kudva, Ranjini; Hegde, Padmaraj

2012-04-01

212

Laparoscopic Autoaugmentation of the Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoaugmentation is a useful procedure in neurogenic bladders that have poor compliance, instability, a reasonable capacity,\\u000a and are not responding to medical management [1–4]. Autoaugmentation is a fair option prior to subjecting the patient to ileocystoplasty\\u000a (which involves bowel with its inherent immediate and delayed complications).

M. Ramalingam; K. Selvarajan

213

Characterization of Texture Features of Bladder Carcinoma and the Bladder Wall on MRI  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine textural features that show a significant difference between carcinomatous tissue and the bladder wall on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and explore the feasibility of using them to differentiate malignancy from the normal bladder wall as an initial step for establishing MRI as a screening modality for the noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer. Materials and Methods Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually placed on foci of bladder cancer and uninvolved bladder wall in 22 patients and on the normal bladder wall of 23 volunteers to calculate 40 known textural features. Statistical analysis was applied to determine the difference in these features in bladder cancer versus uninvolved bladder wall versus normal bladder wall of volunteers. The significantly different features were then analyzed using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to determine their accuracy in differentiating malignancy from the bladder wall. Results Thirty-three of 40 features show significant differences between bladder cancer and the bladder wall. Nine of 40 features were significantly different in uninvolved bladder wall of patients versus normal bladder wall of volunteers. Further study indicates that seven of these 33 features were significantly different between uninvolved bladder wall of patients with early cancer and that of volunteers, whereas 15 of 33 features were different between that of patients with advanced cancer and normal wall. With the testing dataset consisting of ROIs acquired from patients, the classification accuracy using 33 textural features fed into the SVM classifier was 86.97%. Conclusion The initial experience demonstrates that texture features are sensitive to reveal the differences between bladder cancer and the bladder wall on MRI. The different features can be used to develop a computer-aided system for the evaluation of the entire bladder wall.

Shi, Zhengxing; Yang, Zengyue; Zhang, Guopeng; Cui, Guangbin; Xiong, Xiaoshuang; Liang, Zhengrong; Lu, Hongbing

2013-01-01

214

A descent method for computing the Tikhonov regularized solution of linear inverse problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe an iterative algorithm, called Descent-TCG, based on truncated Conjugate Gradient iterations to compute Tikhonov regularized solutions of linear ill-posed problems. Suitable termination criteria are built-up to define an inner-outer iteration scheme for the computation of a regularized solution. Numerical experiments are performed to compare the algorithm with other well-established regularization methods. We observe that the best Descent-TCG results occur for highly noised data and we always get fairly reliable solutions, preventing the dangerous error growth often appearing in other well-established regularization methods. Finally, the Descent-TCG method is computationally advantageous especially for large size problems.

Zama, Fabiana; Loli Piccolomini, Elena; Landi, Germana

2004-10-01

215

Evolutionary analyses of non-genealogical bonds produced by introgressive descent  

PubMed Central

All evolutionary biologists are familiar with evolutionary units that evolve by vertical descent in a tree-like fashion in single lineages. However, many other kinds of processes contribute to evolutionary diversity. In vertical descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit is propagated by replication inside its own lineage. In what we call introgressive descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit propagates into different host structures and is replicated within these host structures. Thus, introgressive descent generates a variety of evolutionary units and leaves recognizable patterns in resemblance networks. We characterize six kinds of evolutionary units, of which five involve mosaic lineages generated by introgressive descent. To facilitate detection of these units in resemblance networks, we introduce terminology based on two notions, P3s (subgraphs of three nodes: A, B, and C) and mosaic P3s, and suggest an apparatus for systematic detection of introgressive descent. Mosaic P3s correspond to a distinct type of evolutionary bond that is orthogonal to the bonds of kinship and genealogy usually examined by evolutionary biologists. We argue that recognition of these evolutionary bonds stimulates radical rethinking of key questions in evolutionary biology (e.g., the relations among evolutionary players in very early phases of evolutionary history, the origin and emergence of novelties, and the production of new lineages). This line of research will expand the study of biological complexity beyond the usual genealogical bonds, revealing additional sources of biodiversity. It provides an important step to a more realistic pluralist treatment of evolutionary complexity.

Bapteste, Eric; Lopez, Philippe; Bouchard, Frederic; Baquero, Fernando; McInerney, James O.; Burian, Richard M.

2012-01-01

216

Evolutionary analyses of non-genealogical bonds produced by introgressive descent.  

PubMed

All evolutionary biologists are familiar with evolutionary units that evolve by vertical descent in a tree-like fashion in single lineages. However, many other kinds of processes contribute to evolutionary diversity. In vertical descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit is propagated by replication inside its own lineage. In what we call introgressive descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit propagates into different host structures and is replicated within these host structures. Thus, introgressive descent generates a variety of evolutionary units and leaves recognizable patterns in resemblance networks. We characterize six kinds of evolutionary units, of which five involve mosaic lineages generated by introgressive descent. To facilitate detection of these units in resemblance networks, we introduce terminology based on two notions, P3s (subgraphs of three nodes: A, B, and C) and mosaic P3s, and suggest an apparatus for systematic detection of introgressive descent. Mosaic P3s correspond to a distinct type of evolutionary bond that is orthogonal to the bonds of kinship and genealogy usually examined by evolutionary biologists. We argue that recognition of these evolutionary bonds stimulates radical rethinking of key questions in evolutionary biology (e.g., the relations among evolutionary players in very early phases of evolutionary history, the origin and emergence of novelties, and the production of new lineages). This line of research will expand the study of biological complexity beyond the usual genealogical bonds, revealing additional sources of biodiversity. It provides an important step to a more realistic pluralist treatment of evolutionary complexity. PMID:23090996

Bapteste, Eric; Lopez, Philippe; Bouchard, Frédéric; Baquero, Fernando; McInerney, James O; Burian, Richard M

2012-10-22

217

Eye Movement Patterns of the Elderly during Stair Descent:Effect of Illumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the eye movement pattern during stair descent and illumination was studied in 4 elderly people in comparison with that in 5 young people. The illumination condition was light (85.0±30.9 lx) or dark (0.7±0.3 lx), and data of eye movements were obtained using an eye mark recorder. A flight of 15 steps was used for the experiment, and data on 3 steps in the middle, on which the descent movements were stabilized, were analyzed. The elderly subjects pointed their eyes mostly directly in front in the facial direction regardless of the illumination condition, but the young subjects tended to look down under the light condition. The young subjects are considered to have confirmed the safety of the front by peripheral vision, checked the stepping surface by central vision, and still maintained the upright position without leaning forward during stair descent. The elderly subjects, in contrast, always looked at the visual target by central vision even under the light condition and leaned forward. The range of eye movements was larger vertically than horizontally in both groups, and a characteristic eye movement pattern of repeating a vertical shuttle movement synchronous with descent of each step was observed. Under the dark condition, the young subjects widened the range of vertical eye movements and reduced duration of fixation. The elderly subjects showed no change in the range of eye movements but increased duration of fixation during stair descent. These differences in the eye movements are considered to be compensatory reactions to narrowing of the vertical visual field, reduced dark adaptation, and reduced dynamic visual acuity due to aging. These characteristics of eye movements of the elderly lead to an anteriorly leaned posture and lack of attention to the front during stair descent.

Kasahara, Satoko; Okabe, Sonoko; Nakazato, Naoko; Ohno, Yuko

218

Collagen fiber alignment and biaxial mechanical behavior of porcine urinary bladder derived extracellular matrix.  

PubMed

The collagen fiber alignment and biomechanical behavior of naturally occurring extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds are important considerations for the design of medical devices from these materials. Both should be considered in order to produce a device to meet tissue specific mechanical requirements (e.g., tendon vs. urinary bladder), and could ultimately affect the remodeling response in vivo. The present study evaluated the collagen fiber alignment and biaxial mechanical behavior of ECM scaffold material harvested from porcine urinary bladder tunica mucosa and basement membrane (together referred to as urinary bladder matrix (UBM)) and ECM harvested from urinary bladder submucosa (UBS). Since the preparation of UBM allows for control of the direction of delamination, the effect of the delamination method on the mechanical behavior of UBM was determined by delaminating the submucosa and other abluminal layers by scraping along the longitudinal axis of the bladder (apex to neck) (UBML) or along the circumferential direction (UBMC). The processing of UBS does not allow for similar directional control. UBML and UBS had similar collagen fiber distributions, with a preferred collagen fiber alignment along the longitudinal direction. UBMC showed a more homogenous collagen fiber orientation. All samples showed a stiffer mechanical behavior in the longitudinal direction. Despite similar collagen fiber distributions, UBML and UBS showed quite different mechanical behavior for the applied loading patterns with UBS showing a much more pronounced toe region. The mechanical behavior for UBMC in both directions was similar to the mechanical behavior of UBML. There are distinct differences in the mechanical behavior of different layers of ECM from the porcine urinary bladder, and the processing methods can substantially alter the mechanical behavior observed. PMID:18801572

Gilbert, Thomas W; Wognum, Silvia; Joyce, Erinn M; Freytes, Donald O; Sacks, Michael S; Badylak, Stephen F

2008-09-17

219

COLLAGEN FIBER ALIGNMENT AND BIAXIAL MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PORCINE URINARY BLADDER DERIVED EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX  

PubMed Central

The collagen fiber alignment and biomechanical behavior of naturally occurring extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds are important considerations for the design of medical devices from these materials. Both should be considered in order to produce a device to meet tissue specific mechanical requirements (e.g., tendon vs. urinary bladder), and could ultimately affect the remodeling response in vivo. The present study evaluated the collagen fiber alignment and biaxial mechanical behavior of ECM scaffold material harvested from porcine urinary bladder tunica mucosa and basement membrane (together referred to as urinary bladder matrix (UBM)) and ECM harvested from urinary bladder submucosa (UBS). Since the preparation of UBM allows for control of the direction of delamination, the effect of the delamination method on the mechanical behavior of UBM was determined by delaminating the submucosa and other abluminal layers by scraping along the longitudinal axis of the bladder (apex to neck) (UBML) or along the circumferential direction (UBMC). The processing of UBS does not allow for similar directional control. UBML and UBS had similar collagen fiber distributions, with a preferred collagen fiber alignment along the longitudinal direction. UBMC showed a more homogenous collagen fiber orientation. All samples showed a stiffer mechanical behavior in the longitudinal direction. Despite similar collagen fiber distributions, UBML and UBS showed quite different mechanical behavior for the applied loading patterns with UBS showing a much more pronounced toe region. The mechanical behavior for UBMC in both directions was similar to the mechanical behavior of UBML. There are distinct differences in the mechanical behavior of different layers of ECM from the porcine urinary bladder, and the processing methods can substantially alter the mechanical behavior observed.

Gilbert, Thomas W.; Wognum, Silvia; Joyce, Erinn M.; Freytes, Donald O.; Sacks, Michael S.; Badylak, Stephen F.

2008-01-01

220

Aerothermodynamics calculation of thermal destruction of "Fregat" upper stage at descent in the Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering calculation method has been developed for investigation of the process of thermal destruction of "Fregat" upper stage at deorbiting and descent into the Earth's atmosphere. The results of calculation of its descent trajectory and characteristics of aerodynamic heating are presented. Within the framework of the thermodynamic approach, the authors investigated the process of pressure increase in the tanks due to heating and evaporation of the liquid phase of fuel. Stresses in the shells, the height and the energy equivalent of explosive destruction of tanks were calculated depending on the degree of their filling with remains of the components of liquid fuel.

Glazunov, A. A.; Goldin, V. D.; Zverev, V. G.; Ustinov, S. N.; Finchenko, V. S.

2013-06-01

221

Fetal Bladder Wall Regeneration with a Collagen Biomatrix and Histological Evaluation of Bladder Exstrophy in a Fetal Sheep Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate histological changes in an animal model for bladder exstrophy and fetal repair of the bladder defect with a molecular-defined dual-layer collagen biomatrix to induce fetal bladder wall regeneration. Methods: In 12 fetal lambs the abdominal wall and bladder were opened by a midline incision at 79 days’ gestation. In 6 of these lambs an uncorrected bladder exstrophy

Luc A. J. Roelofs; Alex J. Eggink; Christina A. Hulsbergen-van de Kaa; Rene M. H. Wijnen; Toin H. van Kuppevelt; Herman T. B. van Moerkerk; A. Jane Crevels; Alex Hanssen; Fred K. Lotgering; Paul P. van den Berg; Wout F. J. Feitz

2008-01-01

222

Vitamin B12 status in patients of Turkish and Dutch descent with depression: a comparative cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a clear relationship between depressive disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency. Gastroenteritis and Helicobacter pylori infections can cause vitamin B12 deficiency. Helicobacter pylori infections are not uncommon among people of Turkish descent in The Netherlands. AIM: To examine the frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency in depressive patients of Turkish descent and compare it to the frequency of

Yener Güzelcan; Peter van Loon

2009-01-01

223

14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid...Requirements § 121.333 Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid...the certificate holder shall furnish oxygen and dispensing equipment to comply...

2009-01-01

224

14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid...Requirements § 121.333 Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid...the certificate holder shall furnish oxygen and dispensing equipment to comply...

2010-01-01

225

Anterior bladder flap neo urethra as treatment for stress urinary incontinence due to developmental urogenital anomaly  

PubMed Central

Congenital anomalies that involve the distal segment of urogenital sinus (giving rise to female urethra and vagina) may lead to abnormal urethral development ranging from absent to markedly deficient urethra. The abnormal division may also cause a short and patulous urethra. Sphincteric defects are likely to be associated and when combined with the short urethral length is a cause for severe urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence due to a congenital cause requiring repeated urethral reconstruction to relieve symptoms is presented. A 15 year old girl was referred for bothersome urinary incontinence due to a short, wide, patulous urethra with defective sphincteric mechanism as part of urogenital sinus developmental anomaly. She was initially managed by reconstruction of bladder neck and proximal urethra with sphincter augmentation using autologous pubovaginal sling. Persistent urinary incontinence demanded a second urethral reconstruction using tubularised anterior bladder flap (modified Tanagho). Surgical reconstruction of the urethra achieved socially acceptable continence.

Rajamaheswari, N.; Agarwal, Sugandha; Chhikara, Archana Bharti; Seethalakshmi, K.

2013-01-01

226

Urinary bladder pyogenic granuloma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although more than 100 cases of hemangioma of the urinary bladder have been reported, capillary-type hemangiomas of the bladder are rare. Pyogenic granulomas, which are common tumor-like vascular lesions of the skin and oral mucous membranes, reveal histopathological findings similar to capillary-type hemangiomas and are differentiated from ordinary hemangiomas by clinical features and etiologic factors. Little is known regarding the occurrence of pyogenic granulomas in the urinary bladder. Case presentation We present the case of a 78-year-old Japanese man who had developed a hemangiomatous lesion in his bladder which led to acute clot retention. He had a recent history of chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. A solitary pedunculated mass measuring 1.2?cm was observed in the bladder. Histopathological analysis of the resected mass revealed marked lobular capillary proliferation with surface erosions. Conclusion Cystoscopic and pathologic findings in addition to possible predisposing factors supported a diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma of the urinary bladder.

2012-01-01

227

What Teacher Education Programs Can Learn From Successful Mexican-Descent Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the high school experiences of 32 Mexican-descent students who had successfully graduated and were enrolled in institutions of higher learning. By conducting extended interviews with these students, the author sought to identify teachers' actions that the students found helpful or harmful to their learning experiences. These observations can be used to make recommendations for better preparing preservice

Craig A. Hughes

2003-01-01

228

Heritage Learners of Mexican Descent in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study of Past and Present Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a qualitative interpretive study that explores the past and present experiences of heritage learners (HLs) of Mexican descent who were studying or had recently studied advanced Spanish in institutions of higher education. All of the participants had been exposed to Spanish in the home and began their studies in elementary or middle school…

Gignoux, Alicia

2009-01-01

229

Cardiac Structure and Exercise Blood Pressure in Urban and Rural Canadian Men of Icelandic Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between exercise systolic blood pressure (ESBP), during bicycle ergometry, and echocardiographically determined left ventricular structure in rural and urban Canadian men of Icelandic descent. The study was cross-sectional in design. The settings were urban Winnipeg and the rural Interlake District in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Subjects were adult male

Barbara J. Naimark; Arnold Naimark; Robert B. Tate; Stefan B. Sigurdsson; Johann Axelsson

1996-01-01

230

Descent of long-lived trace gases in the water polar vortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent observations of CH4 and HF from the UARS Halogen Limb Occulation Experiment (HALOE) suggest that vigorous descent occurs within the polar winter vortex with ``mesospheric'' values of CH4 evident down to 30 mbar. This study shows that a highly accurate two-dimensional model advection scheme coupled with a modern radiation scheme, parameterized planetary and gravity wave drag algorithms can produce

Julio T. Bacmeister; Mark R. Schoeberl; Michael E. Summers; Joan R. Rosenfield; Xun Zhu

1995-01-01

231

Carrier Screening for Genetic Disorders in Individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To give recommendations to physicians and midwives providing pre-conception or prenatal care about carrier screening for genetic disorders in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Options: To offer carrier screening for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) only or to expand the screening to include other disorders known to occur with increased frequency in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

Sylvie Langlois; R. Douglas Wilson; Victoria M. Allen; Claire Blight; Valerie A. Désilets; Montreal QC; Alain Gagnon; Gregory J. Reid; Anne Summers; Philip Wyatt; David Chitayat; Albert E. Chudley; Sandra Farrell; Michael T. Geraghty; Chumei Li; Sarah M. Nikkel; Frederique Tihy

2006-01-01

232

Irish descent, religion and food consumption in the west of Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality and morbidity of people of Irish descent in Britain is high, including from cardiovascular causes potentially linked with diet. The west of Scotland has long had a pattern of Irish migration, where migrants were poorer than the host population, and their different religious background gave rise to prolonged discrimination. This paper uses data collected in 1987\\/88 from the west

K. Mullen; R. Williams; K. Hunt

2000-01-01

233

Feeling Frugal: Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Cultural Health Beliefs Among Women of Mexican Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychosocial and socioeconomic variables are often confounded. The authors combined quantitative with grounded theory analysis to investigate influences of acculturation, socioeconomic status (SES), and cultural health beliefs on Mexican-descent women's preventive health behaviors. In 5 focus group interviews sampling across levels of acculturation and SES, women expressing more traditional Mexican health beliefs about breast cancer screening were of lower SES

Evelinn A. Borrayo; Sharon Rae Jenkins

2003-01-01

234

Showing Up, Remaining Engaged, and Partaking as Students: Resilience Among Students of Mexican Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the ways in which 12 high school students of Mexican descent remain resilient amid difficult and stressful realities. Through an examination of students' interview responses, a case is made that students' ability to engage in school and figure out everyday ways to partake as students are signs of resilience. This work suggests the need to shift from

Teresa Sosa

2012-01-01

235

Model reference adaptive control of a maglev system with stable maximum descent criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model-reference adaptive controller (MRC) design framework for magnetically suspended vehicles (maglev) using the criterion of stable maximum descent. The adaptation algorithm is constrained to reduce the airgap error between the reference model and the actual system. The explicit relationship between the parameters of the performance criterion (function of the airgap error and its derivative) and the

P. K. Sinha; Alexandre N. Pechev

1999-01-01

236

Optimal learning rates for each pattern and neuron in gradient descent training of multilayer perceptrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes optimal learning rates in gradient descent training of multilayer perceptrons, which are a separate learning rate for weights associated with each neuron and a separate one for assigning virtual hidden targets associated with each training pattern. That is, a hidden weight vector has two optimal learning rates, one for assigning virtual hidden targets and the other for minimizing a

Sang-Hoon Oh; Soo-Young Lee

1999-01-01

237

Gender effects on Mexican-descent parents' questions and scaffolding during toy play: a sequential analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental responses following children's answers to parental questions (Parent Question ? Child Answer ? Parent Response) were examined during play between Mexican-descent children and their parents. Nineteen boys and 18 girls were videotaped playing separately with each of their parents with a toy zoo set. Patterns of parental responses following children's answers to parental questions indicated that mothers provided more

Harriet R. Tenenbaum; Campbell Leaper

1998-01-01

238

Static Lung Volumes: Reference Values from a Latin Population of Spanish Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a set of prediction equations and 90% confidence intervals for static lung volumes using the multibreath helium equilibration method from a sample of asymptomatic Caucasian subjects of Spanish descent. Moreover, these equations were compared with those of previous studies. Methods: Measurements of static lung volumes using techniques recommended by

Pedro J. Cordero; Pilar Morales; Eduardo Benlloch; Luis Miravet; Javier Cebrian

1999-01-01

239

Impact of multiple submarine channels on the descent of dense water at high latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model is applied to examine the impact of multiple submarine channels (<10 km across, <100 m deep), common to most continental margins of the ocean, on the descent of dense water at high latitudes. The model consists of an ocean bottom layer of constant height that follows variable bottom topography under constant vertical grid spacing. An

Jochen Kämpf

2000-01-01

240

Access to Health Care Among Latinos of Mexican Descent in "Colonias" in Two Texas Counties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical to resolving the problem of health disparities among Latinos is examining the needs within ethnic subpopulations. This paper focused on the unique challenges encountered by one ethnic subpopulation -- Latinos of Mexican descent living in colonias. Findings reaffirm the importance of looking within ethnic subpopulations to understand the…

Ortiz, Larry; Arizmendi, Lydia; Cornelius, Llewellyn J.

2004-01-01

241

Critical spacecraft-to-Earth communications for Mars Exploration Rover (MER) entry, descent and landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

For planetary lander missions, the most challenging phase of the spacecraft to ground communications is during the entry, descent, and landing (EDL). As each 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) enters the Martian atmosphere, it slows dramatically. The extreme acceleration and jerk cause extreme Doppler dynamics on the X-band signal received on Earth. When the vehicle slows sufficiently, the parachute is

William J. Hurd; P. Estabrook; C. S. Racho; E. H. Satorius

2002-01-01

242

Statistical Reconstruction of Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectories and Atmospheric Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate post-flight reconstruction of a vehicle's trajectory during entry into a planetary atmosphere can produce a wide array of valuable information. The data collected through the reconstruction of entry, descent, and landing system performance enables the quantification of performance margins for future systems. Beyond the engineering knowledge gained through trajectory reconstruction, the results may also be used by planetary scientists

John A. Christian; Amanda M. Verges; Robert D. Braun

2007-01-01

243

Design optimisation and flight validation of a stratospheric descent low cost probe in scientific balloon missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises the activities conducted at CISAS - University of Padova in designing and optimising a low cost scientific probe to be used in earth atmospheric descents from balloon reached stratospheric altitudes of around 40 kilometre. As part of the collaboration with Italian Space Agency on HASI instrument for Huygens mission, University of Padova has been conducting for several

C. B. Carlo Bettanini; G. C. Giacomo Colombatti; F. A. Francesco Angrilli; G. B. Giannandrea Bianchini; E. F. Enrico Flamini

2004-01-01

244

Situating middle class identities: American college women of South Asian descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the ways in which American college women of South Asian descent discuss their positioning as middle class. The article analyses participants' talk around class as evidence of embeddedness in American class discourses and a complex and contradictory scheme of identification that implicates other identities like gender, race and culture. Respondents often articulated class using the American Dream,

Rachel L. Finn

2009-01-01

245

A descent method with inexact linear search for nonsmooth equilibrium problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A descent method with respect to the gap function is formulated and justified for the nonsmooth equilibrium problem. It uses the procedure of inexact linear search of the Armijo type. The proposed method converges under the same assumptions as the methods with exact linear search.

Konnov, I. V.; Pinyagina, O. V.

2008-10-01

246

The behavior of epididymis, processus vaginalis and testicular descent in cryptorchid boys treated with buserelin.  

PubMed

This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study was initiated to analyze the behavior of epididymis, processus vaginalis and testicular descent in cryptorchid boys treated with a low dose (20 micrograms) of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (Buserelin), administered daily, as a nasal spray, for a short period (28 days). Fifty-nine true cryptorchid boys were randomly assigned to 3 groups: buserelin treatment [22], surgical treatment [18] or placebo control group [19]. The 3 groups of patients were similar before treatment in regard to testicular position, chronological and bone age, height and weight, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, penile size and the volume of the contralateral descended testis. None of the patients had retractile testes. Buserelin significantly induced testicular descent compared to the boys treated with a placebo (P < 0.01). A normal epididymis was found more often in boys with successful descent (P < 0.003). A closed processus vaginalis was also more frequently observed in the group treated with buserelin than in surgically treated one (P < 0.05). In conclusion, buserelin was capable of inducing testicular descent besides provoking further development of the epididymis and closing the processus vaginalis. PMID:8101813

Bica, D T; Hadziselimovic, F

1993-01-01

247

High-resolution detection of identity by descent in unrelated individuals.  

PubMed

Detection of recent identity by descent (IBD) in population samples is important for population-based linkage mapping and for highly accurate genotype imputation and haplotype-phase inference. We present a method for detection of recent IBD in population samples. Our method accounts for linkage disequilibrium between SNPs to enable full use of high-density SNP data. We find that our method can detect segments of a length of 2 cM with moderate power and negligible false discovery rate in Illumina 550K data in Northwestern Europeans. We compare our method with GERMLINE and PLINK, and we show that our method has a level of resolution that is significantly better than these existing methods, thus extending the usefulness of recent IBD in analysis of high-density SNP data. We survey four genomic regions in a sample of UK individuals of European descent and find that on average, at a given location, our method detects IBD in 2.7 per 10,000 pairs of individuals in Illumina 550K data. We also present methodology and results for detection of homozygosity by descent (HBD) and survey the whole genome in a sample of 1373 UK individuals of European descent. We detect HBD in 4.7 individuals per 10,000 on average at a given location. Our methodology is implemented in the freely available BEAGLE software package. PMID:20303063

Browning, Sharon R; Browning, Brian L

2010-03-18

248

High-Resolution Detection of Identity by Descent in Unrelated Individuals  

PubMed Central

Detection of recent identity by descent (IBD) in population samples is important for population-based linkage mapping and for highly accurate genotype imputation and haplotype-phase inference. We present a method for detection of recent IBD in population samples. Our method accounts for linkage disequilibrium between SNPs to enable full use of high-density SNP data. We find that our method can detect segments of a length of 2 cM with moderate power and negligible false discovery rate in Illumina 550K data in Northwestern Europeans. We compare our method with GERMLINE and PLINK, and we show that our method has a level of resolution that is significantly better than these existing methods, thus extending the usefulness of recent IBD in analysis of high-density SNP data. We survey four genomic regions in a sample of UK individuals of European descent and find that on average, at a given location, our method detects IBD in 2.7 per 10,000 pairs of individuals in Illumina 550K data. We also present methodology and results for detection of homozygosity by descent (HBD) and survey the whole genome in a sample of 1373 UK individuals of European descent. We detect HBD in 4.7 individuals per 10,000 on average at a given location. Our methodology is implemented in the freely available BEAGLE software package.

Browning, Sharon R.; Browning, Brian L.

2010-01-01

249

MCAV\\/IMU integrated navigation for the powered descent phase of Mars EDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pin-point landing is considered as a key technology for future manned Mars landing and Mars base missions. The traditional inertial navigation system (INS) based guidance, navigation and control (GNC) mode used in the Mars entry, descent and landing (EDL) phase has no ability to achieve the precise and safe Mars landing, so novel EDL GNC methodologies should be investigated to

Shuang Li; Yuming Peng; Yuping Lu; Liu Zhang; Yufei Liu

2010-01-01

250

Martian Atmosphere in the Landing Site of the Descent Module of MARS-6 (Preliminary Results).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On 12 March 1974 the Mars-6 station reached the vicinity of Mars and after terminal correction, its descent module was separated from it. Preliminary analysis of all measurements shows that an atmosphere with the following parameters fits the proposed mod...

V. S. Avduyevskiy E. L. Akim V. I. Aleshin N. F. Borodin V. V. Kerzhanovich

1975-01-01

251

Access to Health Care Among Latinos of Mexican Descent in "Colonias" in Two Texas Counties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Critical to resolving the problem of health disparities among Latinos is examining the needs within ethnic subpopulations. This paper focused on the unique challenges encountered by one ethnic subpopulation -- Latinos of Mexican descent living in colonias. Findings reaffirm the importance of looking within ethnic subpopulations to understand the…

Ortiz, Larry; Arizmendi, Lydia; Cornelius, Llewellyn J.

2004-01-01

252

Qualitative Research with an Understudied Population: In-Depth Interviews with Women of Mexican Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based qualitative research offers advantages for study of populations that are understudied and not well understood, but qualitative methodology presents major challenges. This article examines some of these challenges, illustrated by a study of pregnancy and childbearing among women of Mexican descent. Issues addressed in this article include culture and gender relevance, access to the population, representativeness, skilled interviewers, trust

Margaret Sherrard Sherraden; Rossana E. Barrera

1995-01-01

253

A Terminal Descent Sensor Trade Study Overview for the Orion Landing and Recovery System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This trade study was conducted as a part of the Orion landing system advanced development project to determine possible terminal descent sensor (TDS) architectures that could be used for a rocket assisted landing system. Several technologies were considered for the Orion TDS including radar, lidar, GPS applications, mechanical sensors, and gamma ray altimetry. A preliminary down selection occurred by comparing

Catherine Dunn; Ravi Prakash

2008-01-01

254

Education by Any Means Necessary: Peoples of African Descent and Community-Based Pedagogical Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines how and why peoples of African descent access and utilize community-based pedagogical spaces that exist outside schools. Employing a theoretical framework that fuses historical methodology and border-crossing theory, the researchers review existing scholarship and primary documents to present an historical examination of how…

Douglas, Ty-Ron Michael; Peck, Craig

2013-01-01

255

Pattern recognition using a family of design algorithms based upon the generalized probabilistic descent method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive introduction to a novel approach to pattern recognition which is based on the generalized probabilistic descent method (GPD) and its related design algorithms. The paper contains a survey of recent recognizer design techniques, the formulation of GPD, the concept of minimum classification error learning that is closely related to the GPD formalization, a relational analysis

SHIGERU KATAGIRI; Biing-Hwang Juang; Chin-Hui Lee

1998-01-01

256

Stabilization of a Reentry Vehicle by a Partial Spin-up during Uncontrolled Descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilization of a reentry vehicle (RV) by a partial spin-up of it is considered for the case of uncontrolled descent into the atmosphere. In this case, the vehicle is a composite construction consisting of two rigid bodies, a return capsule and a stabilizing block, which is put in rotation. A model is developed for the spatial motion of the reentry

V. S. Aslanov; A. V. Doroshin

2002-01-01

257

A Critical Analysis of Western Perspectives on Families of Arab Descent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Western research on families of Arab descent has increased in the current decade, compared to the previous 30 years. In this review of 256 empirical articles, through a critical postcolonial lens, domestic violence and family planning were the two most established areas of study. Generally, samples have come from a small group of countries such…

Beitin, Ben K.; Allen, Katherine R.; Bekheet, Maureen

2010-01-01

258

Exponential convergence of a gradient descent algorithm for a class of recurrent neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the convergence of an approximate gradient descent back propagation algorithm for a one hidden layer neural network whose output is an affine combination of certain nonlinear functions of the outputs of biased infinite impulse response affine systems. We give a persistent excitation condition that guarantees local convergence of the algorithm. We show that this condition holds for

Peter Bartlett; S. Dasgupta

1995-01-01

259

Attitudes toward homosexuality among U.S. residents of Mexican descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined attitudes toward lesbians and gay men in a sample of northern California residents of Mexican descent (N = 616), using 3?item versions of the Attitudes Toward Gay Men (ATG) and Attitudes Toward Lesbians (ATL) scales presented simultaneously in Spanish and English. Males’ attitudes toward homosexual men were significantly more negative than females’ attitudes, whereas females expressed relatively

Gregory M. Herek

2006-01-01

260

Multiple time scale sliding mode control of reusable launch vehicles in ascent and descent modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reusable launch vehicle control problem during ascent and descent is addressed via multiple-time scaled continuous sliding mode control. The proposed sliding mode controller utilizes a two-loop structure and provides robust decoupled tracking of both orientation angle command profiles and angular rate command profiles in the presence of bounded external disturbances and plant uncertainties, including aerodynamic surfaces and engine failures.

Yu. B. Shtessel; C. E. Hall

2001-01-01

261

Spread of cattle led to the loss of matrilineal descent in Africa: a coevolutionary analysis.  

PubMed Central

Matrilineal descent is rare in human societies that keep large livestock. However, this negative correlation does not provide reliable evidence that livestock and descent rules are functionally related, because human cultures are not statistically independent owing to their historical relationships (Galton's problem). We tested the hypothesis that when matrilineal cultures acquire cattle they become patrilineal using a sample of 68 Bantu- and Bantoid-speaking populations from sub-Saharan Africa. We used a phylogenetic comparative method to control for Galton's problem, and a maximum-parsimony Bantu language tree as a model of population history. We tested for coevolution between cattle and descent. We also tested the direction of cultural evolution--were cattle acquired before matriliny was lost? The results support the hypothesis that acquiring cattle led formerly matrilineal Bantu-speaking cultures to change to patrilineal or mixed descent. We discuss possible reasons for matriliny's association with horticulture and its rarity in pastoralist societies. We outline the daughter-biased parental investment hypothesis for matriliny, which is supported by data on sex, wealth and reproductive success from two African societies, the matrilineal Chewa in Malawi and the patrilineal Gabbra in Kenya.

Holden, Clare Janaki; Mace, Ruth

2003-01-01

262

A concept for the entry, descent, and landing of high-mass payloads at Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The architecture concepts and aggressive science objectives for the next phases of Mars exploration will require landed masses an order of magnitude or greater than any Mars mission previously planned or flown. Additional studies have shown the requirements for missions more ambitious than the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (?900kg payload mass) to extend beyond the capabilities of Viking-heritage entry, descent,

Ashley M. Korzun; Gregory F. Dubos; Curtis K. Iwata; Benjamin A. Stahl; John J. Quicksall

2010-01-01

263

Final STS35 Columbia descent BET products and results for LaRC OEX investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Final STS-35 'Columbia' descent Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) products have been developed for Langley Research Center (LaRC) Orbiter Experiments (OEX) investigations. Included are the reconstructed inertial trajectory profile; the Extended BET, which combines the inertial data and, in this instance, the National Weather Service atmospheric information obtained via Johnson Space Center; and the Aerodynamic BET. The inertial BET utilized Inertial

Kevin F. Oakes; John T. Findlay; Rachel A. Jasinski; James S. Wood

1991-01-01

264

Worst-case quadratic loss bounds for prediction using linear functions and gradient descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies the performance of gradient descent (GD) when applied to the problem of online linear prediction in arbitrary inner product spaces. We prove worst-case bounds on the sum of the squared prediction errors under various assumptions concerning the amount of a priori information about the sequence to predict. The algorithms we use are variants and extensions of online GD. Whereas

Nicolo Cesa-bianchi; Philip M. Long; Manfred K. Warmuth

1996-01-01

265

Descent of the ancient Farallon slab drives localized mantle flow below the New Madrid seismic zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great earthquake sequence that occurred in the central Mississippi River Valley during the winter of 1811–1812 is unprecedented in the historical record of seismicity within stable continental plate interiors. We show, using viscous flow models based on high resolution seismic tomography, that the descent of the ancient Farallon slab into the deep mantle beneath central North America induces a

A. M. Forte; J. X. Mitrovica; R. Moucha; N. A. Simmons; S. P. Grand

2007-01-01

266

Emulating a Fish Swim Bladder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of New Hampshire and the University of New England are developing biologically relevant physics laboratories for their predominantly health science audiences. Buoyancy plays an important role in a variety of biological processes. We describe an inexpensive laboratory activity based on the Cartesian Diver that allows students to quantitatively emulate the swim bladder of a fish. Inflation of the ``bladder'' is externally controlled through an external gas syringe or squeezing on the plastic water containment vessel (a 2L soda bottle). The students can accurately determine the volume of a ``fish'' at the point of neutral buoyancy by visual measurement of the trapped air pocket. A simple electronic gas pressure sensor allows the hydrostatic pressure on the fish to be analyzed simultaneously.

Vesenka, James; Meredith, Dawn; Bolker, Jessica; Schubert, Christopher; Kraut, Gertrud

2009-10-01

267

Penetrating wounds of the neck.  

PubMed

The management of penetrating wounds of the neck provides several decision-making steps that remain controversial. The two basic concepts of management include the idea that all wounds deep to the platysma should be explored and (the more conservative concept) that selective neck exploration should be based on a battery of tests to identify traumatic injuries. The areas of agreement within these two schools of thought include exploration of wounds with obvious injury, exploration of wounds in which patients cannot be stabilized satisfactorily for further testing, and the idea that all patients with wounds deep to the platysma should be admitted to the hospital. The remaining issues, including the need for angiography, barium swallow, or endoscopy, still are contested. Mandatory exploration of neck wounds became popular during World War II. The weapons used, the lack of accurate testing, and delays in treatment caused by transport problems played significant roles in the development of this policy. Proponents of mandatory exploration of neck wounds contend that delays in treatment result in increased mortality rates. Also delays caused by lengthy diagnostic testing have resulted in rapid exsanguination of patients who might otherwise have been surgically salvageable. These factors, along with the potential for undetected injuries and the associated complications (including false aneurysms and mediastinitis) favor mandatory exploration. Advocates of routine neck explorations also note the low morbidity rates associated with a neck exploration. Reported rates of negative exploration are high, however, approaching 45%, and mortality rates vary from 2% to 9%. Selective neck exploration has gained popularity in some centers because of the lower negative exploration rates associated with this treatment, while comparable mortality rates are achieved. May found a negative exploration rate of 12% in his series of selective neck explorations and a mortality rate of approximately 3%. Furthermore, Noyes found that the hospital stay for patients with selective observation management not requiring a neck exploration was 2.8 days, compared with 4.2 days for patients with mandatory but negative neck explorations. A summary of diagnostic techniques and their indications in selecting patients with penetrating neck wounds for surgery is presented in Table 5. It has become apparent that both selective and mandatory explorations of neck wounds play important roles in treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2027695

Miller, R H; Duplechain, J K

1991-02-01

268

Artificial urinary bladder - focal technical challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of an artificial urinary bladder for the treatment of patients after bladder excision is been challenged by various\\u000a aspects from an engineering point of view. Focal technical challenges are at least that the system has to imitate the functionality\\u000a of the human bladder, it has to be safe, reliable and small in construction size. The materials have to

M. Roth; D. Kirchleitner; D. Jocham; H. Wassermann

269

Relationship Between Heart Failure and Overactive Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of heart failure and overactive bladder, both of which are already quite common, will continue to increase\\u000a as the population ages. Both create caregiver and self-management burdens, but additional research is needed to understand\\u000a the burden overactive bladder creates for heart failure patients and their caregivers. Emerging evidence suggests a relationship\\u000a between heart failure and overactive bladder in

Mary H. Palmer; Jan Busby-Whitehead

2010-01-01

270

Intravesical Treatments for Overactive Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Overactive bladder (OAB) is a recently defined symptom complex that includes urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence,\\u000a urinary frequency (voiding eight or more times in a 24-h period), and nocturia (awakening two or more times at night to void)\\u000a (1–3). The overall prevalence of OAB in Western Europe and the United States is 16–17% (4,5). The symptoms of OAB

Craig B. Slotoroff; Dolores Shupp-Byrne; Patrick J. Shenot

271

Gene expression in bladder tumors  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods for analyzing tumor cells, particularly bladder tumor cells employ gene expression analysis of samples. Gene expression patterns are formed and compared to reference patterns. Alternatively gene expression patterns are manipulated to exclude genes which are expressed in contaminating cell populations. Another alternative employs subtraction of the expression of genes which are expressed in contaminating cell types. These methods provide improved accuracy as well as alternative basis for analysis from diagnostic and prognostic tools currently available.

2002-01-01

272

Topical Pharmacotherapy for Overactive Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mainstays of treatment for overactive bladder are antimuscarinic medications. Oral formulations are limited by low patient\\u000a adherence secondary to anticholinergic side effects (eg, dry mouth). The transdermal oxybutynin formulations oxybutynin transdermal\\u000a patch (OXY-TD) and oxybutynin transdermal gel (OXY-TGEL) were developed to decrease levels of N-desethyloxybutynin and potentially limit anticholinergic adverse events. Both are efficacious in decreasing urge incontinence\\u000a compared

Doreen E. Chung

2011-01-01

273

Nontransitional Carcinoma of the Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this article, we review available evidence on the treatment of patients with nonurothelial cancer of the bladder. More\\u000a than 150 published works were reviewed in preparation for this summary. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are ideally\\u000a treated with radical cystectomy. High-risk groups for these diseases are defined. Small cell carcinoma should be treated with\\u000a multimodality therapy, including chemotherapy. Other

Hassan Abol-Enein; Bruce R. Kava; Adrienne J. K. Carmack

274

Flow cytometric evaluation of bladder cancer: recommendations of the NCI flow cytometry network for bladder cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Cancer Institute-supported Flow Cytometry Network for Bladder Cancer concluded that when properly used, DNA flow cytometry of bladder irrigation specimens can be a clinically useful laboratory procedure to monitor patients with bladder cancer. It recommended the use of this technique in managing patients with low-stage disease, particularly flat carcinoma in situ. The method has limited value in managing

R. L. Aamodt; J. S. Coon; A. Deitch; R. W. White; L. G. Koss; M. R. Melamed; R. S. Weinstein; L. L. Wheeless

1992-01-01

275

Initial Evaluation of the Bladder Tumor Antigen Test in Superficial Bladder Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe analyzed the value of the Bard bladder tumor antigen (BTA**Bard Urological, Covington, Georgia.) test for the diagnosis of stage Ta superficial bladder cancer and carcinoma in situ, and compared it to the highly sensitive bladder washing cytology.

Marie-Ange D'Hallewin; Luc Baert

1996-01-01

276

Are neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting at work risk factors for neck pain? Results of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting.?METHODS—A prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured exposure data (video recordings) of neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting posture. Neck pain was assessed by a questionnaire. Adjustments were made for various physical factors that were related or not related to work, psychosocial factors, and individual characteristics.?RESULTS—A significant positive relation was found between the percentage of the working time in a sitting position and neck pain, implying an increased risk of neck pain for workers who were sitting for more than 95% of the working time (crude relative risk (RR) 2.01, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04 to 3.88; adjusted RR 2.34, 95% CI 1.05 to 5.21). A trend for a positive relation between neck flexion and neck pain was found, suggesting an increased risk of neck pain for people working with the neck at a minimum of 20° of flexion for more than 70% of the working time (crude RR 2.01, 95% CI 0.98 to 4.11; adjusted RR 1.63, 95% CI 0.70 to 3.82). No clear relation was found between neck rotation and neck pain.?CONCLUSION—Sitting at work for more than 95% of the working time seems to be a risk factor for neck pain and there is a trend for a positive relation between neck flexion and neck pain. No clear relation was found between neck rotation and neck pain.???Keywords: neck pain; physical risk factors; longitudinal cohort study

Ariens, G; Bongers, P; Douwes, M; Miedema, M; Hoogendoorn, W; van der Wal, G; Bouter, L; van Mechelen, W

2001-01-01

277

Major neck surgeries under regional anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Major neck surgeries are conventionally performed under general anesthesia. To receive general anesthesia, patients must meet certain criteria that have attendant limitations. This report discusses the investigator's experiences with performing major neck surgeries under regional anesthesia.Materials and Methods: Fifty major neck surgeries were performed (30 thyroidectomies, 10 laryngectomies with or without neck dissection, 3 thyroglossal cyst, 2 branchial cyst,

Kishore C. Prasad; Vellavedu U. Shanmugam

1998-01-01

278

Association between MTHFR Ala222Val (rs1801133) polymorphism and bladder cancer susceptibility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Folate metabolism is thought to play an important role in carcinogenesis through its involvement in both DNA methylation and nucleotide synthesis. The association between the MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism and bladder cancer has been widely reported, however, in general the data from published studies with individually low statistical power were controversial and underpowered. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between bladder cancer and MTHFR Ala222Val in different inheritance models. Fourteen studies including a total of 3,570 bladder cancer cases and 3,926 controls for MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism were included in the meta-analysis. Data were extracted from these studies and odds ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were computed to estimate the strength of the association. Overall, the MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism was not associated with the development of bladder cancer in all genetic models (Ala/Ala vs. Val/Val-OR?=?0.961, 95 % CI?=?0.763-1.209; Ala/Ala vs. Ala/Val-OR?=?0.918, 95 % CI?=?0.795-1.060-Ala/Val vs. Val/Val-OR?=?1.022, 95 % CI?=?0.852-1.227; dominant model-OR?=?0.998, 95 % CI?=?0.869-1.145; recessive model-OR?=?0.921, 95 % CI?=?0.794-1.069; Ala allele vs. Val allele-OR?=?0.957, 95 % CI?=?0.857-1.067). In the stratified analyses, no significant associations were found among different descent populations and sources of controls. Our meta-analysis suggests that the MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism not contributes to the development of bladder cancer. PMID:23649653

Li, Kai; Hu, Yong Ping; Yang, Zecheng; Sun, Tongxin

2013-05-07

279

Profiling Bladder Cancer Using Targeted Antibody Arrays  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is a common malignancy requiring a high degree of surveillance because of the frequent recurrences and the poor clinical outcome of invasive disease. To date, serum biomarkers for bladder cancer lack optimal sensitivity and specificity to assist in diagnosis and disease categorization. Here, we designed antibody arrays for bladder cancer by selecting antibodies against targets differentially expressed in bladder tumors. Serum protein profiles measured by an antibody array containing 254 antibodies discriminated bladder cancer patients from controls (n = 95) with a correct classification rate of 93.7%. A second independent antibody array containing 144 antibodies revealed that protein profiles provide predictive information by stratifying patients with bladder tumors (n = 37) based on their overall survival (P = 0.0479). In addition, serum proteins, such as c-met, that were top ranked at identifying bladder cancer patients were associated with pathological stage, tumor grade, and survival when validated by immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays containing bladder tumors (n = 173). This study provides experimental evidence for the use of several integrated technologies strengthening the process of biomarker discovery. Serum protein profiles obtained by antibody arrays represent comprehensive means for bladder cancer diagnosis and clinical outcome stratification, which could potentially assist in selection of cancer patients who would benefit from early, individualized therapeutic intervention.

Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Socci, Nicholas D.; Lozano, Juan Jose; Haab, Brian B.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

2006-01-01

280

Head and Neck Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Head and neck cancer (HNC) represents a broad spectrum of diseases that involves the nasal and oropharyngeal cavities, the\\u000a paranasal sinuses, the major and minor salivary glands, the larynx and the lymphatic tissues of the neck. The world-wide yearly\\u000a incidence exceeds over half a million cases. Tobacco (smoking and smokeless) and alcohol use are the principal risk factors,\\u000a however, a

Fausto Chiesa; Angelo Ostuni; Roberto Grigolato; Luca Calabrese

281

CKD and bladder problems in children.  

PubMed

Approximately 35% of children with CKD who require renal replacement therapy have a significant urological abnormality, including posterior urethral valves, a neuropathic bladder, prune belly syndrome, Hinman syndrome, or severe vesicoureteral reflux. In such children, abnormal bladder function can have a significant deleterious effect on the renal function. In children with bladder outlet obstruction, bladder compliance and capacity often are abnormal, and a sustained intravesical pressure of >40 cm H(2)O impedes drainage from the upper urinary tract. Consequently, in these conditions, regular evaluation with renal sonography, urodynamics, urine culture, and serum chemistry needs to be performed. Pediatric urological care needs to be coordinated with pediatric nephrologists. Many boys with posterior urethral valves have severe polyuria, resulting in chronic bladder overdistension, which is termed as valve bladder. In addition to behavioral modification during the day, such patients may benefit from overnight continuous bladder drainage, which has been shown to reduce hydronephrosis and stabilize or improve renal function in most cases. In children with a neuropathic bladder, detrusor-sphincter-dyssynergia is the most likely cause for upper tract deterioration due to secondary vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Pharmacologic bladder management and frequent intermittent catheterization are necessary. In some cases, augmentation cystoplasty is recommended; however, this procedure has many long-term risks, including UTI, metabolic acidosis, bladder calculi, spontaneous perforation, and malignancy. Nearly half of children with prune belly syndrome require renal replacement therapy. Hinman syndrome is a rare condition with severe detrusor-sphincter discoordination that results in urinary incontinence, encopresis, poor bladder emptying, and UTI, often resulting in renal impairment. Children undergoing evaluation for renal transplantation need a thorough evaluation of the lower urinary tract, mostly including a voiding cystourethrogram and urodynamic studies. PMID:21896378

Penna, Frank J; Elder, Jack S

2011-09-01

282

Functional improvement in spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder by bladder augmentation using bladder acellular matrix graft in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury (SCI) rostral to the lumbosacral level causes bladder hyperreflexia and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia\\u000a (DSD), which are accompanied by bladder hypertrophy. We hypothesize that bladder augmentation using a bladder acellular matrix\\u000a graft (BAMG) can improve the function of SCI-mediated neurogenic bladder. In female rats (n = 35), SCI was induced by transection of the spinal cord at the lower thoracic level.

Shinji Urakami; Hiroaki Shiina; Hideki Enokida; Ken Kawamoto; Nobuyuki Kikuno; Thomas Fandel; Kaveh Vejdani; Lora Nunes; Mikio Igawa; Emil A. Tanagho; Rajvir Dahiya

2007-01-01

283

Arylamine exposures and bladder cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure to arylamines in industrial settings was the first known cause of bladder cancer in humans. In the United States and many developed countries, these industrial dyes have been under strict government control for decades and are believed to contribute minimally to today’s population burden of bladder cancer in the West. The two other recognized, and potentially substantial sources

Mimi C Yu; Paul L Skipper; Steven R Tannenbaum; Kenneth K Chan; Ronald K Ross

2002-01-01

284

Bladder agenesis in a male neonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bladder agenesis, especially in male, is a rare congenital anomaly. This is a case report of a male patient with several congenital anomalies including penoscrotal transposition, severe kidney's dysplasia, and agenesis of the bladder. The patient lived for 4 months and died because of severe pneumonia.

Dariusz Patkowski; Wojciech Apozna?ski; Tomasz Szyde?ko; Wojciech Jaworski; Robert ?migiel

2008-01-01

285

An autonomous bladder pressure monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development of an autonomous monitoring system, capable of continuously measuring the pressure inside the bladder. The capsule features wireless bi-directional communication and can be inductively powered anywhere inside the bladder. Short-circuiting the resonant LC tank for the data transmission maximizes the operating range of the passive telemetry. A novel clock extraction method is presented, based

J. Coosemans; R. Puers

2005-01-01

286

Bladder agenesis in a male neonate.  

PubMed

Bladder agenesis, especially in male, is a rare congenital anomaly. This is a case report of a male patient with several congenital anomalies including penoscrotal transposition, severe kidney's dysplasia, and agenesis of the bladder. The patient lived for 4 months and died because of severe pneumonia. PMID:18970912

Patkowski, Dariusz; Apozna?ski, Wojciech; Szyde?ko, Tomasz; Jaworski, Wojciech; Smigiel, Robert

2008-11-01

287

Regenerative Medicine Strategies for Treating Neurogenic Bladder  

PubMed Central

Neurogenic bladder is a general term encompassing various neurologic dysfunctions of the bladder and the external urethral sphincter. These can be caused by damage or disease. Therapeutic management options can be conservative, minimally invasive, or surgical. The current standard for surgical management is bladder augmentation using intestinal segments. However, because intestinal tissue possesses different functional characteristics than bladder tissue, numerous complications can ensue, including excess mucus production, urinary stone formation, and malignancy. As a result, investigators have sought after alternative solutions. Tissue engineering is a scientific field that uses combinations of cells and biomaterials to encourage regeneration of new, healthy tissue and offers an alternative approach for the replacement of lost or deficient organs, including the bladder. Promising results using tissue-engineered bladder have already been obtained in children with neurogenic bladder caused by myelomeningocele. Human clinical trials, governed by the Food and Drug Administration, are ongoing in the United States in both children and adults to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of this technology. This review will introduce the principles of tissue engineering and discuss how it can be used to treat refractory cases of neurogenic bladder.

Olson, Jennifer; Atala, Anthony; Kim, Bupwan

2011-01-01

288

Gender and Smoking Related Bladder Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is growing evidence that, when smoking habits are compa- rable, women incur a higher risk of lung cancer than men. Because smok- ers are also at risk for bladder cancer, we investigated possible sex differences in the susceptibility to bladder cancer among smokers. Methods: A popula- tion-based, case-control study was con- ducted in Los Angeles, CA, involving 1514

J. Esteban Castelao; Jian-Min Yuan; Paul L. Skipper; Steven R. Tannenbaum; Manuela Gago-Dominguez; J. Slade Crowder; Ronald K. Ross; Mimi C. Yu

2001-01-01

289

The Integrative Physiology of the Bladder  

PubMed Central

Normal bladder function is complex, resulting from the co-operative interaction of numerous regulatory cell types, of which the interstitial cells and the peripheral neurones are particularly interesting. Collectively, these comprise the myovesical plexus, which appears to confer structural and functional characteristics on the bladder loosely akin to those of the gut. These include functional modularity, which gives rise to the potential for localised and propagating peristalsis-like movements in the bladder wall according to the prevailing physiological conditions. Localised modular activity during filling may contribute to normal generation of sensation and exaggerated modular activity may give rise to urinary urgency. Enhanced co-ordination of modular activity occurs in various models of detrusor overactivity; it leads to surges of contraction over a large part of the bladder wall, generating phasic changes in intravesical pressure. During voiding, the myovesical plexus sustains detrusor contraction at the behest of the brainstem, monitoring state of bladder fullness as it does so, as a guide to the required duration for which it has to keep up the effort. Accordingly, the bladder wall itself may house structures which render the bladder the effector level in a hierarchy of lower urinary tract regulation. Dysfunction in these vital regulatory structures is an underestimated factor in the pathophysiology of clinical bladder problems.

Drake, Marcus John

2007-01-01

290

Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model.  

PubMed

In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation CBCT sampled on the segmentation contour candidate. The cost function measured the goodness of fit of the segmentation on the validation image and was minimized using a simplex optimizer. For each validation CBCT image, the segmentations were done five times using a different reference CBCT. The one with the lowest cost function was selected as the final bladder segmentation. Volume- and distance-based metrics and the accuracy of plan selection were evaluated to quantify the performance. Two to four PCA modes were needed to represent the bladder shape variation with less than 0.1 cm average residual error for the training data of each patient. The automatically segmented bladders had a 78.5% mean conformity index with the manual delineations. The mean SD of the local residual error over all patients was 0.24 cm. The agreement of plan selection between automatic and manual bladder segmentations was 77.5%. PCA is an efficient method to describe patient-specific bladder deformation. The statistical-shape-based segmentation approach is robust to handle the relatively poor CBCT image quality and allows for fast and reliable automatic segmentation of the bladder on CBCT for selecting the appropriate plan from a library of plans. PMID:22643320

Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

2012-05-30

291

Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation CBCT sampled on the segmentation contour candidate. The cost function measured the goodness of fit of the segmentation on the validation image and was minimized using a simplex optimizer. For each validation CBCT image, the segmentations were done five times using a different reference CBCT. The one with the lowest cost function was selected as the final bladder segmentation. Volume- and distance-based metrics and the accuracy of plan selection were evaluated to quantify the performance. Two to four PCA modes were needed to represent the bladder shape variation with less than 0.1 cm average residual error for the training data of each patient. The automatically segmented bladders had a 78.5% mean conformity index with the manual delineations. The mean SD of the local residual error over all patients was 0.24 cm. The agreement of plan selection between automatic and manual bladder segmentations was 77.5%. PCA is an efficient method to describe patient-specific bladder deformation. The statistical-shape-based segmentation approach is robust to handle the relatively poor CBCT image quality and allows for fast and reliable automatic segmentation of the bladder on CBCT for selecting the appropriate plan from a library of plans.

Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

2012-06-01

292

Infravesical obstruction results as giant bladder calculi.  

PubMed

A 48-year-old man was hospitalized with the chief complaints of lower abdominal pain, pain during micturation and pollakuria. Plain radiography showed 2 giant bladder stone shadows: one as 6.0 × 5.0 cm and the other one 5.0 × 5.0 cm in size. Cystolithotomy was performed. The first stone weighed 400 g and measured 6.0 × 5.0 × 6.0 cm in size, and the other stone was fragmented to smaller particles with pneumatic lithotriptor. Although a bladder stone is not rare, this case is interesting for 2 huge bladder calculi that were completely obstructing the bladder outlet and observed several years following pelvic trauma. To the best of our knowledge, our patient represents one of the largest bladder stone cases reported to date. PMID:21806900

Aydogdu, Ozgu; Telli, Onur; Burgu, Berk; Beduk, Yasar

2011-08-01

293

Infravesical obstruction results as giant bladder calculi  

PubMed Central

A 48-year-old man was hospitalized with the chief complaints of lower abdominal pain, pain during micturation and pollakuria. Plain radiography showed 2 giant bladder stone shadows: one as 6.0 × 5.0 cm and the other one 5.0 × 5.0 cm in size. Cystolithotomy was performed. The first stone weighed 400 g and measured 6.0 × 5.0 × 6.0 cm in size, and the other stone was fragmented to smaller particles with pneumatic lithotriptor. Although a bladder stone is not rare, this case is interesting for 2 huge bladder calculi that were completely obstructing the bladder outlet and observed several years following pelvic trauma. To the best of our knowledge, our patient represents one of the largest bladder stone cases reported to date.

Aydogdu, Ozgu; Telli, Onur; Burgu, Berk; Beduk, Yasar

2011-01-01

294

Calcium transport in turtle bladder  

SciTech Connect

Unidirectional {sup 45}Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (J{sup net}{sub Ca}) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed J{sup net}{sub Ca} to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that J{sup net}{sub Ca} was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, J{sup net}{sub Ca} decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, J{sup net}{sub Ca} was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue {sup 45}Ca content was {approx equal}30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa.

Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A. (Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center, Lubbock (USA))

1987-12-01

295

Performance Evaluation of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Stair Ascent and Descent with Paraplegia*  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the application of a powered lower limb exoskeleton to aid paraplegic individuals in stair ascent and descent. A brief description of the exoskeleton hardware is provided along with an explanation of the control methodology implemented to allow stair ascent and descent. Tests were performed with a paraplegic individual (T10 complete injury level) and data is presented from multiple trials, including the hip and knee joint torque and power required to perform this functionality. Joint torque and power requirements are summarized, including peak hip and knee joint torque requirements of 0.75 Nm/kg and 0.87 Nm/kg, respectively, and peak hip and knee joint power requirements of approximately 0.65 W/kg and 0.85 W/kg, respectively.

Farris, Ryan J.; Quintero, Hugo A.; Goldfarb, Michael

2013-01-01

296

The probabilistic determination of identity-by-descent sharing for pairs of relatives from pedigrees.  

PubMed Central

Methods for detecting genetic linkage are more powerful when they fully use all of the data collected from pedigrees. We first discuss a method for obtaining the probability that a pedigree member has a given genotype, conditional on the phenotypes of his relatives. We then develop a rapid method to obtain the conditional probabilities of identity-by-descent sharing of marker alleles for all related pairs of individuals from extended pedigrees. The method assumes that the individuals are noninbred and that the relationship between genotype and phenotype is known for the marker locus studied. The probabilities of identity-by-descent sharing among relative pairs, conditional on marker phenotype information, can then be used in any of the model free tests for linkage between a trait locus and a marker locus.

Amos, C I; Dawson, D V; Elston, R C

1990-01-01

297

Estimation of heritability from limited family data using genome-wide identity-by-descent sharing  

PubMed Central

Background In classical pedigree-based analysis, additive genetic variance is estimated from between-family variation, which requires the existence of larger phenotyped and pedigreed populations involving numerous families (parents). However, estimation is often complicated by confounding of genetic and environmental family effects, with the latter typically occurring among full-sibs. For this reason, genetic variance is often inferred based on covariance among more distant relatives, which reduces the power of the analysis. This simulation study shows that genome-wide identity-by-descent sharing among close relatives can be used to quantify additive genetic variance solely from within-family variation using data on extremely small family samples. Methods Identity-by-descent relationships among full-sibs were simulated assuming a genome size similar to that of humans (effective number of loci ~80). Genetic variance was estimated from phenotypic data assuming that genomic identity-by-descent relationships could be accurately re-created using information from genome-wide markers. The results were compared with standard pedigree-based genetic analysis. Results For a polygenic trait and a given number of phenotypes, the most accurate estimates of genetic variance were based on data from a single large full-sib family only. Compared with classical pedigree-based analysis, the proposed method is more robust to selection among parents and for confounding of environmental and genetic effects. Furthermore, in some cases, satisfactory results can be achieved even with less ideal data structures, i.e., for selectively genotyped data and for traits for which the genetic variance is largely under the control of a few major genes. Conclusions Estimation of genetic variance using genomic identity-by-descent relationships is especially useful for studies aiming at estimating additive genetic variance of highly fecund species, using data from small populations with limited pedigree information and/or few available parents, i.e., parents originating from non-pedigreed or even wild populations.

2012-01-01

298

Parents' science talk to their children in Mexican-descent families residing in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everyday parent—child conversations may support children's scientific understanding. The types and frequency of parent—child science talk may vary with the cultural and schooling background of the participants, and yet most research in the USA focuses on highly schooled European-American families. This study investigated 40 Mexican-descent parents' science talk with their children (mean age = 5 years 7 months, range =

Harriet R. Tenenbaum; Maureen A. Callanan

2008-01-01

299

Multi-institutional prostate cancer study of genetic susceptibility in populations of African descent.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer disparities have been reported in men of African descent who show the highest incidence, mortality, compared with other ethnic groups. Few studies have explored the genetic and environmental factors for prostate cancer in men of African ancestry. The glutathione-S-transferases family conjugates carcinogens before their excretion and is expressed in prostate tissue. This study addressed the role of GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions on prostate cancer risk in populations of African descent. This multi-institutional case-control study gathered data from the Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens (GSEC) database, the African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) and Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium (MADCaP). The analysis included 10 studies (1715 cases and 2363 controls), five in African-Americans, three in African-Caribbean and two in African men. Both the GSTM1 and the GSTT1 deletions showed significant inverse associations with prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR): 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.97 and OR 0.88, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96, respectively]. The association was restricted to Caribbean and African populations. A significant positive association was observed between GSTM1 deletion and prostate cancer in smokers in African-American studies (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01-1.56), whereas a reduced risk was observed in never-smokers (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46-0.95). The risk of prostate cancer increased across quartiles of pack-years among subjects carrying the deletion of GSTM1 but not among subjects carrying a functional GSTM1. Gene-environment interaction between smoking and GSTM1 may be involved in the etiology of prostate cancer in populations of African descent. PMID:21705483

Taioli, Emanuela; Flores-Obando, Rafael E; Agalliu, Ilir; Blanchet, Pascal; Bunker, Clareann H; Ferrell, Robert E; Jackson, Maria; Kidd, La Creis R; Kolb, Suzanne; Lavender, Nicol A; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Morrison, Seian S; Multigner, Luc; Ostrande, Elaine A; Park, Jong Y; Patrick, Alan L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Romana, Marc; Stanford, Janet L; Ukoli, Flora; Vancleave, Tiva T; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M; Mutetwa, Batsirai; Ragin, Camille

2011-06-24

300

Symmetric Functions and Generating Functions for Descents and Major Indices in Compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In [18], Mendes and Remmel showed how Gessel’s generating function for the distributions of the number of descents, the major\\u000a index, and the number of inversions of permutations in the symmetric group could be derived by applying a ring homomorphism\\u000a defined on the ring of symmetric functions to a simple symmetric function identity. We show how similar methods may be

Evan Fuller; Jeffrey Remmel

2010-01-01

301

Multi-institutional prostate cancer study of genetic susceptibility in populations of African descent  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer disparities have been reported in men of African descent who show the highest incidence, mortality, compared with other ethnic groups. Few studies have explored the genetic and environmental factors for prostate cancer in men of African ancestry. The glutathione-S-transferases family conjugates carcinogens before their excretion and is expressed in prostate tissue. This study addressed the role of GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions on prostate cancer risk in populations of African descent. This multi-institutional case–control study gathered data from the Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens (GSEC) database, the African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) and Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium (MADCaP). The analysis included 10 studies (1715 cases and 2363 controls), five in African-Americans, three in African-Caribbean and two in African men. Both the GSTM1 and the GSTT1 deletions showed significant inverse associations with prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR): 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83–0.97 and OR 0.88, 95% CI: 0.82–0.96, respectively]. The association was restricted to Caribbean and African populations. A significant positive association was observed between GSTM1 deletion and prostate cancer in smokers in African-American studies (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01–1.56), whereas a reduced risk was observed in never-smokers (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46–0.95). The risk of prostate cancer increased across quartiles of pack-years among subjects carrying the deletion of GSTM1 but not among subjects carrying a functional GSTM1. Gene–environment interaction between smoking and GSTM1 may be involved in the etiology of prostate cancer in populations of African descent.

Taioli, Emanuela; Flores-Obando, Rafael E.; Agalliu, Ilir; Blanchet, Pascal; Bunker, Clareann H.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Jackson, Maria; Kidd, La Creis R.; Kolb, Suzanne; Lavender, Nicol A.; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Morrison, Seian S.; Multigner, Luc; Ostrande, Elaine A.; Park, Jong Y.; Patrick, Alan L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Romana, Marc; Stanford, Janet L.; Ukoli, Flora; VanCleave, Tiva T.; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.; Mutetwa, Batsirai; Ragin, Camille

2011-01-01

302

The behavior of epididymis, processus vaginalis and testicular descent in cryptorchid boys treated with buserelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was initiated to analyze the behavior of epididymis, processus vaginalis and testicular descent in cryptorchid boys treated with a low dose (20 ?g) of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (Buserelin), administered daily, as a nasal spray, for a short period (28 days). Fifty-nine true cryptorchid boys were randomly assigned to 3 groups: buserelin, treatment [22],

Domingos TG Bica; Faruk Hadziselimovic

1993-01-01

303

On the use of a range trigger for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2012, during the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehi- cle, a 21.5 m Viking-heritage, Disk-Gap-Band, supersonic parachute will be deployed at approximately Mach 2. The baseline algorithm for commanding this parachute deploy- ment is a navigated planet-relative velocity trigger. This pa- per compares the performance of an alternative range-to-go trigger (sometimes referred

2011-01-01

304

Clogging of Joule-Thomson Devices in Liquid Hydrogen-Lunar Lander Descent Stage Operating Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joule-Thomson (J-T) devices have been identified as critical components for future space exploration missions. The NASA Constellation Program lunar architecture considers LOX\\/LH2 propulsion for the lunar lander descent stage main engine an enabling technology, ensuring the cryogenic propellants are available at the correct conditions for engine operation. This cryogenic storage system may utilize a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) that includes

J. M. Jurns

2010-01-01

305

CLOGGING OF JOULE-THOMSON DEVICES IN LIQUID HYDROGEN—LUNAR LANDER DESCENT STAGE OPERATING REGIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joule-Thomson (J-T) devices have been identified as critical components for future space exploration missions. The NASA Constellation Program lunar architecture considers LOX\\/LH2 propulsion for the lunar lander descent stage main engine an enabling technology, ensuring the cryogenic propellants are available at the correct conditions for engine operation. This cryogenic storage system may utilize a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) that includes

J. M. Jurns

2010-01-01

306

A comparison of androgenetic doubled-haploid, and single seed descent lines in Triticale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty single seed descent (SSD) lines and about 25 anther-derived doubled-haploid (DH) lines were obtained from two triticale crosses. The frequency distributions of 10 quantitative agronomic traits were compared using parametric and non-parametric tests. A multivariate discriminant analysis was subsequently carried out. Gliadin patterns obtained from each line by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to calculate intra- and inter-population diversities

G. Charmet; G. Branlard

1985-01-01

307

A Study of Matrilineal Descent from the Perspective of the Tlingit NexA'di Eagles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Athapaskans of the boreal forest of northwestern Canada and Alaska and the Indians of the northern Northwest Coast shared a similar social organization. It was based on the division of a group into moieties and\\/or phratries, tracing matrilineal descent, practicing exogamy, matrilocality, and sharing resources with other affiliate groups. The Sanyaqoan NexA'di Eagle clan was singular among the Tlingit

CHRIS RABICH CAMPBELL

308

Demography of Exercise among Californians of Korean Descent: A Cross-Sectional Telephone Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes aerobic exercise and walking for exercise behaviors among the Korean American population, a rapidly growing\\u000a minority. Data for this study were drawn from a representative survey of Californians of Korean descent (N = 2,830) conducted by telephone; 86% of eligible participants completed interviews in either Korean or English. Sample characteristics\\u000a closely approximated those for Koreans in the 2000 United

C. Richard Hofstetter; Veronica Irvin; Katy Schmitz; Melbourne F. Hovell; Jeanne Nichols; Hye Ryun Kim; Richard Ledet; Joy Zakarian; Hee-Young Paik; Jooeun Lee

2008-01-01

309

Urinary bladder perforation in a premature infant with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary bladder perforation due to bladder catheterization in neonates is a rare iatrogenic complication. It has been reported secondary to various causes and a variety of surgical settings in neonates. A case of urinary bladder perforation due to catheterization in a premature baby with Down syndrome, who presented with progressive renal failure and mild-to-moderate ascites, is reported. Urinary bladder perforation

Mahaboob Basha; Muhammad Subhani; Ali Mersal; SaadAl Saedi; J. Williamson Balfe

2003-01-01

310

Neonatal Bladder Inflammation Produces Functional Changes and Alters Neuropeptide Content in Bladders of Adult Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Neonatal bladder inflammation has been demonstrated to produce hypersensitivity to bladder re-inflammation as an adult. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neonatal urinary bladder inflammation on adult bladder function and structure. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated on postnatal days 14-16 with intravesical zymosan or anesthesia alone. At 12-16 weeks of age, micturition frequency and cystometrograms were measured. Similarly treated rats had their bladders removed for measurement of plasma extravasation following intravesical mustard oil, for neuropeptide analysis (CGRP or SubP), or for detailed histological examination. Rats treated with zymosan as neonates exhibited increased micturition frequency, reduced micturition volume thresholds, greater extravasation of Evan's Blue following intravesical mustard oil administration, and greater total bladder content of CGRP and SubP. In contrast, there were no quantitative histological changes in the thickness, fibrosis or mast cells of bladder tissue due to neonatal zymosan treatments. Functional changes in urologic systems observed in adulthood, coupled with the increased neuropeptide content and neurogenic plasma extravasation in adult bladders, suggest that the neonatal bladder inflammation treatment enhanced the number, function and/or neurochemical content of primary afferent neurons. These data support the hypothesis that insults to the urologic system in infancy may contribute to the development of adult bladder hypersensitivity. Perspective Inflammation of the bladder early in life in the rat has multiple sequelae including laboratory measures that suggest an alteration of the neurophysiological substrates related to the bladder. Some painful bladder syndromes in humans have similar characteristics and so may be due to similar mechanisms.

DeBerry, Jennifer; Randich, Alan; Shaffer, Amber D.; Robbins, Meredith T.; Ness, Timothy J.

2009-01-01

311

Machado-Joseph disease in pedigrees of Azorean descent is linked to chromosome 14  

SciTech Connect

A locus for Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) has recently been mapped to a 30-cM region of chromosome 14q in five pedigrees of Japanese descent. MJD is a clinically pleomorphic neurodegenerative disease that was originally described in subjects of Azorean descent. In light of the nonallelic heterogeneity in other inherited spinocerebellar ataxias, the authors were interested to determine if the MJD phenotype in Japanese and Azorean pedigrees arose from mutations at the same locus. They provide evidence that MJD in five pedigrees of Azorean descent is also linked to chromosome 14q in an 18-cM region between the markers D14S67 and AACT (multipoint lod score +7.00 near D14S81). They also report molecular evidence for homozygosity at the MJD locus in an MJD-affected subject with severe, early-onset symptoms. These observations confirm the initial report of linkage of MJD to chromosome 14; suggest that MJD in Japanese and Azorean subjects may represent allelic or identical mutations at the same locus; and provide one possible explanation (MJD gene dosage) for the observed phenotypic heterogeneity in this disease. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

George-Hyslop, P. St.; McLachlan, D.R.C.; Lang, A.E.; Wherrett, J.R.; Rogaeva, E.; Tsuda, T.; Rogaev, E.I.; Liang, Y.; Huterer, J.; Kennedy, J. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada)) (and others)

1994-07-01

312

Review of studies on metabolic genes and cancer in populations of African descent  

PubMed Central

Genetic polymorphisms described for a number of enzymes involved in the metabolism of tobacco carcinogens and alcohol have been linked to increase cancer risk. Racial disparities in cancer between Whites and populations of African descent are well documented. In addition to differences in access to health care, both environment and genetic factors and their interaction may contribute to the increased cancer risk in minority populations. We reviewed the literature to identify case-control studies that included subjects of African descent. Meta analyses investigating the association of genetic polymorphisms in tobacco metabolic genes and cancer were performed. While several genes and cancers have been studied, only one or two studies per gene for each cancer site have been published, with the exception of breast (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1), lung (GSTM1, CYP1A1, and NQO1) and prostate (CYP3A4 A293G and CYP17). Marginal statistically significant associations were observed for CYP3A4 A293G and CYP17 5'UTR polymorphisms and prostate cancer. Our findings support the need for additional genetic association studies of breast, prostate and lung cancers that include a larger number of minority participants. Since incidence and mortality rates for these cancers rank highest among populations of African descent concentrated research in these areas are warranted.

Ragin, Camille C.; Langevin, Scott; Rubin, Scott; Taioli, Emanuela

2010-01-01

313

Techniques for avoiding local minima in gradient-descent-based ID algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One nonlinear adaptive approach to generating target recognition algorithms, the distributed connectionist approach, is also referred to as a neural network. These algorithms frequently employ a gradient descent technique, such as the back propagation learning algorithm, to find a mapping that separates the n dimensional feature space into m recognizable classes. Gradient descent techniques are known to be limited by a characteristic referred to as the `local minima' problem. During the search for an optimum solution or global minima, these techniques can encounter local minima from which they cannot escape due to the `steepest descent' nature of the approach. However, several training techniques used to speed up training or to otherwise optimize these adaptive learning algorithms have side effects which can obviate this local minima problem. We will define a local minima problem with respect to the 1D target ID problem. Appropriate terminology and an error space relevant to the 1D range profile problem will be presented. Four techniques, dynamic architecture definition, weight pruning, adaptive learning rate selection and dynamic training set generation used to optimize training for the multilayer perceptron will be summarized. An analytical explanation of a common underlying mechanism which allows escape from local minima and is shared by these techniques is presented. Some additional advantages are provided by one of the four techniques, the dynamic training set technique. Evidence of these advantages, consistently high quality results, the automatic identification of anomalous signatures in the data base and simple implementation, will be presented.

Brierton, Joan L.

1997-06-01

314

The relief formed by the descent phenomenon in the north-east part of Kosova.  

PubMed

In the diverse relief of north-east part of Kosova a relatively wide range occupies the relief modelled by the descent phenomenon, which is conditioned by morph-structural and climatic factors quite suitable for their development. The morphogenesis activity of descent phenomenon is conditioned by the types of rocks, tectonic process of this region and climatic conditions. These factors condition horizontal and vertical relief fragmentation, slope, especially in Gollaku mountains and in SE part of Kopaonik mountain. Along the tectonic descents, the steepness is detaching and the detaching lines consisting of magmatic rocks show overthrows, demolitions and stony torrents, but the Teri gene composition formations are modelled by sliding and muddy torrents, depending upon the presence of clayey and alevrolite belts on these Teri gene ones. The impact of factors and conditions on the relief of this part, the phenomena like demolitions, overthrows, sliding, muddy torrents, stony torrents, etc, operate here, which play an important morphological role in the modelling of relief. PMID:23424844

Bulliqi, Shpejtim; Isufi, Florim; Ramadani, Ibrahim; Gashi, Gani

2012-04-01

315

[Overactive bladder in the elderly].  

PubMed

The prevalence of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) increases with age and is associated with a clear reduction in patient quality of life. Age-related alterations of the urinary bladder as well as increased occurrence of neurological and non-neurological diseases with age contribute to the onset of OAB. Antimuscarinic drugs are the medication of choice; however, restricted tolerability and polypharmacotherapy limit administration in the elderly. Extended release preparations are to be favored as constant intake of medication is more feasible and adverse effects occur less often compared to immediate release formulations. With respect to cognitive impairment newly introduced substances and quaternary amines seem to be advantageous. However, constipation remains a notable side effect in older patients. Intravesical botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) injections are an alternative and a therapeutic escalation in patients suffering from OAB. Adverse events are very rare and drug interactions are unknown; however, injections can result in hypercontinence causing the necessity for artificial urine drainage. PMID:23616170

Bschleipfer, T; Wagenlehner, F M; Lüdecke, G; Pilatz, A; Weidner, W

2013-06-01

316

A Tribute to Italian Physiologists of Jewish Descent Evicted During the Persecution Ordered by the Fascist Regime in 1938  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The present report commemorates the persecution of five renown Italian physiologists of Jewish descent that lost their chairs in medical schools because of the anti-semitic policies of the fascist regime.

Ermanno Manni (Catholic University Institute of Human Physiology, School of Medicine)

2007-06-01

317

Comparative morphology of the hyolaryngeal complex in anthropoids: two steps in the evolution of the descent of the larynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The descent of the larynx is a key phenomenon not only in postnatal development, but also in the evolution of human speech.\\u000a The positional change of the larynx is affected by the descent of the hyoid bone in relation to the mandible and cranial base,\\u000a and that of the laryngeal framework in relation to the hyoid bone. The phylogeny

Takeshi Nishimura

2003-01-01

318

Urothelium patterns bladder smooth muscle location.  

PubMed

Smooth muscle differentiation is induced in the embryonic bladder by the centrally located urothelium in the undifferentiated mesenchyme in the periphery adjacent to the serosa. We hypothesize that under the appropriate signal the entire undifferentiated bladder mesenchyme is capable of smooth muscle differentiation and that the urothelium patterns fibromuscular development. Embryonic bladders of wild-type and Green Fluorescent Protein mice were separated into urothelial and mesenchymal components before smooth muscle differentiation (E12.5-E13). The urothelial layer green fluorescent protein was recombined and grafted with the mesenchyme (wild-type) in an orthotopic position, heterotopic position and ectopic position. In all cases, a zone of smooth muscle inhibition was observed adjacent to the epithelium whether the urothelium was in an orthotopic or heterotypic position. Bladder mesenchyme and bladder epithelium grafted alone did not grow. In conclusion, the full thickness of bladder mesenchyme is capable of smooth muscle differentiation dependent on the location of urothelium. These experiments support the hypothesis that urothelium secretes a diffusible factor that at high concentrations inhibits smooth muscle and at low concentrations induces smooth muscle, thus patterning mesenchymal cell differentiation across the full thickness of the fibromuscular bladder wall. PMID:18535485

Cao, Mei; Liu, Benchun; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

2008-10-01

319

A boy with a large bladder stone.  

PubMed

Despite the frequent association of urinary tract infection with vesicoureteral reflux and urinary calculi, since vesicouretal reflux is induced by bladder stones, the coexistence of vesicoureteral reflux and bladder stones is rare. Because of its occurrence in children belonging to poor socioeconomic groups, it is believed to be a deficiency disorder. Most cases of bladder stones occur between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Common clinical presentations of bladder stones include urinary dribbling and enuresis, frequency of micturition, pain during micturition, pelvic pain and hematuria. We report the occurrence of a large bladder stone in a boy, who experienced intermittent Lower abdominal pain and urinary incontinence, both during the day and at night. He had been diagnosed with enuresis and treated in pediatric clinics for 1 year. Delayed diagnosis resulted in bladder stone formation. The stone was larger than 2.5cm and open vesicolithotomy was therefore selected as the best and safest treatment choice. His symptoms disappeared after surgery. Thorough metabolic and environmental evaluations of such cases are required on an individual basis. Bladder stones should be considered as a possible diagnosis in children presenting with urinary incontinence. PMID:19054922

Chow, Kuo-Shen; Chou, Chieh-Yuan

2008-08-01

320

Wallenberg's syndrome following neck manipulation.  

PubMed

We describe 4 patients ages 28 to 41 with lateral medullary infarction (Wallenberg's syndrome) following chiropractic neck manipulation. In 3 patients, angiography documented dissection of the extracranial 3rd segment of the vertebral artery near the atlantoaxial joint. The onset of neurologic symptoms following manipulation varied from immediate to 4 days. All had good recovery with minor residual deficits. Although the association between chiropractic neck manipulation and vertebral-basilar artery distribution infarction is well known, we emphasize its occurrence in young healthy individuals without commonly regarded predisposing factors. PMID:2181339

Frumkin, L R; Baloh, R W

1990-04-01

321

Chronic neck pain: how to approach treatment.  

PubMed

Chronic neck pain is a common patient complaint. Despite its frequency as a clinical problem, there are few evidence-based studies that document efficacy of therapies for neck pain. The treatment of this symptom is based primarily on clinical experience. Preventing the development of chronic neck pain can be achieved by modification of the work environment with chairs that encourage proper musculoskeletal movement. The use of neck supports for sleep and active neck exercises together can improve neck pain. Passive therapies, including massage, acupuncture, mechanical traction, and electrotherapy, have limited benefit when measured by clinical trial results. NSAIDs, muscle relaxants, and pure analgesics are the mainstays of therapy. Local injections of anesthetics with or without soluble corticosteroid preparations offer additional pain relief. The purpose of these agents is to diminish pain to facilitate normal neck movement. Surgical therapy with cervical spine fusion is indicated for the rare patient with intractable neck pain resistant to all nonsurgical therapies. PMID:18173978

Borenstein, David G

2007-12-01

322

Cytologic features of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report.  

PubMed

Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity, whose histogenesis and biological behavior remain controversial. The cytological literature on sarcomatoid carcinoma in voided urine is very scarce. Clinically, the diagnosis of this tumor can be made by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cytology, and biopsy material. In this study, cytology, histopathology, and radiological imaging were employed in order to reach a diagnosis of sarcomatoid carcinoma. CT imaging showed increased thickness of the bladder wall associated to a polypoid mass. MRI showed a 4-cm sized, broadly necked polypoid mass with calcification and ulceration at the right side of the bladder wall. T2W1 imaging showed low signal. Voided urinary cytology showed a scattered cellular presentation. The tumor cells had a high nucleo- cytoplasmic ratio, with elongated cytoplasm with faint with indistinct cytoplasm border. The nucleus was oval to round, with large and irregular nucleoli and irregular nuclear membrane. These tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CKAE1/AE3), vimentin, p53, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), ?1-smooth muscle actin (SMA) by the immunoperoxidase staining. Histopathology showed spindle-shaped and clumped large tumor cells with abundant cytoplasm. Mitotic figures were frequently seen and varied from area to area (50% of the tumor cells were positive for MIB1). PMID:21953942

Iwa, Nobuzo; Ito, Shuji; Takegaki, Yoshinori; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Tadao K; Yasukawa, Satoru; Kobayashi, Yasushi

2011-09-26

323

Head and neck anthropometry, vertebral geometry and neck strength in height-matched men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women have an increased incidence of whiplash injury and neck pain compared to men. Physical and numerical models represent one avenue to explore and potentially explain these gender differences, but a valid model of the female neck does not yet exist. A fundamental question in the development of a female neck model is whether female necks are simply scaled versions

Anita N. Vasavada; Jonathan Danaraj; Gunter P. Siegmund

2008-01-01

324

Radiation-associated urinary bladder cancer.  

PubMed

A few data sets have been used for assessing the risk of radiation-associated bladder cancer. The most important are the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and patients exposed to ionizing radiation for medical purposes. According to a report from the United Nations Commission on the Effect of Ionizing Radiation, there is convincing evidence of a relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and bladder cancer. In contrast to many other malignancies it is not clear how age at exposure and gender affect the risk of bladder cancer. Furthermore, the potential interaction between smoking and radiation exposure needs to be studied in greater detail. PMID:18815921

Hall, Per

2008-09-01

325

Bladder cancer: detection, prevention, and therapeutics.  

PubMed

Bladder cancer is primarily a disease of middle-aged men with a history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Work continues on the development of effective screening methods. Prevention is the magic key in society's attempt to manage this disease. Public awareness campaigns on the hazards of smoking should include information on smoking's link to bladder cancer. Workers in high-risk industries should be made aware of the risk and practice good work habits. In industries where workers handle known bladder carcinogens, protective clothing should be worn. Yet to be determined are benefits gained by reducing the intake of coffee or artificial sweeteners. PMID:2750671

Burnham, N

1989-06-01

326

Bladder polypoid cystitis-derived a20 associates with tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Bladder chronic inflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of bladder cancer; the underlying mechanism is unclear. The PT53 gene is an important anticancer gene in the body, which is suppressed in cancer. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in regulating the activities of epithelial cells. This study was designed to investigate the correlation between A20 and the pathogenesis of bladder cancer. The biopsy tissues of human bladder cancer, bladder polypoid cystitis, and chronic inflammation were collected; the levels of A20 and p53 were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immune precipitation. HEK293 cells were employed to test the role of overexpression of A20 in the suppression of the p53 gene in the cells. Fifty-six patients with bladder cancer, 48 patients with bladder polypoid cystitis, and 16 patients with bladder chronic inflammation were recruited into this study. Human bladder cancer tissue and the polypoid tissue showed high levels of A20, which had a positive correlation with the tumorigenesis in the bladder; 12 out of 46 (26.1 %) patients with bladder polypoid cystitis were diagnosed as bladder cancer. A20 bound to p53 to form complexes in bladder cancer tissue and bladder polypoid tissue. The overexpression of A20 suppresses p53 protein levels in HEK293 cells. A20 has a positive correlation in the tumorigenesis of bladder polypoid disorders. PMID:23471665

Wang, Ming; Li, Shijian

2013-11-01

327

Background Variables for the Patients with Invasive Bladder Cancer Suitable for Bladder-preserving Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study was undertaken to identify the patients suitable for bladder preservation by analysis of our data. Methods: The subjects of this study were all 72 patients with T2 -3 N0M0 bladder cancer who underwent bladder-preserving therapy in our institute. The therapy involved intra-arterial chemotherapy with MTX and CDDP and concomitant radiotherapy. Results: Of the evaluable 70 cases,

Naoto Miyanaga; Hideyuki Akaza; Shiro Hinotsu; Akira Joraku; Takehiro Oikawa; Noritoshi Sekido; Koji Kawai; Toru Shimazui

328

Surgical bladder preserving strategies in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single modality bladder-sparing therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, including transurethral resection (TUR), partial cystectomy, systemic chemotherapy or radiotherapy, have been demonstrated to result in insufficient local control of the primary tumour, as well as decreased long-term survival in the patients when compared to radical cystectomy. Therefore, multimodality treatment protocols that aim at bladder preservation and involve all of the aforementioned

M. Kuczyk; S. Machtens; C. Bokemeyer; C. Kollmannsberger; J. Hartmann; M. Kondoh; A. Merseburger; U. Jonas

2002-01-01

329

Simultaneous transurethral resection of bladder cancer and prostate may reduce recurrence rates: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the recurrence rate of simultaneous transurethral resection of bladder cancer and prostate (TURBT+TURP) in the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE and the ISI Web of Knowledge databases from their establishment until March 2012, to collect all the original studies on TURBT+TURP vs. TURBT alone in the treatment of NMIBC with BPH. After screening the literature, methodological quality assessment and data extraction was conducted independently by two reviewers and meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.1 software. The quality of data was assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Eight studies, including seven non-randomized concurrent controlled trials (NRCCTs) and one randomized controlled trial (RCT), involving a total of 1,372 patients met the criteria. Meta-analyses of NRCCTs showed that in the TURBT+TURP group, overall recurrence rates were lower [odds ratio (OR), 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60–0.96; P=0.02] and the difference was statistically significant. The postoperative recurrence rate in the prostatic fossa/bladder neck (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64–1.45; P=0.86) and bladder tumor progression rates (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.49–1.87; P=0.91) were similar between the TURBT+TURP and TURBT groups, but the difference was not significant. According to the GRADE approach, the level of evidence was moderate or low. Only one RCT demonstrated that overall postoperative tumor recurrence rates, recurrence rates at prostate fossa/bladder neck and bladder tumor progression rates between simultaneous groups and control groups were almost equal. There was no significant difference (P>0.05), and the level of evidence was moderate. For patients with NMIBC and BPH, simultaneous resection did not increase the overall recurrence rate of bladder tumors, it also did not cause metastasis and tumor progression, but it may reduce the recurrence rate. However, due to the low quality of investigations included in the present study, careful selection was necessary, and more large-scale and high-quality randomized controlled trials are also required for further confirmation.

LI, SHENG; ZENG, XIAN-TAO; RUAN, XIAO-LAN; WANG, XING-HUAN; GUO, YI; YANG, ZHONG-HUA

2012-01-01

330

Multiple venous aneurysms of neck  

PubMed Central

Venous aneurysm of neck is a rare anomaly, usually presenting as a painless mass which increases in size on valsalva maneuver. A child with multiple aneurysms of the right common facial and external jugular veins diagnosed on Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance venography is reported.

Swaika, Sweta; Basu, Sudipta; Bhadra, Ram C.; Maitra, Sujay

2013-01-01

331

Radiotherapy and head neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean number of lymphocytes, response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and response to concanavalin A (Con A) in whole-blood cultures for 106 patients with head and neck cancer were 83%, 73%, and 64%, respectively, of values for healthy control individuals. During radiotherapy, lymphocyte counts declined to 44% and PHA and Con A responses declined to about one third of control values.

V. K. Jenkins; C. M. Griffiths; P. Ray; R. R. Perry; M. H. Olson

1980-01-01

332

Bladder Catheterization Technique for Male Rhesus Monkeys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Real-time collection of urine is advantageous in some physiological research. Human bladder catheterization procedures and equipment are not suitable for studies using the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) because of anatomical and behavioral differences. We...

J. L. Saxton J. M. Garcia L. G. Meyer W. G. Lotz

1993-01-01

333

[Conservative drug therapy of neurogenic bladder disorders].  

PubMed

Today neuropharmacas are a helpful part in the conservative treatment of the neurogenic bladder disorders. They are, or course, no "wonder-drugs" and usually lead to an improvement only of the troubles, but rarely to complete cure. If monotherapy does not lead to the results wanted, one should combine drugs of the same of similar effects but with different pharmacologic targets. A real progress was reached through alpha-receptor-blockers, whose use has, especially in children with myelomeningocele, changed the therapeutic concept in favour of a largely conservative treatment. We already know a number of substances that in one way or other influence the muscles of the bladder and the bladder outlet. If only part of them will reach clinical usage, it can be assumed that the pharmacotherapy will become even more meaningful in the treatment of neurogenic bladder disorders. PMID:29864

Madersbacher

1978-07-01

334

Urat-1 Bladder-Stone Crusher.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'URAT-1' apparatus is designed for lithotropsy in the urinary bladder without surgery and offers essential advantages over mechanical instruments used for the same purpose in urology. The apparatus is combined with the standard operating cystoscope wh...

1970-01-01

335

Treatment Options for Overactive Bladder Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... with OAB who reduce their daily fluid and water-containing food intake by 25% have improved episodes of urgency, frequency, and nocturia. Treatment Options: Behavioral Treatment: dietary changes , fluid management , pelvic muslce exercises , biofeedback , bladder retraining Over the ...

336

Conformal radiotherapy of urinary bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Recent advances in radiotherapy (RT) are founded on the enhanced tumour visualisation capabilities of new imaging modalities and the precise deposition of individualised radiation dose distributions made possible with the new systems for RT planning and delivery. These techniques have a large potential to also improve the results of RT of urinary bladder cancer. Major challenges to take full advantage of these advances in the management of bladder cancer are to control, and, as far as possible, reduce bladder motion, and to reliably account for the related intestine and rectum motion. If these obstacles are overcome, it should be possible in the near future to offer selected patients with muscle invading bladder cancer an organ-sparing, yet effective combined-modality treatment as an alternative to radical surgery. PMID:15588887

Muren, Ludvig Paul; Smaaland, Rune; Dahl, Olav

2004-12-01

337

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with bladder diverticula.  

PubMed

We describe an Indian man with the unusual association of classical cutaneous features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, a marfanoid habitus, bladder diverticula and multiple emphysematous bullae. PMID:11359404

Handa, S; Sethuraman, G; Mohan, A; Sharma, V K

2001-05-01

338

Bladder Pain Syndrome\\/Interstitial Cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) should be regarded as a true pain syndrome (a collection of symptoms and signs which, together,\\u000a characterize a particular condition or disease) rather than an end-organ disease. The term “interstitial cystitis” (IC) has\\u000a been a misleading name for a condition in which true bladder inflammation is seen only in a small subset of patients with\\u000a chronic

Paul Irwin

339

The neurogenic bladder and incontinent urinary diversion.  

PubMed

Management of the neurogenic bladder with an incontinent stoma is necessary in situations in which intermittent catheterization via the urethra or a continent stoma is not feasible. Cutaneous ureterostomy, vesicostomy, ileal conduit, and ileovesicostomy have all been used for this purpose. Vesicostomy is most commonly used as a temporizing measure in the pediatric neurogenic population. Both ileal conduit, with or without cystectomy, and ileovesicostomy have contemporary roles in the management of the neurogenic bladder. PMID:20955909

Westney, O Lenaine

2010-11-01

340

Holmium laser lithotripsy of bladder calculi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the overall incidence of bladder calculi has been decreasing, it is still a significant disease affecting adults and children. Prior treatment options have included open cystolitholapaxy, blind lithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and visual lithotripsy with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes. The holmium laser has been found to be extremely effective in the treatment of upper tract calculi. This technology has also been applied to the treatment of bladder calculi. We report our experience with the holmium laser in the treatment of bladder calculi. Twenty- five patients over a year and a half had their bladder calculi treated with the Holmium laser. This study was retrospective in nature. Patient demographics, stone burden, and intraoperative and post-operative complications were noted. The mean stone burden was 31 mm with a range of 10 to 60 mm. Preoperative diagnosis was made with either an ultrasound, plain film of the abdomen or intravenous pyelogram. Cystoscopy was then performed to confirm the presence and determine the size of the stone. The patients were then taken to the operating room and given a regional or general anesthetic. A rigid cystoscope was placed into the bladder and the bladder stone was then vaporized using the holmium laser. Remaining fragments were washed out. Adjunctive procedures were performed on 10 patients. These included transurethral resection of the prostate, transurethral incision of the prostate, optic internal urethrotomy, and incision of ureteroceles. No major complications occurred and all patients were rendered stone free. We conclude that the Holmium laser is an effective and safe modality for the treatment of bladder calculi. It was able to vaporize all bladder calculi and provides a single modality of treating other associated genitourinary pathology.

Beaghler, Marc A.; Poon, Michael W.

1998-07-01

341

Delayed presentation of traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A child with urine ascites as a delayed manifestation of post-traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture is presented. The\\u000a diagnosis was suggested by abdominal CT scan and confirmed with a cystogram. While uncommon, late presentation of intraperitoneal\\u000a bladder rupture following trauma may occur from masking of a primary laceration or development of secondary rupture at the\\u000a site of a hematoma in the

D. Brown; H. L. Magill; T. L. Black

1986-01-01

342

Primary Urachal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Urinary bladder cancer is the second most frequent tumour of the genitourinary tract with bladder adenocarcinoma comprising for about 0.5-2% of all malignant bladder tumours. Other primary sites for such tumours include rectum, stomach, endometrium, breast, prostate, seminal vesicles and ovaries. Such non-urothelial bladder tumours with intramural bladder tumour growth may delay the onset of symptoms which may lead to a delay in the diagnosis and thereby adversely affecting the prognosis as compared to urothelial bladder tumours. Traditionally bladder adenocarcinomas were believed to be resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but recent advancements have shown encouraging responses with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We present here a case of primary urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder highlighting their relative rarity of occurrence and the difficulties encountered in diagnosing primary bladder mucinous adenocarcinoma.

Singh, Iqbal; Prasad, Ravi

2013-01-01

343

Evaluation of bladder microvasculature with high resolution photoacoustic imaging  

PubMed Central

We explored the potential of an emerging laser-based technology, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), for bladder cancer diagnosis through high resolution imaging of microvasculature in the bladder tissues. Imaging results from ex vivo canine bladders demonstrated the excellent ability of PAI in mapping three-dimensional microvasculature in optically scattering bladder tissues. By comparing the results from human bladder specimens affected by cancer to those from the normal control, the feasibility of PAI in differentiate malignant from benign bladder tissues was also explored. The distinctive morphometric characteristics of tumor microvasculature can be seen in the images from cancer samples, suggesting that PAI may allow in vivo assessment of neoangiogenesis that is closely associated with bladder cancer generation and progression. By presenting subsurface morphological and physiological information in bladder tissues, PAI, when performed in a similar way as in conventional endoscopy, provides an opportunity for improved diagnosis, staging and treatment guidance of bladder cancer.

Xie, Zhixing; Roberts, William; Carson, Paul; Liu, Xiaojun; Tao, Chao; Wang, Xueding

2013-01-01

344

Selective bladder preservation with curative intent for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a contemporary review.  

PubMed

Radical cystectomy plus urinary diversion, the reference standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, associates with high complication rates and compromises quality of life as a result of long-term effects on urinary, gastrointestinal and sexual function, and changes in body image. As a society ages, the number of elderly patients unfit for radical cystectomy as a result of comorbidity will increase, and thus the demand for bladder-sparing approaches for muscle-invasive bladder cancer will also inevitably increase. Trimodality bladder-sparing approaches consisting of transurethral resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy (? 55-65 Gy) yield overall survival rates comparable with those of radical cystectomy series (50-70% at 5 years), while preserving the native bladder in 40-60% of muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients, contributing to an improvement in quality of life for such patients. Limitations of the trimodality therapy include (i) muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence in the preserved bladder, which most often arises in the original muscle-invasive bladder cancer site; (ii) potential lack of curative intervention for regional lymph nodes; and (iii) increased morbidity in the event of salvage radical cystectomy for remaining or recurrent disease as a result of high-dose pelvic irradiation. Consolidative partial cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection followed by induction chemoradiotherapy at lower dose (e.g. 40 Gy) is a rational strategy for overcoming such limitations by strengthening locoregional control and reducing radiation dosage. Molecular profiling of the tumor and functional imaging might play important roles in optimal patient selection for bladder preservation. Refinement of radiation techniques, intensified concurrent or adjuvant chemotherapy, and novel sensitizers, including molecular targeting agent, are also expected to improve outcomes and consequently provide more muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with favorable quality of life. PMID:22409269

Koga, Fumitaka; Kihara, Kazunori

2012-03-12

345

Flow Visualizations and Extended Thrust Time Histories of Rotor Vortex Wakes in Descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study is performed on a three-bladed rotor model in a water tow tank. The blade pitch and rotational velocity, the rotor plane angle of attack (descent angle), and the carriage speed are all varied in order to simulate a wide range of rotorcraft operating states, with the focus being on descent speeds and angles where the rotor is operating in or near vortex ring state an area in which there is currently very little available data. Circulation and blade Reynolds numbers are of order 10^5. Flow visualization is done by injecting air bubbles and fluorescent dye tangentially from the blade tips to mark the vortex core, showing the development of both short-wave (sinuous) and long-wave (leapfrogging) instabilities on the helical vortices in the wake. Strain gages are used to record transient loads, allowing a correlation between the rotor thrust performance and the development of the vortex wake. Test runs are performed for extended periods up to 500 rotor revolutions demonstrating the repeatability of the patterns of thrust variation. The data indicate that as the instabilities develop, adjacent vortices merge and form thick vortex rings, especially during descent. Periodic shedding of these rings from the wake associated with vortex ring state is observed, resulting in peak-to-peak thrust fluctuations of up to 95% of the mean and occurring at regular intervals of 2050 rotor revolutions, depending on flow parameters. Preliminary particle image velocimetry (PIV) data provide a quantitative measure of the entire rotor flow field for the case of a hovering rotor. The data yield additional information on the vortex filament instability, in particular the axial flow in the vortex cores.

Stack, James; Caradonna, Frank; Savas, Omer

2003-11-01

346

The unusual phase curve of Titan's surface observed by Huygens’ Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer onboard Huygens observed Titan's surface through the atmospheric methane windows [Tomasko, M.G., Doose, L., Engel, S., Dafoe, L.E., West, R., Lemmon, M., Karkoschka, E., See, C., 2008. A model of Titan's aerosols based on measurements made inside the atmosphere. Planet. Space Sci. 56, 669-707]. Infrared spectra obtained during the last stage of the descent, for which the atmospheric contribution is negligible, show that the reflectance of the surface around the sit increases with decreasing solar phase angle. Combining these with a spectrum reconstructed from reflected lamp light [Schröder, S.E., Keller, H.U., 2008. The reflectance spectrum of Titan's surface at the Huygens landing site determined by the Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer. Planet. Space Sci. 56, 753-769] reveals a strong increase in reflectance towards zero phase angle: the opposition surge. Both shadow hiding and coherent backscatter are required to fit the phase curve with the Hapke [2002. Bidirectional Reflectance Spectroscopy 5. The Coherent Backscatter Opposition Effect and Anisotropic Scattering. Icarus 157, 523-534] model. We find the particle phase function below 60? phase angle to be close to isotropic, which is highly unusual for the surfaces of planetary bodies. A terrain with similar scattering properties has been identified on Triton [Lee, P., Helfenstein, P., Veverka, J., McCarthy, D., 1992. Anomalous-scattering region on Triton. Icarus 99, 82-97], and a connection with the tholins thought to be present on both worlds seems plausible. Indeed, tholin laboratory analogs are found to scatter in similar fashion [Lüthi, 2008. Remote sensing of the surface of Titan: Photometric properties, comparison with analogues, and future microscopic observations. Ph.D. Thesis, Philosophisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät, Universität Bern]. We conclude that Titan's unusual phase curve is consistent with the presence of tholins on the surface. Our result provides a lower boundary condition for Titan atmosphere models and as such may aid the ongoing analysis of Cassini data.

Schröder, S. E.; Keller, H. U.

2009-12-01

347

Steepest descent method with a generalized Armijo search for quasiconvex functions on Riemannian manifolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper extends the full convergence of the steepest descent method with a generalized Armijo search and a proximal regularization to solve minimization problems with quasiconvex objective functions on complete Riemannian manifolds. Previous convergence results are obtained as particular cases and some examples in non-Euclidian spaces are given. In particular, our approach can be used to solve constrained minimization problems with nonconvex objective functions in Euclidian spaces if the set of constraints is a Riemannian manifold and the objective function is quasiconvex in this manifold.

Papa Quiroz, E. A.; Quispe, E. M.; Oliveira, P. Roberto

2008-05-01

348

A Biological Gradient Descent for Prediction Through a Combination of STDP and Homeostatic Plasticity.  

PubMed

Identifying, formalizing, and combining biological mechanisms that implement known brain functions, such as prediction, is a main aspect of research in theoretical neuroscience. In this letter, the mechanisms of spike-timing-dependent plasticity and homeostatic plasticity, combined in an original mathematical formalism, are shown to shape recurrent neural networks into predictors. Following a rigorous mathematical treatment, we prove that they implement the online gradient descent of a distance between the network activity and its stimuli. The convergence to an equilibrium, where the network can spontaneously reproduce or predict its stimuli, does not suffer from bifurcation issues usually encountered in learning in recurrent neural networks. PMID:24001342

Galtier, Mathieu N; Wainrib, Gilles

2013-09-03

349

Cohomological descent theory for a morphism of stacks and for equivariant derived categories  

SciTech Connect

In the paper, we find necessary and sufficient conditions under which, if X{yields}S is a morphism of algebraic varieties (or, in a more general case, of stacks), the derived category of S can be recovered by using the tools of descent theory from the derived category of X. We show that for an action of a linearly reductive algebraic group G on a scheme X this result implies the equivalence of the derived category of G-equivariant sheaves on X and the category of objects in the derived category of sheaves on X with a given action of G on each object. Bibliography: 18 titles.

Elagin, Alexei D [A. A. Kharkevich Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-04-30

350

Adaptive wavefront correction using a VLSI implementation of the parallel gradient descent algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adaptive laser beam focusing system using a 127 channel liquid crystal phase modulator is presented. The controller for the system is a circuit built with prototype VLSI chips that implement the stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm. The controller is driven by a scalar laser beam quality metric and can run at the rate of 150 kHz. The system performance is characterized and a secondary control loop manipulating one of the algorithm parameters is experimentally investigated. The performance of the system is reported and performance improvements obtained by using the recent history of the beam quality metric to control an algorithm parameter is demonstrated.

Carhart, Gary W.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Cohen, Marc H.; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Edwards, R. Timothy

1999-11-01

351

Evaluation of 3 Methods of Bladder Irrigation to Treat Bacteriuria in Persons With Neurogenic Bladder  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: We conducted a randomized, double-blind comparison of twice daily bladder irrigation using 1 of 3 different solutions in community-residing persons with neurogenic bladder who used indwelling catheters to evaluate efficacy in treatment of bacteriuria. Methods: Eighty-nine persons with bacteriuria were randomized to irrigate their bladders twice daily for 8 weeks with 30 mL of (a) sterile saline, (b) acetic acid, or (c) neomycin-polymyxin solution. Urinalysis, cultures, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed at baseline and weeks 2, 4, and 8 to determine the extent to which each of the solutions affected numbers and types of bacteria, urinary pH, urinary leukocytes, and generation of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Results: Bladder irrigation was well tolerated with the exception of 3 participants who had bladder spasms. None of the 3 irrigants had a detectable effect on the degree of bacteriuria or pyuria in 52 persons who completed the study protocol. A significant increase in urinary pH occurred in all 3 groups. No significant development of resistance to oral antimicrobials beyond what was observed at baseline was detected. Conclusions: Bladder irrigation was generally well tolerated for 8 weeks. No advantages were detected for neomycin-polymyxin or acetic acid over saline in terms of reducing the urinary bacterial load and inflammation. We cannot recommend bladder irrigation as a means of treatment for bacteriuria in persons with neurogenic bladder.

Waites, Ken B; Canupp, Kay C; Roper, James F; Camp, Susan M; Chen, Yuying

2006-01-01

352

Reproducibility of the bladder shape and bladder shape changes during filling  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of high precision radiotherapy to the bladder region is limited by bladder motion and volume changes. In the near future, we plan to begin treatment delivery of bladder cancer patients with the acquisition of a cone beam CT image on which the complete bladder will be semi-automatically localized. Subsequently, a bladder shape model that was developed in a previous study will be used for bladder localization and for the prediction of shape changes in the time interval between acquisition and beam delivery. For such predictions, knowledge about urinary inflow rate is required. Therefore, a series of MR images was acquired over 1 h with time intervals of 10 min for 18 healthy volunteers. To gain insight in the reproducibility of the bladder shape over longer periods of time, two additional MRI series were recorded for 10 of the volunteers. To a good approximation, the bladder volume increased linearly in time for all individuals. Despite receiving drinking instructions, we found a large variation in the inflow rate between individuals, ranging from 2.1 to 15 cc/min (mean value: 9{+-}3 cc/min). In contrast, the intravolunteer variation was much smaller, with a mean standard deviation (SD) of 0.4 cc/min. The inflow rate was linearly correlated with age (negative slope). To study the reproducibility of the bladder shape, we compared bladder shapes of equal volume. For all individuals, the caudal part of the bladder was the most reproducible (variations<0.3 cm in all cases). The cranial and posterior parts of the bladder was much less reproducible, with local SD values up to {approx}1.2 cm for bladders with a volume of 200 cc. These large long-term variations were primarily caused by changes in position and filling of the small bowel and rectum. However, for short time intervals, the rectal filling was (nearly) constant. Therefore, the reproducibility of urinary inflow, combined with the previously developed shape model gives us an excellent tool to predict short-term shape changes. We intend to use this tool for further improvement of image-guided radiotherapy for bladder cancer patients.

Lotz, Heidi T.; Herk, Marcel van; Betgen, Anja; Pos, Floris; Lebesque, Joos V.; Remeijer, Peter [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2005-08-15

353

Studying the Effect of Adaptive Momentum in Improving the Accuracy of Gradient Descent Back Propagation Algorithm on Classification Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite being widely used in the practical problems around the world, Gradient Descent Back-propagation algorithm comes with problems like slow convergence and convergence to local minima. Previous researchers have suggested certain modifications to improve the convergence in gradient Descent Back-propagation algorithm such as careful selection of input weights and biases, learning rate, momentum, network topology, activation function and value for 'gain' in the activation function. This research proposed an algorithm for improving the working performance of back-propagation algorithm which is 'Gradient Descent with Adaptive Momentum (GDAM)' by keeping the gain value fixed during all network trials. The performance of GDAM is compared with 'Gradient Descent with fixed Momentum (GDM)' and 'Gradient Descent Method with Adaptive Gain (GDM-AG)'. The learning rate is fixed to 0.4 and maximum epochs are set to 3000 while sigmoid activation function is used for the experimentation. The results show that GDAM is a better approach than previous methods with an accuracy ratio of 1.0 for classification problems like Wine Quality, Mushroom and Thyroid disease.

Rehman, Muhammad Zubair; Nawi, Nazri Mohd.

354

Influence of spinal cord injury on the morphology of bladder afferent and efferent neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe micturition dysfunction can occur following spinal cord injury (SCI) due to abnormal contractions of the urethral sphincter during bladder contractions (bladder\\/sphincter dyssynergia). This causes urinary retention, bladder overdistension, and increases the workload of the bladder leading to hypertrophy of the bladder muscle. Bladder hypertrophy induced by urethral outlet ligation in rats is accompanied by enlargement of both the afferent

M. N. Kruse; L. A. Bray; W. C. de Groat

1995-01-01

355

Head and neck vascular anatomy.  

PubMed

Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography provide excellent vascular images; however, every radiologist interpreting routine cross-sectional imaging of the head and neck must recognize normal and abnormal vascular structures. Knowledge of the normal cross-sectional appearance of vessels can help to define spacial anatomy and provide for recognition of abnormal vessels. Intracranially, the major arterial branches of the Circle of Willis are routinely visualized on MR and CT, as are the dural venous sinuses and major tributaries to the deep and superficial venous system. Using a combination of CT and MR images, we demonstrate the normal cross-sectional vascular anatomy of the head and neck and the important anatomic relationships key to accurate imaging analysis. PMID:9449756

Johnson, M H

1998-02-01

356

Relationship between Schistosomiasis and Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma of the urinary bladder is the most common malignancy in the Middle East and parts of Africa where schistosomiasis is a widespread problem. Much evidence supports the association between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer: this includes the geographical correlation between the two conditions, the distinctive patterns of gender and age at diagnosis, the clinicopathological identity of schistosome-associated bladder cancer, and extensive evidence in experimentally infected animals. Multiple factors have been suggested as causative agents in schistosome-associated bladder carcinogenesis. Of these, N-nitroso compounds appear to be of particular importance since they were found at high levels in the urine of patients with schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Various strains of bacteria that can mediate nitrosation reactions leading to the formation of N-nitrosamines have been identified in the urine of subjects with schistosomiasis at higher intensities of infection than in normal subjects. In experimental schistosomiasis, the activities of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes are increased soon after infection but are reduced again during the later chronic stages of the disease. Not only could this prolong the period of exposure to activated N-nitrosamines, but also inflammatory cells, sitmulated as a result of the infection, may induce the endogenous synthesis of N-nitrosamines as well as generating oxygen radicals. Higher than normal levels of host cell DNA damage are therefore anticipated, and they have indeed been observed in the case of alkylation damage, together with an inefficiency in the capacity of relevant enzymes to repair this damaged DNA. In experimental schistosomiasis, it was also found that endogenous levels of host cell DNA damage were related to the intensity of infection. All of these factors could contribute to an increased risk of bladder cancer in patients with schistosomiasis, and in particular, the gene changes observed may have potential for use as biomarkers in the early detection of bladder cancer that may assist in alleviating the problem.

Mostafa, M. H.; Sheweita, S. A.; O'Connor, P. J.

1999-01-01

357

Neck Dissection Through a Facelift Incision  

PubMed Central

Obectives/Hypothesis To determine the feasibility and safety of neck dissection through a facelift incision. Study Design Prospective case series. Methods Cadavers and live subjects underwent neck dissection using a facelift incision with and without endoscopic assistance. In the live facelift neck dissection (FLND), the preoperative surgical indications, staging, adjuvant therapy, intraoperative technical procedure, pathology reports on lymph nodes, and short-term outcomes were reviewed. Results FLND was successfully performed in four cadavers and four live subjects, including selective (less than five neck levels removed) and comprehensive (levels I–V removed) neck dissections. All levels were accessible through this approach, with additional retraction required for levels I and IV. Endoscopic assistance was required in one neck dissection for adequate visualization. Short-term complications and number of excised lymph nodes were comparable to those from traditional neck dissection approaches. Conclusions Open neck dissection through a facelift incision is feasible and offers an alternate approach to traditional incisions. This can be performed without requiring robotic assistance and with endoscopic assistance only in certain cases. Endoscopic assistance can offer enhanced visualization of the surgical field and complement open direct approaches in neck dissection. Although FLND offers improved cosmetic outcomes when compared to those of traditional neck incisions, further study is required to determine its efficacy and indications.

Melvin, Thuy-Anh N.; Eliades, Steven J.; Ha, Patrick K.; Fakhry, Carole; Saunders, John M.; Califano, Joseph A.; Blanco, Ray G. F.

2013-01-01

358

Management for Prostate Cancer Treatment Related Posterior Urethral and Bladder Neck Stenosis With Stents  

PubMed Central

Purpose Prostate cancer treatment has the potential to lead to posterior urethral stricture. These strictures are sometimes recalcitrant to dilation and urethrotomy alone. We present our experience with the Urolume® stent for prostate cancer treatment related stricture. Materials and Methods A total of 38 men with posterior urethral stricture secondary to prostate cancer treatment were treated with Urolume stenting. Stents were placed in all men after aggressive urethrotomy over the entire stricture. A successfully managed stricture was defined as open and stable for greater than 6 months after any necessary secondary procedures. Results The initial success rate was 47%. After a total of 31 secondary procedures in 19 men, including additional stent placement in 8 (18%), the final success rate was 89% at a mean ± SD followup of 2.3 ± 2.5 years. Four cases (11%) in which treatment failed ultimately requiring urinary diversion (3) or salvage prostatectomy (1). Incontinence was noted in 30 men (82%), of whom 19 (63%) received an artificial urinary sphincter a mean of 7.2 ± 2.4 months after the stent. Subanalysis revealed that irradiated men had longer strictures (3.6 vs 2.0 cm, p = 0.003) and a higher post-stent incontinence rate (96% vs 50%, p <0.001) than men who underwent prostatectomy alone but the initial failure rate was similar (54% vs 50%, p = 0.4). Conclusions Urolume stenting is a reasonable option for severe post-prostate cancer treatment stricture when patients are unwilling or unable to undergo open reconstructive surgery. Incontinence should be expected. The need for additional procedures is common and in some men may be required periodically for the lifetime of the stent.

Erickson, Bradley A.; McAninch, Jack W.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Washington, Samuel L.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

2013-01-01

359

Acid and stretch, but not capsaicin, are effective stimuli for ATP release in the porcine bladder mucosa: Are ASIC and TRPV1 receptors involved?  

PubMed

Stretch-evoked ATP release from the bladder mucosa is a key event in signaling bladder fullness. Our aim was to examine whether acid and capsaicin can also release ATP and to determine the receptors involved, using agonists and antagonists at TRPV1 and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). Strips of porcine bladder mucosa were exposed to acid, capsaicin or stretch. Strip tension was monitored. Bath fluid was collected for ATP measurement. Gene expression of ASICs and TRPV1 in porcine bladders was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Stretch stimulus (150% of original length) repeatedly and significantly increased ATP release to approximately 45 times basal release. Acid (pH 6.5, 6.0, 5.6) contracted mucosal strips and also increased ATP release up to 30-fold, without evidence of desensitization. Amiloride (0.3 ?M) reduced the acid-evoked ATP release by approximately 70%, while capsazepine (10 ?M) reduced acid-evoked ATP release at pH 6.0 and pH 5.6 (by 68% and 61%, respectively). Capsaicin (0.1-10 ?M) was ineffective in causing ATP release, and also failed to contract porcine mucosal or detrusor strips. Gene expression for ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and TRPV1 was seen in the lateral wall, dome, trigone and neck of both detrusor and mucosa. In conclusion, stretch and acid induce ATP release in the porcine bladder mucosa, but capsaicin is ineffective. The pig bladder is a well-known model for the human bladder, however these data suggest that it should be used with caution, particularly for TRPV1 related studies. PMID:22421400

Sadananda, Prajni; Kao, Felicity C L; Liu, Lu; Mansfield, Kylie J; Burcher, Elizabeth

2012-03-07

360

Design optimisation and flight validation of a stratospheric descent low cost probe in scientific balloon missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarises the activities conducted at CISAS - University of Padova in designing and optimising a low cost scientific probe to be used in earth atmospheric descents from balloon reached stratospheric altitudes of around 40 kilometre. As part of the collaboration with Italian Space Agency on HASI instrument for Huygens mission, University of Padova has been conducting for several years a scientific balloon launch activity from Italian Space Agency Stratospheric Balloon Launch base in Trapani Milo, Sicily. The expertise and know how achieved during these years have contributed to building a strong and confident engineering team able to cope with the different and challenging requirements of boomerang mode balloon missions, which range from thermal and mechanical environmental issues to electronics design, system integration and data handling. Design of the probe used in 2003 is here presented, focusing on mechanical, electronic, thermal and fluidodynamic optimisations conducted in order to increase available space for payloads, guarantee accessibility and maintainability of subsystems and improve performance during foreseen mission operations. Overview of the 2003 flight then presented underlying the successful operation of the system in acquiring its 84 sensor channels of 12 different scientific instruments , sampled during ascent, drift and descent phase.

Carlo Bettanini, C. B.; Giacomo Colombatti, G. C.; Francesco Angrilli, F. A.; Giannandrea Bianchini, G. B.; Enrico Flamini, E. F.

361

Factors associated with psychological distress among women of African descent at high risk for BRCA mutations.  

PubMed

Little is known about psychological distress among women of African descent who are at high risk for a BRCA mutation. This is a group for whom breast cancer risk reduction is critical due to the group's high rates of breast cancer mortality. Distress is important to consider as it may reduce the potential benefit of genetic counseling and negatively affect decision making related to risk reduction. The goals of the current study were to examine breast cancer-specific distress and depressive symptoms in women of African descent at who are at high risk for a BRCA mutation and to identify background factors associated with these outcomes. Participants were 148 high-risk African American and Caribbean women who were part of a larger study that offered participants BRCA counseling at no cost. Participants completed the Impact of Events Scale, which assessed breast cancer-specific distress, and the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, which assessed depressive symptoms. Results of analyses revealed that almost half of the sample achieved scores indicating high and clinically significant breast cancer-specific distress, while almost one-third had clinically significant depression scores. Results further showed that low income was significantly associated with cancer-specific distress, while having a cancer diagnosis was significantly associated with depressive symptoms. These results underscore the need for targeted psychological support throughout the genetic risk assessment process for this particular high-risk group. PMID:22736212

Cukier, Yael R; Thompson, Hayley S; Sussner, Katarina; Forman, Andrea; Jandorf, Lina; Edwards, Tiffany; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Schwartz, Marc D; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B

2012-06-27

362

[People of African descent in the region of the Americas and health equity].  

PubMed

The Region of the Americas and the Caribbean has a complex demographic profile from an ethnic and racial perspective. One of the largest groups is composed of persons of African descent, who in some countries, such as Brazil and the Dominican Republic, comprise 46 and 84% of the total population, respectively. Recent analyses of the statistics available in some countries of the Region show wide gaps in terms of living conditions and health in these communities, as well as gaps in access to health services. PAHO, through its Public Policy and Health Program, under the Division of Health and Human Development, supports sectorial efforts and those of civil organizations that aim to improve health conditions in this segment of the population, while taking into account their sociodemographic and cultural characteristics. This article briefly summarizes health conditions and access to health services in selected countries, as well as some aspects of the recent changes to the legislation in those countries. Finally, collaborative activities on the part of United Nations agencies and international financial institutions for the benefit of people of African descent and other ethnic minorities are described. PMID:12162849

Torres, Cristina

363

It's Others, Not the Police: Smoking, Reprimand, and Fines among Adults of Korean Descent in California  

PubMed Central

Objective This study assesses the association of immediate social and legal reprimand and current smoking status among Californians of Korean descent. Design Data were drawn from a population-based probability sample using a telephone survey conducted by bilingual, professional interviewers (N=2085). About 85.0% of eligible respondents completed interviews and 86.3% of participants preferred to be interviewed in Korean. Main Outcome Measure Smoking status was measured using CDC criteria, ever smoked 100 cigarettes and currently smoke every day or some days. Results and Conclusion Reports of immediate criticism by others in several settings was associated with non-smoking, but likelihood of immediate legal penalties was unrelated. Participants were far less likely to expect legal than social sanction. Results were replicated after controlling for reinforcers of smoking and ecologically relevant variables including models of smoking, primary group social support for smoking, acculturation, gender, acculturation by gender (male) interaction, age, and education. It may be efficacious to target public health interventions encouraging appropriate social sanctions of smoking in public among persons of Korean descent, and to encourage strict enforcement of legal penalties for smoking in public places.

Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Ayers, John W.; Hughes, Suzanne; Kang, Sunny

2009-01-01

364

SLiMDisc: short, linear motif discovery, correcting for common evolutionary descent  

PubMed Central

Many important interactions of proteins are facilitated by short, linear motifs (SLiMs) within a protein's primary sequence. Our aim was to establish robust methods for discovering putative functional motifs. The strongest evidence for such motifs is obtained when the same motifs occur in unrelated proteins, evolving by convergence. In practise, searches for such motifs are often swamped by motifs shared in related proteins that are identical by descent. Prediction of motifs among sets of biologically related proteins, including those both with and without detectable similarity, were made using the TEIRESIAS algorithm. The number of motif occurrences arising through common evolutionary descent were normalized based on treatment of BLAST local alignments. Motifs were ranked according to a score derived from the product of the normalized number of occurrences and the information content. The method was shown to significantly outperform methods that do not discount evolutionary relatedness, when applied to known SLiMs from a subset of the eukaryotic linear motif (ELM) database. An implementation of Multiple Spanning Tree weighting outperformed two other weighting schemes, in a variety of settings.

Davey, Norman E.; Shields, Denis C.; Edwards, Richard J.

2006-01-01

365

Integrative Analysis of Cancer Prognosis Data With Multiple Subtypes Using Regularized Gradient Descent.  

PubMed

In cancer research, high-throughput profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for genes/single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prognosis. Despite seemingly significant differences, different subtypes of the same cancer (or different types of cancers) may share common susceptibility genes. In this study, we analyze prognosis data on multiple subtypes of the same cancer but note that the proposed approach is directly applicable to the analysis of data on multiple types of cancers. We describe the genetic basis of multiple subtypes using the heterogeneity model that allows overlapping but different sets of susceptibility genes/SNPs for different subtypes. An accelerated failure time (AFT) model is adopted to describe prognosis. We develop a regularized gradient descent approach that conducts gene-level analysis and identifies genes that contain important SNPs associated with prognosis. The proposed approach belongs to the family of gradient descent approaches, is intuitively reasonable, and has affordable computational cost. Simulation study shows that when prognosis-associated SNPs are clustered in a small number of genes, the proposed approach outperforms alternatives with significantly more true positives and fewer false positives. We analyze an NHL (non-Hodgkin lymphoma) prognosis study with SNP measurements and identify genes associated with the three major subtypes of NHL, namely, DLBCL, FL, and CLL/SLL. The proposed approach identifies genes different from using alternative approaches and has the best prediction performance. PMID:22851516

Ma, Shuangge; Zhang, Yawei; Huang, Jian; Huang, Yuan; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Tongzhang

2012-07-31

366

Effects of the Phoenix Lander descent thruster plume on the Martian surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exhaust plume of Phoenix's hydrazine monopropellant pulsed descent thrusters will impact the surface of Mars during its descent and landing phase in the northern polar region. Experimental and computational studies have been performed to characterize the chemical compounds in the thruster exhausts. No undecomposed hydrazine is observed above the instrument detection limit of 0.2%. Forty-five percent ammonia is measured in the exhaust at steady state. Water vapor is observed at a level of 0.25%, consistent with fuel purity analysis results. Moreover, the dynamic interactions of the thruster plumes with the ground have been studied. Large pressure overshoots are produced at the ground during the ramp-up and ramp-down phases of the duty cycle of Phoenix's pulsed engines. These pressure overshoots are superimposed on the 10 Hz quasi-steady ground pressure perturbations with amplitude of about 5 kPa (at touchdown altitude) and have a maximum amplitude of about 20-40 kPa. A theoretical explanation for the physics that causes these pressure perturbations is briefly described in this article. The potential for soil erosion and uplifting at the landing site is also discussed. The objectives of the research described in this article are to provide empirical and theoretical data for the Phoenix Science Team to mitigate any potential problem. The data will also be used to ensure proper interpretation of the results from on-board scientific instrumentation when Martian soil samples are analyzed.

Plemmons, D. H.; Mehta, M.; Clark, B. C.; Kounaves, S. P.; Peach, L. L.; Renno, N. O.; Tamppari, L.; Young, S. M. M.

2008-08-01

367

Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels  

DOEpatents

A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

Mitlitsky, Fred (1125 Canton Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Myers, Blake (4650 Almond Cir., Livermore, CA 94550); Magnotta, Frank (1206 Bacon Way, Lafayette, CA 94549)

1998-01-01

368

Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels  

DOEpatents

A lightweight, low permeability liner is described for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using tori spherical or near tori spherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film sealed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life. 19 figs.

Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Magnotta, F.

1998-08-25

369

Workshop on Optimal Care for the Neurogenic Bladder Patient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several ideas are presented in this pilot project concerning the development of a workshop demonstrating optimal care of neurogenic bladder patients. Interdisciplinary consideration was given to all aspects of persons suffering neurogenic bladder ailments...

S. Boyarsjy L. G. Gottsch R. A. Gregg

1968-01-01

370

Evaluating Prescription Drugs Used to Treat Overactive Bladder  

MedlinePLUS

... oxybutynin in patients with an overactive bladder. British Journal of Urology, 1998. 81(6): p. 801-10. ... prior anticholinergic treatment for overactive bladder. International Urogynecology Journal, 2006. 17(5): p. 502-11. 4. Anderson, ...

371

[Assessment of contracted bladder following intravesical instillation of BCG (Japan)].  

PubMed

We assessed a situation concerning contracted bladder following intravesical instillation of BCG(Japan), to investigate how the disease could be prevented. Between March 1997 and June 2010, we selected 20 patients with clinically or pathologically confirmed contracted bladder to participate in the study. The incidence of contracted bladder tended to be higher for patients who had received more than 5 doses of BCG. Repeated severe bladder irritation caused by intravesical BCG instillation was suggested to be the major factor leading to contracted bladder. To prevent the onset of contracted bladder and its progression resulting in total cystectomy, BCG instillation should be discontinued in patients who have received the instillation many times and have developed persistent severe bladder irritation with significantly reduced bladder capacity. It is necessary to consider the administration of antituberculotic and steroid therapy for these patients quickly. PMID:23152019

Nagayama, Tadao; Koyama, Akira; Okoshi, Keiko; Oshima, Katsutoshi

2012-11-01

372

What I Need to Know about Bladder Control for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... is called the urethra. Ring-like muscles called sphincters help keep the urethra closed so urine doesn' ... Pelvic floor muscles hold the bladder in place. Sphincter muscles keep the urethra closed. The bladder muscle ...

373

Bladder Control Problems in Women: Lifestyle Strategies for Relief  

MedlinePLUS

... health /bladder-control-problem /WO00122 ">Bladder control problems in women: Lifestyle strategies for relief Guidelines for sites linking to MayoClinic.com Advertisement Mayo Clinic Store Check out these best-sellers ...

374

Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare primary urologic disease, poorly responsive to radiation or chemotherapy as first-line treatment. Case Report: After trans-urethral resection of the bladder, a 62-year-old woman was diagnosed with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder. An upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy and a colonoscopy excluded any primary site of origin from those gastro-intestinal tracts. After whole-body CT staging scans, an anterior pelvectomy was performed, confirming a mucinous adenocarcinoma of the bladder, with no extra-vesical spreading. Some onco markers were sampled before surgery, and Ca 19-9 showed very high values, with a decreasing trend after pelvectomy. Six month after surgery, bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection was performed because of bilateral palpable masses – histologic examination showed a single metastatic node. The patient also received external radiotherapy of the inguinal area. Twenty-eight months after pelvectomy, the patient appears healthy. Conclusions: Early radical surgery with or without adjuvant radio-chemo-therapy appears to be the best option for mucinous adenocarcinoma of the bladder, and a good outcome is likely to be related with a confined disease and small tumor size. In addition, Ca 19-9 sampling proves to be useful in tumors that produce markers.

Baffigo, Giulio; Delicato, Giampaolo; Bianchi, Daniele; Signore, Stefano; Tartaglia, Edoardo; Corvese, Francesco; Perla, Alessandro; Marino, Bonaventura; Santeusanio, Giuseppe; Ferdinandi, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

375

[Concomitant radiochemotherapy in invasive bladder tumors].  

PubMed

The treatment of muscle-invasive bladder tumors currently consists of radical cystectomy with lymph node dissection. A combined radio-chemotherapy treatment could allow to preserve a functional bladder without greater risk of relapse. We present a review of 38 available publications found in the international literature concerning this combination treatment. Only 9 publications with appropriate analysis were considered, including 552 evaluable patients, 44% of whom were suitable for radical cystectomy. Cisplatin is the most often used drug. The protocols are variable and generally well tolerated. The median follow-up time is 36 months. The immediate complete response rates vary between 48 and 92% and the overall survival rate is between 42 and 82%. The survival with bladder preservation is between 38 and 75%, while the disease-free survival with bladder preservation is between 33 and 53%. 11% of the initially complete responders had a superficial recurrence and 30% had distant metastases. There is no proven advantage of neoadjuvant polychemotherapy, there is no consensus for the therapeutical protocol, the follow-up protocol remains to be defined, and the function of the preserved bladder has to be studied. Only a prospective randomized trial could precise the role of this experimental technique compared to surgery despite the major evident difficulties (ethical and practical) to conduct such a trial. PMID:9238165

Mottet, N; Di Palma, M; Avances, C; Costa, P; Jardin, A; Misset, J L

1997-04-01

376

Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups. However, the prevalence of CVD and related risk factors vary among ethnic groups. Methods This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of vascular disease, principally coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and related risk factors among populations of Sub-Sahara African descent (henceforth, African descent) in comparison with the European populations in Europe. Results Compared with European populations, populations of African descent have an increased risk of stroke, whereas CHD is less common. They also have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than European populations. Obesity is highly prevalent, but smoking rate is lower among African descent women. Older people of African descent have more favourable lipid profile and dietary habits than their European counterparts. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations of African descent. The rate of physical activity differs between European countries. Dutch African-Suriname men and women are less physically active than the White-Dutch whereas British African women are more physically active than women in the general population. Literature on psychosocial stress shows inconsistent results. Conclusion Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among African populations, which may explain their high rate of stroke in Europe. The relatively low rate of CHD may be explained by the low rates of other risk factors including a more favourable lipid profile and the low prevalence of smoking. The risk factors are changing, and on the whole, getting worse especially among African women. Cohort studies and clinical trials are therefore needed among these groups to determine the relative contribution of vascular risk factors, and to help guide the prevention efforts. There is a clear need for intervention studies among these populations in Europe.

Agyemang, Charles; Addo, Juliet; Bhopal, Raj; de Graft Aikins, Ama; Stronks, Karien

2009-01-01

377

Delayed Presentation of Traumatic Intraperitoneal Rupture of Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Blunt injury of the urinary bladder is well known and usually associates pelvic fractures. Isolated bladder injury is a rare condition and on the other hand, delayed bladder perforation is an extremely rare entity. Herein, we described an unusual case of isolated delayed intraperitoneal bladder rupture that occurred on the third post injury day in a young male in the absence of free intraperitoneal fluid and pelvic fracture. The diagnostic workup, course and the need for surgical repair of the injury is presented.

Alhamzawi, Hazim H.; Abdelrahman, Husham M.; Abdelrahman, Khalid M.; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Latifi, Rifat

2012-01-01

378

Superselective neck dissection: rationale, indications, and results.  

PubMed

It has been established that an appropriately indicated selective neck dissection can achieve the same oncologic results as more extensive dissections. An even more modified selective neck dissection, termed superselective neck dissection, involves the compartmental removal of the fibrofatty tissue contents within the defined boundaries of two or fewer contiguous neck levels. Evidence from retrospective studies suggests that superselective neck dissection (SSND) is oncologically sound for two indications: elective treatment of the clinically N0 neck and salvage treatment of persistent lymph node disease after chemoradiotherapy. While there is broader support for the former scenario, evidence that SSND may constitute optimal treatment in the latter is in conformity with the trend toward developing surgical techniques that provide better functional outcomes without compromising efficacy. PMID:23321797

Suárez, Carlos; Rodrigo, Juan P; Robbins, K Thomas; Paleri, Vinidh; Silver, Carl E; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Medina, Jesus E; Hamoir, Marc; Sanabria, Alvaro; Mondin, Vanni; Takes, Robert P; Ferlito, Alfio

2013-01-16

379

Whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy of transitional cell carcinoma rat bladder tumors using intravesically administered hypericin.  

PubMed

Whole-bladder wall photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for carcinoma in situ (CIS) and diffuse premalignant changes of the bladder. After the results of our clinical studies showing that intravesical hypericin selectively accumulates in superficial bladder tumors, we investigated the hypericin-PDT efficacy in an AY-27 orthotopic transitional cell carcinoma rat bladder tumor model. After the instillation of hypericin (30 microM, 2 hr) in the bladder, tumors were irradiated (25-50 mW/cm 6-48 J/cm(2)) using 595 nm laser light. Data demonstrate that light doses of 12-48 J/cm(2) resulted in selective PDT-induced urothelial tumor damage without damaging detrusor musculature. Histological assessment of bladder sections 2 days after PDT showed tumor destruction, with tumor cells shrinking and detaching from the bladder wall. There were tumor regrowth 1-3 weeks after treatment. The in vivo/in vitro clonogenic assay results revealed up to 98% of tumor cell kill by hypericin PDT. In conclusion, hypericin PDT can be used to safely induce a selective urothelial tumor damage without damaging detrusor musculature, when optimum hypericin concentration and light fluences are used. A small percentage (2-5%) of tumor cells that survive the photodynamic treatment resulting in tumor regrowth after a prolonged period of time is likely due to oxygen depletion during light irradiation. PMID:14506748

Kamuhabwa, Appolinary A R; Roskams, Tania; D'Hallewin, Marie-Ange; Baert, Luc; Van Poppel, Hein; de Witte, Peter A M

2003-11-10

380

Estimation of Pairwise Identity by Descent From Dense Genetic Marker Data in a Population Sample of Haplotypes  

PubMed Central

I present a new approach for calculating probabilities of identity by descent for pairs of haplotypes. The approach is based on a joint hidden Markov model for haplotype frequencies and identity by descent (IBD). This model allows for linkage disequilibrium, and the method can be applied to very dense marker data. The method has high power for detecting IBD tracts of genetic length of 1 cM, with the use of sufficiently dense markers. This enables detection of pairwise IBD between haplotypes from individuals whose most recent common ancestor lived up to 50 generations ago.

Browning, Sharon R.

2008-01-01

381

Chronic neck pain: How to approach treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic neck pain is a common patient complaint. Despite its frequency as a clinical problem, there are few evidence-based\\u000a studies that document efficacy of therapies for neck pain. The treatment of this symptom is based primarily on clinical experience.\\u000a Preventing the development of chronic neck pain can be achieved by modification of the work environment with chairs that encourage\\u000a proper

David G. Borenstein

2007-01-01

382

Immunology of Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The immune system plays a key role in the ­progression of head and neck cancer. A greater understanding of the important contribution\\u000a of the dysregulation and evasion of the immune system in the development and evolution of head and neck cancers should lead\\u000a to improved therapies and outcomes for patients. Head and neck cancer evades the host immune system through

Steve C. Lee; Robert L. Ferris

383

Surgical treatment of the atonic bladder (“vesical cap”)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As demonstrated in animal experiments and in five patients with atonic bladders, “vesical cap” surgery causally solves detrusor impairment by functionally reinforcing it with a vital muscle layer from an ileal seromuscular flap. All other genuine components of the bladder are kept intact, which is very beneficial for bladder function.

J. Mrfiz; J. Michek; M. Sutory; P. Zerhau

1992-01-01

384

Profiling the Evolution of Human Metastatic Bladder Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary metastases frequently develop in patients with aggressive bladder cancer, yet investigation of this process at the molecular level suffers from the poor availability of human metastatic tumor tissue and the absence of suitable animal models. To address this, we developed progressively more metastatic human bladder cancer cell lines and an in vivo bladder-cancer lung-metastasis model, and we successfully used

Brian E. Nicholson; Henry F. Frierson; Mark R. Conaway; Jabed M. Seraj; Michael A. Harding; Garret M. Hampton; Dan Theodorescu

2004-01-01

385

Computational simulation modelling of bioreactor configurations for regenerating human bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate a bioreactor suitable for human bladder regeneration. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamic tools. The thickness of the bladder scaffold was 3 mm, similar to the human bladder, and overall hold-up volume within the spherical shape scaffold was 755 ml. All simulations were performed using (i) Brinkman equation on porous regions using

Seokwon Pok; Dhananjay V. Dhane; Sundararajan V. Madihally

2011-01-01

386

Prevalence and burden of overactive bladder in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: the National Overactive BLadder Evaluation (NOBLE) Program was initiated to better understand the prevalence and burden of overactive bladder in a broad spectrum of the United States population. Objective: to estimate the prevalence of overactive bladder with and without urge incontinence in the US, assess variation in prevalence by sex and other factors, and measure individual burden. Design: US

W. F. Stewart; J. Van Rooyen; G. Cundiff; P. Abrams; A. Herzog; R. Corey; T. Hunt; A. Wein

2003-01-01

387

Chromosomal aberrations in early-stage bilharzial bladder cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilharzial bladder cancer is one of the most common types of malignancy in both men and women in several developing countries including Egypt. It has several unique clinical, epidemiological, and histological characteristics, suggesting that it is an entity distinct from bladder cancer seen in Western countries. Genetic alterations in bilharzial-related bladder cancer have been studied infrequently, especially in the advanced

Magdy Sayed Aly; Hussein Mostafa Khaled

2002-01-01

388

Bladder stone due to accidentally intravesically inserted intrauterine device.  

PubMed

Bladder stones occasionally develop due to foreign body in the bladder. A 45-year-old woman, who had had an intrauterine contraceptive device inserted 10 years earlier, presented with dysuria, frequency and voiding difficulty with suprapubic pain. The intrauterine device was found in the bladder with stone formation and was removed by cystoscopic procedure. PMID:22573181

Chae, Ji Yun; Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Park, Hong Seok; Moon, Du Geon; Oh, Mi Mi

2012-05-10

389

Bladder cancer: the molecular progression to invasive disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigations have given a clearer insight into the genetic progression of bladder cancer. In this review we identify the clinical courses of bladder cancer, review the basic concepts of carcinogenesis, and focus on the specific cytogenetic and molecular alterations observed in bladder cancer. Progression models to superficial and invasive disease are discussed.

A. R. Simoneau; P. A. Jones

1994-01-01

390

[Clinical study of rapid bladder filling agent].  

PubMed

The Rapid Bladder Filling Agent (RBFA) was prepared with Polyporus umbellatus, Poria cocos and Furosemidum. The urinary volume and the best filling time of urinary bladder were observed with ultrasonography in 211 cases. The result showed that in experimental group the largest urinary volume in unit time was more than that in control group and shortest filling time was shorter (30.35 +/- 7.9 min) in comparing with control group (145.6 +/- 50.1 min). Clinical observation for 1180 cases proved that the RBFA had the effects of raising the quality of ultrasonographic examination and escalating work efficiency, shortening the waiting time of patients and relieving patients' suffering from excessive filling of urinary bladder. The effective time of the RBFA was fast but the duration was short. The RBFA had no adverse effect. PMID:1298469

Li, Q D; Wang, S Q; Sun, C M

1992-09-01

391

Epidermal growth factor receptor and bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is a disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality. The two main forms of treatment for this disease include radical cystectomy and radical radiotherapy, but five year survival after treatment remains low at 40%. Many clinical and molecular risk factors have been shown to be associated with poor prognosis. One such factor is the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed by many epithelial tumours, including bladder cancers. There are several methods of inhibiting the activity of EGFR and it may be that use of an anti-EGFR therapy, in combination with more conventional treatment, provides a method of improving the prognosis for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. PMID:12415079

Colquhoun, A J; Mellon, J K

2002-10-01

392

Human papillomavirus and schistosomiasis associated bladder cancer.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To determine the human papillomavirus DNA status of schistosomal associated squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in South Africa. METHODS: Twenty five archival samples of bladder squamous cell carcinoma associated with Schistosoma haematobium were subjected to non-isotopic in situ hybridisation and the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of human papillomavirus 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, and 33 genotypes. RESULTS: Using these two techniques, none of the 25 cases was shown to harbour human papillomavirus DNA. CONCLUSIONS: This study abrogates the role of human papillomavirus in schistosoma associated bladder carcinoma in South Africa. It is suggested that other factors including nitrosamine exposure, p53 mutation, and additional unknown chromosomal events play a major role in the development of this parasite associated neoplasm.

Cooper, K.; Haffajee, Z.; Taylor, L.

1997-01-01

393

Benign glomus tumor of the urinary bladder.  

PubMed

Glomus tumors are rare, mesenchymal neoplasms of adulthood, which occur in both the sexes with equal frequency. Most of these tumors are benign, but some cases with atypical/malignant behavior have been reported. They most often occur in the extremities, typically in the subungual region of the fingers, and rarely involve the internal organs. We report the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with hematuria. The cystoscopy showed a polypoid lesion of the anterior wall of the bladder, which was diagnosed on biopsy as a benign glomus tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of benign glomus tumor of the bladder described in the literature. This report widens the spectrum of the differential diagnoses of bladder neoplasms. PMID:23808474

Tripodi, Sergio Antonio; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Mourmouras, Vasileios; Barbanti, Gabriele; Colecchia, Maurizio; Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella

2013-07-01

394

[Palliation of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder].  

PubMed

Bladder cancer is a disease that occurs late in life (> 50% of the patients in Germany are 70 years or older). The general condition of the patients is frequently reduced, aggressive therapy of advanced tumours stages is therefore often contra-indicated. In this situation, palliative treatment is of extraordinary importance. Strangely enough, controlled prospective trials are lacking. They are, however, necessary in order to establish, or improve, standards of palliative treatment. Several smaller studies proved the potential of bladder irrigation and the embolisation of A. iliaca to stop bleeding from the tumourous bladder. If the tumour causes urinary retention, a permanent ureteral stent may in certain cases help to guarantee adequate flow. The assessment of palliative radiotherapy is not possible due to small numbers of (and highly selected) patients. It may have a potential in cases of hematuria, pain, and incontinence. New anti-tumour agents (e.g. Gemcitabine) may turn out to be a tolerable and effective palliative. PMID:11760355

Weissbach, L

2001-11-01

395

Infections of the deep neck spaces.  

PubMed

Deep neck infections (DNI) have a propensity to spread rapidly along the interconnected deep neck spaces and compromise the airway, cervical vessels and spinal canal. The value of imaging lies in delineating the anatomical extent of the disease process, identifying the source of infection and detecting complications. Its role in the identification and drainage of abscesses is well known. This paper pictorially illustrates infections of important deep neck spaces. The merits and drawbacks of imaging modalities used for assessment of DNI, the relevant anatomy and the possible sources of infection of each deep neck space are discussed. Certain imaging features that alter the management of DNI have been highlighted. PMID:22584969

Hedge, Amogh; Mohan, Suyash; Lim, Winston Eng Hoe

2012-05-01

396

Leiomyosarcoma in urinary bladder after cyclophosphamide therapy for retinoblastoma and review of bladder sarcomas.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of a leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder after chemotherapy for retinoblastoma and the results of a review of the published reports of bladder sarcomas. A 22-year-old man presented with hematuria and was found to have a mass in his urinary bladder on computed tomography. Transurethral resection of the mass revealed a leiomyosarcoma. The patient underwent radical cystectomy and an ileal conduit was created. The final pathologic examination confirmed high-grade leiomyosarcoma. Prospective randomized combination trials similar to the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study in the pediatric population are necessary to better understand and manage these potentially curable sarcomas. PMID:12100953

Parekh, Dipen J; Jung, Charlie; O'Conner, Jeffery; Dutta, Sajal; Smith, Ernest R

2002-07-01

397

Relationship of beliefs, epistemology, and alternate conceptions to college student understanding of evolution and common descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps < .05). The relationship between gender and test scores was also examined with men demonstrating statistically significantly higher scores on the common descent component than women did. Narrative data included interviews and branching/grouping activities. Four alternate conceptions about common descent were identified. Even after instruction, 16 out of 39 students thought humans evolved from the chimpanzee. Additionally, students grouped the 8 primate skulls into just 2 categories: human and animals. Other misconceptions included a nonevolutionary use of the term, related, and the use of naive organizers leading to incorrect conclusions about the relatedness of certain organisms, such as a connection between fish and whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d) function, and (e) complexity.

Miller, Joyce Catherine

398

ExoMars-2016 Descent Module EDL Demonstration Mission - Approach to Aerothermodynamic Database Building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ExoMars Entry Demonstrator Module (EDM) for the 2016 mission is conceived as a MER-like blunt 70 deg forebody of 2.4 m diameter and presents a relevant opportunity for Europe to acquire knowledge on Martian entry, descent and landing technologies. On the other end, the development program requires a major effort in order to properly assess the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic behaviour in order to build suitable databases for the sizing of the vehicle Thermal Protection System and to verify the stability of the capsule throughout the entry descent and landing phases. Exomars 2016 is currently entering Phase C/D with a capsule shape and size consolidated through the preliminary design evolutions preformed in Phase B and B extension. This design evolution involved a modification of the entry flight domains, with a change from an orbital release and retrograde entry of a 3.4 m, 1200 kg Descent Module hosting a Rover, to a direct posigrade hyperbolic entry of a 2.4 m, 600 kg Entry Demonstrator Module hosting a static Surface Platform for surface science. Current flight domain covers a range of inertial entry velocities of 5.9·6.0 km/s, with entry flight paths from - 11.4 deg to -12.7 deg allowing an entry corridor of 1.3 deg in the Meridiani area baseline landing site. This paper gives an overview of the mission profile as well as of the experimental program carried on during Phases B aiming to the characterisation of the key features and mastering of the challenges for entry phase from aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic standpoint. The general approach for testing, test rebuilding and extrapolation to flight is thoroughly described in several papers [1]-[10]. The key challenges relate to characterisation of transitional flow aerodynamics, turbulent transition during entry, rough wall heating of Norcoat Liege ablator, hot CO2 radiative heating, hypersonic static stability, supersonic dynamic stability, front shield separation interference aerodynamics. Last but not the least, Exomars EDM will allow in-flight measurement of convective and radiative fluxes on the rear cone area, as well as pressure and temperature measurements on both front shield and rear cone. The entry demonstration provided by EDM will therefore allow a thorough verification of the real aerothermodynamics with relevant feedback from post- flight analyses for the verification of Earth based experimental and analytical prediction methods.

Bayle, O.; Portigliotti, S.; Venditto, P.; Walpot, L.; Beck, J.; Tran, P.; Gülhan, A.

2011-08-01

399

Early Sequential Changes in Bladder Function after Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Awake Sprague-Dawley Rats: Focus on the Decompensated Bladder  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated bladder function, with special focus on initial functional changes, by objective report of decompensated bladder according to the percentage of residual urine volume to bladder capacity in awake, obstructed rats. Materials and Methods Thirty rats were randomly subjected to sham operations (n=10) or partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO, n=20). Cystometric investigations were performed without anesthesia 1 or 2 weeks after BOO surgery. To reduce the influence of confounding factors in awake cystometry, we used simultaneous recordings of intravesical and intraabdominal pressures. Decompensated bladder was defined as the bladder with more than 20% of residual volume compared with bladder capacity. Results Compared with that in sham animals, basal pressure was elevated in both BOO groups. Threshold pressure was higher in the 2 week BOO (p<0.01) group. Compliance was decreased in the 1 week BOO group (p<0.01) and increased in the 2 week BOO group (p<0.001). Bladder capacity was not increased in the 1 week BOO group, but was increased in the 2 week BOO group (p<0.01). Decompensation was found in 62.5% of the 1 week BOO group and in 33.3% of the 2 week BOO group. Conclusions From the earlier phase, the bladders exhibited serial changes in pressure and volume parameters, and decompensated bladders defined by the percentage of residual volume to bladder capacity could be seen. During the later phase, there was an increasing tendency of compensated bladders, accompanied by the bladders being enlarged and more compliant.

Kang, Yong-Jin; Jin, Long-Hu; Park, Chang-Shin; Shin, Hwa-Yeon; Yoon, Sang-Min

2011-01-01

400

A magnetic mass within the bladder.  

PubMed

A search of the literature finds that there have been many case reports documenting a wide array of objects found within the bladder, ranging from magnets and paper clips to telephone and aluminum wire. The goal of treatment is to remove the object quickly, using the least invasive method possible. Therefore, the ideal treatment is removal through endoscopic means; however, in some cases, the size, mobility and shape of the foreign body can prevent its removal endoscopically and more invasive means must be employed. We present a case of a patient who inserted 150 magnetic spherical beads into his bladder. PMID:24128840

Alyami, Fahad; Himmelman, Jeffrey; Whelan, Thomas

2013-10-01

401

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 with Bladder Involvement  

PubMed Central

Neurofibromatosis type 1 is an autosomal dominant transmitted disease with various clinical manifestations. The bladder is the most commonly affected organ in the genitourinary system. The malignant transformation of the disease is rare, and unlike malign tumors, the treatment option for benign disease is usually conservative. The size and localization of the mass determine the symptoms, most of which are usually not specific. In this paper, we aim to present a 15-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 with bladder involvement. The clinical presentation and treatment options of this disease are discussed in the light of the literature.

Ure, Iyimser; Gurocak, Serhat; Gonul, Ipek Isik; Sozen, Sinan; Deniz, Nuri

2013-01-01

402

A short history of bladder exstrophy.  

PubMed

The first description of bladder exstrophy was noted on Assyrian tablets nearly 4000 years ago. Since then various papers has been published with an increasing rate. According to the available historical data, almost all operative techniques had been described during the last two centuries. We believe, the pioneers put a lot of work in this field and passed on their theoretic knowledge and surgical experience to the current era. Our duty is keep this treasure and add the benefits of recent new technological developments for the future care of our bladder exstrophy patients. PMID:21453847

Buyukunal, Cenk S N; Gearhart, John P

2011-05-01

403

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of gall bladder.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is well known for its propensity to metastasize to unusual sites. Metastasis to the gall bladder (GB) has been reported in the literature rarely. We herein report an interesting case of metastatic RCC, which presented with cholecystitis. Gall bladder is a rare site of metastasis of RCC. Polypoid lesions of the GB in patients who have a synchronous or a prior history of RCC should be considered as metastatic lesions. It needs to be differentiated from primary clear cell carcinoma of the GB with the help of immunohistochemistry. PMID:23354202

Jain, Deepali; Chopra, Prem

2013-01-01

404

Effects of curcumin on bladder cancer cells and development of urothelial tumors in a rat bladder carcinogenesis model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcumin, a well-known dietary pigment derived from Curcuma longa, inhibited growth of several types of malignant cells both in vivo and in vitro. Its effects on cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in human bladder cancer cell lines and intravesical activity in a rat bladder tumor model were studied. Exposure of human bladder cancer cells to curcumin resulted in

Binqiang Tian; Zhiping Wang; Yingmei Zhao; Degui Wang; Yonggang Li; Li Ma; Xiaoming Li; Jing Li; Nan Xiao; Junqiang Tian; Ronald Rodriguez

2008-01-01

405

Is There a Role for Bladder Preserving Strategies in the Treatment of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single modality bladder sparing therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, including transurethral resection, systemic chemotherapy or radiotherapy have been demonstrated to result in insufficient local control of the primary tumor as well as decreased long-term survival of the patients when compared to radical cystectomy. Therefore, multimodality treatment protocols that aim at bladder preservation and involve all of the aforementioned approaches have

M. Kuczyk; Levent Turkeri; Peter Hammerer; Vincent Ravery

2003-01-01

406

Reduced-gravity Testing of The Huygens Probe Ssp Tiltmeter and Hasi Accelerometer Sensors and Their Role In Reconstruction of The Probe Descent Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the ESA Huygens Probe arrives at Titan in 2005, measurements taken during and after the descent through the atmosphere are likely to revolutionise our under- standing of SaturnSs most enigmatic moon. The accurate atmospheric profiling of Titan from these measurements will require knowledge of the probe descent trajectory and in some cases attitude history, whilst certain atmospheric information (e.g.

N. Ghafoor; J. Zarnecki

2002-01-01

407

A New Conceptual Model of Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

Study Design Iterative discussion and consensus by a multidisciplinary task force scientific secretariat reviewing scientific evidence on neck pain and its associated disorders. Objective To provide an integrated model for linking the epidemiology of neck pain with its management and consequences, and to help organize and interpret existing knowledge, and to highlight gaps in the current literature. Summary of Background Data The wide variability of scientific and clinical approaches to neck pain described in the literature requires a unified conceptual model for appropriate interpretation of the research evidence. Methods The 12-member Scientific Secretariat of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders critically reviewed and eventually accepted as scientifically admissible a total of 552 scientific papers. The group met face-to-face on 18 occasions and had frequent additional telephone conference meetings over a 6-year period to discuss and interpret this literature and to agree on a conceptual model, which would accommodate findings. Models and definitions published in the scientific literature were discussed and repeatedly modified until the model and case definitions presented here were finally approved by the group. Results Our new conceptual model is centered on the person with neck pain or who is at risk for neck pain. Neck pain is viewed as an episodic occurrence over a lifetime with variable recovery between episodes. The model outlines the options available to individuals who are dealing with neck pain, along with factors that determine options, choices, and consequences. The short- and long-term impacts of neck pain are also considered. Finally, the model includes a 5-axis classification of neck pain studies based on how subjects were recruited into each study. Conclusion The Scientific Secretariat found the conceptual model helpful in interpreting the available scientific evidence. We believe it can assist people with neck pain, researchers, clinicians, and policy makers in framing their questions and decisions.

Hurwitz, Eric L.; Carroll, Linda J.; Haldeman, Scott; Cote, Pierre; Carragee, Eugene J.; Peloso, Paul M.; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Holm, Lena W.; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Nordin, Margareta; Cassidy, J. David

2008-01-01

408

Stochastic parallel gradient descent based adaptive optics used for a high contrast imaging coronagraph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adaptive optics (AO) system based on a stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is proposed to reduce the speckle noises in the optical system of a stellar coronagraph in order to further improve the contrast. The principle of the SPGD algorithm is described briefly and a metric suitable for point source imaging optimization is given. The feasibility and good performance of the SPGD algorithm is demonstrated by an experimental system featured with a 140-actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shark wavefront sensor. Then the SPGD based AO is applied to a liquid crystal array (LCA) based coronagraph to improve the contrast. The LCA can modulate the incoming light to generate a pupil apodization mask of any pattern. A circular stepped pattern is used in our preliminary experiment and the image contrast shows improvement from 10-3 to 10-4.5 at an angular distance of 2?/D after being corrected by SPGD based AO.

Dong, Bing; Ren, De-Qing; Zhang, Xi

2011-08-01

409

The nonlinear steepest descent approach to the singular asymptotics of the second Painlevé transcendent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the real-valued solutions of the second Painlevé equation on the real line. The two-parameter family of the solutions having singular asymptotics as x?+? or/and x?-? is studied with the help of the Deift-Zhou nonlinear steepest descent method. Explicit evaluation in terms of trigonometric functions of the (singular) leading orders of the asymptotics is carried out and the corresponding connection formulae obtained. A novel methodological feature is the appearance of the “soliton” type Riemann-Hilbert problem in the course of the implementation of the Deift-Zhou scheme for the Riemann-Hilbert problem corresponding to the second Painlevé equation within the Riemann-Hilbert isomonodromy approach. The result of the paper reproduces previously known formulae derived by Kapaev via the original isomonodromy technique.

Bothner, Thomas; Its, Alexander

2012-12-01

410

Genetic drift. Descent, lineage, and pedigree of the Trojans in Homer's Iliad.  

PubMed

Homer's Iliad, is an epic poem that describes the last 70 days of the Trojan War, which was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans. Here, the descent, lineage, and the pedigree of the Trojans are presented. In the Illiad, they are said to have originated from Zeus. Beginning with him, the Trojan pedigree comprised 17 men in 8 generations with Dardanus, founder of Dardania in the second generation; Tros, King of the Trojans in the fourth generation; and the two heroes Hector and Aeneas in the eighth generation. In the seventh generation, Priam, as King of the Trojans, had a huge family, including 50 sons: 19 children with his wife Hecabe, other sons with many different wives, and some daughters as well. Hector, the first born, became leader of the Trojans. Hector's brother, Paris, in abducting Helen of Sparta, the wife of King Menelaus, caused the Trojan War to break out. PMID:17985360

Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, Euterpe

2007-12-15

411

The persistence of solar activity indicators and the descent of the Sun into Maunder Minimum conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent low and prolonged minimum of the solar cycle, along with the slow growth in activity of the new cycle, has led to suggestions that the Sun is entering a Grand Solar Minimum (GSMi), potentially as deep as the Maunder Minimum (MM). This raises questions about the persistence and predictability of solar activity. We study the autocorrelation functions and predictability R2L(t) of solar indices, particularly group sunspot number RG and heliospheric modulation potential ? for which we have data during the descent into the MM. For RG and ?, R2L(t) > 0.5 for times into the future of t ? 4 and ? 3 solar cycles, respectively: sufficient to allow prediction of a GSMi onset. The lower predictability of sunspot number RZ is discussed. The current declines in peak and mean RG are the largest since the onset of the MM and exceed those around 1800 which failed to initiate a GSMi.

Lockwood, M.; Owens, M. J.; Barnard, L.; Davis, C. J.; Steinhilber, F.

2011-11-01

412

FAST rate allocation through steepest descent for JPEG2000 video transmission.  

PubMed

This work addresses the transmission of pre-encoded JPEG2000 video within a video-on-demand scenario. The primary requirement for the rate allocation algorithm deployed in the server is to match the real-time processing demands of the application. Scalability in terms of complexity must be provided to supply a valid solution by a given instant of time. The FAst rate allocation through STeepest descent (FAST) method introduced in this work selects an initial (and possibly poor) solution, and iteratively improves it until time is exhausted or the algorithm finishes execution. Experimental results suggest that FAST commonly achieves solutions close to the global optimum while employing very few computational resources. PMID:20875972

Aulí-Llinŕs, Francesc; Bilgin, Ali; Marcellin, Michael W

2010-09-23

413

Two-beam coherent addition using the stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coherent addition of multiple beams is one of the great challenges in terms of large-scale lasers. Implementing the capability to generate ultra-high-focus power intensity on the focal plane places stringent requirements on the control of each beam's pointing and intra-beam phasing. The random beam-to-beam phase jumps, mainly induced by the catoptric elements' rapid vibration, should be eliminated to realize phase locking. A two-way laser beam's coherent combination test bed is designed to test the capabilities of phase-locking system. The results show that the closed-loop feedback system achieved a high contrast of the in-phase intensity pattern at the receiving plane after correcting for piston and tip/tilt errors between two adjacent laser beams by the stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm.

Yang, Yuchuan; Tan, Bitao; Lizi, Chen; Zhang, Junwei; Wang, Xiao

2013-01-01

414

Adaptive wavefront correction: a hybrid VLSI/optical system implementing parallel stochastic gradient descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a hybrid VLSI/Optical system for real-time adaptive phase distortion compensation. On-chip CMOS circuitry performs parallel perturbative stochastic gradient descent/ascent of an externally supplied optimization metric, e.g. a direct measure of image or laser beam quality. Our custom mixed-mode analog-digital VLSI system can directly control several adaptive optics elements such as micro-electromechanical mirrors, liquid crystal spatial light modulators and tilt mirrors. Here we use a tilt mirror and a MEMS mirror with 37 control parameters each of which is adjusted independently and in parallel to manipulate the wavefront phase profile. We present experimental results demonstrating successful operation for an adaptive laser- beam transmitter system. The parallel VLSI architecture is extendable to higher resolutions (N equals 103 to 106 parameters).

Cohen, Marc H.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Carhart, Gary W.; Cauwenberghs, Gert

1999-12-01

415

Two-dimensional descent through a compressible atmosphere: Sequential deceleration of an unpowered load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equations, based on Rayleigh's drag law valid for high Reynolds number, are derived for two-dimensional motion through a compressible atmosphere in isentropic equilibrium, such as characterizes the Earth's troposphere. Solutions yield horizontal and vertical displacement, velocity, and acceleration as a function of altitude and ground-level temperature. An exact analytical solution to the equations linearized in the aero-thermodynamic parameter is given; in general the equations must be solved numerically. The theory, applied to the unpowered fall of a large aircraft stabilized to flat descent by symmetrical, sequential deployment of horizontal and vertical decelerators, shows that such an aircraft can be brought down with mean peak deployment and impact decelerations below 10g.

Silverman, M. P.

2010-02-01

416

Planning fuel-conservative descents with or without time constraints using a small programmable calculator: algorithm development and flight test results  

SciTech Connect

A simplified flight-management descent algorithm, programmed on a small programmable calculator, was developed and flight tested. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight-management descent algorithm is described. The results of flight tests flown with a T-39A (Sabreliner) airplane are presented.

Knox, C.E.

1983-03-01

417

Modeling of Identity-by-Descent Processes Along a Chromosome Between Haplotypes and Their Genotyped Ancestors  

PubMed Central

Identity-by-descent probabilities are important for many applications in genetics. Here we propose a method for modeling the transmission of the haplotypes from the closest genotyped relatives along an entire chromosome. The method relies on a hidden Markov model where hidden states correspond to the set of all possible origins of a haplotype within a given pedigree. Initial state probabilities are estimated from average genetic contribution of each origin to the modeled haplotype while transition probabilities are computed from recombination probabilities and pedigree relationships between the modeled haplotype and the various possible origins. The method was tested on three simulated scenarios based on real data sets from dairy cattle, Arabidopsis thaliana, and maize. The mean identity-by-descent probabilities estimated for the truly inherited parental chromosome ranged from 0.94 to 0.98 according to the design and the marker density. The lowest values were observed in regions close to crossing over or where the method was not able to discriminate between several origins due to their similarity. It is shown that the estimated probabilities were correctly calibrated. For marker imputation (or QTL allele prediction for fine mapping or genomic selection), the method was efficient, with 3.75% allelic imputation error rates on a dairy cattle data set with a low marker density map (1 SNP/Mb). The method should prove useful for situations we are facing now in experimental designs and in plant and animal breeding, where founders are genotyped with relatively high markers densities and last generation(s) genotyped with a lower-density panel.

Druet, Tom; Farnir, Frederic Paul

2011-01-01

418

Healthcare Workplace Conversations on Race and the Perspectives of Physicians of African Descent  

PubMed Central

Background Although experts recommend that healthcare organizations create forums for honest dialogue about race, there is little insight into the physician perspectives that may influence these conversations across the healthcare workforce. Objective To identify the range of perspectives that might contribute to workplace silence on race and affect participation in race-related conversations within healthcare settings. Design In-person, in-depth, racially concordant qualitative interviews. Participants Twenty-five physicians of African descent practicing in the 6 New England states. Approach Line-by-line independent coding and group negotiated consensus to develop codes structure using constant comparative method. Main Results Five themes characterize perspectives of participating physicians of African descent that potentially influence race-related conversations at work: 1) Perceived race-related healthcare experiences shape how participating physicians view healthcare organizations and their professional identities prior to any formal medical training; 2) Protecting racial/ethnic minority patients from healthcare discrimination is a top priority for participating physicians; 3) Participating physicians often rely on external support systems for race-related issues, rather than support systems inside the organization; 4) Participating physicians perceive differences between their interpretations of potentially offensive race-related work experiences and their non-minority colleagues’ interpretations of the same experiences; and 5) Participating physicians are uncomfortable voicing race-related concerns at work. Conclusions Creating a healthcare work environment that successfully supports diversity is as important as recruiting diversity across the workforce. Developing constructive ways to discuss race and race relations among colleagues in the workplace is a key step towards creating a supportive environment for employees and patients from all backgrounds.

Curry, Leslie A.; Berg, David; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

2008-01-01

419

Close proximity spacecraft maneuvers near irregularly shaped small bodies: Hovering, translation, and descent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently there has been significant interest in sending spacecraft to small-bodies in our solar system, such as asteroids, comets, and small planetary satellites, for the purpose of scientific study. It is believed that the composition of these bodies, unchanged for billions of years, can aid in understanding the formative period of our solar system. However, missions to small-bodies are difficult from a dynamical standpoint, complicated by the irregular shape and gravitational potential of the small-body, strong perturbations from solar radiation pressure and third body gravity, and significant uncertainty in the small-body parameters. This dissertation studies the spacecraft maneuvers required to enable a sampling mission in this unique dynamical environment, including station-keeping (hovering), translation, and descent. The bulk of this work studies hovering maneuvers, where equilibrium is created at an arbitrary position by using thrusters to null the nominal spacecraft acceleration. Contributions include a numerical study of previous results on the stability of hovering, a definition of the zero-velocity surface that exists in the vicinity of hovering spacecraft (for time-invariant dynamics), and a dead-band hovering controller design that ensures the trajectory is bounded within a prescribed region. It is found that bounded hovering near the surface of a small-body can often be achieved using dead-band control on only one direction of motion; altitude measurements alone are often sufficient to implement this control. A constant thrust strategy for translation and descent maneuvers appropriate for autonomous implementation is also presented and shown to accurately complete maneuvers in the vicinity of the initial position. Sensitivity analysis studies the effects of parameter uncertainty on these maneuvers. The theory presented within is supported throughout with numerical analysis (software tools are described within) and test cases using models of real small-bodies.

Broschart, Stephen B.

420

"Arubaito," or Short-Term Working Abroad in Japan: A Case Study of Brazilian University Students of Japanese Descent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|International migration between Japan and Brazil dates back to 1908, when the first group of Japanese migrated to Brazil. However, in the 1980s, a reverse flow occurred, as thousands of Brazilians of Japanese descent traveled to Japan to work in manufacturing and construction factories ("dekasegi" workers). Japanese Brazilians up until the third…

Sasaki, Lindsey

2012-01-01

421

Multiple Marginality and Urban Education: Community and School Socialization Among Low-Income Mexican-Descent Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article conceptualizes the crucial social and developmental features impacting Mexican-descent youth and adolescents in low-income communities in southern California. All youth in these neighborhoods must confront and come to grips with the many environmental, socioeconomic, racial, and cultural forces they confront. However, it is the poorest of the poor and most culturally conflicted individuals and groups that must command

Gilberto Q. Conchas; James Diego Vigil

2010-01-01

422

Multiple Marginality and Urban Education: Community and School Socialization among Low-Income Mexican-Descent Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article conceptualizes the crucial social and developmental features impacting Mexican-descent youth and adolescents in low-income communities in southern California. All youth in these neighborhoods must confront and come to grips with the many environmental, socioeconomic, racial, and cultural forces they confront. However, it is the…

Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Vigil, James Diego

2010-01-01

423

Family Relations and the Adjustment of Young Children of Mexican Descent: Do Family Cultural Values Moderate These Associations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of family cultural values as moderators of the association between family relations and the adjustment of young children. Fifty-five families of Mexican descent with young children enrolled in Head Start programs in the Southwest participated. Mothers provided information about closeness of the mother-child…

Gamble, Wendy C.; Modry-Mandell, Kerri

2008-01-01

424

Descent motions of the Huygens probe as measured by the Surface Science Package (SSP): Turbulent evidence for a cloud layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Huygens probe underwent vigorous short-period motions during its parachute descent through the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan in January 2005, at least some of which were excited by the Titan environment. Several sensors in the Huygens Surface Science Package (SSP) detect these motions, indicating the transition to the smaller stabilizer parachute, the changing probe spin rate, aerodynamic buffeting, and

Ralph D. Lorenz; John C. Zarnecki; Martin C. Towner; Mark R. Leese; Andrew J. Ball; Brijen Hathi; Axel Hagermann; Nadeem A. L. Ghafoor

2007-01-01

425

Development, Design, and Flight Test Evaluation of a Continuous Descent Approach Procedure for Nighttime Operation at Louisville International Airport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and flight test of a Continuous Descent Approach (CDA) procedure for regular nighttime operation at Louisville International Airport are described in this report. Results of the analyses of aircraft and FMS performance indicate that this procedure is operationally feasible and that aircraft may be vectored and spaced at intermediate altitudes where aircraft are outside the terminal area without

John-Paul Clarke; Dannie Bennett; Kevin Elmer; Jeffery Firth; Robert Hilb; Nhut Ho; Sarah Johnson; Stuart Lau; Liling Ren; David Senechal; Natalia Sizov; Robert Slattery; Kwok-On Tong; James Walton; Andrew Willgruber; David Williams

426

Asian Body Image Satisfaction: Ethnic and Gender Differences across Chinese, Indo-Asian, and European-Descent Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extends previous research on ethnocultural differences in body image satisfaction by comparing two distinct Asian groups with a European descent group (N = 1471). Canadian undergraduates completed self-report body image measures. Participants descended from China reported the lowest levels of body satisfaction. Body satisfaction of participants descended from Indo-Asia was the next lowest, significantly lower than their European

M. ALEXIS KENNEDY; LAURA TEMPLETON; ANITA GANDHI; BORIS B. GORZALKA

2004-01-01

427

Scattering from multiple objects buried beneath two-dimensional random rough surface using the steepest descent fast multipole method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalized formulations are presented to analyze the electric field scattered from multiple penetrable shallow objects buried beneath two-dimensional random rough surfaces. These objects could have different materials, shapes, or orientations. In addition, their separation distance may range from a fraction of a wavelength to several wavelengths. The fast algorithm, steepest descent fast multipole method (SDFMM), is used to compute the

Magda El-Shenawee

2003-01-01

428

Mathematics and Middle School Students of Mexican Descent: The Effects of Thematically Integrated Instruction. Research Report No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the effects of thematically integrated mathematics instruction on achievement, attitudes, and motivation in mathematics among middle school students of Mexican descent. A school-university collaborative effort led to the development and testing of a thematic approach undertaken as a means of contextualizing instruction for…

Henderson, Ronald W.; Landesman, Edward M.

429

Comparison of single seed descent and anther culture-derived lines of three single crosses of rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution parameters (mean, variance, skewness and kurtosis) of 12 quantitative traits were evaluated for inbred lines generated through single seed descent (SSD) and anther culture (AC) of two japonica x japonica hybrids and one japonica x indica hybrid of rice. For most of the traits the data were normally distributed, and the means and variances were found to be identical

B. Courtois; Accepted September

1993-01-01

430

Comparing agronomic performance of breeding populations derived from anther culture and single-seed descent in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anther culture and single-seed descent are two important breed- ing methods to speed up the breeding cycle. In the Korean program, anther culture plays an important role in rice breed- ing. It is possible to reliably obtain large numbers of inbred lines for selection from anther culture of japonica crosses, al- though there are still some problems in indica genotypes.

H. P. Moon; K. H. Kang; I. S. Choi; O. Y. Jeong; H. C. Hong; S. H. Choi; H. C. Choi

431

Making Sense of Women of African Descent's Place in the Politics of (Urban) Space through the Vehicle of Popular Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is a brief account and argument for using Built Environment Education Workshops (BEEWs) as a data collection method. The research is based on women of African descent and the connections among their social practices, the spaces that generate them and are generated by them, and the language they use to mediate and/or negotiate those…

Amoo-Adare, Epifania

432

A new reduced-bias multichannel gradient-based steepest descent algorithm for ill-conditioned correlation matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The convergence speed of the steepest descent (SD) adaptive algorithm is determined by the eigenvalue spread of the correlation matrix. When the correlation matrix is singular, the algorithm will take a long time to converge. The problem can be regularized by adding a small constant to the diagonal, but this comes at the price of introducing bias. This paper introduces

Byung-Jae Kwak; Nah-Oak Song; A. E. Yagle

2000-01-01

433

Ultrasound bladder vibrometry method for measuring viscoelasticity of the bladder wall.  

PubMed

Increase in bladder stiffness could be associated with various pathophysiologic conditions. Measuring bladder viscoelasticity could be an important step towards understanding various disease processes and improving patient care. Here, we introduce ultrasound bladder vibrometry (UBV), a novel method for rapid and noninvasive measurement of bladder wall viscoelasticity. UBV uses acoustic radiation force to excite mechanical waves in the bladder wall and track the motion using ultrasound pulse-echo techniques. Fourier domain analysis of the tissue motion versus time is used to calculate the phase velocity dispersion (change of phase velocity as a function of frequency). The measured phase velocity dispersion is fit with the antisymmetric Lamb wave model to estimate tissue elasticity and viscosity. We used finite element analysis of viscoelastic plate deformation to investigate the effect of curvature on Lamb wave dispersion and showed that the effects of curvature are negligible. The feasibility of the UBV technique was demonstrated in ex vivo and in vivo settings. Elasticity and viscosity of excised pig at various filling volumes (V) and pressures (p) were found to be µ1 = 9.6 kPa and µ2 = 0.2 Pa s (V = 187 ml and p = 8.6 mmHg), µ1 = 48.7 kPa and µ2 = 3.5 Pa s (V = 267 ml and p = 17.6 mmHg), and µ1 = 106.9 kPa and µ2 = 1.5 Pa s (V = 327 ml and p = 27.6 mmHg) respectively. Transabdominal measurements in an anesthetized pig found values of bladder elasticity µ1 = 26.1 kPa and viscosity µ2 = 0.9 Pa s and demonstrate the ability of UBV to perform in vivo measurements. The results presented in this paper introduce a novel technique for measuring mechanical properties of the bladder and lay the foundation for further investigation of the effects of pathology on bladder viscoelasticity. PMID:23552842

Nenadic, Ivan Z; Qiang, Bo; Urban, Matthew W; de Araujo Vasconcelo, Luiz Henrique; Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F; Fatemi, Mostafa

2013-04-03

434

Refractory overactive bladder after urethrolysis for bladder outlet obstruction: management with sacral neuromodulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refractory overactive bladder (OAB) after urethrolysis for iatrogenic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is a clinical dilemma\\u000a without established guidelines for management. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) in the management\\u000a of this complex patient population. Retrospective review identified eight patients who underwent SNM secondary to refractory\\u000a OAB after urethrolysis or sling take-down. SNM was performed with

Jonathan S. Starkman; John W. Duffy; Christopher E. Wolter; Melissa R. Kaufman; Harriette M. Scarpero; Roger R. Dmochowski

2008-01-01

435

Ultrasound bladder vibrometry method for measuring viscoelasticity of the bladder wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increase in bladder stiffness could be associated with various pathophysiologic conditions. Measuring bladder viscoelasticity could be an important step towards understanding various disease processes and improving patient care. Here, we introduce ultrasound bladder vibrometry (UBV), a novel method for rapid and noninvasive measurement of bladder wall viscoelasticity. UBV uses acoustic radiation force to excite mechanical waves in the bladder wall and track the motion using ultrasound pulse-echo techniques. Fourier domain analysis of the tissue motion versus time is used to calculate the phase velocity dispersion (change of phase velocity as a function of frequency). The measured phase velocity dispersion is fit with the antisymmetric Lamb wave model to estimate tissue elasticity and viscosity. We used finite element analysis of viscoelastic plate deformation to investigate the effect of curvature on Lamb wave dispersion and showed that the effects of curvature are negligible. The feasibility of the UBV technique was demonstrated in ex vivo and in vivo settings. Elasticity and viscosity of excised pig at various filling volumes (V) and pressures (p) were found to be µ1 = 9.6 kPa and µ2 = 0.2 Pa s (V = 187 ml and p = 8.6 mmHg), µ1 = 48.7 kPa and µ2 = 3.5 Pa s (V = 267 ml and p = 17.6 mmHg), and µ1 = 106.9 kPa and µ2 = 1.5 Pa s (V = 327 ml and p = 27.6 mmHg) respectively. Transabdominal measurements in an anesthetized pig found values of bladder elasticity µ1 = 26.1 kPa and viscosity µ2 = 0.9 Pa s and demonstrate the ability of UBV to perform in vivo measurements. The results presented in this paper introduce a novel technique for measuring mechanical properties of the bladder and lay the foundation for further investigation of the effects of pathology on bladder viscoelasticity.

Nenadic, Ivan Z.; Qiang, Bo; Urban, Matthew W.; Henrique de Araujo Vasconcelo, Luiz; Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F.; Fatemi, Mostafa

2013-04-01

436

DISR imaging and the geometry of the descent of the Huygens probe within Titan's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) provided 376 images during the descent to Titan and 224 images after landing. Images of the surface had scales between 150 m/pixel and 0.4 mm/pixel, all of which we assembled into a mosaic. The analysis of the surface and haze features in these images and of other data gave tight constraints on the geometry of the descent, particularly the trajectory, the tip and tilt, and the rotation of the Huygens probe. Huygens moved on average in the direction of 2? north of east from 145 to 50 km altitude, turning to 5? south of east between 30 and 20 km altitude, before turning back to east. At 6.5 km altitude, it reversed to WNW, before reversing back to SE at 0.7 km altitude. At first, Huygens was tilting slowly by up to 15? as expected for a descent through layers of changing wind speeds. As the winds calmed, tilts decreased. Tilts were approximately retrieved throughout the main-parachute phase, but only for 160 specific times afterwards. Average swing rates were 5?/s at high and low altitudes, but 13?/s between 110 and 30 km altitude. Maximum swing rates were often above 40?/s, far above the design limit of 6?/s, but they caused problems only for a single component of DISR, the Sun Sensor. The excitation of such high swing rates on the stabilizer parachute is not fully understood. Before the parachute exchange, the rotational rate of Huygens smoothly approached the expected equilibrium value of 3 rotations per vertical kilometer, although clockwise instead of counterclockwise. Starting at 40 s after the parachute exchange until landing, Huygens rotated erratically. Long-term averages of the rotational rate varied between 2.0 and 4.5 rotations/km. On time scales shorter than a minute, some 100 strong rotational accelerations or decelerations created azimuthal irregularities of up to 180?, which caused DISR to take most exposures at random azimuths instead of pre-selected azimuths. Nevertheless, we reconstructed the azimuths throughout the 360 rotations during the descent and for each of some 3500 DISR exposures with a typical accuracy near 2?. Within seconds after landing, the parachute moved into the field of view of one of the spectrometers. The observed light curve indicated a motion of the parachute of 0.3 m/s toward the SSE. DISR images indicated that the probe did not penetrate into the surface, assuming a level ground. This impact of Huygens must have occurred on major rocks or some elevated area. The unexpected raised height increases ice-rock sizes by 40% with respect to estimations made in 2005 [Tomasko, M.G., Archinal, B., Becker, T., Bézard, B., Bushroe, M., Combes, M., Cook, D., Coustenis, A., de Bergh, C., Dafoe, L.E., Doose, L., Douté, S., Eibl, A., Engel, S., Gliem, F., Grieger, B., Holso, K., Howington-Kraus, E., Karkoschka, E., Keller, H.U., Kirk, R., Kramm, R., Küppers, M., Lanagan, P., Lellouch, E., Lemmon, M., Lunine, J., McFarlane, E., Moores, J., Prout, G.M., Rizk, B., Rosiek, M., Rueffer, P., Schröder, S.E., Schmitt, B., See, C., Smith, P., Soderblom, L., Thomas, N., West, R., 2005. Rain, winds and haze during the Huygens probe's descent to Titan's surface. Nature 438, 765-778]. During the 70-min surface phase, the tilt of Huygens was 3?, changing by a small fraction of a degree. The apparent horizon looking south to SSW from the landing site was 1- 2? above the theoretical horizon, sloping by 1? up to the left (east). Our best guess puts the horizon as a 1-2 m high hill in 30-50 m distance. We detected the refraction from warm, rising air bubbles above our illuminated spot. Bright, elongated, cm-sized objects appear occasionally on the surface. If real, they could be rain drop splashes or fluffy particles blown across Titan's surface.

Karkoschka, Erich; Tomasko, Martin G.; Doose, Lyn R.; See, Chuck; McFarlane, Elisabeth A.; Schröder, Stefan E.; Rizk, Bashar

2007-11-01

437

Neurohypophyseal Hormone-Sensitive Adenyl Cyclase of Toad Urinary Bladder*  

PubMed Central

An adenyl cyclase preparation derived from epithelial cells of the urinary bladder of the toad, Bufo marinus, is described. This cyclase preparation is specifically stimulated by neurohypophyseal hormones and various synthetic analogs which evoke a hydroosmotic response in the intact bladder. The relative stimulatory effects of these compounds have been compared on the cyclase preparation and in the intact bladder. The peptide concentrations required for half-maximal stimulation (affinity) in the cell-free and intact systems were parallel; however the magnitude of stimulation produced by saturating concentrations of peptides did not correlate. Furthermore, it was found that peptide analogs which inhibit the hydroosmotic effect of [8-arginine]-vasopressin on the intact bladder also inhibit the stimulation of the toad bladder cyclase preparation by vasopressin. Prostaglandin E1, mercaptans, and disulfides, which inhibit the hormone-induced hydroosmotic response of the intact bladder, did not antagonize the stimulation of the toad bladder cyclase preparation by vasopressin.

Bar, Hans-Peter; Hechter, Oscar; Schwartz, Irving L.; Walter, Roderich

1970-01-01

438

Regenerative medicine strategies for treatment of neurogenic bladder  

PubMed Central

Neurogenic bladder is a general term encompassing various neurologic dysfunctions in the bladder and external urethral sphincter caused by damage or disease. Therapeutic management options fall into the categories of conservative, minimally invasive or surgical. The current standard for surgical management is bladder augmentation using intestinal segments. However, because intestinal tissue possesses different functional characteristics to bladder tissue, numerous complications can ensue. Regenerative medicine uses combinations of cells and/or biomaterials to encourage regeneration of healthy tissue and offers an alternative approach for the replacement of lost or deficient organs, including the bladder. Promising results using the principles of regenerative medicine have already been obtained in children with neurogenic bladder caused by myelomeningocele. Human clinical trials, governed by the US FDA, are ongoing in the USA in both children and adults to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of this technology for regenerating bladders. More studies are in progress and additional advances in this field can be anticipated.

Soler, Roberto; Fullhase, Claudius; Atala, Anthony

2009-01-01

439

Experimental bladder substitution using a biodegradable graft of natural tissue.  

PubMed

A controlled canine experimental study has been performed to test the application of a biodegradeable graft to vesical augmentation. The graft, after providing initial bladder enlargement, is progressively reabsorbed while serving as a foundation for the regeneration and healing of the layers of the bladder remnant. Follow-up studies at 1 year revealed no urinary infection, calculi, extravasation of urine, or rejection of the material. Normal bladder capacities were maintained throughout the study and the reconstructed bladders functioned normally. The biodegradable graft was equally successful when applied either to a histologically normal bladder remnant, or to a pathological bladder of intramural fibrosis. These results suggest that this material may be well suited to clinical bladder substitution in humans. PMID:649625

Novick, A C; Straffon, R A; Koshino, I; Banowsky, L H; Levin, H; Kambic, H

1978-03-01

440

Preventing head and neck injury.  

PubMed

A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport. PMID:15911597

McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P

2005-06-01

441

Gene Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mortality associated with head and neck cancer has remained largely unchanged for the past several decades despite advancements in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Gene therapy is a novel treatment approach that may potentially advance the treatment of genetic diseases, which include malignancies such as head and neck cancer. Multiple vector systems have been developed that facilitate the introduction of

Waleed M. Abuzeid; Daqing Li; Bert W. O’Malley Jr

2011-01-01

442

Anthropomorphic dummy neck modeling and injury considerations.  

PubMed

This study investigates the modeling of the Hybrid III dummy head and neck system and its response under impulsive loading. Two neck models were proposed, one rigid, one flexible; both give satisfactory head kinematics upon comparing to minisled test results. The flexible neck model provides a more detailed understanding of the Hybrid III neck structure behavior. It indicates that the Hybrid III neck has a torque response similar to a human neck but has higher shear response. During flexion whiplash, the torque at the occipital condyle reverses its direction at about 25 ms after impact. Since concussion may be related to the head angular acceleration, which reaches its peak value in the first 25 ms, it might be necessary to extend the existing human torque-rotation corridor to include the neck response in this region. For flexion whiplash impact, simulation results indicated that the neck injury threshold is reached before exceeding the head injury threshold as the impact velocity is increased. PMID:2930623

Deng, Y C

1989-02-01

443

X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

What It Is A neck X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to make images of the soft tissues in the neck. During the examination, an X-ray machine sends a beam of radiation through the ...

444

Neck organ of Artemia salina nauplii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina L.) to exist in a wide range of salinities results from an active excretion of sodium ions from the body into the external environment. Localization of NaCl in the neck organ suggests that this is the site of salt secretion. Ultrastructural studies support this view, the structure of the neck organ being

F. P. Conte; S. R. Hootman; P. J. Harris

1972-01-01

445

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Most head and neck cancers begin in the moist, mucus membranes lining the inside of the mouth, nose and throat. These membranes are made up of squamous cells and the head and neck cancers that grow in these cells are called squamous cell carcinomas.

446

49 CFR 572.33 - Neck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...lbs-ft by the âYâ axis moment sensor of the six axis neck transducer and Fx is...measured in lbs by the âXâ axis force sensor (Channel Class 600) of the six axis...lbs-ft by the âYâ axis moment sensor of the six axis neck transducer and Fx...

2011-10-01

447

Managing platysma bands in the aging neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author demonstrates his method of achieving optimal contour in the aging neck. Primary features of the technique are horizontal cuts in the vertical bands of the platysma muscle combined with a corset Z-plasty medial suture and bilateral rein plication suture. This combined procedure, which effectively lifts the sagging neck, is useful in treating vertical platysma bands in primary cases,

José Guerrerosantos

2008-01-01

448

[Webbed neck associated with other developmental defects].  

PubMed

In patients with a combination of congenital webbed deformity of the neck with the Klippel-Weil syndrome, muscular hyperplasia of lateral masses of the neck and latent cerebrospinal hernias favorable cosmetic results could be obtained by an operative dissection of excessive soft tissues including the muscular and cyst ectopic cerebrospinal membrane tissues. PMID:3314087

Sokolovski?, A M; Koren', M N

1987-05-01

449

Aural cholesteatoma with upper neck extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 32-year-old Chinese woman who presented with a large cholesteatoma in her right upper neck after a history of ipsilateral chronic otitis media since childhood. Intraoperatively, a cholesteatoma was found in the mastoid cavity, and the mass in her neck was attached to the mastoid cortex by a stalk. Direct erosion of the mastoid tip

Lihua Li; Jihao Ren

450

Public knowledge of Head and Neck Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies show 60% of patients with newly diagnosed Head & Neck Squamous Cell Cancer in Ireland, present with advanced disease. A poor level of knowledge and awareness among the public of Head & Neck Cancer, is an important consideration in the often delayed presentation for medical attention in many of these cases. Our study surveyed 200 members of the public

V Papanikolaou; IJ Keogh

451

Health impact of head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidimensional Head and Neck Quality of Life (HNQOL) instrument and a general health status measure were administered to 397 patients with head and neck cancer. Scores for the 4 domains of the HNQOL (communication, eating, pain, and emotional well-being) were calculated. Patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical characteristics, treatment data, disability status, and a global “overall bother” score were assessed. When

JEFFREY E. TERRELL; KINJAL NANAVATI; RAMON M. ESCLAMADO; CAROL R. BRADFORD; GREGORY T. WOLF

1999-01-01

452

Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs  

MedlinePLUS

... 5/2013 Symptoms and Signs Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck Cancer Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention Symptoms and ... or click “Next” at the bottom. People with head and neck cancer often experience the following symptoms or signs. Sometimes, ...

453

Dysphagia following head and neck cancer surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical resection of head and neck cancer results in predictable patterns of dysphagia and aspiration due to disruption of the anatomic structures of swallowing. Common procedures undertaken in the treatment of head and neck cancer include tracheostomy, glossectomy, mandibulectomy, surgery on the palate, total and partial laryngectomy, reconstruction of the pharynx and cervical esophagus, and surgery of the skull base.

Michael B. Kronenberger; Arlen D. Meyers

1994-01-01

454

Transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) as an optional treatment method on pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder.  

PubMed

Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder is rare. We have experienced a case of unexpected pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder in a 45-year-old female. An ultrasonographic, computed tomography scan and cystoscopic examination showed a submucosal bladder mass. After transurethral resection of bladder tumour was performed, the bladder mass was confirmed as pheochromocytoma by a pathologist. After surgery, the patient underwent a subsequent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and I(131)-methyliodobenzylguanidine (I(131)-MIBG). An image study showed no residual tumour sites and no lymphatic metastasis. The patient has had no tumour recurrence and no voiding symptoms 3 years after the surgery. PMID:23671503

Ahn, Sun Gook; Jang, Hoon; Han, Dong Seok; Lee, Jung Uee; Yuk, Seung Mo

455

Transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) as an optional treatment method on pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder  

PubMed Central

Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder is rare. We have experienced a case of unexpected pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder in a 45-year-old female. An ultrasonographic, computed tomography scan and cystoscopic examination showed a submucosal bladder mass. After transurethral resection of bladder tumour was performed, the bladder mass was confirmed as pheochromocytoma by a pathologist. After surgery, the patient underwent a subsequent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and I131-methyliodobenzylguanidine (I131-MIBG). An image study showed no residual tumour sites and no lymphatic metastasis. The patient has had no tumour recurrence and no voiding symptoms 3 years after the surgery.

Ahn, Sun Gook; Jang, Hoon; Han, Dong Seok; Lee, Jung Uee; Yuk, Seung Mo

2013-01-01

456