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Sample records for bladder neck descent

  1. Bladder neck incompetence at posterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Koraitim, Mamdouh M.

    2015-01-01

    The finding of an incompetent bladder neck (BN) at the time of posterior urethroplasty will necessarily exacerbate the already difficult situation. In such cases the aim of the treatment is not only to restore urethral continuity by end-to-end urethral anastomosis, but also to restore the function of the BN to maintain urinary continence. Fortunately, the incidence of incompetence of the BN at posterior urethroplasty is uncommon, usually ?4.5%. It seems that pelvic fracture-related BN injuries, in contrast to urethral injuries which result from a shearing force, are due to direct injury by the sharp edge of the fractured and displaced pubic bone. The risk of injuries to the BN is greater in children, in patients with a fracture involving both superior and inferior pubic rami on the same side, and in those managed initially by primary realignment. An incompetent BN is suspected by finding an open rectangular BN on cystography, and a fixedly open BN on suprapubic cystoscopy. An incompetent BN can be treated either subsequent to or concomitant with the urethral repair, according to whether a perineal or a perineo-abdominal urethroplasty is used, respectively. Several options have been reported to treat pelvic fracture-related BN incompetence, including reconstructing the BN, forming a new sphincter by tubularisation of a rectangular flap of the anterior bladder wall, and mechanical occlusion by an artificial sphincter or collagen injection. Reconstruction of the BN by the Young-Dees-Leadbetter?? procedure probably provides the most successful results. PMID:26019982

  2. Virus Analysis in Head and Neck and Bladder Cancers - Michael Parfenov, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Virus Analysis in Head and Neck and Bladder Cancers - Michael Parfenov Virus Analysis in Head and Neck and Bladder Cancers - Michael Parfenov, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012 You will need Adobe Flash

  3. A comparison of bladder neck preservation and bladder neck reconstruction for urinary incontinence after radical retro pubic prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Izadpanahi, Mohammad Hossein; Honarmand, Ramin; Khorrami, Mohammad Hataf; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza; Sichani, Mehrdad Mohammadi; Alizadeh, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and will include about 30% of all malignancies in men. Since the initial report of the anatomic radical prostatectomy, refinements in the surgical technique have been made. Several studies show that bladder neck preservation (BNP) during radical prostatectomy makes improve early return of urinary continence, erectile function or both. However, some clinical trials have suggested little difference between the return of continence while using modifications. In this study, we compared outcomes of BNP and bladder neck reconstruction (BNR) during radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 60 patients at a referral university hospital from March 2010 to March 2012. Study population was all patients candidate for RRP (RRP in this period. All patients divided into two groups, A and B (30 patients in each group). Group A (n = 30) who preserved bladder neck (BNP) and Group B (n = 30) who had BNR. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) before and at 2, 6, 9, 12 and18 months after surgery, anastomotic stricture symptoms, positive bladder neck margin, Gleason score and urine incontinence were compared between two groups. Also, we compared bladder neck contracture, urinary continence and positive surgical margin rates after BNP and BNR while retropubic prostatectomy in 24 months period follow-up. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.81 ± 7.15 years (range, 50-74 years). After a follow-up period of 24 months, the PSA rising was not different between the two groups. After 2 months, 19 (63.33%) of patients in A group and the same number in B group were continent (P = 0.78). Stricture of the bladder neck at the anastomosis site requiring transurethral dilation occurred in 7 (23.33%) and 3 (10.0%) patients in groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Although there was no difference in prevalence and duration of return of urinary continence after the operation between two groups, but results of our study showed that stenosis of the bladder neck was lower in BNP. Hence in the group of BNP, need for further operation and overflow incontinency due to the obstruction of urinary tract will be less likely than BNR and patients have better long time (24 months) urinary continence. PMID:25709654

  4. Management Strategies for Post-Prostatectomy Bladder Neck Contractures.

    PubMed

    Kovell, Robert Caleb; Terlecki, Ryan Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Patients who develop bladder neck contracture (BNC) after surgical treatment for prostate cancer often present with progressive lower urinary tract symptoms. Multiple risk factors contribute to BNC development including patient-related factors and technical considerations at the time of surgery. Initial management begins with endoscopic therapies, including dilation, transurethral incision (TUIBNC), and injection of adjunctive agents. When BNC remains refractory to these therapies, surgical reconstruction of the vesicourethral anastomosis or urinary diversion can be considered in select cases. This review presents an outline of the management of BNC after radical prostatectomy (RP), highlighting the recent literature related to the subject. PMID:26224157

  5. Emergency primary repair of grade V bladder neck injury complicating pelvic fracture.

    PubMed

    Weledji, Elroy P; Fokam, Pius; Nzade, Djatche; Eyongeta, Divine

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a grade V bladder injury complicating an open-book pelvic fracture following a road traffic accident. The bladder neck injury was primarily repaired in the emergency setting of a poor-resourced area with successful outcome. The dangers of urinary extravasation are still to be considered of importance and we advocate and encourage immediate/emergency open intervention although it remains controversial to say the least in a lesser resourced healthcare set up. PMID:25076980

  6. Emergency primary repair of grade V bladder neck injury complicating pelvic fracture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a grade V bladder injury complicating an open-book pelvic fracture following a road traffic accident. The bladder neck injury was primarily repaired in the emergency setting of a poor-resourced area with successful outcome. The dangers of urinary extravasation are still to be considered of importance and we advocate and encourage immediate/emergency open intervention although it remains controversial to say the least in a lesser resourced healthcare set up. PMID:25076980

  7. Randomized clinical trial of a bladder neck plication stitch during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-Kwon; Park, Sejun; Ahn, Hanjong

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is one of the most bothersome complications affecting patients’ daily lives. The efficacy of the bladder neck plication stitch technique in promoting an earlier return of continence was prospectively evaluated in 158 patients who underwent RARP for clinically localized prostate cancer by a single surgeon at our institute from March 2012 to January 2013. Patients were randomized 1:1 to undergo surgery with (n = 79) or without (n = 79) the bladder neck plication stitch, and their time to recovery from incontinence, defined as being pad free, was compared. Recovery from incontinence at 1, 3, and 6 months were observed in 22 (27.8%), 42 (53.2%), and 57 (72.2%) patients, respectively, treated with, and 23 (29.1%), 47 (59.5%), and 59 (74.7%) patients, respectively, treated without the bladder neck plication stitch, with no significant difference in time to recovery from incontinence between the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that age, membranous urethral length and shape of the prostatic apex on magnetic resonance imaging were independent predictors of early recovery from urinary incontinence after RARP. The bladder neck plication stitch had no effect on time to recovery from postoperative urinary incontinence following RARP. PMID:25432493

  8. Acute Raoultella planticola cystitis in a child with rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder neck.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Hyung; Ahn, Yo Han; Chun, Jong In; Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Byung-Kiu

    2015-10-01

    Raoultella planticola is a Gram-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacillus. It is an environmental bacteria found in soil and water, and a very rare cause of local or systemic infection in humans. Although some adult cases of R. planticola infection have been reported, childhood local or systemic infection caused by R. planticola is very rare. Reported herein is a rare case of acute cystitis due to R. planticola in a 16-month-old boy with rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder neck, and a review of the literature. PMID:26508180

  9. "Tips and tricks" in secondary bladder neck sclerosis’ bipolar plasma vaporization approach

    PubMed Central

    Moldoveanu, C; Geavlete, B; St?nescu, F; Jecu, M; Adou, L; Bulai, C; Ene, C; Geavlete, P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS) represents a common late complication of prostate surgery, however so far insufficiently assessed in the available literature. More over, the previously attempted and analyzed therapeutic modalities failed to achieve acknowledgement as standard treatment for this particular pathology. Methods: The bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) was introduced as a viable mean of removing the obstructing scar formation in a gradual fashion. Several "tips and tricks" were described as particularly useful in optimizing the plasma corona vaporization effect. The proper BPV technique is simple and safe while closely relying on certain surgical steps, the simultaneous vaporization and coagulation processes and a superior endoscopic vision. Recent technological advances created the premises for further improvements. Results: The plasma-button vaporization is characterized by a satisfactory surgical speed, remote intraoperative bleeding risks, high-quality endoscopic visibility as well as the achievement of a complete sclerotic tissue removal. Within a short learning curve, a superior final aspect of the prostatic fossa and bladder neck is obtained at the end of surgery. The continuous plasma vaporization mode provides additional technical advantages. The previously described drawbacks of transurethral incision or resection seem to have been overcome by the practical features of the plasma vaporization process. Conclusions: The BPV technique outlines a promising modality of efficiently ablating the obstructing fibrous tissue in secondary BNS patients. The simplicity and safety of the bipolar vaporization approach, together with the thorough obstructing scar removal in a radical fashion, create the premises for a favorable long term BPV clinical outcome. PMID:24146686

  10. Coiling the arterial feeder: report on a successfully treated extensive hemangioma of the periprostatic venous plexus and the bladder neck.

    PubMed

    Mager, Rene; Thalhammer, Axel; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Frankenau, Peter; Haferkamp, Axel

    2014-11-01

    Extensive hemangioma of the prostate and the bladder is rare. In most cases, patients present for hematuria, hematospermia, or lower urinary tract symptoms. Confined lesions treatable with transurethral resection are most common but large hemangiomas requiring partial cystectomy are reported as well. Endoscopic or open surgery implies the risk for postoperative functional disability that is not reasonable for young patients. We present a case of an extensive symptomatic hemangioma of the periprostatic venous plexus and the bladder neck in a 46-year-old man, which was treated by superselective coiling of the arterial feeder with no recurrence at 6-month follow-up. PMID:25443950

  11. Unroofed Midline Prostate Cyst Misled Into a Stricture With Obliterative Bladder Neck Contracture Following a Laser Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Richilda Red; Lee, Joo Yong; Choi, Young Deuk

    2013-01-01

    We report on a case of a 67-year-old man who presented with persistent lower urinary tract symptoms following a potassium titanyl phosphate laser photoselective vaporization of prostate. Upon further diagnostic examinations were performed, he was noted to have an obliterative bladder neck contracture with an incidental, misleading, and rare presence of an unroofed midline anterior prostatic cyst presenting as a stricture. As we were presented with this case, it was imperative to address these complications of bladder neck contracture and incompletely ablated prostatic cyst. This report brings to light underestimated complicating factors in the urinary tract, and the diagnostic and therapeutic interventions we had undertaken to rectify the identified complications and improve patien's quality of life. The patient underwent internal urethrotomy, resection of prostatic cyst wall and transurethral resection of the prostate directed to improve his quality of life and prevent urinary retention. PMID:23610710

  12. Bipolar Transurethral Incision of Bladder Neck Stenoses with Mitomycin C Injection

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Timothy D.; Ayyash, Omar M.; Ferroni, Matthew C.; Rycyna, Kevin J.; Chen, Mang L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. To determine the efficacy of bipolar transurethral incision with mitomycin C (MMC) injection for the treatment of refractory bladder neck stenosis (BNS). Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent bipolar transurethral incision of BNS (TUIBNS) with MMC injection at our institution from 2013 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 2?mg of 40% mitomycin C solution was injected in four quadrants of the treated BNS. Treatment failure was defined as the need for subsequent intervention. Results. Thirteen patients underwent 17 bipolar TUIBNS with MMC injection. Twelve (92%) patients had failed a mean of 2.2 ± 1.1 prior endoscopic procedures. Median follow-up was 16.5 months (IQR: 14–18.4 months). Initial success was 62%; five (38%) patients had a recurrence with a median time to recurrence of 7.3 months. Four patients underwent a repeat procedure, 2 (50%) of which failed. Overall success was achieved in 77% (10/13) of patients after a mean of 1.3 ± 0.5 procedures. BNS recurrence was not significantly associated with history of pelvic radiation (33% versus 43%, p = 0.9). There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions. Bipolar TUIBNS with MMC injection was comparable in efficacy to previously reported techniques and did not result in any serious adverse events. PMID:26635876

  13. Incidence of bladder neck contracture after robot-assisted laparoscopic and open radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Benjamin N.; Davis, Cole B.; Cowan, Janet E.; Kane, Christopher J.; Carroll, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for bladder neck contracture (BNC) in men treated with robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and open radical prostatectomy (ORP), as BNC is a well-described complication of ORP and may be partially attributable to technique. PATIENTS AND METHODS The University of California San Francisco Urologic Oncology Database was queried for patients undergoing RALP or ORP from 2002 to 2008. Patient demographics, prostate cancer-specific information, surgical data, and follow-up were collected. For each surgical approach, multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to evaluate associations of demographics and clinical characteristics with BNC. Time to BNC after RP was evaluated using life table and Kaplan–Meier methods. RESULTS From 2002 to 2008, 988 patients underwent RP as primary treatment and had at least 12 months of follow-up. Of these men, 695 underwent ORP and 293 underwent RALP. The mean (SD) age was 59.3 (6.80) years and 91% of men were Caucasian. D’Amico risk groups at diagnosis were low (38%), intermediate (38%), and high (24%). The BNC incidence was 2.2% (22 cases) overall, 1.4% (four) for RALP, and 2.6% (18) for ORP (P = 0.12). Patients with BNC were diagnosed a median (range) of 4.7 (1–15) months after surgery. At 18 months after surgery, the BNC-free rate was 97% for ORP and 99% for RALP (log-rank P = 0.13). The most common presenting complaint was slow stream, followed by urinary retention. In Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, earlier year of surgery, older age at diagnosis and higher PSA level at diagnosis were significantly associated with BNC among ORP patients. In the RALP group, none of the covariates were associated with BNC. CONCLUSIONS The overall incidence of BNC was low in both RALP and ORP groups. Technical factors such as enhanced magnification and a running bladder anastomosis may explain the lower BNC incidence in the RALP group. PMID:20438567

  14. Aggressive Angiomyxoma of the Bladder Neck Requiring Local Excision and Mitrofanoff Formation

    PubMed Central

    Davari, M.; Lamb, B. W.; Chowdhury, S.; Jameson, C.; Kelly, J. D.; Greenwell, T.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumour predominantly affecting the female pelvis and perineum but has also been described in males. This tumour can often present a diagnostic challenge and has a propensity for local recurrence after surgical excision. We present an unusual case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the bladder of a female patient which required local excision and Mitrofanoff formation. PMID:26605101

  15. Descent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Y. I.

    1985-01-01

    The creation of descent vehicles marked a new stage in the development of cosmonautics, involving the beginning of manned space flight and substantial progress in space research on the distant bodies of the Solar System. This booklet describes these vehicles and their structures, systems, and purposes. It is intended for the general public interested in modern problems of space technology.

  16. Bipolar plasma vaporization versus monopolar TUR and “cold-knife" TUI in secondary bladder neck sclerosis – An evidence based, retrospective critical comparison in a single center clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Moldoveanu, C; Geavlete, B; Jecu, M; Stanescu, F; Adou, L; Bulai, C; Ene, C; Geavlete, P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A long term, retrospective study was performed aiming to outline a critical comparison concerning the efficacy, safety and durability of the bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV), standard monopolar transurethral resection (TUR) and “cold-knife" “star" transurethral incision (TUI) in secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS) cases. Materials & Methods: Of the 126 patients included in the trial based on maximum flow rate (Qmax) below 10 mL/s and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) over 19, classical resection was performed in 46 cases, “cold-knife" TUI in 37 cases and bipolar vaporization in 43 patients. The evaluation protocol comprised IPSS, QoL (quality of life) score, Qmax and PVR (post-voiding residual urinary volume) assessment performed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after the initial intervention. Results: Significant intraoperative complications (capsular perforation – 8.7%; bleeding – 4.3%) occurred secondary to monopolar resection. “Star" TUI was the fastest technique, followed by plasma-button vaporization (7.2 and 11.4 versus 16.5 minutes). BPV and TUI patients benefitted from the shortest catheterization periods (0.75 and 1 versus 2.0 days) and hospital stays (1.0 and 1.25 versus 2.0 days). Immediate postoperative adverse events consisted of hematuria (6.5% of the TUR cases) and acute urinary retention (8.1% of the TUI group). Significantly higher long term BNS recurrence rates requiring re-treatment were established in the TUI (18.7%) and TUR (12.8%) series by comparison to BPV (5.4%). Among patients that completed the follow-up protocol, equivalent IPSS, QoL, Qmax and PVR features were determined in the 3 study arms. Conclusions: The plasma vaporization approach was confirmed as a successful match to conventional TUR and “cold-knife" TUI in terms of surgical safety profile, postoperative recovery, therapeutic durability and urodynamic and symptom score parameters. PMID:24653766

  17. Bladder cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder; Urothelial cancer ... In the United States, bladder cancer usually starts from the cells lining the bladder. These cells are called transitional cells. These tumors are classified by the way ...

  18. Bladder Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  19. Bladder Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  20. Neurogenic bladder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to pelvic surgery Nerve damage from a herniated disc or spinal canal stenosis ... surgery is needed. Surgeries for neurogenic bladder include: Artificial sphincter Electrical device implanted near the bladder nerves ...

  1. Bladder Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer? Female urinary tract Medical Illustration Copyright © 2015 Nucleus Medical Media, All rights reserved Cancer is the ... Bladder Male urinary tract Medical Illustration Copyright © 2015 Nucleus Medical Media, All rights reserved The bladder is ...

  2. Bladder stones

    MedlinePLUS

    Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SM. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 89. Sharma R, Dill CE, Gelman DY. Urinary ...

  3. Bladder cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, H. Y.; Griffiths, T. R.; Neal, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in England and Wales. The most common presenting symptom is macroscopic haematuria. The management options for superficial and invasive bladder cancer depend on the stage at presentation. Most superficial bladder cancers are managed by transurethral resection and cytoscopic follow-up. The prognosis for patients with invasive bladder cancer is less good. The role of chemical, radiotherapeutic and surgical intervention are discussed. PMID:9015464

  4. Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Home Cancers Selected for Study Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma Last Updated: September 10, 2015 What is urothelial bladder cancer? Urothelial bladder cancer is the most common type of bladder cancer.  The bladder is a hollow

  5. Surgical technique to avoid bladder flap formation during cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Malvasi, A; Tinelli, A; Gustapane, S; Mazzone, E; Cavallotti, C; Stark, M; Bettocchi, S

    2011-01-01

    Cesarean section (CS) is now the most common major surgical procedure performed on women worldwide. A CS can be performed by either suturing or not suturing of the visceral peritoneum. Creation of the bladder flap is an integral step of the standard cesarean section. The bladder flap is made by superficially incising and dissecting the peritoneal lining to separate the urinary bladder from the lower uterine segment. It's still debated whether the formation of bladder flap is advantageous or not. If the uterine incision is made slightly above the vesicouterine peritoneal fold, the loose connective tissue between the uterus and the urinary bladder allows spontaneous descent of the bladder. Evidence on the role of the bladder flap in cesarean section is very limited. At present, it remains to be established whether there is any advantage in dissecting the bladder from the lower uterine segment during cesarean section. PMID:22217381

  6. Bladder Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

  7. Ascent/Descent Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Charles; Andrew, Robert; Roe, Scott; Frye, Ronald; Harvey, Michael; Vu, Tuan; Balachandran, Krishnaiyer; Bly, Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Ascent/Descent Software Suite has been used to support a variety of NASA Shuttle Program mission planning and analysis activities, such as range safety, on the Integrated Planning System (IPS) platform. The Ascent/Descent Software Suite, containing Ascent Flight Design (ASC)/Descent Flight Design (DESC) Configuration items (Cis), lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle ascent and entry modeling analysis and mission design, resides on IPS/Linux workstations. A list of tools in Navigation (NAV)/Prop Software Suite represents tool versions established during or after the IPS Equipment Rehost-3 project.

  8. Urinary Bladder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  9. Reconstructive bladder surgery in genitourinary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Narmada Prasad; Kumar, Anup; Sharma, Sachit

    2008-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) occurs in 15-20% cases of pulmonary tuberculosis with a prevalence of 400 per 100,000 population. Reconstructive surgery for GUTB is required for cases with grossly distorted and dysfunctional anatomy that are unlikely to regress with chemotherapy alone. In the recent past, there has been a tremendous increase in the variety of reconstructive procedures for the urinary bladder, used in the management of GUTB. Augmentation cystoplasty includes the goals of increasing bladder capacity, while retaining as much of bladder as possible. Various bowel segments (from the stomach to the sigmoid colon) have been used for bladder reconstruction. The choice of material for reconstruction is purely the surgeon's prerogative--his skill, the ease, the mobility and length of mesentery (allowing bowel to reach the bladder neck without tension and maintaining an adequate blood supply). The presence or absence of concomitant reflux is of considerable importance. In the former, an ileocystoplasty with implantation of ureter to the proximal end of the isolated ileal loop and anastomosis of the distal end of the ileal loop to the bladder neck and trigone is advocated. In the latter case, the ureterovesical valve is preserved and colocystoplasty is preferred, wherein the sigmoid colon on being opened along its antimesentric border is joined to the trigone and bladder neck and then to itself to form a capacious pouch. Gastrocystoplasty reduces the risk of acidosis but is associated with complications like hypochloremic alkalosis and ‘hematuria-dysuria’ syndrome. Orthotopic neobladder reconstruction is a feasible option, suitable in cases of tubercular thimble bladder with a markedly reduced capacity (as little as 15 ml), where an augmentation alone may be associated with anastomatic narrowing or poor relief of symptoms. In this article, we review the various bladder reconstruction options used for the surgical management of GUTB, along with their indications and complications. PMID:19468473

  10. Bladder exstrophy repair

    MedlinePLUS

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... in boys and is often linked to other birth defects. Surgery is necessary to: Allow the child to ...

  11. Bladder Coding Guidelines

    Cancer.gov

    Coding Guidelines BLADDER C670–C679 Primary Site C670 Trigone of bladder Base of bladder Floor Below interureteric ridge (interureteric crest, or interureteric fold) C671 D ome of bladder Vertex Roof Vault C672 L ateral wall of bladder Right

  12. Transvaginal Resection of a Bladder Leiomyoma Misdiagnosed with a Vaginal Mass: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fu-Fen; Wang, Ning; Wang, You-Lin; Bi, Xiao-Ning; Xu, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Yan-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Bladder leiomyoma is a rare benign tumor and it could be easily misdiagnosed with many other pelvic diseases, especially obstetrical and gynecological diseases; abdominal, laparoscopic, and transurethral resection of bladder leiomyoma have been reported. Herein, we present a case of bladder leiomyoma misdiagnosed with a vaginal mass preoperatively; the mass was isolated, enucleated from the bladder neck, and removed transvaginally; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of intramural leiomyoma of bladder neck that has been enucleated transvaginally only without cystotomy. PMID:26693368

  13. Gall bladder carcinoma presenting with spinal metastasis: a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mohit K; Joshi, Richa; Chadha, Manish; Alam, Shan E; Varshneya, Hemant; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-05-01

    Skeletal metastasis as a primary presentation of gall bladder carcinoma is rare. A 50-year-old lady presented with neck pain and weakness in her right upper limb of 3 months duration. Clinical and imaging work-up suggested locally advanced gall bladder carcinoma with metastasis to cervical vertebra and sternum. Only one case till date has been reported where the patient presented with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture secondary to metastasis from an occult gall bladder carcinoma. Although rare, an occult gall bladder cancer may present with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture of spine secondary to metastasis. We present a brief review of literature of patients who presented with skeletal metastases in clinically silent gall bladder malignancy. Palliative care issues in advanced gall bladder carcinoma have also been discussed. PMID:24049354

  14. Gall Bladder Carcinoma Presenting with Spinal Metastasis: A Rare Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mohit K; Joshi, Richa; Chadha, Manish; Alam, Shan E; Varshneya, Hemant; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis as a primary presentation of gall bladder carcinoma is rare. A 50-year-old lady presented with neck pain and weakness in her right upper limb of 3 months duration. Clinical and imaging work-up suggested locally advanced gall bladder carcinoma with metastasis to cervical vertebra and sternum. Only one case till date has been reported where the patient presented with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture secondary to metastasis from an occult gall bladder carcinoma. Although rare, an occult gall bladder cancer may present with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture of spine secondary to metastasis. We present a brief review of literature of patients who presented with skeletal metastases in clinically silent gall bladder malignancy. Palliative care issues in advanced gall bladder carcinoma have also been discussed. PMID:24049354

  15. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  16. Bladder function - neurological control

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... with urine, sensory nerves send impulses to the brain indicating that the bladder is full. The sensory ... cord to relay this information. In turn, the brain sends impulses back to the bladder instructing the ...

  17. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer study. This prospective study is the first project of the Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium (BCGC), a ... Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium BCRN Management Committee BCAN Scientific Advisory Board GET INVOLVED Donate & ...

  18. Bladder outlet obstruction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the bladder. Surgery is most often needed for long-term treatment of bladder outlet obstruction. However, many of the diseases that cause this problem can be treated with medicines. Talk to your health care provider about possible treatments.

  19. Bladder Cancer Interest Group

    Cancer.gov

    Bladder cancer is the 9th leading cause of cancer, and is considered one of the most expensive cancers to live with due to long-term surveillance and treatments. Clinically, there are only limited options for bladder cancer management and no new bladder-c

  20. Stiff Neck

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk X-Ray Exam: Neck Meningitis Infant Torticollis Torticollis Lyme Disease Meningitis Lyme Disease Burner (Stinger) Meningitis Lyme ...

  1. Simulation Test Of Descent Advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Green, Steven M.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes piloted-simulation test of Descent Advisor (DA), subsystem of larger automation system being developed to assist human air-traffic controllers and pilots. Focuses on results of piloted simulation, in which airline crews executed controller-issued descent advisories along standard curved-path arrival routes. Crews able to achieve arrival-time precision of plus or minus 20 seconds at metering fix. Analysis of errors generated in turns resulted in further enhancements of algorithm to increase accuracies of its predicted trajectories. Evaluations by pilots indicate general support for DA concept and provide specific recommendations for improvement.

  2. Biomatrices for bladder reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsueh-Kung; Madihally, Sundar V; Palmer, Blake; Frimberger, Dominic; Fung, Kar-Ming; Kropp, Bradley P

    2015-03-01

    There is a demand for tissue engineering of the bladder needed by patients who experience a neurogenic bladder or idiopathic detrusor overactivity. To avoid complications from augmentation cystoplasty, the field of tissue engineering seeks optimal scaffolds for bladder reconstruction. Naturally derived biomaterials as well as synthetic and natural polymers have been explored as bladder substitutes. To improve regenerative properties, these biomaterials have been conjugated with functional molecules, combined with nanotechology, or seeded with exogenous cells. Although most studies reported complete and functional bladder regeneration in small-animal models, results from large-animal models and human clinical trials varied. For functional bladder regeneration, procedures for biomaterial fabrication, incorporation of biologically active agents, introduction of nanotechnology, and application of stem-cell technology need to be standardized. Advanced molecular and medical technologies such as next generation sequencing and magnetic resonance imaging can be introduced for mechanistic understanding and non-invasive monitoring of regeneration processes, respectively. PMID:25477305

  3. Descent into theDescent into theDescent into theDescent into the Hell of VenusHell of VenusHell of VenusHell of Venus

    E-print Network

    Alfonseca, Manuel

    Descent into theDescent into theDescent into theDescent into the Hell of VenusHell of VenusHell of VenusHell of Venus Manuel AlfonsecaManuel AlfonsecaManuel AlfonsecaManuel Alfonseca #12;Manuel Alfonseca 2 #12;Descent into the Hell of Venus 3 DESCENT INTO THE HELL OF VENUS Manuel Alfonseca All Rights

  4. Overview of Neck Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Back) > Overview of Neck Pain Overview of Neck Pain Page Content Developing a Program That's Right for ... activity? What Kinds of Problems Might Cause Neck Pain? Treatment for any neck condition is recommended as ...

  5. Neck pain

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Non-specific neck pain has a postural or mechanical basis and affects about two thirds of people at some stage, especially in middle age. Acute neck pain resolves within days or weeks, but may become chronic in about 10% of people. Whiplash injuries follow sudden acceleration–deceleration of the neck, such as in road traffic or sporting accidents. Up to 40% of people continue to report symptoms 15 years after the accident, although this varies between countries. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for people with non-specific neck pain without severe neurological deficit? What are the effects of treatments for acute whiplash injury? What are the effects of treatments for chronic whiplash injury? What are the effects of treatments for neck pain with radiculopathy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 91 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of the evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, biofeedback, drug treatments (analgesics, antidepressants, epidural steroid injections, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), early mobilisation, early return to normal activity, exercise, heat or cold, manipulation (alone or plus exercise), mobilisation, multimodal treatment, patient education, percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy, physical treatments, postural techniques (yoga, pilates, Alexander technique), pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment, soft collars and special pillows, spray and stretch, surgery, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). PMID:19445809

  6. Bladder operated robotic joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a robotic joint which is operated by inflatable bladders and which can be used in applications where it is desired to move or hold an object. A support block supports an elongated plate to which is pivotally attached a finger. A tension strip passes over a lever attached to the finger and is attached at its ends to the support block on opposite sides of the plate. Bladders positioned between the plate and the tension strip on opposite sides of the plate can be inflated by pumps to pivot the finger, with one of the bladders being inflated while the other is being deflated.

  7. Cystocele (Fallen Bladder)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... movements that put pressure on the bladder, called stress urinary incontinence. These movements can include coughing, sneezing, laughing, or physical activity, such as walking. Urinary retention––the inability to ...

  8. What Is Bladder Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... much less common than transitional cell (urothelial) cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma: In the United States, only about 1% to 2% of bladder cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Under a microscope, the cells look much like ...

  9. Descent theory for semiorthogonal decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Elagin, Alexei D

    2012-05-31

    We put forward a method for constructing semiorthogonal decompositions of the derived category of G-equivariant sheaves on a variety X under the assumption that the derived category of sheaves on X admits a semiorthogonal decomposition with components preserved by the action of the group G on X. This method is used to obtain semiorthogonal decompositions of equivariant derived categories for projective bundles and blow-ups with a smooth centre as well as for varieties with a full exceptional collection preserved by the group action. Our main technical tool is descent theory for derived categories. Bibliography: 12 titles.

  10. The Other Bladder Syndrome: Underactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Miyazato, Minoru; Yoshimura, Naoki; Chancellor, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Detrusor underactivity, or underactive bladder (UAB), is defined as a contraction of reduced strength and/or duration resulting in prolonged bladder emptying and/or a failure to achieve complete bladder emptying within a normal time span. UAB can be observed in many neurologic conditions and myogenic failure. Diabetic cystopathy is the most important and inevitable disease developing from UAB, and can occur silently and early in the disease course. Careful neurologic and urodynamic examinations are necessary for the diagnosis of UAB. Proper management is focused on prevention of upper tract damage, avoidance of overdistension, and reduction of residual urine. Scheduled voiding, double voiding, al-blockers, and intermittent self-catheterization are the typical conservative treatment options. Sacral nerve stimulation may be an effective treatment option for UAB. New concepts such as stem cell therapy and neurotrophic gene therapy are being explored. Other new agents for UAB that act on prostaglandin E2 and EP2 receptors are currently under development. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries that have a pipeline in urology and women’s health may want to consider UAB as a potential target condition. Scientific counsel and review of the current pharmaceutical portfolio may uncover agents, including those in other therapeutic fields, that may benefit the management of UAB. PMID:23671401

  11. Bladder Cases - MP/H Rules

    Cancer.gov

    Bladder Case 1 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY REPORT Surgical Pathology Report February 17, 2007 Specimen (s) received: Bladder Tumor Pre-operative Diagnosis: Bladder Cancer Post operative Diagnosis: Bladder Cancer Procedure: Cystoscopy, transurethral resection

  12. 43 CFR 10.14 - Lineal descent and cultural affiliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Lineal descent and cultural affiliation. 10.14 Section 10...General § 10.14 Lineal descent and cultural affiliation. (a) General. This...procedures for determining lineal descent and cultural affiliation between...

  13. 43 CFR 10.14 - Lineal descent and cultural affiliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Lineal descent and cultural affiliation. 10.14 Section 10...General § 10.14 Lineal descent and cultural affiliation. (a) General. This...procedures for determining lineal descent and cultural affiliation between...

  14. 43 CFR 10.14 - Lineal descent and cultural affiliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Lineal descent and cultural affiliation. 10.14 Section 10...General § 10.14 Lineal descent and cultural affiliation. (a) General. This...procedures for determining lineal descent and cultural affiliation between...

  15. 43 CFR 10.14 - Lineal descent and cultural affiliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 true Lineal descent and cultural affiliation. 10.14 Section 10...General § 10.14 Lineal descent and cultural affiliation. (a) General. This...procedures for determining lineal descent and cultural affiliation between...

  16. 43 CFR 10.14 - Lineal descent and cultural affiliation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Lineal descent and cultural affiliation. 10.14 Section 10...General § 10.14 Lineal descent and cultural affiliation. (a) General. This...procedures for determining lineal descent and cultural affiliation between...

  17. Descent Relations in Cubic Superstring Field Theory

    E-print Network

    I. Ya. Aref'eva; R. V. Gorbachev; P. B. Medvedev; D. V. Rychkov

    2008-01-15

    The descent relations between string field theory (SFT) vertices are characteristic relations of the operator formulation of SFT and they provide self-consistency of this theory. The descent relations and in the NS fermionic string field theory in the kappa and discrete bases are established. Different regularizations and schemes of calculations are considered and relations between them are discussed.

  18. Ant Colony Optimization and Stochastic Gradient Descent

    E-print Network

    Libre de Bruxelles, Université

    Ant Colony Optimization and Stochastic Gradient Descent Nicolas Meuleau Marco Dorigo IRIDIA@iridia.ulb.ac.be mdorigo@ulb.ac.be Keywords heuristic, ant system, ant colony optimization, combinatorial optimi- zation between the two techniques known as ant colony optimization (ACO) and stochastic gradient descent. More

  19. Predictability of Top of Descent Location for Operational Idle-Thrust Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stell, Laurel L.

    2010-01-01

    To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the trajectory predictor and its uncertainty models, commercial flights executed idle-thrust descents at a specified descent speed, and the recorded data included the specified descent speed profile, aircraft weight, and the winds entered into the FMS as well as the radar data. The FMS computed the intended descent path assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and the controllers and pilots then endeavored to allow the FMS to fly the descent to the meter fix with minimal human intervention. The horizontal flight path, cruise and meter fix altitudes, and actual TOD location were extracted from the radar data. Using approximately 70 descents each in Boeing 757 and Airbus 319/320 aircraft, multiple regression estimated TOD location as a linear function of the available predictive factors. The cruise and meter fix altitudes, descent speed, and wind clearly improve goodness of fit. The aircraft weight improves fit for the Airbus descents but not for the B757. Except for a few statistical outliers, the residuals have absolute value less than 5 nmi. Thus, these predictive factors adequately explain the TOD location, which indicates the data do not include excessive noise.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Bladder cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with bladder cancer each year. What are the genetic changes related to bladder cancer? As with most ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

  1. Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Dadhania, Vipulkumar; Czerniak, Bogdan; Guo, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignancy in the urinary bladder which may arise primarily in the bladder as well as secondarily from a number of other organs. Our aim is to provide updated information on primary and secondary bladder adenocarcinomas, with focus on pathologic features, differential diagnosis, and clinical relevance. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma exhibits several different growth patterns, including enteric, mucinous, signet-ring cell, not otherwise specified, and mixed patterns. Urachal adenocarcinoma demonstrates similar histologic features but it can be distinguished from bladder adenocarcinoma on careful pathologic examination. Secondary bladder adenocarcinomas may arise from the colorectum, prostate, endometrium, cervix and other sites. Immunohistochemical study is valuable in identifying the origin of secondary adenocarcinomas. Noninvasive neoplastic glandular lesions, adenocarcinoma in situ and villous adenoma, are frequently associated with bladder adenocarcinoma. It is also important to differentiate bladder adenocarcinoma from a number of nonneoplastic lesions in the bladder. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma has a poor prognosis largely because it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Urachal adenocarcinoma shares similar histologic features with bladder adenocarcinoma, but it has a more favorable prognosis than bladder adenocarcinoma, partly due to the relative young age of patients with urachal adenocarcinoma. PMID:26309895

  2. Bladder Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Bladder C670–C679 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12

  3. Postmenopausal overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Bladder storage symptoms have a severe impact on many areas as regards the quality of life including health-related, social, psychological and working functions. Pharmacotherapy of lower urinary tract stores (LUTS) has been developed to optimize neural control of the lower urinary tract in pathologic states. The bladder can be overactive or underactive. Overactive bladder (OAB) is highly prevalent and is associated with considerable morbidity, especially in aging population. Therefore, an effective treatment of OAB must result in a meaningful reduction in urinary symptoms. Pharmacotherapy for the OAB must be individualized based on the degree of bother, medication side-effect profile, concomitant comorbidities and current medication regimen. Antimuscarinic agents will continue to represent the current gold standard for the first-line pharmacological management of OAB. Alternatively to antimuscarinic therapy, ?3-adrenergic receptor agonists, due to their efficacy and favorable adverse event profile, are a novel and attractive option of pharmacological treatment of overactive bladder symptoms. A combination of selective antimuscarinic and ?3-adrenergic receptor agonists, agents with the different mechanism of action, gives a new treatment option for the patient with OAB according to its harms profile. A number of putative novel therapeutic agents is under clinical evaluations that may ultimately provide alternative or combination treatment options for OAB in the nearest future. PMID:26327873

  4. Emphysematous cystitis: a tympanic bladder.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Luke; Winkler, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    An 86-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted with increasing lethargy and hyperglycaemia. On examination she was noted to have a tender and tympanic bladder. CT revealed a distended bladder with gas locules in the bladder wall. She was diagnosed with hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar non-ketosis precipitated by emphysematous cystitis. After systemic antibiotics and bladder drainage via a urethral catheter, her symptoms readily improved. Radiographic appearances of the bladder were normal one week after instigating treatment. Emphysematous cystitis is characterized by gas within the bladder wall. Although rare it is increasingly more recognized with the advent of modern imaging. The mainstay of treatment is antibiotics and bladder drainage. Rarely surgical debridement and even cystectomy is required. PMID:23632184

  5. Floating Hem-o-Lok Clips in the Bladder without Stone Formation after Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yu Seob; Doo, A Ram; Cha, Jai Seong; Kim, Myung Ki; Jeong, Young Beom

    2012-01-01

    Hem-o-Lok clips (Weck Surgical Instruments, Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC, USA) are widely used in robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy because of their easy application and secure clamping. To date, there have been some reports of intravesical migration of these clips causing urethral erosion, bladder neck contractures, and subsequent calculus formation. We report the first case of bladder migration of Hem-o-Lok clips without stone formation after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. The Hem-o-Lok clips were found during urethral dilation with a guide wire for bladder neck contracture under cystourethroscopy. The Hem-o-Lok clips were floating in the bladder without stone formation and were removed by a cystoscopic procedure. PMID:22323977

  6. Feature Clustering for Accelerating Parallel Coordinate Descent

    SciTech Connect

    Scherrer, Chad; Tewari, Ambuj; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Haglin, David J.

    2012-12-06

    We demonstrate an approach for accelerating calculation of the regularization path for L1 sparse logistic regression problems. We show the benefit of feature clustering as a preconditioning step for parallel block-greedy coordinate descent algorithms.

  7. Lunar descent using sequential engine shutdown

    E-print Network

    Springmann, Philip N

    2006-01-01

    The notion of sequential engine shutdown is introduced and its application to lunar descent is motivated. The concept calls for the utilization of multiple fixed thrust engines in place of a single continuously throttleable ...

  8. Human factors by descent energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes some of the results of a human factors study of energy management during descent using standard aircraft displays. Discussions with pilots highlighted the practical constraints involved and the techniques (algorithms) used to accomplish the descent. The advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms are examined with respect to workload and their sensitivity to disturbances. Vertical navigation and flight performance computers are discussed in terms of the information needed for effective pilot monitoring and takeover

  9. Apollo experience report: Descent propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammock, W. R., Jr.; Currie, E. C.; Fisher, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    The propulsion system for the descent stage of the lunar module was designed to provide thrust to transfer the fully loaded lunar module with two crewmen from the lunar parking orbit to the lunar surface. A history of the development of this system is presented. Development was accomplished primarily by ground testing of individual components and by testing the integrated system. Unique features of the descent propulsion system were the deep throttling capability and the use of a lightweight cryogenic helium pressurization system.

  10. Descent relations in cubic superstring field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, I. Y.; Gorbachev, R.; Medvedev, P. B.; Rychkov, D. V.

    2008-01-01

    The descent relations between string field theory (SFT) vertices are characteristic relations of the operator formulation of SFT and they provide self-consistency of this theory. The descent relations langleV2|V1rangle and langleV3|V1rangle in the NS fermionic string field theory in the ? and discrete bases are established. Different regularizations and schemes of calculations are considered and relations between them are discussed.

  11. Descent Advisor Preliminary Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were: (1) to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional and flight-management system equipped jet transports, (2) to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and (3) to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 seconds late with a standard deviation of 13.1 seconds. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  12. Descent advisor preliminary field test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional- and flight-management-system-equipped jet transports, to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 sec late with a standard deviation of 13.1 sec. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  13. Pharmacogenomics in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dancik, Garrett M.; Theodorescu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a common cancer worldwide. For patients presenting with muscle-invasive disease, the five year survival rate is approximately 50%. Cisplatinum-based combination chemotherapy is recommended in the neoadjuvant setting prior to cystectomy and is also the first line in the metastatic setting. However, the survival benefit of such therapy is modest. The identification of pharmacogenomic biomarkers would enable the rational and personalized treatment of patients by selecting those patients that would benefit most from such therapies sparing others the unnecessary toxicity. Conventional therapies would be recommended for an expected responder while a non-responder would be considered for alternative therapies selected on the basis of the individual’s molecular profile. Although few effective bladder cancer therapies have been introduced in the past 30 years, several targeted therapies against the molecular drivers of bladder cancer appear promising. This review summarizes pharmacogenomic biomarkers that require further investigation and/or prospective evaluation, publicly available tools for drug discovery and biomarker identification from in vitro data, and targeted agents that have been evaluated in preclinical models. PMID:24360659

  14. The length of anterior vaginal wall exposed to external pressure on maximal straining MRI: relationship to urogenital hiatus diameter, and apical and bladder location

    PubMed Central

    Yousuf, Aisha; Chen, Luyun; Larson, Kindra; Ashton-Miller, James A.; DeLancey, John O. L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis In cystoceles, the distal anterior vaginal wall (AVW) bulges out through the introitus and is no longer in contact with the posterior vaginal wall or perineal body, exposing the pressure differential between intra-abdominal pressure and atmospheric pressure. The goal of this study is to quantify the length of the exposed vaginal wall length and to investigate its relationship with other factors associated with the AVW support, such as most dependent bladder location, apical location, and hiatus diameter, demonstrating its key role in cystocele formation. Methods Fifty women were selected to represent a full spectrum of AVW support. Each underwent supine, dynamic MR imaging. Most dependent bladder location and apical location were measured relative to the average normal position on the mid-sagittal plane using the Pelvic Inclination Correction System . The length of the exposed AVW and the hiatus diameter were measured as well. The relationship between exposed AVW and most dependent bladder location, apical location, and hiatus diameter were examined. Results A bilinear relationship has been observed between exposed vaginal wall length and most dependent bladder location (R2=0.91, P<0.001). When the bladder descents up to the inflection point (about 4.4 cm away from its normal position), there is little change in the exposed AVW length. With further descent, the exposed vaginal wall length increases significantly, with a 2 cm increase in exposed AVW length for every additional 1 cm of drop bladder location. A similar but weaker bilinear relationship exists between exposed AVW and apical location. Exposed vaginal wall length is also highly correlated with hiatus diameter (R2=0.85, P<0.001). Conclusion A bilinear relationship exists between exposed vaginal wall length and most dependent bladder location and apical location. It is when the bladder descent is beyond the inflection point that exposed vaginal wall length increases significantly. PMID:24737299

  15. Reference energy-altitude descent guidance: Simulator evaluation. [aircraft descent and fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbot, K. H.; Knox, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Descent guidance was developed to provide a pilot with information to ake a fuel-conservative descent and cross a designated geographical waypoint at a preselected altitude and airspeed. The guidance was designed to reduce fuel usage during the descent and reduce the mental work load associated with planning a fuel-conservative descent. A piloted simulation was conducted to evaluate the operational use of this guidance concept. The results of the simulation tests show that the use of the guidance reduced fuel consumption and mental work load during the descent. Use of the guidance also decreased the airspeed error, but had no effect on the altitude error when the designated waypoint was crossed. Physical work load increased with the use of the guidance, but remained well within acceptable levels. The pilots found the guidance easy to use as presented and reported that it would be useful in an operational environment.

  16. Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Adult Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case Report of Misclassification as Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kelven Weijing; Wu, Fiona Mei Wen; Lee, Victor Kwan Min; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan

    2015-01-01

    Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) of the adult urinary bladder is a rare malignant tumour. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) of the bladder is a benign genitourinary tumour that may appear variable histologically but usually lacks unequivocal malignant traits. Techniques like flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry may be used to differentiate these two tumours. Our patient, a 46-year-old male, had rapidly recurring lower urinary tract symptoms after two transurethral resections of the prostate. He subsequently underwent a transvesical prostatectomy which showed IMT on histology. However, his symptoms did not resolve and an open resection done at our institution revealed a 6?cm tumour arising from the right bladder neck. This time, histology was ERMS with diffuse anaplasia of the bladder. Rapid recurrence of urinary symptoms with prostate regrowth after surgery is unusual. Differential diagnoses of uncommon bladder malignancies should be considered if there is an inconsistent clinical course as treatment approaches are different. PMID:25737794

  17. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... increases your risk. In fact, 85 percent of head and neck cancers are linked to tobacco use, including smoking ...

  18. Neck Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the neck, is also called neck sprain or strain. Treatment depends on the cause, but may include applying ice, taking pain relievers, getting physical therapy or wearing a cervical collar. You rarely need surgery.

  19. Drug delivery device for bladder disorders

    E-print Network

    Lee, Heejin, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Several pathologies associated with the bladder have wide impacts on society. Overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) are chronic urological conditions characterized by pain, ...

  20. Overactive bladder--pharmacological aspects.

    PubMed

    Andersson, K E

    2002-01-01

    The micturition reflex can be initiated by contraction or distension of detrusor smooth muscle cells, or by signals from the urothelium. It has been shown that bladder distension causes release of ATP from the urothelium, and that ATP can activate P2X3 receptors on suburothelial afferent nerve terminals to evoke a neural discharge. However, most probably the activation of afferent fibres during bladder filling involves not only ATP, but a cascade of inhibitory and stimulatory transmitters/mediators. These mechanisms may be targets for future drugs. Both in the normal and functionally disturbed bladder, muscarinic receptor stimulation produces the main part of detrusor contraction, but evidence is accumulating that in disease states, such as neurogenic bladders, outflow obstruction, idiopathic detrusor instability, interstitial cystitis, and also in the ageing bladder, a non-cholinergic activation via purinergic receptors may occur. If this component of activation is responsible not only for part of the bladder contractions, but also for the symptoms of the overactive bladder, it should be considered an important target for therapeutic interventions. Drags blocking different P2X receptor subtypes, or counteracting bladder contraction via other mechanisms, e.g. beta3-adrenoceptor stimulation, may be developed for treatment of the overactive bladder. PMID:12475021

  1. Chemoprevention of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Ashish M; Lamm, Donald L

    2002-02-01

    The data presented herein, although highly supportive for a protective role of various nutrients against bladder cancer, are far from definitive. Many authorities question the validity of current recommendations for nutritional chemoprevention against bladder cancer. The reason for the wide variations reported in epidemiologic studies lies in the nature of observational studies. Dietary studies are limited in their conclusions because the protection afforded by the consumption of a particular nutrient may be multifactorial, with different components of the food exerting potential chemopreventive effects. Furthermore, measuring levels of nutrients in the food intake of populations is confounded by factors that might affect these levels and also the incidence of cancer. For example, vitamin A can come from animal or vegetarian sources. Because animal fat has been identified as a potential carcinogen in man, depending on the source of the vitamin, varying levels of protection might be deduced. In addition, chemoprevention studies using dietary supplements are expected to have mild effects, and large studies would be required to confirm statistical significance. Even with agents such as intravesical chemotherapy, only half the studies achieve statistical significance [29]. Prospective randomized trials with a large sample size, longer follow-up, and an extended duration of treatment are needed to clarify the association between micronutrients and cancer protection. With these caveats in mind, several recommendations can be made. Simple measures, such as drinking more fluids (especially water), can have a profound impact on the incidence of bladder cancer. Vitamins are being extensively studied in chemopreventive trials for different cancers. There is strong evidence for a chemoprotective effect of vitamin A in bladder cancer. The authors recommend 32,000 IU/day of vitamin A initially, with lower doses (24,000 IU) for persons less than 50 kg. Because liver toxicity is a possibility with long-term administration, the dose should be decreased to 16,000 IU after 3 years. High doses of beta-carotene should be avoided based on a large clinical trial reporting a 25% increase in the number of cases of prostate cancer and a statistically significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Vitamin B6 has been studied in several clinical trials in bladder cancer. The US-based Veterans Administration cooperative study found benefit for vitamin B6 when given as a single agent. Data for vitamins C and E are insufficient to recommend either agent as stand-alone treatment. Nonetheless, each of these vitamins is known to have beneficial effects, including improved function of the immune system. It is possible that only a small percentage of patients with bladder cancer respond to vitamins B6, C, or E, yet each is safe, nontoxic, and inexpensive. In an effort to pool the efficacy of individual agents and to increase the power of study, the authors evaluated the combination of vitamins A, B6, C, and E in a double-blind trial. The observed 50% 5-year reduction in tumor recurrence was highly significant and greater than would be expected for any of the individual ingredients and suggests that combinations of nutritional agents may be most appropriate. A large-volume study along similar lines is being conducted. Among the numerous other compounds and dietary substances purported to have chemopreventive effect, soybeans, garlic, and green tea stand out as having the greatest promise and can freely be recommended to patients. For synthetically synthesized agents such as celecoxib, piroxicam, or DFMO, recommendations must be deferred until the results of clinical trials are conclusively in favor of their use. Many of the dietary factors found to be protective against bladder cancer are being investigated in other cancers and are beneficial to general health. Although naturally occurring nutrients are ideal, especially because the delicate balance of various micronutrients might be impossible to synthesize in the laboratory, the general population

  2. Bladder repair following iatrogenic cystotomy in irradiated small capacity bladders

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Jia Yi; Durai, Pradeep; Wu, Mei Wen Fiona; Tiong, Ho Yee

    2015-01-01

    During laparotomy in a previously irradiated and operated pelvis, incidental cystotomies can occur and a tension-free, watertight, two- or three-layer closure of the bladder may be impossible. We herein report two cases of iatrogenic defects of the bladders in post-irradiated pelvises and compare the two different methods of bladder repair employed – an ileal augmentation segment used in the first case and bovine pericardial graft used in the second. Successful closures of the bladder defects were achieved in both cases. Native irradiated bowel and bovine pericardium can be useful substitutes in situations involving bladder defects in a previously irradiated pelvis. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches are also herein discussed. PMID:25820861

  3. Assessment of GPS radiosonde descent data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkat Ratnam, M.; Pravallika, N.; babu, S. Ravindra; Basha, G.; Pramitha, M.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.

    2013-12-01

    Radiosondes are widely used to obtain basic meteorological parameters such as pressure (P), temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and horizontal winds during the balloon ascent up to the altitude of balloon burst, usually ∼32-35 km. Data from the radiosondes released from Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), a tropical station in India, has been collected during the ascent and during the descent as well without attaching any parachute or its equivalent since the year 2008. In the present study an attempt has been made to characterize the radiosonde descent data with the main objective of exploring its usefulness and reliability for scientific purposes. We compared the data obtained during ascent and descent phases of the same sounding. The mean differences in T, RH and horizontal winds between ascent and descent data are found to be small and are sometimes even within the uncertainty of the measurements and/or expected diurnal variation itself. The very good consistency observed between the ascent and the descent data shows that one more profile of the meteorological parameters can be constructed within 3 h of time of balloon launch practically at no additional cost. Further checks are done by utilizing the 3 hourly radiosonde observations collected during the Tropical Tropopause Dynamics campaign conducted at Gadanki. In the process of checking the consistency between the radiosonde ascent and descent data, several new findings are arrived at and are reported in this study. In general, it has taken more than half-an-hour for the balloon to reach the ground from the burst altitude. It is also observed that the fall velocity is close to 10 m s-1 near the surface. Finally, it is suggested to record also the observations when the balloon is descending as this information is also useful for scientific purposes.

  4. Assessment of GPS radiosonde descent data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkat Ratnam, M.; Pravallika, N.; Babu, S. Ravindra; Basha, G.; Pramitha, M.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.

    2014-04-01

    Radiosondes are widely used to obtain basic meteorological parameters such as pressure (P), temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and horizontal winds during the balloon ascent up to the altitude of balloon burst, usually ~ 32-35 km. Data from the radiosondes released from Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), a tropical station in India, have been collected during the ascent and during the descent as well without attaching any parachute or its equivalent since the year 2008. In the present study an attempt has been made to characterize the radiosonde descent data with the main objective of exploring its usefulness and reliability for scientific purposes. We compared the data obtained during ascent and descent phases of the same sounding. The mean differences in T, RH and horizontal winds between ascent and descent data are found to be small and are sometimes even within the uncertainty of the measurements and/or expected diurnal variation itself. The very good consistency observed between the ascent and the descent data shows that one more profile of the meteorological parameters can be constructed within 3 h of time of balloon launch practically at no additional cost. Further checks are done by utilizing the 3-hourly radiosonde observations collected during the Tropical Tropopause Dynamics campaigns conducted at Gadanki. In the process of checking the consistency between the radiosonde ascent and descent data, several new findings are arrived at and are reported in this study. In general, it has taken more than half an hour for the balloon to reach the ground from the burst altitude. It is also observed that the fall velocity is close to 10 m s-1 near the surface. Finally, it is suggested to record the observations also when the balloon is descending as this information is useful for scientific purposes.

  5. A bladder-to-bladder cooling reflex in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Fall, M; Lindström, S; Mazières, L

    1990-01-01

    1. Reflex effects of cold stimulation of the lower urinary tract were studied in cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose. The bladder and the urethra were catheterized for separate fluid instillations and the bladder pressure was monitored together with the evoked efferent nerve responses in pelvic nerve filaments. 2. A bladder cooling reflex could be evoked from both the bladder and the urethra. The response was an efferent discharge in preganglionic pelvic motor fibres to the bladder. 3. Bladder mechanoreceptors that drive the normal micturition reflex were not directly involved in the cooling reflex. Their tension sensitivity was decreased by cooling and the efferent reflex response typically occurred before any activation of these receptors. The efferent activity of the cooling reflex also survived an intentional unloading of the mechanoreceptors, a manipulation that abolishes the normal micturition reflex. 4. The dynamic threshold temperature of the cooling reflex was about 30-32 degrees C, which was at the thermal neutral point of the bladder in our experimental situation. 5. The bladder-evoked component of the reflex was greatly reduced or abolished by an intravesical infusion of the local anaesthetic Xylocaine. It was also abolished by total bladder denervation. 6. The vesical component of the reflex was unchanged by bilateral transections of the hypogastric nerves but abolished by pelvic nerve transection. The cooling reflex from the distal urethra was abolished by transection of the pudendal nerves. 7. It was proposed that the cooling reflex originates from cold receptors in the bladder and urethral walls and that the responsible afferent fibres are unmyelinated C fibres. The function of the reflex may be to rid the body of a thermal ballast when under cooling stress. PMID:2213600

  6. Entry, Descent, and Landing With Propulsive Deceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet s moons atmospheres for entry, descent, and landing can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions.

  7. Immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fuge, Oliver; Vasdev, Nikhil; Allchorne, Paula; Green, James SA

    2015-01-01

    It is nearly 40 years since Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) was first used as an immunotherapy to treat superficial bladder cancer. Despite its limitations, to date it has not been surpassed by any other treatment. As a better understanding of its mechanism of action and the clinical response to it have evolved, some of the questions around optimal dosing and treatment protocols have been answered. However, its potential for toxicity and failure to produce the desired clinical effect in a significant cohort of patients presents an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. This review summarizes the evidence behind the established mechanism of action of BCG in bladder cancer, highlighting the extensive array of immune molecules that have been implicated in its action. The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain. The problems of toxicity and non-responders to BCG have led to development of new techniques aimed at addressing these pitfalls. The progress made in the laboratory has led to the identification of novel targets for the development of new immunotherapies. This includes the potential augmentation of BCG with various immune factors through to techniques avoiding the use of BCG altogether; for example, using interferon-activated mononuclear cells, BCG cell wall, or BCG cell wall skeleton. The potential role of gene, virus, or photodynamic therapy as an alternative to BCG is also reviewed. Recent interest in the immune check point system has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies against proteins involved in this pathway. Early findings suggest benefit in metastatic disease, although the role in superficial bladder cancer remains unclear. PMID:26000263

  8. [Deep neck infections].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold

    2006-01-01

    Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible. PMID:17152800

  9. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with bladder cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Jonine D.; Ye, Yuanqing; Siddiq, Afshan; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Cortessis, Victoria K.; Kooperberg, Charles; Cussenot, Olivier; Benhamou, Simone; Prescott, Jennifer; Porru, Stefano; Dinney, Colin P.; Malats, Núria; Baris, Dalsu; Purdue, Mark; Jacobs, Eric J.; Albanes, Demetrius; Wang, Zhaoming; Deng, Xiang; Chung, Charles C.; Tang, Wei; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ljungberg, Börje; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Travis, Ruth; Tjønneland, Anne; Brenan, Paul; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Riboli, Elio; Conti, David; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Stern, Mariana C.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Van Den Berg, David; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hohensee, Chancellor; Rodabough, Rebecca; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Roupret, Morgan; Comperat, Eva; Chen, Constance; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara; Carta, Angela; Pavanello, Sofia; Arici, Cecilia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Kamat, Ashish M.; Lerner, Seth P.; Barton Grossman, H.; Lin, Jie; Gu, Jian; Pu, Xia; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdette, Laurie; Wheeler, William; Kogevinas, Manolis; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Johnson, Alison; Schned, Alan; Armenti, Karla R.; Hosain, G.M.; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Ryan Diver, W.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Haiman, Chris A.; Landi, Maria T.; Caporaso, Neil; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Vineis, Paolo; Wu, Xifeng; Silverman, Debra T.; Chanock, Stephen; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 11 independent susceptibility loci associated with bladder cancer risk. To discover additional risk variants, we conducted a new GWAS of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with two independently published bladder cancer GWAS, resulting in a combined analysis of 6911 cases and 11 814 controls of European descent. TaqMan genotyping of 13 promising single nucleotide polymorphisms with P < 1 × 10?5 was pursued in a follow-up set of 801 cases and 1307 controls. Two new loci achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs10936599 on 3q26.2 (P = 4.53 × 10?9) and rs907611 on 11p15.5 (P = 4.11 × 10?8). Two notable loci were also identified that approached genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 on 20p12.2 (P = 7.13 × 10?7) and rs4510656 on 6p22.3 (P = 6.98 × 10?7); these require further studies for confirmation. In conclusion, our study has identified new susceptibility alleles for bladder cancer risk that require fine-mapping and laboratory investigation, which could further understanding into the biological underpinnings of bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:24163127

  10. Research study: STS-1 Orbiter Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of STS-1 orbiter descent data from AVE-SESAME contact programs to the REEDA system and the reduction of raw radiosonde data is summarized. A first difference program, contact data program, plot data program, and 30 second data program were developed. Six radiosonde soundings were taken. An example of the outputs of each of the programs is presented.

  11. Descent Assisted Split Habitat Lunar Lander Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The Descent Assisted Split Habitat (DASH) lunar lander concept utilizes a disposable braking stage for descent and a minimally sized pressurized volume for crew transport to and from the lunar surface. The lander can also be configured to perform autonomous cargo missions. Although a braking-stage approach represents a significantly different operational concept compared with a traditional two-stage lander, the DASH lander offers many important benefits. These benefits include improved crew egress/ingress and large-cargo unloading; excellent surface visibility during landing; elimination of the need for deep-throttling descent engines; potentially reduced plume-surface interactions and lower vertical touchdown velocity; and reduced lander gross mass through efficient mass staging and volume segmentation. This paper documents the conceptual study on various aspects of the design, including development of sortie and outpost lander configurations and a mission concept of operations; the initial descent trajectory design; the initial spacecraft sizing estimates and subsystem design; and the identification of technology needs

  12. America's Descent into Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes America's descent into madness under the regime of neoliberalism that has emerged in the United States since the late 1970s. In part, this is due to the emergence of a public pedagogy produced by the corporate-owned media that now saturates Americans with a market-driven value system that undermines those formative…

  13. Bladder Injury During Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tarney, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean section is the most common surgery performed in the United States with over 30% of deliveries occurring via this route. This number is likely to increase given decreasing rates of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) and primary cesarean delivery on maternal request, which carries the inherent risk for intraoperative complications. Urologic injury is the most common injury at the time of either obstetric or gynecologic surgery, with the bladder being the most frequent organ damaged. Risk factors for bladder injury during cesarean section include previous cesarean delivery, adhesions, emergent cesarean delivery, and cesarean section performed at the time of the second stage of labor. Fortunately, most bladder injuries are recognized at the time of surgery, which is important, as quick recognition and repair are associated with a significant reduction in patient mortality. Although cesarean delivery is a cornerstone of obstetrics, there is a paucity of data in the literature either supporting or refuting specific techniques that are performed today. There is evidence to support double-layer closure of the hysterotomy, the routine use of adhesive barriers, and performing a Pfannenstiel skin incision versus a vertical midline subumbilical incision to decrease the risk for bladder injury during cesarean section. There is also no evidence that supports the creation of a bladder flap, although routinely performed during cesarean section, as a method to reduce the risk of bladder injury. Finally, more research is needed to determine if indwelling catheterization, exteriorization of the uterus, and methods to extend hysterotomy incision lead to bladder injury. PMID:24876830

  14. Underactive Bladder in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Plata, Mauricio; Lamb, Laura E; Chancellor, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Overactive bladder is one of the most common bladder problems, but an estimated 20 million Americans have underactive bladder (UAB), which makes going to the bathroom difficult, increases the risk of urinary tract infections, and even leads to institutionalization. This article provides an overview of UAB in older adults, and discusses the prevalence, predisposing factors, cause, clinical investigations, and treatments. At present, there is no effective therapy for UAB. A great deal of work still needs to be done on understanding the pathogenesis and the development of effective therapies. PMID:26476113

  15. Outcome Measurement of Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Lien, Chi-Shun; Chieh-Lung Chou, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common disease. The diagnosis of OAB is based on its symptoms without physiological markers of disease activity. Frequently used assessment methods for OAB include frequency volume chart; urodynamic studies; patient-reported outcomes questionnaires, such as the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire, King's Health Questionnaire, patient perception of bladder conditions; and OAB symptom score. The severity of OAB and degree of improvement after treatment can be obtained by comprehensive evaluation. However, a consensus of which evaluations should be used to define the severity of OAB is still lacking. We expect a proper OAB assessment with universal acceptance in the future. PMID:26676702

  16. [Transurethral resection of bladder neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Tóth, J; Pósta, B; Schmautzer, J; Kisbenedek, L; Balogh, F

    1976-01-01

    The technique of removal of bladder tumours is discussed on the basis of experience with transurethral resection performed on 200 patients suffering from bladder tumour (113 benign and 87 malignant tumours). The indications for the intervention are as follows. With benign tumours, resection has to be given preference over exposure. When malignant tumours are operable and situated on the mobile part of the bladder, radical surgery is recommended. When the tumour is in some other position, transurethral resection is the procedure of choice. PMID:1020578

  17. [Bladder stone surgery in antiquity].

    PubMed

    Lindekleiv, Haakon; Skjaerpe, Paal André; Due, Jan

    2007-12-13

    Bladder stone with subsequent urinary retention was a common and challenging disease up to the 19 th century, and still is in tropical countries. Surgery has been used to remove stones (lithotomy) or to break them into small pieces (lithotripsy) since antiquity. If surgery was impossible, the urinary retention could be relieved with a catheter. The surgical technique for bladder stone remained unchanged up to the 16 th century, and some of its principles are still employed in urology. This article translates parts of Aulus Cornelius Celsus' treatise on bladder stone, found in his encyclopedia "De Medicina". The text is compared with archaeological findings from Pompeii. PMID:18084381

  18. Primary multiple clear cell variant urothelial carcinomas of urinary bladder: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yutao; Huang, Jun; Feng, Hao; Tang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell variant urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder was very rare. There were only 6 report articles included by Pubmed and total 8 cases had been described till now. All of the past reports described single tumor of urinary bladder, but multiple carcinomas had not been reported. Here we reported a 65-years-old Chinese man who complained of intermittent gross hematuria and odynuria for more than 2 months in January 2013. Only one cauliflower-like tumor was detected approximately in the left wall of the urinary bladder with cystoscopy and the biopsy specimen was diagnosed as "urothelial carcinoma, high grade". However, three tumors were found in anterior wall (×2) near neck of urinary bladder and posterior wall (×1) of the urinary bladder during transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. Typical urothelial carcinoma with partial clear cell appearance made it difficult to make a precise pathological diagnosis and immunohistochemical stain helped to diagnose the case as clear cell variant urothelial carcinoma, but not metastasis of the renal cell carcinoma. Finally, computerized tomographic scanning confirmed that there was no primary tumor in the kidney. The clinical and pathological characteristic had not been identified for the limited reports. More work should be done to know this kind of tumor well for guiding clinical therapy. PMID:25031765

  19. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What ... there any new developments in treating my disease? Head and neck cancer overview The way a particular head and ...

  20. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  1. Genetic polymorphism in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xifeng; Lin, Xin; Dinney, Colin P; Gu, Jian; Grossman, H Barton

    2007-01-01

    Individual variation in the genetic constitution of humans may affect the host responses to constant assaults from exogenous and endogenous carcinogens, which will eventually impact cancer risk, disease prognosis and clinical outcome. Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. In this review, the published research articles studying the association between genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk and disease progression are summarized. Genetic polymorphisms are categorized based on their primary cellular functions: genes in carcinogen metabolism, DNA repair, cell cycle control, inflammation, apoptosis, methylation, genes functioning as G proteins, and cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, we discuss a number of limitations of current genetic susceptibility research and suggest future directions in molecular epidemiology study. This review presents an overview of current molecular epidemiology of bladder cancer and provides a useful resource for understanding the pathogenesis of bladder cancer. PMID:17127293

  2. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePLUS

    American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS History AHNS Leadership Past Presidents In Memory Professionalism & Ethics Find A Specialist Humanitarian Efforts AHNS ...

  3. Inflammatory myofibroblastic bladder tumor in a patient with wolf-hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marte, Antonio; Indolfi, Paolo; Ficociello, Carmine; Russo, Daniela; Oreste, Matilde; Bottigliero, Gaetano; Gualdiero, Giovanna; Barone, Ciro; Vigliar, Elena; Indolfi, Cristiana; Casale, Fiorina

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare neoplasm described in several tissues and organs including genitourinary system, lung, head, and neck. The etiology of IMT is contentious, and whether it is a postinflammatory process or a true neoplasm remains controversial. To our knowledge, we report the first reported case of IMT of urinary bladder in a pediatric patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn (WHS). We also review the literature about patients with associated neoplasia. PMID:24024066

  4. A healthy bladder: a consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Lukacz, E S; Sampselle, C; Gray, M; MacDiarmid, S; Rosenberg, M; Ellsworth, P; Palmer, M H

    2011-01-01

    A panel of experts in urology, urogynecology, nursing, and behavioral therapy convened in 2010 to discuss the importance of a healthy bladder on overall health. They determined that a consensus statement was necessary to raise awareness among the general public, healthcare providers, payors, and policymakers, with the goals of minimizing the impact of poor bladder health and stimulating primary prevention of bladder conditions. In this statement, ‘healthy’ bladder function is described, as well as internal and external factors that influence bladder health. It is suggested that primary prevention strategies should be aimed at providing education regarding normal lower urinary tract structures and functioning to the public, including patients and healthcare providers. This education may promote the achievement of optimal bladder health by increasing healthy bladder habits and behaviors, awareness of risk factors, healthcare seeking, and clinician engagement and reducing stigma and other barriers to treatment. Promoting optimal bladder health may reduce the personal, societal and economic impact of bladder conditions, including anxiety and depression and costs associated with conditions or diseases and their treatment. While adopting healthy bladder habits and behaviors and behaviors may improve or maintain bladder health, it is important to recognize that certain symptoms may indicate the presence of conditions that require medical attention; many bladder conditions are treatable with a range of options for most bladder conditions. Lastly, the authors propose clinical directives based on persuasive and convergent research to improve and maintain bladder health. The authors hope that this statement will lead to promotion and achievement of optimal bladder health, which may improve overall health and help minimize the effects of bladder conditions on the public, healthcare professionals, educators, employers, and payors. The advisors are in consensus regarding the recommendations for improving and maintaining bladder health presented herein. PMID:21923844

  5. Familial factors in bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lynch, H T; Walzak, M P; Fried, R; Domina, A H; Lynch, J F

    1979-10-01

    Surprisingly, little is known about host factors in cases of bladder carcinoma. We investigated 2 families prone to transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A high degree of pathology verification of cancer of all anatomic sites and a meticulous recording of genealogy, associated diseases and environmental exposures, when known, have allowed a more cogent appraisal of cancer etiology. It is reasonable to assume that members of the subject families may be more susceptible to variable carcinogenic exposures, a concept that is in accord with a genetic-environmental interaction hypothesis for cancer etiology. In addition to increased surveillance of high risk patients for earlier detection of bladder cancer, cancer control measures also should take into consideration preventive programs directed toward the avoidance of known carcinogenic exposures, such as cigarette smoking in high risk relatives of cancer-affected probands. We propose that the etiology of familial bladder cancer may be complex, involving possible other associated malignant neoplasms and/or certain non-neoplastic disorders, in addition to specific carcinogenic exposures. There is a serious need for the detailed reporting of families prone to bladder cancer wherein all of these potentially important associated factors are considered, so that a fuller appraisal of etiology might be achieved. PMID:480484

  6. Caudal clonidine-bupivicaine block with bladder hydrodistension: a novel combined treatment for the painful bladder.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Heidi; Stoneham, Mark; Frampton, Claire; Noble, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a new combination procedure consisting of bladder hydrodistension with clonidine-bupivicaine caudal block for the symptomatic relief of bladder pain. They report this new technique whereby patients who had tried multiple forms of therapy with little response, including bladder hydrodistension under general anaesthesia for their chronic pelvic bladder pain, responded to this novel combination therapy. PMID:22696635

  7. TCGA head Neck

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  8. Torticollis (wry neck) (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Torticollis is a form of dystonia (prolonged muscle contractions) in which the neck muscles, particularly the sternocleidomastoid muscle, contract involuntarily causing the head to turn. Torticollis may occur without known cause (idiopathic), ...

  9. Melanoma - neck (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    This melanoma on the neck is variously colored with a very darkly pigmented area found centrally. It has irregular ... be larger than 0.5 cm. Prognosis in melanoma is best defined by its depth on resection.

  10. Talar neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Berlet, G C; Lee, T H; Massa, E G

    2001-01-01

    Clinical management of talar neck fractures is complex and fraught with complications. As Gaius Julius Caesar stated: "The die is cast"; often the outcome of a talar neck fracture is determined at the time of injury. The authors believe, however, that better results can be achieved by following some simple guidelines. The authors advocate prompt and precise anatomic surgical reduction, preferring the medial approach with secondary anterolateral approach. Preservation of blood supply can be achieved by a thorough understanding of vascular pathways and efforts to stay within appropriate surgical intervals. The authors advocate bone grafting of medial neck comminution (if present) to prevent varus malalignment and rigid internal fixation to allow for joint mobilization postoperatively. These guidelines may seem simple, but when dealing with the complexity of talar neck fractures, the foot and ankle surgeon needs to focus and rely on easily grasped concepts to reduce poor outcomes. PMID:11465133

  11. Descent Relations and Oscillator Level Truncation Method

    E-print Network

    I. Ya. Aref'eva; R. Gorbachev; P. B. Medvedev; D. V. Rychkov

    2006-06-08

    We reexamine the oscillator level truncation method in the bosonic String Field Theory (SFT) by calculation the descent relation =Z_3

  12. System for Estimating Horizontal Velocity During Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Andrew; Cheng, Yang; Wilson, Reg; Goguen, Jay; Martin, Alejandro San; Leger, Chris; Matthies, Larry

    2007-01-01

    The descent image motion estimation system (DIMES) is a system of hardware and software, designed for original use in estimating the horizontal velocity of a spacecraft descending toward a landing on Mars. The estimated horizontal velocity is used in generating rocket-firing commands to reduce the horizontal velocity as part of an overall control scheme to minimize the landing impact. DIMES can also be used for estimating the horizontal velocity of a remotely controlled or autonomous aircraft for purposes of navigation and control.

  13. Implantable Bladder Sensors: A Methodological Review

    PubMed Central

    Dakurah, Mathias Naangmenkpeong; Koo, Chiwan; Choi, Wonseok; Joung, Yeun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The loss of urinary bladder control/sensation, also known as urinary incontinence (UI), is a common clinical problem in autistic children, diabetics, and the elderly. UI not only causes discomfort for patients but may also lead to kidney failure, infections, and even death. The increase of bladder urine volume/pressure above normal ranges without sensation of UI patients necessitates the need for bladder sensors. Currently, a catheter-based sensor is introduced directly through the urethra into the bladder to measure pressure variations. Unfortunately, this method is inaccurate because measurement is affected by disturbances in catheter lines as well as delays in response time owing to the inertia of urine inside the bladder. Moreover, this technique can cause infection during prolonged use; hence, it is only suitable for short-term measurement. Development of discrete wireless implantable sensors to measure bladder volume/pressure would allow for long-term monitoring within the bladder, while maintaining the patient’s quality of life. With the recent advances in microfabrication, the size of implantable bladder sensors has been significantly reduced. However, microfabricated sensors face hostility from the bladder environment and require surgical intervention for implantation inside the bladder. Here, we explore the various types of implantable bladder sensors and current efforts to solve issues like hermeticity, biocompatibility, drift, telemetry, power, and compatibility issues with popular imaging tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We also discuss some possible improvements/emerging trends in the design of an implantable bladder sensor. PMID:26620894

  14. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to <95% of the prescribed dose. The dose distribution in the rectum and intestines was better with a 'partially empty' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm{sup 3} for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm{sup 3} for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with a 'partially empty' than with a 'full' bladder.

  15. Regression Analysis of Top of Descent Location for Idle-thrust Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stell, Laurel; Bronsvoort, Jesper; McDonald, Greg

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, multiple regression analysis is used to model the top of descent (TOD) location of user-preferred descent trajectories computed by the flight management system (FMS) on over 1000 commercial flights into Melbourne, Australia. The independent variables cruise altitude, final altitude, cruise Mach, descent speed, wind, and engine type were also recorded or computed post-operations. Both first-order and second-order models are considered, where cross-validation, hypothesis testing, and additional analysis are used to compare models. This identifies the models that should give the smallest errors if used to predict TOD location for new data in the future. A model that is linear in TOD altitude, final altitude, descent speed, and wind gives an estimated standard deviation of 3.9 nmi for TOD location given the trajec- tory parameters, which means about 80% of predictions would have error less than 5 nmi in absolute value. This accuracy is better than demonstrated by other ground automation predictions using kinetic models. Furthermore, this approach would enable online learning of the model. Additional data or further knowl- edge of algorithms is necessary to conclude definitively that no second-order terms are appropriate. Possible applications of the linear model are described, including enabling arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the FMS even in congested airspace. In particular, a model for TOD location that is linear in the independent variables would enable decision support tool human-machine interfaces for which a kinetic approach would be computationally too slow.

  16. Krylov Subspace Descent for Deep Learning

    E-print Network

    Vinyals, Oriol

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a second order optimization method to learn models where both the dimensionality of the parameter space and the number of training samples is high. In our method, we construct on each iteration a Krylov subspace formed by the gradient and an approximation to the Hessian matrix, and then use a subset of the training data samples to optimize over this subspace. As with the Hessian Free (HF) method of [7], the Hessian matrix is never explicitly constructed, and is computed using a subset of data. In practice, as in HF, we typically use a positive definite substitute for the Hessian matrix such as the Gauss-Newton matrix. We investigate the effectiveness of our proposed method on deep neural networks, and compare its performance to widely used methods such as stochastic gradient descent, conjugate gradient descent and L-BFGS, and also to HF. Our method leads to faster convergence than either L-BFGS or HF, and generally performs better than either of them in cross-validation accuracy. It ...

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Chen, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently places the Curiosity rove on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview to the MSL entry, descent and landing system design and preliminary flight performance results.

  18. Coordinate Descent with Arbitrary Sampling II: Expected Separable Overapproximation

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    general approach, which is based on the study of eigenvalues associated with samplings and the data, Accelerated Coordinate Descent Meth- ods for Big Data Optimization. Most of the material of this paperCoordinate Descent with Arbitrary Sampling II: Expected Separable Overapproximation Zheng Qu Peter

  19. Coordinate Descent with Arbitrary Sampling I: Algorithms and Complexity

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Introduction With the dawn of the big data age, there has been a growing interest in solving optimization the EPSRC Grant EP/K02325X/1, Accelerated Coordinate Descent Meth- ods for Big Data Optimization. MostCoordinate Descent with Arbitrary Sampling I: Algorithms and Complexity Zheng Qu Peter Richt

  20. Cortical network functional connectivity in the descent to sleep

    E-print Network

    Larson-Prior, Linda

    dreaming (7, 15, 16). REM sleep is also marked by atonia in skeletal muscles, reducing the abilityCortical network functional connectivity in the descent to sleep Linda J. Larson-Priora,1 , John M, 2009 (sent for review June 6, 2008) Descent into sleep is accompanied by disengagement of the con

  1. Coevolution by Common Descent of Fungal Symbionts Grass Hosts

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    Coevolution by Common Descent of Fungal Symbionts Grass Hosts Christopher L. Schardl,* Adrian Clavicipitaceae) that are ecologically obligate symbionts of grasses. Because they can enhance host fitness of coevolution by common descent of Epichlol?'and grass species was addressed by surveying grasses

  2. Cancer of the Urinary Bladder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2015 74,000 % of All New Cancer Cases 4.5% Estimated Deaths in 2015 16,000 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2012, there were an estimated 577,403 people living with bladder cancer in ...

  3. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  4. Chenopod salt bladders deter insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    LoPresti, E F

    2014-03-01

    Trichomes on leaves and stems of certain chenopods (Chenopodiaceae) are modified with a greatly enlarged apical cell (a salt bladder), containing a huge central vacuole. These structures may aid in the extreme salt tolerance of many species by concentrating salts in the vacuole. Bladders eventually burst, covering the leaf in residue of bladder membranes and solid precipitates. The presence of this system in non-halophytic species suggests additional functions. I tested the novel hypothesis that these bladders have a defensive function against insect herbivores using choice, no choice, and field tests. Generalist insect herbivores preferred to feed on leaves without salt bladders in choice tests. In no choice tests, herbivores consumed less leaf matter with bladders. In a field test, leaves from which I had removed bladders suffered greater herbivory than adjacent leaves with bladders. Solutions containing bladders added to otherwise preferred leaves deterred herbivores, suggesting a water-soluble chemical component to the defense. This bladder system has a defensive function in at least four genera of chenopods. Salt bladders may be a structural defense, like spines or domatia, but also have a chemical defense component. PMID:24241642

  5. Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. PMID:21941546

  6. Bridle Device in Mars Science Laboratory Descent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view of a portion of the descent stage of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory shows two of the stage's three spherical fuel tanks flanking the bridle device assembly. The photograph was taken in early October 2008 from the center of the descent stage looking outward. The top of the descent stage is toward the top of the image.

    The bridle device assembly is about two-thirds of a meter, or 2 feet, from top to bottom, and has two main parts. The cylinder on the top is the descent brake. The conical-shaped mechanism below that is the bridle assembly, including a spool of nylon and Vectran cords that will be attached to the rover.

    When pyrotechnic bolts fire to sever the rigid connection between the rover and the descent stage, gravity will pull the tethered rover away from the descent stage. The bridle or tether, attached to three points on the rover, will unspool from the bridle assembly, beginning from the larger-diameter portion. The rotation rate of the assembly, hence the descent rate of the rover, will be governed by the descent brake. Inside the housing of that brake are gear boxes and banks of mechanical resistors engineered to prevent the bridle from spooling out too quickly or too slowly. The length of the bridle will allow the rover to be lowered about 7.5 meters (25 feet) while still tethered to the descent stage.

    The Starsys division of SpaceDev Inc., Poway, Calif., provided the descent brake. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., built the bridle assembly. Vectran is a product of Kuraray Co. Ltd., Tokyo. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  7. WNT3 involvement in human bladder exstrophy and cloaca development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Baranowska Körberg, Izabella; Hofmeister, Wolfgang; Markljung, Ellen; Cao, Jia; Nilsson, Daniel; Ludwig, Michael; Draaken, Markus; Holmdahl, Gundela; Barker, Gillian; Reutter, Heiko; Vukojevi?, Vladana; Clementson Kockum, Christina; Lundin, Johanna; Lindstrand, Anna; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2015-09-15

    Bladder exstrophy, a severe congenital urological malformation when a child is born with an open urinary bladder, is the most common form of bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC) with an incidence of 1:30,000 children of Caucasian descent. Recent studies suggest that WNT genes may contribute to the etiology of bladder exstrophy. Here, we evaluated WNT-pathway genes in 20 bladder exstrophy patients using massively parallel sequencing. In total 13 variants were identified in WNT3, WNT6, WNT7A, WNT8B, WNT10A, WNT11, WNT16, FZD5, LRP1 and LRP10 genes and predicted as potentially disease causing, of which seven variants were novel. One variant, identified in a patient with a de novo nonsynonymous substitution in WNT3 (p.Cys91Arg), was further evaluated in zebrafish. Knock down of wnt3 in zebrafish showed cloaca malformations, including disorganization of the cloaca epithelium and expansion of the cloaca lumen. Our study suggests that the function of the WNT3 p.Cys91Arg variant was altered, since RNA overexpression of mutant Wnt3 RNA does not result in embryonic lethality as seen with wild-type WNT3 mRNA. Finally, we also mutation screened the WNT3 gene further in 410 DNA samples from BEEC cases and identified one additional mutation c.638G>A (p.Gly213Asp), which was paternally inherited. In aggregate our data support the involvement of WNT-pathway genes in BEEC and suggest that WNT3 in itself is a rare cause of BEEC. PMID:26105184

  8. Head and Neck Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Rotenberg, Dov

    1987-01-01

    Tumours of the head and neck show a wide spectrum of natural behaviour ranging from the most benign to the extremely lethal. Investigative techniques are of limited usefulness. History and physical examination are the foundations for diagnosis, though ultimate proof rests on surgical biopsy. The author of this article discusses the more common head and neck neoplasms. He gives brief descriptions of some tumours, highlighting their specific characteristics and their natural behaviour. He also suggests methods of investigation and gives brief overviews of modes of therapy. He discusses advances in management of head and neck neoplasms within the past decade and describes the technique of fine-needle cytologic aspirate. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:21263883

  9. Vertical neck lifting.

    PubMed

    Jacono, Andrew A; Talei, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    The authors' vertical neck lifting procedure is an extended deep plane facelift, which elevates the skin and SMAS-platysma complex as a composite unit. The goal is to redrape cervicomental laxity vertically onto the face rather than laterally and postauricularly. The authors consider this an extended technique because it lengthens the deep plane flap from the angle of the mandible into the neck to release the cervical retaining ligaments that limit platysmal redraping. This technique does not routinely use midline platysmal surgery because it counteracts the extent of vertical redraping. A majority of aging face patients are good candidates for this procedure in isolation, but indications for combining vertical neck lifting with submental surgery are elucidated. PMID:24745389

  10. Two-dimensional Experiments With Descent Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubiak, B.

    We examine the question of convergence of four descent variational algorithms: con- jugate gradient (cg), conjugate gradient squared (cgs), generalized minimum resid- ual (gmres) and transpose-free quasi minimal residual method (tfqmr) using two- dimensional, realistic, randomly located observational network. For the case of ac- curate uncorrelated observations and weakly correlated background error we define three diagnostic techniques and tested them for three different background error cor- relation models: SOAR, Gaussian and compact spline. The convergence rate depends largely on the condition number of innovation matrix. We found that practical mea- sure of the convergence can be based on estimating the norm of the gradient of the cost function. The norm is defined as the square root of the sum of the elements of the gradient and can be estimated at each iteration step. Other diagnostic techniques tested are more costly and can be used in simple situations only.

  11. Distributed Control by Lagrangian Steepest Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Bieniawski, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Often adaptive, distributed control can be viewed as an iterated game between independent players. The coupling between the players mixed strategies, arising as the system evolves from one instant to the next, is determined by the system designer. Information theory tells us that the most likely joint strategy of the players, given a value of the expectation of the overall control objective function, is the minimizer of a function o the joint strategy. So the goal of the system designer is to speed evolution of the joint strategy to that Lagrangian mhimbhgpoint,lowerthe expectated value of the control objective function, and repeat Here we elaborate the theory of algorithms that do this using local descent procedures, and that thereby achieve efficient, adaptive, distributed control.

  12. Head and neck melanoma.

    PubMed

    Shashanka, R; Smitha, B R

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma appears to be increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world over the past 30-40 years and continues to increase in the United States, Canada, Australia, Asia, and Europe. The behavior of head and neck melanoma is aggressive, and it has an overall poorer prognosis than that of other skin sites. The authors review the published literature and text books, intending to give an overall picture of malignant melanomas of the head and neck and a special emphasis on treatment considerations with controversies in treatment including biopsy, radiation therapy, sentinel node biopsy, and nodal dissection. PMID:22570796

  13. Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Nasir

    2007-02-01

    Among the many sites for primary small cell cancer is the genitourinary system. The majority of cases have been observed in the bladder and prostate. Small cell carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Definitive predisposing factors are unknown; however, small cell carcinoma of the bladder has been associated with cigarette smoking, long-standing cystitis, bladder calculus, and augmented cystoplasty. Contrary to the early theory of derivation from Kulchitsky cells, it is now believed that small cell carcinoma of the bladder originates from the totipotent stem cells present in the submucosa of the bladder wall. A number of chromosomal aberrations have been reported in small cell cancer of the bladder. There are no specific clinical features that differentiate these patients from transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder; however, some patients may have associated paraneoplastic conditions. Diagnosis is established by cystoscopic-assisted biopsy. Like small cell carcinoma of the lung, small cell carcinoma of the bladder has a propensity for early metastases. There is no standard therapy for small cell carcinoma of the bladder and the prognosis is poor; however, patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens seem to have a better prognosis. PMID:17270661

  14. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Phani B.; Patra, Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  15. Surface erosion caused on Mars from Viking descent engine plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, R. E.; Moore, H. J.; Scott, R. F.; Shorthill, R. W.; Spitzer, C. R.

    1980-11-01

    During the Martian landings the descent engine plumes on Viking Lander 1 (VL-1) and Viking Lander 2 (VL-2) eroded the Martian surface materials. This had been anticipated and investigated both analytically and experimentally during the design phase of the Viking spacecraft. This paper presents data on erosion obtained during the tests of the Viking descent engine and the evidence for erosion by the descent engines of VL-1 and VL-2 on Mars. From these and other results, it is concluded that there are four distinct surface materials on Mars: (1) drift materials, (2) crusty to cloddy material, (3) blocky material, and (4) rock.

  16. [Plastic repair of the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Bondar', G V; Bulava, V V; Panova, L A

    1976-01-01

    Clinical observations of 76 patients in whom an artifical urinary bladder was constructed from the rectum are presented. 52 patients were operated upon for cancer of the urinary bladder, total papillomatosis, a metastasis of uterine cancer in the bladder, cancer of the sigmoid with the urinary bladder involvement, sarcoma and cancer of the prostate with the bladder involvement. 17 patients were operated upon for extrophy, 7 -- for cancer of the urethra. An isolation of the rectum is followed by ligation of the upper rectal and vein. Fifteen patients died postoperatively due to peritonitis (6), ascending infection of the urinary tract (4), postoperative shock (I), phlegmon of the minor pelvis (I). In late postoperative period an artificial urinary bladder provides for reservoir and excretory functions. PMID:997414

  17. Ultrasound and Biomarker Tests in Predicting Cancer Aggressiveness in Tissue Samples of Patients With Bladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-07

    Bladder Papillary Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage 0a Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage 0is Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer With Carcinoma In Situ; Stage I Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage II Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage III Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma

  18. Descent relations in type-0A and type-0B theories David Mattoon Thompson*

    E-print Network

    Romps, David M.

    Descent relations in type-0A and type-0B theories David Mattoon Thompson* Jefferson Physical of this added complication, we find the descent relations for D-branes in the type-0A and 0B theories insight into type-0 D-branes by working out the descent relations for type-0 theories. Sen's descent

  19. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-30

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

  20. A Coordinate Descent Algorithm for Learning Compact Ranking Functions

    E-print Network

    Singer, Yoram

    A Coordinate Descent Algorithm for Learning Compact Ranking Functions Mark Stevens stevensm@google.com Samy Bengio bengio@google.com Yoram Singer singer@google.com Abstract Algorithms for learning to rank

  1. Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coopenbarger, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

  2. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  3. Explicit 8-Descent on Elliptic Curves Sebastian Karl Michael Stamminger

    E-print Network

    Stoll, Michael

    of Defense : December 09, 2005 School of Engineering and Science #12;ii #12;Abstract In this thesis I was the driving force for developing this method of 8-descent. With the program I wrote I was able to find

  4. 14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...be determined for the most critical uncontrolled descent that can result from any single failure of the heater assembly, fuel cell system, gas value system, or maneuvering vent system, or from any single tear in the balloon envelope between...

  5. 14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...be determined for the most critical uncontrolled descent that can result from any single failure of the heater assembly, fuel cell system, gas value system, or maneuvering vent system, or from any single tear in the balloon envelope between...

  6. 14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...be determined for the most critical uncontrolled descent that can result from any single failure of the heater assembly, fuel cell system, gas value system, or maneuvering vent system, or from any single tear in the balloon envelope between...

  7. 14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...be determined for the most critical uncontrolled descent that can result from any single failure of the heater assembly, fuel cell system, gas value system, or maneuvering vent system, or from any single tear in the balloon envelope between...

  8. Randomized coordinate descent methods for big data optimization 

    E-print Network

    Takac, Martin

    2014-07-01

    This thesis consists of 5 chapters. We develop new serial (Chapter 2), parallel (Chapter 3), distributed (Chapter 4) and primal-dual (Chapter 5) stochastic (randomized) coordinate descent methods, analyze their complexity ...

  9. Ascent/descent ancillary data production user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brans, H. R.; Seacord, A. W., II; Ulmer, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Product, also called the A/D BET because it contains a Best Estimate of the Trajectory (BET), is a collection of trajectory, attitude, and atmospheric related parameters computed for the ascent and descent phases of each Shuttle Mission. These computations are executed shortly after the event in a post-flight environment. A collection of several routines including some stand-alone routines constitute what is called the Ascent/Descent Ancillary Data Production Program. A User's Guide for that program is given. It is intended to provide the reader with all the information necessary to generate an Ascent or a Descent Ancillary Data Product. It includes descriptions of the input data and output data for each routine, and contains explicit instructions on how to run each routine. A description of the final output product is given.

  10. Air-Traffic Controllers Evaluate The Descent Advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard; Volckers, Uwe; Erzberger, Heinz

    1992-01-01

    Report describes study of Descent Advisor algorithm: software automation aid intended to assist air-traffic controllers in spacing traffic and meeting specified times or arrival. Based partly on mathematical models of weather conditions and performances of aircraft, it generates suggested clearances, including top-of-descent points and speed-profile data to attain objectives. Study focused on operational characteristics with specific attention to how it can be used for prediction, spacing, and metering.

  11. Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoelscher, Brian R.

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing simulation was created over the past two years to serve as the primary Crew Exploration Vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) design and analysis tool at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) simulation is a six degree-of-freedom tool with a unique design architecture which has a high level of flexibility. This paper describes the decision history and motivations that guided the creation of this simulation tool. The capabilities of the models within ANTARES are presented in detail. Special attention is given to features of the highly flexible GN&C architecture and the details of the implemented GN&C algorithms. ANTARES provides a foundation simulation for the Orion Project that has already been successfully used for requirements analysis, system definition analysis, and preliminary GN&C design analysis. ANTARES will find useful application in engineering analysis, mission operations, crew training, avionics-in-the-loop testing, etc. This paper focuses on the entry simulation aspect of ANTARES, which is part of a bigger simulation package supporting the entire mission profile of the Orion vehicle. The unique aspects of entry GN&C design are covered, including how the simulation is being used for Monte Carlo dispersion analysis and for support of linear stability analysis. Sample simulation output from ANTARES is presented in an appendix.

  12. Distributed Method to Optimal Profile Descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geun I.

    Current ground automation tools for Optimal Profile Descent (OPD) procedures utilize path stretching and speed profile change to maintain proper merging and spacing requirements at high traffic terminal area. However, low predictability of aircraft's vertical profile and path deviation during decent add uncertainty to computing estimated time of arrival, a key information that enables the ground control center to manage airspace traffic effectively. This paper uses an OPD procedure that is based on a constant flight path angle to increase the predictability of the vertical profile and defines an OPD optimization problem that uses both path stretching and speed profile change while largely maintaining the original OPD procedure. This problem minimizes the cumulative cost of performing OPD procedures for a group of aircraft by assigning a time cost function to each aircraft and a separation cost function to a pair of aircraft. The OPD optimization problem is then solved in a decentralized manner using dual decomposition techniques under inter-aircraft ADS-B mechanism. This method divides the optimization problem into more manageable sub-problems which are then distributed to the group of aircraft. Each aircraft solves its assigned sub-problem and communicate the solutions to other aircraft in an iterative process until an optimal solution is achieved thus decentralizing the computation of the optimization problem.

  13. Early history of neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio; Silver, Carl E

    2008-12-01

    With the exception of distant metastases, the presence of lymph node metastasis in the neck is accepted as the single most important adverse independent prognostic factor and an indicator of survival in squamous carcinoma of the head and neck. Neck dissection in its various forms is the standard surgical treatment for clinical, subclinical and subpathologic metastatic cancer to the neck. The pertinent literature from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century was reviewed. The four giants of late nineteenth century surgery: von Langenbeck, Billroth, von Volkmann and Kocher developed and reported the early cases of different types of neck dissection. Butlin, in England, conceived and developed the concept of elective neck dissection. In 1888, the Polish surgeon Jawdy?sky reported and described in detail the first successful extended en bloc neck dissection. Crile, in 1905 and 1906, reported the first significant series of radical en bloc neck dissections, bringing this procedure to the attention of the medical world as an effective operation with reproducible technique and results. The greatest impetus to the status of this surgical procedure came from Martin and colleagues, who published a monumental report in 1951 of 1,450 cases that established the place and technique of radical neck dissection in the modern treatment of head and neck cancer. Neck dissection, for treatment of cervical lymph node metastases in head and neck cancer, was conceived and attempted in the nineteenth century, with some limited success reported by the end of that era. An effective operation was described and reported in the early twentieth century and evolved by the mid century into a fundamental tool in the management of patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:18488240

  14. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A. )

    1987-12-01

    Unidirectional {sup 45}Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (J{sup net}{sub Ca}) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed J{sup net}{sub Ca} to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that J{sup net}{sub Ca} was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, J{sup net}{sub Ca} decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, J{sup net}{sub Ca} was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue {sup 45}Ca content was {approx equal}30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa.

  15. Photodynamic management of bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, A.; Stepp, H.; Beyer, W.; Pongratz, T.; Sroka, R.; Bader, M.; Kriegmair, M.; Zaak, D.; Waidelich, R.; Karl, A.; Hofstetter, A.; Stief, C.; Baumgartner, R.

    2009-06-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is among the most expensive oncological diseases. Any improvement in diagnosis or therapy carries a high potential for reducing costs. Fluorescence cystoscopy relies on a selective formation of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) or more general photoactive porphyrins (PAP) in malignant urothelium upon instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its hexyl-derivative h-ALA. Fluorescence cystoscopy equipment has been developed with the aim to compensate for the undesired distortion caused by the tissue optical properties by displaying the red fluorescence simultaneously with the backscattered blue light. Many clinical studies proved a high sensitivity in detecting flat carcinoma in situ and small papillary malignant tumours. As a result, recurrence rates were significantly decreased in most studies. The limitation lies in a low specificity, caused by false positive findings at inflamed bladder wall. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently being investigated as a promising tool to overcome this limitation. H-ALA-PDT (8 or 16 mM h-ALA in 50 ml instillation for 1-2 h, white light source, catheter applicator) has recently been investigated in a phase I study. 17 patients were applied 100 J/cm2 (3 patients received incrementing doses of 25 - 50 - 100 J/cm2) during approx. 1 hour irradiation time in 3 sessions, 6 weeks apart. PDT was performed without any technical complications. Complete photobleaching of the PpIX-fluorescence, as intended, could be achieved in 43 of 45 PDT-sessions receiving 100 J/cm2. The most prominent side effects were postoperative urgency and bladder pain, all symptoms being more severe after 16 mM h-ALA. Preliminary evaluation shows complete response assessed at 3 months after the third PDT-session (i.e. 6 months after first treatment) in 9 of 12 patients. 2 of these patients were free of recurrence until final follow-up at 84 weeks.

  16. Bladder cancer documentation of causes: multilingual questionnaire, 'bladder cancer doc'.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Abreu-Villaca, Yael; Anbari Attar, Rowshanak; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Aslam, Muhammad; Basaran, Nursen; Belik, Rouslana; Butryee, Chaniphun; Dalpiaz, Orietta; Dzhusupov, Keneshbek; Ecke, Thorsten H; Galambos, Henrieta; Galambos, Henrieta; Gerilovica, Helena; Gerullis, Holger; Gonzalez, Patricia Casares; Goossens, Maria E; Gorgishvili-Hermes, Lela; Heyns, Chris F; Hodzic, Jasmin; Ikoma, Fumihiko; Jichlinski, Patrice; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Martinova, Irina; Mittal, Rama Devi; Ravichandran, Beerappa; Romics, Imre; Roy, Bidyut; Rungkat-Zakaria, Fransiska; Rydzynski, Konrad; Scutaru, Cristian; Shen, Jianhua; Soufi, Maria; Toguzbaeva, Karlygash; Vu Duc, Trinh; Widera, Agata; Wishahi, Mohamed; Hengstler, Jan G

    2012-01-01

    There is a considerable discrepancy between the number of identified occupational-related bladder cancer cases and the estimated numbers particularly in emerging nations or less developed countries where suitable approaches are less or even not known. Thus, within a project of the World Health Organisation Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health, a questionnaire of the Dortmund group, applied in different studies, was translated into more than 30 languages (Afrikaans, Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, Czech, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Korean, Latvian, Malay, Persian (Farsi), Polish, Portuguese, Portuguese/Brazilian, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Spanish, Spanish/Mexican, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Urdu, Vietnamese). The bipartite questionnaire asks for relevant medical information in the physician's part and for the occupational history since leaving school in the patient's part. Furthermore, this questionnaire is asking for intensity and frequency of certain occupational and non-occupational risk factors. The literature regarding occupations like painter, hairdresser or miner and exposures like carcinogenic aromatic amines, azo dyes, or combustion products is highlighted. The questionnaire is available on www.ifado.de/BladderCancerDoc. PMID:22652680

  17. Human Scleral Structural Stiffness Increases More Rapidly With Age in Donors of African Descent Compared to Donors of European Descent

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Massimo A.; Grytz, Rafael; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Bruno, Luigi; Girkin, Christopher A.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We tested the hypothesis that the variation of peripapillary scleral structural stiffness with age is different in donors of European (ED) and African (AD) descent. Methods. Posterior scleral shells from normal eyes from donors of European (n = 20 pairs; previously reported) and African (n = 9 pairs) descent aged 0 and 90 years old were inflation tested within 48 hours post mortem. Scleral shells were pressurized from 5 to 45 mm Hg and the full-field, 3-dimensional (3D) deformation of the outer surface was recorded at submicrometric accuracy using speckle interferometry (ESPI). Mean maximum principal (tensile) strain of the peripapillary and midperipheral regions surrounding the optic nerve head (ONH) were fit using a functional mixed effects model that accounts for intradonor variability, same-race correlation, and spatial autocorrelation to estimate the effect of race on the age-related changes in mechanical scleral strain. Results. Mechanical tensile strain significantly decreased with age in the peripapillary sclera in the African and European descent groups (P < 0.001), but the age-related stiffening was significantly greater in the African descent group (P < 0.05). Maximum principal strain in the peripapillary sclera was significantly higher than in the midperipheral sclera for both ethnic groups. Conclusions. The sclera surrounding the ONH stiffens more rapidly with age in the African descent group compared to the European group. Stiffening of the peripapillary sclera with age may be related to the higher prevalence of glaucoma in the elderly and persons of African descent. PMID:25237162

  18. Medical management of overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Radomski, Sidney B; Barkin, Jack

    2012-10-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) with or without urinary incontinence is a common condition in both men and women. OAB has a significant impact on quality of life for most patients. In most cases, sophisticated testing is not required for a primary care physician to diagnose OAB and start treating a patient. Management of OAB requires behavioral modification and, if necessary, pharmacotherapy may be added. If a patient does not respond to treatment initiated by a primary care physician, then he or she should be referred to a specialist in OAB to undergo further investigations and treatments. PMID:23089342

  19. Neuropathic bladder in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Carr, Michael C

    2014-09-01

    The management of infants born with myelomeningocele depends on understanding how their bladder stores and empties urine. Storage at low pressure with effective emptying periodically throughout the day is the goal. Intervention is designed to impact on one or both of these processes so that infants can remain infection-free and at the same time allow for appropriate renal growth over time. Urodynamic evaluation plays an important role, so that neonates can be stratified according to their risk. Most patients require intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy to achieve these goals at some point in their lives. PMID:25155738

  20. Spectroscopic Imaging of Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S G; Gandour-Edwards, R; Ramsamooj, R; deVere White, R

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of developing bladder cancer detection methods using intrinsic tissue optical properties is the focus of this investigation. In vitro experiments have been performed using polarized elastic light scattering in combination with tissue autofluorescence in the NIR spectral region under laser excitation in the green and red spectral regions. The experimental results obtained from a set of tissue specimens from 25 patients reveal the presence of optical fingerprint characteristics suitable for cancer detection with high contrast and accuracy. These photonic methods are compatible with existing endoscopic imaging modalities which make them suitable for in-vivo application.

  1. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-06-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation CBCT sampled on the segmentation contour candidate. The cost function measured the goodness of fit of the segmentation on the validation image and was minimized using a simplex optimizer. For each validation CBCT image, the segmentations were done five times using a different reference CBCT. The one with the lowest cost function was selected as the final bladder segmentation. Volume- and distance-based metrics and the accuracy of plan selection were evaluated to quantify the performance. Two to four PCA modes were needed to represent the bladder shape variation with less than 0.1 cm average residual error for the training data of each patient. The automatically segmented bladders had a 78.5% mean conformity index with the manual delineations. The mean SD of the local residual error over all patients was 0.24 cm. The agreement of plan selection between automatic and manual bladder segmentations was 77.5%. PCA is an efficient method to describe patient-specific bladder deformation. The statistical-shape-based segmentation approach is robust to handle the relatively poor CBCT image quality and allows for fast and reliable automatic segmentation of the bladder on CBCT for selecting the appropriate plan from a library of plans.

  2. Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill' (QTVR)

    In late November 2005 while descending 'Husband Hill,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the most detailed panorama so far of the 'Inner Basin,' the rover's next target destination. Spirit acquired the 405 individual images that make up this 360-degree view of the surrounding terrain using five different filters on the panoramic camera. The rover took the images on Martian days, or sols, 672 to 677 (Nov. 23 to 28, 2005 -- the Thanksgiving holiday weekend).

    This image is an approximately true-color rendering using camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. Seams between individual frames have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

    'Home Plate,' a bright, semi-circular feature scientists hope to investigate, is harder to discern in this image than in earlier views taken from higher up the hill. Spirit acquired this more oblique view, known as the 'Seminole panorama,' from about halfway down the south flank of Husband Hill, 50 meters (164 feet) or so below the summit. Near the center of the panorama, on the horizon, are 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill,' named, like Husband Hill, in honor of the fallen astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. Husband Hill is visible behind the rover, on the right and left sides of the panorama. An arc of rover tracks made while avoiding obstacles and getting into position to examine rock outcrops can be traced over a long distance by zooming in to explore the panorama in greater detail.

    Spirit is now significantly farther downhill toward the center of this panorama, en route to Home Plate and other enigmatic soils and outcrop rocks in the quest to uncover the history of Gusev Crater and the 'Columbia Hills.'

  3. Pathogenesis of human urinary bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, George T.

    1983-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bladder cancer is being analyzed at several levels of biological organization, i.e., population groups, individual whole animal, tissue, cell, molecule, etc. Each of these levels provides opportunities for mechanistic studies. Yet the integration of these several levels into a cohesive fabric is incomplete. From a clinical point of view, the following seem of importance to human bladder cancer pathogenesis. The initiation, promotion, and progression of bladder cancer involves several factors acting concurrently or sequentially. These factors appear to be naturally occurring or synthetically created chemicals present in the external environment. Human exposures to these agents may begin in utero, and varying, dynamic qualitative and quantitative exposure patterns continue through developmental and adult life. Apparent latent periods of development of clinical bladder cancer may be as short as one, or as long as 50 years or more. Individuals may exhibit differential susceptibility to vesical carcinogens, perhaps through phenotypic differences in quantitative biotransformation routes. Differences in bladder epithelial cell susceptibilities probably also occur, as well as varying local tissue and generalized resistance to neoplasia formation. Older individuals do not appear to be more resistant to bladder carcinogenesis. A number of animal model systems have been developed for the study of the in vivo, cellular, and molecular pathogenesis of bladder cancer. These models replicate many of the known salient features of human bladder cancer. Through use of appropriate whole animal models in conjunction with investigations of human and animal bladder cells and tissues in culture, controlled mechanistic and quantitative studies of bladder cancer pathogenesis should rapidly develop. PMID:6832092

  4. Design of automation tools for management of descent traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

    1988-01-01

    The design of an automated air traffic control system based on a hierarchy of advisory tools for controllers is described. Compatibility of the tools with the human controller, a key objective of the design, is achieved by a judicious selection of tasks to be automated and careful attention to the design of the controller system interface. The design comprises three interconnected subsystems referred to as the Traffic Management Advisor, the Descent Advisor, and the Final Approach Spacing Tool. Each of these subsystems provides a collection of tools for specific controller positions and tasks. This paper focuses primarily on the Descent Advisor which provides automation tools for managing descent traffic. The algorithms, automation modes, and graphical interfaces incorporated in the design are described. Information generated by the Descent Advisor tools is integrated into a plan view traffic display consisting of a high-resolution color monitor. Estimated arrival times of aircraft are presented graphically on a time line, which is also used interactively in combination with a mouse input device to select and schedule arrival times. Other graphical markers indicate the location of the fuel-optimum top-of-descent point and the predicted separation distances of aircraft at a designated time-control point. Computer generated advisories provide speed and descent clearances which the controller can issue to aircraft to help them arrive at the feeder gate at the scheduled times or with specified separation distances. Two types of horizontal guidance modes, selectable by the controller, provide markers for managing the horizontal flightpaths of aircraft under various conditions. The entire system consisting of descent advisor algorithm, a library of aircraft performance models, national airspace system data bases, and interactive display software has been implemented on a workstation made by Sun Microsystems, Inc. It is planned to use this configuration in operational evaluations at an en route center.

  5. Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) on the Mars Polar Lander

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malin, M.C.; Caplinger, M.A.; Carr, M.H.; Squyres, S.; Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Descent Imager, or MARDI, experiment on the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) consists of a camera characterized by small physical size and mass (???6 ?? 6 ?? 12 cm, including baffle; <500 gm), low power requirements (<2.5 W, including power supply losses), and high science performance (1000 x 1000 pixel, low noise). The intent of the investigation is to acquire nested images over a range of resolutions, from 8 m/pixel to better than 1 cm/pixel, during the roughly 2 min it takes the MPL to descend from 8 km to the surface under parachute and rocket-powered deceleration. Observational goals will include studies of (1) surface morphology (e.g., nature and distribution of landforms indicating past and present environmental processes); (2) local and regional geography (e.g., context for other lander instruments: precise location, detailed local relief); and (3) relationships to features seen in orbiter data. To accomplish these goals, MARDI will collect three types of images. Four small images (256 x 256 pixels) will be acquired on 0.5 s centers beginning 0.3 s before MPL's heatshield is jettisoned. Sixteen full-frame images (1024 X 1024, circularly edited) will be acquired on 5.3 s centers thereafter. Just after backshell jettison but prior to the start of powered descent, a "best final nonpowered descent image" will be acquired. Five seconds after the start of powered descent, the camera will begin acquiring images on 4 s centers. Storage for as many as ten 800 x 800 pixel images is available during terminal descent. A number of spacecraft factors are likely to impact the quality of MARDI images, including substantial motion blur resulting from large rates of attitude variation during parachute descent and substantial rocket-engine-induced vibration during powered descent. In addition, the mounting location of the camera places the exhaust plume of the hydrazine engines prominently in the field of view. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Pediatric Head and Neck Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Qaisi, Mohammed; Eid, Issam

    2016-02-01

    Head and neck malignancies are rare in pediatric patients, and represent 12% of all pediatric malignancies. The incidence for these head and neck tumors is 1.49 cases per 1,000,000 person-years. Among the most common pediatric head and neck malignancies are lymphomas (27%), neural tumors including primitive neurectodermal tumors (23%), thyroid malignancies (21%), soft tissue sarcomas including rhabdomyosarcoma (12%), nasopharyngeal carcinoma, skeletal and odontogenic malignancies including osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and ameloblastic carcinoma. This article presents an overview of pediatric head and neck malignancies with emphasis on diagnosis and management. PMID:26614697

  7. A Non-Invasive Bladder Sensory Test Supports a Role for Dysmenorrhea Increasing Bladder Noxious Mechanosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    TU, Frank F.; EPSTEIN, Aliza E.; POZOLO, Kristen E.; SEXTON, Debra L.; MELNYK, Alexandra I.; HELLMAN, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Catheterization to measure bladder sensitivity is aversive and hinders human participation in visceral sensory research. Therefore, we sought to characterize the reliability of sonographically-estimated female bladder sensory thresholds. To demonstrate this technique’s usefulness, we examined the effects of self-reported dysmenorrhea on bladder pain thresholds. Methods Bladder sensory threshold volumes were determined during provoked natural diuresis in 49 healthy women (mean age 24 ± 8) using three-dimensional ultrasound. Cystometric thresholds (Vfs – first sensation, Vfu – first urge, Vmt – maximum tolerance) were quantified and related to bladder urgency and pain. We estimated reliability (one-week retest and interrater). Self-reported menstrual pain was examined in relationship to bladder pain, urgency and volume thresholds. Results Average bladder sensory thresholds (mLs) were Vfs (160±100), Vfu (310±130), and Vmt (500±180). Interrater reliability ranged from 0.97–0.99. One-week retest reliability was Vmt = 0.76 (95% CI 0.64–0.88), Vfs = 0.62 (95% CI 0.44–0.80), and Vfu = 0.63, (95% CI 0.47–0.80). Bladder filling rate correlated with all thresholds (r = 0.53–0.64, p < 0.0001). Women with moderate to severe dysmenorrhea pain had increased bladder pain and urgency at Vfs and increased pain at Vfu (p’s < 0.05). In contrast, dysmenorrhea pain was unrelated to bladder capacity. Discussion Sonographic estimates of bladder sensory thresholds were reproducible and reliable. In these healthy volunteers, dysmenorrhea was associated with increased bladder pain and urgency during filling but unrelated to capacity. Plausibly, dysmenorrhea sufferers may exhibit enhanced visceral mechanosensitivity, increasing their risk to develop chronic bladder pain syndromes. PMID:23370073

  8. Complex bladder-exstrophy-epispadias management: causes of failure of initial bladder closure.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Kouame Dibi; Serge, Kouame Yapo Guy; Moufidath, Sounkere; Maxime, Koffi; Hervé, Odehouri Koudou Thierry; Baptiste, Yaokreh Jean; Samba, Tembely; Gaudens, Dieth Atafi; Ossenou, Ouattara; Ruffin, Dick

    2014-01-01

    The success of the initial closure of the complex bladder-exstrophy remains a challenge in pediatric surgery. This study describes a personal experience of the causes of failure of the initial closure and operative morbidity during the surgical treatment of bladder-exstrophy complex. From April 2000 to March 2014, four patients aged 16 days to 7 years and 5 months underwent complex exstrophy-epispadias repair with pelvic osteotomies. There were three males and one female. Three of them had posterior pelvic osteotomy, one had anterior innominate osteotomy. Bladder Closure: Bladder closure was performed in three layers. Our first patient had initial bladder closure with polyglactin 4/0 (Vicryl ® 4/0), concerning the last three patients, initial bladder closure was performed with polydioxanone 4/0 (PDS ® 4/0). The bladder was repaired leaving the urethral stent and ureteral stents for full urinary drainage for three patients. In one case, only urethral stent was left, ureteral drainage was not possible, because stents sizes were more important than the ureteral diameter. Out of a total of four patients, initial bladder closure was completely achieved for three patients. At the immediate postoperative follow-up, two patients presented a complete disunion of the abdominal wall and bladder despite an appropriate postoperative care. The absorbable braided silk (polyglactin) used for the bladder closure was considered as the main factor in the failure of the bladder closure. The second cause of failure of the initial bladder closure was the incomplete urine drainage, ureteral catheterisation was not possible because the catheters sizes were too large compared with the diameters of the ureters. The failure of the initial bladder-exstrophy closure may be reduced by a closure with an absorbable monofilament silk and efficient urine drainage via ureteral catheterisation. PMID:25323185

  9. The role of free radicals and nitric oxide in the ischemia-reperfusion injury mediated by acute bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Asif; Onol, Fikret Fatih; Haklar, Goncagül; Tarcan, Tufan

    2008-01-01

    Free-radical generation and nitric oxide (NO) generation were detected in the rat bladder following acute bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), and the results were compared with those for vascular ischemia and reperfusion (I-R). Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were used. In the acute BOO plus I-R group (group 1), rats were catheterized with a 3-Fr catheter and an inflated balloon was positioned at the bladder neck. The bladder was overdistended after administration of Ringer solution and furosemide (12 mg/kg, each) for 60 min, and was then drained to allow reperfusion for 30 min. In the acute BOO plus nerve stimulation group (group 2), the pelvic nerve was stimulated in the distended bladder for 60 min (5 s every 5 min, 10 V/0.1 ms, 20 Hz). Pelvic nerve stimulation was performed in nonobstructed animals in group 3. In the I-R group (group 4), the distal aorta was occluded for 60 min followed by reperfusion for 30 min. Sham-operated animals served as the control group (group 5). At the end of the protocols, the levels of hydroxyl and superoxide radicals and NO levels were measured in the bladder tissues with luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence methods. The results were compared by a one-way analysis of variance test. The levels of hydroxyl radicals were not significantly different between the study groups. In contrast, superoxide radicals and NO levels were significantly increased in both group 1 and group 4 compared with those in control animals (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Superoxide radical generation in group 2 was comparable to the levels in group 1 (P>0.05), whereas NO levels were substantially lower than in group 1 (P=0.06). In summary, vascular I-R causes significant oxidative damage to the bladder. Acute BOO with overdistension of the bladder mimics the effects of true vascular I-R injury. The NO pathway has possibly a major role in I-R-induced bladder damage. Prolonged BOO may therefore significantly enhance the oxidative damage to the bladder and further accentuate the effects of generalized atherosclerotic processes in the elderly adult. PMID:17602306

  10. Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Print to PDF Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Approved by the Cancer. ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck ...

  11. SERS measurement of the bladder cancer cells with the nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di; Chen, Haige; Cao, Ming; Yang, Guoliang; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yiran

    2015-09-01

    The surfaced enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of bladder cancer cells and tissues were measured in this paper. Both depth SERS and map SERS of SCABER bladder cancer cells were measured with confocal Raman microscope using gold nanoparticles as the enhance substrate. We also measured SERS of normal bladder tissue and bladder cancer tissue, and analyzed the difference of two different tissues. The SERS spectra of more samples need to be measured and analyzed for bladder cancer tissue and the normal bladder tissue in the future and the spectra will be helpful for bladder cancer diagnosis. PMID:26525026

  12. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. PMID:22411938

  13. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Taweel, Waleed Al; Seyam, Raouf

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. PMID:26090342

  14. Unusual Cancers of the Head and Neck

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause signs or symptoms. Unusual Cancers of the Reproductive and Urinary Systems Bladder Cancer Bladder cancer is a disease in ... are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are located in the pelvis , one on ...

  15. Bladder reconstruction: The past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    EL-TAJI, OMAR M.S.; KHATTAK, ALTAF Q.; HUSSAIN, SYED A.

    2015-01-01

    Ileal conduit urinary diversion is the gold standard treatment for urinary tract reconstruction following cystectomy. This procedure uses gastrointestinal segments for bladder augmentation, a technique that is often associated with significant complications. The substantial progression in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine over the previous two decades has resulted in the development of techniques that may lead to the construction of functional de novo urinary bladder substitutes. The present review identifies and discusses the complications associated with current treatment options post-cystectomy. The current techniques, achievements and perspectives of the use of biomaterials and stem cells in the field of urinary bladder reconstruction are also reviewed. PMID:26170968

  16. Crew Procedures for Continuous Descent Arrivals Using Conventional Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Williams, David H.; Lewis, Elliot T,

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a simulation study which investigated the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures for conducting a descent through a busy terminal area, using conventional transport-category automation. This research was part of the Low Noise Flight Procedures (LNFP) element within the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Project, that addressed development of flight guidance, and supporting pilot and Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures for low noise operations. The procedures and chart were designed to be easy to understand, and to make it easy for the crew to make changes via the Flight Management Computer Control-Display Unit (FMC-CDU) to accommodate changes from ATC. The test runs were intended to represent situations typical of what exists in many of today's terminal areas, including interruptions to the descent in the form of clearances issued by ATC.

  17. Telomerase activity: a potential marker of bladder transitional cell carcinoma in bladder washes.

    PubMed

    Yang, S C; Lee, D H; Hong, S J; Chung, B H; Kim, I Y

    1997-06-01

    The enzyme telomerase maintains a constant telomere length in immortalized cells, allowing unlimited cell proliferation. Almost all cancer cells express telomerase activity. However, little data is available regarding the role of telomerase activity in the detection of bladder cancer with a bladder wash specimen. We detected telomerase activity in a bladder wash specimen of bladder cancer and normal tissues, and compared them with final pathologic diagnosis. Twenty-three patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were enrolled in our study. A bladder wash specimen was obtained before transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) and normal and cancer tissues from the same patients during TURB. Telomerase activity was analyzed in each specimen a using telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Cytologic diagnosis was performed using Papanicolaou's stain with cytocentrifuged cytology preparation. We observed telomerase activity in 95.7% (22/23) of bath cancer tissues and bladder wash specimens; only one case did not express telomerase activity. Telomerase activity was undetected in all normal tissues except one, which was obtained from a patient with carcinoma in situ. A total of 69.6% (16/23) of wash specimens were positive in cytopathologic diagnosis. The accuracy of cytopathologic diagnosis in pathologic grade 2 or 3 was relatively high (83.3%, 15/18). However, in five cases of grade 1 TCC only 20% (1/5) of cytologic diagnosis was positive whereas the telomerase activity of wash specimens was detected in 80% (4/5). Our data demonstrates that not only the majority of human bladder cancer tissues, but also the bladder wash specimens obtained from patients with TCC, expressed telomerase activity. It indicates that telomerase activity may be a reliable marker in detecting bladder cancer especially in cases with a low grade that bladder wash cytology can miss. PMID:9259615

  18. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. 882.5850 Section 882...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. (a) Identification. ...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation is an electrical...

  19. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. 882.5850 Section 882...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. (a) Identification. ...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation is an electrical...

  20. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. 882.5850 Section 882...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. (a) Identification. ...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation is an electrical...

  1. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. 882.5850 Section 882...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. (a) Identification. ...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation is an electrical...

  2. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. 882.5850 Section 882...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. (a) Identification. ...spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation is an electrical...

  3. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: Can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    SciTech Connect

    Stam, Marcel R. . E-mail: m.stam@rther.umcn.nl; Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van; Vight, Lisette P. van der; Kaanders, Johannes; Visser, Andries G.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. Results: A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 Sd = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. Conclusions: This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations.

  4. Flight Data Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Elmain M.; Winterhalter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Daniel Winterhalter, NASA Engineering and Safety Center Chief Engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsor a 3-year effort to collect entry, descent, and landing material and to establish a NASA-wide archive to serve the material. The principle focus of this task was to identify entry, descent, and landing repository material that was at risk of being permanently lost due to damage, decay, and undocumented storage. To provide NASA-wide access to this material, a web-based digital archive was created. This document contains the outcome of the effort.

  5. Mars Smart Lander Simulations for Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striepe, S. A.; Way, D. W.; Balaram, J.

    2002-01-01

    Two primary simulations have been developed and are being updated for the Mars Smart Lander Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). The high fidelity engineering end-to-end EDL simulation that is based on NASA Langley's Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) and the end-to-end real-time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation testbed, which is based on NASA JPL's (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing (DSENDS). This paper presents the status of these Mars Smart Lander EDL end-to-end simulations at this time. Various models, capabilities, as well as validation and verification for these simulations are discussed.

  6. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  7. Rosetta Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and Philae's Descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-09-01

    In November 2014 the Rosetta mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its Philae lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more challenging. Philae fell almost radially towards 67P, as shown in an animation produced by the European Space Agency (ESA) prior to the event. Below, we investigate whether it is possible to model the spacecraft's descent time and impact speed using concepts taught in an introductory physics course.

  8. Future Perspectives in Bladder Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Bradley C; Damaser, Margot S; Chermansky, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Substantial clinical need persists for improved autologous tissues to augment or replace the urinary bladder and research has begun to address this using tissue engineering techniques. The implantation of both tissue scaffolds which allow for native bladder tissue ingrowth and autologous bladder grafts created from in vitro cellularization of such scaffolds have been tested clinically; however, successful outcomes in both scenarios have been challenged by insufficient vascularity resulting from large graft sizes, which subsequently limits tissue ingrowth and leads to central graft ischemia. Consequently, recent research has focused on developing better methods to produce scaffolds with increased tissue ingrowth and vascularity. This review provides an update on bladder tissue engineering and outlines the challenges that remain to clinical implementation.

  9. Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Bladder Diseases URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/bladderdiseases.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  10. Bladder cancer: a portal into men's health.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, Sean C; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer among men in the United States, with a 3-fold higher incidence than women. Globally, tobacco smoking remains significantly more common in men, contributing to half of all cases of bladder cancer. To prevent bladder cancer, urologists should promote smoking cessation to patients presenting at earlier ages with concerns such as sexual dysfunction, infertility, pelvic pain, or vasectomy. Bladder cancer also provides an entry point for men into the healthcare system, at which time, urologists can discuss and coordinate attention to other male health issues such as cardiovascular illness, depression, or addiction. By assuming the role of men's health physicians, urologists can have a significant benefit on men's urologic and overall health by targeting risk factors and behaviors. PMID:24745663

  11. Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and urethra. Muscle changes and changes in the reproductive system can affect bladder control. Aging Changes and Their ... the bones, muscles, and joints In the male reproductive system In the female reproductive system In organs, tissues, ...

  12. A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities

    E-print Network

    Patriksson, Michael

    A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities Michael describes the problem and the choices of cost approximating mappings and merit functions. The taxonomy. Taxonomy, classification, nonlinear programs, variational inequalities, descent algo­ rithms, cost

  13. Novel Multisensor Probe for Monitoring Bladder Temperature During Locoregional Chemohyperthermia for Nonmuscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Technical Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Geijsen, Debby E.; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Schooneveldt, Gerben; Sijbrands, Jan; Hulshof, Maarten C.; de la Rosette, Jean; de Reijke, Theo M.; Crezee, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose: The effectiveness of locoregional hyperthermia combined with intravesical instillation of mitomycin C to reduce the risk of recurrence and progression of intermediate- and high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is currently investigated in clinical trials. Clinically effective locoregional hyperthermia delivery necessitates adequate thermal dosimetry; thus, optimal thermometry methods are needed to monitor accurately the temperature distribution throughout the bladder wall. The aim of the study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of a novel intravesical device (multi-sensor probe) developed to monitor the local bladder wall temperatures during loco-regional C-HT. Materials and Methods: A multisensor thermocouple probe was designed for deployment in the human bladder, using special sensors to cover the bladder wall in different directions. The deployment of the thermocouples against the bladder wall was evaluated with visual, endoscopic, and CT imaging in bladder phantoms, porcine models, and human bladders obtained from obduction for bladder volumes and different deployment sizes of the probe. Finally, porcine bladders were embedded in a phantom and subjected to locoregional heating to compare probe temperatures with additional thermometry inside and outside the bladder wall. Results: The 7.5?cm thermocouple probe yielded optimal bladder wall contact, adapting to different bladder volumes. Temperature monitoring was shown to be accurate and representative for the actual bladder wall temperature. Conclusions: Use of this novel multisensor probe could yield a more accurate monitoring of the bladder wall temperature during locoregional chemohyperthermia. PMID:24112045

  14. Genetic Marker Identified for Aggressive Bladder Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers led by Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Ph.D., in DCEG's Laboratory of Translational Genomics, have identified the first genetic variant associated with risk of aggressive bladder cancer. The variant, rs7257330, is in the promoter region of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes for cyclin E protein, a cell cycle regulator. This result comes from a fine-mapping analysis of data from two bladder cancer genome-wide association studies and functional studies.

  15. Detection of Subpubic Tumor Causing Bladder Outlet Obstruction by 3D?Perineal Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Albrich, S.; Steetskamp, J.; Rommens, K.; Porta, S.; Battista, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Skala, C.

    2015-01-01

    This case report shows that 3D?perineal ultrasound can be superior to clinical examination and routine 2D?perineal ultrasound in the detection of an unusual subpubic tumor. A 73-year-old female patient was referred to our urogynecological outpatient unit complaining of over-active bladder symptoms and voiding dysfunction for 3 years. Gynecological examination found no signs of pelvic organ prolapse or abnormality in the vaginal cavity. Routine 2D?perineal ultrasound showed substantial residual urine (ca. 300?ml on catheter) and limited bladder neck mobility, but no signs of pelvic organ prolapse. Use of standardized 3D?perineal ultrasound revealed a 24?×?26?×?32?mm spherical, hypoechoic tumor below the pubic symphysis between the distal urethra and the pubic bones. This structure was mistaken for the pubic symphysis in the midline on 2D?ultrasound performed earlier. At surgery, the tumor was completely excised through a vaginal incision between the urethra and the pubic symphysis. After an uneventful postoperative recovery the patient developed de-novo stress urinary incontinence, which was corrected successfully by the insertion of a retropubic tension-free suburethral sling after an interval of 8 weeks. After a further follow-up of 8 weeks the patient reported well-being, urinary continence and no voiding dysfunction; no abnormalities were found on examination. In conclusion, 3D?perineal ultrasound is a useful additional tool for the diagnostic workup of bladder outlet obstruction. PMID:26257409

  16. The Challenge of Mars EDL (Entry, Descent, and Landing)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sostaric, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the some of the challenges of Martian atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) on the surface of Mars. It reviews some of the technological difficulties, and some solutions that are being developed for future unmanned missions with larger payloads than previous landers, and ultimately human spacecraft landing.

  17. On the Convergence of Descent Methods for Monotone Variational Inequalities

    E-print Network

    Patriksson, Michael

    On the Convergence of Descent Methods for Monotone Variational Inequalities M. Patriksson 1 Abstract. Recently, Zhu and Marcotte [15] established the convergence of a modified de­ scent algorithm] and Larsson and Patriksson [7], we show that this convergence result may be used to establish the convergence

  18. Origin of INSL3-mediated testicular descent in therian mammals

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Il; Semyonov, Jenia; Chang, Chia Lin; Yi, Wei; Warren, Wesley; Hsu, Sheau Yu Teddy

    2008-01-01

    Testicular descent is a unique physiological adaptation found in therian mammals allowing optimal spermatogenesis below core body temperature. Recent studies show that INSL3, produced by Leydig cells, and its receptor LGR8 (RXFP2) are essential for mediating the transabdominal phase of testicular descent during early development. However, the origin and genetic basis for this physiological adaptation is not clear. Using syntenic mapping and the functional characterization of contemporary and resurrected relaxin family hormones, we show that derivation of INSL3-mediated testicular descent involved the duplication of an ancestral RLN3-like gene that encodes an indiscriminate ligand for LGR7 (RXFP1) and LGR8. This event was followed by acquisition of the LGR7-selective characteristics by a daughter gene (RLN3) prior to the evolution of the common ancestor of monotremes, marsupials, and placentals. A subsequent mutation of the other daughter gene (INSL3) occurred before the emergence of therian mammals, which then led to the derivation of the reciprocal LGR8-specific characteristics of INSL3. The stepwise evolution of these independent signaling pathways through gene duplication and subsequent divergence is consistent with Darwinian theory of selection and adaptation, and the temporal proximity suggests an association between these genetic events and the concurrent evolution of testicular descent in ancestral therian mammals. PMID:18463305

  19. Monocular Hand Pose Estimation Using Variable Metric Gradient-Descent

    E-print Network

    Paragios, Nikos

    a fundamental role in inter-human communication. An efficient hand motion tracking system would provide naturalMonocular Hand Pose Estimation Using Variable Metric Gradient-Descent Martin de La Gorce - Nikos.de-la-gorce,nikos.paragios}@ecp.fr Abstract In this paper, we propose a novel model-based approach to recover 3D hand pose from 2D images

  20. "Rosetta" Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and "Philae's" Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014 the "Rosetta" mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its "Philae" lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more…

  1. Dictionary Learning with Large Step Gradient Descent for Sparse Representations

    E-print Network

    Plumbley, Mark

    Dictionary Learning with Large Step Gradient Descent for Sparse Representations Boris Mailhé and Mark D. Plumbley Queen Mary University of London School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science.name@eecs.qmul.ac.uk Abstract. This work presents a new algorithm for dictionary learn- ing. Existing algorithms such as MOD

  2. Regularization Paths for Generalized Linear Models via Coordinate Descent

    E-print Network

    Hastie, Trevor

    Regularization Paths for Generalized Linear Models via Coordinate Descent Jerome Friedman Trevor-vector machine [Hastie et al., 2004]. 6. The graphical lasso [Friedman et al., 2008] for sparse covariance esti models. Recent rediscoveries include Friedman et al. [2007] and Wu and Lange [2008a]. The first paper

  3. Abuse against Women with Disabilities of Mexican Descent: Cultural Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Noreen M.; Reed, Bruce J.; Sanchez, Rubi

    2008-01-01

    Although considerable attention has been focused on violence against women with disabilities, environmental and cultural factors that contribute to this violence have received limited attention. This paper examines violence against women of Mexican descent with disabilities. Recommendations are offered to researchers, educators, and service…

  4. A Portfolio of Outstanding Americans of Mexican Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelevier, Benjamin, Jr.

    A cross section of Mexican American achievement is presented in a portfolio of 37 portraits of outstanding Americans of Mexican descent. Drawn in black and white on heavy paper stock by Mr. David L. Rodriguez, the sketches are suitable for display purposes. With the likenesses are biographical sketches in both English and Spanish which were…

  5. FINITE DESCENT OBSTRUCTIONS AND RATIONAL POINTS ON CURVES

    E-print Network

    Stoll, Michael

    FINITE DESCENT OBSTRUCTIONS AND RATIONAL POINTS ON CURVES MICHAEL STOLL Abstract. Let k be a number: September 28, 2007. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 11G10, 11G30, 11G35, 14G05, 14G25, 14H

  6. LANDER program manual: A lunar ascent and descent simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    LANDER is a computer program used to predict the trajectory and flight performance of a spacecraft ascending or descending between a low lunar orbit of 15 to 500 nautical miles (nm) and the lunar surface. It is a three degree-of-freedom simulation which is used to analyze the translational motion of the vehicle during descent. Attitude dynamics and rotational motion are not considered. The program can be used to simulate either an ascent from the Moon or a descent to the Moon. For an ascent, the spacecraft is initialized at the lunar surface and accelerates vertically away from the ground at full thrust. When the local velocity becomes 30 ft/s, the vehicle turns downrange with a pitch-over maneuver and proceeds to fly a gravity turn until Main Engine Cutoff (MECO). The spacecraft then coasts until it reaches the requested holding orbit where it performs an orbital insertion burn. During a descent simulation, the lander begins in the holding orbit and performs a deorbit burn. It then coasts to pericynthion, where it reignites its engines and begins a gravity turn descent. When the local horizontal velocity becomes zero, the lander pitches up to a vertical orientation and begins to hover in search of a landing site. The lander hovers for a period of time specified by the user, and then lands.

  7. Large-Scale Matrix Factorization with Distributed Stochastic Gradient Descent

    E-print Network

    Waldmann, Uwe

    Large-Scale Matrix Factorization with Distributed Stochastic Gradient Descent Rainer Gemulla1 Peter on web-scale datasets using, e.g., MapReduce. DSGD can handle a wide variety of matrix factorizations. We)designed to handle web-scale datasets. For this reason, low-rank matrix factorization has received much attention

  8. Large-Scale Matrix Factorization with Distributed Stochastic Gradient Descent

    E-print Network

    Waldmann, Uwe

    Large-Scale Matrix Factorization with Distributed Stochastic Gradient Descent Rainer Gemulla1 Peter)designed to handle web-scale datasets. For this reason, low-rank matrix factorization has received much attention to approximately factor large matrices with millions of rows, millions of columns, and billions of nonzero elements

  9. Descents and nodal load in scale-free networks.

    PubMed

    Bareinboim, Elias; Barbosa, Valmir C

    2008-04-01

    The load of a node in a network is the total traffic going through it when every node pair sustains a uniform bidirectional traffic between them on shortest paths. We express nodal load in terms of the more elementary notion of a node's descents in breadth-first-search [(BFS) or shortest-path] trees and study both the descent and nodal-load distributions in the case of scale-free networks. Our treatment is both semianalytical (combining a generating-function formalism with simulation-derived BFS branching probabilities) and computational for the descent distribution; it is exclusively computational in the case of the load distribution. Our main result is that the load distribution, even though it can be disguised as a power law through subtle (but inappropriate) binning of the raw data, is in fact a succession of sharply delineated probability peaks, each of which can be clearly interpreted as a function of the underlying BFS descents. This find is in stark contrast with previously held belief, based on which a power law of exponent -2.2 was conjectured to be valid regardless of the exponent of the power-law distribution of node degrees. PMID:18517694

  10. Evaluation of Fuel Benefits Depending on Continuous Descent Approach Procedures

    E-print Network

    Sun, Dengfeng

    1 Evaluation of Fuel Benefits Depending on Continuous Descent Approach Procedures Yi Cao, Li was simulated based on actual recorded traffic data. The fuel burn for the simulated traffic was estimated using the Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption model and compared to a baseline

  11. The Huygens Descent Trajectory Working Group and the Reconstruction of the Huygens Probe Entry and Descent Trajectory at Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.; Kazeminejad, Bobby; Lebreton*, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Cassini/Huygens, a flagship mission to explore the rings, atmosphere, magnetic field, and moons that make up the Saturn system, is a joint endeavor of NASA, the European Space Agency, and Agenzia Spaziale Italiana. Comprising two spacecraft - a Saturn orbiter built by NASA and a Titan entry/descent probe built by the European Space Agency - Cassini/Huygens was launched in October 1997 and arrived at Saturn in 2004. The Huygens probe parachuted to the surface of Titan in January 2005. During the descent, six science instruments provided measurements of Titan's atmosphere, clouds, and winds, and photographed Titan's surface. It was recognized early in the Huygens program that to correctly interpret and correlate results from the probe science experiments and to provide a reference set of data for ground truth calibration of the Cassini orbiter remote sensing observations, an accurate reconstruction of the probe entry and descent trajectory and surface landing location would be necessary. The Huygens Descent Trajectory Working Group (DTWG) was chartered in 1996 as a subgroup of the Huygens Science Working Team. With membership comprising representatives from all the probe engineering and instrument teams as well as representatives of industry and the Cassini and Huygens Project Scientists, the DTWG presented an organizational framework within which instrument data was shared, the entry and descent trajectory reconstruction implemented, and the trajectory reconstruction efficiently disseminated. The primary goal of the Descent Trajectory Working Group was to develop retrieval methodologies for the probe descent trajectory reconstruction from the entry interface altitude of 1270 km to the surface using navigation data, and engineering and science data acquired by the instruments on the Huygens Probe, and to provide a reconstruction of the Huygens probe trajectory from entry to the surface of Titan that is maximally consistent with all available engineering and science data sets. The official project entry and descent trajectory reconstruction effort was published by the DTWG in 2007. A revised descent trajectory was released in 2010 that accounts for updated measurements of Titan's pole coordinates derived from radar images of Titan taken during Cassini flybys after 2007. The effect of the updated pole positions on Huygens is a southward shift of the trajectory by about 0.3 degrees with a much smaller effect of less than 0.01 degree in the zonal (west to east) direction. The revised Huygens landing coordinates of 192.335 degrees West and 10.573 degrees South with longitude and latitude residuals of respectively 0.035 degrees and 0.007 degrees, respectively, are in excellent agreement with results of recent landing site investigations using visual and radar images from the Cassini VIMS instrument. Acknowledgements *J.-P.L's work was performed while at ESA/ESTEC. DA and BK would like to express appreciation to the European Space Agency's Research and Scientific Support Department for funding the Descent Trajectory Working Group. The work of the Descent Trajectory Working Group would not have been possible without the dedicated efforts of all the Huygens principal investigators and their teams, and the science and engineering data provided from each experiment team, including M. Fulchignoni and the HASI Team, H. Niemann and the GCMS Team, J. Zarnecki and the SSP Team, M. Tomasko and the DISR Team, M. Bird and the DWE Team, and G. Israel and the ACP Team. Additionally, special thanks for many years of support to D.L. Matson, R.T. Mitchell, M. Pérez-Ayúcar, O. Witasse; J. Jones, D. Roth, N. Strange on the Cassini Navigation Team at JPL; A.-M. Schipper and P. Couzin at Thales Alenia; C. Sollazzo, D. Salt, J. Wheadon and S. Standley from the Huygens Ops Team; and R. Trautner and H. Svedhem on the Radar Team at ESTEC.

  12. Penetrating wounds of the neck.

    PubMed

    Miller, R H; Duplechain, J K

    1991-02-01

    The management of penetrating wounds of the neck provides several decision-making steps that remain controversial. The two basic concepts of management include the idea that all wounds deep to the platysma should be explored and (the more conservative concept) that selective neck exploration should be based on a battery of tests to identify traumatic injuries. The areas of agreement within these two schools of thought include exploration of wounds with obvious injury, exploration of wounds in which patients cannot be stabilized satisfactorily for further testing, and the idea that all patients with wounds deep to the platysma should be admitted to the hospital. The remaining issues, including the need for angiography, barium swallow, or endoscopy, still are contested. Mandatory exploration of neck wounds became popular during World War II. The weapons used, the lack of accurate testing, and delays in treatment caused by transport problems played significant roles in the development of this policy. Proponents of mandatory exploration of neck wounds contend that delays in treatment result in increased mortality rates. Also delays caused by lengthy diagnostic testing have resulted in rapid exsanguination of patients who might otherwise have been surgically salvageable. These factors, along with the potential for undetected injuries and the associated complications (including false aneurysms and mediastinitis) favor mandatory exploration. Advocates of routine neck explorations also note the low morbidity rates associated with a neck exploration. Reported rates of negative exploration are high, however, approaching 45%, and mortality rates vary from 2% to 9%. Selective neck exploration has gained popularity in some centers because of the lower negative exploration rates associated with this treatment, while comparable mortality rates are achieved. May found a negative exploration rate of 12% in his series of selective neck explorations and a mortality rate of approximately 3%. Furthermore, Noyes found that the hospital stay for patients with selective observation management not requiring a neck exploration was 2.8 days, compared with 4.2 days for patients with mandatory but negative neck explorations. A summary of diagnostic techniques and their indications in selecting patients with penetrating neck wounds for surgery is presented in Table 5. It has become apparent that both selective and mandatory explorations of neck wounds play important roles in treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2027695

  13. Adjunctive procedures to neck rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Mark M; Chan, David

    2014-05-01

    Rejuvenation of the neck often requires more than just a neck lift. Various steps and procedures exist to enhance the surgical technique or overall result. Fibrin sealants can be used to improve the recovery process and obviate the need for drain placement. Chin augmentation can be a critical part of creating a more refined neckline. Submandibular gland excision has been put forth as helpful to the overall aesthetic result. A low and anteriorly positioned hyoid bone creates an unattractive neckline that is difficult to treat. This article focuses on techniques beyond lifting and resurfacing that may enhance neck rejuvenation. PMID:24745385

  14. Measurement of CPAS Main Parachute Rate of Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown. Flight test performance must be measured to a high degree of accuracy to ensure this requirement is met with the most efficient design possible. Although the design includes three CPAS Main parachutes, the requirement is that the system must not exceed 33 ft/s under two Main parachutes, should one of the Main parachutes fail. Therefore, several tests were conducted with clusters of two Mains. All of the steady-state rate of descent data are normalized to standard sea level conditions and checked against the limit. As the Orion design gains weight, the system is approaching this limit to within measurement precision. Parachute "breathing," cluster interactions, and atmospheric anomalies can cause the rate of descent to vary widely and lead to challenges in characterizing parachute terminal performance. An early test had contradictory rate of descent results from optical trajectory and Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS). A thorough analysis of the data sources and error propagation was conducted to determine the uncertainty in the trajectory. It was discovered that the Time Space Position Information (TSPI) from the optical tracking provided accurate position data. However, the velocity from TPSI must be computed via numerical differentiation, which is prone to large error. DGPS obtains position through pseudo-range calculations from multiple satellites and velocity through Doppler shift of the carrier frequency. Because the velocity from DGPS is a direct measurement, it is more accurate than TSPI velocity. To remedy the situation, a commercial off-the-shelf product that combines GPS and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was purchased to significantly improve rate of descent measurements. This had the added benefit of solving GPS dropouts during aircraft extraction. Statistical probability distributions for CPAS Main parachute rate of descent and drag coefficient were computed and plotted. Using test data, a terminal rate of descent at splashdown can be estimated as a function of canopy loading.

  15. Extravesical Approach in Paraureteral Bladder Diverticulum A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Moralio?lu, S; Bosnali, O; Celayir, AC; ?ahin, C

    2014-01-01

    Bladder diverticula are herniations of bladder mucosa through fibres of the detrusor muscle. We present the extravesical approach to a case of paraureteral bladder diverticulum in a six-year old boy who had a history of recurrent urinary infection. In case of recurrent urinary complaints, the possibility of presence of a bladder diverticulum should be kept in mind. Voiding cystourethrogram is helpful for the differential diagnosis of the bladder diverticulum. Excision by extravesical approach of the paraureteral bladder diverticulum is a good choice. PMID:25303263

  16. Reproducibility of the bladder shape and bladder shape changes during filling

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, Heidi T.; Herk, Marcel van; Betgen, Anja; Pos, Floris; Lebesque, Joos V.; Remeijer, Peter

    2005-08-15

    The feasibility of high precision radiotherapy to the bladder region is limited by bladder motion and volume changes. In the near future, we plan to begin treatment delivery of bladder cancer patients with the acquisition of a cone beam CT image on which the complete bladder will be semi-automatically localized. Subsequently, a bladder shape model that was developed in a previous study will be used for bladder localization and for the prediction of shape changes in the time interval between acquisition and beam delivery. For such predictions, knowledge about urinary inflow rate is required. Therefore, a series of MR images was acquired over 1 h with time intervals of 10 min for 18 healthy volunteers. To gain insight in the reproducibility of the bladder shape over longer periods of time, two additional MRI series were recorded for 10 of the volunteers. To a good approximation, the bladder volume increased linearly in time for all individuals. Despite receiving drinking instructions, we found a large variation in the inflow rate between individuals, ranging from 2.1 to 15 cc/min (mean value: 9{+-}3 cc/min). In contrast, the intravolunteer variation was much smaller, with a mean standard deviation (SD) of 0.4 cc/min. The inflow rate was linearly correlated with age (negative slope). To study the reproducibility of the bladder shape, we compared bladder shapes of equal volume. For all individuals, the caudal part of the bladder was the most reproducible (variations<0.3 cm in all cases). The cranial and posterior parts of the bladder was much less reproducible, with local SD values up to {approx}1.2 cm for bladders with a volume of 200 cc. These large long-term variations were primarily caused by changes in position and filling of the small bowel and rectum. However, for short time intervals, the rectal filling was (nearly) constant. Therefore, the reproducibility of urinary inflow, combined with the previously developed shape model gives us an excellent tool to predict short-term shape changes. We intend to use this tool for further improvement of image-guided radiotherapy for bladder cancer patients.

  17. Tension free vaginal tape underneath bladder base: does it prevent cystocele recurrence?

    PubMed Central

    Tantanasis, T; Giannoulis, C; Daniilidis, A; Papathanasiou, K; Loufopoulos, A; Tzafettas, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The target of the current prospective study was to assess the effectiveness of the polypropylene tapes in preventing recurrence of cystocele formation when placed underneath the bladder base. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two Caucasian women, predominantly postmemopausal with marked descent of the anterior, middle and/or posterior pelvic segment, participated in the study. Vaginal reconstructive surgery including anterior colporrhaphy and Kelly placation, posterior colpoperineorrhaphy and/or hysterectomy, was undertaken in all subjects. The polypropylene tape was placed not under the midurethra, as often performed in stress urine incontinence (SUI) cases, but underneath the bladder base as an adjunct to the anterior colporrhaphy sutures. The postoperative follow up lasted 2 years and was carried out every 4 months. The assessment of the anatomic result included evaluation of the operated sites and the position of the tapes inserted on clinical grounds and after perineal sonography. Urodynamic assessment was performed in the presence of urinary incontinence. Results: In all patients the postoperative correction of the anterior vaginal wall was sufficient, 14 subjects did not present genitourinary symptoms and therefore were considered as cured; three patients were designated as improved because despite sufficient anatomic correction of the anterior vaginal segment they reported urinary incontinence symptoms. Retropubic haematoma occurred in 1 patient, transient urge incontinence in 1, transient stress incontinence in 1, and persistent stress incontinence also in 1. There was no erosion of the tape noticed. Mean residual urine was 30 ml, mean bladder base distance to the inferior edge of the symphysis pubis was 1.2 cm and the mean total vaginal length was 7 cm. Conclusion: Despite the relative short follow up period and the limited number of patients enrolled, we conclude from our study that the use of polypropylene tapes as an adjunct for fortification of the anterior pelvic segment could provide an option in preventing recurrence of cystocele formation. PMID:18923661

  18. Is gall bladder cancer a bad cancer per se?

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Vinay K

    2015-07-27

    Gall bladder cancer (GBC) has one of the poorest outcomes of all cancers. Early GBC is difficult to diagnose on even computed tomography. GB has no submucosa and the cancer infiltrates directly into the muscularis propria. GB wall is thin and important adjacent organs viz. liver, duodenum and pancreas get easily infiltrated. Tumor in the GB neck often needs extended right hepatectomy. Infiltration of duodenum/pancreas may necessitate pancreato-duodenectomy or even hepato-pancreato-duodenectomy. Mortality of surgical procedures, when performed for GBC, is higher than when performed for other cancers. Survival in GBC, even after R0 resection, is poor. There is no proven role of neo-adjuvant or adjuvant therapy for loco-regionally advanced GBC. There is no role of palliative surgery in metastatic GBC. Early GBC is diagnosed incidentally after cholecystectomy for stones and requires reoperation for completion extended cholecystectomy but unfortunately, most surgeons are not aware of this. GBC has a peculiar epidemiology and is uncommon in the West and has, therefore, not received much attention. Preventive cholecystectomy for asymptomatic stones is not recommended and there is no serum marker for screening. With all factors pitched against it, it does appear that GBC is a bad cancer per se! PMID:26225192

  19. Cone Beam CT Imaging Analysis of Interfractional Variations in Bladder Volume and Position During Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Don; Parliament, Matthew; Rathee, Satyapal; Ghosh, Sunita; Ko, Lawrence; Murray, Brad

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify daily bladder size and position variations during bladder cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten bladder cancer patients underwent daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging of the bladder during radiotherapy. Bladder and planning target volumes (bladder/PTV) from CBCT and planning CT scans were compared with respect to bladder center-of-mass shifts in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z (superior-inferior) coordinates, bladder/PTV size, bladder/PTV margin positions, overlapping areas, and mutually exclusive regions. Results: A total of 262 CBCT images were obtained from 10 bladder cancer patients. Bladder center of mass shifted most in the y coordinate (mean, -0.32 cm). The anterior bladder wall shifted the most (mean, -0.58 cm). Mean ratios of CBCT-derived bladder and PTV volumes to planning CT-derived counterparts were 0.83 and 0.88. The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume (+- standard deviation [SD]) outside the planning CT counterpart was 29.24 cm{sup 3} (SD, 29.71 cm{sup 3}). The mean planning CT-derived bladder volume outside the CBCT counterpart was 47.74 cm{sup 3} (SD, 21.64 cm{sup 3}). The mean CBCT PTV outside the planning CT-derived PTV was 47.35 cm{sup 3} (SD, 36.51 cm{sup 3}). The mean planning CT-derived PTV outside the CBCT-derived PTV was 93.16 cm{sup 3} (SD, 50.21). The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume outside the planning PTV was 2.41 cm{sup 3} (SD, 3.97 cm{sup 3}). CBCT bladder/ PTV volumes significantly differed from planning CT counterparts (p = 0.047). Conclusions: Significant variations in bladder and PTV volume and position occurred in patients in this trial.

  20. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Magnotta, F.

    1998-08-25

    A lightweight, low permeability liner is described for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using tori spherical or near tori spherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film sealed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life. 19 figs.

  1. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Mitlitsky, Fred (1125 Canton Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Myers, Blake (4650 Almond Cir., Livermore, CA 94550); Magnotta, Frank (1206 Bacon Way, Lafayette, CA 94549)

    1998-01-01

    A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

  2. Mirabegron for overactive bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    Urinary incontinence, the involuntary leakage of urine, can result from abnormalities of the urinary tract or may be caused by other conditions and is sub-divided into a number of classifications including stress incontinence and urge urinary incontinence.(1) Urge urinary incontinence (UUI) is involuntary urine leakage accompanied by urgency of micturition.(2) Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is defined as urgency occurring with or without UUI and usually occurs with frequency and nocturia.(1) Wet OAB is associated with UUI, while dry OAB is not associated with incontinence. Current drug therapy for OAB involves the use of an antimuscarinic drug, of which there are a number available, such as oxybutynin, darifenacin, solifenacin and tolterodine.(1,3) ?Mirabegron is the first of a new class of drug, beta-3-adrenoreceptor agonists, licensed for symptomatic treatment of urgency, increased micturition frequency and/or urgency incontinence as may occur in adult patients with OAB syndrome.(4) Here we review the evidence for mirabegron. PMID:23949821

  3. Relationship between Schistosomiasis and Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, M. H.; Sheweita, S. A.; O’Connor, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Carcinoma of the urinary bladder is the most common malignancy in the Middle East and parts of Africa where schistosomiasis is a widespread problem. Much evidence supports the association between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer: this includes the geographical correlation between the two conditions, the distinctive patterns of gender and age at diagnosis, the clinicopathological identity of schistosome-associated bladder cancer, and extensive evidence in experimentally infected animals. Multiple factors have been suggested as causative agents in schistosome-associated bladder carcinogenesis. Of these, N-nitroso compounds appear to be of particular importance since they were found at high levels in the urine of patients with schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Various strains of bacteria that can mediate nitrosation reactions leading to the formation of N-nitrosamines have been identified in the urine of subjects with schistosomiasis at higher intensities of infection than in normal subjects. In experimental schistosomiasis, the activities of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes are increased soon after infection but are reduced again during the later chronic stages of the disease. Not only could this prolong the period of exposure to activated N-nitrosamines, but also inflammatory cells, sitmulated as a result of the infection, may induce the endogenous synthesis of N-nitrosamines as well as generating oxygen radicals. Higher than normal levels of host cell DNA damage are therefore anticipated, and they have indeed been observed in the case of alkylation damage, together with an inefficiency in the capacity of relevant enzymes to repair this damaged DNA. In experimental schistosomiasis, it was also found that endogenous levels of host cell DNA damage were related to the intensity of infection. All of these factors could contribute to an increased risk of bladder cancer in patients with schistosomiasis, and in particular, the gene changes observed may have potential for use as biomarkers in the early detection of bladder cancer that may assist in alleviating the problem. PMID:9880476

  4. Somatic modulation of spinal reflex bladder activity mediated by nociceptive bladder afferent nerve fibers in cats

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhiying; Rogers, Marc J.; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R.; de Groat, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine if supraspinal pathways are necessary for inhibition of bladder reflex activity induced by activation of somatic afferents in the pudendal or tibial nerve. Cats anesthetized with ?-chloralose were studied after acute spinal cord transection at the thoracic T9/T10 level. Dilute (0.25%) acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder, activate nociceptive afferent C-fibers, and trigger spinal reflex bladder contractions (amplitude: 19.3 ± 2.9 cmH2O). Hexamethonium (a ganglionic blocker, intravenously) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the amplitude of the reflex bladder contractions to 8.5 ± 1.9 cmH2O. Injection of lidocaine (2%, 1–2 ml) into the sacral spinal cord or transection of the sacral spinal roots and spinal cord further reduced the contraction amplitude to 4.2 ± 1.3 cmH2O. Pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) at frequencies of 0.5–5 Hz and 40 Hz but not at 10–20 Hz inhibited reflex bladder contractions, whereas tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) failed to inhibit bladder contractions at all tested frequencies (0.5–40 Hz). These results indicate that PNS inhibition of nociceptive afferent C-fiber-mediated spinal reflex bladder contractions can occur at the spinal level in the absence of supraspinal pathways, but TNS inhibition requires supraspinal pathways. In addition, this study shows, for the first time, that after acute spinal cord transection reflex bladder contractions can be triggered by activating nociceptive bladder afferent C-fibers using acetic acid irritation. Understanding the sites of action for PNS or TNS inhibition is important for the clinical application of pudendal or tibial neuromodulation to treat bladder dysfunctions. PMID:25056352

  5. The response of smooth muscle cells in the rabbit urinary bladder to outflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Brent, L; Stephens, F D

    1975-05-01

    The morphologic response of smooth muscle cells in the urinary bladder to a standardized bladder neck obstruction and the cell changes subsequent to release of that obstruction were studied in both growing and adult rabbits. The bladder reacted first by gross dilation and then by concentric thickening of the wall at the expense of the lumen. Microscopically, thickening of the bladder wall was due to temporary submucosal edema, then to the increased fibrocollagenous connective tissue, and finally to the increased muscle mass which in part replaced the connective tissue. Hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells and their nuclei was apparent and this preceded cellular hyperplasia, which did not occur until 30 days after the obstruction was induced in the adult rabbits. In contrast, there was early hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells in the growing rabbits, followed by hypertrophy of the cells and their nuclei. In no instance could mitosis of smooth muscle cells be found in either young or adult rabbits. Quantitation showed that the degree of cellular hypertrophy was proportional to the duration of the obstruction. In the adult animal, the muscular thickening was mainly due to an initial 5 fold increase of the muscle cell volume together with a later 3 fold increase of muscle cell number. In the growing rabbits, the muscle cells first doubled in number and then after 8 weeks a 6 fold enlargement of cell volume contributed to the total muscular thickening. Upon release of obstruction in the adult rabbits, both enlarged cell and nuclear sizes regressed to normal values and the cell numbers gradually decreased to near normal values over periods up to 4 months after release. PMID:1120643

  6. Analysis of various descent trajectories for a hypersonic-cruise, cold-wall research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    The probable descent operating conditions for a hypersonic air-breathing research airplane were examined. Descents selected were cruise angle of attack, high dynamic pressure, high lift coefficient, turns, and descents with drag brakes. The descents were parametrically exercised and compared from the standpoint of cold-wall (367 K) aircraft heat load. The descent parameters compared were total heat load, peak heating rate, time to landing, time to end of heat pulse, and range. Trends in total heat load as a function of cruise Mach number, cruise dynamic pressure, angle-of-attack limitation, pull-up g-load, heading angle, and drag-brake size are presented.

  7. Flight Management System Execution of Idle-Thrust Descents in Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stell, Laurel L.

    2011-01-01

    To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the trajectory predictor and its error models, commercial flights executed idle-thrust descents, and the recorded data includes the target speed profile and FMS intent trajectories. The FMS computes the intended descent path assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and any intervention by the controllers that alters the FMS execution of the descent is recorded so that such flights are discarded from the analysis. The horizontal flight path, cruise and meter fix altitudes, and actual TOD location are extracted from the radar data. Using more than 60 descents in Boeing 777 aircraft, the actual speeds are compared to the intended descent speed profile. In addition, three aspects of the accuracy of the FMS intent trajectory are analyzed: the meter fix crossing time, the TOD location, and the altitude at the meter fix. The actual TOD location is within 5 nmi of the intent location for over 95% of the descents. Roughly 90% of the time, the airspeed is within 0.01 of the target Mach number and within 10 KCAS of the target descent CAS, but the meter fix crossing time is only within 50 sec of the time computed by the FMS. Overall, the aircraft seem to be executing the descents as intended by the designers of the onboard automation.

  8. Noninvasive Electromagnetic Detection of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cormio, Luigi; Vedruccio, Clarbruno; Leucci, Giorgio; Massenio, Paolo; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Vincenzo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Normal and neoplastic human tissues have different electromagnetic properties. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive electromagnetic detection of bladder cancer (BC) by the tissue-resonance interaction method (TRIM-prob). Patients and Methods. Consecutive patients were referred for cystoscopy because of (i) microscopic or gross hematuria and/or irritative voiding symptoms and (ii) bladder ultrasounds and urinary cytology findings negative or just suspicious of malignancy. Patients were first submitted to TRIM-prob bladder scanning by a single investigator and then to cystoscopy by another investigator blind to TRIM-prob data. Results. In 125 evaluated patients cystoscopy was positive for BC in 47 and negative in the remaining 78; conversely, TRIM-prob bladder scanning was positive for BC in 53 and negative in 72. In particular, TRIM-prob scanning yielded 7 false positives and only one false negative; therefore, its overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 97.9%, 89.9%, 86.8%, 98.6%, and 93.6%, respectively. Conclusions. TRIM-prob bladder scanning was a simple and quite accurate method for non-invasive electromagnetic detection of BC. If the elevated positive and negative predictive values will be replicated in further well-designed studies, it could be used to screen asymptomatic patients at high risk of BC. PMID:24563795

  9. [Epidemiological investigation on bladder cancer and occupations].

    PubMed

    Obata, K; Ohno, Y; Aoki, K

    1989-12-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Boston, U.S.A., Manchester, U.K., and Nagoya, Japan to assess the associations of occupations with bladder cancer in men. In Nagoya, cancer cases were identified through Nagoya Bladder Cancer Registry, and controls were randomly selected from the general population using electoral registers. Study subjects, all males, analyzed were 430 cases and 397 controls in Boston; 339 and 493 in Manchester, and 220 and 443 in Nagoya, respectively. Occupations significantly related to an increased bladder cancer risk were those manufacturing or handling dyes, leather, paint or organic chemicals in Boston, and leather or medical workers in Manchester. Occupations significantly associated with bladder cancer development were not found in Nagoya. In general, risk related to occupations was relatively higher in the younger age group (less than 65 years old) than in the older age group (greater than or equal to 65 yrs old). Statistically significant differences in bladder cancer risk were not demonstrated between manufacturing workers and service workers. PMID:2618905

  10. Use of mirabegron in treating overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Bhide, Alka A; Digesu, G Alessandro; Fernando, Ruwan; Khullar, Vik

    2012-10-01

    The lack of an alternative to antimuscarinics has led to the search for new drug targets for overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. The presence of ?-3 adrenoreceptors in the bladder has been confirmed, and they are known to have a role in bladder relaxation. Targeting these receptors improves bladder compliance on filling and increases bladder capacity. MEDLINE literature search on efficacy and safety of mirabegron was performed. The US Food and Drug Administration Web site, clinicaltrials.gov, and controlled-trials.com online trial registries were searched for English-language articles containing the term "mirabegron". Finally, abstracts from recent International scientific meetings were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Studies show that mirabegron reduces the number of micturitions and incontinence episodes in a 24-h period compared with placebo. Dry mouth and gastrointestinal disturbances are the most common side effects, but these have been rated as mild to moderate. A small rise in mean heart rate and blood pressure has been shown. Further investigations are ongoing and results are awaited. Although mirabegron is metabolised by CYP2D6, it is also thought to inhibit the activity of this enzyme. Therefore, potential drug interactions with other CYP2D6 substrates need to be further studied. Mirabegron is a promising alternative to antimuscarinics. Further information on its long-term use in terms of efficacy, safety, and tolerability is awaited. PMID:22411211

  11. What I Need to Know about Bladder Control for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the bladder to leak. Caffeine drinks such as coffee and cola also cause the bladder to fill ... List the fluids you drink regularly, including sodas, coffee, tea, and alcohol. Tell the doctor how much ...

  12. Textural features for bladder cancer definition on CT images 

    E-print Network

    Liao, Hanqing

    2013-07-01

    Genitourinary cancer refers to the presence of tumours in the genital or urinary organs such as bladder, kidney and prostate. In 2008 the worldwide incidence of bladder cancer was 382,600 with a mortality of 150,282. ...

  13. Tissue Engineering of Rat Bladder Using Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Bladder Acellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Loutochin, Oleg; Galipeau, Jacques; Corcos, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Bladder replacement or augmentation is required in congenital malformations or following trauma or cancer. The current surgical solution involves enterocystoplasty but is associated with high complication rates. Strategies for bladder tissue engineering are thus actively sought to address this unmet clinical need. Because of the poor efficacy of synthetic polymers, the use of bladder acellular matrix (BAM) has been proposed. Indeed when cellular components are removed from xenogenic or allogeneic bladders, the extracellular matrix scaffold thus obtained can be used alone or in combination with stem cells. In this study, we propose the use of BAM seeded with marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bladder tissue engineering. We optimized a protocol for decellularization of bladder tissue from different species including rat, rabbit and swine. We demonstrate the use of non-ionic detergents followed by nuclease digestion results in efficient decellularization while preserving the extracellular matrix. When MSCs were seeded on acellular matrix scaffold, they remained viable and proliferative while adopting a cellular phenotype consistent with their microenvironment. Upon transplantation in rats after partial cystectomy, MSC-seeded BAM proved superior to unseeded BAM with animals recovering nearly 100% normal bladder capacity for up to six months. Histological analyses also demonstrated increased muscle regeneration. PMID:25437001

  14. Bladder cancer: smoking, beverages and artificial sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert W.; Jain, Meera G.

    1974-01-01

    A matched patient-control study of bladder cancer examined the relationship of the disease to occupation, smoking and intake of tea, coffee, cola, alcohol and artificial sweeteners. There was no association of disease with occupation for these patients. Heavy smoking gave relative risks of 6.37 and 4.36 for men and women respectively; there was evidence of a dose-response relationship. Tea and coffee intake did not increase the risk of disease nor did prolonged use of artificial sweeteners. Alcohol and cola intake increased the relative risk of bladder cancer among male smokers. There is some suggestion that smoking interacts with both alcohol and cola intake in the production of bladder cancer. PMID:4429932

  15. A flowgraph model for bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Superficial bladder cancer has been the subject of numerous studies for many years, but the evolution of the disease still remains not well understood. After the tumor has been surgically removed, it may reappear at a similar level of malignancy or progress to a higher level. The process may be reasonably modeled by means of a Markov process. However, in order to more completely model the evolution of the disease, this approach is insufficient. The semi-Markov framework allows a more realistic approach, but calculations become frequently intractable. In this context, flowgraph models provide an efficient approach to successfully manage the evolution of superficial bladder carcinoma. Our aim is to test this methodology in this particular case. Results We have built a successful model for a simple but representative case. Conclusion The flowgraph approach is suitable for modeling of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:25080066

  16. Neural reconstruction methods of restoring bladder function

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M.; Barbe, Mary F.; de Groat, William C.; Brown, Justin M.; Tuite, Gerald F.; Corcos, Jacques; Fecho, Susan B.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, diverse studies have focused on the development of surgical strategies to restore function of a decentralized bladder after spinal cord or spinal root injury via repair of the original roots or by transferring new axonal sources. The techniques included end-to-end sacral root repairs, transfer of roots from other spinal segments to sacral roots, transfer of intercostal nerves to sacral roots, transfer of various somatic nerves to the pelvic or pudendal nerve, direct reinnervation of the detrusor muscle, or creation of an artificial reflex pathway between the skin and the bladder via the central nervous system. All of these surgical techniques have demonstrated specific strengths and limitations. The findings made to date already indicate appropriate patient populations for each procedure, but a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of each technique to restore urinary function after bladder decentralization is required to guide future research and potential clinical application. PMID:25666987

  17. Bladder volume estimation from electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Schlebusch, T; Nienke, S; Leonhardt, S; Walter, M

    2014-09-01

    Non-invasive estimation of bladder volume is required to progress from scheduled voiding to a demand-driven emptying scheme for patients with impaired bladder volume sensation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a promising candidate for the non-invasive monitoring of bladder volume. This article focuses on four estimation algorithms used to map recorded EIT data to a volume estimate. Two different approaches are presented: the tomographic algorithms (one based on global impedance, the other on equivalent circular diameter) rely on the reconstruction of a tomographic image and then extract a volume estimate, whereas the parametric algorithms (one based on neural networks, the other on the singular value difference method) directly map the raw data to a volume estimate. The four algorithms presented here are evaluated for volume estimation error, noise tolerance and suppression of varying urine conductivity based on finite element simulation data. PMID:25139037

  18. Efficient Sensor Placement Optimization Using Gradient Descent and Probabilistic Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Vahab; Lévesque, Julien-Charles; Gagné, Christian; Parizeau, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We are proposing an adaptation of the gradient descent method to optimize the position and orientation of sensors for the sensor placement problem. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the combination of gradient descent optimization with a realistic model, which considers both the topography of the environment and a set of sensors with directional probabilistic sensing. The performance of this approach is compared with two other black box optimization methods over area coverage and processing time. Results show that our proposed method produces competitive results on smaller maps and superior results on larger maps, while requiring much less computation than the other optimization methods to which it has been compared. PMID:25196164

  19. A Symmetric Time-Varying Cluster Rate of Descent Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    A model of the time-varying rate of descent of the Orion vehicle was developed based on the observed correlation between canopy projected area and drag coefficient. This initial version of the model assumes cluster symmetry and only varies the vertical component of velocity. The cluster fly-out angle is modeled as a series of sine waves based on flight test data. The projected area of each canopy is synchronized with the primary fly-out angle mode. The sudden loss of projected area during canopy collisions is modeled at minimum fly-out angles, leading to brief increases in rate of descent. The cluster geometry is converted to drag coefficient using empirically derived constants. A more complete model is under development, which computes the aerodynamic response of each canopy to its local incidence angle.

  20. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, H.; Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface.

  1. Bladder Leiomyoma Presenting With LUTS and Coexisting Bladder and Uterine Leiomyomata: A Review of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Tanwar, Raman; Mitra, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal tumors of the urinary bladder are a rare occurrence, the most common among them being leiomyoma of the bladder. These tumors commonly present with irritative urinary symptoms progressing gradually to obstructive symptoms as the size increases. We report on two patients who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). One of the patients also had concomitant bladder and uterine leiomyomata, which is the first such case to be reported in the literature. It is essential to differentiate leiomyoma from other common causes of LUTS. Cold cup biopsy has a significant false-negative rate and, in such cases, a wide local excision provides an optimal cure with excellent results. PMID:24791156

  2. Scaling Up Coordinate Descent Algorithms for Large ?1 Regularization Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Scherrer, Chad; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tewari, Ambuj; Haglin, David J.

    2012-07-03

    We present a generic framework for parallel coordinate descent (CD) algorithms that has as special cases the original sequential algorithms of Cyclic CD and Stochastic CD, as well as the recent parallel Shotgun algorithm of Bradley et al. We introduce two novel parallel algorithms that are also special cases---Thread-Greedy CD and Coloring-Based CD---and give performance measurements for an OpenMP implementation of these.

  3. Bladder Perforation Secondary to Primary Systemic Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Dru, Christopher J.; Feng, Tom S.; Kim, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a disorder of protein folding characterized by extracellular aggregation and deposition of amyloid protein fibrils. Light-chain amyloidosis, also known as primary systemic amyloidosis, is the most common form of the disease. We present a case of an 84-year-old male with a history of systemic primary amyloidosis causing genitourinary, cardiac, and autonomic dysfunction who presented with hematuria and hypotension secondary to bladder perforation. He underwent open repair of a large extraperitoneal bladder defect. He ultimately died as a result of medical complications from his disease. PMID:25587481

  4. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 with Bladder Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Üre, Iyimser; Gürocak, Serhat; Gönül, Ipek Isik; Sözen, Sinan; Deniz, Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is an autosomal dominant transmitted disease with various clinical manifestations. The bladder is the most commonly affected organ in the genitourinary system. The malignant transformation of the disease is rare, and unlike malign tumors, the treatment option for benign disease is usually conservative. The size and localization of the mass determine the symptoms, most of which are usually not specific. In this paper, we aim to present a 15-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 with bladder involvement. The clinical presentation and treatment options of this disease are discussed in the light of the literature. PMID:23984171

  5. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947

  6. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. PMID:26475949

  7. Airborne Management of Traffic Conflicts in Descent With Arrival Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    NASA is studying far-term air traffic management concepts that may increase operational efficiency through a redistribution of decisionmaking authority among airborne and ground-based elements of the air transportation system. One component of this research, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows trained pilots of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for traffic separation. Ground-based air traffic controllers would continue to separate traffic unequipped for autonomous operations and would issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To evaluate En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a human-in-the-loop experiment was jointly conducted by the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. In this experiment, test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve conflicts in cruise and descent, and to adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by test subject controllers. Simulators at NASA Langley were equipped with a prototype Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) flight deck toolset to assist pilots with conflict management and constraint compliance tasks. Results from the experiment are presented, focusing specifically on operations during the initial descent into the terminal area. Airborne conflict resolution performance in descent, conformance to traffic flow management constraints, and the effects of conflicting traffic on constraint conformance are all presented. Subjective data from subject pilots are also presented, showing perceived levels of workload, safety, and acceptability of autonomous arrival operations. Finally, potential AOP functionality enhancements are discussed along with suggestions to improve arrival procedures.

  8. Factors Associated with Sleep Disturbance in Women of Mexican Descent

    PubMed Central

    Heilemann, MarySue V.; Choudhury, Shonali M.; Kury, Felix Salvador; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aims were to identify the most useful parameters of acculturation in relation to self reported sleep disturbance and describe risk factors for sleep disturbance in women of Mexican descent. Background Little is known about acculturation as a factor for poor sleep in the context of other personal factors such as income or sense of resilience or mastery for Latinas in the United States. Methods These personal factors were incorporated into a modification of the Conceptual Framework of Impaired Sleep to guide our secondary analysis of self-reported sleep disturbance. Cross sectional data from a convenience sample of 312 women of Mexican descent of childbearing age (21-40 years) located in an urban California community were collected and previously analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms and post traumatic stress disorder. The General Sleep Disturbance Scale (in English and Spanish) was used to assess sleep disturbance. Results Early socialization to the United States during childhood was the most useful acculturation parameter for understanding self reported sleep disturbance in this sample. In a multivariate regression analysis, three factors (higher acculturation, lower income, and higher depressive symptoms) were significant in accounting for 40% of the variance in sleep disturbance. Conclusion When low income Latinas of Mexican descent report sleep problems, clinicians should probe for environmental sleep factors associated with low income, such as noise, over-crowding, and exposure to trauma and violence, and refer the woman to psychotherapy and counselling rather than merely prescribe a sleep medication. PMID:22221152

  9. A new method for forecasting the solar cycle descent time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakad, Bharati; Kakad, Amar; Sai Ramesh, Durbha

    2015-08-01

    The prediction of an extended solar minimum is extremely important because of the severity of its impact on the near-earth space. Here, we present a new method for predicting the descent time of the forthcoming solar cycle (SC); the method is based on the estimation of the Shannon entropy. We use the daily and monthly smoothed international sunspot number. For each nth SC, we compute the parameter [Tpre]n by using information on the descent and ascent times of the n - 3th and nth SCs, respectively. We find that [Tpre] of nth SC and entropy can be effectively used to predict the descent time of the n + 2th SC. The correlation coefficient between [Td]n+2 - [Tpre]n and [E]n is found to be 0.95. Using these parameters the prediction model is developed. Solar magnetic field and F10.7 flux data are available for SCs 21-22 and 19-23, respectively, and they are also utilized to get estimates of the Shannon entropy. It is found that the Shannon entropy, a measure of randomness inherent in the SC, is reflected well in the various proxies of the solar activity (viz sunspot, magnetic field, F10.7 flux). The applicability and accuracy of the prediction model equation is verified by way of association of least entropy values with the Dalton minimum. The prediction model equation also provides possible criteria for the occurrence of unusually longer solar minima.

  10. Titan Explorer Entry, Descent and Landing Trajectory Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Jody L.; Lindberg, Robert E.; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    2006-01-01

    The Titan Explorer mission concept includes an orbiter, entry probe and inflatable airship designed to take remote and in-situ measurements of Titan's atmosphere. A modified entry, descent and landing trajectory at Titan that incorporates mid-air airship inflation (under a parachute) and separation is developed and examined for Titan Explorer. The feasibility of mid-air inflation and deployment of an airship under a parachute is determined by implementing and validating an airship buoyancy and inflation model in the trajectory simulation program, Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2). A nominal POST2 trajectory simulation case study is generated which examines different descent scenarios by varying airship inflation duration, orientation, and separation. The buoyancy model incorporation into POST2 is new to the software and may be used in future trajectory simulations. Each case from the nominal POST2 trajectory case study simulates a successful separation between the parachute and airship systems with sufficient velocity change as to alter their paths to avoid collision throughout their descent. The airship and heatshield also separate acceptably with a minimum distance of separation from the parachute system of 1.5 km. This analysis shows the feasibility of airship inflation on a parachute for different orientations, airship separation at various inflation times, and preparation for level-flight at Titan.

  11. Lunar Surface Access Module Descent Engine Turbopump Technology: Detailed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alarez, Erika; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new lunar exploration architecture. Studies indicate that a 4-engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a candidate configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The lander descent engine will be required to perform minor mid-course corrections, a Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) burn, a de-orbit burn, and the powered descent onto the lunar surface. In order to achieve the wide range of thrust required, the engines must be capable of throttling approximately 10:1. Working under internal research and development funding, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been conducting the development of a 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 lunar lander descent engine testbed. This paper highlights the detailed design and analysis efforts to develop the lander engine Fuel Turbopump (FTP) whose operating speeds range from 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm. The capability of the FTP to operate across this wide range of speeds imposes several structural and dynamic challenges, and the small size of the FTP creates scaling and manufacturing challenges that are also addressed in this paper.

  12. Lunar Surface Access Module Descent Engine Turbopump Technology: Detailed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Erika; Forbes, John C.; Thornton, Randall J.

    2010-01-01

    The need for a high specific impulse LOX/LH2 pump-fed lunar lander engine has been established by NASA for the new lunar exploration architecture. Studies indicate that a 4-engine cluster in the thrust range of 9,000-lbf each is a candidate configuration for the main propulsion of the manned lunar lander vehicle. The lander descent engine will be required to perform multiple burns including the powered descent onto the lunar surface. In order to achieve the wide range of thrust required, the engines must be capable of throttling approximately 10:1. Working under internal research and development funding, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been conducting the development of a 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 lunar lander descent engine technology testbed. This paper highlights the detailed design and analysis efforts to develop the lander engine Fuel Turbopump (FTP) whose operating speeds range from 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm. The capability of the FTP to operate across this wide range of speeds imposes several structural and dynamic challenges, and the small size of the FTP creates scaling and manufacturing challenges that are also addressed in this paper.

  13. Learning curves for stochastic gradient descent in linear feedforward networks.

    PubMed

    Werfel, Justin; Xie, Xiaohui; Seung, H Sebastian

    2005-12-01

    Gradient-following learning methods can encounter problems of implementation in many applications, and stochastic variants are sometimes used to overcome these difficulties. We analyze three online training methods used with a linear perceptron: direct gradient descent, node perturbation, and weight perturbation. Learning speed is defined as the rate of exponential decay in the learning curves. When the scalar parameter that controls the size of weight updates is chosen to maximize learning speed, node perturbation is slower than direct gradient descent by a factor equal to the number of output units; weight perturbation is slower still by an additional factor equal to the number of input units. Parallel perturbation allows faster learning than sequential perturbation, by a factor that does not depend on network size. We also characterize how uncertainty in quantities used in the stochastic updates affects the learning curves. This study suggests that in practice, weight perturbation may be slow for large networks, and node perturbation can have performance comparable to that of direct gradient descent when there are few output units. However, these statements depend on the specifics of the learning problem, such as the input distribution and the target function, and are not universally applicable. PMID:16212768

  14. Entry, Descent, and Landing Performance of the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Prince, Jill L.; Wueen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander successfully landed on the northern arctic plains of Mars. An overview of a preliminary reconstruction analysis performed on each entry, descent, and landing phase to assess the performance of Phoenix as it descended is presented and a comparison to pre-entry predictions is provided. The landing occurred 21 km further downrange than the predicted landing location. Analysis of the flight data revealed that the primary cause of Phoenix s downrange landing was a higher trim total angle of attack during the hypersonic phase of the entry, which resulted in Phoenix flying a slightly lifting trajectory. The cause of this higher trim attitude is not known at this time. Parachute deployment was 6.4 s later than prediction. This later deployment time was within the variations expected and is consistent with a lifting trajectory. The parachute deployment and inflation process occurred as expected with no anomalies identified. The subsequent parachute descent and powered terminal landing also behaved as expected. A preliminary reconstruction of the landing day atmospheric density profile was found to be lower than the best apriori prediction, ranging from a few percent less to a maximum of 8%. A comparison of the flight reconstructed trajectory parameters shows that the actual Phoenix entry, descent, and landing was close to pre-entry predictions. This reconstruction investigation is currently ongoing and the results to date are in the process of being refined.

  15. Minimally invasive neck lifts: have they replaced neck lift surgery?

    PubMed

    Dayan, Steven H; Arkins, John P; Chaudhry, Rahman

    2013-05-01

    The aging neck is accompanied by an increase in submental fat, platysmal banding, and redundant dyspigmented skin. Creating a more acute cervicomental angle, distinct mandibular border, homogeneous skin tone, and smoother texture helps to achieve a more youthful appearance. The aesthetic provider's armamentarium has long had surgical techniques in the highest regard, but a new wave of minimally invasive procedures looks to offer a nonsurgical approach to cervicomental rejuvenation. Selecting the appropriate procedure for appropriate patients that will effectively meet their aesthetic goals and expectations is the core of successful neck rejuvenation. PMID:23731587

  16. Computer-aided detection of bladder tumors based on the thickness mapping of bladder wall in MR images

    E-print Network

    . INTRODUCTION According to American Cancer Society, bladder cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths University, Beijing 100871, China ABSTRACT Bladder cancer is reported to be the fifth leading cause of cancer carcinoma [1, 2]. In addition, bladder cancer is reported to have high recurrence rate after resection

  17. Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, Alejandro M.; Burkhart, Paul D.; mendeck, Gavin F.

    2006-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of Mars. This paper describes the current MSL EDL system performance as predicted by end-to-end EDL simulations, highlights the sensitivity of this baseline performance to several key environmental assumptions, and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering such an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

  18. Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; SanMartin, A. Miguel; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Mendeck, Gavin F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of Mars. This paper describes the current MSL EDL system performance as predicted by end-to-end EDL simulations, highlights the sensitivity of this baseline performance to several key environmental assumptions, and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering such an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

  19. Detection of bladder tumors using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yingtian; Xie, Tuqiang; Wang, Zhenguo

    2004-07-01

    This paper summarizes the engineering development of our lab for endoscopic optical coherence tomography toward the ultimate goal to image bladder micro architecture and to diagnose bladder cancers. To test the utility and potential limitations of OCT setups for bladder tumor diagnosis, we used a rat bladder cancer model to track the morphological changes following tumor growth. Image results are presented, suggesting that OCT is able to differentiate cancerous lesions from inflammatory lesions based on OCT characterizations of epithelial thickness and backscattering changes of bladder tissue.

  20. Modeling bladder cancer in mice: opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Owczarek, Tomasz B.; McKiernan, James M.; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis and treatment of bladder cancer have hardly improved in the last 20 years. Bladder cancer remains a debilitating and often fatal disease, and among the most costly cancers to treat. The generation of informative mouse models has the potential to improve our understanding of bladder cancer progression, as well as impact its diagnosis and treatment. However, relatively few mouse models of bladder cancer have been described and particularly few that develop invasive cancer phenotypes. This review focuses on opportunities for improving the landscape of mouse models of bladder cancer. PMID:25533675

  1. [Aponeurotic suspension of the bladder neck as elective treatment of minimal stress urinary incontinence in women].

    PubMed

    Serrate, R; Gutiérrez, R; Rius, G; Prats, J; Wahab, A; Regué, R

    1995-01-01

    To correct urine incontinence at minimal exertion in woman, most especially in those who have undergone unsuccessful vaginal techniques, we advice the aponeurotic suspension of the vesical cervix, with anchorage, in fixed tissue (Cooper's ligament or ischiopubic branch) in order to avoid displacement of the supporting band and new drops of the vesical cervix, with incontinence relapse in the long run. Since 1983 this procedure has been performed in 400 women, with various degrees of urinary incontinence on exertion, 140 of whom had previously undergone other procedures. Our results have been completely successful in 383 patient who at year from surgery no longer presented urinary incontinence of any degree. These good results lead us to recommend this procedure as the most suitable to solve urinary incontinence at minimal exertion, relapses and that associated to feeling of urgency in many occasions. PMID:7717155

  2. Discordance Between Preoperative and Postoperative Bladder Cancer Location: Implications for Partial-Bladder Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Tucker, Kai; Conway, Robert Greg; He, Jiwei; Guzzo, Thomas; Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: There is strong interest in partial-bladder radiation whether as a boost or definitive therapy to limit long-term toxicity. It is unclear that a standard preoperative examination can accurately identify all sites of disease within the bladder. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between preoperative localization of bladder tumors with postoperative findings to facilitate partial-bladder radiation techniques when appropriate. Methods and Materials: We examined patients with clinically staged T1-T4 invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or TCC with variant histology with no history of radiation or partial cystectomy undergoing radical cystectomy. Patients were scored as “under-detected” if a bladder site was involved with invasive disease (?T1) at the time of cystectomy, but not identified preoperatively. Patients were additionally scored as “widely under-detected” if they had postoperative lesions that were not identified preoperatively in a given site, nor in any adjacent site. Rates of under-detected and widely under-detected lesions, as well as univariate and multivariate association between clinical variables and under-detection, were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: Among 222 patients, 96% (213/222) had at least 1 area of discordance. Fifty-eight percent of patients were under-detected in at least 1 location, whereas 12% were widely under-detected. Among 24 patients with a single site of disease on preoperative evaluation, 21/24 (88%) had at least 1 under-detected lesion and 14/24 (58%) were widely under-detected. On multivariate analysis, only solitary site of preoperative disease was associated with increased levels of under-detection of invasive disease (OR = 4.161, 95% CI, 1.368-12.657). Conclusion: Our study shows a stark discordance between preoperative and postoperative localization of bladder tumors. From a clinical perspective, incomplete localization of all sites of disease within the bladder may lead to marginal misses when a partial-bladder technique is used.

  3. Ultrasound bladder vibrometry method for measuring viscoelasticity of the bladder wall.

    PubMed

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Qiang, Bo; Urban, Matthew W; de Araujo Vasconcelo, Luiz Henrique; Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2013-04-21

    Increase in bladder stiffness could be associated with various pathophysiologic conditions. Measuring bladder viscoelasticity could be an important step towards understanding various disease processes and improving patient care. Here, we introduce ultrasound bladder vibrometry (UBV), a novel method for rapid and noninvasive measurement of bladder wall viscoelasticity. UBV uses acoustic radiation force to excite mechanical waves in the bladder wall and track the motion using ultrasound pulse-echo techniques. Fourier domain analysis of the tissue motion versus time is used to calculate the phase velocity dispersion (change of phase velocity as a function of frequency). The measured phase velocity dispersion is fit with the antisymmetric Lamb wave model to estimate tissue elasticity and viscosity. We used finite element analysis of viscoelastic plate deformation to investigate the effect of curvature on Lamb wave dispersion and showed that the effects of curvature are negligible. The feasibility of the UBV technique was demonstrated in ex vivo and in vivo settings. Elasticity and viscosity of excised pig at various filling volumes (V) and pressures (p) were found to be µ1 = 9.6 kPa and µ2 = 0.2 Pa s (V = 187 ml and p = 8.6 mmHg), µ1 = 48.7 kPa and µ2 = 3.5 Pa s (V = 267 ml and p = 17.6 mmHg), and µ1 = 106.9 kPa and µ2 = 1.5 Pa s (V = 327 ml and p = 27.6 mmHg) respectively. Transabdominal measurements in an anesthetized pig found values of bladder elasticity µ1 = 26.1 kPa and viscosity µ2 = 0.9 Pa s and demonstrate the ability of UBV to perform in vivo measurements. The results presented in this paper introduce a novel technique for measuring mechanical properties of the bladder and lay the foundation for further investigation of the effects of pathology on bladder viscoelasticity. PMID:23552842

  4. Ultrasound bladder vibrometry method for measuring viscoelasticity of the bladder wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z.; Qiang, Bo; Urban, Matthew W.; Henrique de Araujo Vasconcelo, Luiz; Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F.; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2013-04-01

    Increase in bladder stiffness could be associated with various pathophysiologic conditions. Measuring bladder viscoelasticity could be an important step towards understanding various disease processes and improving patient care. Here, we introduce ultrasound bladder vibrometry (UBV), a novel method for rapid and noninvasive measurement of bladder wall viscoelasticity. UBV uses acoustic radiation force to excite mechanical waves in the bladder wall and track the motion using ultrasound pulse-echo techniques. Fourier domain analysis of the tissue motion versus time is used to calculate the phase velocity dispersion (change of phase velocity as a function of frequency). The measured phase velocity dispersion is fit with the antisymmetric Lamb wave model to estimate tissue elasticity and viscosity. We used finite element analysis of viscoelastic plate deformation to investigate the effect of curvature on Lamb wave dispersion and showed that the effects of curvature are negligible. The feasibility of the UBV technique was demonstrated in ex vivo and in vivo settings. Elasticity and viscosity of excised pig at various filling volumes (V) and pressures (p) were found to be µ1 = 9.6 kPa and µ2 = 0.2 Pa s (V = 187 ml and p = 8.6 mmHg), µ1 = 48.7 kPa and µ2 = 3.5 Pa s (V = 267 ml and p = 17.6 mmHg), and µ1 = 106.9 kPa and µ2 = 1.5 Pa s (V = 327 ml and p = 27.6 mmHg) respectively. Transabdominal measurements in an anesthetized pig found values of bladder elasticity µ1 = 26.1 kPa and viscosity µ2 = 0.9 Pa s and demonstrate the ability of UBV to perform in vivo measurements. The results presented in this paper introduce a novel technique for measuring mechanical properties of the bladder and lay the foundation for further investigation of the effects of pathology on bladder viscoelasticity.

  5. Laparoscopic repair of iatrogenic bladder perforation during transurethral bladder tumor resection: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    May, Florian; Schlenker, Boris; Hofer, Bernhard; Stief, Christian G; Rau, Horst-Guenter

    2013-01-01

    An intraperitoneal bladder perforation occurred during transurethral tumor resection under general anesthesia in a 82 year old woman. The bladder was repaired with a laparoscopic closure and an indwelling urethral catheter. The histopathology revealed T1 high grade urothelial carcinoma. The patient recovered well and was discharged home on postoperative day 7. This case highlights the successful use of laparoscopy in the treatment of a rare urological complication. PMID:23671369

  6. Laparoscopic repair of iatrogenic bladder perforation during transurethral bladder tumor resection: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    May, Florian; Schlenker, Boris; Hofer, Bernhard; Stief, Christian G; Rau, Horst-Guenter

    2013-01-01

    An intraperitoneal bladder perforation occurred during transurethral tumor resection under general anesthesia in a 82 year old woman. The bladder was repaired with a laparoscopic closure and an indwelling urethral catheter. The histopathology revealed T1 high grade urothelial carcinoma. The patient recovered well and was discharged home on postoperative day 7. This case highlights the successful use of laparoscopy in the treatment of a rare urological complication. PMID:23671369

  7. Initial conformation of kinesin's neck linker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yi-Zhao; Ji, Qing; Liu, Shu-Xia; Yan, Shi-Wei

    2014-10-01

    How ATP binding initiates the docking process of kinesin's neck linker is a key question in understanding kinesin mechanisms. By exploiting a molecular dynamics method, we investigate the initial conformation of kinesin's neck linker in its docking process. We find that, in the initial conformation, the neck linker has interactions with ?0 and forms a ‘cover-neck bundle’ structure with ?0. From this initial structure, the formation of extra turns and the docking of the cover-neck bundle structure can be achieved. The motor head provides a forward force on the initial cover-neck bundle structure through ATP-induced rotation. This force, together with the hydrophobic interaction of ILE327 with the hydrophobic pocket on the motor head, drives the formation of the extra turn and initiates the neck linker docking process. Based on these findings, a pathway from ATP binding-induced motor head rotation to neck linker docking is proposed.

  8. Head and Neck International Group (HNIG)

    Cancer.gov

    The Head and Neck International Group was established in 2014 with the mission to promote and conduct high quality head and neck cancer clinical trials worldwide to improve outcomes in patients diagnosed with these diseases.

  9. Novel endoscopic diagnosis for bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Seth P; Goh, Alvin

    2015-01-15

    Advances in endoscopic imaging technology may improve sensitivity for the detection of bladder cancer and provide a more complete understanding of the urothelial landscape, and it also may lead to improved short-term and long-term cancer control. Fluorescence cystoscopy requires intravesical administration of a photosensitizing agent (5-aminolevulinic acid or hexaminolevulinate), and imaging with a blue-light endoscopy system demonstrably improves the detection of papillary and flat bladder lesions compared with conventional white-light cystoscopy. Prospective phase 3 clinical trials have demonstrated improved diagnostic ability, enhanced tumor resection, and a small but significant reduction in recurrence-free survival. Optical coherence tomography delineates subsurface microarchitecture information about bladder lesions in real time and has the ability to discriminate between noninvasive and invasive cancers. Narrow-band imaging may augment white-light cystoscopy by providing increased contrast between normal and abnormal tissue on the basis of neovascularity. Confocal laser endoscopy has been applied to the urinary tract using thinner probes adapted from use in gastrointestinal malignancies and provides exquisite images at microscopic resolution. More technology is on the horizon that may further enhance our ability to detect and accurately stage bladder tumors and distinguish benign from malignant or dysplastic lesions. PMID:25132313

  10. Traumatic bladder rupture in a paratrooper.

    PubMed

    Ford, David; Palma, James; Robinson, John

    2009-06-01

    A paratrooper presents after a parachuting accident with the inability to urinate. Initial emergency bedside ultrasound, followed by confirmatory abdominal CT, is carried out and demonstrates an intraperitoneal bladder rupture. The patient is taken to the operating room and a 3-layer closure with omental buttressing is carried out. PMID:19585785

  11. Robot-assisted laparoscopic bladder diverticulectomy.

    PubMed

    Eyraud, R; Laydner, H; Autorino, R; Panumatrassamee, K; Haber, G P; Stein, R J

    2013-02-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic bladder diverticulectomy (RALBD) has been increasingly reported in recent years. We review the technique of RALBD and the perioperative outcomes. We searched online databases to identify original articles related to RALBD. In the Method section, we describe our technique and reviewe several techniques for identification and robotic management of bladder diverticula. We identified 13 retrospective studies that met our criteria, with a total of 44 patients. The mean diverticulum size was 8.3?±?3.6 cm, mean operative time was 186?±?68 min, mean estimated blood loss was 86?±?64 ml, and mean length of stay was 2.4?±?1.7 days. In the majority of cases, patients with acquired diverticula underwent urethral catheter removal between 7 and 14 postoperative days while in the pediatric population with congenital bladder diverticula, Foley catheter removal usually occurred on postoperative day one. We conclude that a robotic technique is a feasible minimally invasive approach for bladder diverticulectomy. Potential benefits may include precise dissection of adjacent structures, as well as easier intracorporeal suturing. Further studies are needed to compare outcomes and costs versus other existing procedures. PMID:23184623

  12. Bladder leiomyoma: Presentation, evaluation and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Khater, Nazih; Sakr, Ghazi

    2012-01-01

    Background Bladder leiomyomas are benign mesenchymal neoplasms and very rare urinary tumours that represent <0.5% of all bladder tumours, with only 250 cases reported worldwide to date. The importance of recognising their characteristic features, leading to their correct treatment, is fundamental. Therefore, we reviewed reports of leiomyomas of the urinary bladder, their causes, clinical presentations, imaging methods and surgical management, updated to 2012. Methods We retrospectively reviewed articles published in the USA, Europe and Asia, from 1953 to date, using PubMed, Medscape, Medline and the several major journals. We report areas of controversies and well-established guidelines. Results We reviewed 36 articles that confirmed, with a high level of evidence-based medicine, that the male to female ratio is equal, the cause of bladder leiomyomas remains unknown, and their most common presentation is obstructive uropathy; endovesical tumours are the most common. Their radiological diagnosis can be made by ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Complete surgical resection is a very effective treatment, associated with almost no recurrence. Conclusion In symptomatic patients a complete surgical resection can give a very good outcome, with almost no recurrence.

  13. [Resection of rectum and bladder for cancer].

    PubMed

    Bondar', G V; Basheev, V Kh; Zolotukhin, S E; Borota, A V; Donets, V L; psaras, G G

    2000-01-01

    In 1970-1997 period 43 patients with cancer recti, invading bladder, were operated on. The base of surgical tactics was performance of primarily-restorational operation as independent procedure and in the complex of treatment as well. There was noted the fair immediate and late follow-up result of treatment. PMID:10857302

  14. Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Severe bleeding Small, weak urine stream Shock or internal bleeding may occur after a bladder injury. This ... Runyon MS. Genitourinary system. In Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  15. Occupational cancer of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Tola, S

    1980-01-01

    The occupational etiology of bladder cancer has been known for more than 70 yr. The best-known etiologic agents are aromatic amines such as 2-naphthylamine and benzidine. The proportion of bladder cancers due to occupational exposure varies with the industrialization of the area in question. In heavily industrialized countries occupational exposure may be associated with as much as 25% of cases in men. Industries with a confirmed or highly probable increased risk of bladder cancer are dyestuff and chemical manufacture, pigment and paint manufacture, cable manufacture, textile works (dyeing), leather works, the coal tar industry, and the gas industry. In addition to these relatively well established risk industries, a number of occupations have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in epidemiologic studies. These include barbers, butchers, clerks, electricians, hairdressers, mechanics, medical occupations, metalworkers, painters, photographers, plumbers, shoemakers and shoe repairers, tailors, and textile workers. The etiologic agents in these occupations are obscure and it is difficult to know whether these associations are causal. PMID:7463517

  16. How frequent are overactive bladder symptoms in women with urodynamic verification of an overactive bladder?

    PubMed Central

    Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Ergeno?lu, Mete Ahmet; Meseri, Reci; A?kar, Niyazi; ?til, ?smail Mete

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between overactive bladder symptoms and urodynamic verification of overactive bladder. Material and Methods Between June 2011 and November 2011, 159 patients underwent urodynamics (UDS) at our urogynecology unit in the Ege University Hospital. Of these, 95 patients who complained of urgency, did not have any overt neurological diseases, bladder outlet obstruction and did not take any medication affecting the lower urinary tract function were evaluated. SPSS (ver. 15.0) was used to evaluate the data and the chi-square test and t test for independent samples were used for analysis. Results The mean age was found to be 54.5±12. Frequency was the most frequent symptom in women with overactive bladder (OAB) (82.1%), nocturia (57.8%) and (57.8%) urgency urinary incontinence followed in frequency. Detrusor over activity incidence was found to be 38.9%. There was no significant relationship between the presence of detrusor over activity (DOA) and OAB symptoms. Leak at urodynamics was found in 46.3% and there is no significant association with detrusor overactivity. Total bladder capacity was found to be significantly lower in women who had DOA (p=0.000). Conclusion It appears that overactive bladder symptoms do not predict detrusor over activity. Urodynamic investigation is not mandatory in the initial management of women with only OAB symptoms. PMID:24592016

  17. An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Mohammad K; Rajaei, Mojtaba

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. Materials and methods In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. Results In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse effects such as bladder perforation due to our high-pressure, high-flow system. Conclusion A pressurized irrigant system has better visualization during endourologic procedures, and prevents clot formation after open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB without any adverse effects. PMID:20957138

  18. Application of Bladder Acellular Matrix in Urinary Bladder Regeneration: The State of the Art and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Drewa, Gerard; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Construction of the urinary bladder de novo using tissue engineering technologies is the “holy grail” of reconstructive urology. The search for the ideal biomaterial for urinary bladder reconstruction has been ongoing for decades. One of the most promising biomaterials for this purpose seems to be bladder acellular matrix (BAM). In this review we determine the most important factors, which may affect biological and physical properties of BAM and its regeneration potential in tissue engineered urinary bladder. We also point out the directions in modification of BAM, which include incorporation of exogenous growth factors into the BAM structure. Finally, we discuss the results of the urinary bladder regeneration with cell seeded BAM. PMID:25793199

  19. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 5: Descent, cycle 3. Appendix C: Monte Carlo dispersion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of three nonlinear the Monte Carlo dispersion analyses for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) Orbiter Descent Operational Flight Profile, Cycle 3 are presented. Fifty randomly selected simulation for the end of mission (EOM) descent, the abort once around (AOA) descent targeted line are steep target line, and the AOA descent targeted to the shallow target line are analyzed. These analyses compare the flight environment with system and operational constraints on the flight environment and in some cases use simplified system models as an aid in assessing the STS-1 descent flight profile. In addition, descent flight envelops are provided as a data base for use by system specialists to determine the flight readiness for STS-1. The results of these dispersion analyses supersede results of the dispersion analysis previously documented.

  20. A piloted simulator evaluation of a ground-based 4D descent advisor algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Davis, Thomas J.; Erzberger, Heinz

    1987-01-01

    A ground-based, four-dimensional (4D) descent-advisor algorithm is under development at NASA Ames Research Center. The algorithm combines detailed aerodynamic, propulsive, and atmospheric models with an efficient numerical integration scheme to generate 4D descent advisories. This paper investigates the ability of the 4D descent advisor algorithm to provide adequate control of arrival time for aircraft not equipped with on-board 4D guidance systems. A piloted simulation was conducted to determine the precision with which the descent advisor could predict the 4D trajectories of typical straight-in descents flown by airline pilots under different wind conditions. The effects of errors in the estimation of wind and initial aircraft weight were also studied. A description of the descent advisor as well as the results of the simulation studies are presented.

  1. A piloted simulator evaluation of a ground-based 4-D descent advisor algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Green, Steven M.; Erzberger, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    A ground-based, four dimensional (4D) descent-advisor algorithm is under development at NASA-Ames. The algorithm combines detailed aerodynamic, propulsive, and atmospheric models with an efficient numerical integration scheme to generate 4D descent advisories. The ability is investigated of the 4D descent advisor algorithm to provide adequate control of arrival time for aircraft not equipped with on-board 4D guidance systems. A piloted simulation was conducted to determine the precision with which the descent advisor could predict the 4D trajectories of typical straight-in descents flown by airline pilots under different wind conditions. The effects of errors in the estimation of wind and initial aircraft weight were also studied. A description of the descent advisor as well as the result of the simulation studies are presented.

  2. Effect of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, 4-MAPC, on testicular descent in male rat.

    PubMed

    Ngyuen, M M; Lemmi, C A; Rajfer, J

    1991-05-01

    Testicular descent has been reported to be a dihydrotestosterone (DHT) dependent event. To further elucidate the role of DHT in the process of testicular descent, a group of rats were treated with the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, 4-MAPC, from birth to day 28 of age and the incidence of testicular descent as well as ventral prostate weight was noted at day 29 of age. It was determined that in the doses used, 4-MAPC failed to prevent testicular descent. Because 4-MAPC inhibited ventral prostate weight by only 53% (as compared to a 75% inhibition by castration), the failure of the 4-MAPC to prevent testicular descent could be due to its inability to completely inhibit tissue 5-alpha reductase activity. The results of this study do not mitigate against the role of other nonhormonal factors working in tandem with DHT in the induction of testicular descent in this animal model. PMID:2016800

  3. Ethnic differences in bladder cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    Yee, David S.; Ishill, Nicole M.; Lowrance, William T.; Herr, Harry W.; Elkin, Elena B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Racial disparities in bladder cancer outcomes have been documented with poorer survival observed among blacks. Bladder cancer outcomes in other ethnic minority groups are less well described. We examined trends in bladder cancer survival among whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders in the US over a 30-year period. Methods From the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results cancer registry data, we identified patients diagnosed with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder between 1975 and 2005. This cohort included 163,973 white, 7,731 black, 7,364 Hispanic and 5,934 Asian/Pacific Islander patients. We assessed the relationship between ethnicity and patient characteristics. Disease-specific 5-year survival was estimated for each ethnic group and for subgroups of stage and grade. Results Blacks presented with higher stage disease than whites, Hispanics and Asian/Pacific Islanders, although a trend toward earlier stage presentation was observed in all groups over time. Five-year disease-specific survival was consistently worse for blacks than for other ethnic groups, even when stratified by stage and grade. Five-year disease-specific survival was 82.8% in whites compared with 70.2% in blacks, 80.7% in Hispanics and 81.9% in Asian/Pacific Islanders. There was a persistent disease-specific survival disadvantage in black patients over time which was not seen in the other ethnic groups. Conclusions Ethnic disparities in bladder cancer survival persist between whites and blacks, while survival in other ethnic minority groups appears similar to that of whites. Further study of access to care, quality of care and treatment decision making among black patients is needed to better understand these disparities. PMID:21782222

  4. Head and Neck Cancer Program Guest Expert

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    Head and Neck Cancer Program Guest Expert: Barbara Burtness, MD Professor of Medical Oncology; Clinical Research Program Leader, Head and Neck Cancer Program, Yale Cancer Center Hosts Anees Chagpar MD Research Program Leader for the Head and Neck Cancer Program. Here is Dr. Steven Gore. Gore

  5. 49 CFR 572.33 - Neck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 572.33 Neck. (c) * * * (3... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Neck. 572.33 Section 572.33 Transportation Other... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Test Dummy § 572.33 Neck....

  6. 49 CFR 572.33 - Neck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...the six axis neck transducer and Fx is the force measured in lbs by the “X” axis force sensor (Channel Class...the six axis neck transducer. The moment shall...the six axis neck transducer and Fx is the force measured in lbs by...

  7. 49 CFR 572.33 - Neck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the six axis neck transducer and Fx is the force measured in lbs by the “X” axis force sensor (Channel Class...the six axis neck transducer. The moment shall...the six axis neck transducer and Fx is the force measured in lbs by...

  8. 49 CFR 572.33 - Neck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...the six axis neck transducer and Fx is the force measured in lbs by the “X” axis force sensor (Channel Class...the six axis neck transducer. The moment shall...the six axis neck transducer and Fx is the force measured in lbs by...

  9. 49 CFR 572.33 - Neck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...the six axis neck transducer and Fx is the force measured in lbs by the “X” axis force sensor (Channel Class...the six axis neck transducer. The moment shall...the six axis neck transducer and Fx is the force measured in lbs by...

  10. 49 CFR 572.33 - Neck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...the six axis neck transducer and Fx is the force measured in lbs by the “X” axis force sensor (Channel Class...the six axis neck transducer. The moment shall...the six axis neck transducer and Fx is the force measured in lbs by...

  11. Conceptual design of "Exomars-2018" Descent Module developed by federal enterprise "Lavochkin Association"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khartov, V. V.; Martynov, M. B.; Lukiyanchikov, A. V.; Alexashkin, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Goals and tasks for "ExoMars-2018" mission and share of responsibilities between European partners and p]Russia are presented. The main design requirements for a Descent Module (DM) that define its design concept as well as design specific features are given. The structure of the descent module, thermal control, means for securing systems interaction onboard the spacecraft "ExoMars-2018", and radio communication with the descent module are examined.

  12. An evaluation of descent strategies for TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Groce, J. L.; Coote, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated were the effects on system throughput and fleet fuel usage of arrival aircraft utilizing three 4D RNAV descent strategies (cost optimal, clean-idle Mach/CAS and constant descent angle Mach/CAS), both individually and in combination, in an advanced air traffic control metering environment. Results are presented for all mixtures of arrival traffic consisting of three Boeing commercial jet types and for all combinations of the three descent strategies for a typical en route metering airport arrival distribution.

  13. Multiple venous aneurysms of neck

    PubMed Central

    Swaika, Sweta; Basu, Sudipta; Bhadra, Ram C.; Maitra, Sujay

    2013-01-01

    Venous aneurysm of neck is a rare anomaly, usually presenting as a painless mass which increases in size on valsalva maneuver. A child with multiple aneurysms of the right common facial and external jugular veins diagnosed on Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance venography is reported. PMID:23599580

  14. Entry, Descent, and Landing for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Michelle M.; DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of a human mission to Mars is landing safely on the Martian surface. Mars has such low atmospheric density that decelerating large masses (tens of metric tons) requires methods that have not yet been demonstrated, and are not yet planned in future Mars missions. To identify the most promising options for Mars entry, descent, and landing, and to plan development of the needed technologies, NASA's Human Architecture Team (HAT) has refined candidate methods for emplacing needed elements of the human Mars exploration architecture (such as ascent vehicles and habitats) on the Mars surface. This paper explains the detailed, optimized simulations that have been developed to define the mass needed at Mars arrival to accomplish the entry, descent, and landing functions. Based on previous work, technology options for hypersonic deceleration include rigid, mid-L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) aeroshells, and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (IADs). The hypersonic IADs, or HIADs, are about 20% less massive than the rigid vehicles, but both have their technology development challenges. For the supersonic regime, supersonic retropropulsion (SRP) is an attractive option, since a propulsive stage must be carried for terminal descent and can be ignited at higher speeds. The use of SRP eliminates the need for an additional deceleration system, but SRP is at a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) in that the interacting plumes are not well-characterized, and their effect on vehicle stability has not been studied, to date. These architecture-level assessments have been used to define the key performance parameters and a technology development strategy for achieving the challenging mission of landing large payloads on Mars.

  15. Powered Descent Guidance with General Thrust-Pointing Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M., III; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) algorithm and software for generating Mars pinpoint or precision landing guidance profiles has been enhanced to incorporate thrust-pointing constraints. Pointing constraints would typically be needed for onboard sensor and navigation systems that have specific field-of-view requirements to generate valid ground proximity and terrain-relative state measurements. The original PDG algorithm was designed to enforce both control and state constraints, including maximum and minimum thrust bounds, avoidance of the ground or descent within a glide slope cone, and maximum speed limits. The thrust-bound and thrust-pointing constraints within PDG are non-convex, which in general requires nonlinear optimization methods to generate solutions. The short duration of Mars powered descent requires guaranteed PDG convergence to a solution within a finite time; however, nonlinear optimization methods have no guarantees of convergence to the global optimal or convergence within finite computation time. A lossless convexification developed for the original PDG algorithm relaxed the non-convex thrust bound constraints. This relaxation was theoretically proven to provide valid and optimal solutions for the original, non-convex problem within a convex framework. As with the thrust bound constraint, a relaxation of the thrust-pointing constraint also provides a lossless convexification that ensures the enhanced relaxed PDG algorithm remains convex and retains validity for the original nonconvex problem. The enhanced PDG algorithm provides guidance profiles for pinpoint and precision landing that minimize fuel usage, minimize landing error to the target, and ensure satisfaction of all position and control constraints, including thrust bounds and now thrust-pointing constraints.

  16. OFT ascent/descent ancillary data requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. C., Jr.; Abramson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Requirements are presented for the ascent/descent (A/D) navigation and attitude-dependent ancillary data products to be generated for the space shuttle orbiter in support of orbital flight test requirements, MPAD guidance and navigation performance assessment, and the mission evaluation team. It was intended that this document serve as the sole requirements control instrument between MPB/MPAD and the A/D ancillary data users. The requirements are primarily functional in nature, but some detail level requirements are also included.

  17. Shuttle program: OFT ascent/descent ancillary data requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. C., Jr.; Knoedler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements are presented for the ascent/descent (A/D) navigation and attitude-dependent ancillary data products to be generated for the space shuttle orbiter in support of the orbital flight test (OFT) flight test requirements, MPAD guidance and navigation performance assessment, and the mission evaluation team. The A/D ancillary data support for OFT mission evaluation activities is confined to providing postflight position, velocity, attitude, and associated navigation and attitude derived parameters for the Orbiter over particular flight phases and time intervals.

  18. Apollo 16, LM-11 descent propulsion system final flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avvenire, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    The performance of the LM-11 descent propulsion system during the Apollo 16 missions was evaluated and found satisfactory. The average engine effective specific impulse was 0.1 second higher than predicted, but well within the predicted one sigma uncertainty of 0.2 seconds. Several flight measurement discrepancies existed during the flight as follows: (1) the chamber pressure transducer had a noticeable drift, exhibiting a maximum error of about 1.5 psi at approximately 130 seconds after engine ignition, (2) the fuel and oxidizer interface pressure measurements appeared to be low during the entire flight, and (3) the fuel propellant quantity gaging system did not perform within expected accuracies.

  19. Bladder Cancer: A Simple Model Becomes Complex

    PubMed Central

    Pierro, Giovanni Battista Di; Gulia, Caterina; Cristini, Cristiano; Fraietta, Giorgio; Marini, Lorenzo; Grande, Pietro; Gentile, Vincenzo; Piergentili, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in developed countries and it is also characterized by a high number of recurrences. Despite this, several authors in the past reported that only two altered molecular pathways may genetically explain all cases of bladder cancer: one involving the FGFR3 gene, and the other involving the TP53 gene. Mutations in any of these two genes are usually predictive of the malignancy final outcome. This cancer may also be further classified as low-grade tumors, which is always papillary and in most cases superficial, and high-grade tumors, not necessarily papillary and often invasive. This simple way of considering this pathology has strongly changed in the last few years, with the development of genome-wide studies on expression profiling and the discovery of small non-coding RNA affecting gene expression. An easy search in the OMIM (On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man) database using “bladder cancer” as a query reveals that genes in some way connected to this pathology are approximately 150, and some authors report that altered gene expression (up- or down-regulation) in this disease may involve up to 500 coding sequences for low-grade tumors and up to 2300 for high-grade tumors. In many clinical cases, mutations inside the coding sequences of the above mentioned two genes were not found, but their expression changed; this indicates that also epigenetic modifications may play an important role in its development. Indeed, several reports were published about genome-wide methylation in these neoplastic tissues, and an increasing number of small non-coding RNA are either up- or down-regulated in bladder cancer, indicating that impaired gene expression may also pass through these metabolic pathways. Taken together, these data reveal that bladder cancer is far to be considered a simple model of malignancy. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in the genome-wide analysis of bladder cancer, and analyse non-genetic, genetic and epigenetic factors causing extensive gene mis-regulation in malignant cells. PMID:23372425

  20. Basic Surgical Techniques in the Göttingen Minipig: Intubation, Bladder Catheterization, Femoral Vessel Catheterization, and Transcardial Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ettrup, Kaare S.; Glud, Andreas N.; Orlowski, Dariusz; Fitting, Lise M.; Meier, Kaare; Soerensen, Jens Christian; Bjarkam, Carsten R.; Alstrup, Aage K. Olsen

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of the Göttingen minipig in research of topics such as neuroscience, toxicology, diabetes, obesity, and experimental surgery reflects the close resemblance of these animals to human anatomy and physiology 1-6.The size of the Göttingen minipig permits the use of surgical equipment and advanced imaging modalities similar to those used in humans 6-8. The aim of this instructional video is to increase the awareness on the value of minipigs in biomedical research, by demonstrating how to perform tracheal intubation, transurethral bladder catheterization, femoral artery and vein catheterization, as well as transcardial perfusion. Endotracheal Intubation should be performed whenever a minipig undergoes general anesthesia, because it maintains a patent airway, permits assisted ventilation and protects the airways from aspirates. Transurethral bladder catheterization can provide useful information about about hydration state as well as renal and cardiovascular function during long surgical procedures. Furthermore, urinary catheterization can prevent contamination of delicate medico-technical equipment and painful bladder extension which may harm the animal and unnecessarily influence the experiment due to increased vagal tone and altered physiological parameters. Arterial and venous catheterization is useful for obtaining repeated blood samples and monitoring various physiological parameters. Catheterization of femoral vessels is preferable to catheterization of the neck vessels for ease of access, when performing experiments involving frame-based stereotaxic neurosurgery and brain imaging. When performing vessel catheterization in survival studies, strict aseptic technique must be employed to avoid infections6. Transcardial perfusion is the most effective fixation method, and yields preeminent results when preparing minipig organs for histology and histochemistry2,9. For more information about anesthesia, surgery and experimental techniques in swine in general we refer to Swindle 2007. Supplementary information about premedication and induction of anesthesia, assisted ventilation, analgesia, pre- and postoperative care of Göttingen minipigs are available via the internet at http://www.minipigs.com10. For extensive information about porcine anatomy we refer to Nickel et al. Vol. 1-511. PMID:21730947

  1. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-12

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  2. Mirodenafil Prevents Bladder Dysfunction Induced by Chronic Bladder Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun; Shim, Ji Sung; Park, Jae Young; Moon, Du Geon; Lee, Jeong Gu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of mirodenafil on bladder function in a rat model of chronic bladder ischemia (CBI). Methods: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: untreated, sham-operated rats (control group); untreated, CBI model rats (CBI group); and CBI rats treated daily with 4 mg/kg mirodenafil (CBI+mirodenafil group). The CBI and CBI+mirodenafil groups underwent endothelial injury to the iliac arteries and were fed a 2% cholesterol diet after injury. Four weeks after surgery, the CBI+mirodenafil group started daily treatment with mirodenafil for four weeks. Eight weeks after surgery, continuous in vivo cystometry and in vivo organ bath studies of detrusor muscle strips were performed. Results: in vivo cystometry revealed that the rats in the CBI group had a significantly higher micturition frequency, lower bladder capacity, and lower compliance than the rats in the control and CBI+mirodenafil groups. The detrusor muscle strip study showed that the magnitude of the carbachol-induced contractile response was significantly lower in the CBI group compared to either the control or CBI+mirodenafil group. Addition of daily mirodenafil after induction of CBI decreased the contractile response, compared to untreated CBI rats. CBI induced submucosal fibrosis and degenerative changes in bladder walls, which was reversed by the addition of mirodenafil. Conclusions: Daily treatment with mirodenafil showed protective effects against bladder dysfunction resulting from CBI in rats. PMID:25833477

  3. Neurogenic mechanisms in bladder and bowel ageing.

    PubMed

    Ranson, Richard N; Saffrey, M Jill

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of both urinary and faecal incontinence, and also chronic constipation, increases with ageing and these conditions have a major impact on the quality of life of the elderly. Management of bladder and bowel dysfunction in the elderly is currently far from ideal and also carries a significant financial burden. Understanding how these changes occur is thus a major priority in biogerontology. The functions of the bladder and terminal bowel are regulated by complex neuronal networks. In particular neurons of the spinal cord and peripheral ganglia play a key role in regulating micturition and defaecation reflexes as well as promoting continence. In this review we discuss the evidence for ageing-induced neuronal dysfunction that might predispose to neurogenic forms of incontinence in the elderly. PMID:25666896

  4. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Descent and Landing Simulation Using DSENDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, P. Daniel; Casoliva, Jordi; Balaram, Bob

    2013-01-01

    The most recent planetary science mission to Mars was Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) with the Curiosity rover, launched November 26, 2011 and landed at Gale Crater on August 6, 2012. This spacecraft was the first use at Mars of a complete closed-loop Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) system, including guided entry with a lifting body that greatly reduces dispersions during the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) phase to achieve a 25 km X 20 km landing error relative to the selected Gale Crater landing target. In order to confirm meeting the above landing criteria, high-fidelity simulation of the EDL phase is required. The tool used for 6DOF EDL trajectory verification analysis is Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing (DSENDS), which is a high-fidelity simulation tool from JPLs Dynamics and Real-Time Simulation Laboratory for the development, test and operations of aero-flight vehicles. DSENDS inherent capability is augmented for MSL with project-specific models of atmosphere, aerodynamics, sensors and thrusters along with GN&C flight software to enable high-fidelity trajectory simulation. This paper will present the model integration and independent verification experience of the JPL EDL trajectory analysis team.

  5. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Descent and Landing Simulation Using DSENDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, P. Daniel; Casoliva, Jordi; Balaram, Bob

    2013-01-01

    The most recent planetary science mission to Mars is Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) with the Curiosity rover, launched November 26, 2011 and landed at Gale Crater on August 6, 2012. This spacecraft was the first use at Mars of a complete closed-loop Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) system, including guided entry with a lifting body that greatly reduces dispersions during the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) phase to achieve a 25 km x 20 km landing error relative to the selected Gale Crater landing target. In order to confirm meeting the above landing criteria, high-fidelity simulation of the EDL phase is required. The tool used for 6DOF EDL trajectory verification analysis is Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing (DSENDS), which is a high-fidelity simulation tool from JPLs Dynamics and Real-Time Simulation Laboratory for the development, test and operations of aero-flight vehicles. DSENDS inherent capability is augmented for MSL with project-specific models of atmosphere, aerodynamics, sensors and thrusters along with GN&C flight software to enable high-fidelity trajectory simulation. This paper will present the model integration and independent verification experience of the JPL EDL trajectory analysis team.

  6. Controller evaluations of the descent advisor automation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard; Volckers, Uwe; Erzberger, Heinz

    1989-01-01

    An automation aid to assist air traffic controllers in efficiently spacing traffic and meeting arrival times at a fix has been developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The automation aid, referred to as the descent advisor (DA), is based on accurate models of aircraft performance and weather conditions. The DA generates suggested clearances, including both top-of-descent point and speed profile data, for one or more aircraft in order to achieve specific time or distance separation objectives. The DA algorithm is interfaced with a mouse-based, menu-driven controller display that allows the air traffic controller to interactively use its accurate predictive capability to resolve conflicts and issue advisories to arrival aircraft. This paper focuses on operational issues concerning the utilization of the DA, specifically, how the DA can be used for prediction, intrail spacing, and metering. In order to evaluate the DA, a real time simulation was conducted using both current and retired controller subjects. Controllers operated in teams of two, as they do in the present environment; issues of training and team interaction will be discussed. Evaluations by controllers indicated considerable enthusiasm for the DA aid, and provided specific recommendations for using the tool effectively.

  7. Accelerated Mini-batch Randomized Block Coordinate Descent Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tuo; Yu, Mo; Wang, Yiming; Arora, Raman; Liu, Han

    2014-01-01

    We consider regularized empirical risk minimization problems. In particular, we minimize the sum of a smooth empirical risk function and a nonsmooth regularization function. When the regularization function is block separable, we can solve the minimization problems in a randomized block coordinate descent (RBCD) manner. Existing RBCD methods usually decrease the objective value by exploiting the partial gradient of a randomly selected block of coordinates in each iteration. Thus they need all data to be accessible so that the partial gradient of the block gradient can be exactly obtained. However, such a “batch” setting may be computationally expensive in practice. In this paper, we propose a mini-batch randomized block coordinate descent (MRBCD) method, which estimates the partial gradient of the selected block based on a mini-batch of randomly sampled data in each iteration. We further accelerate the MRBCD method by exploiting the semi-stochastic optimization scheme, which effectively reduces the variance of the partial gradient estimators. Theoretically, we show that for strongly convex functions, the MRBCD method attains lower overall iteration complexity than existing RBCD methods. As an application, we further trim the MRBCD method to solve the regularized sparse learning problems. Our numerical experiments shows that the MRBCD method naturally exploits the sparsity structure and achieves better computational performance than existing methods. PMID:25620860

  8. Arachnid aloft: directed aerial descent in neotropical canopy spiders.

    PubMed

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The behaviour of directed aerial descent has been described for numerous taxa of wingless hexapods as they fall from the tropical rainforest canopy, but is not known in other terrestrial arthropods. Here, we describe similar controlled aerial behaviours for large arboreal spiders in the genus Selenops (Selenopidae). We dropped 59 such spiders from either canopy platforms or tree crowns in Panama and Peru; the majority (93%) directed their aerial trajectories towards and then landed upon nearby tree trunks. Following initial dorsoventral righting when necessary, falling spiders oriented themselves and then translated head-first towards targets; directional changes were correlated with bilaterally asymmetric motions of the anterolaterally extended forelegs. Aerial performance (i.e. the glide index) decreased with increasing body mass and wing loading, but not with projected surface area of the spider. Along with the occurrence of directed aerial descent in ants, jumping bristletails, and other wingless hexapods, this discovery of targeted gliding in selenopid spiders further indicates strong selective pressures against uncontrolled falls into the understory for arboreal taxa. PMID:26289654

  9. Human bladder cancer diagnosis using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sushmita; Wysock, James S.; Ng, Casey K.; Akhtar, Mohammed; Perner, Sven; Lee, Ming-Ming; Rubin, Mark A.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Webb, Watt W.; Scherr, Douglas S.

    2009-02-01

    At the time of diagnosis, approximately 75% of bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive. Appropriate diagnosis and surgical resection at this stage improves prognosis dramatically. However, these lesions, being small and/or flat, are often missed by conventional white-light cystoscopes. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess the surgical margin for negativity using conventional cystoscopes. Resultantly, the recurrence rates in patients with early bladder cancer are very high. This is currently addressed by repeat cystoscopies and biopsies, which can last throughout the life of a patient, increasing cost and patient morbidity. Multiphoton endoscopes offer a potential solution, allowing real time, noninvasive biopsies of the human bladder, as well as an up-close assessment of the resection margin. While miniaturization of the Multiphoton microscope into an endoscopic format is currently in progress, we present results here indicating that Multiphoton imaging (using a bench-top Multiphoton microscope) can indeed identify cancers in fresh, unfixed human bladder biopsies. Multiphoton images are acquired in two channels: (1) broadband autofluorescence from cells, and (2) second harmonic generation (SHG), mostly by tissue collagen. These images are then compared with gold standard hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) stained histopathology slides from the same specimen. Based on a "training set" and a very small "blinded set" of samples, we have found excellent correlation between the Multiphoton and histopathological diagnoses. A larger blinded analysis by two independent uropathologists is currently in progress. We expect that the conclusion of this phase will provide us with diagnostic accuracy estimates, as well as the degree of inter-observer heterogeneity.

  10. Missed Iatrogenic Bladder Rupture Following Normal Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Baheti, Vidyasagar H; Patwardhan, Sujata K

    2015-01-01

    Bladder rupture following caesarian section is well documented complications. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture following normal vaginal delivery is very rare. Hereby, we present a case report of intraperitoneal bladder rupture presented late following normal vaginal delivery. We report a case of spontaneous intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture following uneventful outlet forceps delivery in a 22-year-old primi gravid woman with gestational diabetes mellitus and fetal macrosomia who presented with large urinary ascites, anuria and renal failure. Emergent exploratory laparotomy with repair of the intraperitoneal bladder rupture helped to prevent its potential complications. Postpartum patients who undergo episiotomy or perineal repair may land up in unnoticed urinary retention which may rarely terminate in spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. Awareness of its manifestations amongst emergency physician would help to initiate appropriate timely management. PMID:26557563

  11. Dynamics of liquid sloshing in upright and inverted bladdered tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, F. T.; Kana, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    A system identification methodology was used to examine the dynamics of liquid sloshing in the upright and inverted bladdered hydrazine tanks of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, (TDRS) and to evaluate the effects of bladder stiffness on the sloshing parameters. Mechanical models of the two systems were developed using the numerical values derived from static stability tests and from slosh frequency response tests of a full-size model tank fitted with a prototype bladder. For the upright tank (liquid below the bladder) a modified conventional pendulum was used. In the inverted tank (liquid above the bladder) where sloshing is unconventional due to the highly nonsymmetrical orientation of the liquid held by the bladder, a mechanical model using an inverted pendulum which is able to undergo small oscillations as well as large reorientations was necessary. Both thrusting and low-gravity conditions are considered.

  12. Hanging Bladder calculi Secondary to Misplaced Surgical Suture

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Ali; Mostafavi, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Bladder calculi, a rare condition in the pediatric population, occur most commonly as a result of either migration from the kidney or urinary stasis in the bladder. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) secondary to bladder calculi formation on the sutures from a previous herniorrhaphy.A 3-year-old boy with previous history of herniorrhaphy presented with recurrent episodes of urinary tract infection, resistant to antibiotic therapy. Physical examination was unremarkable. Ultrasonography (US) showed an echogenic fixed intra-luminal lesion in the bladder. Cystoscopic evaluation was performed and confirmed presence of calculi forming around several permanent silk sutures fixed to the bladder wall. The patient undergone cystotomy and the calculi were resected. The stone analysis revealed 80% uric acid calculi. The final diagnosis was of bladder calculi due to remnant suture from past herniorrhaphy. PMID:26060550

  13. Diagnostics techniques in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soubra, Ayman; Risk, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is the most common presentation of bladder cancer and is often treatable with endoscopic resection and intravesical therapies. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the gold standard in diagnosis and surveillance but are limited by their sensitivity in some situations. We seek to provide an overview of recent additions to the diagnostic armamentarium for urologists treating this disease. Methods: Articles were identified through a literature review of articles obtained through PubMed searches including the terms “bladder cancer” and various diagnostic techniques described in the article. Results: A variety of urinary biomarkers are available to assist the diagnosis and management of patients with NMIBC. Many have improved sensitivity over urine cytology, but less specificity. There are certain situations in which this has proved valuable, but as yet these are not part of the standard guidelines for NMIBC. Fluorescence cystoscopy has level 1 evidence demonstrating increased rates of tumor detection and prolonged recurrence-free survival when utilized for transurethral resection. Other technologies seeking to enhance cystoscopy, such as narrow band imaging, confocal laser endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography are still under evaluation. Conclusions: A variety of urine biomarker and adjunctive endoscopic technologies have been developed to assist the management of NMIBC. While some, such as fluorescence cystoscopy, have demonstrated a definite benefit in this disease, others are still finding their place in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Future studies should shed light on how these can be incorporated to improve outcomes in NMIBC. PMID:26604438

  14. Bladder Cancer Screening in Aluminum Smelter Workers

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Oyebode A.; Slade, Martin D.; Cantley, Linda F.; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R.; Donoghue, A. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present results of a bladder cancer screening program conducted in 18 aluminum smelters in the United States from January 2000 to December 2010. Methods: Data were collected on a cohort of workers with a history of working in coal tar pitch volatile exposed areas including urine analysis for conventional cytology and ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ assay. Results: ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ and cytology in combination showed a sensitivity of 62.30%, a specificity of 92.60%, a negative predictive value of 99.90%, and a positive predictive value of 2.96%. Fourteen cases of bladder cancer were detected, and the standardized incidence ratio of bladder cancer was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.99). Individuals who tested positive on either test who were later determined to be cancer free had undergone expensive and invasive tests. Conclusions: Evidence to support continued surveillance of this cohort has not been demonstrated. PMID:25525927

  15. Targeting glycogen metabolism in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ritterson Lew, Carolyn; Guin, Sunny; Theodorescu, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Metabolism has been a heavily investigated topic in cancer research for the past decade. Although the role of aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) in cancer has been extensively studied, abnormalities in other metabolic pathways are only just being understood in cancer. One such pathway is glycogen metabolism; its involvement in cancer development, particularly in urothelial malignancies, and possible ways of exploiting aberrations in this process for treatment are currently being studied. New research shows that the glycogen debranching enzyme amylo-?-1,6-glucosidase, 4-?-glucanotransferase (AGL) is a novel tumour suppressor in bladder cancer. Loss of AGL leads to rapid proliferation of bladder cancer cells. Another enzyme involved in glycogen debranching, glycogen phosphorylase, has been shown to be a tumour promoter in cancer, including in prostate cancer. Studies demonstrate that bladder cancer cells in which AGL expression is lost are more metabolically active than cells with intact AGL expression, and these cells are more sensitive to inhibition of both glycolysis and glycine synthesis--two targetable pathways. As a tumour promoter and enzyme, glycogen phosphorylase can be directly targeted, and preclinical inhibitor studies are promising. However, few of these glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors have been tested for cancer treatment in the clinical setting. Several possible limitations to the targeting of AGL and glycogen phosphorylase might also exist. PMID:26032551

  16. Diuron-induced rat bladder epithelial cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Da Rocha, Mitscheli S; Arnold, Lora L; Pennington, Karen L; Muirhead, David; Dodmane, Puttappa R; Anwar, Muhammad M; Battalora, Michael; De Camargo, João Lauro V; Cohen, Samuel M

    2012-12-01

    Diuron, a substituted urea herbicide, is carcinogenic to the rat urinary bladder at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). To further elucidate the mode of action, this study aimed to determine the time course and sequence of bladder cytotoxic and proliferative changes induced by diuron treatment of male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into two groups (control and 2500 ppm diuron) and treated for 28 days. Ten rats from each group were terminated on each of study days 1, 3, 7, or 28. Scanning electron micro scopy (SEM) showed urothelial cell swelling beginning on day 1, and by day 28, showed extensive necrosis, exfoliation and piling up of cells suggestive of hyperplasia. No difference in the bromo deoxyuridine labeling index was detected. In a second experiment, rats were randomized into control and diuron-treated groups and treated for 7 days or 8 weeks. After 7 days, transmission electron microscopy showed cell degenerative changes and distention of the cytoplasm, organelles, and nuclei characteristic of cytolysis. This resulted in protrusion of the superficial cells into the lumen, corresponding to the cell swelling observed previously by SEM. After 8 weeks, bladders in the diuron-treated group showed an increased incidence of simple hyperplasia by light microscopy (6/10, p < 0.05) compared with controls (0/10) and a significantly different SEM classification. In summary, our results support the hypothesis that urothelial cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell proliferation are the sequential key events that occur with high-dose diuron exposure in rats. PMID:22923491

  17. Hypercompliant Apical Membranes of Bladder Umbrella Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mathai, John C.; Zhou, Enhua H.; Yu, Weiqun; Kim, Jae Hun; Zhou, Ge; Liao, Yi; Sun, Tung-Tien; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Zeidel, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary bladder undergoes dramatic volume changes during filling and voiding cycles. In the bladder the luminal surface of terminally differentiated urothelial umbrella cells is almost completely covered by plaques. These plaques (500 to 1000 nm) are made of a family of proteins called uroplakins that are known to form a tight barrier to prevent leakage of water and solutes. Electron micrographs from previous studies show these plaques to be interconnected by hinge regions to form structures that appear rigid, but these same structures must accommodate large changes in cell shape during voiding and filling cycles. To resolve this paradox, we measured the stiffness of the intact, living urothelial apical membrane and found it to be highly deformable, even more so than the red blood cell membrane. The intermediate cells underlying the umbrella cells do not have uroplakins but their membranes are an order of magnitude stiffer. Using uroplakin knockout mouse models we show that cell compliance is conferred by uroplakins. This hypercompliance may be essential for the maintenance of barrier function under dramatic cell deformation during filling and voiding of the bladder. PMID:25229135

  18. Targeting glycogen metabolism in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Carolyn Ritterson; Guin, Sunny; Theodorescu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism has been a heavily investigated topic in cancer research for the past decade. Although the role of aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) in cancer has been extensively studied, abnormalities in other metabolic pathways are only just being understood in cancer. One such pathway is glycogen metabolism; its involvement in cancer development, particularly in urothelial malignancies, and possible ways of exploiting aberrations in this process for treatment are currently being studied. New research shows that the glycogen debranching enzyme amylo-?-1,6-glucosidase, 4-?-glucanotransferase (AGL) is a novel tumour suppressor in bladder cancer. Loss of AGL leads to rapid proliferation of bladder cancer cells. Another enzyme involved in glycogen debranching, glycogen phosphorylase, has been shown to be a tumour promoter in cancer, including in prostate cancer. Studies demonstrate that bladder cancer cells in which AGL expression is lost are more metabolically active than cells with intact AGL expression, and these cells are more sensitive to inhibition of both glycolysis and glycine synthesis—two targetable pathways. As a tumour promoter and enzyme, glycogen phosphorylase can be directly targeted, and preclinical inhibitor studies are promising. However, few of these glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors have been tested for cancer treatment in the clinical setting. Several possible limitations to the targeting of AGL and glycogen phosphorylase might also exist. PMID:26032551

  19. THE MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY (MSL) MARS DESCENT IMAGER (MARDI) FLIGHT INSTRUMENT. M. C. Malin1

    E-print Network

    THE MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY (MSL) MARS DESCENT IMAGER (MARDI) FLIGHT INSTRUMENT. M. C. Malin1 , M­Berkeley, 6 NASA Ames Research Center, 7 University of Washington, 8 US Geologi- cal Survey­Flagstaff, 9 University of California­Davis, 17 Planetary Science Institute. Introduction: The Mars Descent Imager (MARDI

  20. On log flat descent Luc Illusie, Chikara Nakayama, and Takeshi Tsuji

    E-print Network

    Illusie, Luc

    On log flat descent Luc Illusie, Chikara Nakayama, and Takeshi Tsuji Abstract We prove the log flat descent of log ´etaleness, log smoothness, and log flatness for log schemes. Contents §1. Review of log of the following results, which were announced by K. Kato in [4]. Theorem 0.1. Let f : X Y be a morphism of fs log

  1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Part II AH-1G ROTOR IN LOW SPEED DESCENT FLIGHT

    E-print Network

    chapter, results were given for the UH-60A rotor in a high-speed forward flight condition. In this chapterCHAPTER V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ­ Part II AH-1G ROTOR IN LOW SPEED DESCENT FLIGHT In the previous, results are presented for a two-bladed AH-1G rotor in a low-speed descent condition. In low speed forward

  2. Moral Darwinism: Ethical Evidence for the Descent of ROBERT T. PENNOCK

    E-print Network

    Pennock, Robert T.

    Moral Darwinism: Ethical Evidence for the Descent of Man ROBERT T. PENNOCK Department of Philosophy an extended discussion of the nature of human morality, and the ethical theory which he sketches is not simply evidence for human descent from animal ancestors. Darwin must rebut the argument that, because of our moral

  3. Comparative Vocal Production and the Evolution of Speech: Reinterpreting the Descent of the Larynx

    E-print Network

    Fitch, Tecumseh

    Comparative Vocal Production and the Evolution of Speech: Reinterpreting the Descent of the Larynx to #12;deduce the timing and order of speech-related adaptations such as the descent of the larynx. (1969) that the human vocal tract differs from that in other primates in having a lowered larynx (Figure

  4. Prostate Cancer in Men of African Descent: Opportunities for Global Research Collaborations

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer disproportionately affects men of African descent in terms of incidence, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. Significant knowledge gaps exist about the factors that predict disparities in prostate cancer incidence and outcomes between men of African descent and other ethnic or racial groups.

  5. The Yearly Variation in Fall-Winter Arctic Winter Vortex Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Newman, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    Using the change in HALOE methane profiles from early September to late March, we have estimated the minimum amount of diabatic descent within the polar which takes place during Arctic winter. The year to year variations are a result in the year to year variations in stratospheric wave activity which (1) modify the temperature of the vortex and thus the cooling rate; (2) reduce the apparent descent by mixing high amounts of methane into the vortex. The peak descent amounts from HALOE methane vary from l0km -14km near the arrival altitude of 25 km. Using a diabatic trajectory calculation, we compare forward and backward trajectories over the course of the winter using UKMO assimilated stratospheric data. The forward calculation agrees fairly well with the observed descent. The backward calculation appears to be unable to produce the observed amount of descent, but this is only an apparent effect due to the density decrease in parcels with altitude. Finally we show the results for unmixed descent experiments - where the parcels are fixed in latitude and longitude and allowed to descend based on the local cooling rate. Unmixed descent is found to always exceed mixed descent, because when normal parcel motion is included, the path average cooling is always less than the cooling at a fixed polar point.

  6. TWO-COVER DESCENT ON HYPERELLIPTIC CURVES NILS BRUIN AND MICHAEL STOLL

    E-print Network

    Stoll, Michael

    TWO-COVER DESCENT ON HYPERELLIPTIC CURVES NILS BRUIN AND MICHAEL STOLL Abstract. We describe associated to D C. Date: March 14, 2008. 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 11G30; Secondary, descent. Research of the first author supported by NSERC. 1 #12;2 NILS BRUIN AND MICHAEL STOLL (3) Test

  7. Ethnic Identity and Acculturative Stress as Mediators of Depression in Students of Asian Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantrip, Crystal; Mazzetti, Francesco; Grasso, Joseph; Gill, Sara; Miller, Janna; Haner, Morgynn; Rude, Stephanie; Awad, Germine

    2015-01-01

    This study underscored the importance of addressing the well-being of college students of Asian descent, because these students had higher rates of depression and lower positive feelings about their ethnic group compared with students of European descent, as measured by the Affirmation subscale of the Ethnic Identity Scale. Affirmation mediated…

  8. RESEARCH ARTICLE The descent of ant: field-measured performance of gliding ants

    E-print Network

    Koehl, Mimi

    RESEARCH ARTICLE The descent of ant: field-measured performance of gliding ants Yonatan Munk1,2, *, Stephen P. Yanoviak3 , M. A. R. Koehl2 and Robert Dudley2,4 ABSTRACT Gliding ants avoid predatory attacks descent towards nearby tree trunks. The ecologically relevant measure of performance for gliding ants

  9. Depression and Emotional Reactivity: Variation Among Asian Americans of East Asian Descent and European Americans

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    Depression and Emotional Reactivity: Variation Among Asian Americans of East Asian Descent that depressed individuals tend to show diminished emotional reactivity (J. G. Gehricke & A. J. Fridlund, 2002; G) of depressed and nonde- pressed EAs and Asian Americans of East Asian descent (AAs) to sad and amusing films

  10. Hair Dye Use and Risk of Bladder Cancer in the New England Bladder Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Koutros, Stella; Silverman, Debra T.; Baris, Dalsu; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Morton, Lindsay M.; Colt, Joanne S.; Hein, David W.; Moore, Lee E.; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Cherala, Sai; Schned, Alan; Doll, Mark A.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amine components in hair dyes, and polymorphisms in genes that encode enzymes responsible for hair dye metabolism, may be related to bladder cancer risk. We evaluated the association between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk and effect modification by NAT1, NAT2, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genotypes in a population-based case-control study of 1,193 incident cases and 1,418 controls from Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire enrolled between 2001 and 2004. Individuals were interviewed in person using a computer-assisted personal interview to assess hair dye use and information on potential confounders and effect modifiers. No overall association between age at first use, year of first use, type of product, color, duration, or number of applications of hair dyes and bladder cancer among women or men was apparent but increased risks were observed in certain subgroups. Women who used permanent dyes and had a college degree, a marker of socioeconomic status, had an increased risk of bladder cancer (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 8.9). Among these women, we found an increased risk of bladder cancer among exclusive users of permanent hair dyes who had NAT2 slow acetylation phenotype (OR=7.3, 95% CI: 1.6, 32.6) compared to never users of dye with NAT2 rapid/intermediate acetylation phenotype. While we found no relation between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk in women overall, we detected evidence of associations and gene-environment interaction with permanent hair dye use; however, this was limited to educated women. These results need confirmation with larger numbers, requiring pooling data from multiple studies. PMID:21678399

  11. Hair dye use and risk of bladder cancer in the New England bladder cancer study.

    PubMed

    Koutros, Stella; Silverman, Debra T; Baris, Dalsu; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Morton, Lindsay M; Colt, Joanne S; Hein, David W; Moore, Lee E; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Cherala, Sai; Schned, Alan; Doll, Mark A; Rothman, Nathaniel; Karagas, Margaret R

    2011-12-15

    Aromatic amine components in hair dyes and polymorphisms in genes that encode enzymes responsible for hair dye metabolism may be related to bladder cancer risk. We evaluated the association between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk and effect modification by N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1), NAT2, glutathione S-transferase Mu-1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase theta-1 (GSTT1) genotypes in a population-based case-control study of 1193 incident cases and 1418 controls from Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire enrolled between 2001 and 2004. Individuals were interviewed in person using a computer-assisted personal interview to assess hair dye use and information on potential confounders and effect modifiers. No overall association between age at first use, year of first use, type of product, color, duration or number of applications of hair dyes and bladder cancer among women or men was apparent, but increased risks were observed in certain subgroups. Women who used permanent dyes and had a college degree, a marker of socioeconomic status, had an increased risk of bladder cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-8.9]. Among these women, we found an increased risk of bladder cancer among exclusive users of permanent hair dyes who had NAT2 slow acetylation phenotype (OR = 7.3, 95% CI: 1.6-32.6) compared to never users of dye with NAT2 rapid/intermediate acetylation phenotype. Although we found no relation between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk in women overall, we detected evidence of associations and gene-environment interaction with permanent hair dye use; however, this was limited to educated women. These results need confirmation with larger numbers, requiring pooling data from multiple studies. PMID:21678399

  12. Bladder wall flattening with conformal mapping for MR cystography Ruirui Jiang*a

    E-print Network

    to American Cancer Society. Optical cystoscopy is widely used to accurately evaluate the entire bladder, flattening, bladder wall thickness 1. INTRODUCTION Bladder cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths

  13. Multidisciplinary management of complex vascular malformation invading bladder wall.

    PubMed

    Norris, Amber K; Richter, Gresham T; Canon, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    A 5-year-old African American male patient, with a history of complex vascular anomalies, underwent treatment for an infiltrating urinary bladder malformation initially misdiagnosed as a rhabdomyosarcoma. Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser was used to treat the bladder wall before surgical resection. Vascular malformations of the bladder are rare. This report demonstrates a multimodal technique for management of large infiltrating bladder venous and lymphatic malformation. At the 3-month follow-up, his symptoms have resolved and his cystoscopy demonstrated no evidence of residual disease. PMID:25770726

  14. Laparoscopic Treatment of Hypertension After Micturition: Bladder Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Bozbora, Alp; Erb?l, Yesim; Kiliçarslan, Isin; Yildizhan, Esra; Ozarmagan, Selcuk

    2006-01-01

    Bladder pheochromocytomas are extremely rare and constitute less than 5% of bladder tumors. The initial symptoms of the patient are mostly nonspecific caused by hypertension. The postmicturition hypertensive crisis is the typical warning sign of this disease. In this article, we present a 29-year-old female having hypertensive attacks following micturition. Radiological imaging techniques revealed a 3x3x4-cm bladder tumor that was hormonally active. This is the first case reported of bladder pheochromocytoma that was laparoscopically treated without using the adjunct transurethral resection. The postoperative follow-up of the patient confirms the success of the surgical procedure. PMID:16882435

  15. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Mediates PAR-Induced Bladder Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kouzoukas, Dimitrios E.; Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L.; Ma, Fei; Westlund, Karin N.; Hunt, David E.; Vera, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is constitutively expressed in urothelial cells that also express protease-activated receptors (PAR). Urothelial PAR1 receptors were shown to mediate bladder inflammation. We showed that PAR1 and PAR4 activator, thrombin, also mediates urothelial MIF release. We hypothesized that stimulation of urothelial PAR1 or PAR4 receptors elicits release of urothelial MIF that acts on MIF receptors in the urothelium to mediate bladder inflammation and pain. Thus, we examined the effect of activation of specific bladder PAR receptors on MIF release, bladder pain, micturition and histological changes. Methods MIF release was measured in vitro after exposing immortalized human urothelial cells (UROtsa) to PAR1 or PAR4 activating peptides (AP). Female C57BL/6 mice received intravesical PAR1- or PAR4-AP for one hour to determine: 1) bladder MIF release in vivo within one hour; 2) abdominal hypersensitivity (allodynia) to von Frey filament stimulation 24 hours after treatment; 3) micturition parameters 24 hours after treatment; 4) histological changes in the bladder as a result of treatment; 5) changes in expression of bladder MIF and MIF receptors using real-time RT-PCR; 6) changes in urothelial MIF and MIF receptor, CXCR4, protein levels using quantitative immunofluorescence; 7) effect of MIF or CXCR4 antagonism. Results PAR1- or PAR4-AP triggered MIF release from both human urothelial cells in vitro and mouse urothelium in vivo. Twenty-four hours after intravesical PAR1- or PAR4-AP, we observed abdominal hypersensitivity in mice without changes in micturition or bladder histology. PAR4-AP was more effective and also increased expression of bladder MIF and urothelium MIF receptor, CXCR4. Bladder CXCR4 localized to the urothelium. Antagonizing MIF with ISO-1 eliminated PAR4- and reduced PAR1-induced hypersensitivity, while antagonizing CXCR4 with AMD3100 only partially prevented PAR4-induced hypersensitivity. Conclusions Bladder PAR activation elicits urothelial MIF release and urothelial MIF receptor signaling at least partly through CXCR4 to result in abdominal hypersensitivity without overt bladder inflammation. PAR-induced bladder pain may represent an interesting pre-clinical model of Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS) where pain occurs without apparent bladder injury or pathology. MIF is potentially a novel therapeutic target for bladder pain in IC/PBS patients. PMID:26020638

  16. The psychological impact of overactive bladder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Debbie; Pretorius, Sara; Glover, Lesley; Alexander, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This review aimed to provide an overview of the current research on the psychological impact of overactive bladder. A systematic search yielded 32 papers. It was found that people with overactive bladder tended to have greater levels of depression, anxiety and embarrassment/shame; difficulties with social life; impact on sleep and sexual relationships; and a lower quality of life than people without overactive bladder. A psychological impact on family members was also found. Psychological health should be considered an important aspect of managing overactive bladder and further research is required to determine how best to provide psychological care and support in this area. PMID:24591118

  17. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized... (a) General. When operating a turbine engine powered airplane with a...

  18. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized... (a) General. When operating a turbine engine powered airplane with a...

  19. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized... (a) General. When operating a turbine engine powered airplane with a...

  20. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized... (a) General. When operating a turbine engine powered airplane with a...

  1. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized...for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized... (a) General. When operating a turbine engine powered airplane with a...

  2. Conservatively managed spontaneous intraperitoneal bladder perforation in a patient with chronic bladder outflow obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Abeyna L. C.; Armitage, James N.; Kastner, Christof

    2014-01-01

    We present the unusual case of a spontaneous intraperitoneal bladder rupture as a first presentation of chronic bladder outflow obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. A contributing factor to diagnostic delay was unfamiliarity with the classical presentation of abdominal pain, abdominal distension and urinary ascites leading to autodialysis represented by an unusually high serum creatinine. A cystogram was performed after a non-contrast computed tomography (CT) scan originally performed to determine the cause of abdominal pain, failed to confirm the diagnosis. The patient's initial acute presentation was successfully managed conservatively with prolonged urinary catheterization. PMID:25371621

  3. Analysis of foot clearance in firefighters during ascent and descent of stairs.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Richard M; Horn, Gavin P; Rosengren, Karl S; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2016-01-01

    Slips, trips, and falls are a leading cause of injury to firefighters with many injuries occurring while traversing stairs, possibly exaggerated by acute fatigue from firefighting activities and/or asymmetric load carriage. This study examined the effects that fatigue, induced by simulated firefighting activities, and hose load carriage have on foot clearance while traversing stairs. Landing and passing foot clearances for each stair during ascent and descent of a short staircase were investigated. Clearances decreased significantly (p < 0.05) post-exercise for nine of 12 ascent parameters and increased for two of eight descent parameters. Load carriage resulted in significantly decreased (p < 0.05) clearance over three ascent parameters, and one increase during descent. Decreased clearances during ascent caused by fatigue or load carriage may result in an increased trip risk. Increased clearances during descent may suggest use of a compensation strategy to ensure stair clearance or an increased risk of over-stepping during descent. PMID:26360190

  4. Evaluation of vertical profiles to design continuous descent approach procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, Priyank

    The current research focuses on predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA), which is among the key concepts of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The idle-thrust CDA is a fuel economical, noise and emission abatement procedure, but requires increased separation to accommodate for variability and uncertainties in vertical and speed profiles of arriving aircraft. Although a considerable amount of researches have been devoted to the estimation of potential benefits of the CDA, only few have attempted to explain the predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of CDA. The analytical equations derived using flight dynamics and Base of Aircraft and Data (BADA) Total Energy Model (TEM) in this research gives insight into dependency of vertical profile of CDA on various factors like wind speed and gradient, weight, aircraft type and configuration, thrust settings, atmospheric factors (deviation from ISA (DISA), pressure and density of the air) and descent speed profile. Application of the derived equations to idle-thrust CDA gives an insight into sensitivity of its vertical profile to multiple factors. This suggests fixed geometric flight path angle (FPA) CDA has higher degree of predictability and lesser variability at the cost of non-idle and low thrust engine settings. However, with optimized design this impact can be overall minimized. The CDA simulations were performed using Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) based on radar-track and aircraft type data (BADA) of the real air-traffic to some of the busiest airports in the USA (ATL, SFO and New York Metroplex (JFK, EWR and LGA)). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA shows 1) mean geometric FPAs derived from various simulated vertical profiles are consistently shallower than 3° glideslope angle and 2) high level of variability in vertical profiles of idle-thrust CDA even in absence of uncertainties in external factors. Analysis from operational feasibility perspective suggests that two key features of the performance based Flight Management System (FMS) i.e. required time of arrival (RTA) and geometric descent path would help in reduction of unpredictability associated with arrival time and vertical profile of aircraft guided by the FMS coupled with auto-pilot (AP) and auto-throttle (AT). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA also suggests that for procedure design window type, 'AT or above' and 'AT or below' altitude and FPA constraints are more realistic and useful compared to obsolete 'AT' type altitude constraint.

  5. Bladder injury secondary to obturator reflex is more common with plasmakinetic transurethral resection than monopolar transurethral resection of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Kutan; Gorgel, Sacit Nuri; Ozbek, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transurethral resection (TUR) is the most common surgical technique for the diagnosis and initial treatment of bladder cancer. In this study, we evaluated two surgical techniques in terms of bladder injury due to obturator reflex in patients that underwent TUR for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Material and methods 93 patients who underwent TUR for bladder cancer were analyzed. Fifty patients underwent monopolar resection and 43 patients underwent plasmakinetic resection. Standard TUR were performed with conventional Storz monopolar resection using a U-shaped cutting loop, 120V cutting/80 V coagulation settings, 5% mannitol fluid was used for irrigation. For bipolar resection, an Olympus ESG-400 plasmakinetic loop bipolar device using a U-shaped cutting loop, 160V cutting/80V coagulation settings and normal saline for irrigation was used. Results In the monopolar resection group; obturator reflex was seen in 4 (8%) patients. Bladder perforation caused by the obturator reflex was seen in 4 (8%) patients, but hemorrhage and other major complications were not seen in this group. In the bipolar resection group; obturator reflex was seen in 15 (34%) patients. Bladder perforation caused by the obturator reflex was seen in 10 (23%) patients. Conclusions Bipolar transurethral resection of bladder tumor was not superior to monopolar resection with respect to obturator reflex and bladder perforation. We conclude that we do not yet have enough experience concerning the long-term complications and major complications associated with bipolar resection of bladder cancer. PMID:26568867

  6. Muscles of the Head and Neck

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  7. Treatment of neglected femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K; Mukunth, R; Srivastava, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Intra-capsular femoral neck fractures are seen commonly in elderly people following a low energy trauma. Femoral neck fracture has a devastating effect on the blood supply of the femoral head, which is directly proportional to the severity of trauma and displacement of the fracture. Various authors have described a wide array of options for treatment of neglected/nonunion (NU) femoral neck fracture. There is lack of consensus in general, regarding the best option. This Instructional course article is an analysis of available treatment options used for neglected femoral neck fracture in the literature and attempt to suggest treatment guides for neglected femoral neck fracture. We conducted the “Pubmed” search with the keywords “NU femoral neck fracture and/or neglected femoral neck fracture, muscle-pedicle bone graft in femoral neck fracture, fibular graft in femoral neck fracture and valgus osteotomy in femoral neck fracture.” A total of 203 print articles were obtained as the search result. Thirty three articles were included in the analysis and were categorized into four subgroups based on treatment options. (a) treated by muscle-pedicle bone grafting (MPBG), (b) closed/open reduction internal fixation and fibular grafting (c) open reduction and internal fixation with valgus osteotomy, (d) miscellaneous procedures. The data was pooled from all groups for mean neglect, the type of study (prospective or retrospective), classification used, procedure performed, mean followup available, outcome, complications, and reoperation if any. The outcome of neglected femoral neck fracture depends on the duration of neglect, as the changes occurring in the fracture area and fracture fragments decides the need and type of biological stimulus required for fracture union. In stage I and stage II (Sandhu's staging) neglected femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis with open reduction and bone grafting with MPBG or Valgus Osteotomy achieves fracture union in almost 90% cases. However, in stage III with or without AVN, the results of osteosynthesis are poor and the choice of treatment is replacement arthroplasty (hemi or total). PMID:25593354

  8. Embolization of the neck lymphatic varix, causing periodic neck swelling.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Anthony K; Pukenas, Brian A; Yan, Yan; Newman, Jason G; Itkin, Maxim

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of a 44-year-old female patient, presented to us after years of recurrent intermittent episodes of unilateral left neck swelling. An MR lymphangiogram demonstrated a lymphatic varix at the confluence of the left upper extremity lymphatic ducts, confirmed by intranodal axillary lymphangiography. After successful catheterization of the feeding lymphatic vessels, the varix was successfully embolized with detachable microcoils and an autologous blood patch. The patient has been free from symptoms on subsequent outpatient follow-up. PMID:24352865

  9. En route Descent Advisor Concept for Efficient Arrival Metering Conformance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven; Vivona, Robert; Coppenbarger, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The En-route Descent Advisor (EDA) is a suite of decision support tool (DST) capabilities for en route sector subject to metering restrictions such as those generated by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) Traffic Management Advisor. EDA assists controllers with high-density arrival metering by providing fuel-efficient metering-conformance advisories, integrated with conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) capabilities, to minimize deviations from the user s preferred trajectory. These DST capabilities will enable controllers to change their procedures from ones that are oriented towards sector management to procedures oriented towards trajectory management. Although adaptable to current procedures and airspace structure, EDA is intended as a tool for transitioning traffic from a Free Flight environment to an efficiently organized flow into terminal airspace. This paper describes the transition airspace problem and EDA concept, defines the key benefit mechanisms that will be enabled by EDA capabilities, and presents a traffic scenario to illustrate the use of the tool.

  10. Overview of the Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grover, Myron R., III; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Phoenix Mars Lander began its journey to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida in August 2007, but its journey to the launch pad began many years earlier in 1997 as NASA s Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. In the intervening years, the entry, descent and landing (EDL) system architecture went through a series of changes, resulting in the system flown to the surface of Mars on May 25th, 2008. Some changes, such as entry velocity and landing site elevation, were the result of differences in mission design. Other changes, including the removal of hypersonic guidance, the reformulation of the parachute deployment algorithm, and the addition of the backshell avoidance maneuver, were driven by constant efforts to augment system robustness. An overview of the Phoenix EDL system architecture is presented along with rationales driving these architectural changes.

  11. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Koryanov, Vsevolod; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valery; Martynov, Maxim; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Viktor; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero

    2014-05-01

    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry. 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth's atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. 'Mini-1' category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, V (m/s): re-entry velocity and ? (deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet ('Mini-1' category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being VSOL = 5268 m/s. Using the basic pre-defined parameters for MetNet-type of lander in Earth atmosphere, we get the optimal angle of ? = -3.06 degrees for Earth re-entry. 3. Payload Mass for Earth Entry DV One of the key elements in Earth entry lander is the amount of available payload mass. The payload mass depends on, e.g., the lander size, landing type (soil or water), heat shield durability and additional landing gear. The payload mass will have an impact to the center of gravity of the lander. The payload with a 'low' CoG (compared the the lander structure) has a larger tolerance than the payload with 'high' CoG. In cases where payload CoG causes instability, the extra balance mass can be used to adjust CoG. This balance mass will reduce the available payload mass. A major limitation for payload mass is the heat shielding. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 263255. References [1] http://ritd.fmi.fi

  12. Gradient descent learning in and out of equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Caticha, Nestor; Araujo de Oliveira, Evaldo

    2001-06-01

    Relations between the off thermal equilibrium dynamical process of on-line learning and the thermally equilibrated off-line learning are studied for potential gradient descent learning. The approach of Opper to study on-line Bayesian algorithms is used for potential based or maximum likelihood learning. We look at the on-line learning algorithm that best approximates the off-line algorithm in the sense of least Kullback-Leibler information loss. The closest on-line algorithm works by updating the weights along the gradient of an effective potential, which is different from the parent off-line potential. A few examples are analyzed and the origin of the potential annealing is discussed.

  13. Time-controlled descent guidance in uncertain winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menga, G.; Erzberger, H.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for constructing a statistical model of the altitude-dependent mean wind profile from the historical record of wind measurements at particular locations. The model is constructed by fitting a Markov process, with altitude as the stage variable, to the historical wind data. The wind model, together with the aircraft dynamics and the error characteristics of the navigation system, are incorporated in the design of a state estimator, which gives the minimum variance estimate of the aircraft state and the wind vector. The state and wind estimates are used as inputs to a linear feedback law for guiding the aircraft along the nominal trajectory. An example design of a time-constrained (4D RNAV) descent guidance system is presented, showing tracking accuracy, control activity, and probability of arrival time with and without the wind estimator.

  14. Mars Exploration Rovers Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Knocke, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover mission successfully landed two rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" on Mars on January 4th and 25th of 2004, respectively. The trajectory analysis performed to define the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) scenario is described. The entry requirements and constraints are presented, as well as uncertainties used in a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis to statistically assess the robustness of the entry design to off-nominal conditions. In the analysis, six-degree-of-freedom and three-degree-of-freedom trajectory results are compared to assess the entry characteristics of the capsule. Comparison of the preentry results to preliminary post-landing reconstruction data shows that all EDL parameters were within the requirements. In addition, the final landing position for both "Spirit" and "Opportunity" were within 15 km of the predicted landing location.

  15. Direct and remote constriction of membrane necks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boži?, Bojan; Guven, Jemal; Vázquez-Montejo, Pablo; Svetina, Saša

    2014-05-01

    The physical properties of membrane necks are relevant in vesiculation, a process that plays an essential role in cellular physiology. Because the neck's radius is, in general, finite, membrane scission and the consequent pinching off of the vesicle can only occur if it is narrowed to permit the necessary membrane topological reformation. Here we examine, in a simple single phase lipid vesicle, how external forces can promote neck constriction not only by direct compression at the neck but also, counterintuitively, by dilation at remote locations. These results provide a new perspective on the role played by actin polymerization in the process of endocytosis.

  16. Y chromosome lineages in men of west African descent.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jada Benn; Doura, Menahem B; Keita, Shomarka O Y; Kittles, Rick A

    2012-01-01

    The early African experience in the Americas is marked by the transatlantic slave trade from ?1619 to 1850 and the rise of the plantation system. The origins of enslaved Africans were largely dependent on European preferences as well as the availability of potential laborers within Africa. Rice production was a key industry of many colonial South Carolina low country plantations. Accordingly, rice plantations owners within South Carolina often requested enslaved Africans from the so-called "Grain Coast" of western Africa (Senegal to Sierra Leone). Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and central Africans (from 12 populations), 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands), 532 African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC), and 91 European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30-40% of the paternal lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European ancestry. Diverse west African ancestries and sex-biased gene flow from EAs has contributed greatly to the genetic heterogeneity of African populations throughout the Americas and has significant implications for gene mapping efforts in these populations. PMID:22295064

  17. Assessment on EXPERT Descent and Landing System Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, H.; Muylaert, J.; Northey, D.; Riley, D.

    2009-01-01

    EXPERT is a re-entry vehicle designed for validation of aero-thermodynamic models, numerical schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics codes and test facilities for measuring flight data under an Earth re-entry environment. This paper addresses the design for the descent and landing sequence for EXPERT. It includes the descent sequence, the choice of drogue and main parachutes, and the parachute deployment condition, which can be supersonic or subsonic. The analysis is based mainly on an engineering tool, PASDA, together with some hand calculations for parachute sizing and design. The tool consists of a detailed 6-DoF simulation performed with the aerodynamics database of the vehicle, an empirical wakes model and the International Standard Atmosphere database. The aerodynamics database for the vehicle is generated by DNW experimental data and CFD codes within the framework of an ESA contract to CIRA. The analysis will be presented in terms of altitude, velocity, accelerations, angle-of- attack, pitch angle and angle of rigging line. Discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each parachute deployment condition is included in addition to some comparison with the available data based on a Monte-Carlo method from a Russian company, FSUE NIIPS. Sensitivity on wind speed to the performance of EXPERT is shown to be strong. Supersonic deployment of drogue shows a better performance in stability at the expense of a larger G-load than those from the subsonic deployment of drogue. Further optimization on the parachute design is necessary in order to fulfill all the EXPERT specifications.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Differential Proteome Expression in Bladder Cancer vs. Normal Bladder Cells Using SILAC Method

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ganglong; Xu, Zhipeng; Lu, Wei; Li, Xiang; Sun, Chengwen; Guo, Jia; Xue, Peng; Guan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The best way to increase patient survival rate is to identify patients who are likely to progress to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease upfront and treat them more aggressively. The human cell lines HCV29 (normal bladder epithelia), KK47 (low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, NMIBC), and YTS1 (metastatic bladder cancer) have been widely used in studies of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling during bladder cancer (BC) progression. However, little attention has been paid to global quantitative proteome analysis of these three cell lines. We labeled HCV29, KK47, and YTS1 cells by the SILAC method using three stable isotopes each of arginine and lysine. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among 3721 unique identified and annotated proteins in KK47 and YTS1 cells, 36 were significantly upregulated and 74 were significantly downregulated with >95% confidence. Differential expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell staining with specific antibodies. Gene ontology (GO) term and pathway analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved in DNA replication and molecular transport, cell growth and proliferation, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and cell death and survival. These proteins and the advanced proteome techniques described here will be useful for further elucidation of molecular mechanisms in BC and other types of cancer. PMID:26230496

  19. Acute Renal Failure after Consumption of Fish Gall Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Yu Yao, Bian

    2014-01-01

    A case of acute renal failure after consumption of fish gall bladder as traditional medical remedy is reported. The patient fully recovered with conservative treatment. The risk of acute kidney failure and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following ingestion of fish gall bladder is highlighted. PMID:24829840

  20. Arsenic-Related Chromosomal Alterations in Bladder Cancer

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Arsenic-Related Chromosomal Alterations in Bladder Cancer Lee E. Moore, Allan H. Smith, Clarence of arsenic in drinking water is a strong risk factor for several forms of cancer, including bladder cancer. It is not known whether arsenic-related cancers are genetically simi- lar to cancers in unexposed individuals

  1. Optimal management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer – a review

    PubMed Central

    Scarpato, Kristen R; Morgans, Alicia K; Moses, Kelvin A

    2015-01-01

    Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is a complex disease requiring aggressive management. Patients are often older with comorbid conditions that impact treatment options. This review describes the available therapies for invasive urothelial carcinoma, including chemotherapy, radical extirpative surgery, and bladder-preserving strategies. PMID:26380230

  2. [Treatment of bladder instability using intravaginal electric stimulation (intrarectal)].

    PubMed

    Salinas, J; Tiraboschi, R; Varela, E; Vega, A; Salomón, S; Usón, A; Rodríguez, L

    1990-06-01

    Fourteen patients (13 females, 1 male) with urinary incontinence from bladder instability were treated with intravaginal (intrarectal) electrical stimulation. Good results were achieved in 57.1% of the cases. The foregoing finding shows that intravaginal (intrarectal) electrical stimulation may constitute a therapeutic option in urinary incontinence from bladder instability. PMID:2389976

  3. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects of the Urinary Bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Akila N.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Shipley, William U.

    2010-03-01

    An in-depth overview of the normal-tissue radiation tolerance of the urinary bladder is presented. The most informative studies consider whole-organ irradiation. The data on partial-organ/nonuniform irradiation are suspect because the bladder motion is not accounted for, and many studies lack long enough follow-up data. Future studies are needed.

  4. On Molecular Classification of Bladder Cancer: Out of One, Many.

    PubMed

    Aine, Mattias; Eriksson, Pontus; Liedberg, Fredrik; Höglund, Mattias; Sjödahl, Gottfrid

    2015-12-01

    Comparative analysis showed that bladder cancer classification systems identify overlapping subtypes but at different levels. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer shows remarkable heterogeneity, and six subtypes were identified that differ in transcriptional networks, marker profiles, and expression of actionable targets. PMID:26215606

  5. 10 CFR 26.119 - Determining “shy” bladder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining âshyâ bladder. 26.119 Section 26.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.119 Determining “shy” bladder. (a) When a donor has not provided a specimen of at least 30 mL within the 3...

  6. 10 CFR 26.119 - Determining “shy” bladder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining âshyâ bladder. 26.119 Section 26.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.119 Determining “shy” bladder. (a) When a donor has not provided a specimen of at least 30 mL within the 3...

  7. 10 CFR 26.119 - Determining “shy” bladder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining âshyâ bladder. 26.119 Section 26.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.119 Determining “shy” bladder. (a) When a donor has not provided a specimen of at least 30 mL within the 3...

  8. 10 CFR 26.119 - Determining “shy” bladder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining âshyâ bladder. 26.119 Section 26.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.119 Determining “shy” bladder. (a) When a donor has not provided a specimen of at least 30 mL within the 3...

  9. 10 CFR 26.119 - Determining “shy” bladder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining âshyâ bladder. 26.119 Section 26.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.119 Determining “shy” bladder. (a) When a donor has not provided a specimen of at least 30 mL within the 3...

  10. Morphologic and Molecular Characteristics of Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Solomon, James P; Hansel, Donna E

    2015-12-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Pathologic evaluation of urothelial cancers relies predominantly on histomorphologic features but can be aided in a small subset of cases by immunohistochemical analyses. Distinction of papillary versus flat lesions, low-grade versus high-grade cytology, and histologic variants and the presence or absence of invasive tumor is important for proper clinical management. Advances in the molecular alterations associated with the various subtypes of urothelial carcinoma have been made but such studies are ongoing. PMID:26612220

  11. Diagnosis of Bladder Carcinoma: A Clinician's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Harshman, Lauren C; Preston, Mark A; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Beard, Clair

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, more than 74,000 new cases and 15,000 deaths from bladder cancer were estimated to occur. The most reliable prognostic factors for survival are pathologic stage and histologic grade. Accordingly, a good understanding of the pathologic features of these cancers is essential to guide optimal clinical treatment, which requires a multidisciplinary team of pathologists, urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists. This review highlights several clinical scenarios in which detailed pathologic evaluation and accurate reporting impact clinical management. PMID:26612221

  12. Pathophysiology and animal modeling of underactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Smith, Phillip P.; Kuchel, George A.; de Groat, William C.; Birder, Lori A.; Chermansky, Christopher J.; Adam, Rosalyn M.; Tse, Vincent; Chancellor, Michael B.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    While the symptomology of underactive bladder (UAB) may imply a primary dysfunction of the detrusor muscle, insights into pathophysiology indicate that both myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms need to be considered. Due to lack of proper animal models, the current understanding of the UAB pathophysiology is limited, and much of what is known about the clinical etiology of the condition has been derived from epidemiological data. We hereby review current state of the art in the understanding of the pathophysiology of and animal models used to study the UAB. PMID:25238890

  13. Sexual and bladder comorbidity in women.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Giulia; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction in women is defined as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and/or sexual pain, which result in significant personal distress and may have a negative effect on a woman's health and an impact on her quality of life. A comprehensive understanding of the anatomic, neurobiologic, and psychologic mechanisms behind women's sexual function and dysfunction is of paramount importance. This chapter reviews the most frequent comorbid conditions related to urinary tract symptoms (thus including symptoms related to overactive bladder syndrome and urinary incontinence) and sexual dysfunction in women. Likewise, it considers the different disorders from the point of view of daily clinical practice. PMID:26003244

  14. Metabolomics in bladder cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yidong; Yang, Xiao; Deng, Xiaheng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Li, Pengchao; Tao, Jun; Qin, Chao; Wei, Jifu; Lu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is the most common urological malignancy. Early diagnosis of BC is crucial to improve patient outcomes. Currently, metabolomics is a potential technique that can be used to detect BC. We reviewed current publications and synthesised the findings on BC and metabolomics, i.e. metabolite upregulation and downregulation. Fourteen metabolites (lactic acid, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, glutamate, histidine, aspartic acid, tyrosine, serine, uracil, hypoxanthine, carnitine, pyruvic acid and citric acid) were identified as potential biomarkers for BC. In conclusion, this systematic review presents new opportunities for the diagnosis of BC. PMID:26379905

  15. Emerging Neural Stimulation Technologies for Bladder Dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Woong; Kim, Daejeong; Yoo, Sangjin; Lee, Hyungsup; Lee, Gu-Haeng; Nam, Yoonkey

    2015-01-01

    In the neural engineering field, physiological dysfunctions are approached by identifying the target nerves and providing artificial stimulation to restore the function. Neural stimulation and recording technologies play a central role in this approach, and various engineering devices and stimulation techniques have become available to the medical community. For bladder control problems, electrical stimulation has been used as one of the treatments, while only a few emerging neurotechnologies have been used to tackle these problems. In this review, we introduce some recent developments in neural stimulation technologies including microelectrode array, closed-loop neural stimulation, optical stimulation, and ultrasound stimulation. PMID:25833475

  16. General Information about Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Home Page Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Metastatic Cancer For general cancer information and ... YYYY>. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/patient/metastatic-squamous-neck-treatment-pdq . Accessed

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Home Page Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Metastatic Cancer For general cancer information and ... YYYY>. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/patient/metastatic-squamous-neck-treatment-pdq . Accessed

  18. Stages of Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Home Page Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Metastatic Cancer For general cancer information and ... YYYY>. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/patient/metastatic-squamous-neck-treatment-pdq . Accessed

  19. Treatment Options for Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Home Page Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Metastatic Cancer For general cancer information and ... YYYY>. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/patient/metastatic-squamous-neck-treatment-pdq . Accessed

  20. The concept of peripheral modulation of bladder sensation

    PubMed Central

    Eastham, Jane E; Gillespie, James I

    2013-01-01

    It is recognized that, as the bladder fills, there is a corresponding increase in sensation. This awareness of the volume in the bladder is then used in a complex decision making process to determine if there is a need to void. It is also part of everyday experience that, when the bladder is full and sensations strong, these sensations can be suppressed and the desire to void postponed. The obvious explanation for such altered perceptions is that they occur centrally. However, this may not be the only mechanism. There are data to suggest that descending neural influences and local factors might regulate the sensitivity of the systems within the bladder wall generating afferent activity. Specifically, evidence is accumulating to suggest that the motor-sensory system within the bladder wall is influenced in this way. The motor-sensory system, first described over 100 years ago, appears to be a key component in the afferent outflow, the afferent “noise,” generated within the bladder wall. However, the presence and possible importance of this complex system in the generation of bladder sensation has been overlooked in recent years. As the bladder fills the motor activity increases, driven by cholinergic inputs and modulated, possibly, by sympathetic inputs. In this way information on bladder volume can be transmitted to the CNS. It can be argued that the ability to alter the sensitivity of the mechanisms generating the motor component of this motor-sensory system represents a possible indirect way to influence afferent activity and so the perception of bladder volume centrally. Furthermore, it is emerging that the apparent modulation of sensation by drugs to alleviate the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), the anti-cholinergics and the new generation of drugs the ?3 sympathomimetics, may be the result of their ability to modulate the motor component of the motor sensory system. The possibility of controlling sensation, physiologically and pharmacologically, by influencing afferent firing at its point of origin is a “new” concept in bladder physiology. It is one that deserves careful consideration as it might have wider implications for our understanding of bladder pathology and in the development of new therapeutic drugs. In this overview, evidence for the concept peripheral modulation of bladder afferent outflow is explored. PMID:23917648

  1. Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Vicroy, D.D.; Knox, C.E.

    1983-05-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

  2. Radical Cystectomy and Orthotopic Bladder Substitution Using Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinsung

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, continent urinary diversion, especially orthotopic bladder substitutions, has become increasingly popular following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. The ultimate goal of orthotopic bladder substitution is to offer patients the best quality of life, similar to that of patients with native bladders. To achieve that purpose, surgeons should be familiar with the characteristics of good candidates for neobladders, the possible intraoperative and postoperative problems related to the surgery, and the solutions to these problems. Postoperative surveillance and instructions given to the patients also contribute to successful, functional results. Here, we reviewed the indications, pitfalls, and solutions for orthotopic bladder substitutions and the patients' quality of life after surgery. When performed properly, orthotopic continent diversion offers good quality of life with few long-term complications. Therefore, we believe it is the best option for the majority of patients requiring cystectomy. PMID:21556208

  3. Current philosophy in the surgical management of neck metastases for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Coskun, H Hakan; Medina, Jesus E; Robbins, K Thomas; Silver, Carl E; Strojan, Primož; Teymoortash, Afshin; Pellitteri, Phillip K; Rodrigo, Juan P; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Shaha, Ashok R; Suárez, Carlos; Hartl, Dana M; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P; Hamoir, Marc; Pitman, Karen T; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2015-06-01

    Neck dissection is an important treatment for metastases from upper aerodigestive carcinoma; an event that markedly reduces survival. Since its inception, the philosophy of the procedure has undergone significant change from one of radicalism to the current conservative approach. Furthermore, nonsurgical modalities have been introduced, and, in many situations, have supplanted neck surgery. The refinements of imaging the neck based on the concept of neck level involvement has encouraged new philosophies to evolve that seem to benefit patient outcomes particularly as this relates to diminished morbidity. The purpose of this review was to highlight the new paradigms for surgical removal of neck metastases using an evidence-based approach. PMID:24623715

  4. Rapid Generation of Optimal Asteroid Powered Descent Trajectories Via Convex Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinson, Robin; Lu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a convex optimization based method that can rapidly generate the fuel optimal asteroid powered descent trajectory. The ultimate goal is to autonomously design the optimal powered descent trajectory on-board the spacecraft immediately prior to the descent burn. Compared to a planetary powered landing problem, the major difficulty is the complex gravity field near the surface of an asteroid that cannot be approximated by a constant gravity field. This paper uses relaxation techniques and a successive solution process that seeks the solution to the original nonlinear, nonconvex problem through the solutions to a sequence of convex optimal control problems.

  5. Neuromodulation in a rat model of the bladder micturition reflex.

    PubMed

    Su, Xin; Nickles, Angela; Nelson, Dwight E

    2012-02-15

    A rat model of bladder reflex contraction (BRC) was used to determine the optimal frequency and intensity of spinal nerve (SN) stimulation to produce neuromodulation of bladder activity and to assess the therapeutic mechanisms of this neuromodulation. In anesthetized female rats (urethane 1.2 g/kg ip), a wire electrode was used to produce bilateral stimulation of the L6 SN. A cannula was placed into the bladder via the urethra, and the urethra was ligated to ensure an isovolumetric bladder. Saline infusion induced BRC. Electrical stimulation of the SN produced a frequency- and intensity-dependent attenuation of the frequency of bladder contractions. Ten-herz stimulation produced maximal inhibition; lower and higher stimulation frequency produced less attenuation of BRC. Attenuation of bladder contraction frequency was directly proportional to the current intensity. At 10 Hz, stimulation using motor threshold pulses (T(mot)) produced a delayed inhibition of the frequency of bladder contractions to 34 ± 11% of control. Maximal bladder inhibition appeared at 10 min poststimulation. High current intensity at 0.6 mA (?6 * T(mot)) abolished bladder contraction during stimulation, and the inhibition was sustained for 10 min poststimulation (prolonged inhibition). Furthermore, in rats pretreated with capsaicin (125 mg/kg sc), stimulation produced a stronger inhibition of BRC. The inhibitory effects on bladder contraction may be mediated by both afferent and efferent mechanisms. Lower intensities of stimulation may activate large, fast-conducting fibers and actions through the afferent limb of the micturition reflex arc in SN neuromodulation. Higher intensities may additionally act through the efferent limb. PMID:22049401

  6. Segmentation of urinary bladder in CT Urography (CTU) using CLASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Law, Yuen; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cho, Hyun-Chong; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

    2012-03-01

    We are developing a computerized system for bladder segmentation on CTU, as a critical component for computer aided diagnosis of bladder cancer. A challenge for bladder segmentation is the presence of regions without contrast (NC) and filled with IV contrast (C). We are developing a Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS) specifically for this application. CLASS performs a series of image processing tasks: preprocessing, initial segmentation, and 3D and 2D level set segmentation and post-processing, designed according to the characteristics of the bladder in CTU. The NC and the C regions of the bladder were segmented separately in CLASS. The final contour is obtained in the post-processing stage by the union of the NC and C contours. Seventy bladders (31 containing lesions, 24 containing wall thickening, and 15 normal) were segmented. The performance of CLASS was assessed by rating the quality of the contours on a 5-point scale (1= "very poor", 3= "fair", 5 = "excellent"). For the 53 partially contrast-filled bladders, the average quality ratings for the 53 NC and 53 C regions were 4.0+/-0.7 and 4.0+/-1.0, respectively. 46 NC and 41 C regions were given quality ratings of 4 or above. Only 2 NC and 5 C regions had ratings under 3. The average quality ratings for the remaining 12 completely no contrast (NC) and 5 completely contrast-filled (C) bladder contours were 3.3+/-1.0 and 3.4+/-0.5, respectively. After combining the NC and C contours for each of the 70 bladders, 46 had quality ratings of 4 or above. Only 4 had ratings under 3. The average quality rating was 3.8+/-0.7. The results demonstrate the potential of CLASS for automated segmentation of the bladder.

  7. Computer-aided detection of bladder tumors based on the thickness mapping of bladder wall in MR images

    E-print Network

    , computed tomography (CT)-based [5] and magnetic resonance (MR)-based [6] virtual cystoscopy (VCys) have in medical imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, make virtual cystoscopy a potential FPs per case. Keywords: Bladder tumor, magnetic resonance images, computer-aided detection, bladder

  8. Inter-Vertebral Flexibility of the Ostrich Neck: Implications for Estimating Sauropod Neck Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Cobley, Matthew J.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Barrett, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus). The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50). This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data. PMID:23967284

  9. Preventable Sternocleidomastoid Muscular Atrophy after Neck Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Nao; Sawai, Natsuko Yoshimura; Ishimoto, Shunsuke; Ogura, Hide; Aikawa, Tomonao; Kogo, Mikihiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modified radical neck dissection (mRND) [preserving the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and the spinal accessory nerve] and supraomohyoid neck dissection have become common surgical procedures for treating head and neck cancer. Postoperative severe asymmetry of the neck and severe atrophy of the SCM, however, have been demonstrated. Methods: Using computed tomographic images, cross-sectional areas of the SCMs were measured in 99 patients with carcinoma of the oral cavity who underwent unilateral mRND or supraomohyoid neck dissection. An asymmetry index was used. Results: Innervation to the SCM was preserved in 91 patients. The spinal accessory nerve and the innervation were sacrificed in 3 patients; the innervation was repaired in 5 patients. Sacrifice of innervation to the SCM resulted in extremely severe asymmetry. Repair of the innervation prevented severe asymmetry in 40%. Preservation of the innervation prevented severe asymmetry in 75% at the middle portion of the neck and in 56% at the lower portion after mRND. Conclusion: Preserving innervation to the SCM and gentle handling of the nerve during neck dissection could prevent severe asymmetry after neck dissection. PMID:26495217

  10. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Neck Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What to Expect Getting the Results Risks Helping Your Child If You Have Questions What It Is A neck X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  11. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Most head and neck cancers begin in the moist, mucus membranes lining the inside of the mouth, nose and throat. These membranes are made up of squamous cells and the head and neck cancers that grow in these cells are called squamous cell carcinomas.

  12. Update Head and Neck Steering Committee

    Cancer.gov

    Update Head and Neck Steering Committee NCI Clinical Trials Advisory Committee December 8, 2008 Co-Chairs Arlene Forastiere, M.D. David Schuller, M.D. Andrew Trotti, M.D. Primary Goal Increase productivity of clinical research involving head and neck

  13. 49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Using neck brackets 78051-303 and -307, mount the head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum test... to the plane of motion of the pendulum's longitudinal centerline (see § 572.33, Figure 20, except... (horizontal surface at the base of the skull) rotation with respect to the pendulum's longitudinal...

  14. 49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Using neck brackets 78051-303 and -307, mount the head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum test... to the plane of motion of the pendulum's longitudinal centerline (see § 572.33, Figure 20, except... (horizontal surface at the base of the skull) rotation with respect to the pendulum's longitudinal...

  15. 49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Using neck brackets 78051-303 and -307, mount the head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum test... to the plane of motion of the pendulum's longitudinal centerline (see § 572.33, Figure 20, except... (horizontal surface at the base of the skull) rotation with respect to the pendulum's longitudinal...

  16. 49 CFR 572.113 - Neck assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Using neck brackets 78051-303 and -307, mount the head/neck assembly to the part 572 pendulum test... to the plane of motion of the pendulum's longitudinal centerline (see § 572.33, Figure 20, except... (horizontal surface at the base of the skull) rotation with respect to the pendulum's longitudinal...

  17. 49 CFR 572.33 - Neck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Neck. 572.33 Section 572.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Test Dummy § 572.33 Neck....

  18. [Treatment of patients with invasive bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Varlamov, S A; Lazarev, A F; Ne?mark, A I; Tat'ianin, V Iu; Ganov, D I; P'iankova, N Iu

    2002-01-01

    Radical surgery was made in 85 patients with invasive cancer of the bladder. 89.4% patients had the tumor of stage T2-T3. After the operation all 85 patients received 3 courses of adjuvant chemotherapy M-VAC in modification of the Cancer Research Center. The interval between the courses was 3 weeks. The patients were divided into two groups. The test group (n = 43) received surgical treatment, M-VAC chemotherapy and immunocorrection (general magnetotherapy, phytotherapy = cyclopheron). The control group (n = 42) received only surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. It was found that the above immunocorrection reduces the number of postoperative complications 3.8 times, side effects by chemotherapy by 1.4 times. Absolute count of T lymphocytes and their active forms elevated by 42.8 and 35.7%, respectively, while CIC diminished by 48.8%. The addition of immunocorrection to combined treatment of patients with invasive cancer of the bladder decreased the number of recurrences for 2 years twice. 3-year survival was 1.5 times longer. PMID:12577575

  19. Bladder cancer and urinary Schistosomiasis in Angola

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Jacinta; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis haematobia is among the most prevalent parasitosis in Angola. The pathology is characterized by serious and irreversible lesions in the urogenital tract induced by chronic infection with the parasite that can eventually lead to squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Considering the frequency and severe morbidity observed, even in younger ages, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and morbidity of S. haematobium infection in Angola. A baseline survey was conducted between November 2007 and February 2008. A randomly sample of 300 inhabitants aged 15 to 75 years old participated in this study. Prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 71.7 % (215/300). Infection was higher in females (56.3 %) but no significant difference was found in prevalence and intensity between gender and age groups. The predominant selfreported symptoms were dysuria (91.2 %), hypogastralgia (88.7 %) and haematuria (87.1%) and these symptoms were strongly associated with S. haematobium infection (p<0.05). Ultrasound and cystoscopy examinations performed in a sub-sample of 29 individuals revealed pathological conditions at the urinary tract in all examined. Considering the high prevalence of S. haematobium infections in Angola and schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer, our results indicate that this population should be targeted for follow up and implementation of measures for treatment and control of schistosomiasis. PMID:26167543

  20. Polymeric Bladder for Storing Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, David H.; Harvey, Andrew C.; Leary, William

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system for storing oxygen in liquid form and dispensing it in gaseous form is based on (1) initial subcooling of the liquid oxygen; (2) containing the liquid oxygen in a flexible vessel; (3) applying a gas spring to the flexible vessel to keep the oxygen compressed above the saturation pressure and, thus, in the liquid state; and (4) using heat leakage into the system for vaporizing the oxygen to be dispensed. In a typical prior system based on these principles, the flexible vessel is a metal bellows housed in a rigid tank, and the gas spring consists of pressurized helium in the tank volume surrounding the bellows. Unfortunately, the welds in the bellows corrugations are subject to fatigue, and, because bellows have large ullage, a correspondingly large fraction of the oxygen content cannot be expelled. In the proposed system, the flexible vessel would be a bladder made of a liquid- crystal polymer (LCP). (LCPs are strong and compatible with liquid oxygen.) In comparison with a metal bellows, a polymeric bladder would have less ullage and would weigh less. In experiments involving fatigue cycling at liquid-nitrogen temperatures, two LCPs were found to be suitable for this application.

  1. Whole-Pelvis or Bladder-Only Chemoradiation for Lymph Node-Negative Invasive Bladder Cancer: Single-Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tunio, Mutahir A.; Hashmi, Altaf; Qayyum, Abdul; Mohsin, Rehan; Zaeem, Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Whole-pelvis (WP) concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) is the standard bladder preserving option for patients with invasive bladder cancer. The standard practice is to treat elective pelvic lymph nodes, so our aim was to evaluate whether bladder-only (BO) CCRT leads to results similar to those obtained by standard WP-CCRT. Methods and Materials: Patient eligibility included histopathologically proven muscle-invasive bladder cancer, lymph nodes negative (T2-T4, N-) by radiology, and maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumor with normal hematologic, renal, and liver functions. Between March 2005 and May 2006, 230 patients were accrued. Patients were randomly assigned to WP-CCRT (120 patients) and BO-CCRT (110 patients). Data regarding the toxicity profile, compliance, initial complete response rates at 3 months, and occurrence of locoregional or distant failure were recorded. Results: With a median follow-up time of 5 years (range, 3-6), WP-CCRT was associated with a 5-year disease-free survival of 47.1% compared with 46.9% in patients treated with BO-CCRT (p = 0.5). The bladder preservation rates were 58.9% and 57.1% in WP-CCRT and BO-CCRT, respectively (p = 0.8), and the 5-year overall survival rates were 52.9% for WP-CCRT and 51% for BO-CCRT (p = 0.8). Conclusion: BO-CCRT showed similar rates of bladder preservation, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates as those of WP-CCRT. Smaller field sizes including bladder with 2-cm margins can be used as bladder preservation protocol for patients with muscle-invasive lymph node-negative bladder cancer to minimize the side effects of CCRT.

  2. Assessment of Bladder Motion for Clinical Radiotherapy Practice Using Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McBain, Catherine A.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Buckley, David L.; Sykes, Jonathan S.; Green, Melanie M.; Cowan, Richard A.; Hutchinson, Charles E.; Moore, Christopher J.; Price, Patricia M.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: Organ motion is recognized as the principal source of inaccuracy in bladder radiotherapy (RT), but there is currently little information on intrafraction bladder motion. Methods and Materials: We used cine-magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) to study bladder motion relevant to intrafraction RT delivery. On two occasions, a 28 minute cine-MRI sequence was acquired from 10 bladder cancer patients and 5 control participants immediately after bladder emptying, after abstinence from drinking for the preceding hour. From the resulting cine sequences, bladder motion was subjectively assessed. To quantify bladder motion, the bladder was contoured in imaging volume sets at 0, 14, and 28 min to measure changes to bladder volumes, wall displacements, and center of gravity (COG) over time. Results: The dominant source of bladder motion during imaging was bladder filling (up to 101% volume increase); rectal and small bowel movements were transient, with minimal impact. Bladder volume changes were similar for all participants. However for bladder cancer patients, wall displacements were larger (up to 58 mm), less symmetrical, and more variable compared with nondiseased control bladders. Conclusions: Significant and individualized intrafraction bladder wall displacements may occur during bladder RT delivery. This important source of inaccuracy should be incorporated into treatment planning and verification.

  3. Recent identity by descent in human genetic data - methods and applications 

    E-print Network

    Glodzik, Dominik

    2014-11-28

    The thesis describes algorithms for detecting regions of recent identity by descent (IBD) from human genetic data and its applications in optimising resequencing studies, genomic predictions and detecting Mendelian ...

  4. A conflict analysis of 4D descent strategies in a metered, multiple-arrival route environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.; Harris, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    A conflict analysis was performed on multiple arrival traffic at a typical metered airport. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to simulate arrival operations using Denver Stapleton's arrival route structure. Sensitivities of conflict performance to three different 4-D descent strategies (clear-idle Mach/Constant AirSpeed (CAS), constant descent angle Mach/CAS and energy optimal) were examined for three traffic mixes represented by those found at Denver Stapleton, John F. Kennedy and typical en route metering (ERM) airports. The Monte Carlo technique was used to generate simulation entry point times. Analysis results indicate that the clean-idle descent strategy offers the best compromise in overall performance. Performance measures primarily include susceptibility to conflict and conflict severity. Fuel usage performance is extrapolated from previous descent strategy studies.

  5. User's manual for a fuel-conservative descent planning algorithm implemented on a small programmable calculator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. An explanation and examples of how the algorithm is used, as well as a detailed flow chart and listing of the algorithm are contained.

  6. GENERALIZED EXPLICIT DESCENT AND ITS APPLICATION TO CURVES OF GENUS 3

    E-print Network

    Poonen, Bjorn

    , AND MICHAEL STOLL Abstract. We introduce a common generalization of essentially all known methods for explicit Classification. Primary 11G30; Secondary 11G10, 14G25, 14H45. Key words and phrases. Descent, Selmer group, genus

  7. GENERALIZED EXPLICIT DESCENT AND ITS APPLICATION TO CURVES OF GENUS 3

    E-print Network

    Stoll, Michael

    , AND MICHAEL STOLL Abstract. We introduce a common generalization of essentially all known methods for explicit Subject Classification. Primary 11G30; Secondary 11G10, 14G25, 14H45. Key words and phrases. Descent

  8. Antarctic Polar Descent and Planetary Wave Activity Observed in ISAMS CO from April to July 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. R.; Stanford, J. L.; Nakamura, N.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Taylor, F. W.; Remedios, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Antarctic polar descent and planetary wave activity in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere are observed in ISAMS CO data from April to July 1992. CO-derived mean April-to-May upper stratosphere descent rates of 15 K/day (0.25 km/day) at 60 S and 20 K/day (0.33 km/day) at 80 S are compared with descent rates from diabatic trajectory analyses. At 60 S there is excellent agreement, while at 80 S the trajectory-derived descent is significantly larger in early April. Zonal wavenumber 1 enhancement of CO is observed on 9 and 28 May, coincident with enhanced wave 1 in UKMO geopotential height. The 9 May event extends from 40 to 70 km and shows westward phase tilt with height, while the 28 May event extends from 40 to 50 km and shows virtually no phase tilt with height.

  9. Challenges of Dealing With Atmospheres: Entry, Descent and Landing - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Whether landing on Mars or returning to Earth, one of the most challenging parts of any mission is the entry, descent and landing. Just think -- a spacecraft hurtling through space at thousands of ...

  10. A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and variational inequalities

    E-print Network

    Patriksson, Michael

    A taxonomy of descent algorithms for nonlinear programs and the choices of cost approximating mappings and merit functions. The* * taxonomy is illustrated on classical algorithms and is utilized to interrelate known alg* *orithm frameworks. Keywords. Taxonomy

  11. The Experiences for People of Asian Descent in Professional Positions in American College Sport 

    E-print Network

    Shim, Kun Soo

    2014-12-16

    The purpose of this study was to understand the role that race and ethnicity plays in the experiences for people of Asian descent in professional positions in American college sport. Specifically, this study sought to ...

  12. Descent graphs in pedigree analysis: applications to haplotyping, location scores, and marker-sharing statistics.

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, E.; Lange, K.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of stochastic methods in pedigree analysis has enabled geneticists to tackle computations intractable by standard deterministic methods. Until now these stochastic techniques have worked by running a Markov chain on the set of genetic descent states of a pedigree. Each descent state specifies the paths of gene flow in the pedigree and the founder alleles dropped down each path. The current paper follows up on a suggestion by Elizabeth Thompson that genetic descent graphs offer a more appropriate space for executing a Markov chain. A descent graph specifies the paths of gene flow but not the particular founder alleles traveling down the paths. This paper explores algorithms for implementing Thompson's suggestion for codominant markers in the context of automatic haplotyping, estimating location scores, and computing gene-clustering statistics for robust linkage analysis. Realistic numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility of the algorithms. PMID:8651310

  13. Adenocarcinoma of the bladder following nephrogenic adenoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hungerhuber, Edwin; Bach, Ekkehard; Hartmann, Arndt; Frimberger, Dominic; Stief, Christian; Zaak, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Nephrogenic adenomas are generally considered to be benign lesions, but there remains a risk for malignant transformation. Patients with immunosuppression in particular appear to be at a higher risk of malignant disease. We report a case of post-traumatic nephrogenic adenoma in a young patient without immunosuppression, which transformed into an adenocarcinoma of the bladder. Case presentation A 25-year-old man had a traumatic bladder perforation caused by a car accident. After physical recovery from the accident, he developed a neurogenic bladder and recurrent urinary tract infections. He presented with nephrogenic adenoma of the bladder 18 months after the accident. The adenoma was treated repeatedly with transurethral resections. The initial pathologic findings were benign, however, the last resection revealed that the former benign adenoma had transformed into a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the bladder (tumor present but no invasion, multifocal, no lymph nodes involved, no metastasis, grade 2). He subsequently underwent radical cystectomy and has remained tumor-free for the last 4 years. Conclusion Nephrogenic adenoma is a rare disease with some potential for malignant transformation. However, patients with nephrogenic adenoma under immunosuppression and patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction appear to be at a higher risk of developing bladder cancer. PMID:18485239

  14. HPLC assisted Raman spectroscopic studies on bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, W. L.; Cheng, Y.; Yu, W.; Zhang, X. B.; Shen, A. G.; Hu, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    We applied confocal Raman spectroscopy to investigate 12 normal bladder tissues and 30 tumor tissues, and then depicted the spectral differences between the normal and the tumor tissues and the potential canceration mechanism with the aid of the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. Normal tissues were demonstrated to contain higher tryptophan, cholesterol and lipid content, while bladder tumor tissues were rich in nucleic acids, collagen and carotenoids. In particular, ?-carotene, one of the major types of carotenoids, was found through HPLC analysis of the extract of bladder tissues. The statistical software SPSS was applied to classify the spectra of the two types of tissues according to their differences. The sensitivity and specificity of 96.7 and 66.7% were obtained, respectively. In addition, different layers of the bladder wall including mucosa (lumps), muscle and adipose bladder tissue were analyzed by Raman mapping technique in response to previous Raman studies of bladder tissues. All of these will play an important role as a directive tool for the future diagnosis of bladder cancer in vivo.

  15. An Orthotopic Bladder Cancer Model for Gene Delivery Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kasman, Laura; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urogenital tract and novel therapeutic approaches that can reduce recurrence and progression are needed. The tumor microenvironment can significantly influence tumor development and therapy response. It is therefore often desirable to grow tumor cells in the organ from which they originated. This protocol describes an orthotopic model of bladder cancer, in which MB49 murine bladder carcinoma cells are instilled into the bladder via catheterization. Successful tumor cell implantation in this model requires disruption of the protective glycosaminoglycan layer, which can be accomplished by physical or chemical means. In our protocol the bladder is treated with trypsin prior to cell instillation. Catheterization of the bladder can also be used to deliver therapeutics once the tumors are established. This protocol describes the delivery of an adenoviral construct that expresses a luciferase reporter gene. While our protocol has been optimized for short-term studies and focuses on gene delivery, the methodology of mouse bladder catheterization has broad applications. PMID:24326612

  16. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Development Challenges and Preliminary Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent, and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview of the MSL entry, descent, and landing system, a discussion of a subset of its development challenges, and include a discussion of preliminary results of the flight reconstruction effort.

  18. Analysis of Flight Management System Predictions of Idle-Thrust Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stell, Laurel

    2010-01-01

    To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the predictor and its uncertainty models, descents from cruise to the meter fix were executed using vertical navigation in a B737-700 simulator and a B777-200 simulator, both with commercial FMSs. For both aircraft types, the FMS computed the intended descent path for a specified speed profile assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and then it controlled the avionics without human intervention. The test matrix varied aircraft weight, descent speed, and wind conditions. The first analysis in this paper determined the effect of the test matrix parameters on the FMS computation of TOD location, and it compared the results to those for the current ground predictor in the Efficient Descent Advisor (EDA). The second analysis was similar but considered the time to fly a specified distance to the meter fix. The effects of the test matrix variables together with the accuracy requirements for the predictor will determine the allowable error for the predictor inputs. For the B737, the EDA prediction of meter fix crossing time agreed well with the FMS; but its prediction of TOD location probably was not sufficiently accurate to enable idle-thrust descents in congested airspace, even though the FMS and EDA gave similar shapes for TOD location as a function of the test matrix variables. For the B777, the FMS and EDA gave different shapes for the TOD location function, and the EDA prediction of the TOD location is not accurate enough to fully enable the concept. Furthermore, the differences between the FMS and EDA predictions of meter fix crossing time for the B777 indicated that at least one of them was not sufficiently accurate.

  19. Apollo 15 mission report, supplement 4: Descent propulsion system final flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avvenire, A. T.; Wood, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a postflight analysis of the LM-10 Descent Propulsion System (DPS) during the Apollo 15 Mission are reported. The analysis determined the steady state performance of the DPS during the descent phase of the manned lunar landing. Flight measurement discrepancies are discussed. Simulated throttle performance results are cited along with overall performance results. Evaluations of the propellant quantity gaging system, propellant loading, pressurization system, and engine are reported. Graphic illustrations of the evaluations are included.

  20. Preclinical dosimetry of magnetic fluid hyperthermia for bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea; Etienne, Wiguins; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-02-01

    Background Despite positive efficacy, thermotherapy is not widely used in clinical oncology. Difficulties associated with field penetration and controlling power deposition patterns in heterogeneous tissue have limited its use for heating deep in the body. Heat generation using iron-oxide super-paramagnetic nanoparticles excited with magnetic fields has been demonstrated to overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this preclinical study is to investigate the feasibility of treating bladder cancer with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Methods The bladders of 25 female rats were injected with 0.4 ml of Actium Biosystems magnetite-based nanoparticles (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) via catheters inserted in the urethra. To assess the distribution of nanoparticles in the rat after injection we used the 7 T small animal MRI system (Bruker ClinScan, Bruker BioSpin MRI GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany). Heat treatments were performed with a small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder CO) with a goal of raising bladder temperature to 42°C in <10min and maintaining for 60min. Temperatures were measured throughout the rat with seven fiberoptic temperature probes (OpSens Technologies, Quebec Canada) to characterize our ability to localize heat within the bladder target. Results The MRI study confirms the effectiveness of the catheterization procedure to homogenously distribute nanoparticles throughout the bladder. Thermal dosimetry data demonstrate our ability to controllably raise temperature of rat bladder >1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that a MFH system provides well-localized heating of rat bladder with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues.

  1. Pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Paner, Gladell P; Cox, Roni Michelle; Richards, Kyle; Akki, Ashwin; Gokden, Neriman; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Krausz, Thomas; McKenney, Jesse K; Steinberg, Gary D

    2014-09-01

    The pseudoangiosarcomatous pattern has been described mostly in cutaneous and some visceral squamous cell carcinomas and is unique for its striking morphologic resemblance to angiosarcoma. Herein, we describe the clinicopathologic features of 7 pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinomas that occurred in the urinary bladder. The patients included 6 men and 1 woman ranging in age from 47 to 87 years (median 70 y). The pseudoangiosarcomatous morphology was observed in 7 urothelial carcinomas including 3 with squamous differentiation and comprised 35% to 85% of the invasive tumor. Histologically, the pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinomas were characterized by tumor cell discohesion and lysis that created pseudolumina formations surrounded by attached residual tumor cells. Detached degenerating tumor cells variably admixed with inflammatory cells were common in the false lumina. Partly intact urothelial carcinoma nests contained irregular or cleft-like spaces and disintegrating tumor cells with stretched intercellular bridges. The tumor was commonly associated with a dense collagenous matrix, often surrounding the lytic nests. Similar tumor cell discohesion and breakdown were observed in 3 tumors with foci of squamous cell differentiation, distinguished by the presence of dyskeratosis and keratin formation. All 7 tumors contained other nonpseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma components such as conventional urothelial carcinoma (5), squamous differentiation (4), sarcomatoid spindle cell carcinoma (2), small cell carcinoma (1), micropapillary carcinoma (1), and glandular differentiation (1). The pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinomas were all (7/7) diffusely CK7 positive, most (6/7) were GATA3 positive, and none (0/7) expressed vascular-associated markers. There was no evidence to suggest that apoptosis (by TUNEL assay and cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining) or loss of the adhesion molecules CD138 and e-cadherin were possible causes for the tumor cell discohesion and breakdown. All 7 tumors were high stage at cystectomy and included 1 pT3a, 2 pT3b, and 4 pT4a tumors, and 3 had pelvic lymph node involvement. Follow-up data available in 6 cases revealed a poor outcome with an overall median survival of 8.5 months. In conclusion, we present an unusual morphology of bladder carcinoma that has a striking resemblance to a malignant vasoformative tumor. Our series showed that bladder pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma morphology is associated with a higher tumor stage at cystectomy, commonly admixed with other aggressive carcinoma variant morphologies, and portend a poorer outcome. Knowledge of this pattern is also important to avoid misdiagnosis, particularly in limited tissue samples. PMID:25133708

  2. Race, language, and mental evolution in Darwin's descent of man.

    PubMed

    Alter, Stephen G

    2007-01-01

    Charles Darwin was notoriously ambiguous in his remarks about the relationship between human evolution and biological race. He stressed the original unity of the races, yet he also helped to popularize the notion of a racial hierarchy filling the gaps between the highest anthropoids and civilized Europeans. A focus on Darwin's explanation of how humans initially evolved, however, shows that he mainly stressed not hierarchy but a version of humanity's original mental unity. In his book The Descent of Man, Darwin emphasized a substantial degree of mental development (including the incipient use of language) in the early, monogenetic phase of human evolution. This development, he argued, necessarily came before primeval man's numerical increase, geographic dispersion, and racial diversification, because only thus could one explain how that group was able to spread at the expense of rival ape-like populations. This scenario stood opposed to a new evolutionary polygenism formulated in the wake of Darwin's Origin of Species by his ostensible supporters Alfred Russel Wallace and Ernst Haeckel. Darwin judged this outlook inadequate to the task of explaining humanity's emergence. PMID:17623873

  3. HLA Type Inference via Haplotypes Identical by Descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setty, Manu N.; Gusev, Alexander; Pe'Er, Itsik

    The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes play a major role in adaptive immune response and are used to differentiate self antigens from non self ones. HLA genes are hyper variable with nearly every locus harboring over a dozen alleles. This variation plays an important role in susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases and needs to be matched on for organ transplantation. Unfortunately, HLA typing by serological methods is time consuming and expensive compared to high throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data. We present a new computational method to infer per-locus HLA types using shared segments Identical By Descent (IBD), inferred from SNP genotype data. IBD information is modeled as graph where shared haplotypes are explored among clusters of individuals with known and unknown HLA types to identify the latter. We analyze performance of the method in a previously typed subset of the HapMap population, achieving accuracy of 96% in HLA-A, 94% in HLA-B, 95% in HLA-C, 77% in HLA-DR1, 93% in HLA-DQA1 and 90% in HLA-DQB1 genes. We compare our method to a tag SNP based approach and demonstrate higher sensitivity and specificity. Our method demonstrates the power of using shared haplotype segments for large-scale imputation at the HLA locus.

  4. Lunar Module Eagle Upon Descent to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). The LM is shown here making its descent to the lunar surface, while Astronaut Collins piloted the Command Module in a parking orbit around the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida aboard a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as Magnificent desolation. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. von Braun.

  5. Minimum Landing Error Powered-Descent Guidance for Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmore, Lars; Acikmese, Behcet

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm improves the accuracy with which a lander can be delivered to the surface of Mars. The main idea behind this innovation is the use of a lossless convexification, which converts an otherwise non-convex constraint related to thruster throttling to a convex constraint, enabling convex optimization to be used. The convexification leads directly to an algorithm that guarantees finding the global optimum of the original nonconvex optimization problem with a deterministic upper bound on the number of iterations required for convergence. In this innovation, previous work in powered-descent guidance using convex optimization is extended to handle the case where the lander must get as close as possible to the target given the available fuel, but is not required to arrive exactly at the target. The new algorithm calculates the minimum-fuel trajectory to the target, if one exists, and calculates the trajectory that minimizes the distance to the target if no solution to the target exists. This approach poses the problem as two Second-Order Cone Programs, which can be solved to global optimality with deterministic bounds on the number of iterations required.

  6. STS-40 descent BET products: Development and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakes, Kevin F.; Wood, James S.; Findlay, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Descent Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) Data were generated for the final Orbiter Experiments Flight, STS-40. This report discusses the actual development of these post-flight products: the inertial BET, the Extended BET, and the Aerodynamic BET. Summary results are also included. The inertial BET was determined based on processing Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRSS) coherent Doppler data in conjunction with observations from eleven C-band stations, to include data from the Kwajalein Atoll and the usual California coastal radars, as well as data from five cinetheodolite cameras in the vicinity of the runways at EAFB. The anchor epoch utilized for the trajectory reconstruction was 53,904 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) seconds which corresponds to an altitude at epoch of approximately 708 kft. Atmospheric data to enable development of an Extended BET for this mission were upsurped from the JSC operational post-flight BET. These data were evaluated based on Space Shuttle-derived considerations as well as model comparisons. The Aerodynamic BET includes configuration information, final mass properties, and both flight-determined and predicted aerodynamic performance estimates. The predicted data were based on the final pre-operational databook, updated to include flight determined incrementals based on an earlier ensemble of flights. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are presented and correlated versus statistical results based on twenty-two previous missions.

  7. Physics-based Entry, Descent and Landing Risk Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Huynh, Loc C.; Manning, Ted

    2014-01-01

    A physics-based risk model was developed to assess the risk associated with thermal protection system failures during the entry, descent and landing phase of a manned spacecraft mission. In the model, entry trajectories were computed using a three-degree-of-freedom trajectory tool, the aerothermodynamic heating environment was computed using an engineering-level computational tool and the thermal response of the TPS material was modeled using a one-dimensional thermal response tool. The model was capable of modeling the effect of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact damage on the TPS thermal response. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the effects of uncertainties in the vehicle state at Entry Interface, aerothermodynamic heating and material properties on the performance of the TPS design. The failure criterion was set as a temperature limit at the bondline between the TPS and the underlying structure. Both direct computation and response surface approaches were used to compute the risk. The model was applied to a generic manned space capsule design. The effect of material property uncertainty and MMOD damage on risk of failure were analyzed. A comparison of the direct computation and response surface approach was undertaken.

  8. Development of a Mars Airplane Entry, Descent, and Flight Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James E.; Tartabini, Paul V.

    2001-01-01

    An entry, descent, and flight (EDF) trajectory profile for a Mars airplane mission is defined as consisting of the following elements: ballistic entry of an aeroshell; supersonic deployment of a decelerator parachute; subsonic release of a heat shield; release, unfolding, and orientation of an airplane to flight attitude; and execution of a pull up maneuver to achieve trimmed, horizontal flight. Using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) a trajectory optimization problem was formulated. Model data representative of a specific Mars airplane configuration, current models of the Mars surface topography and atmosphere, and current estimates of the interplanetary trajectory, were incorporated into the analysis. The goal is to develop an EDF trajectory to maximize the surface-relative altitude of the airplane at the end of a pull up maneuver, while subject to the mission design constraints. The trajectory performance was evaluated for three potential mission sites and was found to be site-sensitive. The trajectory performance, examined for sensitivity to a number of design and constraint variables, was found to be most sensitive to airplane mass, aerodynamic performance characteristics, and the pull up Mach constraint. Based on the results of this sensitivity study, an airplane-drag optimized trajectory was developed that showed a significant performance improvement.

  9. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of ? = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p < 0.05). If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  10. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of ? = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p < 0.05). If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  11. The Descent Rates of the Shear Zones of the Equatorial QBO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnersley, Jonathan S.; Pawson, Steven

    1996-07-01

    The influence of vertical advection on the descent rate of the zero-wind line in both phases of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is investigated with the help of the `THIN AIR' stratosphere two-and-a-half-dimensional model. The model QBO is forced by two symmetric easterly and westerly waves, and yet the model reproduces qualitatively the observed asymmetry in the descent rates of the two shear zones due to the enhanced heating during easterly descent combined with the equatorial heating induced by the extratropical planetary waves. Observations show that the maximum easterly accelerations occur predominantly from May until July, which is when the modeled equatorial planetary-wave-induced heating rates are weakest. Hence, model results are consistent with the theory that vertical advection induced by extratropical planetary waves slows significantly the descent of the easterly shear zone. The model also shows the observed increase in vertical wind shear during stalling of the easterly descent (which increases the impact of vertical advection). In the model, the effect of cross-equatorial advection of momentum by the mean flow is negligible compared to the vertical advection. Changes in the propagation of planetary waves depending on the sign of the equatorial zonal wind have a small effect on the modeled equatorial heating rates and therefore do not play a large part in producing the modeled asymmetry in descent rates.

  12. Cutaneous Metastases from Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, I; Bruney, GF; Sands, C; Shirodkar, G; Recine, M

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT With the advances in imaging, earlier detection of recurrence and metastatic disease is possible. However, there are limited data on the metastatic pattern of bladder cancer. In addition, cutaneous metastases from primary genitourinary malignancies are rare and, in spite of advances in imaging which detect smaller lesions, the patterns of metastases from bladder cancer have not been well described. Very few cases of skin metastasis from urothelial carcinoma have been reported in the past. We present a case of primary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in which a cutaneous metastasis was the initial presentation. PMID:25781301

  13. BWH emergency radiology-surgical correlation: intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture.

    PubMed

    Landman, Wendy; Khurana, Bharti; Briggs, Alexandra; Fairweather, Mark; Cooper, Zara; Riviello, Robert; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2015-12-01

    We describe the radiological and intraoperative correlation of two cases of intraperitoneal bladder rupture: a 23-year-old man involved in a high-speed motor vehicle collision and a 49-year-old man with hematuria and abdominal pain after a night of heavy alcohol ingestion. Both patients underwent urgent exploratory laparotomies and repair of their bladder injuries. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of understanding the different etiologies of bladder rupture and recognizing the imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and CT cystography to help guide the surgeons in the patient's management. PMID:25998022

  14. Urinary cytology in bladder cancer: why is it still relevant?

    PubMed

    Comploj, Evi; Trenti, Emanuela; Palermo, Salvatore; Pycha, Armin; Mian, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract and cystoscopy with cytology is currently considered the gold standard for the detection and surveillance of primary tumors and for the follow-up of patients after transurethral resection.Even if cytology has a low sensitivity especially in low-grade bladder carcinomas, the high specificity and the inexpensive nature of the equipment required, justify performing it.The greatest value of cytology for patients with low-grade, nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is the detection of those lesions that may progress to high-grade urothelial carcinoma. PMID:26219472

  15. Targeting Signaling Transduction Pathways in Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Abbosh, Phillip H; McConkey, David J; Plimack, Elizabeth R

    2015-12-01

    Systemic therapy for urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder has largely revolved around cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. However, several recent clinical trials have explored the roles of targeted therapies which specifically inhibit signal transduction pathways. Simultaneously, a rationale for such therapies has come to the forefront of management of this disease because an overabundance of signaling pathways are genetically deranged as a result of point mutation or copy number alteration (CNA) as identified by several recent next generation sequencing (NGS) studies. Importantly, these derangements are found in all stages of disease, and therefore targeted therapies hold promise as a next step in the evolution of the medical management of both localized and metastatic UCC. We review the rationale for and progress in studying inhibition of signal transduction as a means of treatment of UCC. PMID:26472299

  16. [Disorders of bladder emptying following Burch colposuspension].

    PubMed

    Bödeker, J; Casanova, M; Zingg, E

    1989-08-01

    Forty patients with recurrence urinary stress incontinence (RUSI) were evaluated before and after Burch-colposuspension for voiding difficulties. Thirty-two (80%) patients were cured. Seven females developed an urge incontinence in the postoperative course, one female an urge plus stress incontinence. Residual urine was found in 6 of 7 patients with urge incontinence, in 5 patients a urinary tract infection. Four patients with urge incontinence after colposuspension were insulin dependent diabetics. In 18 patients residual urine was found in the postoperative course, only 6 patients were symptomatic with urge and urinary tract infection. We see a limited indication for Burch colposuspension in RUSI with reduction in vaginal mobility, detrusor hypocontractility, detrusor instability and in diseases predisposing to neurogenic bladder disorders. PMID:2807967

  17. Nomograms Predicting Response to Therapy and Outcomes After Bladder-Preserving Trimodality Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coen, John J.; Paly, Jonathan J.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Kaufman, Donald S.; Heney, Niall M.; Spiegel, Daphne Y.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Shipley, William U.

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Selective bladder preservation by use of trimodality therapy is an established management strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Individual disease features have been associated with response to therapy, likelihood of bladder preservation, and disease-free survival. We developed prognostic nomograms to predict the complete response rate, disease-specific survival, and likelihood of remaining free of recurrent bladder cancer or cystectomy. Methods and Materials: From 1986 to 2009, 325 patients were managed with selective bladder preservation at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and had complete data adequate for nomogram development. Treatment consisted of a transurethral resection of bladder tumor followed by split-course chemoradiation. Patients with a complete response at midtreatment cystoscopic assessment completed radiation, whereas those with a lesser response underwent a prompt cystectomy. Prognostic nomograms were constructed predicting complete response (CR), disease-specific survival (DSS), and bladder-intact disease-free survival (BI-DFS). BI-DFS was defined as the absence of local invasive or regional recurrence, distant metastasis, bladder cancer-related death, or radical cystectomy. Results: The final nomograms included information on clinical T stage, presence of hydronephrosis, whether a visibly complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor was performed, age, sex, and tumor grade. The predictive accuracy of these nomograms was assessed. For complete response, the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve was 0.69. The Harrell concordance index was 0.61 for both DSS and BI-DFS. Conclusions: Our nomograms allow individualized estimates of complete response, DSS, and BI-DFS. They may assist patients and clinicians making important treatment decisions.

  18. Intravesical immunotherapy in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jokisch, Jan-Friedrich; Karl, Alexander; Stief, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nonmuscle invasive urothelial cell carcinoma is the most frequent malignancy of the urinary bladder. The high recurrence rate (up to 80%) and risk of progression (up to 30%) reflect the need for long-term follow-up and sometimes multiple interventions. To reduce the rate of recurrences and tumor progression, intravesical immunotherapy, especially the use of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), represents the gold standard adjuvant treatment of high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). This article reviews the role of BCG therapy and several promising new immunotherapeutic approaches such as mycobacterium phlei cell wall-nucleic acid complex, interleukin-10 (IL-10) antibody, vaccine-based therapy, alpha-emitter therapy, and photodynamic therapy checkpoint inhibitors. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed using the terms (immunotherapy, NMIBC, BCG, and intravesical) using PubMed and Cochrane databases. Results: BCG represents the most common intravesical immunotherapeutic agent for the adjuvant treatment of high-risk NMIBC. Its use is associated with a significant reduction of recurrence and progression. Patients with NMIBC of intermediate and high-risk benefit the most from BCG therapy. To achieve maximal efficacy, an induction therapy followed by a maintenance schedule should be used. Full-dose BCG is recommended to obtain ideal antitumoral activity and there is no evidence of a reduction of side effects in patients treated with a reduced dose. There are multiple new approaches and agents in immunotherapy with potential and promising antineoplastic effects. Conclusions: The beneficial effect of BCG is well documented and established. To reduce the tumor specific mortality, it is essential to follow guideline-based treatment. In patients with BCG-failure, there are new promising alternatives other than BCG but BCG remains the gold standard at this stage. PMID:26604441

  19. Cancers of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, C.

    1987-01-01

    The information in this text demonstrates the marked progress being made in the treatment of head and neck cancer, diseases which are among the most morbid in all medicine. New and promising surgical and radiotherapeutic techniques are discussed, including brachytherapy, hyperthermia, laser therapy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The timing of chemotherapy and the future rate of biologic modifiers and immune therapy are included. Innovative and creative surgical techniques geared towards improving the quality of life for head and neck patients are described. A final section of the volume covers other management problems including rhabdomyosarcoma and lymphomas of extranodal head and neck sites.

  20. http://oto.sagepub.com/ Otolaryngology --Head and Neck Surgery

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    http://oto.sagepub.com/ Otolaryngology -- Head and Neck Surgery http://oto.sagepub.com/content/151 published online 4 August 2014Otolaryngology -- Head and Neck Surgery and Quyen T. Nguyen Nadia Nashi of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery can be found at:Otolaryngology -- Head and Neck SurgeryAdditional services

  1. www.yalecancercenter.org Screening for Head and Neck

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Screening for Head and Neck Cancers Guest Experts: Clarence Sasaki, MD head and neck cancer is? Morgensztern Head and neck cancer is a specific kind of cancer that usually? Morgensztern For me it started when I worked at the Veterans Hospital and head and neck is one of the most

  2. www.yalecancercenter.org Surgery for Head and Neck

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer Treatments Guest Expert: Benjamin Judson and neck cancers. Here is Francine Foss. Foss Can you tell us a little bit about the whole area of head and neck cancers, what is involved in it and what do we consider to be the head and neck? Judson Usually

  3. Neck retardation and enhanced energy absorption in metalelastomer bilayers

    E-print Network

    Hutchinson, John W.

    triaxiality, both of which promote ductile fracture. In uniaxial tension, the onset of necking in a uniform strain at the onset of necking in a bar in uniaxial tension is e = N. This is also the necking strainNeck retardation and enhanced energy absorption in metal­elastomer bilayers Zhenyu Xue *, John W

  4. Intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer. A review of techniques allowing improved tumor doses and providing high cure rates without loss of bladder function

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, W.U.; Kaufman, S.D.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    Conventional external beam irradiation, using modern megavoltage techniques and doses that do not harm bladder function, will permanently eradicate local bladder cancer in 30% to 50% of patients, compared with 70% to 90% with cystectomy. In appropriately chosen patients, open surgery can safely provide excellent exposure for the selective delivery of more radiant energy directly to the tumor and less to the uninvolved portion of the bladder. Intraoperative radiation therapy, by either a removable radium or iridium implant or a large single dose of electrons, has been reported to be safe and can permanently cure the bladder of cancer and also preserve bladder function in more than 75% of patients with solitary tumors that invade into but not beyond the bladder muscle. With the increasing interest in and availability of intraoperative radiation therapy in the US, this curative and bladder-sparing treatment for operable patients with bladder cancer invading the trigone is appropriate for careful clinical trial. 13 references.

  5. Generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam CT using a patient-specific bladder shape model

    SciTech Connect

    Schoot, A. J. A. J. van de Schooneveldt, G.; Wognum, S.; Stalpers, L. J. A.; Rasch, C. R. N.; Bel, A.; Hoogeman, M. S.; Chai, X.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), independent of gender and treatment position (prone or supine), using only pretreatment imaging data. Methods: Data of 20 patients, treated for tumors in the pelvic region with the entire bladder visible on CT and CBCT, were divided into four equally sized groups based on gender and treatment position. The full and empty bladder contour, that can be acquired with pretreatment CT imaging, were used to generate a patient-specific bladder shape model. This model was used to guide the segmentation process on CBCT. To obtain the bladder segmentation, the reference bladder contour was deformed iteratively by maximizing the cross-correlation between directional grey value gradients over the reference and CBCT bladder edge. To overcome incorrect segmentations caused by CBCT image artifacts, automatic adaptations were implemented. Moreover, locally incorrect segmentations could be adapted manually. After each adapted segmentation, the bladder shape model was expanded and new shape patterns were calculated for following segmentations. All available CBCTs were used to validate the segmentation algorithm. The bladder segmentations were validated by comparison with the manual delineations and the segmentation performance was quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), surface distance error (SDE) and SD of contour-to-contour distances. Also, bladder volumes obtained by manual delineations and segmentations were compared using a Bland-Altman error analysis. Results: The mean DSC, mean SDE, and mean SD of contour-to-contour distances between segmentations and manual delineations were 0.87, 0.27 cm and 0.22 cm (female, prone), 0.85, 0.28 cm and 0.22 cm (female, supine), 0.89, 0.21 cm and 0.17 cm (male, supine) and 0.88, 0.23 cm and 0.17 cm (male, prone), respectively. Manual local adaptations improved the segmentation results significantly (p < 0.01) based on DSC (6.72%) and SD of contour-to-contour distances (0.08 cm) and decreased the 95% confidence intervals of the bladder volume differences. Moreover, expanding the shape model improved the segmentation results significantly (p < 0.01) based on DSC and SD of contour-to-contour distances. Conclusions: This patient-specific shape model based automatic bladder segmentation method on CBCT is accurate and generic. Our segmentation method only needs two pretreatment imaging data sets as prior knowledge, is independent of patient gender and patient treatment position and has the possibility to manually adapt the segmentation locally.

  6. Segmental irradiation of the bladder with neodymium YAG laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McPhee, M.S.; Mador, D.R.; Tulip, J.; Ritchie, B.; Moore, R.; Lakey, W.H.

    1982-11-01

    The Neodymium YAG laser energy source can be readily adapted for cystoscopic use by some simple modifications of existing urologic equipment. Both the fiberoptic resectoscope and a deflecting cystourethroscope have been adapted for this purpose. Fixation of the fiber tip 1 cm. from the target and use of a divergent beam of 36 degrees allows the delivery of standardized dosage to a relatively large bladder tissue volume. Animal experiments involving 35 mongrel dogs established that repetitive overlapping doses of 200 joules ech can successfully treat a large area of bladder resulting in a full thickness bladder wall injury. This technique has been used in 4 high risk patients with infiltrating bladder cancer without adverse sequelae. The ability to reliably produce a full thickness lesion may give this modality a therapeutic advantage over conventional cautery techniques especially for the treatment of residual infiltrative carcinoma.

  7. TCGA bladder cancer study reveals potential drug targets

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with TCGA have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease. They also discovered that, at the molecular level, some subtypes of bla

  8. Genetic variant as a marker for bladder cancer therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Patients who have inherited a specific common genetic variant develop bladder cancer tumors that strongly express a protein known as prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), which is also expressed in many pancreatic and prostate tumors, according to research a

  9. Inflatable bladder to facilitate handling of heavy objects - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Goldrick, G. J.

    1969-01-01

    Inflatable bladder facilitates the removal of heavy, highly finished metal parts from tote boxes or shipping containers. The proposed concept permits removal without danger of damage to the parts or injury to handling personnel.

  10. What Are the Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... increased risk of urothelial cancers, including bladder cancer. Arsenic in drinking water Arsenic in drinking water has been linked with an ... the world. The chance of being exposed to arsenic depends on where you live and whether you ...

  11. Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khochikar, Makarand V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly comparable to that is used for colon or breast and for prostate as well. PMID:21814313

  12. Three-dimensional measurement of femoral neck anteversion and neck shaft angle.

    PubMed

    Sangeux, Morgan; Pascoe, Jessica; Graham, H Kerr; Ramanauskas, Fiona; Cain, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional measurement technique for femoral neck anteversion and neck shaft angles which do not require alignment of the femoral and scanner axes. Two assessors performed the measurements on 11 patients (22 femurs). Repeatability between assessors was 2.7 degrees for femoral neck anteversion and 4.8 degrees for neck shaft angle. Measurements compared with an alternative single slice method were different by 2 degrees (3 degrees) in average. The method was repeatable and appropriate for clinical practice. PMID:25354092

  13. Experiments on liquid immiscibility along tholeiitic liquid lines of descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, Bernard; Grove, Timothy L.

    2012-07-01

    Crystallization experiments have been conducted on compositions along tholeiitic liquid lines of descent to define the compositional space for the development of silicate liquid immiscibility. Starting materials have 46-56 wt% SiO2, 11.7-17.7 wt% FeOtot, and Mg-number between 0.29 and 0.36. These melts fall on the basaltic trends relevant for Mull, Iceland, Snake River Plain lavas and for the Sept Iles layered intrusion, where large-scale liquid immiscibility has been recognized. At one atmosphere under anhydrous conditions, immiscibility develops below 1,000-1,020°C in all of these compositionally diverse lavas. Extreme iron enrichment is not necessary; immiscibility also develops during iron depletion and silica enrichment. Variations in melt composition control the development of silicate liquid immiscibility along the tholeiitic trend. Elevation of Na2O + K2O + P2O5 + TiO2 promotes the development of two immiscible liquids. Increasing melt CaO and Al2O3 stabilizes a single-liquid field. New data and published phase equilibria show that anhydrous, low-pressure fractional crystallization is the most favorable condition for unmixing during differentiation. Pressure inhibits immiscibility because it expands the stability field of high-Ca clinopyroxene, which reduces the proportion of plagioclase in the crystallizing assemblage, thus enhancing early iron depletion. Magma mixing between primitive basalt and Fe-Ti-P-rich ferrobasalts can serve to elevate phosphorous and alkali contents and thereby promote unmixing. Water might decrease the temperature and size of the two-liquid field, potentially shifting the binodal (solvus) below the liquidus, leading the system to evolve as a single-melt phase.

  14. Analysis of atmospheric mesoscale models for entry, descent, and landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, D. M.; Schofield, J. T.; Michaels, T. I.; Rafkin, S. C. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Toigo, A. D.

    2003-11-01

    Each Mars Exploration Rover (MER) is sensitive to the Martian winds encountered near the surface during the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) process. These winds are strongly influenced by local (mesoscale) conditions. In the absence of suitable wind observations, wind fields predicted by Martian mesoscale atmospheric models have been analyzed to guide landing site selection. In order to encompass the available models and render them useful to the EDL engineering team, a series of statistical techniques was applied to the model results. These analyses cover the high-priority landing sites during the expected landing times (1200-1500 LT). The number of sites studied is limited by the computational and analysis cost of the mesoscale models. The statistical measures concentrate on the effective mean wind (the wind as seen by the landing system) and on the vertical structure of the horizontal winds. Both aspects are potentially hazardous to the MER landing system. In addition, a number of individual wind profiles from the mesoscale model were processed into a form that can be used directly by the EDL Monte Carlo simulations. The statistical analysis indicates that the Meridiani Planum and Elysium landing sites are probably safe. The Gusev Crater and Isidis Basin sites may be safe, but further analysis by the EDL engineers will be necessary to quantify the actual risk. Finally, the winds at the Melas Chasma landing site (and presumably other Valles Marineris landing sites) are dangerous. While the statistical parameters selected for these studies were primarily of engineering and safety interest, the techniques are potentially useful for more general scientific analyses. One interesting result of the current analysis is that the depth of the convective boundary layer (and thus the resulting energy density) appears to be primarily driven by the existence of a well-organized mesoscale (or regional) circulation, primarily driven by large-scale topographic features at Mars.

  15. Atmospheric Environments for Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, Carl G.; Braun, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Scientific measurements of atmospheric properties have been made by a wide variety of planetary flyby missions, orbiters, and landers. Although landers can make in-situ observations of near-surface atmospheric conditions (and can collect atmospheric data during their entry phase), the vast majority of data on planetary atmospheres has been collected by remote sensing techniques from flyby and orbiter spacecraft (and to some extent by Earth-based remote sensing). Many of these remote sensing observations (made over a variety of spectral ranges), consist of vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature as a function of atmospheric pressure level. While these measurements are of great interest to atmospheric scientists and modelers of planetary atmospheres, the primary interest for engineers designing entry descent and landing (EDL) systems is information about atmospheric density as a function of geometric altitude. Fortunately, as described in in this paper, it is possible to use a combination of the gas-law relation and the hydrostatic balance relation to convert temperature-versus-pressure, scientific observations into density-versus-altitude data for use in engineering applications. The following section provides a brief introduction to atmospheric thermodynamics, as well as constituents, and winds for EDL. It also gives methodology for using atmospheric information to do "back-of-the-envelope" calculations of various EDL aeroheating parameters, including peak deceleration rate ("g-load"), peak convective heat rate. and total heat load on EDL spacecraft thermal protection systems. Brief information is also provided about atmospheric variations and perturbations for EDL guidance and control issues, and atmospheric issues for EDL parachute systems. Subsequent sections give details of the atmospheric environments for five destinations for possible EDL missions: Venus. Earth. Mars, Saturn, and Titan. Specific atmospheric information is provided for these destinations, and example results are presented for the "back-of-the-envelope" calculations mentioned above.

  16. Application of inflatable aeroshell structures for Entry Descent and Landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurewicz, David; Lichodziejewski, Leo; Tutt, Ben; Gilles, Brian; Brown, Glen

    Future space missions will require improvements in the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phases of the mission architecture. The focus of this paper is to discuss recent advances in analysis, fabrication techniques, ground testing, and flight testing of a stacked torus Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) and its application to the future of EDL. The primary structure of a stacked torus HIAD consists of nested inflatable tori of increasing major diameter bonded and strapped to form a rigid structure after inflation. The underlying structure of the decelerator is covered with a flexible Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of high heat flux. The inflatable aeroshell and TPS are packed around a centerbody within the launch fairing and deployed prior to atmospheric reentry. Recent fabrication of multiple HIADs between 3 and 6 meters has led to significant advances in process control and validation of the scalability of the technology. Progress has been made in generating and validating LS-DYNA FEA models to replicate flight loading in addition to analytical models of substructures. Coupon and component testing has improved the validation of modeling techniques and assumptions at the subsystem level. A ground testing campaign at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Center (NFAC) wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research center generated substantial aerodynamic and loading data to validate full system modeling with comparable dynamic pressures to a hypersonic reentry. The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle - 3 (IRVE-3) sounding rocket flight test was conducted with NASA Langley Research Center in July 2012. The IRVE-3 mission verified the structural and thermal performance of the stacked torus configuration. Further development of the stacked torus configuration is currently being conducted to increase the thermal capability, deceleration loads, and understanding of the interactions and effects of constituent components. The results of this research have expanded the- feasible flight envelope of stacked torus HIAD designs over a range of sizes, loading conditions, and heating.

  17. Emerging Bladder Cancer Biomarkers and Targets of Therapy.

    PubMed

    Netto, George J; Tafe, Laura J

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by complex networks of molecular alterations and gene expression. This review summarizes some of the recent genomic studies that have further advanced the understanding of the pathways driving bladder cancer, highlighting several important biomarkers and potential targeted therapeutic strategies that are now in clinical trials. In addition, noninvasive techniques to evaluate biomarkers in patients' urine and serum for early detection and surveillance are discussed. PMID:26614029

  18. Multiplexed Methylation Profiles of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Maria José; Grau, Laura; Franco, Noreli; Orenes, Esteban; Alvarez, Miguel; Blanca, Ana; Heredero, Oscar; Palacios, Alberto; Urrutia, Manuel; Fernández, Jesus María; López-Beltrán, Antonio; Sánchez-Carbayo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Changes in DNA methylation of tumor suppressors can occur early in carcinogenesis and are potentially important early indicators of cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the methylation of 25 tumor suppressor genes in bladder cancer using a methylation-specific (MS) multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MLPA). Initial analyses in bladder cancer cell lines (n = 14) and fresh-frozen primary bladder tumor specimens (n = 31) supported the panel of genes selected being altered in bladder cancer. The process of MS-MLPA was optimized for its application in body fluids using two independent training and validation sets of urinary specimens (n = 146), including patients with bladder cancer (n = 96) and controls (n = 50). BRCA1 (71.0%), WT1 (38.7%), and RARB (38.7%) were the most frequently methylated genes in bladder tumors, with WT1 methylation being significantly associated with tumor stage (P = 0.011). WT1 and PAX5A were identified as methylated tumor suppressors. In addition, BRCA1, WT1, and RARB were the most frequently methylated genes in urinary specimens. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed significant diagnostic accuracies in both urinary sets for BRCA1, RARB, and WT1. The novelty of this report relates to applying MS-MLPA, a multiplexed methylation technique, for tumor suppressors in bladder cancer and body fluids. Methylation profiles of tumor suppressor genes were clinically relevant for histopathological stratification of bladder tumors and offered a noninvasive diagnostic strategy for the clinical management of patients affected with uroepithelial neoplasias. PMID:21227392

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency after irradiation for bladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kinn, A.C.; Lantz, B.

    1984-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 10 of 41 patients who underwent radiotherapy before cystectomy with Bricker urinary diversion for carcinoma of the bladder. Of 13 patients given full irradiation because of inoperable bladder cancer 5 had malabsorption of vitamin B12. Serum folic acid was normal in these patients, indicating predominantly ileal irradiation sequelae. Routine evaluation of serum vitamin B12 after radiotherapy is recommended so that appropriate medication can be given, if possible before neurological symptoms appear.

  20. Association between interleukin-22 genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tao; Wu, XiaoHou; Liu, JiaJi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22), which is produced by T cells and natural killer cells, is associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression in cancers. However, the role of IL-22 in bladder cancer has not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective hospital-based case-control study comprising 210 patients with pathologically proven bladder cancer and 210 age- and gender-matched healthy controls was conducted. The genotypes of 3 common polymorphisms (-429 C/T, +1046 T/A and +1995 A/C) of the IL-22 gene were determined with fluorogenic 5' exonuclease assays. RESULTS: Patients with bladder cancer had a significantly higher frequency of the IL-22 -429 TT genotype [odds ratio (OR)=2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.19, 3.49; p=0.009] and -429 T allele (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.08, 1.87; p=0.01) than the healthy controls. These findings were still significant after a Bonferroni correction. When stratifying according to the stage of bladder cancer, we found that patients with superficial bladder cancer had a significantly lower frequency of the IL-22 -429 TT genotype (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.23, 0.98; p=0.04). When stratifying according to the grade and histological type of bladder cancer, we found no statistical association. The IL-22 +1046 T/A and IL-22 +1995 A/C gene polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of bladder cancer. CONCLUSION: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report documenting that the IL-22 -429 C/T gene polymorphism is associated with bladder cancer risk. Additional studies are required to confirm this finding. PMID:26598081

  1. [Rhabdomyosarcoma of the neck in adults].

    PubMed

    Fernández Pérez, A; Moreno León, J A; Fernández-Nogueras Jiménez, F; Rubí Uría, J

    1999-04-01

    The clinical case of a 59-year-old male with neck rhabdomyosarcoma is reported. The literature is reviewed for the epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this infrequent sarcoma. PMID:10362865

  2. Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for head and neck cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Aging small Canada geese by neck plumage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Schoonover, L.J.

    1969-01-01

    The neck plumage method, a new technique for separating immature from adult Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in the hand, was evaluated by comparison with the notched tail feather and cloacal examination methods. Two (1.4 percent) of 141 geese examined were misaged, resulting in a 6 percent error in the immature-adult ratio obtained by the neck plumage method. The neck plumage method is a rapid aging method and reasonable accuracy (94 percent) can be obtained. It can also be used to differentiate immatures from adults on the ground at distances up to 175 yards, but was almost impossible to use when geese were in flight. As yet, the neck plumage method has only been tested on the subspecies (B. c. hutchinsii-parvipes complex) in the Tall-Grass Prairie population of small Canada geese.

  4. Involvement of the Androgen and Glucocorticoid Receptors in Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, Lucien; Grabnar, Maria; Selman, Steven; Hinds, Terry D.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer is encountered worldwide having been associated with a host of environmental and lifestyle risk factors. The disease has a male to female prevalence of 3?:?1. This disparity has raised the possibility of the androgen receptor (AR) pathway being involved in the genesis of the disease; indeed, research has shown that AR is involved in and is likely a driver of bladder cancer. Similarly, an inflammatory response has been implicated as a major player in bladder carcinogenesis. Consistent with this concept, recent work on anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid signaling points to a pathway that may impact bladder cancer. The glucocorticoid receptor- (GR-) ? isoform has an important role in suppressing inflammatory processes, which may be attenuated by AR in the development of bladder cancer. In addition, a GR isoform that is inhibitory to GR?, GR?, is proinflammatory and has been shown to induce cancer growth. In this paper, we review the evidence of inflammatory mediators and the relationship of AR and GR isoforms as they relate to the propensity for bladder cancer. PMID:26347776

  5. Stem cell applications for pathologies of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Noha A; Abou-Taleb, Hisham A; Orabi, Hazem

    2015-01-01

    New stem cell based therapies are undergoing intense research and are widely investigated in clinical fields including the urinary system. The urinary bladder performs critical complex functions that rely on its highly coordinated anatomical composition and multiplex of regulatory mechanisms. Bladder pathologies resulting in severe dysfunction are common clinical encounter and often cause significant impairment of patient’s quality of life. Current surgical and medical interventions to correct urinary dysfunction or to replace an absent or defective bladder are sub-optimal and are associated with notable complications. As a result, stem cell based therapies for the urinary bladder are hoped to offer new venues that could make up for limitations of existing therapies. In this article, we review research efforts that describe the use of different types of stem cells in bladder reconstruction, urinary incontinence and retention disorders. In particular, stress urinary incontinence has been a popular target for stem cell based therapies in reported clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss the relevance of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the development of bladder cancer. A key subject that should not be overlooked is the safety and quality of stem cell based therapies introduced to human subjects either in a research or a clinical context. PMID:26131312

  6. Novel targeted bladder drug-delivery systems: a review

    PubMed Central

    Zacchè, Martino Maria; Srikrishna, Sushma; Cardozo, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The objective of pharmaceutics is the development of drugs with increased efficacy and reduced side effects. Prolonged exposure of the diseased tissue to the drug is of crucial importance. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs) have been introduced to control rate, time, and place of release. Drugs can easily reach the bladder through a catheter, while systemically administered agents may undergo extensive metabolism. Continuous urine filling and subsequent washout hinder intravesical drug delivery (IDD). Moreover, the low permeability of the urothelium, also described as the bladder permeability barrier, poses a major challenge in the development of the IDD. DDSs increase bioavailability of drugs, therefore improving therapeutic effect and patient compliance. This review focuses on novel DDSs to treat bladder conditions such as overactive bladder, interstitial cystitis, bladder cancer, and recurrent urinary tract infections. The rationale and strategies for both systemic and local delivery methods are discussed, with emphasis on new formulations of well-known drugs (oxybutynin), nanocarriers, polymeric hydrogels, intravesical devices, encapsulated DDSs, and gene therapy. We give an overview of current and future prospects of DDSs for bladder disorders, including nanotechnology and gene therapy. PMID:26649286

  7. Postoperative hypertension after radical neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Celikkanat, S; Akyol, M U; Koç, C; Olçer, S; Ensari, S; Turgut, S; Ozdem, C

    1997-07-01

    Postoperative hypertension after radical neck dissection was detected in 20.2% of 109 neck dissections in our department between 1989 and 1993. It was probably caused by carotid sinus denervation and appeared after the vasodilation generated by anesthesia had subsided. If postoperative hypertension was encountered after the first operation, the risk of such hypertension after surgery on the contralateral side significantly increased. PMID:9230330

  8. Bladder rupture after voiding cystourethrography: A case report and literature review on pitfalls and bladder volume estimation

    PubMed Central

    Keihani, Sorena; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is a common diagnostic study in pediatric urology. Although generally considered a safe procedure, VCUG can incur some complications. Bladder rupture following VCUG is a very rare complication and mostly happens in the setting of unused bladders, previous surgeries, or underlying disease. The rupture is almost always intraperitoneal needing prompt surgical treatment. We present a unique case of extraperitoneal bladder rupture after VCUG in an 8-month-old boy. The rupture remained unnoticed and the patient recovered spontaneously without medical or surgical intervention. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case report in the English literature. The information provided may guide clinicians on the proper use of bladder volume formulas in children and also help them in getting a proper VCUG study. PMID:26600895

  9. High resolution photoacoustic imaging of microvasculature in normal and cancerous bladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhixing; Roberts, William; Carson, Paul L.; Liu, Xiaojun; Tao, Chao; Wang, Xueding

    2013-03-01

    We explored the potential of an emerging laser-based technology, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), for bladder cancer diagnosis through high resolution imaging of microvasculature in the interior bladder tissues. Images of ex vivo canine bladders demonstrated the excellent ability of PAI to map three-dimensional microvasculature in optically scattering bladder tissues. By comparing the results from human bladder specimens affected by cancer to those from the normal control, the feasibility of PAI in differentiating malignant from benign bladder tissues was explored. The reported distinctive morphometric characteristics of tumor microvasculature can be seen in the images from cancer samples, suggesting that PAI may allow in vivo assessment of neoangiogenesis that is closely associated with bladder cancer generation and progression. By presenting subsurface morphological and physiological information in bladder tissues, PAI, when performed in a similar way to that in conventional endoscopy, provides an opportunity for improved diagnosis, staging and treatment guidance of bladder cancer.

  10. Sharp neck injuries in suicidal intention.

    PubMed

    Biétry, Damien; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis; Müller, Thomas; Zbären, Peter; Caversaccio, Marco; Arnold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Sharp neck injuries in suicidal intention often present as serious emergency situations with the need for an immediate diagnosis and treatment. We report our study of the clinical evolution of this emergency condition. This study investigates the cases of sharp neck injuries in suicidal intention treated at our institution between 2000 and 2010. Patient records were collected in a retrospectively reviewed and analyzed database. The current literature was compared to our findings. We found 36 cases (10 female and 26 male). The neck injuries were superficial and profound in 16 and 20 patients, respectively. Twenty-two patients were seen by the Head and Neck surgeon. A surgical neck exploration was necessary in 19 cases. Tracheal, laryngeal, pharyngeal and vascular injuries were found in one, five, three and three cases, respectively. The hospital stay ranged from 1 to 47 days. All the patients underwent emergency psychiatric assessment and were subsequently referred for psychiatric treatment. One patient died in the emergency room from an additional arterial injury to the wrist. Sharp neck injuries in suicidal intention treated with an interdisciplinary medical, surgical and psychiatric emergency assessment and treatment have low mortality and morbidity. PMID:25543307

  11. Modeling neck mobility in fossil turtles.

    PubMed

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Hinz, Juliane K; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Volpato, Virginie; Natchev, Nikolay; Joyce, Walter G

    2015-05-01

    Turtles have the unparalleled ability to retract their heads and necks within their shell but little is known about the evolution of this trait. Extensive analysis of neck mobility in turtles using radiographs, CT scans, and morphometry reveals that basal turtles possessed less mobility in the neck relative to their extant relatives, although the anatomical prerequisites for modern mobility were already established. Many extant turtles are able to achieve hypermobility by dislocating the central articulations, which raises cautions about reconstructing the mobility of fossil vertebrates. A 3D-model of the Late Triassic turtle Proganochelys quenstedti reveals that this early stem turtle was able to retract its head by tucking it sideways below the shell. The simple ventrolateral bend seen in this stem turtle, however, contrasts with the complex double-bend of extant turtles. The initial evolution of neck retraction therefore occurred in a near-synchrony with the origin of the turtle shell as a place to hide the unprotected neck. In this early, simplified retraction mode, the conical osteoderms on the neck provided further protection. PMID:24497449

  12. Characterization of upper lamina propria interstitial cells in bladders from patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity and bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gevaert, Thomas; De Vos, Rita; Everaerts, Wouter; Libbrecht, Louis; Van Der Aa, Frank; van den Oord, Joost; Roskams, Tania; De Ridder, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The upper lamina propria (ULP) area of interstitial cells (IC) in bladder has been studied for more than a decade in several species including human beings. Nevertheless there is still lack of uniformity in terminology of this cell layer. The aim of the present study was to add new data to the morphological and immunohistochemical phenotype of these cells and to find out whether this phenotype is changed in bladders from patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and bladder pain syndrome (BPS). Bladder tissue was obtained from a control group and from patients with NDO and BPS. Samples were processed for morphology, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. A morphological and immunohistochemical phenotype for the ULP IC was assessed and changes in this phenotype were looked for in samples from patients with NDO and BPS. The ULP IC were characterized ultrastructurally by the presence of actin filaments with densifications, many caveolae and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER); on immunohistochemistry ULP IC were immunoreactive for ?-sma, vimentin, CD10 and podoplanin and categorized as interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC). In NDO and BPS bladders we found a phenotypical shift towards a fibroblastic phenotype which was even more pronounced in the NDO group. In both groups there was also an increased presence in ULP lymphocytes. The ULP area in the human bladder contains a population of ICLC with distinct ultrastructural morphology and immunohistochemical phenotype. Their unique ?-sma+/desmin–/CD34– phenotype allows studying this population in various bladder disorders. In bladders form patients with BPS and NDO, we observed these ULP ICLC to shift towards a fibroblast phenotype. PMID:21251216

  13. Safety of three sequential whole bladder photodynamic therapy (WBPDT) treatments in the management of resistant bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, Maria C.; Nseyo, Unyime O.

    2009-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: WBPDT has been used to treat resistant superficial bladder cancer, with clinical benefits and associated dose-dependent side effects. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the safety of three sequential WBPDT treatments in patients with resistant non-muscle invasive (NMI) bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 12 males and one female provided written informed consent in this Phase II study. Each patient received intravenous injection of Photofrin® (AXCAN Parma Inc, Canada) at 1.5 mg/kg two days prior to whole bladder laser (630nm) treatment. Assessment of safety and efficacy included weekly urinary symptoms; cystoscopy, biopsy and cytology; and measurement of bladder volume quarterly after each treatment at baseline, six and 12 months. Treatment #2 and/or #3 occurred only in the absence of bladder contracture, and/or disease progression. RESULTS: 13 patients: 12 males and one female have been enrolled and average age of enrollees is 67.1(52 - 87) years. Four patients had Ta-T1/Grade I-III tumors; two patients had CIS associated with T1/GI-III; and seven patients had carcinoma in situ (CIS) only. Three patients received 3/3 treatments, and are evaluable for toxicity; three patients received two treatments only; and seven patients received one treatment only. There was no bladder contracture; transient mild to moderate bladder irritative voiding symptoms of dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia and urgency occurred in all patients. The three evaluable patients were without evidence of disease at average of 13.1 (7-20) months. CONCLUSION: Three sequential WBPDT treatments might have a favorable toxicity profile in the management of recurrent/ refractory non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

  14. [Necrotizing fasciitis of the neck].

    PubMed

    Kovaci?, Marijan; Kovaci?, Ivan; Delalija, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare and rapidly progressive infection characterized by necrosis of the superficial fascia and spread on the surrounding skin or muscles, which can be fatal. It usually occurs in the limbs, abdominal wall and perineum. In this retrospective review, the authors present 15 patients with cervical necrotizing fasciitis. The patient mean age was 54.7 years and they had one or more comorbid health problems. Five of them had descending necrotizing mediastinitis and three had progressive sepsis with toxic shock syndrome. Broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic therapy was administered to all patients immediately, and in three of them we used five-day intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for the signs of toxic shock syndrome. After positive computed tomography imaging for necrotizing fasciitis, we used surgical exploration and debridement of necrotic tissue. In five patients, the initial surgery also included mediastinal transcervical drainage. Preoperative tracheotomy was performed in six patients and delayed tracheotomy in one patient. Histopathologically, all cases showed extensive necrosis of debrided fascia and vascular thrombosis of the neck soft tissue. The mortality rate was 6.7% (1/15). The authors point to the importance of early diagnosis and timely surgical management, broad-spectrum antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy when patients are too unstable to undergo surgery. PMID:24279256

  15. Acute abdomen caused by bladder rupture attributable to neurogenic bladder dysfunction following a stroke: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous bladder rupture is a rare and serious event with high mortality. It is not often considered in the patient presenting with peritonitis. This often leads to delays in diagnosis. There are very few case reports of true spontaneous rupture in the literature. This is the first such reported case in which bladder rupture was attributable to neurogenic bladder dysfunction following a stroke. Case presentation We report the case of a 67-year-old Caucasian man who presented with lower abdominal pain and a peritonitic abdomen. He had a long-term urethral catheter because of urinary retention following a previous stroke. He was treated conservatively with antibiotics before a surgical opinion was sought. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of spontaneous bladder rupture. After repair of the defect, he eventually made a full recovery. Conclusion In this unusual case report, we describe an example of a serious event in which delays in diagnosis may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. To date, no unifying theory explaining why rupture occurs has been postulated. We conducted a thorough literature search to examine the etiological factors in other published cases. These etiological factors either increase intra-vesical pressure or decrease the strength of the bladder wall. We hope that by increasing awareness of these etiological factors, spontaneous bladder rupture may be diagnosed earlier and appropriate therapy started. PMID:21714888

  16. The expression of p63 in bladder cancer vs. chronic bilharzial bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mursi, Khaled; Agag, Ayman; Hammam, Olfat; Riad, Mahmoud; Daw, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the immunohistochemical expression of p63 in bladder cancer and the variation of expression in relation to histological type, grade and stage of the tumour, and whether bilharziasis (endemic in Egypt) has an effect on its expression, in an attempt to better understand the tumour behaviour and the possibility of using p63 as a prognostic marker. Patients and methods In a prospective study, biopsies were taken from the bladders of 70 patients, who were divided into three groups; group A comprised 10 with a normal urothelium, group B comprised 20 with chronic cystitis (bilharzial and non-bilharzial) and group C contained 40 with bladder cancer. The biopsies were examined for the expression of p63, using immunohistochemical techniques. Results The mean (SD) ages of groups A, B and C were 45.2 (9.5), 50.5 (11.7) and 60.5 (9.9) years, respectively. There was a statistically significant decrease in the expression and immunoreactivity in group C (P < 0.05), and a significant decrease with advancing tumour stage and grade (P < 0.01). In cases of squamous cell carcinoma there was a statistically significant lower immunoreactivity than in transitional cell carcinoma (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for a statistically significant decrease in the immunoreactivity in bilharzial cystitis (P < 0.05), but in the malignant group, bilharziasis had no apparent effect on the pattern of expression. Conclusion p63 might be a helpful biomarker and adjunct in predicting the biological behaviour and progression of tumours. Further studies are recommended to elucidate more clearly its role as a prognostic indicator and its utility as a tumour marker.

  17. Tracer-Based Determination of Vortex Descent in the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-Juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Hurst, Dale F.; Elkins, James W.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Herman, Robert L.; Webster, Christopher R.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed analysis of available in situ and remotely sensed N2O and CH4 data measured in the 1999-2000 winter Arctic vortex has been performed in order to quantify the temporal evolution of vortex descent. Differences in potential temperature (theta) among balloon and aircraft vertical profiles (an average of 19-23 K on a given N2O or CH4 isopleth) indicated significant vortex inhomogeneity in late fall as compared with late winter profiles. A composite fall vortex profile was constructed for November 26, 1999, whose error bars encompassed the observed variability. High-latitude, extravortex profiles measured in different years and seasons revealed substantial variability in N2O and CH4 on theta surfaces, but all were clearly distinguishable from the first vortex profiles measured in late fall 1999. From these extravortex-vortex differences, we inferred descent prior to November 26: 397+/-15 K (1sigma) at 30 ppbv N2O and 640 ppbv CH4, and 28+/-13 K above 200 ppbv N2O and 1280 ppbv CH4. Changes in theta were determined on five N2O and CH4 isopleths from November 26 through March 12, and descent rates were calculated on each N2O isopleth for several time intervals. The maximum descent rates were seen between November 26 and January 27: 0.82+/-0.20 K/day averaged over 50-250 ppbv N2O. By late winter (February 26-March 12), the average rate had decreased to 0.10+/-0.25 K/day. Descent rates also decreased with increasing N2O; the winter average (November 26-March 5) descent rate varied from 0.75+/-0.10 K/day at 50 ppbv to 0.40+/-0.11 K/day at 250 ppbv. Comparison of these results with observations and models of descent in prior years showed very good overall agreement. Two models of the 1999-2000 vortex descent, SLIMCAT and REPROBUS, despite theta offsets with respect to observed profiles of up to 20 K on most tracer isopleths, produced descent rates that agreed very favorably with the inferred rates from observation.

  18. Global Patterns of Prostate Cancer Incidence, Aggressiveness, and Mortality in Men of African Descent

    PubMed Central

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Devesa, Susan S.; Chang, Bao-Li; Bunker, Clareann H.; Cheng, Iona; Cooney, Kathleen; Eeles, Rosalind; Fernandez, Pedro; Giri, Veda N.; Gueye, Serigne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Heyns, Chris F.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue Ann; Isaacs, William; Jalloh, Mohamed; John, Esther M.; Kibel, Adam S.; Kidd, LaCreis R.; Layne, Penelope; Leach, Robin J.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Okobia, Michael N.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Park, Jong Y.; Patrick, Alan L.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Ragin, Camille; Roberts, Robin A.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Stanford, Janet L.; Strom, Sara; Thompson, Ian M.; Witte, John; Xu, Jianfeng; Yeboah, Edward; Hsing, Ann W.; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world. PMID:23476788

  19. Global patterns of prostate cancer incidence, aggressiveness, and mortality in men of african descent.

    PubMed

    Rebbeck, Timothy R; Devesa, Susan S; Chang, Bao-Li; Bunker, Clareann H; Cheng, Iona; Cooney, Kathleen; Eeles, Rosalind; Fernandez, Pedro; Giri, Veda N; Gueye, Serigne M; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Heyns, Chris F; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue Ann; Isaacs, William; Jalloh, Mohamed; John, Esther M; Kibel, Adam S; Kidd, Lacreis R; Layne, Penelope; Leach, Robin J; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Okobia, Michael N; Ostrander, Elaine A; Park, Jong Y; Patrick, Alan L; Phelan, Catherine M; Ragin, Camille; Roberts, Robin A; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Stanford, Janet L; Strom, Sara; Thompson, Ian M; Witte, John; Xu, Jianfeng; Yeboah, Edward; Hsing, Ann W; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world. PMID:23476788

  20. Semiautomatic bladder segmentation on CBCT using a population-based model for multiple-plan ART of bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel semiautomatic bladder segmentation approach for selecting the appropriate plan from the library of plans for a multiple-plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) procedure. A population-based statistical bladder model was first built from a training data set (95 bladder contours from 8 patients). This model was then used as constraint to segment the bladder in an independent validation data set (233 CBCT scans from the remaining 22 patients). All 3D bladder contours were converted into parametric surface representations using spherical harmonic expansion. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in the spherical harmonic-based shape parameter space to calculate the major variation of bladder shapes. The number of dominating PCA modes was chosen such that 95% of the total shape variation of the training data set was described. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder contour of the planning CT of each patient, which was modified by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to best fit the bladder boundary in the localization CBCT image. A cost function was defined to measure the goodness of fit of the segmentation on the localization CBCT image. The segmentation was obtained by minimizing this cost function using a simplex optimizer. After automatic segmentation, a fast manual correction method was provided to correct those bladders (parts) that were poorly segmented. Volume- and distance-based metrics and the accuracy of plan selection from multiple plans were evaluated to quantify the performance of the automatic and semiautomatic segmentation methods. For the training data set, only seven PCA modes were needed to represent 95% of the bladder shape variation. The mean CI overlap and residual error (SD) of automatic bladder segmentation over all of the validation data were 70.5% and 0.39 cm, respectively. The agreement of plan selection between automatic bladder segmentation and manual delineation was 56.7%. The automatic segmentation and visual assessment took on average 7.8 and 9.7 s, respectively. In 53.4% of the cases, manual correction was performed after automatic segmentation. The manual correction improved the mean CI overlap, mean residual error and plan selection agreement to 77.7%, 0.30 cm and 80.7%, respectively. Manual correction required on average 8.4 markers and took on average 35.5 s. The statistical shape-based segmentation approach allows automatic segmentation of the bladder on CBCT with moderate accuracy. Limited user intervention can quickly and reliably improve the bladder contours. This segmentation method is suitable to select the appropriate plan for multiple-plan ART of bladder cancer.

  1. Stanford University School of Medicine Department of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    Stanford University School of Medicine Department of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery Resident............................................................................................................................................ 9 STANFORD HEAD AND NECK TEAM...................................................................................................................................14 Goals and Objectives PGY 2: SUH Head & Neck

  2. Stanford University School of Medicine Department of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    Stanford University School of Medicine Department of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery Resident ........................................................................................................................................... 10 STANFORD HEAD AND NECK TEAM .................................................................................................................................... 15 Goals and Objectives PGY 2: SUH Head & Neck

  3. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal...Carcasses found infested with gid bladder-worms (Coenurus cerebralis, Multiceps...

  4. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal...Carcasses found infested with gid bladder-worms (Coenurus cerebralis, Multiceps...

  5. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal...Carcasses found infested with gid bladder-worms (Coenurus cerebralis, Multiceps...

  6. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals...hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal...Carcasses found infested with gid bladder-worms (Coenurus cerebralis, Multiceps...

  7. Aerodynamics of Reentry Vehicle Clipper at Descent Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Yu. P.; Reshetin, A. G.; Dyadkin, A. A.; Petrov, N. K.; Simakova, T. V.; Tokarev, V. A.

    2005-02-01

    From Gagarin spacecraft to reusable orbiter Buran, RSC Energia has traveled a long way in the search for the most optimal and, which is no less important, the most reliable spacecraft for manned space flight. During the forty years of space exploration, in cooperation with a broad base of subcontractors, a number of problems have been solved which assure a safe long stay in space. Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft were replaced with Soyuz supporting a crew of three. During missions to a space station, it provides crew rescue capability in case of a space station emergency at all times (the spacecraft life is 200 days).The latest modification of Soyuz spacecraft -Soyuz TMA -in contrast to its predecessors, allows to become a space flight participant to a person of virtually any anthropometric parameters with a mass of 50 to 95 kg capable of withstanding up to 6 g load during descent. At present, Soyuz TMA spacecraft are the state-of-the-art, reliable and only means of the ISS crew delivery, in-flight support and return. Introduced on the basis of many years of experience in operation of manned spacecraft were not only the principles of deep redundancy of on-board systems and equipment, but, to assure the main task of the spacecraft -the crew return to Earth -the principles of functional redundancy. That is, vital operations can be performed by different systems based on different physical principles. The emergency escape system that was developed is the only one in the world that provides crew rescue in case of LV failure at any phase in its flight. Several generations of space stations that have been developed have broadened, virtually beyond all limits, capabilities of man in space. The docking system developed at RSC Energia allowed not only to dock spacecraft in space, but also to construct in orbit various complex space systems. These include large space stations, and may include in the future the in-orbit construction of systems for the exploration of the Moon and Mars.. Logistics spacecraft Progress have been flying regularly since 1978. The tasks of these unmanned spacecraft include supplying the space station with all the necessities for long-duration missions, such as propellant for the space station propulsion system, crew life support consumables, scientific equipment for conducting experiments. Various modifications of the spacecraft have expanded the space station capabilities. 1988 saw the first, and, much to our regret, the last flight of the reusable orbiter Buran.. Buran could deliver to orbit up to 30 tons of cargo, return 20 tons to Earth and have a crew of up to 10. However, due to our country's economic situation the project was suspended.

  8. Overactive bladder in the vulnerable elderly.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Gillian F; Kuchel, George A; Smith, Phillip P

    2014-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common problem that may occur in individuals of all ages. It has a considerable impact on patient quality of life, and although moderately effective management strategies do exist, this condition often remains undiagnosed and untreated. OAB needs to be viewed as a symptom complex. Its presentation and management are complicated in the vulnerable elderly by the presence of baseline frailty and multiple coexisting chronic conditions. Furthermore, and beyond a simple understanding of symptomatology, providers must address patient goals and motivations as well as the expectations of caretakers. These multiple levels of perception, function, expectations, and treatment efficacy/risks must be tailored to the individual patient. While the vulnerable elderly patient may often have evidence of urinary tract dysfunction, OAB and urge urinary incontinence in this population must be understood as a multifactorial geriatric syndrome and viewed in the context of medical and functional baseline and precipitating risk factors. Expectations and goals must be tailored to the resources of vulnerable elderly patients and their caregivers, and care must be coordinated with other medical care providers. The management of OAB in the vulnerable elderly often poses significant management challenges. Nonetheless, with a thoughtful approach and an aim towards future research specifically for this population, significant reductions in morbidity and mortality long with enhancement in health-related quality of life are possible. PMID:25328867

  9. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signaling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in miRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any common cancer studied to date, suggesting the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

  10. Comprehensive molecular characterization of urothelial bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2014-03-20

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. So far, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for treatment of the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell-cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signalling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in microRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any other common cancer studied so far, indicating the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

  11. Emerging therapeutic targets in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Benedito A; Meeks, Joshua J; Kuzel, Timothy M; Scaranti, Mariana; Abdulkadir, Sarki A; Giles, Francis J

    2015-02-01

    Treatment of muscle invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma (BCa) remains a major challenge. Comprehensive genomic profiling of tumors and identification of driver mutations may reveal new therapeutic targets. This manuscript discusses relevant molecular drivers of the malignant phenotype and agents with therapeutic potential in BCa. Small molecule pan-FGFR inhibitors have shown encouraging efficacy and safety results especially among patients with activating FGFR mutations or translocations. mTOR inhibitors for patients with TSC1 mutations and concomitant targeting of PI3K and MEK represent strategies to block PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Encouraging preclinical results with ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) exemplifies a new potential treatment for HER2-positive BCa along with innovative bispecific antibodies. Inhibitors of cell cycle regulators (aurora kinase, polo-like kinase 1, and cyclin-dependent kinase 4) are being investigated in combination with chemotherapy. Early results of clinical studies with anti-CTLA4 and anti-PDL1 are propelling immune modulating drugs to the forefront of emerging treatments for BCa. Collectively, these novel therapeutic targets and treatment strategies hold promise to improve the outcome of patients afflicted with this malignancy. PMID:25498841

  12. Overactive bladder in the vulnerable elderly

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Gillian F; Kuchel, George A; Smith, Phillip P

    2014-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common problem that may occur in individuals of all ages. It has a considerable impact on patient quality of life, and although moderately effective management strategies do exist, this condition often remains undiagnosed and untreated. OAB needs to be viewed as a symptom complex. Its presentation and management are complicated in the vulnerable elderly by the presence of baseline frailty and multiple coexisting chronic conditions. Furthermore, and beyond a simple understanding of symptomatology, providers must address patient goals and motivations as well as the expectations of caretakers. These multiple levels of perception, function, expectations, and treatment efficacy/risks must be tailored to the individual patient. While the vulnerable elderly patient may often have evidence of urinary tract dysfunction, OAB and urge urinary incontinence in this population must be understood as a multifactorial geriatric syndrome and viewed in the context of medical and functional baseline and precipitating risk factors. Expectations and goals must be tailored to the resources of vulnerable elderly patients and their caregivers, and care must be coordinated with other medical care providers. The management of OAB in the vulnerable elderly often poses significant management challenges. Nonetheless, with a thoughtful approach and an aim towards future research specifically for this population, significant reductions in morbidity and mortality long with enhancement in health-related quality of life are possible. PMID:25328867

  13. Treatment of Neck Pain: Noninvasive Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Carragee, Eugene J.; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Carroll, Linda J.; Nordin, Margareta; Guzman, Jaime; Peloso, Paul M.; Holm, Lena W.; Côté, Pierre; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Cassidy, J. David; Haldeman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Study Design. Best evidence synthesis. Objective. To identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature from 1980 through 2006 on noninvasive interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders. Summary of Background Data. No comprehensive systematic literature reviews have been published on interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders in the past decade. Methods. We systematically searched Medline and screened for relevance literature published from 1980 through 2006 on the use, effectiveness, and safety of noninvasive interventions for neck pain and associated disorders. Consensus decisions were made about the scientific merit of each article; those judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our best evidence synthesis. Results. Of the 359 invasive and noninvasive intervention articles deemed relevant, 170 (47%) were accepted as scientifically admissible, and 139 of these related to noninvasive interventions (including health care utilization, costs, and safety). For whiplash-associated disorders, there is evidence that educational videos, mobilization, and exercises appear more beneficial than usual care or physical modalities. For other neck pain, the evidence suggests that manual and supervised exercise interventions, low-level laser therapy, and perhaps acupuncture are more effective than no treatment, sham, or alternative interventions; however, none of the active treatments was clearly superior to any other in either the short-or long-term. For both whiplash-associated disorders and other neck pain without radicular symptoms, interventions that focused on regaining function as soon as possible are relatively more effective than interventions that do not have such a focus. Conclusion. Our best evidence synthesis suggests that therapies involving manual therapy and exercise are more effective than alternative strategies for patients with neck pain; this was also true of therapies which include educational interventions addressing self-efficacy. Future efforts should focus on the study of noninvasive interventions for patients with radicular symptoms and on the design and evaluation of neck pain prevention strategies.

  14. The C228T mutation of TERT promoter frequently occurs in bladder cancer stem cells and contributes to tumorigenesis of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ying; He, Luyun; Cai, Zhiming; Wang, Jiansong; Fan, Zusen

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Bladder cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been isolated recently but have not been defined yet. Here we sorted BCSCs from bladder tumor tissues or normal bladder stem cells (NBBCs) from adjacent normal bladder tissues. We found that the C228T mutation (chr5, 1, 295, 228 C > T) of TERT promoter frequently occurs in BCSCs, but not exist in NBBCs. Importantly, introducing the C228T mutation in NBBCs causes TERT overexpression and transformation of bladder cancer. Restoration of the C228T mutation to T228C in BCSCs can recover the TERT expression to a basal level and abolish tumor formation. Additionally, the C228T mutation of TERT promoter triggers TERT expression leading to increased telomerase activity. TERT expression levels are consistent with clinical severity and prognosis of bladder cancer. PMID:26143634

  15. Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

  16. Recovering the attitude of the Huygens descent module using DISR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizk, B.; Tomasko, M. G.; Bushroe, M. W.; McFarlane, E. A.; See, C.

    2004-02-01

    Data from a combination of DISR instruments will allow probe attitude reconstruction during the descent phase. The radiances measured by the DISR Sun Sensor (SS), Side-Looking Imager (SLI) and Solar Aureole (SA 1, 2, 3 and 4) cameras as they are exposed to different sections of Titan sky and surface while the descent module spins, will be compared to a model of the satellite's absolute sky brightness in order to discern deviations from a baseline simulations with no tips or tilts. Thus the attitude of the probe can be deduced. Deriving the attitude allows High-Resolution Imager (HRI) and Medium-Resolution Imager (MRI) ground tracks to be assembled by correlating ground features from image to image and altitudes determined from SLI measurements of the level of the horizon. Hence the descent trajectory can be determined.

  17. Huygens’ entry and descent through Titan's atmosphere—Methodology and results of the trajectory reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazeminejad, Bobby; Atkinson, David H.; Pérez-Ayúcar, Miguel; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Sollazzo, Claudio

    2007-11-01

    The European Space Agency's Huygens probe separated from the NASA Cassini spacecraft on 25 December 2004, after having been attached for a 7-year interplanetary journey and three orbits around Saturn. The probe reached the predefined NASA/ESA interface point on 14 January 2005 at 09:05:52.523 (UTC) and performed a successful entry and descent sequence. The probe softly impacted on Titan's surface on the same day at 11:38:10.77 (UTC) with a speed of about 4.54 m/s. The probe entry and descent trajectory was reconstructed from the estimated initial state vector provided by the Cassini Navigation team, the probe housekeeping data, and measurements from the scientific payload. This paper presents the methodology and discuss the results of the reconstruction effort. Furthermore the probe roll rate was reconstructed prior to the main entry phase deceleration pulse and throughout the entire descent phase under the main and drogue parachute.

  18. Advances in POST2 End-to-End Descent and Landing Simulation for the ALHAT Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jody L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Hines, Glenn D.; Paschall, Stephen, II; Cohanim, Babak E.; Fill, Thomas; Johnson, Michael C.; Bishop, Robert H.; DeMars, Kyle J.; Sostaric, Ronald r.; Johnson, Andrew E.

    2008-01-01

    Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) is used as a basis for an end-to-end descent and landing trajectory simulation that is essential in determining design and integration capability and system performance of the lunar descent and landing system and environment models for the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. The POST2 simulation provides a six degree-of-freedom capability necessary to test, design and operate a descent and landing system for successful lunar landing. This paper presents advances in the development and model-implementation of the POST2 simulation, as well as preliminary system performance analysis, used for the testing and evaluation of ALHAT project system models.

  19. Experimental liquid line of descent and liquid immiscibility for basalt 70017. [lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, M. J.; Hess, P. C.; Daniel, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes one possible liquid line of descent produced for a high-titanium mare basalt composition through an arbitrarily chosen series of partial equilibrium and fractional crystallization experiments on basalt 70017. The liquid line of descent leading to immiscibility at 994 C is characterized by enrichment of FeO, K2O, SiO2, and MnO and depletion of MgO and TiO2 in the residual liquids. The composition of the residual liquid at the onset of immiscibility is ferrobasaltic, and the initial appearance of immiscible liquids in the form of silica-rich spherules is in the vicinity of plagioclase-liquid contacts. The integrated bulk composition of the areas of finely exsolved liquids indicates that the trend of the liquid line of descent is at a small angle to the tie lines joining the two liquids.

  20. Histologic variants of urothelial bladder cancer and nonurothelial histology in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Venu; Chin, Joseph L.; Izawa, Jonathan I.

    2009-01-01

    Bladder cancer can be classified histologically as urothelial or non-urothelial. Urothelial cancer has a propensity for divergent differentiation, which has increasingly been recognized in recent years due to heightened awareness and improved immunohistochemistry techniques. Furthermore, the recent World Health Organization classification of urothelial cancers improved clarity on this issue, with its listing of 13 histologic variants of urothelial cancer. The divergent differentiation patterns include, amongst others, squamous, glandular, micropapillary, nested, lymphepithelioma-like, plasmacytoid and sarcomatoid variants of urothelial cancer. Attempts to quantify the amount of divergent differentiation present, such as using the nonconventional differentiation number, have been made recently, which will improve the ability to compare publications from different centres. Genetic-based studies have indicated that the histologic variants of urothelial cancer arise from a common clonal precursor. Mostly, the current evidence suggests that urothelial cancer with divergent differentiation has a worse prognosis when compared with pure urothelial cancer. This article will review the current literature on variant histologies of urothelial cancer, and well as new developments in pure squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the bladder. PMID:20019984