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Sample records for bladed rotor structures

  1. Structural characterization of rotor blades through photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, Giovanni; Serafini, Jacopo; Enei, Claudio; Mattioni, Luca; Ficuciello, Corrado; Vezzari, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the use of photogrammetry for the experimental identification of structural and inertial properties of helicopter rotor blades4. The identification procedure is based upon theoretical/numerical algorithms for the evaluation of mass and flexural stiffness distributions which are an extension of those proposed in the past by Larsen, whereas the torsional properties (stiffness and shear center position) are determined through the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. The identification algorithms require the knowledge of the blade displacement field produced by known steady loads. These data are experimentally obtained through photogrammetric detection technique, which allows the identification of 3D coordinates of labeled points (markers) on the structure through the correlation of 2D digital photos. Indeed, the displacement field is simply evaluated by comparing the markers positions on the loaded configuration with those on the reference one. The proposed identification procedure, numerically and experimentally validated in the past by the authors, has been here applied to the structural characterization of two main rotor blades, designed for ultra-light helicopters. Strain gauges measurements have been used to assess the accuracy of the identified properties through natural frequencies comparison as well as to evaluate the blades damping characteristics.

  2. Structural modeling for multicell composite rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Atilgan, Ali R.

    1987-01-01

    Composite material systems are currently good candidates for aerospace structures, primarily for the design flexibility they offer, i.e., it is possible to tailor the material and manufacturing approach to the application. A working definition of elastic or structural tailoring is the use of structural concept, fiber orientation, ply stacking sequence, and a blend of materials to achieve specific performance goals. In the design process, choices of materials and dimensions are made which produce specific response characteristics, and which permit the selected goals to be achieved. Common choices for tailoring goals are preventing instabilities or vibration resonances or enhancing damage tolerance. An essential, enabling factor in the design of tailored composite structures is structural modeling that accurately, but simply, characterizes response. The objective of this paper is to present a new multicell beam model for composite rotor blades and to validate predictions based on the new model by comparison with a finite element simulation in three benchmark static load cases.

  3. Structural response of a rotating bladed disk to rotor whirl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, E. F.

    1985-01-01

    A set of high speed rotating whirl experiments were performed in the vacuum of the MIT Blowdown Compressor Facility on the MIT Aeroelastic Rotor, which is structurally typical of a modern high bypass ratio turbofan stage. These tests identified the natural frequencies of whirl of the rotor system by forcing its response using an electromagnetic shaker whirl excitation system. The excitation was slowly swept in frequency at constant amplitude for several constant rotor speeds in both a forward and backward whirl direction. The natural frequencies of whirl determined by these experiments were compared to those predicted by an analytical 6 DOF model of a flexible blade-rigid disk-flexible shaft rotor. The model is also presented in terms of nondimensional parameters in order to assess the importance of the interation between the bladed disk dynamics and the shaft-disk dynamics. The correlation between the experimental and predicted natural frequencies is reasonable, given the uncertainty involved in determining the stiffness parameters of the system.

  4. A structural model for composite rotor blades and lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Atilgan, Ali R.

    1987-01-01

    Composite material systems are currently candidates for aerospace structures, primarily for the design flexibiity they offer i.e., it is possible to tailor the material and manufacturing approach to the application. Two notable examples are the wing of the Grumman/USAF/DARPA X-29 and rotor blades under development by the U.S.A. Aerostructures Directorate (AVSCOM), Langley Research Center. A working definition of elastic or structural tailoring is the use of structural concept, fiber orientation, ply stacking sequence, and a blend of materials to achieve specific performance goals. In the design process, choices of materials and dimensions are made which produce specific response characteristics which permit the selected goals to be achieved. Common choices for tailoring goals are preventing instabilities or vibration resonances or enhancing damage tolerance. An essential, enabling factor in the design of tailored composite structures is structural modeling that accurately, but simply, characterizes response. The objective of this paper is to improve the single-cell beam model for composite rotor blades or lifting surfaces and to demonstrate its usefullness in applications.

  5. Integration of dynamic, aerodynamic, and structural optimization of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Summarized here is the first six years of research into the integration of structural, dynamic, and aerodynamic considerations in the design-optimization process for rotor blades. Specifically discussed here is the application of design optimization techniques for helicopter rotor blades. The reduction of vibratory shears and moments at the blade root, aeroelastic stability of the rotor, optimum airframe design, and an efficient procedure for calculating system sensitivities with respect to the design variables used are discussed.

  6. Photogrammetric detection technique for rotor blades structural characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enei, C.; Bernardini, G.; Serafini, J.; Mattioni, L.; Ficuciello, C.; Vezzari, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes an innovative use of photogrammetric detection techniques to experimentally estimate structural/inertial properties of helicopter rotor blades. The identification algorithms for the evaluation of mass and flexural stiffness distributions are an extension of the ones proposed by Larsen, whereas the procedure for torsional properties determination (stiffness and shear center position) is based on the Euler-Prandtl beam theory. These algorithms rely on measurements performed through photogrammetric detection, which requires the collection of digital photos allowing the identification of 3D coordinates of labeled points (markers) on the structure through the correlation of 2D pictures. The displacements are evaluated by comparing the positions of markers in loaded and reference configuration. Being the applied loads known, the structural characteristics can be directly obtained from the measured displacements. The accuracy of the proposed identification algorithms has been firstly verified by comparison with numerical and experimental data, and then applied to the structural characterization of two main rotor blades, designed for ultra-light helicopter applications.

  7. Preliminary Structural Design of Composite Blades for Two- and Three-Blade Rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Bir, G.; Migliore, P.

    2004-09-01

    A computerized method has been developed to aid in the preliminary design of composite wind turbine blades. The method allows for arbitrary specification of the chord, twist, and airfoil geometry along the blade and an arbitrary number of shear webs. Given the blade external geometry description and its design load distribution, the Fortran code uses ultimate-strength and buckling-resistance criteria to compute the design thickness of load-bearing composite laminates. The code also includes an analysis option to obtain blade properties if a composite laminates schedule is prescribed. These properties include bending stiffness, torsion stiffness, mass, moments of inertia, elastic-axis offset, and center-of-mass offset along the blade. Nonstructural materials-gelcoat, nexus, and bonding adhesive-are also included for computation of mass. The code includes an option to format the output properties that can be directly input to advanced aeroelastic codes. This report summarizes the structural layout of composite laminates within the blade, the design approach, and the computational process. Finally, we present the results of two composite blades designed using this code in support of a project covering comparison of two- and three-blade rotors for a hypothetical turbine.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of torsional vibration characteristics of helicopter rotor blades. Part 1: Structural dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratanow, T.; Ecer, A.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of structural vibration characteristics of rotor blades was carried out. Coupled equations of motion for flapwise bending and torsion were formulated for rotor blades with noncollinear elastic and mass axes. The finite element method was applied for a detailed representation of blade structural properties. Coupled structural mass and stiffness coefficients were evaluated. The range of validity of a set of coupled equations of motion linearized with respect to eccentricity between elastic and mass axes was investigated. The sensitivity of blade vibration characteristics to torsion were evaluated by varying blade geometric properties, boundary conditions, and eccentricities between mass and elastic axes.

  9. Evaluation of Rotor Structural and Aerodynamic Loads using Measured Blade Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Sung N.; You, Young-Hyun; Lau, Benton H.; Johnson, Wayne; Lim, Joon W.

    2012-01-01

    The structural properties of Higher harmonic Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART I) blades have been measured using the original set of blades tested in the wind tunnel in 1994. A comprehensive rotor dynamics analysis is performed to address the effect of the measured blade properties on airloads, blade motions, and structural loads of the rotor. The measurements include bending and torsion stiffness, geometric offsets, and mass and inertia properties of the blade. The measured properties are correlated against the estimated values obtained initially by the manufacturer of the blades. The previously estimated blade properties showed consistently higher stiffnesses, up to 30% for the flap bending in the blade inboard root section. The measured offset between the center of gravity and the elastic axis is larger by about 5% chord length, as compared with the estimated value. The comprehensive rotor dynamics analysis was carried out using the measured blade property set for HART I rotor with and without HHC (Higher Harmonic Control) pitch inputs. A significant improvement on blade motions and structural loads is obtained with the measured blade properties.

  10. Rotor blade vortex interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yung H.

    2000-02-01

    Blade-vortex interaction noise-generated by helicopter main rotor blades is one of the most severe noise problems and is very important both in military applications and community acceptance of rotorcraft. Research over the decades has substantially improved physical understanding of noise-generating mechanisms, and various design concepts have been investigated to control noise radiation using advanced blade planform shapes and active blade control techniques. The important parameters to control rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and vibration have been identified: blade tip vortex structures and its trajectory, blade aeroelastic deformation, and airloads. Several blade tip design concepts have been investigated for diffusing tip vortices and also for reducing noise. However, these tip shapes have not been able to substantially reduce blade-vortex interaction noise without degradation of rotor performance. Meanwhile, blade root control techniques, such as higher-harmonic pitch control (HHC) and individual blade control (IBC) concepts, have been extensively investigated for noise and vibration reduction. The HHC technique has proved the substantial blade-vortex interaction noise reduction, up to 6 dB, while vibration and low-frequency noise have been increased. Tests with IBC techniques have shown the simultaneous reduction of rotor noise and vibratory loads with 2/rev pitch control inputs. Recently, active blade control concepts with smart structures have been investigated with the emphasis on active blade twist and trailing edge flap. Smart structures technologies are very promising, but further advancements are needed to meet all the requirements of rotorcraft applications in frequency, force, and displacement.

  11. Rotor blade dynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    The rotor dynamic design considerations are essentially limitations on the vibratory response of the blades which in turn limit the dynamic excitation of the fuselage by forces and moments transmitted to the hub. Quantities which are associated with the blade response and which are subject to design constraints are discussed. These include blade frequencies, vertical and inplane hub shear, rolling and pitching moments, and aeroelastic stability margin.

  12. Rotor anisotropy as a blade damage indicator for wind turbine structural health monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcherniak, Dmitri

    2016-06-01

    Structural damage of a rotor blade causes structural anisotropy of the rotor. In rotor dynamic, the anisotropy affects the symmetry of the rotor mode shapes, and the latter can be utilized to detect the blade damage. The mode shape symmetry can be characterized by relative blades' magnitude and phase. The study examines the potential use of these parameters as rotor damage indicators. Firstly the indicators are studied analytically using a simple 6 degrees-of-freedom model of a rotating rotor. Floquet analysis is used due to the time periodic nature of the considered system. Floquet analysis allows one to perform analytical modal decomposition of the system and study the sensitivity of the damage indicators to the amount of damage. Secondly, operational modal analysis (OMA) is involved to extract the same damage indicators from simulated experimental data, which was synthesized via numerical simulations. Finally, the same procedure was applied to operating Vestas V27 wind turbine, first using the simulated experimental data obtained by using aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2 and then using the data acquired during the measurement campaign on a real wind turbine. The study demonstrates that the proposed damage indicators are significantly more sensitive than the commonly used changes in natural frequency, and in contrast to the latter, can also pinpoint the faulty blade. It is also demonstrated that these indicators can be derived from blades vibration data obtained from real life experiment.

  13. Influence of cross section variations on the structural behaviour of composite rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Helmut; Woerndle, Rudolf

    1991-09-01

    A highly sophisticated structural analysis is required for helicopter rotor blades with nonhomogeneous cross sections made from nonisotropic material. Combinations of suitable analytical techniques with FEM-based techniques permit a cost effective and sufficiently accurate analysis of these complicated structures. It is determined that in general the 1D engineering theory of bending combined with 2D theories for determining the cross section properties is sufficient to describe the structural blade behavior.

  14. A new sensitivity analysis for structural optimization of composite rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.; Yuan, Kuo-An

    1993-04-01

    This paper presents a detailed mathematical derivation of the sensitivity derivatives for the structural dynamic, aeroelastic stability and response characteristics of a rotor blade in hover and forward flight. The formulation is denoted by the term semianalytical approach, because certain derivatives have to be evaluated by a finite difference scheme. Using the present formulation, sensitivity derivatives for the structural dynamic and aeroelastic stability characteristics, were evaluated for both isotropic and composite rotor blades. Based on the results, useful conclusions are obtained regarding the relative merits of the semi-analytical approach, for calculating sensitivity derivatives, when compared to a pure finite difference approach.

  15. A new sensitivity analysis for structural optimization of composite rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.; Yuan, Kuo-An

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed mathematical derivation of the sensitivity derivatives for the structural dynamic, aeroelastic stability and response characteristics of a rotor blade in hover and forward flight. The formulation is denoted by the term semianalytical approach, because certain derivatives have to be evaluated by a finite difference scheme. Using the present formulation, sensitivity derivatives for the structural dynamic and aeroelastic stability characteristics, were evaluated for both isotropic and composite rotor blades. Based on the results, useful conclusions are obtained regarding the relative merits of the semi-analytical approach, for calculating sensitivity derivatives, when compared to a pure finite difference approach.

  16. Preliminary structural design of composite main rotor blades for minimum weight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Mark W.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology is developed to perform minimum weight structural design for composite or metallic main rotor blades subject to aerodynamic performance, material strength, autorotation, and frequency constraints. The constraints and load cases are developed such that the final preliminary rotor design will satisfy U.S. Army military specifications, as well as take advantage of the versatility of composite materials. A minimum weight design is first developed subject to satisfying the aerodynamic performance, strength, and autorotation constraints for all static load cases. The minimum weight design is then dynamically tuned to avoid resonant frequencies occurring at the design rotor speed. With this methodology, three rotor blade designs were developed based on the geometry of the UH-60A Black Hawk titanium-spar rotor blade. The first design is of a single titanium-spar cross section, which is compared with the UH-60A Black Hawk rotor blade. The second and third designs use single and multiple graphite/epoxy-spar cross sections. These are compared with the titanium-spar design to demonstrate weight savings from use of this design methodology in conjunction with advanced composite materials.

  17. Structural behavior of two-cell composite rotor blades with elastic couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Chopra, Inderjit

    1991-09-01

    This paper presents an analytical-cum-experimental study of the structural response of composite rotor blades with elastic couplings. Vlasov theory is expanded to analyze two-cell composite rotor blades made out of general composite laminates including the transverse shear deformation of the cross-section. Variation of shear stiffness along the countour of the section is included in the warping function. In order to validate this analysis, two-cell graphite-epoxy composite blades with extension-torsion coupling were fabricated using matched-die molding technique. These blades were tested under tip bending and torsional loads, and their structural response in terms of bending slope and twist was measured with a laser optical system. Good correlation between theory and experiment is achieved.

  18. Composite structure of helicopter rotor blades studied by neutron- and X-ray radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaskó, M.; Veres, I.; Molnár, Gy.; Balaskó, Zs.; Sváb, E.

    2004-07-01

    In order to inspect the possible defects in the composite structure of helicopter rotor blades combined neutron- and X-ray radiography investigations were performed at the Budapest Research Reactor. Imperfections in the honeycomb structure, resin rich or starved areas at the core-honeycomb surfaces, inhomogeneities at the adhesive filling and water percolation at the sealing interfaces of the honeycomb sections were discovered.

  19. Helicopter rotor blade design for minimum vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of blade design parameters in rotor vibratory response and the design of a minimum vibration blade based upon this understanding are examined. Various design approaches are examined for a 4 bladed articulated rotor operating at a high speed flight condition. Blade modal shaping, frequency placement, structural and aerodynamic coupling, and intermodal cancellation are investigated to systematically identify and evaluate blade design parameters that influence blade airloads, blade modal response, hub loads, and fuselage vibration. The relative contributions of the various components of blade force excitation and response to the vibratory hub loads transmitted to the fuselage are determined in order to isolate primary candidates for vibration alleviation. A blade design is achieved which reduces the predicted fuselage vibration from the baseline blade by approximately one half. Blade designs are developed that offer significant reductions in vibration (and fatigue stresses) without resorting to special vibration alleviation devices, radical blade geometries, or weight penalties.

  20. Genetic fuzzy system for online structural health monitoring of composite helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Prashant M.; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2007-07-01

    A structural health monitoring (SHM) methodology is developed for composite rotor blades. An aeroelastic analysis of composite rotor blades based on the finite element method in space and time and with implanted matrix cracking and debonding/delamination damage is used to obtain measurable system parameters such as blade response, loads and strains. A rotor blade with a two-cell airfoil section and [0/±45/90]s family of laminates is used for numerical simulations. The model based measurements are contaminated with noise to simulate real data. Genetic fuzzy systems (GFS) are developed for global online damage detection using displacement and force-based measurement deviations between damaged and undamaged conditions and for local online damage detection using strains. It is observed that the success rate of the GFS depends on number of measurements, type of measurements and training and testing noise level. The GFS work quite well with noisy data and is recommended for online SHM of composite helicopter rotor blades.

  1. Structural design of composite rotor blades with consideration of manufacturability, durability, and manufacturing uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leihong

    A modular structural design methodology for composite blades is developed. This design method can be used to design composite rotor blades with sophisticate geometric cross-sections. This design method hierarchically decomposed the highly-coupled interdisciplinary rotor analysis into global and local levels. In the global level, aeroelastic response analysis and rotor trim are conduced based on multi-body dynamic models. In the local level, variational asymptotic beam sectional analysis methods are used for the equivalent one-dimensional beam properties. Compared with traditional design methodology, the proposed method is more efficient and accurate. Then, the proposed method is used to study three different design problems that have not been investigated before. The first is to add manufacturing constraints into design optimization. The introduction of manufacturing constraints complicates the optimization process. However, the design with manufacturing constraints benefits the manufacturing process and reduces the risk of violating major performance constraints. Next, a new design procedure for structural design against fatigue failure is proposed. This procedure combines the fatigue analysis with the optimization process. The durability or fatigue analysis employs a strength-based model. The design is subject to stiffness, frequency, and durability constraints. Finally, the manufacturing uncertainty impacts on rotor blade aeroelastic behavior are investigated, and a probabilistic design method is proposed to control the impacts of uncertainty on blade structural performance. The uncertainty factors include dimensions, shapes, material properties, and service loads.

  2. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  3. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  4. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  5. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  6. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  7. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  8. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  9. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  10. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  11. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  12. Structural behavior of two-cell composite rotor blades with elastic couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Chopra, Inderjit

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents an analytical-cum-experimental study of the structural response of composite rotor blades with elastic couplings. Vlasov theory is expanded to analyze two-cell composite rotor blades made out of general composite laminates including the transverse shear deformation of the cross section. Variation of shear stiffness along the contour of the section is included in the warping function. To validate this analysis, two-cell graphite-epoxy composite blades with extension-torsion coupling were fabricated using a matched-die molding technique. These blades were tested under tip bending and torsional loads, and their structural response in terms of bending slope and twist was measured with a laser optical system. Good correlation between theory and experiment was achieved. Axial force-induced twist rate of the order of 10 deg/m length due to a 4.45-kN force can be realized in extension-torsion coupled blades with a hygrothermally stable lay-up for potential applications in the design of tilt rotors.

  13. Aeroelasticity and structural optimization of composite helicopter rotor blades with swept tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, K. A.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development of an aeroelastic analysis capability for composite helicopter rotor blades with straight and swept tips, and its application to the simulation of helicopter vibration reduction through structural optimization. A new aeroelastic model is developed in this study which is suitable for composite rotor blades with swept tips in hover and in forward flight. The hingeless blade is modeled by beam type finite elements. A single finite element is used to model the swept tip. Arbitrary cross-sectional shape, generally anisotropic material behavior, transverse shears and out-of-plane warping are included in the blade model. The nonlinear equations of motion, derived using Hamilton's principle, are based on a moderate deflection theory. Composite blade cross-sectbnal properties are calculated by a separate linear, two-dimensional cross section analysis. The aerodynamic loads are obtained from quasi-steady, incompressible aerodynamics, based on an implicit formulation. The trim and steady state blade aeroelastic response are solved in a fully coupled manner. In forward flight, where the blade equations of motion are periodic, the coupled trim-aeroelastic response solution is obtained from the harmonic balance method. Subsequently, the periodic system is linearized about the steady state response, and its stability is determined from Floquet theory.

  14. Blade lock for a rotor disk and rotor blade assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jerry H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A rotor disk 18 and rotor blade 26 assembly is disclosed having a blade lock 66 which retains the rotor blade against axial movement in an axially extending blade retention slot 58. Various construction details are developed which shield the dead rim region D.sub.d and shift at least a portion of the loads associated with the locking device from the dead rim. In one detailed embodiment, a projection 68 from the live rim D.sub.1 of the disk 18 is adapted by slots 86 to receive blade locks 66.

  15. Cavitation, Flow Structure and Turbulence in the Tip Region of a Rotor Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Miorini, R.; Soranna, F.; Katz, J.; Michael, T.; Jessup, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Measure the flow structure and turbulence within a Naval, axial waterjet pump. Create a database for benchmarking and validation of parallel computational efforts. Address flow and turbulence modeling issues that are unique to this complex environment. Measure and model flow phenomena affecting cavitation within the pump and its effect on pump performance. This presentation focuses on cavitation phenomena and associated flow structure in the tip region of a rotor blade.

  16. Optimization of rotor blades for combined structural, dynamic, and aerodynamic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Cheng-Jian; Peters, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Optimal helicopter blade design with computer-based mathematical programming has received more and more attention in recent years. Most of the research has focused on optimum dynamic characteristics of rotor blades to reduce vehicle vibration. There is also work on optimization of aerodynamic performance and on composite structural design. This research has greatly increased our understanding of helicopter optimum design in each of these aspects. Helicopter design is an inherently multidisciplinary process involving strong interactions among various disciplines which can appropriately include aerodynamics; dynamics, both flight dynamics and structural dynamics; aeroelasticity: vibrations and stability; and even acoustics. Therefore, the helicopter design process must satisfy manifold requirements related to the aforementioned diverse disciplines. In our present work, we attempt to combine several of these important effects in a unified manner. First, we design a blade with optimum aerodynamic performance by proper layout of blade planform and spanwise twist. Second, the blade is designed to have natural frequencies that are placed away from integer multiples of the rotor speed for a good dynamic characteristics. Third, the structure is made as light as possible with sufficient rotational inertia to allow for autorotational landing, with safe stress margins and flight fatigue life at each cross-section, and with aeroelastical stability and low vibrations. Finally, a unified optimization refines the solution.

  17. Multilevel decomposition approach to integrated aerodynamic/dynamic/structural optimization of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Young, Katherine C.; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated aerodynamic, dynamic, and structural (IADS) optimization procedure for helicopter rotor blades. The procedure combines performance, dynamics, and structural analyses with a general purpose optimizer using multilevel decomposition techniques. At the upper level, the structure is defined in terms of local quantities (stiffnesses, mass, and average strains). At the lower level, the structure is defined in terms of local quantities (detailed dimensions of the blade structure and stresses). The IADS procedure provides an optimization technique that is compatible with industrial design practices in which the aerodynamic and dynamic design is performed at a global level and the structural design is carried out at a detailed level with considerable dialogue and compromise among the aerodynamic, dynamic, and structural groups. The IADS procedure is demonstrated for several cases.

  18. Integrated aerodynamic/dynamic/structural optimization of helicopter rotor blades using multilevel decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Young, Katherine C.; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated aerodynamic/dynamic/structural (IADS) optimization procedure for helicopter rotor blades. The procedure combines performance, dynamics, and structural analyses with a general-purpose optimizer using multilevel decomposition techniques. At the upper level, the structure is defined in terms of global quantities (stiffness, mass, and average strains). At the lower level, the structure is defined in terms of local quantities (detailed dimensions of the blade structure and stresses). The IADS procedure provides an optimization technique that is compatible with industrial design practices in which the aerodynamic and dynamic designs are performed at a global level and the structural design is carried out at a detailed level with considerable dialog and compromise among the aerodynamic, dynamic, and structural groups. The IADS procedure is demonstrated for several examples.

  19. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  20. Stability of elastic bending and torsion of uniform cantilever rotor blades in hover with variable structural coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, D. H., Roberta.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of elastic flap bending, lead-lag bending, and torsion of uniform, untwisted, cantilever rotor blades without chordwise offsets between the elastic, mass, tension, and areodynamic center axes is investigated for the hovering flight condition. The equations of motion are obtained by simplifying the general, nonlinear, partial differential equations of motion of an elastic rotating cantilever blade. The equations are adapted for a linearized stability analysis in the hovering flight condition by prescribing aerodynamic forces, applying Galerkin's method, and linearizing the resulting ordinary differential equations about the equilibrium operating condition. The aerodynamic forces are obtained from strip theory based on a quasi-steady approximation of two-dimensional unsteady airfoil theory. Six coupled mode shapes, calculated from free vibration about the equilibrium operating condition, are used in the linearized stability analysis. The study emphasizes the effects of two types of structural coupling that strongly influence the stability of hingeless rotor blades. The first structural coupling is the linear coupling between flap and lead-lag bending of the rotor blade. The second structural coupling is a nonlinear coupling between flap bending, lead-lag bending, and torsion deflections. Results are obtained for a wide variety of hingeless rotor configurations and operating conditions in order to provide a reasonably complete picture of hingeless rotor blade stability characteristics.

  1. Aeroelastic response of composite rotor blades considering transverse shear and structural damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung Nam; Kim, Seung Jo

    1994-04-01

    The effects of transverse shear deformations and structural damping on the flutter phenomena of a composite rotor blade in hover have been investigated using the finite element method. First-order shear deformation theory with rotary inertia effects and a damped element model of composite laminates are employed for the structural formulation. A quasisteady aerodynamic theory with a dynamic inflow model is used. Torsion-related out-of-plane warping and noncirculatory aerodynamic components are also incorporated in the formulation. Using these structural and aerodynamic tools, several numerical studies are carried out, first to validate the current approach and second to show the effects of transverse shear deformations and structural damping on the aeroelstic stability of a composite rotor as a function of fiber orientation. The predictions derived by the frequency analysis of this model are found to be more accurate than those given by an alternative approach compared with experimental data. It is shown that the transverse shear flexibility tends to lower the frequency of the rotor, and generally has a destabilizing effect on the lag mode and a stabilizing effect on the flap mode. It is also presented that the magnitude of structural damping can be controlled by changing ply orientation angle.

  2. Aircraft rotor blade with passive tuned tab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, T. G. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A structure for reducing vibratory airloading in a rotor blade with a leading edge and a trailing edge includes a cut out portion at the trailing edge. A substantially wedge shaped cross section, inertially deflectable tab, also with a leading edge and a trailing edge is pivotally mounted in the cut out portion. The trailing edge of the tab may move above and below the rotor blade. A torsion strap applies force against the tab when the trailing edge of the tab is above and below the rotor blade. A restraining member is slidably movable along the torsion strap to vary torsional biasing force supplied by the torsion bar to the tab. A plurality of movable weights positioned between plates vary a center of gravity of the tab. Skin of the tab is formed from unidirectional graphite and fiberglass layers. Sliders coupled with a pinned degree of freedom at rod eliminate bending of tab under edgewise blade deflection.

  3. Classification of defects in honeycomb composite structure of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaskó, M.; Sváb, E.; Molnár, Gy.; Veres, I.

    2005-04-01

    The use of non-destructive testing methods to qualify the state of rotor blades with respect to their expected flight hours, with the aim to extend their lifetime without any risk of breakdown, is an important financial demand. In order to detect the possible defects in the composite structure of Mi-8 and Mi-24 type helicopter rotor blades used by the Hungarian Army, we have performed combined neutron- and X-ray radiography measurements at the Budapest Research Reactor. Several types of defects were detected, analysed and typified. Among the most frequent and important defects observed were cavities, holes and/or cracks in the sealing elements on the interface of the honeycomb structure and the section boarders. Inhomogeneities of the resin materials (resin-rich or starved areas) at the core-honeycomb surfaces proved to be an other important point. Defects were detected at the adhesive filling, and water percolation was visualized at the sealing interfaces of the honeycomb sections. Corrosion effects, and metal inclusions have also been detected.

  4. Structural integrity design for an active helicopter rotor blade with piezoelectric flap actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehwan; Shin, SangJoon

    2011-04-01

    Helicopter uses a rotor system to generate lift, thrust and forces, and its aerodynamic environment is generally complex. Unsteady aerodynamic environment arises such as blade vortex interaction. This unsteady aerodynamic environment induces vibratory aerodynamic loads and high aeroacoustic noise. The aerodynamic load and aeroacoustic noise is at N times the rotor blade revolutions (N/rev). But conventional rotor control system composed of pitch links and swash plate is not capable of adjusting such vibratory loads because its control is restricted to 1/rev. Many active control methodologies have been examined to alleviate the problem. The blade using active control device manipulates the blade pitch angle with N/rev. In this paper, Active Trailing-edge Flap blade, which is one of the active control methods, is designed to reduce the unsteady aerodynamic loads. Active Trailing-edge Flap blade uses a trailing edge flap manipulated by an actuator to change camber line of the airfoil. Piezoelectric actuators are installed inside the blade to manipulate the trailing edge flap.

  5. Shape control of a morphing structure (rotor blade) using a shape memory alloy actuator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushnell, Glenn S.; Arbogast, Darin; Ruggeri, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Development and test results of a rotor blade twist control system that utilizes a thermo-mechanical shape memory alloy (SMA) are presented. The actuation system controls the blade shape during flight operations allowing the blade to be configured for greater lift during takeoff and landing. SMA actuators provided an excellent solution because of their very high torque output to weight ratio and suitability to the dynamic environment of a rotor blade. Several challenges related to the behavior of the SMA material are overcome by innovative control system design. Thermoelectric modules (TEM's) are used to actively transfer heat between SMA tubes and other heat conductor and radiator components. Modeling and system identification techniques and a non-trivial solution to nonlinear and coupled thermal response equations are used to insure effective use of the TEM's and to improve control during SMA phase transition.

  6. Simple theoretical models for composite rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valisetty, R. R.; Rehfield, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    The development of theoretical rotor blade structural models for designs based upon composite construction is discussed. Care was exercised to include a member of nonclassical effects that previous experience indicated would be potentially important to account for. A model, representative of the size of a main rotor blade, is analyzed in order to assess the importance of various influences. The findings of this model study suggest that for the slenderness and closed cell construction considered, the refinements are of little importance and a classical type theory is adequate. The potential of elastic tailoring is dramatically demonstrated, so the generality of arbitrary ply layup in the cell wall is needed to exploit this opportunity.

  7. Stainless-Steel-Foam Structures Evaluated for Fan and Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Raj, Sai V.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Hebsur, Mohan G.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Min, James B.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to use a sandwich structure design, consisting of two stainlesssteel face sheets and a stainless-steel-foam core, to fabricate engine fan and propeller blades. Current fan blades are constructed either of polymer matrix composites (PMCs) or hollow titanium alloys. The PMC blades are expensive and have poor impact resistance on their leading edges, thereby requiring a metallic leading edge to satisfy the Federal Aviation Administration s impact requirements relating to bird strikes. Hollow titanium blades cost more to fabricate because of the intrinsically difficult fabrication issues associated with titanium alloys. However, both these current concepts produce acceptable lightweight fan blades.

  8. Rotor blades for turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Piersall, Matthew R; Potter, Brian D

    2013-02-12

    A tip shroud that includes a plurality of damping fins, each damping fin including a substantially non-radially-aligned surface that is configured to make contact with a tip shroud of a neighboring rotor blade. At least one damping fin may include a leading edge damping fin and at least one damping fin may include a trailing edge damping fin. The leading edge damping fin may be configured to correspond to the trailing edge damping fin.

  9. Composite rotor blades for wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, W. D.

    The materials, techniques, and methods used to construct a 150 ft test blade, two 31 ft blades for a 40 kW WECS, and rotor blades for the Mod-1 wind turbine are described. Considerations of strength, stiffness, and mass distributions, as well as cost, led to the choice of filament wound fiberglass/epoxy material using transverse filament tape which has structural fibers running across the width of the tape. A number of 90 deg windings were added to the rotor after tape winding to provide compaction and hoop strength. Curing comprised five hours at 180 F. The Mod-1 blades were required to match the steel blades in weight, stiffness, deflection, and frequencies. The finished product weighed 20,000 lb and featured a metal tip cap and braided wire trailing edge strap for lightning protection. The 40 kW was a NACA 23018 in the center and 23012 at the tip, while the Mod-1 blade was a NACA 23025 in the center and 23015 at the tip.

  10. An iterative multidisciplinary analysis for rotor blade shape determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Stefko, George L.

    1993-01-01

    A CFD solver called ADPAC-APES is coupled with a NASTRAN structural analysis and a MARC thermal/heat transfer analysis to determine rotor blade shape. Nonlinear blade displacements due to centrifugal loads, aerodynamic pressures, and nonuniform temperature distribution are determined simultaneously. The effect of blade displacements on aerodynamic pressures and temperatures is then analyzed. These calculations are iterated till a steady state is reached across all the disciplines. This iterative procedure is applied to a ducted fan rotor blade and the manufactured shape is determined from a given operating shape. Effect of a part-span shroud on blade deflections is also analyzed.

  11. Flapping inertia for selected rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, John D.; May, Matthew J.

    1991-01-01

    Aerodynamics of helicopter rotor systems cannot be investigated without consideration for the dynamics of the rotor. One of the principal properties of the rotor which affects the rotor dynamics is the inertia of the rotor blade about its root attachment. Previous aerodynamic investigation have been performed on rotor blades with a variety of planforms to determine the performance differences due to blade planform. The blades tested for this investigation have been tested on the U.S. Army 2 meter rotor test system (2MRTS) in the NASA Langley 14 by 22 foot subsonic tunnel for hover performance. This investigation was intended to provide fundamental information on the flapping inertia of five rotor blades with differing planforms. The inertia of the bare cuff and the cuff with a blade extension were also measured for comparison with the inertia of the blades. Inertia was determined using a swing testing technique, using the period of oscillation to determine the effective flapping inertia. The effect of damping in the swing test was measured and described. A comparison of the flapping inertials for rectangular and tapered planform blades of approximately the same mass showed the tapered blades to have a lower inertia, as expected.

  12. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D.; Plank, William L.

    2016-07-19

    A spar and shell turbine rotor blade with a spar and a tip cap formed as a single piece, the spar includes a bottom end with dovetail or fir tree slots that engage with slots on a top end of a root section, and a platform includes an opening on a top surface for insertion of the spar in which a shell made from an exotic high temperature resistant material is secured between the tip cap and the platform. The spar is tapered to form thinner walls at the tip end to further reduce the weight and therefore a pulling force due to blade rotation. The spar and tip cap piece is made from a NiAL material to further reduce the weight and the pulling force.

  13. Forward sweep, low noise rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A forward-swept, low-noise rotor blade includes an inboard section, an aft-swept section and a forward-swept outboard section. The rotor blade reduces the noise of rotorcraft, including both standard helicopters and advanced systems such as tiltrotors. The primary noise reduction feature is the forward sweep of the planform over a large portion of the outer blade radius. The rotor blade also includes an aft-swept section. The purpose of the aft-swept region is to provide a partial balance to pitching moments produced by the outboard forward-swept portion of the blade. The rotor blade has a constant chord width; or has a chord width which decreases linearly along the entire blade span; or combines constant and decreasing chord widths, wherein the blade is of constant chord width from the blade root to a certain location on the rotor blade, then decreases linearly to the blade tip thereafter. The noise source showing maximum noise reduction is blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also reduced are thickness, noise, high speed impulsive noise, cabin vibration and loading noise.

  14. Composite hub/metal blade compressor rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S.

    1978-01-01

    A low cost compressor rotor was designed and fabricated for a small jet engine. The rotor hub and blade keepers were compression molded with graphite epoxy. Each pair of metallic blades was held in the hub by a keeper. All keepers were locked in the hub with circumferential windings. Feasibility of fabrication was demonstrated in this program.

  15. Active twist rotor blade modelling using particle-wake aerodynamics and geometrically exact beam structural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesnik, C. E. S.; Opoku, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.; Cheng, T.

    2004-06-01

    An active aeroelastic and aeroacoustic analysis of helicopter rotor systems is presented in this paper. It is a tightly coupled computational aeroelastic code that interfaces a particle-wake panel method code with an active nonlinear mixed variational intrinsic beam element code. In addition, a Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings equation-based acoustic component is incorporated to complete the numerical implementation. The theory behind each component is summarized here as well as the method for coupling the aerodynamic and structural components. Sample acoustic and aeroelastic results are given for different model-scale rotors. Comparisons with available (passive) results show very good agreement. Preliminary study with an active twist rotor is also shown.

  16. Rotor blade system with reduced blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leishman, John G. (Inventor); Han, Yong Oun (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A rotor blade system with reduced blade-vortex interaction noise includes a plurality of tube members embedded in proximity to a tip of each rotor blade. The inlets of the tube members are arrayed at the leading edge of the blade slightly above the chord plane, while the outlets are arrayed at the blade tip face. Such a design rapidly diffuses the vorticity contained within the concentrated tip vortex because of enhanced flow mixing in the inner core, which prevents the development of a laminar core region.

  17. Coupled composite rotor blades under bending and torsional loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Chopra, Inderjit

    This paper presents an analytical-cum-experimental study of the structural response of composite rotor blades with elastic couplings. Vlasov theory is expanded to analyze two-cell composite rotor blades made out of general composite laminates including the transverse shear deformation of the cross-section. In order to validate this analysis, two-cell graphite-epoxy composite blades with bending-torsion coupling were fabricated using matched-die molding technique. These blades were tested under tip bending and torsional loads, and their structural response in terms of bending slope and twist was measured with a laser optical system. Good correlation between theory and experiment is achieved.

  18. Investigation of rotor blade element airloads for a teetering rotor in the blade stall regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dadone, L. U.; Fukushima, T.

    1974-01-01

    A model of a teetering rotor was tested in a low speed wind tunnel. Blade element airloads measured on an articulated model rotor were compared with the teetering rotor and showed that the teetering rotor is subjected to less extensive flow separation. Retreating blade stall was studied. Results show that stall, under the influence of unsteady aerodynamic effects, consists of four separate stall events, each associated with a vortex shed from the leading edge and sweeping over the upper surface of the rotor blade. Current rotor performance prediction methodology was evaluated through computer simulation.

  19. Extension-twist coupling optimization in composite rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbay, Serkan

    2005-07-01

    For optimal rotor performance in a tiltrotor aircraft the difference in the inflow and the rotor speeds between the hover and cruise flight modes suggests different blade twist and chord distributions. The blade twist rates in current tiltrotor applications are defined based upon a compromise between the figure of merit in hover and propeller efficiency in airplane mode. However, when each operation mode is considered separately the optimum blade distributions are found to be considerably different. Passive blade twist control, which uses the inherent variation in centrifugal forces on a rotor blade to achieve optimum blade twist distributions in each flight mode through the use of extension-twist coupled composite rotor blades, has been considered for performance improvement of tiltrotor aircraft over the last two decades. The challenge for this concept is to achieve the desired twisting deformations in the rotor blade without altering the aeroelastic characteristics of the vehicle. A concept referred to as the sliding mass concept is proposed in this work in order to increase the twist change with rotor speed for a closed-cell composite rotor blade cross-section to practical levels for performance improvement in a tiltrotor aircraft. The concept is based on load path changes for the centrifugal forces by utilizing non-structural masses readily available on a conventional blade, such as the leading edge balancing mass. A multilevel optimization technique based on the simulated annealing method is applied to improve the performance of the XV15 tiltrotor aircraft. A cross-sectional analysis tool, VABS together with a multibody dynamics code, DYMORE are integrated into the optimization process. The optimization results revealed significant improvements in the power requirement in hover while preserving cruise efficiency. It is also shown that about 21% of the improvement is provided through the sliding mass concept pointing to the additional flexibility the concept

  20. Development of a structural optimization capability for the aeroelastic tailoring of composite rotor blades with straight and swept tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.; Yuan, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a new structural optimization capability aimed at the aeroelastic tailoring of composite rotor blades with straight and swept tips. The primary objective is to reduce vibration levels in forward flight without diminishing the aeroelastic stability margins of the blade. In the course of this research activity a number of complicated tasks have been addressed: (1) development of a new, aeroelastic stability and response analysis; (2) formulation of a new comprehensive sensitive analysis, which facilitates the generation of the appropriate approximations for the objective and the constraints; (3) physical understanding of the new model and, in particular, determination of its potential for aeroelastic tailoring, and (4) combination of the newly developed analysis capability, the sensitivity derivatives and the optimizer into a comprehensive optimization capability. The first three tasks have been completed and the fourth task is in progress.

  1. Aeroelastic analysis for helicopter rotor blades with time-variable, non-linear structural twist and multiple structural redundancy: Mathematical derivation and program user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielawa, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The differential equations of motion for the lateral and torsional deformations of a nonlinearly twisted rotor blade in steady flight conditions together with those additional aeroelastic features germane to composite bearingless rotors are derived. The differential equations are formulated in terms of uncoupled (zero pitch and twist) vibratory modes with exact coupling effects due to finite, time variable blade pitch and, to second order, twist. Also presented are derivations of the fully coupled inertia and aerodynamic load distributions, automatic pitch change coupling effects, structural redundancy characteristics of the composite bearingless rotor flexbeam - torque tube system in bending and torsion, and a description of the linearized equations appropriate for eigensolution analyses. Three appendixes are included presenting material appropriate to the digital computer program implementation of the analysis, program G400.

  2. Determination of the structural damping coefficients of six full-scale helicopter rotor blades of different materials and methods of construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Frederick W

    1956-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the structural damping of six full-scale helicopter rotor blades, made to determine the variation of structural damping with materials and methods of construction, are presented. The damping of the blades was determined for the first three flapwise bending modes, first chordwise bending mode, and first torsion mode. The contribution of structural damping to the total damping of the blades is discussed for several aerodynamic conditions in order to point out situations where structural damping is significant.

  3. Improvements to tilt rotor performance through passive blade twist control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Mark W.

    1988-01-01

    A passive blade twist control is presented in which the twist distribution of a tilt rotor blade is elastically changed as a function of rotor speed. The elastic twist deformation is used to achieve two different blade twist distributions corresponding to the two rotor speeds used on conventional tilt rotors in hover and forward flight. By changing the blade twist distribution, the aerodynamic performance can be improved in both modes of flight. The concept presented obtains a change in twist distribution with extension-twist-coupled composite blade structure. This investigation first determines the linear twists which are optimum for each flight mode. Based on the optimum linear twist distributions, three extension-twist-coupled blade designs are developed using coupled-beam and laminate analyses integrated with an optimization analysis. The designs are optimized for maximum twist deformation subject to material strength limitations. The aerodynamic performances of the final designs are determined which show that the passive blade twist control concept is viable, and can enhance conventional tilt rotor performance.

  4. Variable diameter wind turbine rotor blades

    DOEpatents

    Jamieson, Peter McKeich; Hornzee-Jones, Chris; Moroz, Emilian M.; Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-12-06

    A system and method for changing wind turbine rotor diameters to meet changing wind speeds and control system loads is disclosed. The rotor blades on the wind turbine are able to adjust length by extensions nested within or containing the base blade. The blades can have more than one extension in a variety of configurations. A cable winching system, a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system, inflatable or elastic extensions, and a spring-loaded jack knife deployment are some of the methods of adjustment. The extension is also protected from lightning by a grounding system.

  5. Estimation of blade airloads from rotor blade bending moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.

    1987-01-01

    A method is developed to estimate the blade normal airloads by using measured flap bending moments; that is, the rotor blade is used as a force balance. The blade's rotation is calculated in vacuum modes and the airloads are then expressed as an algebraic sum of the mode shapes, modal amplitudes, mass distribution, and frequency properties. The modal amplitudes are identified from the blade bending moments using the Strain Pattern Analysis Method. The application of the method is examined using simulated flap bending moment data that have been calculated for measured airloads for a full-scale rotor in a wind tunnel. The estimated airloads are compared with the wind tunnel measurements. The effects of the number of measurements, the number of modes, and errors in the measurements and the blade properties are examined, and the method is shown to be robust.

  6. Dynamic response of active twist rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, Sang Joon; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2001-02-01

    Dynamic characteristics of active twist rotor (ATR) blades are investigated analytically and experimentally in this paper. The ATR system is intended for vibration and potentially for noise reductions in helicopters through individual blade control. An aeroelastic model is developed to identify frequency response characteristics of the ATR blade with integral, generally anisotropic, strain actuators embedded in its composite construction. An ATR prototype blade was designed and manufactured to experimentally study the vibration reduction capabilities of such systems. Several bench and hover tests were conducted and those results are presented and discussed here. Selected results on sensitivity of the ATR system to collective setting (i.e. blade loading), blade rpm (i.e. centrifugal force and blade station velocity), and media density (i.e. altitude) are presented. They indicated that the twist actuation authority of the ATR blade is independent of the collective setting up to approximately 10P, and dependent on rotational speed and altitude near the torsional resonance frequency due to its dependency on the aerodynamic damping. The proposed model captures very well the physics and sensitivities to selected test parameters of the ATR system. The numerical result of the blade torsional loads show an average error of 20% in magnitude and virtually no difference in phase for the blade frequency response. Overall, the active blade model is in very good agreement with the experiments and can be used to analyze and design future active helicopter blade systems.

  7. Rotor system having alternating length rotor blades for reducing blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, Robert C. (Inventor); Visintainer, Joseph A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A rotor system (4) having odd and even blade assemblies (O.sub.b, E.sub.b) mounting to and rotating with a rotor hub assembly (6) wherein the odd blade assemblies (O.sub.b) define a radial length R.sub.O, and the even blade assemblies (E.sub.b) define a radial length R.sub.E and wherein the radial length R.sub.E is between about 70% to about 95% of the radial length R.sub.O. Other embodiments of the invention are directed to a Variable Diameter Rotor system (4) which may be configured for operating in various operating modes for optimizing aerodynamic and acoustic performance. The Variable Diameter Rotor system (4) includes odd and even blade assemblies (O.sub.b, E.sub.b) having inboard and outboard blade sections (10, 12) wherein the outboard blade sections (12) telescopically mount to the inboard blade sections (10). The outboard blade sections (12) are positioned with respect to the inboard blade sections (10 such that the radial length R.sub.E of the even blade assemblies (E.sub.b) is equal to the radial length R.sub.O of the odd blade assemblies (O.sub.b) in a first operating mode, and such that the radial length R.sub.E is between about 70% to about 95% of the length R.sub.O in a second operating mode.

  8. Dynamic analysis of rotor blade undergoing rotor power shutdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Khanh Quoc

    1990-01-01

    A rigid flap-lag blade analysis was developed to simulate a rotor in a wind tunnel undergoing an emergency power shutdown. Results show that for a rotor at a nonzero shaft tilt angle undergoing an emergency power shutdown, the oscillatory lag response is divergent. The mean lag response is large when tested at high collective pitch angles. Reducing the collective pitch during the emergency shutdown reduces the steady lag response. Increasing the rotor shaft tilt angle increases the oscillatory lag response component. The blade lag response obtained by incorporating a nonlinear lag damper model indicates that in this case the equivalent linear viscous damping is lower than originally expected. Simulation results indicate that large oscillatory lag motions can be suppressed if the rotor shaft is returned to the fully vertical position during the emergency power shutdown.

  9. Projection Moire Interferometry for Rotorcraft Applications: Deformation Measurements of Active Twist Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Soto, Hector L.; South, Bruce W.

    2002-01-01

    Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) has been used during wind tunnel tests to obtain azimuthally dependent blade bending and twist measurements for a 4-bladed Active Twist Rotor (ATR) system in simulated forward flight. The ATR concept offers a means to reduce rotor vibratory loads and noise by using piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators embedded in the blade structure to twist each blade as they rotate throughout the rotor azimuth. The twist imparted on the blades for blade control causes significant changes in blade loading, resulting in complex blade deformation consisting of coupled bending and twist. Measurement of this blade deformation is critical in understanding the overall behavior of the ATR system and the physical mechanisms causing the reduction in rotor loads and noise. PMI is a non-contacting, video-based optical measurement technique capable of obtaining spatially continuous structural deformation measurements over the entire object surface within the PMI system field-of-view. When applied to rotorcraft testing, PMI can be used to measure the azimuth-dependent blade bending and twist along the full span of the rotor blade. This paper presents the PMI technique as applied to rotorcraft testing, and provides results obtained during the ATR tests demonstrating the PMI system performance. PMI measurements acquired at select blade actuation conditions generating minimum and maximum rotor loads are provided to explore the interrelationship between rotor loads, blade bending, and twist.

  10. Design optimization for active twist rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Ji Won

    This dissertation introduces the process of optimizing active twist rotor blades in the presence of embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. Optimum design of active twist blades is a complex task, since it involves a rich design space with tightly coupled design variables. The study presents the development of an optimization framework for active helicopter rotor blade cross-sectional design. This optimization framework allows for exploring a rich and highly nonlinear design space in order to optimize the active twist rotor blades. Different analytical components are combined in the framework: cross-sectional analysis (UM/VABS), an automated mesh generator, a beam solver (DYMORE), a three-dimensional local strain recovery module, and a gradient based optimizer within MATLAB. Through the mathematical optimization problem, the static twist actuation performance of a blade is maximized while satisfying a series of blade constraints. These constraints are associated with locations of the center of gravity and elastic axis, blade mass per unit span, fundamental rotating blade frequencies, and the blade strength based on local three-dimensional strain fields under worst loading conditions. Through pre-processing, limitations of the proposed process have been studied. When limitations were detected, resolution strategies were proposed. These include mesh overlapping, element distortion, trailing edge tab modeling, electrode modeling and foam implementation of the mesh generator, and the initial point sensibility of the current optimization scheme. Examples demonstrate the effectiveness of this process. Optimization studies were performed on the NASA/Army/MIT ATR blade case. Even though that design was built and shown significant impact in vibration reduction, the proposed optimization process showed that the design could be improved significantly. The second example, based on a model scale of the AH-64D Apache blade, emphasized the capability of this framework to

  11. Piezoelectric actuation of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieven, Nicholas A. J.

    2001-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is concerned with the application of embedded piezo-electric actuators in model helicopter rotor blades. The paper outlines techniques to define the optimal location of actuators to excite particular modes of vibration whilst the blade is rotating. Using composite blades the distribution of strain energy is defined using a Finite Element model with imposed rotor-dynamic and aerodynamics loads. The loads are specified through strip theory to determine the position of maximum bending moment and thus the optimal location of the embedded actuators. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated on a 1/4 scale fixed cyclic pitch rotor head. Measurement of the blade displacement is achieved by using strain gauges. In addition a redundant piezo-electric actuator is used to measure the blades' response characteristics. The addition of piezo-electric devices in this application has been shown to exhibit adverse aeroelastic effects, such as counter mass balancing and increased drag. Methods to minimise these effects are suggested. The outcome of the paper is a method for defining the location and orientation of piezo-electric devices in rotor-dynamic applications.

  12. Vortex control for rotor blade devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    To control vortices originating at the tips of a rotor's blades rotating through the air at a revolution frequency f, separation control device(s) are actuated to periodically introduce perturbations into the airflow moving over the blades. The periodic introduction of perturbations is controlled in accordance with a periodic modulating frequency of introduction f.sub.0 while the frequency of the perturbations so-introduced is designated as f.sub.e. Vortex control is achieved when the periodic modulating frequency of introduction f.sub.0 satisfies the relationship nf.ltoreq.f.sub.0.ltoreq.f.sub.e where n is the number of blades.

  13. General approach and scope. [rotor blade design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a joint activity involving NASA and Army researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center to develop optimization procedures aimed at improving the rotor blade design process by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for all of the important interactions among the disciplines. The disciplines involved include rotor aerodynamics, rotor dynamics, rotor structures, airframe dynamics, and acoustics. The work is focused on combining these five key disciplines in an optimization procedure capable of designing a rotor system to satisfy multidisciplinary design requirements. Fundamental to the plan is a three-phased approach. In phase 1, the disciplines of blade dynamics, blade aerodynamics, and blade structure will be closely coupled, while acoustics and airframe dynamics will be decoupled and be accounted for as effective constraints on the design for the first three disciplines. In phase 2, acoustics is to be integrated with the first three disciplines. Finally, in phase 3, airframe dynamics will be fully integrated with the other four disciplines. This paper deals with details of the phase 1 approach and includes details of the optimization formulation, design variables, constraints, and objective function, as well as details of discipline interactions, analysis methods, and methods for validating the procedure.

  14. Design of helicopter rotor blades for optimum dynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, D. A.; Ko, T.; Korn, A. E.; Rossow, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    The possibilities and the limitations of tailoring blade mass and stiffness distributions to give an optimum blade design in terms of weight, inertia, and dynamic characteristics are investigated. Changes in mass or stiffness distribution used to place rotor frequencies at desired locations are determined. Theoretical limits to the amount of frequency shift are established. Realistic constraints on blade properties based on weight, mass moment of inertia size, strength, and stability are formulated. The extent hub loads can be minimized by proper choice of EL distribution is determined. Configurations that are simple enough to yield clear, fundamental insights into the structural mechanisms but which are sufficiently complex to result in a realistic result for an optimum rotor blade are emphasized.

  15. Analysis, design and elastic tailoring of composite rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Atilgan, Ali R.

    1987-01-01

    The development of structural models for composite rotor blades is summarized. The models are intended for use in design analysis for the purpose of exploring the potential of elastic tailoring. The research was performed at the Center for Rotary Wing Aircraft Technology.

  16. Reduction of helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise by active rotor control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Gmelin, Bernd; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Philippe, Jean J.; Prieur, Jean; Brooks, Thomas F.

    Helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise is one of the most severe noise sources and is very important both in community annoyance and military detection. Research over the decades has substantially improved basic physical understanding of the mechanisms generating rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and also of controlling techniques, particularly using active rotor control technology. This paper reviews active rotor control techniques currently available for rotor blade-vortex interaction noise reduction, including higher harmonic pitch control, individual blade control, and on-blade control technologies. Basic physical mechanisms of each active control technique are reviewed in terms of noise reduction mechanism and controlling aerodynamic or structural parameters of a blade. Active rotor control techniques using smart structures/materials are discussed, including distributed smart actuators to induce local torsional or flapping deformations.

  17. Reduction of Helicopter Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise by Active Rotor Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Gmelin, Bernd; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Brooks, Thomas F.; Philippe, Jean J.; Prieur, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise is one of the most severe noise sources and is very important both in community annoyance and military detection. Research over the decades has substantially improved basic physical understanding of the mechanisms generating rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and also of controlling techniques, particularly using active rotor control technology. This paper reviews active rotor control techniques currently available for rotor blade vortex interaction noise reduction, including higher harmonic pitch control, individual blade control, and on-blade control technologies. Basic physical mechanisms of each active control technique are reviewed in terms of noise reduction mechanism and controlling aerodynamic or structural parameters of a blade. Active rotor control techniques using smart structures/materials are discussed, including distributed smart actuators to induce local torsional or flapping deformations, Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. 14 CFR 29.547 - Main and tail rotor structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Requirements § 29.547 Main and tail rotor structure. (a) A rotor is an assembly of rotating components, which includes the rotor hub, blades, blade dampers, the pitch control mechanisms, and all other parts that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Main and tail rotor structure....

  19. Theory/test correlation of helicopter rotor blade element airloads in the blade stall regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobo, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of stall on a rotor blade element in a three-dimensional rotating environment was investigated. The model rotor test provided blade element airloads and local boundary layer flow characteristics at the three-quarter blade radius position for a wide range of rotor operating conditions. A description of the test program and the test results are presented.

  20. Design, fabrication, and test of a composite material wind turbine rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffee, D. G., Jr.; Gustafson, R. E.; More, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic design, structural design, fabrication, and structural testing is described for a 60 foot long filament wound, fiberglass/epoxy resin matrix wind turbine rotor blade for a 125 foot diameter, 100 kW wind energy conversion system. One blade was fabricated which met all aerodynamic shape requirements and was structurally capable of operating under all specified design conditions. The feasibility of filament winding large rotor blades was demonstrated.

  1. Simulation of Rotor Blade Element Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, R. E.; Duisenberg, Ken

    1996-01-01

    A turbulence model has been developed for blade-element helicopter simulation. This model, called Simulation of Rotor Blade Element Turbulence (SORBET), uses an innovative temporal and geometrical distribution algorithm that preserves the statistical characteristics of the turbulence spectra over the rotor disc, while providing velocity components in real time to each of five blade-element stations along each of four blades. An initial investigation of SORBET has been performed using a piloted, motion-based simulation of the Sikorsky UH60A Black Hawk. Although only the vertical component of stochastic turbulence was used in this investigation, vertical turbulence components induce vehicle responses in all translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the helicopter. The single-degree-of-freedom configuration of SORBET was compared to a conventional full 6-degrees-of-freedom baseline configuration, where translational velocity inputs are superimposed at the vehicle center of gravity, and rotational velocity inputs are created from filters that approximate the immersion rate into the turbulent field. For high-speed flight the vehicle responses were satisfactory for both models. Test pilots could not distinguish differences between the baseline configuration and SORBET. In low-speed flight the baseline configuration received criticism for its high frequency content, whereas the SORBET model elicited favorable pilot opinion. For this helicopter, which has fully articulated blades, results from SORBET show that vehicle responses to turbulent blade-station disturbances are severely attenuated. This is corroborated by in-flight observation of the rotor tip path plane as compared to vehicle responses.

  2. Vibration analysis of rotor blades with an attached concentrated mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.; Barna, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of an attached concentrated mass on the dynamics of helicopter rotor blades is determined. The point transmission matrix method was used to define, through three completely automated computer programs, the natural vibrational characteristics (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of rotor blades. The problems of coupled flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsional vibration of a twisted nonuniform blade and its special subcase pure torsional vibration are discussed. The orthogonality relations that exist between the natural modes of rotor blades with an attached concentrated mass are derived. The effect of pitch, rotation, and point mass parameters on the collective, cyclic, scissor, and pure torsional modes of a seesaw rotor blade is determined.

  3. Aeroelastic characteristics of composite bearingless rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielawa, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Owing to the inherent unique structural features of composite bearingless rotors, various assumptions upon which conventional rotor aeroelastic analyses are formulated, are violated. Three such features identified are highly nonlinear and time-varying structural twist, structural redundancy in bending and torsion, and for certain configurations a strongly coupled low frequency bending-torsion mode. An examination of these aeroelastic considerations and appropriate formulations required for accurate analyses of such rotor systems is presented. Also presented are test results from a dynamically scaled model rotor and complementary analytic results obtained with the appropriately reformulated aeroelastic analysis.

  4. Structural qualification testing and operational loading on a fiberglass rotor blade for the Mod-OA wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, T. L.

    1983-03-01

    Fatigue tests were performed on full- and half-scale root end sections, first to qualify the root retention design, and second to induce failure. Test methodology and results are presented. Two operational blades were proof tested to design limit load to ascertain buckling resistance. Measurements of natural frequency, damping ratio, and deflection under load made on the operational blades are documented. The tests showed that all structural design requirements were met or exceeded. Blade loads measured during 3000 hr of field operation were close to those expected. The measured loads validated the loads used in the fatigue tests and gave high confidence in the ability of the blades to achieve design life.

  5. Structural qualification testing and operational loading on a fiberglass rotor blade for the Mod-OA wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Fatigue tests were performed on full- and half-scale root end sections, first to qualify the root retention design, and second to induce failure. Test methodology and results are presented. Two operational blades were proof tested to design limit load to ascertain buckling resistance. Measurements of natural frequency, damping ratio, and deflection under load made on the operational blades are documented. The tests showed that all structural design requirements were met or exceeded. Blade loads measured during 3000 hr of field operation were close to those expected. The measured loads validated the loads used in the fatigue tests and gave high confidence in the ability of the blades to achieve design life.

  6. Performance optimization of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a center-wide activity at NASA Langley Research Center to develop multidisciplinary design procedures by accounting for discipline interactions, a performance design optimization procedure is developed. The procedure optimizes the aerodynamic performance of rotor blades by selecting the point of taper initiation, root chord, taper ratio, and maximum twist which minimize hover horsepower while not degrading forward flight performance. The procedure uses HOVT (a strip theory momentum analysis) to compute the horse power required for hover and the comprehensive helicopter analysis program CAMRAD to compute the horsepower required for forward flight and maneuver. The optimization algorithm consists of the general purpose optimization program CONMIN and approximate analyses. Sensitivity analyses consisting of derivatives of the objective function and constraints are carried out by forward finite differences. The procedure is applied to a test problem which is an analytical model of a wind tunnel model of a utility rotor blade.

  7. Further development of the swinging-blade Savonius rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldoss, T. K.; Najjar, Y. S. H.

    Savonius rotor performance is improved by allowing both downwind and upwind rotor blades to swing back through an optimum angle. This will minimize the drag on the upwind blade and maximize the drag on the down-wind blade. A combination of 50 degrees upwind blade swing angle and 13.5 degrees downwind blade swing angle have been found experimentally to be the optimum swing angles that increased the rotor maximum power coefficient to about 23.5 percent compared with 18 percent with optimum upwind blade swing alone.

  8. Estimation of blade airloads from rotor blade bending moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the estimation of blade airloads, based on the measurements of flap bending moments. In this procedure, the blade rotation in vacuum modes is calculated, and the airloads are expressed as an algebraic sum of the mode shapes, modal amplitudes, mass distribution, and frequency properties. The method was validated by comparing the calculated airload distribution with the original wind tunnel measurements which were made using ten modes and twenty measurement stations. Good agreement between the predicted and the measured airloads was found up to 0.90 R, but the agreement degraded towards the blade tip. The method is shown to be quite robust to the type of experimental problems that could be expected to occur in the testing of full-scale and model-scale rotors.

  9. Tip cap for a rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofel, W. K.; Tuley, E. N.; Gay, C. H., Jr.; Troeger, R. E.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A replaceable tip cap for attachment to the end of a rotor blade is described. The tip cap includes a plurality of walls defining a compartment which, if desired, can be divided into a plurality of subcompartments. The tip cap can include inlet and outlet holes in walls thereof to permit fluid communication of a cooling fluid there through. Abrasive material can be attached with the radially outer wall of the tip cap.

  10. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2014-09-23

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is described. The adaptor assembly includes a turbine blade having a blade root and an adaptor body having an adaptor root. The adaptor body defines a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root of the turbine blade such that the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are adjacent to one another when the blade root of the turbine blade is positioned within the slot. Both the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are configured to be received within the root slot of the rotor disk.

  11. Methods and apparatus for rotor blade ice detection

    SciTech Connect

    LeMieux, David Lawrence

    2006-08-08

    A method for detecting ice on a wind turbine having a rotor and one or more rotor blades each having blade roots includes monitoring meteorological conditions relating to icing conditions and monitoring one or more physical characteristics of the wind turbine in operation that vary in accordance with at least one of the mass of the one or more rotor blades or a mass imbalance between the rotor blades. The method also includes using the one or more monitored physical characteristics to determine whether a blade mass anomaly exists, determining whether the monitored meteorological conditions are consistent with blade icing; and signaling an icing-related blade mass anomaly when a blade mass anomaly is determined to exist and the monitored meteorological conditions are determined to be consistent with icing.

  12. Vibration analysis of rotor blades with pendulum absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.; Hammond, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive vibration analysis of rotor blades with spherical pendulum absorbers is presented. Linearized equations of motion for small oscillations about the steady-state deflection of a spherical pendulum on elastic rotor blades undergoing coupled flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsional vibrations are obtained. A transmission matrix formulation is given to determine the natural vibrational characteristics of rotor blades with spherical or simple flapping pendulum absorbers. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of a hingeless rotor blade with a spherical pendulum are computed.

  13. Psychoacoustic Testing of Modulated Blade Spacing for Main Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Bryan; Booth, Earl R., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Psychoacoustic testing of simulated helicopter main rotor noise is described, and the subjective results are presented. The objective of these tests was to evaluate the potential acoustic benefits of main rotors with modulated (uneven) blade spacing. Sound simulations were prepared for six main rotor configurations. A baseline 4-blade main rotor with regular blade spacing was based on the Bell Model 427 helicopter. A 5-blade main rotor with regular spacing was designed to approximate the performance of the 427, but at reduced tipspeed. Four modulated rotors - one with "optimum" spacing and three alternate configurations - were derived from the 5 bladed regular spacing rotor. The sounds were played to 2 subjects at a time, with care being taken in the speaker selection and placement to ensure that the sounds were identical for each subject. A total of 40 subjects participated. For each rotor configuration, the listeners were asked to evaluate the sounds in terms of noisiness. The test results indicate little to no "annoyance" benefit for the modulated blade spacing. In general, the subjects preferred the sound of the 5-blade regular spaced rotor over any of the modulated ones. A conclusion is that modulated blade spacing is not a promising design feature to reduce the annoyance for helicopter main rotors.

  14. Tower and rotor blade vibration test results for a 100-kilowatt wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linscott, B. S.; Shapton, W. R.; Brown, D.

    1976-01-01

    The predominant natural frequencies and mode shapes for the tower and the rotor blades of the ERDA-NASA 100-kW wind turbine were determined. The tests on the tower and the blades were conducted both before and after the rotor blades and the rotating machinery were installed on top of the tower. The tower and each blade were instrumented with an accelerometer and impacted by an instrumented mass. The tower and blade structure was analyzed by means of NASTRAN, and computed values agree with the test data.

  15. Development of an active twist rotor blade with distributed actuation and orthotropic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierach, Peter; Riemenschneider, Johannes; Keye, Stefan

    2005-05-01

    Individual blade control (IBC) as well as higher harmonic control (HHC) for helicopter rotors promises to be a method to increase flight performance and to reduce vibration and noise. For those controls, an additional twist actuation of the rotor blade is needed. The developed concept comprises the implementation of distributed piezoelectric actuation into the rotor blade skin. In order to maximize the twist within given constraints, as torsional rigidity and given actuator design, the concept takes advantage of an orthotropic rotor blade skin. That way, a combination of shear actuation with orthotropic coupling generates more twist than each one of these effects alone. Previous approaches with distributed actuation used actuators operating in +/-45° direction with quasi-isotropic composites. A FE-Model of the blade was developed and validated using a simplified demonstrator. The objective of this study was to identify the effects of various geometric and material parameters to optimize the active twist performance of the blades. The whole development was embedded in an iterative process followed by an objective assessment. For this purpose a detailed structural model on the basis of the BO105 model rotor blade was developed, to predict the performance with respect to rotor dynamics, stability, aerodynamics and acoustics. Rotor dynamic simulations provided an initial overview of the active twist rotor performance. In comparison to the BO105 baseline rotor a noise reduction of 3 dB was predicted for an active twist of 0.8° at the blade tip. Additionally, a power reduction of 2.3% at 87m/s based on a 2.5 to BO105 was computed. A demonstrator blade with a rotor radius of 2m has been designed and manufactured. This blade will be tested to prove, that the calculated maximum twist can also be achieved under centrifugal loads.

  16. Tip cap for a turbine rotor blade

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2014-03-25

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, and a tip cap that includes a row of lugs extending from a bottom side that form dovetail grooves that engage with similar shaped lugs and grooves on a tip end of the spar to secure the tip cap to the spar against radial displacement. The lug on the trailing edge end of the tip cap is aligned perpendicular to a chordwise line of the blade in the trailing edge region in order to minimize stress due to the lugs wanting to bend under high centrifugal loads. A two piece tip cap with lugs at different angles will reduce the bending stress even more.

  17. Whirl speeds of mistuned bladed rotors supported by isotropic stator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung-Taek

    2015-11-01

    As an initial step toward understanding the fully coupled dynamics of mistuned bladed disk-shaft systems, this paper investigates the frequency characteristics of natural whirl speeds associated with the in-plain vibration of a rotating mistuned bladed disk mounted on an isotropic support. Through complex multi-blade coordinate transformation and modulation, a simplistic analysis model describing the essential in-plain whirling behavior of mistuned bladed rotor is derived in a typical form of linear differential equations with time-constant coefficients. By applying ordinary eigenvalue analysis for linear time-invariant systems, the whirl speeds of mistuned bladed rotor are examined for cases of weak and strong inter-blade coupling conditions. The mistuning effect on the whirl speeds of the bladed rotor is then explained by classifying the whirling modes into three types according to their cause of manifestation and the frequency relationship: namely, original, coupled multi-blade, and conjugate whirling modes.

  18. Composite rotor blades for large wind energy installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussmann, A.; Molly, J.; Muser, D.

    1980-04-01

    The design of large wind power systems in Germany is reviewed with attention given to elaboration of the total wind energy system, aerodynamic design of the rotor blade, and wind loading effects. Particular consideration is given to the development of composite glass fiber/plastic or carbon fiber/plastic rotor blades for such installations.

  19. Design of helicopter rotor blades for optimum dynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, D. A.; Ko, T.; Korn, A.; Rossow, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    The mass and stiffness distributions for helicopter rotor blades are tailored in such a way to give a predetermined placement of blade natural frequencies. The optimal design is pursued with respect of minimum weight, sufficient inertia, and reasonable dynamic characteristics. Finite element techniques are used as a tool. Rotor types include hingeless, articulated, and teetering.

  20. Composite rotor blades for large wind energy installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussmann, A.; Molly, J.; Muser, D.

    1980-01-01

    The design of large wind power systems in Germany is reviewed with attention given to elaboration of the total wind energy system, aerodynamic design of the rotor blade, and wind loading effects. Particular consideration is given to the development of composite glass fiber/plastic or carbon fiber/plastic rotor blades for such installations.

  1. Blade-Pitch Control for Quieting Tilt-Rotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betzina, Mark D.; Nguyen, Khanh Q.

    2004-01-01

    A method of reducing the noise generated by a tilt-rotor aircraft during descent involves active control of the blade pitch of the rotors. This method is related to prior such noise-reduction methods, of a type denoted generally as higher-harmonic control (HHC), in which the blade pitch is made to oscillate at a harmonic of the frequency of rotation of the rotor. A tilt-rotor aircraft is so named because mounted at its wing tips are motors that can be pivoted to enable the aircraft to take off and land like a helicopter or to fly like a propeller airplane. When the aircraft is operating in its helicopter mode, the rotors generate more thrust per unit rotor-disk area than helicopter rotors do, thus producing more blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. BVI is a major source of noise produced by helicopters and tilt-rotor aircraft during descent: When a rotor descends into its own wake, the interaction of each blade with the blade-tip vortices generated previously gives rise to large air-pressure fluctuations. These pressure fluctuations radiate as distinct, impulsive noise. In general, the pitch angle of the rotor blades of a tilt-rotor aircraft is controlled by use of a swash plate connected to the rotor blades by pitch links. In both prior HHC methods and the present method, HHC control signals are fed as input to swash-plate control actuators, causing the rotor-blade pitch to oscillate. The amplitude, frequency, and phase of the control signal can be chosen to minimize BVI noise.

  2. Comparison of model helicopter rotor primary and secondary blade/vortex interaction blade slap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, J. E., Jr.; Leighton, K. P.

    1984-05-01

    A study of the relative importance of blade/vortex interactions which occur on the retreating side of a model helicopter rotor disk is described. Some of the salient characteristics of this phenomenon are presented and discussed. It is shown that the resulting Secondary blade slap may be of equal or greater intensity than the advancing side (Primary) blade slap. Instrumented model helicopter rotor data is presented which reveals the nature of the retreating blade/vortex interaction. The importance of Secondary blade slap as it applies to predictive techniques or approaches is discussed. When Secondary blade slap occurs it acts to enlarge the window of operating conditions for which blade slap exists.

  3. A comparison of model helicopter rotor Primary and Secondary blade/vortex interaction blade slap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, J. E., Jr.; Leighton, K. P.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the relative importance of blade/vortex interactions which occur on the retreating side of a model helicopter rotor disk is described. Some of the salient characteristics of this phenomenon are presented and discussed. It is shown that the resulting Secondary blade slap may be of equal or greater intensity than the advancing side (Primary) blade slap. Instrumented model helicopter rotor data is presented which reveals the nature of the retreating blade/vortex interaction. The importance of Secondary blade slap as it applies to predictive techniques or approaches is discussed. When Secondary blade slap occurs it acts to enlarge the window of operating conditions for which blade slap exists.

  4. Feasibility study of pultruded blades for wind turbine rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P.G.; Cheney, M.C.

    2000-02-28

    In work performed under subcontract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a preliminary design study and proof-of-concept field test were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using pultruded blades for wind turbine rotors. A 400 kW turbine was selected for the design study, and a scaled 80 kW rotor was fabricated and tested as a demonstration of the concept. To examine the feasibility of pultruded blades, several issues were addressed, including power performance, tower strikes, yaw stability, stall flutter, fatigue, and rotor cost. Results showed that with proper design, rotors using pultruded blades demonstrate acceptable fatigue life and stable yaw behavior without tower strikes. Furthermore, blades using this technology may be manufactured for approximately half the cost of conventional blades. Field tests of the scaled rotor provided experimental data on power performance and loads while verifying stable yaw operation.

  5. Simulation of rotor blade element turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, R. E.; Duisenberg, Ken

    1995-01-01

    A piloted, motion-based simulation of Sikorsky's Black Hawk helicopter was used as a platform for the investigation of rotorcraft responses to vertical turbulence. By using an innovative temporal and geometrical distribution algorithm that preserved the statistical characteristics of the turbulence over the rotor disc, stochastic velocity components were applied at each of twenty blade-element stations. This model was implemented on NASA Ames' Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS), and ten test pilots were used to establish that the model created realistic cues. The objectives of this research included the establishment of a simulation-technology basis for future investigation into real-time turbulence modeling. This goal was achieved; our extensive additions to the rotor model added less than a 10 percent computational overhead. Using a VAX 9000 computer the entire simulation required a cycle time of less than 12 msec. Pilot opinion during this simulation was generally quite favorable. For low speed flight the consensus was that SORBET (acronym for title) was better than the conventional body-fixed model, which was used for comparison purposes, and was determined to be too violent (like a washboard). For high speed flight the pilots could not identify differences between these models. These opinions were something of a surprise because only the vertical turbulence component on the rotor system was implemented in SORBET. Because of the finite-element distribution of the inputs, induced outputs were observed in all translational and rotational axes. Extensive post-simulation spectral analyses of the SORBET model suggest that proper rotorcraft turbulence modeling requires that vertical atmospheric disturbances not be superimposed at the vehicle center of gravity but, rather, be input into the rotor system, where the rotor-to-body transfer function severely attenuates high frequency rotorcraft responses.

  6. Predesign study for a modern 4-bladed rotor for RSRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of providing a modern four-bladed rotor for flight research testing on a rotor system aircraft was evaluated. The capabilities of a state of the art rotor system and the contributions of key design parameters to these capabilities were investigated. Three candidate rotors were examined: the UH-60A BLACK HAWK rotor with and without root extenders and the H-3 composite blade rotor. It was concluded that the technical/cost objectives could best be accomplished using the basic BLACK HAWK rotor (i.e. without root extenders). Further, the availability of three existing sets of blade tip of varying design, together with a demonstrated capability for altering airfoil geometry should provide early research information on important design variables at reduced cost.

  7. A study of autogiro rotor-blade oscillations in the plane of the rotor disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B

    1936-01-01

    An analysis of the factors governing the oscillation of an autogiro rotor blade in the plane of the rotor disk showed that the contribution of the air forces to the resultant motion was small and that the oscillation is essentially a direct effect of the rotor-blade flapping motion. A comparison of calculated oscillations with those measured in flight on three different rotors disclosed that the calculations gave satisfactory agreement with experiment. The calculated air forces on the rotor blade appear to be larger than the experimental ones, but this discrepancy can be attributed to the deficiencies in the strip analysis.

  8. Effect of Helicopter Blade Dynamics on Blade Aerodynamic and Structural Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffernan, Ruth M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of rotor blade dynamics on aerodynamic and structural loads is examined for a conventional, main- rotor helicopter using both a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis (CAMRAD) and night test data. The impact of blade dynamics on blade section lift-coefficient time histories is studied by comparing predictions from both a rigid blade analysis and an elastic blade analysis with helicopter flight test data. The elastic blade analysis better predicts high-frequency behavior of section lift. In addition, components of the blade angle of attack, such as elastic blade twist, blade nap rate, blade slope velocity, and inflow, are examined as a function of blade mode. Elastic blade motion affects the blade angle of attack by a few tenths of a degree, and up to the sixth rotor harmonic. A similar study of the influence of blade dynamics on bending and torsion moments was also conducted. The modal analysis of the predicted blade structural loads suggested that five elastic bending deg of freedom (four flap and one lag) and three elastic torsion deg of freedom contributed to calculations of the blade structural loads. However, when structural bending load predictions from several elastic blade analyses were compared with flight test data, an elastic blade model consisting of only three elastic bending modes (first and second flap, and first lag), and two elastic torsion modes was found to be sufficient for maximum correlation.

  9. Minimum weight design of helicopter rotor blades with frequency constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.

    1989-01-01

    The minimum weight design of helicopter rotor blades subject to constraints on fundamental coupled flap-lag natural frequencies has been studied in this paper. A constraint has also been imposed on the minimum value of the blade autorotational inertia to ensure that the blade has sufficient inertia to autorotate in case of an engine failure. The program CAMRAD has been used for the blade modal analysis and the program CONMIN has been used for the optimization. In addition, a linear approximation analysis involving Taylor series expansion has been used to reduce the analysis effort. The procedure contains a sensitivity analysis which consists of analytical derivatives of the objective function and the autorotational inertia constraint and central finite difference derivatives of the frequency constraints. Optimum designs have been obtained for blades in vacuum with both rectangular and tapered box beam structures. Design variables include taper ratio, nonstructural segment weights and box beam dimensions. The paper shows that even when starting with an acceptable baseline design, a significant amount of weight reduction is possible while satisfying all the constraints for blades with rectangular and tapered box beams.

  10. The effect of helicopter main rotor blade phasing and spacing on performance, blade loads, and acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangwani, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    The performance, blade loads, and acoustic characteristics of a variable geometry rotor (VGR) system in forward flight and in a pullup maneuver were determined by the use of existing analytical programs. The investigation considered the independent effects of vertical separation of two three-bladed rotor systems as well as the effects of azimuthal spacing between the blades of the two rotors. The computations were done to determine the effects of these parameters on the performance, blade loads, and acoustic characteristics at two advance ratios in steady-state level flight and for two different g pullups at one advance ratio. To evaluate the potential benefits of the VGR concept in forward flight and pullup maneuvers, the results were compared as to performance, oscillatory blade loadings, vibratory forces transmitted to the fixed fuselage, and the rotor noise characteristics of the various VGR configurations with those of the conventional six-bladed rotor system.

  11. Composite rotor blades for an experimental 300 kW wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cools, I.J.J.

    1981-05-01

    A description is given of the structural design and manufacture of the blades for an experimental wind turbine with a rotor diameter of 25 meters. Carbon and Aramid fiber composite materials have been applied on a large scale. Because of the experimental character of the turbine, the blade structure was designed to be manufactured with the aid of relatively simple tooling.

  12. Composite rotor blades for an experimental 300 kW wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cools, I. J. J.

    1981-06-01

    A description is given of the structural design and manufacture of the blades for an experimental wind turbine with a rotor diameter of 25 meters. Carbon and Aramid fiber composite materials have been applied on a large scale. Because of the experimental character of the turbine, the blade structure was designed to be manufactured with the aid of relatively simple tooling.

  13. Integral Twist Actuation of Helicopter Rotor Blades for Vibration Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, SangJoon; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2001-01-01

    Active integral twist control for vibration reduction of helicopter rotors during forward flight is investigated. The twist deformation is obtained using embedded anisotropic piezocomposite actuators. An analytical framework is developed to examine integrally-twisted blades and their aeroelastic response during different flight conditions: frequency domain analysis for hover, and time domain analysis for forward flight. Both stem from the same three-dimensional electroelastic beam formulation with geometrical-exactness, and axe coupled with a finite-state dynamic inflow aerodynamics model. A prototype Active Twist Rotor blade was designed with this framework using Active Fiber Composites as the actuator. The ATR prototype blade was successfully tested under non-rotating conditions. Hover testing was conducted to evaluate structural integrity and dynamic response. In both conditions, a very good correlation was obtained against the analysis. Finally, a four-bladed ATR system is built and tested to demonstrate its concept in forward flight. This experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Tansonic Dynamics Tunnel and represents the first-of-a-kind Mach-scaled fully-active-twist rotor system to undergo forward flight test. In parallel, the impact upon the fixed- and rotating-system loads is estimated by the analysis. While discrepancies are found in the amplitude of the loads under actuation, the predicted trend of load variation with respect to its control phase correlates well. It was also shown, both experimentally and numerically, that the ATR blade design has the potential for hub vibratory load reduction of up to 90% using individual blade control actuation. Using the numerical framework, system identification is performed to estimate the harmonic transfer functions. The linear time-periodic system can be represented by a linear time-invariant system under the three modes of blade actuation: collective, longitudinal cyclic, and lateral cyclic. A vibration

  14. Stiffness Characteristics of Composite Rotor Blades With Elastic Couplings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piatak, David J.; Nixon, Mark W.; Kosmatka, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies on rotor aeroelastic response and stability have shown the beneficial effects of incorporating elastic couplings in composite rotor blades. However, none of these studies have clearly identified elastic coupling limits and the effects of elastic couplings on classical beam stiffnesses of representative rotor blades. Knowledge of these limits and effects would greatly enhance future aeroelastic studies involving composite rotor blades. The present study addresses these voids and provides a preliminary design database for investigators who may wish to study the effects of elastic couplings on representative blade designs. The results of the present study should provide a basis for estimating the potential benefits associated with incorporating elastic couplings without the need for first designing a blade cross section and then performing a cross-section analysis to obtain the required beam section properties as is customary in the usual one-dimensional beam-type approach.

  15. Modal analysis of UH-60A instrumented rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamade, Karen S.; Kufeld, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of instrumented and production UH-60A Black Hawk main rotor blades were measured, and the results were validated with NASTRAN finite element models. The blades tested included pressure and strain-gage instrumented blades, which are part of the NASA Airloads Flight Research Phase of the Modern Technology Rotor Program. The dynamic similarity of the blades was required for accurate data collection in this program. Therefore, a nonrotating blade modal analysis was performed on the first 10 free-free modes to measure blade similarities. The results showed small differences between the modal frequencies of instrumented and production blades and a close correlation with the NASTRAN models. This type of modal testing and analysis is recommended as a standard procedure for future instrumented blade flight testing.

  16. Modal analysis of UH 60A instrumented rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamade, Karen S.; Kufeld, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of instrumented and production UH-60A Black Hawk main rotor blades were measured, and the results were validated with NASTRAN finite element models. The blades tested included pressure and strain-gage instrumented blades which are part of NASA's Airloads Flight Research Phase of the Modern Technology Rotor Program. The dynamic similarity of the blades was required for accurate data collection in this program. Therefore, a nonrotating blade modal analysis was performed on the first 10 free-free modes to measure blade similarities. The results showed small differences between the modal frequencies of instrumented and production blades and a close correlation with the NASTRAN models. This type of modal testing and analysis is recommended as a standard procedure for future instrumented blade flight testing.

  17. 14 CFR 27.547 - Main rotor structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Main rotor structure. 27.547 Section 27.547... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Main Component Requirements § 27.547 Main rotor structure. (a) Each main rotor assembly (including rotor hubs and blades) must be designed as prescribed...

  18. Investigation of Maximum Blade Loading Capability of Lift-Offset Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Maximum blade loading capability of a coaxial, lift-offset rotor is investigated using a rotorcraft configuration designed in the context of short-haul, medium-size civil and military missions. The aircraft was sized for a 6600-lb payload and a range of 300 nm. The rotor planform and twist were optimized for hover and cruise performance. For the present rotor performance calculations, the collective pitch angle is progressively increased up to and through stall with the shaft angle set to zero. The effects of lift offset on rotor lift, power, controls, and blade airloads and structural loads are examined. The maximum lift capability of the coaxial rotor increases as lift offset increases and extends well beyond the McHugh lift boundary as the lift potential of the advancing blades are fully realized. A parametric study is conducted to examine the differences between the present coaxial rotor and the McHugh rotor in terms of maximum lift capabilities and to identify important design parameters that define the maximum lift capability of the rotor. The effects of lift offset on rotor blade airloads and structural loads are also investigated. Flap bending moment increases substantially as lift offset increases to carry the hub roll moment even at low collective values. The magnitude of flap bending moment is dictated by the lift-offset value (hub roll moment) but is less sensitive to collective and speed.

  19. Analysis and Tests of Pultruded Blades for Wind Turbine Rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M. C.; Olsen, T.; Quandt, G.; Archidiacono, P.

    1999-07-19

    PS Enterprises, Inc. investigated a flexible, downwind, free-yaw, five-blade rotor system employing pultruded blades. A rotor was designed, manufactured and tested in the field. A preliminary design study and proof of concept test were conducted to assess the feasibility of using pultruded blades for wind turbine rotors. A 400 kW turbine was selected for the design study and a scaled 80 kW rotor was fabricated and field tested as a demonstration of the concept. The design studies continued to support the premise that pultruded blades offer the potential for significant reductions in rotor weight and cost. The field test provided experimental performance and loads data that compared well with predictions using the FLEXDYNE aeroelastic analysis. The field test also demonstrated stable yaw behavior and the absence of stall flutter over the wind conditions tested. During the final year of the contract, several studies were conducted by a number of independent consultants to address specific technical issues related to pultruded blades that could impact the commercial viability of turbines using this technology. The issues included performance, tower strikes, yaw stability, stall flutter, fatigue, and costs. While the performance of straight pultruded blades was projected to suffer a penalty of about 13% over fully twisted and tapered blades, the study showed that an aerodynamic fairing over the inner 40% could recover 85% of that loss while still keeping the blade cost well below that of conventional blades. Other results of the study showed that with proper design, rotors using pultruded blades could operate without aeroelastic problems, have acceptable fatigue life, and cost less than half that of rotors employing conventionally manufactured blades.

  20. Anisotropic piezoelectric twist actuation of helicopter rotor blades: Aeroelastic analysis and design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkie, William Keats

    1997-12-01

    An aeroelastic model suitable for control law and preliminary structural design of composite helicopter rotor blades incorporating embedded anisotropic piezoelectric actuator laminae is developed. The aeroelasticity model consists of a linear, nonuniform beam representation of the blade structure, including linear piezoelectric actuation terms, coupled with a nonlinear, finite-state unsteady aerodynamics model. A Galerkin procedure and numerical integration in the time domain are used to obtain a soluti An aeroelastic model suitable for control law and preliminary structural design of composite helicopter rotor blades incorporating embedded anisotropic piezoelectric actuator laminae is developed. The aeroelasticity model consists of a linear, nonuniform beam representation of the blade structure, including linear piezoelectric actuation terms, coupled with a nonlinear, finite-state unsteady aerodynamics model. A Galerkin procedure and numerical integration in the time domain are used to obtain amited additional piezoelectric material mass, it is shown that blade twist actuation approaches which exploit in-plane piezoelectric free-stain anisotropies are capable of producing amplitudes of oscillatory blade twisting sufficient for rotor vibration reduction applications. The second study examines the effectiveness of using embedded piezoelectric actuator laminae to alleviate vibratory loads due to retreating blade stall. A 10 to 15 percent improvement in dynamic stall limited forward flight speed, and a 5 percent improvement in stall limited rotor thrust were numerically demonstrated for the active twist rotor blade relative to a conventional blade design. The active twist blades are also demonstrated to be more susceptible than the conventional blades to dynamic stall induced vibratory loads when not operating with twist actuation. This is the result of designing the active twist blades with low torsional stiffness in order to maximize piezoelectric twist authority

  1. Growian rotor blades: Production development, construction and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiele, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Development and construction of three 50 m rotor blades for a 3 MW wind turbine are described. A hybrid concept was chosen, i.e., a load carrying inflexible steel spar and a glass fiber reinforced plastic skin. A test blade was constructed and static loading tests, dynamic vibration tests and fatigue tests on critical welds as well as at the connection between spar and blade skin were performed. All test results show good accordance with calculated values, and were taken into consideration during the construction of two rotor blades.

  2. Flap/Lag/Torsion Dynamics of a Uniform, Cantilever Rotor Blade in Hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic stability of the flap/lag/torsion motion of a uniform, cantilever rotor blade in hover is calculated. The influence of blade collective pitch, lag frequency, torsional flexibility, structural coupling, and precone angle on the stability is examined. Good agreement is found with the results of an independent analytical investigation.

  3. A Novel Method for Reducing Rotor Blade-Vortex Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glinka, A. T.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major hindrances to expansion of the rotorcraft market is the high-amplitude noise they produce, especially during low-speed descent, where blade-vortex interactions frequently occur. In an attempt to reduce the noise levels caused by blade-vortex interactions, the flip-tip rotor blade concept was devised. The flip-tip rotor increases the miss distance between the shed vortices and the rotor blades, reducing BVI noise. The distance is increased by rotating an outboard portion of the rotor tip either up or down depending on the flight condition. The proposed plan for the grant consisted of a computational simulation of the rotor aerodynamics and its wake geometry to determine the effectiveness of the concept, coupled with a series of wind tunnel experiments exploring the value of the device and validating the computer model. The computational model did in fact show that the miss distance could be increased, giving a measure of the effectiveness of the flip-tip rotor. However, the wind experiments were not able to be conducted. Increased outside demand for the 7'x lO' wind tunnel at NASA Ames and low priority at Ames for this project forced numerous postponements of the tests, eventually pushing the tests beyond the life of the grant. A design for the rotor blades to be tested in the wind tunnel was completed and an analysis of the strength of the model blades based on predicted loads, including dynamic forces, was done.

  4. CFD analysis of rotating two-bladed flatback wind turbine rotor.

    SciTech Connect

    van Dam, C.P.; Chao, David D.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01

    The effects of modifying the inboard portion of the NREL Phase VI rotor using a thickened, flatback version of the S809 design airfoil are studied using a three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method. A motivation for using such a thicker airfoil design coupled with a blunt trailing edge is to alleviate structural constraints while reducing blade weight and maintaining the power performance of the rotor. The calculated results for the baseline Phase VI rotor are benchmarked against wind tunnel results obtained at 10, 7, and 5 meters per second. The calculated results for the modified rotor are compared against those of the baseline rotor. The results of this study demonstrate that a thick, flatback blade profile is viable as a bridge to connect structural requirements with aerodynamic performance in designing future wind turbine rotors.

  5. Experimental study of complex flow and turbulence structure around a turbomachine rotor blade operating behind a row of Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soranna, Francesco

    The flow and turbulence around a rotor blade operating downstream of a row of Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) are investigated experimentally in a refractive index matched turbomachinery facility that provides unobstructed view of the entire flow field. High resolution 2D and Stereoscopic PIV measurements are performed both at midspan and in the tip region of the rotor blade, focusing on effects of wake-blade, wake-boundary-layer and wake-wake interactions. We first examine the modification to the shape of an IGV-wake as well as to the spatial distribution of turbulence within it as the wake propagates along the rotor blade. Due to the spatially non-uniform velocity distribution, the IGV wake deforms through the rotor passage, expanding near the leading edge and shrinking near the trailing edge. The turbulence within this wake becomes spatially non-uniform and highly anisotropic as a result of interaction with the non-uniform strain rate field within the rotor passage. Several mechanisms, which are associated with rapid straining and highly non-uniform production rate (P), including negative production on the suction side of the blade, contribute to the observed trends. During IGV-wake impingement, the suction side boundary layer near the trailing edge becomes significantly thinner, with lower momentum thickness and more stable profile compared to other phases at the same location. Analysis of available terms in the integral momentum equation indicates that the phase-averaged unsteady term is the main contributor to the decrease in momentum thickness within the impinging wake. Thinning of the boundary/shear layer extends into the rotor near wake, making it narrower and increasing the phase averaged shear velocity gradients and associated production term just downstream of the trailing edge. Consequently, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) increases causing as much as 75% phase-dependent variations in peak TKE magnitude. Further away from the blade, the rotor wake is bent

  6. Correlation of airloads on a two-bladed helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Francisco; Johnson, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Airloads measured on a two-bladed helicopter rotor in flight, from the Tip Aerodynamic and Acoustic Test, are compared with calculations from a comprehensive helicopter analysis (CAMRAD/JA), and the pressures compared with calculations from a full-potential rotor code (FPR). The flight test results cover an advance ratio range from 0.19 to 0.38. The lowest speed case is characterized by the presence of significant blade-vortex interactions. Good correlation of peak-to-peak vortex-induced loads and the corresponding pressures is obtained. The results of the correlation for this two-bladed rotor are substantially similar to the results for three- and four-bladed rotors, concerning the tip vortex core size for best correlation, calculation of the peak-to-peak loads on the retreating side, and calculation of vortex-induced loads on inboard radial stations.

  7. Blade loss dynamics of a magnetically supported rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viggiano, F.; Schweitzer, G.

    The equations for a rigid rotor in magnetic bearings are derived and examined for their response following a sudden unbalance created by a blade loss. The investigations concentrate on the maximum transient and steady-state response after unbalance. The analytical results are compared with experiments which were performed on a magnetic bearing test stand at our laboratory. A major result is that magnetic bearings are very well suited to cope with the loss of a rotor blade.

  8. Investigation of rotor blade roughness effects on turbine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, J. L.; Tabibzadeh, R.; Hudson, S. T.

    1992-01-01

    The cold air test program was completed on the SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) HPFTP (High Pressure Fuel Turbopump) turbine with production nozzle vane rings and polished coated rotor blades with a smooth surface finish of 30 microinch (0.76 micrometer) RMS (Root Mean Square). The smooth blades were polished by an abrasive flow machining process. The test results were compared with the air test results from production rough coated rotor blades with a surface finish of up to 400 microinch (10.16 micrometer) RMS. Turbine efficiency was higher for the smooth blades over the entire range tested. Efficiency increased 2.1 percentage points at the SSME 104 percent RPL (Rated Power Level) condition. This efficiency improvement could reduce the SSME HPFTP turbine inlet temperature by 57 degrees Rankine (32 degrees Kelvin) increasing turbine durability. The turbine flow parameter increased and the mid-span outlet swirl angle became more axial with the smooth rotor blades.

  9. Thermographic inspection of a wind turbine rotor blade segment utilizing natural conditions as excitation source, Part I: Solar excitation for detecting deep structures in GFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worzewski, Tamara; Krankenhagen, Rainer; Doroshtnasir, Manoucher; Röllig, Mathias; Maierhofer, Christiane; Steinfurth, Henrik

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates whether subsurface features in rotor blades, mainly made of Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics (GFRP), can generally be detected with "solar thermography". First, the suitability of the sun is tested for acting as a heat source for applying active thermography on a 30 mm thick GFRP test specimen. Second, a defective rotor blade segment is inspected outdoors under ideal natural conditions using the sun as excitation source. Additionally, numerical FEM-simulations are performed and the comparability between experiment and simulation is evaluated for outdoor measurements.

  10. Dynamic analysis of pretwisted elastically-coupled rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Mark W.; Hinnant, Howard E.

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy of using a one-dimensional analysis to predict frequencies of elastically-coupled highly-twisted rotor blades is addressed. Degrees of freedom associated with shear deformation are statically condensed from the formulation, so the analysis uses only those degrees of freedom associated with classical beam theory. The effects of cross section deformation (warping) are considered, and are shown to become significant for some types of elastic coupling. Improved results are demonstrated for highly-coupled blade structures through account of warping in a local cross section analysis, without explicit inclusion of these effects in the beam analysis. A convergence study is also provided which investigates the potential for improving efficiency of elastically-coupled beam analysis through implementation of a p-version beam finite element.

  11. Sweep-twist adaptive rotor blade : final project report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-02-01

    Knight & Carver was contracted by Sandia National Laboratories to develop a Sweep Twist Adaptive Rotor (STAR) blade that reduced operating loads, thereby allowing a larger, more productive rotor. The blade design used outer blade sweep to create twist coupling without angled fiber. Knight & Carver successfully designed, fabricated, tested and evaluated STAR prototype blades. Through laboratory and field tests, Knight & Carver showed the STAR blade met the engineering design criteria and economic goals for the program. A STAR prototype was successfully tested in Tehachapi during 2008 and a large data set was collected to support engineering and commercial development of the technology. This report documents the methodology used to develop the STAR blade design and reviews the approach used for laboratory and field testing. The effort demonstrated that STAR technology can provide significantly greater energy capture without higher operating loads on the turbine.

  12. Effect of helicopter blade dynamics on blade aerodynamic and structural loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffernan, Ruth M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of rotor blade dynamics on aerodynamic and structural loads is examined for a conventional, main-rotor helicopter using a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis (CAMRAD) and flight-test data. The impact of blade dynamics on blade section lift-coefficient time histories is studied by comparing predictions from a rigid-blade analysis and an elastic-blade analysis with helicopter flight test data. The elastic blade analysis better predicts high-frequency behavior of section lift. In addition, components of the blade angle of attack such as elastic blade twist, blade flap rate, blade slope velocity, and inflow are examined as a function of blade mode. Elastic blade motion changed blade angle of attack by a few tenths of a degree, and up to the sixth rotor harmonic. A similar study of the influence of blade dynamics on bending and torsion moments was also conducted. A correlation study comparing predictions from several elastic-blade analyses with flight-test data revealed that an elastic-blade model consisting of only three elastic bending modes (first and second flap and first lag), and two elastic torsion modes was sufficient for good correlation.

  13. A new dynamic model of rotor-blade systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Lu, Yang; Wu, Zhiyuan; Tai, Xingyu; Li, Hui; Wen, Bangchun

    2015-11-01

    A new dynamic model of rotor-blade systems is developed in this paper considering the lateral and torsional deformations of the shaft, gyroscopic effects of the rotor which consists of shaft and disk, and the centrifugal stiffening, spin softening and Coriolis force of the blades. In this model, the rotating flexible blades are represented by Timoshenko beams. The shaft and rigid disk are described by multiple lumped mass points (LMPs), and these points are connected by massless springs which have both lateral and torsional stiffness. LMPs are represented by the corresponding masses and mass moments of inertia in lateral and rotational directions, where each point has five degrees of freedom (dofs) excluding axial dof. Equations of motion of the rotor-blade system are derived using Hamilton's principle in conjunction with the assumed modes method to describe blade deformation. The proposed model is compared with both finite element (FE) model and real experiments. The proposed model is first validated by comparing the model natural frequencies and vibration responses with those obtained from an FE model. A further verification of the model is then performed by comparing the model natural frequencies at zero rotational speed with those obtained from experimental studies. The results shown a good agreement between the model predicted system characteristics and those obtained from the FE model and experimental tests. Moreover, the following interesting phenomena have been revealed from the new model based analysis: The torsional natural frequency of the system decreases with the increase of rotational speed, and the frequency veering phenomenon has been observed at high rotational speed; The complicated coupling modes, such as the blade-blade coupling mode (BB), the coupling mode between the rotor lateral vibration and blade bending (RBL), and the coupling mode between the rotor torsional vibration and blade bending (RBT), have also been observed when the number of

  14. Early operation experience on the ERDA/NASA 100 kW wind turbine. [rotor blade loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, J. C.; Linscott, B. S.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) wind energy program, NASA Lewis Research Center is testing an experimental 100-kW wind turbine. Rotor blade and drive shaft loads and tower deflection were measured during operation of the wind turbine at rated rpm. The blade loads measured are higher than anticipated. Preliminary results indicate that air flow blockage by the tower structure probably caused the high rotor blade bending moments.

  15. Shaft-Torsion and Blade-Bending Coupling Vibrations in a Rotor System with Grouped Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shyh-Chin; Chiu, Yi-Jui

    This paper discussed the shaft-torsion and blade-bending coupling vibrations of a rotor system, in which the blades were grouped with lacing wires. Massless tension springs were used for modeling the lacing wires. An energy principle in conjunction with the assumed modes method was employed to yield the discrete equations of motion. The natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the system were solved for five- and six-blade cases as examples. Numerical results showed how the natural frequencies varied with the wire stiffness, connecting position, and the rotational speed. The diagrams of the coupling mode shapes and FRF's were drawn. From the results, it was found that lacing wire did not affect the SB (shaft-blades) coupling modes, but the BB (inter-blades) modes were indeed affected by the lacing wire. At moderate range of wire stiffness, the repeated BB modes split into more distinct modes. As expected, increasing the wire stiffness or connecting near outer edge would strengthen the system structure and increasing the natural frequencies of BB modes.

  16. Prediction of stochastic blade loads for three-bladed, rigid-hub rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. D.; Weber, Tim L.; Thresher, R. W.; Butterfield, C. P.

    1989-11-01

    Accurately predicting wind turbine blade loads and response is important for the design of future wind turbines. The need to include turbulent wind inputs in structural dynamics models is widely recognized. The Force and Loads Analysis Program (FLAP) code is used to predict turbulence induced bending moments for the SERI Combined Experiment rotor blade and the Howden 330 kW blade. FLAP code predictions is compared to the power spectra of measured blade bending moments. Two methods are used to generate turbulent wind inputs to FLAP: a theoretical simulation: the Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) simulation theory; and measured wind speed data taken from an array of anemometers upwind of the turbine. Turbulent wind speed time series are input to FLAP for both methods outlined above. Power spectra of predicted flap bending moments are compared to measured results for different wind conditions. Conclusions are also drawn as to the ability of the turbulence simulation models to provide accurate wind input to FLAP and to FLAP's ability to accurately simulate blade response to turbulence. Finally, suggestions are made as to needed improvements in the theoretical model.

  17. Prediction of stochastic blade loads for three-bladed, rigid-hub rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.D.; Weber, T.L.; Thresher, R.W.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1989-11-01

    Accurately predicting wind turbine blade loads and response is important for the design of future wind turbines. The need to include turbulent wind inputs in structural dynamics models is widely recognized. In this paper, the Force and Loads Analysis Program (FLAP) code will be used to predict turbulence-induced bending moments for the SERI Combined Experiment rotor blade and the Howden 330-kW blade. FLAP code predictions will be compared to the power spectra of measured blade-bending moments. Two methods will be used to generate turbulent wind inputs to FLAP: a theoretical simulation: the Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) simulation theory; and measured wind-speed data taken from an array of anemometers upwind of the turbine. Turbulent wind-speed time series are input to FLAP for both methods outlined above. Power spectra of predicted flap-bending moments are compared to measured results for different wind conditions. Conclusions are also drawn as to the ability of the turbulence simulation models to provide accurate wind input to FLAP and to FLAP's ability to accurately simulate blade response to turbulence. Finally, suggestions are made as to needed improvements in the theoretical model. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Finite element analysis for bearingless rotor blade aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivaneri, N. T.; Chopra, I.

    1982-01-01

    A conventional articulated rotor blade has mechanical flap and lag hinges, a lag damper, and a pitch bearing. In connection with an interest in designs of greater mechanical simplicity and increased maintainability, hingeless and bearingless rotors have been developed. A hingeless blade lacks the hinges and is cantilevered at the hub. It does have a pitch bearing for pitch control. A bearingless design eliminates the hinges and the pitch bearing as well. In the present investigation of bearingless rotor blade characteristics, finite element analysis has been successfully applied to determine the solutions of the nonlinear trim equations and the linearized flutter equations of multiple-load-path blades. The employed formulation is based on Hamilton's principle. The spatial dependence of the equations of motion is discretized by dividing the flexbeams, the torque tube, and the outboard into a number of elements.

  19. Measurements of wakes originated from 2-bladed and 3-bladed rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Lyu, Shao-Dong; Chen, Bo-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of wakes originated from 2-bladed and 3-bladed rotors were carried out using a hot-wire probe system in an open jet wind tunnel. Hot-wire anemometry was adopted to characterize the spanwise profiles of mean wind speed, turbulence intensity and momentum flux for downwind locations at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 rotor diameters. The results showed that the 2-bladed rotor spun faster than the 3-bladed one, where the ratio of the two blade angular velocities was 1.065:1 under the same inflow condition with a uniform distribution of 5.4 m/s flow velocity. The turbulence flow statistics of the rotor wakes showed that the wake originated from the 3-bladed rotor has larger velocity deficit, streamwise turbulence intensity, momentum flux magnitude, but smaller spanwise turbulence intensity. The velocity spectrum showed peaks associated with the presence of the blade-induced tip vortices in the near wake region (approximately within 3 rotor diameters).

  20. Effects of blade-to-blade dissimilarities on rotor-body lead-lag dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Small blade-to-blade property differences are investigated to determine their effects on the behavior of a simple rotor-body system. An analytical approach is used which emphasizes the significance of these effects from the experimental point of view. It is found that the primary effect of blade-to-blade dissimilarities is the appearance of additional peaks in the frequency spectrum which are separated from the convention response modes by multiples of the rotor speed. These additional responses are potential experimental problems because when they occur near a mode of interest they act as contaminant frequencies which can make damping measurements difficult. The effects of increased rotor-body coupling and a rotor shaft degree of freedom act to improve the situation by altering the frequency separation of the modes.

  1. Effects of blade-to-blade dissimilarities on rotor-body lead-lag dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Small blade-to-blade property differences are investigated to determine their effects on the behavior of a simple rotor-body system. An analytical approach is used which emphasizes the significance of these effects from the experimental point of view. It is found that the primary effect of blade-to-blade dissimilarities is the appearance of additional peaks in the frequency spectrum which are separated from the conventional response modes by multiples of the rotor speed. These additional responses are potential experimental problems because when they occur near a mode of interest they act as contaminant frequencies which can make damping measurements difficult. The effects of increased rotor-body coupling and a rotor shaft degree of freedom act to improve the situation by altering the frequency separation of the modes.

  2. Effects of Blade to Blade Dissimilarities on Rotor Body Lead Lag Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNulty, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Small blade-to-blade property differences are investigated to determine how they affect the behavior of a simple rotor-body system. An analytical approach is used which emphasizes the significance of these effects from the experimental point of view. It is found that the primary effect of blade-to-blade dissimilarities is the appearance of additional peaks in the frequency spectrum which are separated from the conventional response peaks by multiples of the rotor speed. These additional responses are potential experimental problems because when they occur near a mode of interest they act as contaminant frequencies which can make damping measurements difficult. Increased rotor-body coupling and a rotor shaft degree of freedom act to improve the situation by altering the frequency separation of the modes.

  3. Eulerian laser Doppler vibrometry: Online blade damage identification on a multi-blade test rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberholster, A. J.; Heyns, P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Laser Doppler vibrometry enables the telemetry-free measurement of online turbomachinery blade vibration. Specifically, the Eulerian or fixed reference frame implementation of laser vibrometry provides a practical solution to the condition monitoring of rotating blades. The short data samples that are characteristic of this measurement approach do however negate the use of traditional frequency domain signal processing techniques. It is therefore necessary to employ techniques such as time domain analysis and non-harmonic Fourier analysis to obtain useful information from the blade vibration signatures. The latter analysis technique allows the calculation of phase angle trends which can be used as indicators of blade health deterioration, as has been shown in previous work for a single-blade rotor. This article presents the results from tests conducted on a five-blade axial-flow test rotor at different rotor speeds and measurement positions. With the aid of artificial neural networks, it is demonstrated that the parameters obtained from non-harmonic Fourier analysis and time domain signal processing on Eulerian laser Doppler vibrometry signals can successfully be used to identify and quantify blade damage from among healthy blades. It is also shown that the natural frequencies of individual blades can be approximated from the Eulerian signatures recorded during rotor run-up and run-down.

  4. A rotor technology assessment of the advancing blade concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pleasants, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    A rotor technology assessment of the Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) was conducted in support of a preliminary design study. The analytical methodology modifications and inputs, the correlation, and the results of the assessment are documented. The primary emphasis was on the high-speed forward flight performance of the rotor. The correlation data base included both the wind tunnel and the flight test results. An advanced ABC rotor design was examined; the suitability of the ABC for a particular mission was not considered. The objective of this technology assessment was to provide estimates of the performance potential of an advanced ABC rotor designed for high speed forward flight.

  5. Helicopter tail rotor blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.; Chou, S.-T.

    1987-01-01

    A study is made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to the interactions with main rotor tip vortices. Summarized here are present analysis, the computer codes, and the results of several test cases. Amiet's unsteady thin airfoil theory is used to calculate the acoustics of blade-vortex interaction. The noise source is modelled as a force dipole resulting from an airfoil of infinite span chopping through a skewed line vortex. To analyze the interactions between helicopter tail rotor and main rotor tip vortices, we developed a two-step approach: (1) the main rotor tip vortex system is obtained through a free wake geometry calculation of the main rotor using CAMRAD code; (2) acoustic analysis takes the results from the aerodynamic interaction analysis and calculates the farfield pressure signatures for the interactions. It is found that under a wide range of helicopter flight conditions, acoustic pressure fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly on the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors. fluctuations of significant magnitude can be generated by tail rotors due to a series of interactions with main rotor tip vortices. This noise mechanism depends strongly upon the helicopter flight conditions and the relative location and phasing of the main and tail rotors.

  6. Three-dimensional viscous drag prediction for rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ching S.

    1989-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in rotor blade drag prediction involves the use of two-dimensional airfoil tables to calculate the drag force on the blade. One of the most serious problems with the current methods is that they cannot be used for airfoils that have yet to be tested. Most of the drag prediction methods also do not take the Reynolds number or the rotational effects of the blade into account, raising doubts about the accuracy of the results. These problems are addressed with the development of an analytical method which includes the shape of airfoil, the effects of Reynolds number, and the rotational motion of the blade.

  7. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan

  8. An experimental investigation of the helicopter rotor blade element airloads on a model rotor in the blade stall regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. K., Jr.; Tompkins, J. E.; Bobo, C. J.; Child, R. F.

    1971-01-01

    A wind tunnel test program was conducted on an eight foot diameter model rotor system to determine blade element airloads characteristics in the unstalled and stalled flight regimes. The fully articulated model rotor system utilized three blades with a Vertol 23010-1.58 airfoil section, the blades being 1/7.5 scale models of the Ch-47C rotor blades. Instrumentation was incorporated at the blade 75% radial station to measure pressure and skin friction distributions, surface streamline directions and local angle of attack. The test program was conducted in three phases; non-rotating, hover and forward flight at advance ratios of 0.15, 0.35 and 0.60. Test data were analyzed with respect to providing insight to the mechanisms affecting blade stall, particularly retreating blade stall during forward flight conditions. From such data, an assessment was made as to the applicability of current theoretical analyses used for the prediction of blade element airloads in the stall regime.

  9. Advanced Technology Blade testing on the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, Brent

    1992-01-01

    The XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft has just completed the first series of flight tests with the Advanced Technology Blade (ATB) rotor system. The ATB are designed specifically for flight research and provide the ability to alter blade sweep and tip shape. A number of problems were encountered from first installation through envelope expansion to airplane mode flight that required innovative solutions to establish a suitable flight envelope. Prior to operation, the blade retention hardware had to be requalified to a higher rated centrifugal load, because the blade weight was higher than expected. Early flights in the helicopter mode revealed unacceptably high vibratory control system loads which required a temporary modification of the rotor controls to achieve higher speed flight and conversion to airplane mode. The airspeed in airplane mode was limited, however, because of large static control loads. Furthermore, analyses based on refined ATB blade mass and inertia properties indicated a previously unknown high-speed blade mode instability, also requiring airplane-mode maximum airspeed to be restricted. Most recently, a structural failure of an ATB cuff (root fairing) assembly retention structure required a redesign of the assembly. All problems have been addressed and satisfactory solutions have been found to allow continued productive flight research of the emerging tilt rotor concept.

  10. Lift capability prediction for helicopter rotor blade-numerical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ; Luculescu, Doru

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe the key physical features for modelling the unsteady aerodynamic effects found on helicopter rotor blade operating under nominally attached flow conditions away from stall. The unsteady effects were considered as phase differences between the forcing function and the aerodynamic response, being functions of the reduced frequency, the Mach number and the mode forcing. For a helicopter rotor, the reduced frequency at any blade element can't be exactly calculated but a first order approximation for the reduced frequency gives useful information about the degree of unsteadiness. The sources of unsteady effects were decomposed into perturbations to the local angle of attack and velocity field. The numerical calculus and graphics were made in FLUENT and MAPLE soft environments. This mathematical model is applicable for aerodynamic design of wind turbine rotor blades, hybrid energy systems optimization and aeroelastic analysis.

  11. Predesign study for a modern 4-bladed rotor for the NASA rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, H. E.; Burkam, J. E.; Heminway, R. C.; Keys, C. N.; Smith, K. E.; Smith, J. H.; Staley, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Trade-off study results and the rationale for the final selection of an existing modern four-bladed rotor system that can be adapted for installation on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) are reported. The results of the detailed integration studies, parameter change studies, and instrumentation studies and the recommended plan for development and qualification of the rotor system is also given. Its parameter variants, integration on the RSRA, and support of ground and flight test programs are also discussed.

  12. Nondestructive evaluation of helicopter rotor blades using guided Lamb modes.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Barnard, Daniel; Dayal, Vinay

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an application for turning and direct modes in a complex composite laminate structure. The propagation and interaction of turning modes and fundamental Lamb modes are investigated in the skin, spar and web sections of a helicopter rotor blade. Finite element models were used to understand the various mode conversions at geometric discontinuities such as web-spar joints. Experimental investigation was carried out with the help of air coupled ultrasonic transducers. The turning and direct modes were confirmed with the help of particle displacements and velocities. Experimental B-Scans were performed on damaged and undamaged samples for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the structure. A strong correlation between the numerical and experimental results was observed and reported. PMID:24210414

  13. Mach number scaling of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighton, Kenneth P.; Harris, Wesley L.

    1985-01-01

    A parametric study of model helicopter rotor blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) was conducted in a 5 by 7.5-foot anechoic wind tunnel using model helicopter rotors with two, three, and four blades. The results were compared with a previously developed Mach number scaling theory. Three- and four-bladed rotor configurations were found to show very good agreement with the Mach number to the sixth power law for all conditions tested. A reduction of conditions for which BVI blade slap is detected was observed for three-bladed rotors when compared to the two-bladed baseline. The advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotor exhibited an angular dependence not present for the two-bladed configuration. The upper limits for the advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotors increased with increasing rotational speed.

  14. Characteristics of lightly loaded fan rotor blade wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, B.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1979-01-01

    Low subsonic and incompressible wake flow downstream of lightly loaded rotor was studied. Measurements of mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds stress, and static variations across the rotor wake at various axial and radial locations were investigated. Wakes were measured at various rotor blade incidences to discern the effect of blade loading on the rotor wake. Mean velocity and turbulence measurements were carried out with a triaxial hot wire probe both rotating with the rotor and stationary behind the rotor. Results indicate that increased loading slows the decay rates of axial and tangential mean velocity defects and radial velocities in the wake. The presence of large radial velocities in the rotor wake indicate the extent of the interactions between one radius and another. Appreciable static pressure variations across the rotor wake were found in the near wake region. Similarity in the profile shape was found for the axial and tangential components of the mean velocity and in the outer layer for axial, tangential, and radial turbulence intensities.

  15. Savonius rotor using swinging blades as an augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldos, T. K.

    The power output from a Savonius rotor can be improved by reducing the drag force on the up-wind blades. A new method of doing this is experimentally investigated in the present work. The method depends on allowing the rotor blades to swing back when they are on the upwind stroke. A high and real power augmentation may be achieved by the new system at an optimum angle of swing. The system is independent of wind direction, is simple to construct, and requires no additional accessories.

  16. Hover Testing of the NASA/Army/MIT Active Twist Rotor Prototype Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, Sangloon

    2000-01-01

    Helicopter rotor individual blade control promises to provide a mechanism for increased rotor performance and reduced rotorcraft vibrations and noise. Active material methods, such as piezoelectrically actuated trailing-edge flaps and strain-induced rotor blade twisting, provide a means of accomplishing individual blade control without the need for hydraulic power in the rotating system. Recent studies have indicated that controlled strain induced blade twisting can be attained using piezoelectric active fiber composite technology. In order to validate these findings experimentally, a cooperative effort between NASA Langley Research Center, the Army Research Laboratory, and the MIT Active Materials and Structures Laboratory has been developed. As a result of this collaboration an aeroelastically-scaled active-twist model rotor blade has been designed and fabricated for testing in the heavy gas environment of the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The results of hover tests of the active-twist prototype blade are presented in this paper. Comparisons with applicable analytical predictions of active-twist frequency response in hovering flight are also presented.

  17. Correlation of airloads on a two-bladed helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Francisco J.; Johnson, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    Airloads measured on a two-bladed helicopter rotor in flight during the Ames' Tip Aerodynamic and Acoustic Test are compared with calculations from a comprehensive helicopter analysis (CAMRAD/JA), and the pressures compared with calculations from a full-potential rotor code (FPR). The flight-test results cover an advance ratio range of 0.19 to 0.38. The lowest-speed case is characterized by the presence of significant blade-vortex interactions. Good correlation of peak-to-peak vortex-induced loads and the corresponding pressures is obtained. Results of the correlation for this two-bladed rotor are substantially similar to those for three- and four-bladed rotors, including the tip-vortex core size for best correlation, calculation of the peak-to-peak loads on the retreating side, and calculation of vortex iduced loads on inboard radial stations. The higher-speed cases are characterized by the presence of transonic flow on the outboard sections of the blade. Comparison of calculated and measured airloads on the advancing side is not considered appropriate because the presence of shocks makes chordwise integration of the measured data difficult. However, good correlation of the corresponding pressures is obtained.

  18. Aeroelastic Stability of Rotor Blades Using Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chopra, I.; Sivaneri, N.

    1982-01-01

    The flutter stability of flap bending, lead-lag bending, and torsion of helicopter rotor blades in hover is investigated using a finite element formulation based on Hamilton's principle. The blade is divided into a number of finite elements. Quasi-steady strip theory is used to evaluate the aerodynamic loads. The nonlinear equations of motion are solved for steady-state blade deflections through an iterative procedure. The equations of motion are linearized assuming blade motion to be a small perturbation about the steady deflected shape. The normal mode method based on the coupled rotating natural modes is used to reduce the number of equations in the flutter analysis. First the formulation is applied to single-load-path blades (articulated and hingeless blades). Numerical results show very good agreement with existing results obtained using the modal approach. The second part of the application concerns multiple-load-path blades, i.e. bearingless blades. Numerical results are presented for several analytical models of the bearingless blade. Results are also obtained using an equivalent beam approach wherein a bearingless blade is modelled as a single beam with equivalent properties. Results show the equivalent beam model.

  19. Magnetic nondestructive testing of rotor blade tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Marsili, R.; Rossi, G.; Tomassini, R.

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with a particular magnetic nondestructive technique applied to the control of the position of the steel blades in rotating parts of turbines and engines. The working principle is based on a bridge of four identical magneto-resistive sensors. One sensor is placed near the blades, and the change in magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet and deviated by the change in position of the blade is detected by the sensor bridge. The position of the sensor is indicated, via dedicated FEM simulations, in order to have high sensitivity to the position change and high output signal. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method are shown by experimental tests carried out in our laboratories. In particular, the tests indicate that the proposed magnetic nondestructive technique can be used in an almost large velocity range, and for quite different values of blade tip. The method seems also promising for the detection of blade vibrations.

  20. 14 CFR 33.94 - Blade containment and rotor unbalance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blade containment and rotor unbalance tests... Blade containment and rotor unbalance tests. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, it....p.m. The blade failure must occur at the outermost retention groove or, for integrally-bladed...

  1. Acoustic design of rotor blades using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, V. L.; Han, A. Y.; Crossley, W. A.

    1995-01-01

    A genetic algorithm coupled with a simplified acoustic analysis was used to generate low-noise rotor blade designs. The model includes thickness, steady loading and blade-vortex interaction noise estimates. The paper presents solutions for several variations in the fitness function, including thickness noise only, loading noise only, and combinations of the noise types. Preliminary results indicate that the analysis provides reasonable assessments of the noise produced, and that genetic algorithm successfully searches for 'good' designs. The results show that, for a given required thrust coefficient, proper blade design can noticeably reduce the noise produced at some expense to the power requirements.

  2. Aeroelastic behavior of composite rotor blades with swept tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kuo-An; Friedmann, Peretz P.; Venkatesan, Comandur

    This paper presents an analytical study of the aeroelastic behavior of composite rotor blades with straight and swept tips. The blade is modeled by beam type finite elements. A single finite element is used to model the swept tip. The nonlinear equations of motion for the finite element model are derived using Hamilton's principle and based on a moderate deflection theory and accounts for: arbitrary cross-sectional shape, pretwist, generally anisotropic material behavior, transverse shears and out-of-plane warping. Numerical results illustrating the effects of tip sweep, anhedral and composite ply orientation on blade aeroelastic behavior are presented. It is shown that composite ply orientation has a substantial effect on blade stability. At low thrust conditions, certain ply orientations can cause instability in the lag mode. The flap-torsion coupling associated with tip sweep can also induce aeroelastic instability in the blade. This instability can be removed by appropriate ply orientation in the composite construction.

  3. Aeroelastic behavior of composite rotor blades with swept tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Kuo-An; Friedmann, Peretz P.; Venkatesan, Comandur

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the aeroelastic behavior of composite rotor blades with straight and swept tips. The blade is modeled by beam type finite elements. A single finite element is used to model the swept tip. The nonlinear equations of motion for the finite element model are derived using Hamilton's principle and based on a moderate deflection theory and accounts for: arbitrary cross-sectional shape, pretwist, generally anisotropic material behavior, transverse shears and out-of-plane warping. Numerical results illustrating the effects of tip sweep, anhedral and composite ply orientation on blade aeroelastic behavior are presented. It is shown that composite ply orientation has a substantial effect on blade stability. At low thrust conditions, certain ply orientations can cause instability in the lag mode. The flap-torsion coupling associated with tip sweep can also induce aeroelastic instability in the blade. This instability can be removed by appropriate ply orientation in the composite construction.

  4. New type of wind turbine with composite rotor blade

    SciTech Connect

    Rys, J.

    1995-11-01

    During the last three years a new type of a wind turbine has been designed and tested in Division of Machine Design at Cracow University of Technology. The wind turbine consists of four main units: (1) rotor with two blades, each of them having an aerodynamically formed surface made of a laminated composite material bordered by a metallic frame; (2) directing system consisting of one rotor unit which drives blades about their own axis and controls the orientation of the turbine towards the wind; (3) supporting and transmissing system; and (4) foundation consisting of typical reinforced concrete plates fastened together, convenient to transport. The paper presents the method describing simulation of motion of the turbine. Such an approach gives one the possibility to analyze the maximum load acting in the vicinity of the blade and the load response of the elements of the turbine. A certain useful technique is demonstrated which can be applied to determine the load distribution. It is used to find e.g. the optimal fastening of internal metallic frame of the rotor blade. Specific and important advantages of the new type of engine are summarized in the final remarks as follows: perfect static and dynamic balancing, nice geometric shape of rotor which can be made of typical materials, low mass and cost per unit, typical technology of elements, easy mounting and dismounting. Several designing and technological solutions are illustrated in graphs and drawings.

  5. Active control of multi-element rotor blade airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torok, Michael S. (Inventor); Moffitt, Robert C. (Inventor); Bagai, Ashish (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A multi-element rotor blade includes an individually controllable main element and fixed aerodynamic surface in an aerodynamically efficient location relative to the main element. The main element is controlled to locate the fixed aerodynamic surface in a position to increase lift and/or reduce drag upon the main element at various azimuthal positions during rotation.

  6. CFD simulation and analysis for Savonius rotors with different blade configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Huei; Klimina, Liubov A.

    2014-12-01

    Savonius rotor is seldom applied in wind power generation system due to its lower aerodynamic efficiency. But studies about Savonius rotor still continued since the rotor structure is simpler and the manufacturing cost is lower. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are adopted to compare the output power, torque and power coefficient (Cp) for the conventional two-blade Savonius rotors with three different aspect ratios but the same swept area under the same wind condition to investigate the optimum blade configuration. The rotor with tall and thin configuration is found to have the maximum output power and Cp. The rotor with short and wide configuration has the maximum torque but the minimum Cp. The current result suggests the optimum aspect ratio is 4/1. The influence related to the circular cover plates at two ends of rotor was studied also. It reveals that both the torque and power coefficient for Savonius rotor with end-plates are larger than that without end-plates.

  7. Investigation of rotor blade roughness effects on turbine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, J.L.; Tabibzadeh, R. . Rocketdyne Div.); Hudson, S.T. )

    1993-07-01

    The cold air test program was completed on the SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) HPFTP (High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump) turbine with production nozzle vane rings and polished coated rotor blades with a smooth surface finish of 30[mu]in. (0.76 [mu]m) rms (root mean square). The smooth blades were polished by an abrasive flow machining process. The test results were compared with the air test results from production rough-coated rotor blades with a surface finish of up to 400 [mu]in. (10.16 [mu]m) rms. Turbine efficiency was higher for the smooth blades over the entire range tested. Efficiency increased 2.1 percentage points at the SSME 104 percent RPL (Rated Power Level) conditions. This efficiency improvement could reduce the SSME HPFTP turbine inlet temperature by 57 R (32K), increasing turbine durability. The turbine flow parameter increased and the midspan outlet swirl angle became more axial with the smooth rotor blades.

  8. Blade platform seal for ceramic/metal rotor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wertz, John L.

    1982-01-01

    A combination ceramic and metal turbine rotor for use in high temperature gas turbine engines includes a metal rotor disc having a rim with a plurality of circumferentially spaced blade root retention slots therein to receive a plurality of ceramic blades, each including side platform segments thereon and a dovetail configured root slidably received in one of the slots. Adjacent ones of the platform segments including edge portions thereon closely spaced when the blades are assembled to form expansion gaps in an annular flow surface for gas passage through the blades and wherein the assembly further includes a plurality of unitary seal members on the rotor connected to its rim and each including a plurality of spaced, axially extending, flexible fingers that underlie and conform to the edge portions of the platform segments and which are operative at turbine operating temperatures and speeds to distribute loading on the platform segments as the fingers are seated against the underside of the blade platforms to seal the gaps without undesirably stressing thin web ceramic sections of the platform.

  9. A new approach to helicopter rotor blade research instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, V. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A rotor-blade-mounted telemetry instrumentation system developed and used in flight tests by the NASA/Langley Research Center is described. The system uses high-speed digital techniques to acquire research data from miniature pressure transducers on advanced rotor airfoils which are flight tested using an AH-1G helicopter. The system employs microelectronic PCM multiplexer-digitizer stations located remotely on the blade and in a hub-mounted metal canister. The electronics contained in the canister digitizes up to 16 sensors, formats this data with serial PCM data from the remote stations, and transmits the data from the canister which is above the plane of the rotor. Data is transmitted over an RF link to the ground for real-time monitoring and to the helicopter fuselage for tape recording.

  10. Aeroelastic Analysis of Rotor Blades Using Cfd/csd Coupling in Hover Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Wu, Yizhao; Xia, Jian

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is coupled with a computational structural dynamics (CSD) to simulate the unsteady rotor flow with aeroelasticity effects. An unstructured upwind Navier-Stokes solver was developed for this simulation, with 2nd order time-accurate dual-time stepping method for temporal discretization and low Mach number preconditioning method. For turbulent flows, both the Spalart-Allmaras and Menter's SST model are available. Mesh deformation is achieved through a fast dynamic grid method called Delaunay graph map method for unsteady flow simulation. The rotor blades are modeled as Hodges & Dowell's nonlinear beams coupled flap-lag-torsion. The rotorcraft computational structural dynamics code employs the 15-dof beam finite element formulation for modeling. The structure code was validated by comparing the natural frequencies of a rotor model with UMARC. The flow and structure codes are coupled tightly with information exchange several times at every time step. A rotor blade model's unsteady flow field in the hover mode is simulated using the coupling method. Effect of blade elasticity with aerodynamic loads was compared with rigid blade.

  11. A numerical modelling of stator rotor interaction in a turbine stage with oscillating blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnesin, V. I.; Kolodyazhnaya, L. V.; Rzadkowski, R.

    2004-11-01

    In real flows unsteady phenomena connected with the circumferential non-uniformity of the main flow and those caused by oscillations of blades are observed only jointly. An understanding of the physics of the mutual interaction between gas flow and oscillating blades and the development of predictive capabilities are essential for improved overall efficiency, durability and reliability. In the study presented, the algorithm proposed involves the coupled solution of 3D unsteady flow through a turbine stage and the dynamics problem for rotor-blade motion by the action of aerodynamic forces, without separating the outer and inner flow fluctuations. The partially integrated method involves the solution of the fluid and structural equations separately, but information is exchanged at each time step, so that solution from one domain is used as a boundary condition for the other domain. 3-D transonic gas flow through the stator and rotor blades in relative motion with periodicity on the whole annulus is described by the unsteady Euler conservation equations, which are integrated using the explicit monotonous finite volume difference scheme of Godunov Kolgan. The structural analysis uses the modal approach and a 3-D finite element model of a blade. The blade motion is assumed to be constituted as a linear combination of the first natural modes of blade oscillations, with the modal coefficients depending on time. A calculation has been done for the last stage of the steam turbine, under design and off-design regimes. The numerical results for unsteady aerodynamic forces due to stator rotor interaction are compared with results obtained while taking into account blade oscillations. The mutual influence of both outer flow non-uniformity and blade oscillations has been investigated. It is shown that the amplitude-frequency spectrum of blade oscillations contains the high-frequency harmonics, corresponding to the rotor moving past one stator blade pitch, and low

  12. Studies of blade-vortex interaction noise reduction by rotor blade modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    Blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is one of the most objectionable types of helicopter noise. This impulsive blade-slap noise can be particularly intense during low-speed landing approach and maneuvers. Over the years, a number of flight and model rotor tests have examined blade tip modification and other blade design changes to reduce this noise. Many times these tests have produced conflicting results. In the present paper, a number of these studies are reviewed in light of the current understanding of the BVI noise problem. Results from one study in particular are used to help establish the noise reduction potential and to shed light on the role of blade design. Current blade studies and some new concepts under development are also described.

  13. Multidisciplinary Optimization of Tilt Rotor Blades Using Comprehensive Composite Modeling Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; McCarthy, Thomas R.; Rajadas, John N.

    1997-01-01

    An optimization procedure is developed for addressing the design of composite tilt rotor blades. A comprehensive technique, based on a higher-order laminate theory, is developed for the analysis of the thick composite load-carrying sections, modeled as box beams, in the blade. The theory, which is based on a refined displacement field, is a three-dimensional model which approximates the elasticity solution so that the beam cross-sectional properties are not reduced to one-dimensional beam parameters. Both inplane and out-of-plane warping are included automatically in the formulation. The model can accurately capture the transverse shear stresses through the thickness of each wall while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the inner and outer surfaces of the beam. The aerodynamic loads on the blade are calculated using the classical blade element momentum theory. Analytical expressions for the lift and drag are obtained based on the blade planform with corrections for the high lift capability of rotor blades. The aerodynamic analysis is coupled with the structural model to formulate the complete coupled equations of motion for aeroelastic analyses. Finally, a multidisciplinary optimization procedure is developed to improve the aerodynamic, structural and aeroelastic performance of the tilt rotor aircraft. The objective functions include the figure of merit in hover and the high speed cruise propulsive efficiency. Structural, aerodynamic and aeroelastic stability criteria are imposed as constraints on the problem. The Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser function is used to formulate the multiobjective function problem. The search direction is determined by the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. The optimum results are compared with the baseline values and show significant improvements in the overall performance of the tilt rotor blade.

  14. Higher harmonic rotor blade pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewans, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Tests of a model 'Reverse Velocity Rotor' system at high advance ratios and with twice-per-revolution cyclic pitch control were made under joint Navy-NASA sponsorship in the NASA, Ames 12 ft. pressure tunnel. The results showed significant gains in rotor performance at all advance ratios by using twice-per-revolution control. Detailed design studies have been made of alternative methods of providing higher harmonic motion including four types of mechanical systems and an electro-hydraulic system. The relative advantages and disadvantages are evaluated on the basis of stiffness, weight, volume, reliability and maintainability.

  15. Wind turbine generator rotor blade concepts with low cost potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. L.; Cahill, T. P.; Griffee, D. G., Jr.; Gewehr, H. W.

    1977-01-01

    Four processed for producing blades are examined. Two use filament winding techniques and two involve filling a mold or form to produce all or part of a blade. The processes are described and a comparison is made of cost, material properties, design and free vibration characteristics. Conclusions are made regarding the feasibility of each process to produce low cost, structurally adequate blades.

  16. Optimization of an Active Twist Rotor Blade Planform for Improved Active Response and Forward Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the optimum blade tip planform for a model-scale active twist rotor. The analysis identified blade tip design traits which simultaneously reduce rotor power of an unactuated rotor while leveraging aeromechanical couplings to tailor the active response of the blade. Optimizing the blade tip planform for minimum rotor power in forward flight provided a 5 percent improvement in performance compared to a rectangular blade tip, but reduced the vibration control authority of active twist actuation by 75 percent. Optimizing for maximum blade twist response increased the vibration control authority by 50 percent compared to the rectangular blade tip, with little effect on performance. Combined response and power optimization resulted in a blade tip design which provided similar vibration control authority to the rectangular blade tip, but with a 3.4 percent improvement in rotor performance in forward flight.

  17. Methods of making wind turbine rotor blades

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, Jamie T.; Burke, Arthur H. E.; Bakhuis, Jan Willem; Van Breugel, Sjef; Billen, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    A method of manufacturing a root portion of a wind turbine blade includes, in an exemplary embodiment, providing an outer layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, providing an inner layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, and positioning at least two bands of reinforcing fibers between the inner and outer layers, with each band of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers. The method further includes positioning a mat of randomly arranged reinforcing fibers between each pair of adjacent bands of reinforcing fibers, introducing a polymeric resin into the root potion of the wind turbine blade, infusing the resin through the outer layer, the inner layer, each band of reinforcing fibers, and each mat of random reinforcing fibers, and curing the resin to form the root portion of the wind turbine blade.

  18. Synthesis of individual rotor blade control system for gust alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ji C.; Chu, Alphonse Y.; Talbot, Peter D.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of rotor flapping in synthesizing an Individual Blade Control (IBC) system for gust alleviation is demonstrated. The objective is to illustrate and seek to improve Ham's IBC method. A sensor arrangement with two accelerometers mounted on the root and tip of a blade is proposed for estimating of flapping states for feedback control. Equivalent swash plate implementation of IBC is also deliberated. The study concludes by addressing the concept of general rotor states feedback, of which the IBC method is a special case. The blade flapping equation of motion is derived. Ham's original IBC method and a modified IBC scheme called Model Reference (MRIBC) are examined, followed by simulation study with ideal measurements and relative performances of the two methods. The practical aspects of IBC implementation are presented. Different configuration of sensors and their merits are considered. The realization of IBC using equivalent swash plate instead of direct actuator motion is discussed. It is shown that IBC is a particular case of rotor states feedback. The idea of general rotor states feedback is further elaborated. Finally, major conclusions are given.

  19. Noninterference Systems Developed for Measuring and Monitoring Rotor Blade Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, Anatole P.

    2003-01-01

    In the noninterference measurement of blade vibrations, a laser light beam is transmitted to the rotor blade tips through a single optical fiber, and the reflected light from the blade tips is collected by a receiving fiber-optic bundle and conducted to a photodetector. Transmitting and receiving fibers are integrated in an optical probe that is enclosed in a metal tube which also houses a miniature lens that focuses light on the blade tips. Vibratory blade amplitudes can be deduced from the measurement of the instantaneous time of arrival of the blades and the knowledge of the rotor speed. The in-house noninterference blade-vibration measurement system was developed in response to requirements to monitor blade vibrations in several tests where conventional strain gauges could not be installed or where there was a need to back up strain gauges should critical gauges fail during the test. These types of measurements are also performed in the aircraft engine industry using proprietary in-house technology. Two methods of measurement were developed for vibrations that are synchronous with a rotor shaft. One method requires only one sensor; however, it is necessary to continuously record the data while the rotor is being swept through the resonance. In the other method, typically four sensors are employed and the vibratory amplitude is deduced from the data by performing a least square fit to a harmonic function. This method does not require continuous recording of data through the resonance and, therefore, is better suited for monitoring. The single-probe method was tested in the Carl facility at the Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, and the multiple-probe method was tested in NASA Glenn Research Center's Spin Rig facility, which uses permanent magnets to excite synchronous vibrations. Representative results from this test are illustrated in the bar chart. Nonsynchronous vibrations were measured online during testing of the Quiet High Speed Fan in Glenn s 9- by 15-Foot

  20. Design of helicopter rotor blades for optimum dynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, D. A.; Ko, T.; Korn, A. E.; Rossow, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    The possibilities and limitations of tailoring blade mass and stiffness distributions to give an optimum blade design in terms of weight, inertia, and dynamic characteristics are discussed. The extent that changes in mass of stiffness distribution can be used to place rotor frequencies at desired locations is determined. Theoretical limits to the amount of frequency shift are established. Realistic constraints on blade properties based on weight, mass, moment of inertia, size, strength, and stability are formulated. The extent that the hub loads can be minimized by proper choice of E1 distribution, and the minimum hub loads which can be approximated by a design for a given set of natural frequencies are determined. Aerodynamic couplings that might affect the optimum blade design, and the relative effectiveness of mass and stiffness distribution on the optimization procedure are investigated.

  1. Prediction of Unshsrouded Rotor Blade Tip Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, A. A.; Steinthorsson, E.

    1994-01-01

    The rate of heat transfer on the tip of a turbine rotor blade and on the blade surface in the vicinity of the tip, was successfully predicted. The computations were performed with a multiblock computer code which solves the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations using an efficient multigrid method. The case considered for the present calculations was the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel side turbine. The predictions of the blade tip heat transfer agreed reasonably well with the experimental measurements using the present level of grid refinement. On the tip surface, regions with high rate of heat transfer was found to exist close to the pressure side and suction side edges. Enhancement of the heat transfer was also observed on the blade surface near the tip. Further comparison of the predictions was performed with results obtained from correlations based on fully developed channel flow.

  2. Loads and performance data from a wind-tunnel test of model articulated helicopter rotors with 2 different blade torsional stiffnesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, W. T., Jr.; Mantay, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    A passive means of tailoring helicopter rotor blades to improve performance and reduce loads was evaluated. The parameters investigated were blade torsional stiffness, blade section camber, and distance between blade structural elastic axis and blade tip aerodynamic center. This offset was accomplished by sweeping the tip. The investigation was conducted at advance ratios of 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40. Data are presented without analysis; however, cross referencing of performance data and harmonic loads data may be useful to the analyst for validating aeroelastic theories and design methodologies as well as for evaluating passive aeroelastic tailoring or rotor blade parameters.

  3. Determination of HART I Blade Structural Properties by Laboratory Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Sung N.; Lau, Benton H.

    2012-01-01

    The structural properties of higher harmonic Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART I) blades were measured using the original set of blades tested in the German-dutch wind tunnel (DNW) in 1994. the measurements include bending and torsion stiffness, geometric offsets, and mass and inertia properties of the blade. the measured properties were compared to the estimated values obtained initially from the blade manufacturer. The previously estimated blade properties showed consistently higher stiffness, up to 30 percent for the flap bending in the blade inboard root section.

  4. Flow performance of highly loaded axial fan with bowed rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Liu, X. J.; Yang, A. L.; Dai, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a partial bowed rotor blade was proposed for a newly designed high loaded axial fan. The blade was positively bowed 30 degrees from hub to 30 percent spanwise position. Flows of radial blade and bowed blade fans were numerically compared for various operation conditions. Results show that the fan's performance is improved. At the designed condition with flow coefficient of 0.52, the efficiency of the bowed blade fan is increased 1.44% and the static pressure rise is increased 11%. Comparing the flow structures, it can be found that the separated flow in the bowed fan is reduced and confined within 20 percent span, which is less than the 35 percent in the radial fan. It means that the bowed blade generates negative blade force and counteracts partial centrifugal force. It is alleviates the radial movements of boundary layers in fan's hub region. Flow losses due to 3D mixing are reduced in the rotor. Inlet flow to downstream stator is also improved.

  5. Investigation of helicopter rotor blade/wake interactive impulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, S. J.; Hall, G. F.; Vonlavante, E.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the Tip Aerodynamic/Aeroacoustic Test (TAAT) data was performed to identify possible aerodynamic sources of blade/vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise. The identification is based on correlation of measured blade pressure time histories with predicted blade/vortex intersections for the flight condition(s) where impulsive noise was detected. Due to the location of the recording microphones, only noise signatures associated with the advancing blade were available, and the analysis was accordingly restricted to the first and second azimuthal quadrants. The results show that the blade tip region is operating transonically in the azimuthal range where previous BVI experiments indicated the impulsive noise to be. No individual blade/vortex encounter is identifiable in the pressure data; however, there is indication of multiple intersections in the roll-up region which could be the origin of the noise. Discrete blade/vortex encounters are indicated in the second quadrant; however, if impulsive noise were produced here, the directivity pattern would be such that it was not recorded by the microphones. It is demonstrated that the TAAT data base is a valuable resource in the investigation of rotor aerodynamic/aeroacoustic behavior.

  6. Composite wind turbine rotor blade and method for making same

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.F.; Farone, W.A.; Mikhail, A.

    1990-12-11

    This paper discusses a wind turbine blade including NASA LS(1)-04xx airfoil sections. It comprises a thickness-to-chord ratio of substantially sixteen percent at full radius, the thickness-to-chord ratio increasing to substantially nineteen percent at one half full radius and substantially twenty nine percent at three-tenths full radius; and a twist equal to zero from full radius to fifty percent full radius. The twist varies to a value no greater than eight degrees at a theoretical hub of the rotor blade.

  7. Applying Pressure Sensitive Paint Technology to Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; Crafton, Jim; Gregory, James W.

    2014-01-01

    This report will present details of a Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) system for measuring global surface pressures on rotorcrtaft blades in simulated forward flight at the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. The basics of the PSP method will be discussed and the modifications that were needed to extend this technology for use on rotor blades. Results from a series of tests will also be presented as well as several areas of improvement that have been identified and are currently being developed for future testing.

  8. Pre-design study for a modern four-bladed rotor for the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA). [integrating the YAH-64 main rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, C. W.; Logan, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Various candidate rotor systems were compared in an effort to select a modern four-bladed rotor for the RSRA. The YAH-64 rotor system was chosen as the candidate rotor system for further development for the RSRA. The process used to select the rotor system, studies conducted to mate the rotor with the RSRA and provide parametric variability, and the development plan which would be used to implement these studies are presented. Drawings are included.

  9. Hover performance tests of baseline metal and Advanced Technology Blade (ATB) rotor systems for the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartie, K.; Alexander, H.; Mcveigh, M.; Lamon, S.; Bishop, H.

    1986-01-01

    Rotor hover performance data were obtained for two full-scale rotor systems designed for the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft. One rotor employed the rectangular planform metal blades (rotor solidity = 0.089) which were used on the initial flight configuration of the XV-15. The second rotor configuration examined the nonlinear taper, composite-construction, Advanced Technology Blade (ATB), (rotor solidity = 0.10) designed to replace the metal blades on the XV-15. Variations of the baseline ATB tip and cuff shapes were also tested. A new six-component rotor force and moment balance designed to obtain highly accurate data over a broad range of thrust and torque conditions is described. The test data are presented in nondimensional coefficient form for the performance results, and in dimensional form for the steady and alternating loads. Some wake and acoustic data are also shown.

  10. Performance and rotor loads measurements of the Lynx XZ170 helicopter with rectangular blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Benton H.; Louie, Alexander W.; Griffiths, Nicholas; Sotiriou, Costantinos P.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a series of flight tests on the Lynx XZ170 helicopter with rectangular blades. The test objectives were to explore the flight envelope and to measure the performance and structural loads of the Lynx main-rotor system. The tests were conducted as part of the British Experimental Rotor Program (BERP) under a contract with the Ministry of Defense in England. Data were acquired for steady-level flights at five weight coefficients. Some flight conditions were tested at beyond the retreating-blade stall boundary, which was defined by a predetermined limit on the pitchlink vibratory load. In addition to documenting the flight conditions and data, this report describes the aircraft, particularly the rotor system, in detail.

  11. 14 CFR 27.653 - Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....653 Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades. (a) For each rotor blade— (1) There must be means for venting the internal pressure of the blade; (2) Drainage holes must be provided for the blade; and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pressure venting and drainage of...

  12. 14 CFR 27.653 - Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....653 Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades. (a) For each rotor blade— (1) There must be means for venting the internal pressure of the blade; (2) Drainage holes must be provided for the blade; and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressure venting and drainage of...

  13. 14 CFR 29.653 - Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 29.653 Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades. (a) For each rotor blade— (1) There must be means for venting the internal pressure of the blade; (2) Drainage holes must be provided for the blade... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pressure venting and drainage of...

  14. 14 CFR 27.653 - Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....653 Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades. (a) For each rotor blade— (1) There must be means for venting the internal pressure of the blade; (2) Drainage holes must be provided for the blade; and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pressure venting and drainage of...

  15. 14 CFR 29.653 - Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 29.653 Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades. (a) For each rotor blade— (1) There must be means for venting the internal pressure of the blade; (2) Drainage holes must be provided for the blade... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pressure venting and drainage of...

  16. 14 CFR 29.653 - Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 29.653 Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades. (a) For each rotor blade— (1) There must be means for venting the internal pressure of the blade; (2) Drainage holes must be provided for the blade... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressure venting and drainage of...

  17. 14 CFR 29.653 - Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 29.653 Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades. (a) For each rotor blade— (1) There must be means for venting the internal pressure of the blade; (2) Drainage holes must be provided for the blade... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pressure venting and drainage of...

  18. 14 CFR 27.653 - Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....653 Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades. (a) For each rotor blade— (1) There must be means for venting the internal pressure of the blade; (2) Drainage holes must be provided for the blade; and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pressure venting and drainage of...

  19. 14 CFR 27.653 - Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....653 Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades. (a) For each rotor blade— (1) There must be means for venting the internal pressure of the blade; (2) Drainage holes must be provided for the blade; and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pressure venting and drainage of...

  20. 14 CFR 29.653 - Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 29.653 Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades. (a) For each rotor blade— (1) There must be means for venting the internal pressure of the blade; (2) Drainage holes must be provided for the blade... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pressure venting and drainage of...

  1. The investigation of a variable camber blade lift control for helicopter rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awani, A. O.

    1982-01-01

    A new rotor configuration called the variable camber rotor was investigated numerically for its potential to reduce helicopter control loads and improve hover performance. This rotor differs from a conventional rotor in that it incorporates a deflectable 50% chord trailing edge flap to control rotor lift, and a non-feathering (fixed) forward portion. Lift control is achieved by linking the blade flap to a conventional swashplate mechanism; therefore, it is pilot action to the flap deflection that controls rotor lift and tip path plane tilt. This report presents the aerodynamic characteristics of the flapped and unflapped airfoils, evaluations of aerodynamics techniques to minimize flap hinge moment, comparative hover rotor performance and the physical concepts of the blade motion and rotor control. All the results presented herein are based on numerical analyses. The assessment of payoff for the total configuration in comparison with a conventional blade, having the same physical characteristics as an H-34 helicopter rotor blade was examined for hover only.

  2. Structural health and prognostics management for offshore wind turbines : case studies of rotor fault and blade damage with initial O&M cost modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Myrent, Noah J.; Kusnick, Joshua F.; Barrett, Natalie C.; Adams, Douglas E.; Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2013-04-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are significantly higher than the current costs for land-based (onshore) wind plants. One way to reduce these costs would be to implement a structural health and prognostic management (SHPM) system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management and utilize a state-based cost model to assess the economics associated with use of the SHPM system. To facilitate the development of such a system a multi-scale modeling approach developed in prior work is used to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and faults, and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. This methodology was used to investigate two case studies: (1) the effects of rotor imbalance due to pitch error (aerodynamic imbalance) and mass imbalance and (2) disbond of the shear web; both on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine in the present report. Based on simulations of damage in the turbine model, the operational measurements that demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the damage/faults were the blade tip accelerations and local pitching moments for both imbalance and shear web disbond. The initial cost model provided a great deal of insight into the estimated savings in operations and maintenance costs due to the implementation of an effective SHPM system. The integration of the health monitoring information and O&M cost versus damage/fault severity information provides the initial steps to identify processes to reduce operations and maintenance costs for an offshore wind farm while increasing turbine availability, revenue, and overall profit.

  3. Helicopter vibration suppression using simple pendulum absorbers on the rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamouda, M.-N. H.; Pierce, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    A design procedure is presented for the installation of simple pendulums on the blades of a helicopter rotor to suppress the root reactions. The procedure consists of a frequency response analysis for a hingeless rotor blade excited by a harmonic variation of spanwise airload distributions during forward flight, as well as a concentrated load at the tip. The structural modeling of the blade provides for elastic degrees of freedom in flap and lead-lag bending plus torsion. Simple flap and lead-lag pendulums are considered individually. Using a rational order scheme, the general nonlinear equations of motion are linearized. A quasi-steady aerodynamic representation is used in the formation of the airloads. The solution of the system equations derives from their representation as a transfer matrix. The results include the effect of pendulum tuning on the minimization of the hub reactions.

  4. Unsteady flow and dynamic response analyses for helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratanow, T.

    1979-01-01

    Research is presented on helicopter rotor blade vibration and on two and three dimensional analyses of unsteady incompressible viscous flow past oscillating helicopter rotor blades. A summary is presented of the two international research collaborations which resulted from the NASA project: the collaboration under the auspices of NATO between the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of Brussels, Belgium and the Aerodynamics Research Establishment in Goettingen, West Germany, and the collaboration under the auspices of the National Science Foundation between UWM and the University of Hamburg and the Ship Research Establishment in Hamburg, West Germany. A summary is given of the benefits from the NASA project to UWM, the College of Engineering and Applied Science, and the participants on the project.

  5. Prediction of helicopter rotor noise from measured blade surface pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succi, G. P.; Brieger, J. T.

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. (BBN) with measured data from the AH-lG Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  6. Periodic control of the individual-blade-control helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckillip, R. M., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation into methods of controller design for linear periodic systems utilizing an extension of modern control methods. Trends present in the selection of various cost functions are outlined, and closed-loop controller results are demonstrated for two cases: first, on an analog computer simulation of the rigid out of plane flapping dynamics of a single rotor blade, and second, on a 4 ft diameter single-bladed model helicopter rotor in the MIT 5 x 7 subsonic wind tunnel, both for various high levels of advance ratio. It is shown that modal control using the IBC concept is possible over a large range of advance ratios with only a modest amount of computational power required.

  7. A computer program to predict rotor rotational noise of a stationary rotor from blade loading coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Randall, D.; Hosier, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The programing language used is FORTRAN IV. A description of all main and subprograms is provided so that any user possessing a FORTRAN compiler and random access capability can adapt the program to his facility. Rotor blade surface-pressure spectra can be used by the program to calculate: (1) blade station loading spectra, (2) chordwise and/or spanwise integrated blade-loading spectra, and (3) far-field rotational noise spectra. Any of five standard inline functions describing the chordwise distribution of the blade loading can be chosen in order to study parametrically the acoustic predictions. The program output consists of both printed and graphic descriptions of the blade-loading coefficient spectra and far-field acoustic spectrum. The results may also be written on binary file for future processing. Examples of the application of the program along with a description of the rotational noise prediction theory on which the program is based are also provided.

  8. Preform spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, Jamie T.; Driver, Howard D.; van Breugel, Sjef; Jenkins, Thomas B.; Bakhuis, Jan Willem; Billen, Andrew J.; Riahi, Amir

    2011-07-12

    A spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade. The spar cap may include multiple preform components. The multiple preform components may be planar sheets having a swept shape with a first end and a second end. The multiple preform components may be joined by mating the first end of a first preform component to the second end of a next preform component, forming the spar cap.

  9. Performance of twist-coupled blades on variable speed rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Lobitz, D.W.; Veers, P.S.; Laino, D.J.

    1999-12-07

    The load mitigation and energy capture characteristics of twist-coupled HAWT blades that are mounted on a variable speed rotor are investigated in this paper. These blades are designed to twist toward feather as they bend with pretwist set to achieve a desirable twist distribution at rated power. For this investigation, the ADAMS-WT software has been modified to include blade models with bending-twist coupling. Using twist-coupled and uncoupled models, the ADAMS software is exercised for steady wind environments to generate C{sub p} curves at a number of operating speeds to compare the efficiencies of the two models. The ADAMS software is also used to generate the response of a twist-coupled variable speed rotor to a spectrum of stochastic wind time series. This spectrum contains time series with two mean wind speeds at two turbulence levels. Power control is achieved by imposing a reactive torque on the low speed shaft proportional to the RPM squared with the coefficient specified so that the rotor operates at peak efficiency in the linear aerodynamic range, and by limiting the maximum RPM to take advantage of the stall controlled nature of the rotor. Fatigue calculations are done for the generated load histories using a range of material exponents that represent materials from welded steel to aluminum to composites, and results are compared with the damage computed for the rotor without twist-coupling. Results indicate that significant reductions in damage are achieved across the spectrum of applied wind loading without any degradation in power production.

  10. Operational load estimation of a smart wind turbine rotor blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Rumsey, Mark A.

    2009-03-01

    Rising energy prices and carbon emission standards are driving a fundamental shift from fossil fuels to alternative sources of energy such as biofuel, solar, wind, clean coal and nuclear. In 2008, the U.S. installed 8,358 MW of new wind capacity increasing the total installed wind power by 50% to 25,170 MW. A key technology to improve the efficiency of wind turbines is smart rotor blades that can monitor the physical loads being applied by the wind and then adapt the airfoil for increased energy capture. For extreme wind and gust events, the airfoil could be changed to reduce the loads to prevent excessive fatigue or catastrophic failure. Knowledge of the actual loading to the turbine is also useful for maintenance planning and design improvements. In this work, an array of uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers was integrally manufactured into a 9m smart rotor blade. DC type accelerometers were utilized in order to estimate the loading and deflection from both quasi-steady-state and dynamic events. A method is presented that designs an estimator of the rotor blade static deflection and loading and then optimizes the placement of the sensor(s). Example results show that the method can identify the optimal location for the sensor for both simple example cases and realistic complex loading. The optimal location of a single sensor shifts towards the tip as the curvature of the blade deflection increases with increasingly complex wind loading. The framework developed is practical for the expansion of sensor optimization in more complex blade models and for higher numbers of sensors.

  11. Advance finite element modeling of rotor blade aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, F. K.; Sangha, K. B.; Panda, B.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced beam finite element has been developed for modeling rotor blade dynamics and aeroelasticity. This element is part of the Element Library of the Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS). The element allows modeling of arbitrary rotor systems, including bearingless rotors. It accounts for moderately large elastic deflections, anisotropic properties, large frame motion for maneuver simulation, and allows for variable order shape functions. The effects of gravity, mechanically applied and aerodynamic loads are included. All kinematic quantities required to compute airloads are provided. In this paper, the fundamental assumptions and derivation of the element matrices are presented. Numerical results are shown to verify the formulation and illustrate several features of the element.

  12. Unified continuum damage model for matrix cracking in composite rotor blades

    SciTech Connect

    Pollayi, Hemaraju; Harursampath, Dineshkumar

    2015-03-10

    This paper deals with modeling of the first damage mode, matrix micro-cracking, in helicopter rotor/wind turbine blades and how this effects the overall cross-sectional stiffness. The helicopter/wind turbine rotor system operates in a highly dynamic and unsteady environment leading to severe vibratory loads present in the system. Repeated exposure to this loading condition can induce damage in the composite rotor blades. These rotor/turbine blades are generally made of fiber-reinforced laminated composites and exhibit various competing modes of damage such as matrix micro-cracking, delamination, and fiber breakage. There is a need to study the behavior of the composite rotor system under various key damage modes in composite materials for developing Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. Each blade is modeled as a beam based on geometrically non-linear 3-D elasticity theory. Each blade thus splits into 2-D analyzes of cross-sections and non-linear 1-D analyzes along the beam reference curves. Two different tools are used here for complete 3-D analysis: VABS for 2-D cross-sectional analysis and GEBT for 1-D beam analysis. The physically-based failure models for matrix in compression and tension loading are used in the present work. Matrix cracking is detected using two failure criterion: Matrix Failure in Compression and Matrix Failure in Tension which are based on the recovered field. A strain variable is set which drives the damage variable for matrix cracking and this damage variable is used to estimate the reduced cross-sectional stiffness. The matrix micro-cracking is performed in two different approaches: (i) Element-wise, and (ii) Node-wise. The procedure presented in this paper is implemented in VABS as matrix micro-cracking modeling module. Three examples are presented to investigate the matrix failure model which illustrate the effect of matrix cracking on cross-sectional stiffness by varying the applied cyclic load.

  13. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect

    Delvaux, John McConnel; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Joyce, Kilmer Joseph; Tindell, Allan Randall

    2014-06-03

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is disclosed. The adaptor assembly may generally include an adaptor body having a root configured to be received within the root slot. The adaptor body may also define a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root. The adaptor body may further define a channel. The adaptor assembly may also include a plate having an outwardly extending foot. The foot may be configured to be received within the channel. Additionally, the plate may be configured to cover at least a portion of the open end of the slot when the foot is received within the channel.

  14. Aeroelastic behavior of composite helicopter rotor blades with advanced geometry tips

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, P.P.; Yuan, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    A new structural and aeroelastic model capable of representing the aeroelastic stability and response of composite helicopter rotor blades with advanced geometry tips is presented. Where it is understood that advanced geometry tips are blade tips having sweep, anhedral and taper in the outboard 10% segment of the blade. The blade is modeled by beam finite elements. A single element is used to represent the swept tip. The nonlinear equations of motion are derived using the Hamilton`s principle and are based on moderate deflection theory. Thus, the nonlinearities are of the geometric type. The important structural blade attributes captured by the model are arbitrary cross-sectional shape, general anisotropic material behavior, transverse shear and out-of-plane warping. The aerodynamic loads are based on quasi-steady Greenberg theory with reverse flow effects, using an implicit formulation. The nonlinear aeroelastic response of the blade is obtained from a fully coupled propulsive trim/aeroelastic response analysis. Aeroelastic stability is obtained from linearizing the equations of motion about the steady state response of the blade and using Floquet theory. Numerical results for the aeroelastic stability and response of a hingeless composite blade with two cell type cross section are presented, together with vibratory hub shears and moments. The influence of ply orientation and tip sweep is clearly illustrated by the results.

  15. Simulation of realistic rotor blade-vortex interactions using a finite-difference technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Ahmed A.; Charles, Bruce D.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical finite-difference code has been used to predict helicopter blade loads during realistic self-generated three-dimensional blade-vortex interactions. The velocity field is determined via a nonlinear superposition of the rotor flowfield. Data obtained from a lifting-line helicopter/rotor trim code are used to determine the instantaneous position of the interaction vortex elements with respect to the blade. Data obtained for three rotor advance ratios show a reasonable correlation with wind tunnel data.

  16. Performance characterization of active fiber-composite actuators for helicopter rotor blade applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh K.; Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    2002-07-01

    The primary objective of this work was to characterize the performance of the Active Fiber Composite (AFC) actuator material system for the Boeing Active Material Rotor (AMR) blade application. The AFCs were a new structural actuator system consisting of piezoceramic fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix and sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes to orient the driving electric field in the fiber direction to use the primary piezoelectric effect. These actuators were integrated directly into the blade spar laminate as active plies within the composite structure to perform structural actuation for vibration control in helicopters. Therefore, it was necessary to conduct extensive electromechanical material characterization to evaluate AFCs both as actuators and as structural components of the rotor blade. The characterization tests designed to extract important electromechanical properties under simulated blade operating conditions included stress-strain tests, free strain tests and actuation under tensile load tests. This paper presents the test results as well as the comprehensive testing process developed to evaluate the relevant AFC material properties. The results from this comprehensive performance characterization of the AFC material system supported the design and operation of the Boeing AMR blade scheduled for hover and forward flight wind tunnel tests.

  17. Demonstration of an elastically coupled twist control concept for tilt rotor blade application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, R. C.; Nixon, M. W.; Wilbur, M. L.; Singleton, J. D.; Mirick, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of passive blade twist control for composite rotor blades. Hover testing of the set of blades produced maximum twist changes of 2.54 degrees for the unballasted blade configuration and 5.24 degrees for the ballasted blade configuration. These results compared well with those obtained from a detailed finite element analysis model of the rotor blade, which yielded maximum twists of 3.02 and 5.61 degrees for the unballasted and ballasted blade configurations, respectively.

  18. Elastically tailored composite rotor blades for stall alleviation and vibration reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floros, Matthew William

    An aeroelastic analysis has been developed to study the effects of elastic couplings on blade response, loads, and dynamic stall. Low and high speed conditions are examined at high thrust and cruise-level thrust for both hingeless and articulated rotor configurations. The blade cross-sectional model is based on Vlasov theory for multi-cell closed sections with thick walls. The structural model includes non-classical effects of transverse shear, torsion-related warping, and two-dimensional inplane elasticity. For the aeroelastic analysis, the blade is modeled as an elastic beam undergoing deflections in flap, lag, and torsion. The blade governing equations are approximated by a finite element in space model. A twelve degree of freedom specialized finite element is employed in the structural model which accounts for torsion-related warping. The analysis includes both a quasisteady and a time-domain unsteady aerodynamic model including the effects of non-linear separation and dynamic stall. The nonlinear periodic response is calculated through a finite element in time procedure with displacement and velocity continuous elements. The blade and hub loads are calculated using the force summation method and the reaction force method. The two loads calculation methods are compared for articulated and hingeless rotor configurations. The reaction force method is shown to more accurately predict blade bending moments in articulated rotors. The blade is modeled as a NACA airfoil section consisting of a D-spar and skin. Elastic couplings are introduced by anisotropy of plies in the D-spar to produce pitch-flap couplings. Results indicate that by coupling elastic twist to the second flap mode, the angle of attack on the retreating side of the rotor disk can be reduced up to two degrees, resulting in a significant reduction in blade stall for both articulated and hingeless rotors. Sensitivity studies are conducted to determine the effects of flap frequency on the induced twist

  19. Boundary Layer Transition Detection on a Rotor Blade Using Rotating Mirror Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heineck, James T.; Schuelein, Erich; Raffel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Laminar-to-turbulent transition on a rotor blade in hover has been imaged using an area-scan infrared camera. A new method for tracking a blade using a rotating mirror was employed. The mirror axis of rotation roughly corresponded to the rotor axis of rotation and the mirror rotational frequency is 1/2 that of the rotor. This permitted the use of cameras whose integration time was too long to prevent image blur due to the motion of the blade. This article will show the use of this method for a rotor blade at different collective pitch angles.

  20. Airfoil-shaped extension-twist-coupled composite star-beams for rotor blade tip applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadev, Sthanu

    Rotorcraft blade tips provide the most effective region for aerodynamic control. Rotor blade airloads are proportional to dynamic pressure and as a consequence are typically the highest in the distal blade tip region. Therefore, blade control using aerodynamic forces and moments is most effectively accomplished over the distal region of the blade. Composite materials represent the preferred material option for modern rotor blade design, especially in the field of rotorcraft and wind energy, due to superior strength-to-weight ratio, fatigue resistance and their ability to be easily tailored to incorporate different coupling (bend-twist, extension-twist, etc.) among elastic modes of deformation within the structure. An additional form of tailoring can produce compliant mechanisms: structures that are capable of producing a deformation such that the resulting displacement field is similar to the kinematics of an actual mechanism. In prior research, a family of tailored composite structures referred to as "star-beams" and "modified star-beams" have been proposed and investigated as viable candidates for tension-torsion bar applications, including the case of extension-twist coupling, for which "star-beams" preserve the high level of coupling achievable in composite strips. The present work seeks to develop and investigate the extension of prior work to the case of an extension-twist coupled torsionally compliant integral blade tip configuration. The implementation of this structural concept ensures a smooth outer blade-lifting surface and that the smoothness is preserved throughout the desired deformation range while allowing out of plane cross-sectional warping via relative longitudinal sliding along the blade joints. This work focuses on passive control of pitch applications via extension-twist coupling as a result of changes in axial force, typically obtained as a result of change in centrifugal load with rotor speed for a constant thickness, symmetric NACA 0012

  1. Design and initial testing of a one-bladed 30-meter-diameter rotor on the NASA/DOE mod-O wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, R. D.; Ensworth, C. B. F.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of a one-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbine has been of interest to wind turbine designers for many years. Many designs and economic analyses of one-bladed wind turbines have been undertaken by both United States and European wind energy groups. The analyses indicate significant economic advantages but at the same time, significant dynamic response concerns. In an effort to develop a broad data base on wind turbine design and operations, the NASA Wind Energy Project Office has tested a one-bladed rotor at the NASA/DOE Mod-O Wind Turbine Facility. This is the only known test on an intermediate-sized one-bladed rotor in the United States. The 15.2-meter-radius rotor consists of a tip-controlled blade and a counterweight assembly. A rigorous test series was conducted in the Fall of 1985 to collect data on rotor performance, drive train/generator dynamics, structural dynamics, and structural loads. This report includes background information on one-bladed rotor concepts, and Mod-O one-bladed rotor test configuration, supporting design analysis, the Mod-O one-blade rotor test plan, and preliminary test results.

  2. A Note about Self-Induced Velocity Generated by a Lifting-Line Wing or Rotor Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an elementary analysis of the induced velocity created by a field of vortices that reside in the wake of a rotor blade. Progress achieved by other researchers in the last 70 years is briefly reviewed. The present work is presented in four stages of complexity that carry a lifting-line representation of a fixed wing into a single-blade rotor. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the lifting rotor's spiraling vortex wake structure has very high induced power when compared to the ideal wing. For an advanced ratio of one-half, induced power is on the order of 10 times that of the wing when the comparison is made at wingspan equal to rotor diameter and wing and rotor having equal lift.

  3. Analytic investigation of helicopter rotor blade appended aeroelastic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielawa, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Analytic evaluations of four different passive aeroelastic devices appended to helicopter rotor blades are presented. The devices consist of a passive tuned tab, a control coupled tab, an all-flying tip and a harmonic dilational airfoil tip. Each device was conceived for improving either aerodynamic performance or reducing vibratory control loads or hub shears. The evaluation was performed using a comprehensive rotor aeroelastic analysis (the G400PA code with appropriate modifications), together with data for a realistic helicopter rotor blade (the UH-60A Blackhawk), in high speed flight (90 m/s, 175 kts). The results of this study show that significant performance (L/(D sub e)) gains can be achieved with the all-flying free tip. Results from the harmonic dilational airfoil tip show the potential for moderate improvements in L/(D sub e). Finally, the results for the passive tuned tab and the control coupled tab, as configured for this study, show these devices to be impractical. Sections are included which describe the operation of each device, the required G400PA modifications, and the detailed results obtained for each device.

  4. Optimal placement of tuning masses for vibration reduction in helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.

    1988-01-01

    Methods are presented for the reduction of helicopter rotor blade vibration through a formal mathematical optimization technique determination of optimum tuning mass sizes and locations; these are used as design variables that are systematically changed to achieve low values of shear without large mass penalty. Matrix expressions are obtained for the modal shaping parameter and modal shear amplitude that are required for FEM structural analysis of the blade as well as the optimization formulation. Sensitivity derivatives are also obtained. Three different optimization strategies are developed and tested.

  5. Application of response surface techniques to helicopter rotor blade optimization procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Joseph Lynn; Walsh, Joanne L.; Young, Katherine C.

    1995-01-01

    In multidisciplinary optimization problems, response surface techniques can be used to replace the complex analyses that define the objective function and/or constraints with simple functions, typically polynomials. In this work a response surface is applied to the design optimization of a helicopter rotor blade. In previous work, this problem has been formulated with a multilevel approach. Here, the response surface takes advantage of this decomposition and is used to replace the lower level, a structural optimization of the blade. Problems that were encountered and important considerations in applying the response surface are discussed. Preliminary results are also presented that illustrate the benefits of using the response surface.

  6. Helicopter rotor blade injury: a persistent safety hazard in the U.S. Army.

    PubMed

    Crowley, J S; Geyer, S L

    1993-09-01

    Rotor blade injuries are an inherent hazard of helicopter operations. To determine the recent incidence of rotor blade injuries in the U.S. Army, a review of accident records (1972-91) was conducted. Crash-related injuries were not included. During the study period, there were 24 blade strike injuries (12 involving the main rotor), 11 (46%) of which were fatal. Comparison with previous reports indicates a lower rotor blade injury rate in the last decade than in any previous period. The head was injured most frequently (65%), followed by the chest (17%) and abdomen (7%). Protective helmets helped to reduce injury in several instances. Flight crew comprised 49% of the victims, passengers 29%, ground crew 14%, and bystanders 8%. Helicopter crews must maintain situational awareness when around turning blades--professional training alone does not guarantee protection from rotor blade injury. PMID:8216149

  7. Structural analysis of wind turbine rotors for NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary estimates are presented of vibratory loads and stresses in hingeless and teetering rotors for the proposed NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system. Preliminary blade design utilizes a tapered tubular aluminum spar which supports nonstructural aluminum ribs and skin and is joined to the rotor hub by a steel shank tube. Stresses in the shank of the blade are calculated for static, rated, and overload operating conditions. Blade vibrations were limited to the fundamental flapping modes, which were elastic cantilever bending for hingeless rotor blades and rigid-body rotation for teetering rotor blades. The MOSTAB-C computer code was used to calculate aerodynamic and mechanical loads. The teetering rotor has substantial advantages over the hingeless rotor with respect to shank stresses, fatigue life, and tower loading. The hingeless rotor analyzed does not appear to be structurally stable during overloads.

  8. Material characterization of active fiber composites for integral twist-actuated rotor blade application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh K.; Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    2004-10-01

    The primary objective of this work was to perform material characterization of the active fiber composite (AFC) actuator system for the Boeing active material rotor (AMR) blade application. The purpose of the AMR was to demonstrate active vibration control in helicopters through integral twist-actuation of the blade. The AFCs were a new structural actuator system consisting of piezoceramic fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix and sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes to enhance actuation performance. These conformable actuators were integrated directly into the blade spar laminate as active plies within the composite structure to perform structural control. Therefore, extensive electromechanical material characterization was required to evaluate AFCs both as actuators and as structural components of the blade. The characterization tests designed to extract important electromechanical properties under simulated blade operating conditions included nominal actuation tests, stress-strain tests and actuation under tensile load tests. This paper presents the test results as well as the comprehensive testing procedure developed to evaluate the relevant properties of the AFCs for structural application. The material characterization tests provided an invaluable insight into the behavior of the AFCs under various electromechanical conditions. The results from this comprehensive material characterization of the AFC actuator system supported the design and operation of the AMR blades scheduled for wind tunnel tests.

  9. Effects of blade bending on aerodynamic control of fluctuating loads on teetered HAWT rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Eggers, A.J. Jr.; Ashley, H.; Rock, S.M.; Chaney, K.; Digumarthi, R.

    1996-11-01

    Active aerodynamic control, in the form of closed-loop actuation of blade-tip ailerons or all-movable blades, is investigated as a means of increasing the structural fatigue life of HAWT rotors. The rotor considered is upwind and teetered, with two blades of diameter 29.2 m., fiberglass construction and other properties representative of modern light-weight construction. The paper begins with a review of prior work which studied the problem for an essentially rigid structure. For that and the present research, two loading conditions were invoked: exposure to a Rayleigh distribution of operating winds with vertical shear and a 15 percent superimposed spectrum of turbulence; and occasional exposure to 62 m/s hurricanes. Accounted for herein is the effect of flatwise bending flexibility on the loads spectra of root flatwise bending moment, thrust, and torque (both open loop and closed loop). Using Miner`s rule, the moments are converted to fatigue lives. With aerodynamic control, RMS flatwise moments for the flexible blade in turbulence are found to be less than {1/2} of those without control. At a fixed blade weight of 540 kg when hurricane loads are added, the aileron-controlled blade is designed by that limit-load condition. In contrast, the all-movable blade can be feather controlled in the high wind so that its life is dominated by turbulent loads. Simplified fatigue analysis permits weight reductions to be estimated which yield controlled blades capable of 30 years` operation with a safety factor of 11. The resulting weights are about 400 kg for the aileron-controlled blade, and 230 kg for the all-movable blade. However, such light-weight rotors require attention to other design considerations, such as start-stop cycles. Apart from limit loads, the methods of analysis are linearized (locally for aerodynamic loads). It follows that the results are likely to be meaningful in terms of comparative, rather than absolute, values of fatigue life and weight.

  10. Demonstration of an elastically coupled twist control concept for tilt rotor blade application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, R. C.; Nixon, M. W.; Wilbur, M. L.; Singleton, J. D.; Mirick, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Note is to present results from an analytic/experimental study that investigated the potential for passively changing blade twist through the use of extension-twist coupling. A set of composite model rotor blades was manufactured from existing blade molds for a low-twist metal helicopter rotor blade, with a view toward establishing a preliminary proof concept for extension-twist-coupled rotor blades. Data were obtained in hover for both a ballasted and unballasted blade configuration in sea-level atmospheric conditions. Test data were compared with results obtained from a geometrically nonlinear analysis of a detailed finite element model of the rotor blade developed in MSC/NASTRAN.

  11. Rotor Hover Performance and Flowfield Measurements with Untwisted and Highly-Twisted Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramasamy, Manikandan; Gold, Nili P.; Bhagwat, Mahendra J.

    2010-01-01

    The flowfield and performance characteristics of highly-twisted blades were analyzed at various thrust conditions to improve the fundamental understanding relating the wake effects on rotor performance. Similar measurements made using untwisted blades served as the baseline case. Twisted blades are known to give better hover performance than untwisted blades at high thrust coefficients typical of those found in full-scale rotors. However, the present experiments were conducted at sufficiently low thrust (beginning from zero thrust), where the untwisted blades showed identical, if not better, performance when compared with the highly-twisted blades. The flowfield measurements showed some key wake differences between the two rotors, as well. These observations when combined with simple blade element momentum theory (also called annular disk momentum theory) helped further the understanding of rotor performance characteristics.

  12. Blade loading and spanwise effects on the near and far wake characteristics of a compressor rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, B.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the blade loading and spanwise effects on the rotor wake is presented. The investigation was limited to a study of a low subsonic and incompressible wake flow found downstream of a lightly loaded rotor. Measurements were made with a tri-axial hot wire probe mounted in the stationary frame of reference at six radial and nine axial positions. At each measurement location, the rotor was run at different operating conditions to discern the effects of blade loading on the wake. Near and far wake measurements are given, including mean velocity and turbulence intensity characteristics. The loading and spanwise effects on rotor wake characteristics were found to be substantial.

  13. Convective heat transfer with film cooling around a rotor blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arts, T.

    This paper deals with an experimental convective heat transfer investigation around a high pressure gas turbine film cooled rotor blade. The measurements were performed in the von Karman Institute short duration isentropic light piston compression tube facility allowing a correct simulation of Mach and Reynolds number as well as free stream to wall and free stream to coolant temperature ratios. The airfoil was mounted in a linear stationary cascade environment and heat transfer measurements were obtained by using platinum thin film gages painted on a blade made of machinable glass ceramic. The coolant flow was ejected simultaneously through the leading edge (3 rows of holes), the suction side (2 rows of holes), and the pressure side (1 row of holes). The coolant hydrodynamic behavior is described and the effects of overall coolant to free stream mass weight ratio, coolant to free stream temperature ratio, and free stream turbulence intensity on the convective heat transfer distribution are successively described.

  14. Induced shear piezoelectric actuators for smart rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centolanza, Louis Richard

    In the present work, an induced-shear piezoelectric tube actuator is used in conjunction with a simple lever/cusp hinge amplification device to generate a useful combination of trailing edge flap (or blade tip) deflections and hinge moments. A finite element model of the actuator tube and trailing edge flap (including aerodynamic and inertial loading) was used to guide the design of the actuator/flap system. Both a full scale and small scale tube actuator flap systems and a small scale tube actuator blade tip system were fabricated and experimental bench top testing was conducted to validate the analysis. Hinge moments that corresponded to various rotor speeds were applied to the actuator using mechanical springs. The experimental testing revealed that for an applied electric field of 3 kV/cm, the tube actuator deflected a representative full scale 12 inch flap +/-2.8° at 0 RPM and +/-1.4° for a hinge moment simulating a 400 RPM condition. The percent error between the predicted and experimental full scale flap deflections ranged from 4% (low RPM) to 12.5% (large RPM). Based on the design analysis, the tube actuator can deflect a 12 inch long flap +/-2.5° at a rotation speed of 400 RPM for an electric field of 4 kV/cm. In the experimental testing at an applied electric field of 4 kV/cm of the small scale induced shear tube actuator, a 1.5 inch long flap was deflected +/-12° in a no-load condition and +/-8.5° for a hinge moment simulating a rotor speed of 2000 RPM. The percent error between the predicted and experimental flap deflections ranged from 2% (low RPM) to 8% (large RPM). In addition, a small scale 10% radius blade tip (3.6 inches) was deflected +/-3.15° and +/-2.50° for hinge moments that simulated the 0 and 2000 RPM rotor speed conditions. A numerical analysis was also conducted to investigate the induced shear tube as an active blade twist actuator. Finally, a trade study was conducted to compare the performance of the piezoelectric tube actuator

  15. Fully integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Lamarsh, William J., II; Adelman, Howard M.

    1992-01-01

    A fully integrated aerodynamic/dynamic optimization procedure is described for helicopter rotor blades. The procedure combines performance and dynamic analyses with a general purpose optimizer. The procedure minimizes a linear combination of power required (in hover, forward flight, and maneuver) and vibratory hub shear. The design variables include pretwist, taper initiation, taper ratio, root chord, blade stiffnesses, tuning masses, and tuning mass locations. Aerodynamic constraints consist of limits on power required in hover, forward flight and maneuvers; airfoil section stall; drag divergence Mach number; minimum tip chord; and trim. Dynamic constraints are on frequencies, minimum autorotational inertia, and maximum blade weight. The procedure is demonstrated for two cases. In the first case, the objective function involves power required (in hover, forward flight and maneuver) and dynamics. The second case involves only hover power and dynamics. The designs from the integrated procedure are compared with designs from a sequential optimization approach in which the blade is first optimized for performance and then for dynamics. In both cases, the integrated approach is superior.

  16. Inlet boundary layer effects in an axial compressor rotor. I - Blade-to-blade effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, J. H.; Dring, R. P.; Joslyn, H. D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental data measured on the blading and downstream of an isolated compressor rotor with thick inlet endwall boundary layers. The objective of the study was to compare these results with data acquired previously with thin inlet boundary layers and to assess the impact of inlet boundary layer thickness on the secondary flow. Flow visualization results showed the powerful impact of the hub corner stall and how at the same near stall flow coefficient where with thin inlet boundary layers the blade was separated at midspan, with thick inlet boundary layers it was attached. It was also shown that while secondary flow was very weak, it did produce sufficient radial redistribution to cause an apparent negative loss at the blade root.

  17. Effect of blade planform variation on the forward-flight performance of small-scale rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, Kevin W.; Althoff, Susan L.; Samak, Dhananjay K.; Green, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Glenn L. Martin Wind Tunnel to determine the effect of blade planform variation on the forward-flight performance of four small-scale rotors. The rotors were 5.417 ft in diameter and differed only in blade planform geometry. The four planforms were: (1) rectangular; (2) 3:1 linear taper starting at 94 percent radius; (3) 3:1 linear taper starting at 75 percent radius; and (4) 3:1 linear taper starting at 50 percent radius. Each planform had a thrust-weighted solidity of 0.098. The investigation included forward-flight simulation at advance ratios from 0.14 to 0.43 for a range of rotor lift and drag coefficients. Among the four rotors, the rectangular rotor required the highest torque for the entire range of rotor drag coefficients attained at advanced ratios greater than 0.14 for rotor lift coefficients C sub L from 0.004 to 0.007. Among the rotors with tapered blades and for C sub L = 0.004 to 0.007, either the 75 percent tapered rotor or the 50 percent tapered rotor required the least amount of torque for the full range of rotor drag coefficients attained at each advance ratio. The performance of the 94 percent tapered rotor was generally between that of the rectangular rotor and the 75 and 50 percent tapered rotors at each advance ratio for this range of rotor lift coefficients.

  18. Pressure Sensitive Paint Measurements on 15% Scale Rotor Blades in Hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Oliver D.; Watkins, Anthony Neal; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a proof of concept test to examine the feasibility of using pressure sensitive paint (PSP) to measure the pressure distributions on a rotor in hover. The test apparatus consisted of the US Army 2-meter Rotor Test Stand (2MRTS) and 15% scale swept tip rotor blades. Two camera/rotor separations were examined: 0.76 and 1.35 radii. The outer 15% of each blade was painted with PSP. Intensity and lifetime based PSP measurement techniques were attempted. Data were collected from all blades at thrust coefficients ranging from 0.004 to 0.009.

  19. Optimization methods applied to the aerodynamic design of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Bingham, Gene J.; Riley, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a formal optimization procedure for helicopter rotor blade design which minimizes hover horsepower while assuring satisfactory forward flight performance. The approach is to couple hover and forward flight analysis programs with a general-purpose optimization procedure. The resulting optimization system provides a systematic evaluation of the rotor blade design variables and their interaction, thus reducing the time and cost of designing advanced rotor blades. The paper discusses the basis for and details of the overall procedure, describes the generation of advanced blade designs for representative Army helicopters, and compares design and design effort with those from the conventional approach which is based on parametric studies and extensive cross-plots.

  20. Blade Displacement Measurements of the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Abrego, Anita I.; Olson, Lawrence E.

    2011-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements were acquired during a wind tunnel test of the full-scale UH-60A Airloads rotor. The test was conducted in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. Multi-camera photogrammetry was used to measure the blade displacements of the four-bladed rotor. These measurements encompass a range of test conditions that include advance ratios from 0.15 to unique slowed-rotor simulations as high as 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. The objective of these measurements is to provide a benchmark blade displacement database to be utilized in the development and validation of rotorcraft computational tools. The methodology, system development, measurement techniques, and preliminary sample blade displacement measurements are presented.

  1. Study of casing treatment stall margin improvement phenomena. [for compressor rotor blade tips compressor blades rotating stalls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, D. C., Jr.; Wisler, D. C.; Hilvers, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a program of experimental and analytical research in casing treatments over axial compressor rotor blade tips are presented. Circumferential groove, axial-skewed slot, and blade angle slot treatments were tested. These yielded, for reduction in stalling flow and loss in peak efficiency, 5.8% and 0 points, 15.3% and 2.0 points, and 15.0% and 1.2 points, respectively. These values are consistent with other experience. The favorable stalling flow situations correlated well with observations of higher-then-normal surface pressures on the rotor blade pressure surfaces in the tip region, and with increased maximum diffusions on the suction surfaces. Annular wall pressure gradients, especially in the 50-75% chord region, are also increased and blade surface pressure loadings are shifted toward the trailing edge for treated configurations. Rotor blade wakes may be somewhat thinner in the presence of good treatments, particularly under operating conditions close to the baseline stall.

  2. The development of advanced technology blades for tilt-rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold R.; Maisel, Martin D.; Giulianetti, Demo J.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the development and ground testing of blades for the XV-15 tilt-rotor demonstrator aircraft. This work was performed under contract NAS2-11250 with NASA Ames Research Center. These blades, known as the Advanced Technology Blades (ATB), replace the rectangular, steel blades which were part of the XV-15 original design. The materials used in the primary structure of the ATB are fiberglass and high strain graphite epoxy laminates. This facilitates the use of 43 deg of nonlinear twist, a nonuniform tapered planform and thin airfoils required for aerodynamic efficiency. Instrumentation life is extended by encapsulating gages and wiring in the composite structure. Tip shells and cuff fairings are removable to provide access to tip weights and retention hardware; they are also replaceable with alternate research configurations. Extensive laboratory testing has validated predicted strength characteristics. Hover testing has demonstrated performance significantly superior to that predicted by contemporary methodology. Key elements of the test rig used for rotor performance measurement were developed as an ancillary part of the present program. The performance testing included measurement of near- and far-field noise. Induced inflow velocity distributions were also determined and photographs of tip vortex condensation trails were taken. These are providing guidance for modifications to hover peformance codes.

  3. Advanced grid-stiffened composite shells for applications in heavy-lift helicopter rotor blade spars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan Nampy, Sreenivas

    Modern rotor blades are constructed using composite materials to exploit their superior structural performance compared to metals. Helicopter rotor blade spars are conventionally designed as monocoque structures. Blades of the proposed Heavy Lift Helicopter are envisioned to be as heavy as 800 lbs when designed using the monocoque spar design. A new and innovative design is proposed to replace the conventional spar designs with light weight grid-stiffened composite shell. Composite stiffened shells have been known to provide excellent strength to weight ratio and damage tolerance with an excellent potential to reduce weight. Conventional stringer--rib stiffened construction is not suitable for rotor blade spars since they are limited in generating high torsion stiffness that is required for aeroelastic stability of the rotor. As a result, off-axis (helical) stiffeners must be provided. This is a new design space where innovative modeling techniques are needed. The structural behavior of grid-stiffened structures under axial, bending, and torsion loads, typically experienced by rotor blades need to be accurately predicted. The overall objective of the present research is to develop and integrate the necessary design analysis tools to conduct a feasibility study in employing grid-stiffened shells for heavy-lift rotor blade spars. Upon evaluating the limitations in state-of-the-art analytical models in predicting the axial, bending, and torsion stiffness coefficients of grid and grid-stiffened structures, a new analytical model was developed. The new analytical model based on the smeared stiffness approach was developed employing the stiffness matrices of the constituent members of the grid structure such as an arch, helical, or straight beam representing circumferential, helical, and longitudinal stiffeners. This analysis has the capability to model various stiffening configurations such as angle-grid, ortho-grid, and general-grid. Analyses were performed using an

  4. Development of a piezoelectric actuator for trailing-edge flap control of rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Friedrich K.; Ngo, Hieu T.; Anand, V.; Domzalski, David B.

    1999-06-01

    Piezoelectric actuator technology has now reached a level where macro-positioning applications in the context of smart structures can be considered. One application with high payoffs is vibration reduction, noise reduction, and performance improvements in helicopters. Integration of piezoelectric actuators in the rotor blade is attractive, since it attacks the problem at the source. The present paper covers the development of a piezoelectric actuator for trailing edge flap control on a 34-foot diameter helicopter main rotor. The design of an actuator using bi-axial stack columns, and its bench, shake, and spin testing are described. A series of enhancements lead to an improved version that, together with use of latest stack technology, meets the requirements. Next steps in this DARPA sponsored program are development of the actuator and full scale rotor system for wind tunnel testing in the NASA Ames 40 X 80 foot wind tunnel and flight testing on the MD Explorer.

  5. Weight Assessment for Fuselage Shielding on Aircraft With Open-Rotor Engines and Composite Blade Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Kelly; Pereira, Michael; Kohlman, Lee; Goldberg, Robert; Envia, Edmane; Lawrence, Charles; Roberts, Gary; Emmerling, William

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been engaged in discussions with airframe and engine manufacturers concerning regulations that would apply to new technology fuel efficient "openrotor" engines. Existing regulations for the engines and airframe did not envision features of these engines that include eliminating the fan blade containment systems and including two rows of counter-rotating blades. Damage to the airframe from a failed blade could potentially be catastrophic. Therefore the feasibility of using aircraft fuselage shielding was investigated. In order to establish the feasibility of this shielding, a study was conducted to provide an estimate for the fuselage shielding weight required to provide protection from an open-rotor blade loss. This estimate was generated using a two-step procedure. First, a trajectory analysis was performed to determine the blade orientation and velocity at the point of impact with the fuselage. The trajectory analysis also showed that a blade dispersion angle of 3deg bounded the probable dispersion pattern and so was used for the weight estimate. Next, a finite element impact analysis was performed to determine the required shielding thickness to prevent fuselage penetration. The impact analysis was conducted using an FAA-provided composite blade geometry. The fuselage geometry was based on a medium-sized passenger composite airframe. In the analysis, both the blade and fuselage were assumed to be constructed from a T700S/PR520 triaxially-braided composite architecture. Sufficient test data on T700S/PR520 is available to enable reliable analysis, and also demonstrate its good impact resistance properties. This system was also used in modeling the surrogate blade. The estimated additional weight required for fuselage shielding for a wing- mounted counterrotating open-rotor blade is 236 lb per aircraft. This estimate is based on the shielding material serving the dual use of shielding and fuselage structure. If the

  6. Flapping response characteristics of hingeless rotor blades by a gereralized harmonic balance method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, D. A.; Ormiston, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Linearized equations of motion for the flapping response of flexible rotor blades in forward flight are derived in terms of generalized coordinates. The equations are solved using a matrix form of the method of linear harmonic balance, yielding response derivatives for each harmonic of the blade deformations and of the hub forces and moments. Numerical results and approximate closed-form expressions for rotor derivatives are used to illustrate the relationships between rotor parameters, modeling assumptions, and rotor response characteristics. Finally, basic hingeless rotor response derivatives are presented in tabular and graphical form for a wide range of configuration parameters and operating conditions.

  7. An investigation of the vibration characteristics of shrouded-bladed-disk rotor stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, L.-T.; Dugundji, J.

    1979-01-01

    Coupled differential equations of motion are given for application to a rotating, pretwisted and heated beam under the effects of thermal stresses and gas bending loads. The circumferential modes of the multi-blade vibration of a bladed-disk rotor stage were studied. A finite element method was developed for the dynamic and static deformation analysis of the blade. The deformations of a bladed disk and a shrouded-bladed disk were studied by introducing a special bladed-disk element and a special shrouded-blade element. Some features of the vibration of part-span-shrouded, bladed-disk rotor stages are discussed. The static deformation, thermal stress and gas bending effects on the blade vibration were presented previously.

  8. Numerical analysis of a variable camber rotor blade as a lift control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awani, A. O.; Stroub, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    A new rotor configuration called the variable camber rotor was numerically investigated as a lift control device. This rotor differs from a conventional (baseline) rotor only in the blade aft section. In this configuration, the aft section or flap is attached to the forward section by pin joint arrangement, and also connected to the rotor control system for the control of rotor thrust level and vectoring. Pilot action to the flap deflection controls rotor lift and tip path plane tilt. The drag due to flaps is presented and the theoretical result correlated with test data. The assessment of payoff for the variable camber rotor in comparison with conventional (baseline) rotor was examined in hover. The variable camber rotor is shown to increase hover power required by 1.35%, but such a minimal power penalty is not significant enough to be considered a negative result. In forward flight, the control needs of the variable camber rotor were evaluated.

  9. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  10. Vibratory Loads Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Structurally Tailored Model Helicopter Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Hamouda, M-Nabil H.; Idol, Robert F.; Mirick, Paul H.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to investigate the use of a Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) rotor structural tailoring concept, known as rotor nodalization, in conjunction with advanced blade aerodynamics as well as to evaluate rotor blade aerodynamic design methodologies. A 1/5-size, four-bladed bearingless hub, three sets of Mach-scaled model rotor blades were tested in forward flight from transition up to an advance ratio of 0.35. The data presented pertain only to the evaluation of the structural tailoring concept and consist of fixed-system and rotating system vibratory loads. These data will be useful for evaluating the effects of tailoring blade structural properties on fixed-system vibratory loads, as well as validating analyses used in the design of advanced rotor systems.

  11. Application of a system modification technique to dynamic tuning of a spinning rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spain, C. V.

    1987-01-01

    An important consideration in the development of modern helicopters is the vibratory response of the main rotor blade. One way to minimize vibration levels is to ensure that natural frequencies of the spinning main rotor blade are well removed from integer multiples of the rotor speed. A technique for dynamically tuning a finite-element model of a rotor blade to accomplish that end is demonstrated. A brief overview is given of the general purpose finite element system known as Engineering Analysis Language (EAL) which was used in this work. A description of the EAL System Modification (SM) processor is then given along with an explanation of special algorithms developed to be used in conjunction with SM. Finally, this technique is demonstrated by dynamically tuning a model of an advanced composite rotor blade.

  12. Helicopter blade dynamic loads measured during performance testing of two scaled rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, John D.

    1987-01-01

    A test to determine the performance differences between the 27-percent-scale models of two rotors for the U.S. Army AH-64 helicopter was conducted in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. One rotor, referred to as the baseline rotor, simulated the geometry and dynamic characteristics of the production baseline rotor, and the other rotor, referred to as the advanced rotor, was designed to have improved hover performance. During the performance test, the dynamic pitch-link forces and blade bending and torsion moments were also measured. Dynamic data from the forward flight investigation are reduced and presented. The advanced blade set was designed to have dynamic characteristics similar to those of the baseline rotor so that test conditions would not be limited by potential rotor instability and blade resonances, and so that the measured performance increments could be considered to be due purely to aerodynamic causes. Data show consistent trends with advance ratio for both blade sets with generally higher oscillatory loads occurring for the advanced blade set when compared with the baseline blade set.

  13. Wind turbine blade shear web disbond detection using rotor blade operational sensing and data analysis.

    PubMed

    Myrent, Noah; Adams, Douglas E; Griffith, D Todd

    2015-02-28

    A wind turbine blade's structural dynamic response is simulated and analysed with the goal of characterizing the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. Computer models of a 5 MW offshore utility-scale wind turbine were created to develop effective algorithms for detecting such damage. Through data analysis and with the use of blade measurements, a shear web disbond was quantified according to its length. An aerodynamic sensitivity study was conducted to ensure robustness of the detection algorithms. In all analyses, the blade's flap-wise acceleration and root-pitching moment were the clearest indicators of the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. A combination of blade and non-blade measurements was formulated into a final algorithm for the detection and quantification of the disbond. The probability of detection was 100% for the optimized wind speed ranges in laminar, 30% horizontal shear and 60% horizontal shear conditions. PMID:25583871

  14. A parametric study of blade vortex interaction noise for two, three, and four-bladed model rotors at moderate tip speeds Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighton, K. P.; Harris, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation of blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) has been conducted. This investigation consisted of an examination of BVI blade slap for two, three, and four-bladed model rotors at tip Mach numbers ranging from 0.20 to 0.50. Blade slap contours have been obtained for each configuration tested. Differences in blade slap contours, peak sound pressure level, and directivity for each configuration tested are noted. Additional fundamental differences, such as multiple interaction BVI, are observed and occur for only specific rotor blade configurations. The effect of increasing the Mach number on the BVI blade slap for various rotor blade combinations has been quantified. A peak blade slap Mach number scaling law is proposed. Comparison of measured BVI blade slap with theory is made.

  15. Model helicopter rotor high-speed impulsive noise: Measured acoustics and blade pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A 1/17-scale research model of the AH-1 series helicopter main rotor was tested. Model-rotor acoustic and simultaneous blade pressure data were recorded at high speeds where full-scale helicopter high-speed impulsive noise levels are known to be dominant. Model-rotor measurements of the peak acoustic pressure levels, waveform shapes, and directively patterns are directly compared with full-scale investigations, using an equivalent in-flight technique. Model acoustic data are shown to scale remarkably well in shape and in amplitude with full-scale results. Model rotor-blade pressures are presented for rotor operating conditions both with and without shock-like discontinuities in the radiated acoustic waveform. Acoustically, both model and full-scale measurements support current evidence that above certain high subsonic advancing-tip Mach numbers, local shock waves that exist on the rotor blades ""delocalize'' and radiate to the acoustic far-field.

  16. NRT Rotor Structural / Aeroelastic Analysis for the Preliminary Design Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ennis, Brandon Lee; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2015-10-01

    This document describes the initial structural design for the National Rotor Testbed blade as presented during the preliminary design review at Sandia National Laboratories on October 28- 29, 2015. The document summarizes the structural and aeroelastic requirements placed on the NRT rotor for satisfactory deployment at the DOE/SNL SWiFT experimental facility to produce high-quality datasets for wind turbine model validation. The method and result of the NRT blade structural optimization is also presented within this report, along with analysis of its satisfaction of the design requirements.

  17. Finite element simulation of core inspection in helicopter rotor blades using guided waves.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Barnard, Daniel; Dayal, Vinay

    2015-09-01

    This paper extends the work presented earlier on inspection of helicopter rotor blades using guided Lamb modes by focusing on inspecting the spar-core bond. In particular, this research focuses on structures which employ high stiffness, high density core materials. Wave propagation in such structures deviate from the generic Lamb wave propagation in sandwich panels. To understand the various mode conversions, finite element models of a generalized helicopter rotor blade were created and subjected to transient analysis using a commercial finite element code; ANSYS. Numerical simulations showed that a Lamb wave excited in the spar section of the blade gets converted into Rayleigh wave which travels across the spar-core section and mode converts back into Lamb wave. Dispersion of Rayleigh waves in multi-layered half-space was also explored. Damage was modeled in the form of a notch in the core section to simulate a cracked core, and delamination was modeled between the spar and core material to simulate spar-core disbond. Mode conversions under these damaged conditions were examined numerically. The numerical models help in assessing the difficulty of using nondestructive evaluation for complex structures and also highlight the physics behind the mode conversions which occur at various discontinuities. PMID:26048172

  18. Rotating Shake Test and Modal Analysis of a Model Helicopter Rotor Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, W. Keats; Mirick, Paul H.; Langston, Chester W.

    1997-01-01

    Rotating blade frequencies for a model generic helicopter rotor blade mounted on an articulated hub were experimentally determined. Testing was conducted using the Aeroelastic Rotor Experimental System (ARES) testbed in the Helicopter Hover Facility (HBF) at Langley Research Center. The measured data were compared to pretest analytical predictions of the rotating blade frequencies made using the MSC/NASTRAN finite-element computer code. The MSC/NASTRAN solution sequences used to analyze the model were modified to account for differential stiffening effects caused by the centrifugal force acting on the blade and rotating system dynamic effects. The correlation of the MSC/NASTRAN-derived frequencies with the experimental data is, in general, very good although discrepancies in the blade torsional frequency trends and magnitudes were observed. The procedures necessary to perform a rotating system modal analysis of a helicopter rotor blade with MSC/NASTRAN are outlined, and complete sample data deck listings are provided.

  19. An experimental study of the sensitivity of helicopter rotor blade tracking to root pitch adjustment in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, W. Keats; Langston, Chester W.; Mirick, Paul H.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of blade tracking in hover to variations in root pitch was examined for two rotor configurations. Tests were conducted using a four bladed articulated rotor mounted on the NASA-Army aeroelastic rotor experimental system (ARES). Two rotor configurations were tested: one consisting of a blade set with flexible fiberglass spars and one with stiffer (by a factor of five in flapwise and torsional stiffnesses) aluminum spars. Both blade sets were identical in planform and airfoil distribution and were untwisted. The two configurations were ballasted to the same Lock number so that a direct comparison of the tracking sensitivity to a gross change in blade stiffness could be made. Experimental results show no large differences between the two sets of blades in the sensitivity of the blade tracking to root pitch adjustments. However, a measurable reduction in intrack coning of the fiberglass spar blades with respect to the aluminum blades is noted at higher rotor thrust conditions.

  20. Aeroelastic response and blade loads of a composite rotor in forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Edward C.; Chopra, Inderjit

    1992-01-01

    The aeroelastic response, blade and hub loads, and shaft-fixed aeroelastic stability is investigated for a helicopter with elastically tailored composite rotor blades. A new finite element based structural analysis including nonclassical effects such as transverse shear, torsion related warping and inplane elasticity is integrated with the University of Maryland Advanced Rotorcraft Code. The structural dynamics analysis is correlated against both experimental data and detailed finite element results. Correlation of rotating natural frequencies of coupled composite box-beams is generally within 5-10 percent. The analysis is applied to a soft-inplane hingeless rotor helicopter in free flight propulsive trim. For example, lag mode damping can be increased 300 percent over a range of thrust conditions and forward speeds. The influence of unsteady aerodynamics on the blade response and vibratory hub loads is also investigated. The magnitude and phase of the flap response is substantially altered by the unsteady aerodynamic effects. Vibratory hub loads increase up to 30 percent due to unsteady aerodynamic effects.

  1. Ice accretion modeling for wind turbine rotor blades

    SciTech Connect

    Chocron, D.; Brahimi, T.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Bombardier, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The increasing application of wind energy in northern climates implies operation of wind turbines under severe atmospheric icing conditions. Such conditions are well known in the Scandinavian countries, Canada and most of Eastern European countries. An extensive study to develop a procedure for the prediction of ice accretion on wind turbines rotor blades appears to be essential for the safe and economic operation of wind turbines in these cold regions. The objective of the present paper is to develop a computer code capable of simulating the shape and amount of ice which may accumulate on horizontal axis wind turbine blades when operating in icing conditions. The resulting code is capable to predict and simulate the formation of ice in rime and glaze conditions, calculate the flow field and particle trajectories and to perform thermodynamic analysis. It also gives the possibility of studying the effect of different parameters that influence ice formation such as temperature, liquid water content, droplet diameter and accretion time. The analysis has been conducted on different typical airfoils as well as on NASA/DOE Mod-0 wind turbine. Results showed that ice accretion on wind turbines may reduce the power output by more than 20%.

  2. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ONE: PRELIMINARY DESIGN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.; Chow, Ray; Nordenholz, Thomas R.; Wamble, John Lee

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  3. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME THREE: MARKET & TEAM

    SciTech Connect

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  4. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ZERO: OVERVIEW AND COMMERCIAL PATH

    SciTech Connect

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  5. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME TWO: INNOVATION & COST OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  6. Summary of Full-Scale Blade Displacement Measurements of the UH- 60A Airloads Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Meyn, Larry; Burner, Alpheus W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2016-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements using multi-camera photogrammetry techniques were acquired for a full-scale UH-60A rotor, tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex 40-Foot by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The measurements, acquired over the full rotor azimuth, encompass a range of test conditions that include advance ratios from 0.15 to 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. The objective was to measure the blade displacements and deformations of the four rotor blades and provide a benchmark blade displacement database to be utilized in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. An overview of the blade displacement measurement methodology, system development, and data analysis techniques are presented. Sample results based on the final set of camera calibrations, data reduction procedures and estimated corrections that account for registration errors due to blade elasticity are shown. Differences in blade root pitch, flap and lag between the previously reported results and the current results are small. However, even small changes in estimated root flap and pitch can lead to significant differences in the blade elasticity values.

  7. Structural fatigue test results for large wind turbine blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to provide quantitative information on the operating life capabilities of wind turbine rotor blade concepts for root-end load transfer, a series of cantilever beam fatigue tests was conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted on a laminated wood blade with bonded steel studs, a low cost steel spar (utility pole) with a welded flange, a utility pole with additional root-end thickness provided by a swaged collar, fiberglass spars with both bonded and nonbonded fittings, and, finally, an aluminum blade with a bolted steel fitting (Lockheed Mod-0 blade). Photographs, data, and conclusions for each of these tests are presented. In addition, the aluminum blade test results are compared to field failure information; these results provide evidence that the cantilever beam type of fatigue test is a satisfactory method for obtaining qualitative data on blade life expectancy and for identifying structurally underdesigned areas (hot spots).

  8. Wind-tunnel evaluation of an advanced main-rotor blade design for a utility-class helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Mantay, Wayne R.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Cramer, Robert G., Jr.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to evaluate differences between an existing utility-class main-rotor blade and an advanced-design main-rotor blade. The two rotor blade designs were compared with regard to rotor performance oscillatory pitch-link loads, and 4-per-rev vertical fixed-system loads. Tests were conducted in hover and over a range of simulated full-scale gross weights and density altitude conditions at advance ratios from 0.15 to 0.40. Results indicate that the advanced blade design offers performance improvements over the baseline blade in both hover and forward flight. Pitch-link oscillatory loads for the baseline rotor were more sensitive to the test conditions than those of the advanced rotor. The 4-per-rev vertical fixed-system load produced by the advanced blade was larger than that produced by the baseline blade at all test conditions.

  9. Blade Motion Correlation for the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romander, Ethan A.; Meyn, Larry A.; Barrows, Danny; Burner, Alpheus

    2014-01-01

    Testing was successfully completed in May 2010 on a full-scale UH-60A rotor system in the USAF's National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel.[1] The primary objective of this NASA Army sponsored test program was to acquire a comprehensive set of validation-quality measurements ona full-scale pressure-instrumented rotor system at conditions that challenge the most sophisticated modeling andsimulation tools. The test hardware included the same rotor blades used during the UH-60A Airloads flight test.[2] Key measurements included rotor performance, blade loads, blade pressures, blade displacements, and rotorwake measurements using large-field Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Retro-reflective Background Oriented Schlieren (RBOS).

  10. Inspection of helicopter rotor blades with the help of guided waves and "turning modes": Experimental and finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Daniel; Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Dayal, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    Modern helicopter rotor blades constructed of composite materials offer significant inspection challenges, particularly at inner structures, where geometry and differing material properties and anisotropy make placement of the probing energy difficult. This paper presents an application of Lamb waves to these structures, where mode conversion occurs at internal geometric discontinuities. These additional modes were found to successfully propagate to the targeted regions inside the rotor and back out, allowing evaluation of the structure. A finite element model was developed to simulate wave propagation and mode conversion in the structure and aid in identifying the signals received in the laboratory experiment. A good correlation between numerical and experimental results was observed.

  11. Research on measurement and control of helicopter rotor response using blade-mounted accelerometers 1990-91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Norman D.; Mckillip, Robert M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Wind tunnel testing of the full-size Model 412/IBC rotor performed at the NASA Ames Research Center is described. The use of blade-mounted accelerometers is found to be feasible for estimating or measuring blade flapping, lagging, and bending accelerations, rates, and displacements. Application of the imaginary swash plate concept to IBC systems leads to useful filtering of the blade accelerometer signals while permitting the control of a four-bladed rotor using measurements from any three blades. Rotor state measurements in the rotating system can be transformed to the corresponding nonrotating rotor states using the IBC algorithm with its associated filtering properties.

  12. An ABC status report. [Advancing Blade Concept for XH-59A rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.; Ruddell, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) uses two rigid counterrotating rotors in a coaxial arrangement to provide advancing blades on both sides of the aircraft. This makes use of the high dynamic pressure on the advancing side of the rotors at high forward speed, virtually ignoring the low dynamic pressure on the retreating side, while still keeping the rotor system in roll trim. Theoretically such a rotor system will maintain its lift potential as speed increases. The XH-59A was designed to investigate this theory. A description is provided of the flight test program from May, 1980 to January, 1981. A summary is presented of the knowledge gained throughout the entire program, and current pitfalls are reviewed. It is concluded that the ABC has been verified, with the XH-59A envelope of blade lift coefficient as a function of advance ratio greatly exceeding that of conventional helicopter rotor systems.

  13. Simultaneous Boundary-Layer Transition, Tip Vortex, and Blade Deformation Measurements of a Rotor in Hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heineck, James; Schairer, Edward; Ramasamy, Manikandan; Roozeboom, Nettie

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes simultaneous optical measurements of a sub-scale helicopter rotor in the U.S. Army Hover Chamber at NASA Ames Research Center. The measurements included thermal imaging of the rotor blades to detect boundary layer transition; retro-reflective background-oriented schlieren (RBOS) to visualize vortices; and stereo photogrammetry to measure displacements of the rotor blades, to compute spatial coordinates of the vortices from the RBOS data, and to map the thermal imaging data to a three-dimensional surface grid. The test also included an exploratory effort to measure flow near the rotor tip by tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo PIV)an effort that yielded valuable experience but little data. The thermal imaging was accomplished using an image-derotation method that allowed long integration times without image blur. By mapping the thermal image data to a surface grid it was possible to accurately locate transition in spatial coordinates along the length of the rotor blade.

  14. Extended aeroelastic analysis for helicopter rotors with prescribed hub motion and blade appended penduluum vibration absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielawa, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The mathematical development for the expanded capabilities of the G400 rotor aeroelastic analysis was examined. The G400PA expanded analysis simulates the dynamics of all conventional rotors, blade pendulum vibration absorbers, and the higher harmonic excitations resulting from prescribed vibratory hub motions and higher harmonic blade pitch control. The methodology for modeling the unsteady stalled airloads of two dimensional airfoils is discussed. Formulations for calculating the rotor impedance matrix appropriate to the higher harmonic blade excitations are outlined. This impedance matrix, and the associated vibratory hub loads, are the rotor dynamic characteristic elements for use in the simplified coupled rotor/fuselage vibration analysis (SIMVIB). Updates to the development of the original G400 theory, program documentation, user instructions and information are presented.

  15. Method and apparatus for reducing rotor blade deflections, loads, and/or peak rotational speed

    DOEpatents

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-17

    A method for reducing at least one of loads, deflections of rotor blades, or peak rotational speed of a wind turbine includes storing recent historical pitch related data, wind related data, or both. The stored recent historical data is analyzed to determine at least one of whether rapid pitching is occurring or whether wind speed decreases are occurring. A minimum pitch, a pitch rate limit, or both are imposed on pitch angle controls of the rotor blades conditioned upon results of the analysis.

  16. Preliminary design study of advanced composite blade and hub and nonmechanical control system for the tilt-rotor aircraft. Volume 1: Engineering studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H. R.; Smith, K. E.; Mcveigh, M. A.; Dixon, P. G.; Mcmanus, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Composite structures technology is applied in a preliminary design study of advanced technology blades and hubs for the XV-15 tilt rotor research demonstrator aircraft. Significant improvements in XV-15 hover and cruise performance are available using blades designed for compatibility with the existing aircraft, i.e., blade installation would not require modification of the airframe, hub or upper controls. Provision of a low risk nonmechanical control system was also studied, and a development specification is given.

  17. Performance Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Two Main-rotor Blade Designs for a Utility-Class Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to evaluate an advanced main rotor designed for use on a utility class helicopter, specifically the U.S. Army UH-60A Blackhawk. This rotor design incorporated advanced twist, airfoil cross sections, and geometric planform. For evaluation purposes, the current UH-60A main rotor was also tested and is referred to as the baseline blade set. A total of four blade sets were tested. One set of both the baseline and the advanced rotors were dynamically scaled to represent a full scale helicopter rotor blade design. The remaining advanced and baseline blade sets were not dynamically scaled so as to isolate the effects of structural elasticity. The investigation was conducted in hover and at rotor advance ratios ranging from 0.15 to 0.4 at a range of nominal test medium densities from 0.00238 to 0.009 slugs/cu ft. This range of densities, coupled with varying rotor lift and propulsive force, allowed for the simulation of several vehicle gross weight and density altitude combinations. Performance data are presented for all blade sets without analysis; however, cross referencing of data with flight condition may be useful to the analyst for validating aeroelastic theories and design methodologies as well as for evaluating advanced design parameters.

  18. Structural testing of the North Wind 250 composite rotor joint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W; Link, H; Coleman, C

    1994-05-01

    The North Wind 250 wind turbine is under development at Northern Power Systems (NPS) in Moretown, VT. The turbine uses a unique, flow-through, teetered-rotor design. This design eliminates structural discontinuities at the blade/hub interface by fabricating the rotor as one continuous structural element. To accomplish this, the two blade spars are joined at the center of the rotor using a proprietary bonding technique. Fatigue tests were conducted on the full-scale rotor joint at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Subsequent tests are now underway to test the full-scale rotor and hub assembly to verify the design assumptions. The test articles were mounted in dedicated test fixtures. For the joint test, a constant moment was generated across the joint and parent material. Hydraulic actuators applied sinusoidal loading to the test article at levels equivalent to 90% of the extreme wind load for over one million cycles. When the loading was increased to 112% of the extreme wind load, the joint failed by buckling. Strain levels were monitored at 14 locations inside and outside of the blade joint during the test. The tests were used to qualify this critical element of the rotor for field testing and to provide information needed to improve the structural design of the joint.

  19. Blade Displacement Measurement Technique Applied to a Full-Scale Rotor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Olson, Lawrence E.; Romander, Ethan A.; Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2012-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements using multi-camera photogrammetry were acquired during the full-scale wind tunnel test of the UH-60A Airloads rotor, conducted in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The objectives were to measure the blade displacement and deformation of the four rotor blades as they rotated through the entire rotor azimuth. These measurements are expected to provide a unique dataset to aid in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. They are used to resolve the blade shape and position, including pitch, flap, lag and elastic deformation. Photogrammetric data encompass advance ratios from 0.15 to slowed rotor simulations of 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. An overview of the blade displacement measurement methodology and system development, descriptions of image processing, uncertainty considerations, preliminary results covering static and moderate advance ratio test conditions and future considerations are presented. Comparisons of experimental and computational results for a moderate advance ratio forward flight condition show good trend agreements, but also indicate significant mean discrepancies in lag and elastic twist. Blade displacement pitch measurements agree well with both the wind tunnel commanded and measured values.

  20. Dynamic response characteristics of dual flow-path integrally bladed rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Joseph A.; Brown, Jeffrey M.; Scott-Emuakpor, Onome E.; Cross, Charles J.; Slater, Joseph C.

    2015-02-01

    New turbine engine designs requiring secondary flow compression often look to dual flow-path integrally bladed rotors (DFIBRs) since these stages have the ability to perform work on the secondary, or bypassed, flow-field. While analogous to traditional integrally bladed rotor stages, DFIBR designs have many differences that result in unique dynamic response characteristics that must be understood to avoid fatigue. This work investigates these characteristics using reduced-order models (ROMs) that incorporate mistuning through perturbations to blade frequencies. This work provides an alternative to computationally intensive geometric-mistuning approaches for DFIBRs by utilizing tuned blade mode reductions and substructure coupling in cyclic coordinates. Free and forced response results are compared to full finite element model (FEM) solutions to determine if any errors are related to the reduced-order model formulation reduction methods. It is shown that DFIBRs have many more frequency veering regions than their single flow-path integrally blade rotor (IBR) counterparts. Modal families are shown to transition between system, inner-blade, and outer-blade motion. Furthermore, findings illustrate that while mode localization of traditional IBRs is limited to a single or small subset of blades, DFIBRs can have modal energy localized to either an inner- or outer-blade set resulting in many blades responding above tuned levels. Lastly, ROM forced response predictions compare well to full FEM predictions for the two test cases shown.

  1. Composite-Blade Structural Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiello, R. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    COBSTRAN (COmposite Blade STRuctural ANalyzer) computer program is preprocessor and postprocessor facilitating design and analysis of composite turbofan and turboprop blades, and of composite wind-turbine blades. Combines theories of mechanics of composites and of laminates with data base of fiber and matrix properties. Designed to carry out linear analyses required for efficient mathematical modeling and analysis of bladelike structural components made of multilayered angle-plied fiber composites. Components made from isotropic or anisotropic homogeneous materials also modeled. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  2. Aerodynamic development and investigation of turbine transonic rotor blade cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorskiy, E. V.; Mamaev, B. I.

    2015-05-01

    An intricate nature of the pattern in which working fluid flows over transonic blade cascades generates the need for experimentally studying their characteristics in designing them. Three cascades having identical main geometrical parameters and differing from one another only in the suction side curvature in the outlet area between the throat and trailing edge were tested in optimizing the rotor blade cascade for the reduced flow outlet velocity λ2 ≈ 1. In initial cascade 1, its curvature decreased monotonically toward the trailing edge. In cascade 2, the suction side curvature near the trailing edge was decreased, but the section near the throat had a larger curvature. In cascade 3, a profile with inverse concavity near the trailing edge was used. The cascades were blown at λ2 = 0.7-1.2 and at different incidence angles. The distribution of pressure over the profiles, profile losses, and the outlet angle were measured. Cascade 1 showed efficient performance in the design mode and under the conditions of noticeable deviations from it with respect to the values of λ2 and incidence angle. In cascade 2, flow separation zones were observed at the trailing edge, as well as an increased level of losses. Cascade 3 was found to be the best one: it had reduced positive pressure gradients as compared with cascade 1, and the relative reduction of losses in the design mode was equal to 24%. The profiles with inverse concavity on the suction side near the trailing edge were recommended for being used in heavily loaded turbine stages.

  3. Comparison of composite rotor blade models: A coupled-beam analysis and an MSC/NASTRAN finite-element model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Robert V.; Nixon, Mark W.; Rehfield, Lawrence W.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology was developed for the structural analysis of composite rotor blades. This coupled-beam analysis is relatively simple to use compared with alternative analysis techniques. The beam analysis was developed for thin-wall single-cell rotor structures and includes the effects of elastic coupling. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the new composite-beam analysis method through comparison of its results with those of an established baseline analysis technique. The baseline analysis is an MSC/NASTRAN finite-element model built up from anisotropic shell elements. Deformations are compared for three linear static load cases of centrifugal force at design rotor speed, applied torque, and lift for an ideal rotor in hover. A D-spar designed to twist under axial loading is the subject of the analysis. Results indicate the coupled-beam analysis is well within engineering accuracy.

  4. Structural Health and Prognostics Management for Offshore Wind Turbines: Sensitivity Analysis of Rotor Fault and Blade Damage with O&M Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Myrent, Noah J.; Barrett, Natalie C.; Adams, Douglas E.; Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2014-07-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are significantly higher than the current costs for land-based (onshore) wind plants. One way to reduce these costs would be to implement a structural health and prognostic management (SHPM) system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management and utilize a state-based cost model to assess the economics associated with use of the SHPM system. To facilitate the development of such a system a multi-scale modeling and simulation approach developed in prior work is used to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and faults, and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. This methodology was used to investigate two case studies: (1) the effects of rotor imbalance due to pitch error (aerodynamic imbalance) and mass imbalance and (2) disbond of the shear web; both on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine in the present report. Sensitivity analyses were carried out for the detection strategies of rotor imbalance and shear web disbond developed in prior work by evaluating the robustness of key measurement parameters in the presence of varying wind speeds, horizontal shear, and turbulence. Detection strategies were refined for these fault mechanisms and probabilities of detection were calculated. For all three fault mechanisms, the probability of detection was 96% or higher for the optimized wind speed ranges of the laminar, 30% horizontal shear, and 60% horizontal shear wind profiles. The revised cost model provided insight into the estimated savings in operations and maintenance costs as they relate to the characteristics of the SHPM system. The integration of the health monitoring information and O&M cost versus damage/fault severity information provides the initial steps to identify processes to reduce operations and maintenance costs for an offshore wind farm while increasing turbine availability

  5. Computerized three-dimensional aerodynamic design of a lifting rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, M. E.; Hicks, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A three-dimensional, inviscid, full-potential lifting rotor code was used to demonstrate that pressure distributions on both advancing and retreating blades could be significantly improved by perturbing local airfoil sections. The perturbations were described by simple geometric shape functions. To illustrate the procedure, an example calculation was made at a forward flight speed of 85 m/sec (165 knots) and an advance ratio of 0.385. It was found that a minimum of three shape functions was required to improve the pressures without producing undesirable secondary effects in high-speed forward flight on a hypothetical modern rotor blade initially having an NLR-1 supercritical airfoil. Reductions in the shock strength on the advancing blade could be achieved, while simultaneously lessening leading-edge pressure gradients on the retreating blade. The major blade section modifications required were blunting of the upper surface leading edge and some reshaping of the blade's upper surface resulting in moderately thicker airfoils.

  6. Testing of a one-bladed 30-meter-diameter rotor on the DOE/NASA Mod-O wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensworth, C. B. F., III; Corrigan, R. D.; Berkowitz, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    Tests were conducted on the DOE/NASA Mod-O 200-kW horizontal-axis wind turbine in a one-bladed rotor configuration. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance, loads, and dynamic characteristics of a one-bladed rotor, and then to compare these parameters with those of an aerodynamically similar two-bladed rotor configuration. Test operations showed that this intermediate-size (15.2-m radius) one-bladed rotor configuration can be operated successfully. Test results show that the one-bladed rotor had cyclic blade loads comparable to those of a two-bladed rotor. A moderate power penalty equivalent to a reduction in windspeed of 1 m/sec occurred with the one-bladed rotor when operated at a rotor speed 50 percent higher than that of the two-bladed rotor.

  7. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  8. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  9. Blading System and Method For Controlling Structural Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A new blading system for controlling the structural vibrations in axial-flow compressors, turbines, or fans, as in aircraft engines and like turbomachines including a stator disc and a rotor disc is presented. The rotor disc defines several radial hubs that retain the rotor blading systems. Each blading system includes a blade formed of an airfoil, and a root attachment which is dimensioned to fit within, and to engage a corresponding hub. Viscoelastic dampers are selectively applied to the outer surfaces of the root attachment on which compressive or shear forces are likely to develop, intermediate the root attachment and the hub, for compression therebetween upon rotation of the rotor disc, in order to dampen structural vibrations. One advantage presented by the viscoelastic dampers lies in its simplicity, efficiency, cost effectiveness, and its ability to be retrofitted into existing turbomachines with minor surface treatment of the root attachments. Furthermore, since the dampers are not exposed to the inflowing airstream, they do not affect the aerodynamic performance of the turbomachine. Another feature of the damping system is that it provides a significant source of damping to minimize destructive structural vibrations, thereby increasing the durability of the turbomachine, and reducing acoustic noise accompanying high amplitude vibrations.

  10. Theory of self-excited mechanical oscillations of helicopter rotors with hinged blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Robert P; Feingold, Arnold M

    1958-01-01

    Vibrations of rotary-wing aircraft may derive their energy from the rotation of the rotor rather than from the air forces. A theoretical analysis of these vibrations is described and methods for its application are explained in Chapter one. Chapter two reports the results of an investigation of the mechanical stability of a rotor having two vertically hinged blades mounted upon symmetrical supports, that is, of equal stiffness and mass in all horizontal directions. Chapter three presents the theory of ground vibrations of a two-blade helicopter rotor on anisotropic flexible supports.

  11. Induced strain actuation of composite beams and rotor blades with embedded piezoceramic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Chopra, Inderjit

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a dynamically scaled (Froude scale) helicopter rotor blade with embedded piezoceramic elements as sensors and actuators to control blade vibrations. A 6-ft-diameter two-bladed bearingless rotor model was built, where each blade is embedded with banks of piezoelectric actuators at +/- 45-degree angles with respect to the beam axis on the top and bottom surfaces. A twist distribution along the blade span is achieved through in-phase excitation of the top and bottom actuators at equal potentials, while a bending distribution is achieved through out-of-phase excitation. In order to fix design variables and to optimize blade performance, a uniform strain beam theory is formulated to analytically predict the static bending and torsional response of composite rectangular beams with embedded piezoelectric actuators. Parameters such as bond thicknesses, actuator skew angle, and actuator spacing are investigated by experiments and then validated by theory. The static bending and torsional response of the rotor blades is experimentally measured and correlated with theory. Dynamic torsional and bending responses are experimentally determined for frequencies from 2-120 HZ to assess the viability of a vibration reduction system based on piezoactuation of blade twist. Although the magnitudes of blade twist attained in this experiment were small, it is expected that future models can be built with improved performance.

  12. Numerical simulation of actuation behavior of active fiber composites in helicopter rotor blade application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Seung Hoon; Kim, Ji Yeon; Shin, Sang Joon; Kim, Seung Jo

    2004-07-01

    Smart structures incorporating active materials have been designed and analyzed to improve aerospace vehicle performance and its vibration/noise characteristics. Helicopter integral blade actuation is one example of those efforts using embedded anisotropic piezoelectric actuators. To design and analyze such integrally-actuated blades, beam approach based on homogenization methodology has been traditionally used. Using this approach, the global behavior of the structures is predicted in an averaged sense. However, this approach has intrinsic limitations in describing the local behaviors in the level of the constituents. For example, the failure analysis of the individual active fibers requires the knowledge of the local behaviors. Microscopic approach for the analysis of integrally-actuated structures is established in this paper. Piezoelectric fibers and matrices are modeled individually and finite element method using three-dimensional solid elements is adopted. Due to huge size of the resulting finite element meshes, high performance computing technology is required in its solution process. The present methodology is quoted as Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the smart structure. As an initial validation effort, present analytical results are correlated with the experiments from a small-scaled integrally-actuated blade, Active Twist Rotor (ATR). Through DNS, local stress distribution around the interface of fiber and matrix can be analyzed.

  13. Helicopter Rotor Blade Computation in Unsteady Flows Using Moving Overset Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Jasim; Duque, Earl P. N.

    1996-01-01

    An overset grid thin-layer Navier-Stokes code has been extended to include dynamic motion of helicopter rotor blades through relative grid motion. The unsteady flowfield and airloads on an AH-IG rotor in forward flight were computed to verify the methodology and to demonstrate the method's potential usefulness towards comprehensive helicopter codes. In addition, the method uses the blade's first harmonics measured in the flight test to prescribe the blade motion. The solution was impulsively started and became periodic in less than three rotor revolutions. Detailed unsteady numerical flow visualization techniques were applied to the entire unsteady data set of five rotor revolutions and exhibited flowfield features such as blade vortex interaction and wake roll-up. The unsteady blade loads and surface pressures compare well against those from flight measurements. Details of the method, a discussion of the resulting predicted flowfield, and requirements for future work are presented. Overall, given the proper blade dynamics, this method can compute the unsteady flowfield of a general helicopter rotor in forward flight.

  14. Deflection Shape Reconstructions of a Rotating Five-blade Helicopter Rotor from TLDV Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fioretti, A.; Castellini, P.; Tomasini, E. P.; Di Maio, D.; Ewins, D. J.

    2010-05-28

    Helicopters are aircraft machines which are subjected to high level of vibrations, mainly due to spinning rotors. These are made of two or more blades attached by hinges to a central hub, which can make the dynamic behaviour difficult to study. However, they share some common dynamic properties with the ones expected in bladed discs, thereby the analytical modelling of rotors can be performed using some assumptions as the ones adopted for the bladed discs. This paper presents results of a vibrations study performed on a scaled helicopter rotor model which was rotating at a fix rotational speed and excited by an air jet. A simplified analytical model of that rotor was also produced to help the identifications of the vibration patterns measured using a single point tracking-SLDV measurement method.

  15. A multi-fidelity framework for physics based rotor blade simulation and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Kyle Brian

    New helicopter rotor designs are desired that offer increased efficiency, reduced vibration, and reduced noise. Rotor Designers in industry need methods that allow them to use the most accurate simulation tools available to search for these optimal designs. Computer based rotor analysis and optimization have been advanced by the development of industry standard codes known as "comprehensive" rotorcraft analysis tools. These tools typically use table look-up aerodynamics, simplified inflow models and perform aeroelastic analysis using Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD). Due to the simplified aerodynamics, most design studies are performed varying structural related design variables like sectional mass and stiffness. The optimization of shape related variables in forward flight using these tools is complicated and results are viewed with skepticism because rotor blade loads are not accurately predicted. The most accurate methods of rotor simulation utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) but have historically been considered too computationally intensive to be used in computer based optimization, where numerous simulations are required. An approach is needed where high fidelity CFD rotor analysis can be utilized in a shape variable optimization problem with multiple objectives. Any approach should be capable of working in forward flight in addition to hover. An alternative is proposed and founded on the idea that efficient hybrid CFD methods of rotor analysis are ready to be used in preliminary design. In addition, the proposed approach recognizes the usefulness of lower fidelity physics based analysis and surrogate modeling. Together, they are used with high fidelity analysis in an intelligent process of surrogate model building of parameters in the high fidelity domain. Closing the loop between high and low fidelity analysis is a key aspect of the proposed approach. This is done by using information from higher fidelity analysis to improve predictions made

  16. Dynamical characteristics of the tip vortex from a four-bladed rotor in hover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mula, Swathi M.; Stephenson, James H.; Tinney, Charles E.; Sirohi, Jayant

    2013-10-01

    Dynamical characteristics of tip vortices shed from a 1 m diameter, four-bladed rotor in hover are investigated using various aperiodicity correction techniques. Data are acquired by way of stereo-particle image velocimetry and comprises measurements up to 260° vortex age with 10° offsets. The nominal operating condition of the rotor corresponds to Re c = 248,000 and M = 0.23 at the blade tip. With the collective pitch set to 7.2° and a rotor solidity of 0.147, blade loading ( C T/σ) is estimated from blade element momentum theory to be 0.042. The findings reveal a noticeable, anisotropic, aperiodic vortex wandering pattern over all vortex ages measured. These findings are in agreement with recent observations of a full-scale, four-bladed rotor in hover operating under realistic blade loading. The principal axis of wander is found to align itself perpendicular to the slipstream boundary. Likewise, tip vortices trailing from different blades show a wandering motion that is in phase instantaneously with respect to one another, in every direction and at every wake age in the measurement envelope.

  17. Performance of Typical Rear-Stage Axial-Flow Compressor Rotor Blade Row at Three Different Blade Setting Angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussoy, Marvin I.; Bachkin, Daniel

    1959-01-01

    A comparison of the performance of a single-stage rotor run at three different blade setting angles is presented. The rotor was of a design typical for a last stage of a multistage compressor. At each setting angle, the rotor blade row was operated from 53 to 100 percent of equivalent maximum speed (850 ft/sec tip speed) at constant inlet pressure. Hot-wire anemometry was used to observe rotating-stall and surge patterns in time unsteady flow. Results indicated that an increase in peak pressure ratio and an increase in maximum equivalent weight flow were obtained at each speed investigated when the blade setting angle was decreased. An increase in peak efficiency was achieved with decrease in blade setting angle for part of the range of speeds investigated. However, the peak efficiencies for the three blade setting angles were approximately the same at the maximum speed investigated. The flow ranges for all three configurations were about the same at minimum speed and decreased at almost the same rate when the rotative speed was increased through part of the range of speeds investigated. At maximum speed, the flow range for the smallest setting angle was considerably less than the flow range for the other two configurations. A decrease in efficiency and flow range for the smallest blade setting angle at maximum speed can be attributed primarily to a Mach number effect. In addition, because of the difference in projected axial chord lengths at the casing wall, some effect on performance could be expected from the change in three-dimensional flow occurring at the tip. Rotating-stall characteristics for the two smaller blade setting angles were essentially the same. Only surge could be detected for the largest blade setting angle in the unstable-flow region of operation.

  18. Fabrication and testing of prestressed composite rotor blade spar specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1974-01-01

    Prestressed composite spar specimens were fabricated and evaluated by crack propagation and ballistic penetration tests. The crack propagation tests on flawed specimens showed that the prestressed composite spar construction significantly suppresses crack growth. Damage from three high velocity 30 caliber projectile hits was confined to three small holes in the ballistic test specimen. No fragmentation or crack propagation was observed indicating good ballistic damage resistance. Rotor attachment approaches and improved structural performance configurations were identified. Design theory was verified by tests. The prestressed composite spar configuration consisted of a compressively prestressed high strength ARDEFORM 301 stainless steel liner overwrapped with pretensioned S-994 fiberglass.

  19. Development and application of a method for predicting rotor free wake positions and resulting rotor blade air loads. Volume 1: Model and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1971-01-01

    Rotor wake geometries are predicted by a process similar to the startup of a rotor in a free stream. An array of discrete trailing and shed vortices is generated with vortex strengths corresponding to stepwise radial and azimuthal blade circulations. The array of shed and trailing vortices is limited to an arbitrary number of azimuthal steps behind each blade. The remainder of the wake model of each blade is an arbitrary number of trailing vortices. Vortex element end points were allowed to be transported by the resultant velocity of the free stream and vortex-induced velocities. Wake geometry, wake flow, and wake-induced velocity influence coefficients are generated by this program for use in the blade loads portion of the calculations. Blade loads computations include the effects of nonuniform inflow due to a free wake, nonlinear airfoil characteristics, and response of flexible blades to the applied loads. Computed wake flows and blade loads are compared with experimentally measured data. Predicted blade loads, response and shears and moments are obtained for a model rotor system having two independent rotors. The effects of advance ratio, vertical separation of rotors, different blade radius ratios, and different azimuthal spacing of the blades of one rotor with respect to the other are investigated.

  20. A study of casing treatment stall margin improvement phenomena. [for axial compressor rotor blade tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, D. C., Jr.; Wisler, D. C.; Hilvers, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a program of experimental and analytical research in casing treatments over axial compressor rotor blade tips are presented. Circumferential groove, axial-skewed slot and blade angle slot treatments were tested at low speeds. With the circumferential groove treatment the stalling flow was reduced 5.8% at negligible efficiency sacrifice. The axial-skewed slot treatment improved the stalling flow by 15.3%; 1.8 points in peak efficiency were sacrificed. The blade angle slot treatment improved the stalling flow by 15.0%; 1.4 points in peak efficiency were sacrificed. The favorable stalling flow situations correlated well with observations of higher-than-normal surface pressures on the rotor blade pressure surfaces in the tip region, and with increased maximum diffusions on the suction surfaces. Annulus wall pressure gradients, especially in the 50 to 75% chord region, are also increased and blade surface pressure loadings are shifted toward the trailing edge for treated configurations.

  1. Trailing Vortex Measurements in the Wake of a Hovering Rotor Blade with Various Tip Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Preston B.; Leishman, J. Gordon

    2003-01-01

    This work examined the wake aerodynamics of a single helicopter rotor blade with several tip shapes operating on a hover test stand. Velocity field measurements were conducted using three-component laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). The objective of these measurements was to document the vortex velocity profiles and then extract the core properties, such as the core radius, peak swirl velocity, and axial velocity. The measured test cases covered a wide range of wake-ages and several tip shapes, including rectangular, tapered, swept, and a subwing tip. One of the primary differences shown by the change in tip shape was the wake geometry. The effect of blade taper reduced the initial peak swirl velocity by a significant fraction. It appears that this is accomplished by decreasing the vortex strength for a given blade loading. The subwing measurements showed that the interaction and merging of the subwing and primary vortices created a less coherent vortical structure. A source of vortex core instability is shown to be the ratio of the peak swirl velocity to the axial velocity deficit. The results show that if there is a turbulence producing region of the vortex structure, it will be outside of the core boundary. The LDV measurements were supported by laser light-sheet flow visualization. The results provide several benchmark test cases for future validation of theoretical vortex models, numerical free-wake models, and computational fluid dynamics results.

  2. Investigation of Blade-row Flow Distributions in Axial-flow-compressor Stage Consisting of Guide Vanes and Rotor-blade Row

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, John J; Dugan, Paul D; Budinger, Raymond E; Goelzer, H Fred

    1950-01-01

    A 30-inch tip-diameter axial-flow compressor stage was investigated with and without rotor to determine individual blade-row performance, interblade-row effects, and outer-wall boundary-layer conditions. Velocity gradients at guide-vane outlet without rotor approximated design assumptions, when the measured variation of leaving angle was considered. With rotor in operation, Mach number and rotor-blade effects changed flow distribution leaving guide vanes and invalidated design assumption of radial equilibrium. Rotor-blade performance correlated interpolated two-dimensional results within 2 degrees, although tip stall was indicated in experimental and not two-dimensional results. Boundary-displacement thickness was less than 1.0 and 1.5 percent of passage height after guide vanes and after rotor, respectively, but increased rapidly after rotor when tip stall occurred.

  3. Effects of static equilibrium and higher-order nonlinearities on rotor blade stability in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespodasilva, Marcelo R. M.; Hodges, Dewey H.

    1988-01-01

    The equilibrium and stability of the coupled elastic lead/lag, flap, and torsion motion of a cantilever rotor blade in hover are addressed, and the influence of several higher-order terms in the equations of motion of the blade is determined for a range of values of collective pitch. The blade is assumed to be untwisted and to have uniform properties along its span. In addition, chordwise offsets between its elastic, tension, mass, and aerodynamic centers are assumed to be negligible for simplicity. The aerodynamic forces acting on the blade are modeled using a quasi-steady, strip-theory approximation.

  4. Structural Evaluation of Exo-Skeletal Engine Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuguoglu, Latife; Abumeri, Galib; Chamis, Christos C.

    2003-01-01

    The available computational simulation capability is used to demonstrate the structural viability of composite fan blades of innovative Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for a subsonic mission. Full structural analysis and progressive damage evaluation of ESE composite fan blade is conducted through the NASA in-house computational simulation software system EST/BEST. The results of structural assessment indicate that longitudinal stresses acting on the blade are in compression. At a design speed of 2000 rpm, pressure and suction surface outer most ply stresses in longitudinal, transverse and shear direction are much lower than the corresponding composite ply strengths. Damage is initiated at 4870 rpm and blade fracture takes place at rotor speed of 7735 rpm. Damage volume is 51 percent. The progressive damage, buckling, stress and strength results indicate that the design at hand is very sound because of the factor of safety, damage tolerance, and buckling load of 6811 rpm.

  5. DESIGN OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL SUPERSONIC TURBINE ROTOR BLADES WITH BOUNDARY-LAYER CORRECTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program has been developed for the design of supersonic rotor blades where losses are accounted for by correcting the ideal blade geometry for boundary layer displacement thickness. The ideal blade passage is designed by the method of characteristics and is based on establishing vortex flow within the passage. Boundary-layer parameters (displacement and momentum thicknesses) are calculated for the ideal passage, and the final blade geometry is obtained by adding the displacement thicknesses to the ideal nozzle coordinates. The boundary-layer parameters are also used to calculate the aftermixing conditions downstream of the rotor blades assuming the flow mixes to a uniform state. The computer program input consists essentially of the rotor inlet and outlet Mach numbers, upper- and lower-surface Mach numbers, inlet flow angle, specific heat ratio, and total flow conditions. The program gas properties are set up for air. Additional gases require changes to be made to the program. The computer output consists of the corrected rotor blade coordinates, the principal boundary-layer parameters, and the aftermixing conditions. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 7094. This program was developed in 1971.

  6. Prediction of sand particle trajectories and sand erosion damage on helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Bong Gun

    Therefore, in this dissertation, accurate and time-efficient methodologies were developed for performing sand particle tracking and predicting sand erosion damage on actual helicopter rotor blades under realistic hover and vertical lift conditions. In this dissertation, first, injection (release) conditions of solid particles with new injection parameter, sand particle mass flow rate (SPmFR), were specified to deal with the effect of non-uniform and unsteady flow conditions surrounding at each injection point from which solid particles are released. The SPmFR defines the number of solid particles released from the same injection position per unit time. Secondly, a general definition of erosion rate, "mass or volume loss from the metal surface due to the impact of a unit "mass" of solid particles" was also modified by multiplying with SPmFR in order to solve the limitation for predicting erosion damage on actual helicopter rotor blade. Next, a suitable empirical particle rebound model and an erosion damage model for spherical sand particles with diameters ranging from 10 microm to 500 microm impacting on the material Ti-6A1-4V, the material of helicopter rotor blade, were developed. Finally, C++ language based codes in the form of User Defined Functions (UDFs) were developed and implemented into the commercially available multi-dimensional viscous flow solver ANSYS-FLUENT in order to develop and integrate with the general purpose flow solver, ANSYS-FLUENT, for a specific Lagrangian particle trajectory computing algorithm and rebound and erosion quantification purposes. In the erosion simulation, a reasonably accurate fluid flow solution is necessary. In order to validate the numerical results obtained in this dissertation, computations for flow-only around 2D RAE2822 airfoil and 3D rotating rotor blade (NACA0012) without any sand particle were performed. In the comparison of these results with experimental results, it is found that the flow solutions are in good

  7. Optimal placement of tuning masses for vibration reduction in helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Adelman, Howard M.

    1988-01-01

    Described are methods for reducing vibration in helicopter rotor blades by determining optimum sizes and locations of tuning masses through formal mathematical optimization techniques. An optimization procedure is developed which employs the tuning masses and corresponding locations as design variables which are systematically changed to achieve low values of shear without a large mass penalty. The finite-element structural analysis of the blade and the optimization formulation require development of discretized expressions for two performance parameters: modal shaping parameter and modal shear amplitude. Matrix expressions for both quantities and their sensitivity derivatives are developed. Three optimization strategies are developed and tested. The first is based on minimizing the modal shaping parameter which indirectly reduces the modal shear amplitudes corresponding to each harmonic of airload. The second strategy reduces these amplitudes directly, and the third strategy reduces the shear as a function of time during a revolution of the blade. The first strategy works well for reducing the shear for one mode responding to a single harmonic of the airload, but has been found in some cases to be ineffective for more than one mode. The second and third strategies give similar results and show excellent reduction of the shear with a low mass penalty.

  8. The design of fibre-reinforced composite blades for passive and active wind turbine rotor aerodynamic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaolis, Nicos M.

    An alternative method of varying the pitch of wind turbine rotor blades is examined, which relies on the use of fiber reinforced composite materials to design the blades so as to develop elastic coupling between an applied load of a generally twisting and non-twisting nature. With such an approach, twist can be obtained either by using one of the forces experienced by the blade during operation to alter passively the blade pitch, or by internal pressurization to control actively the blade pitch by varying the pressure. The passive control option is considered in detail. First the relevant composite construction geometries that produce the desired coupling effect are identified and then a theoretical model is developed. This is also used to explore the variation in coupling and stiffness properties with the fiber orientation. Various materials are considered including glass, aramid, and carbon fiber epoxy composites. Subsequently, the structural model is confirmed experimentally by a series of tests on composite, foam-cored beams specially designed and manufactured for this purpose. It is then combined with existing aerodynamic theories in order to model the performance of horizontal and vertical axis rotors employing such blades. The effect of passively induced twist on the aerodynamic performance is examined both theoretically and experimentally. Additionally, a simplified dynamic model is developed to obtain a general idea on how built-in elastic coupling may affect the dynamic stability of a horizontal axis rotor system. The active control option is considered in general as an alternative mechanism of inducing twist. The relevant theory is derived and illustrated with examples, and the realistic practicability of this concept is discussed. To validate the theory, a composite cylindrical shell has been designed, manufactured and tested under pressure.

  9. Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Portion of a PV-2 Helicopter Rotor Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, William B., Jr.

    1945-01-01

    A portion of a PV-2 helicopter rotor blade has been tested in the 6- by 6-foot test section of the Langley stability tunnel to determine if the aerodynamic characteristics were seriously affected by cross flow or fabric distortion. The outer portion of the blade was tested as a reflection plane model pivoted about the tunnel wall to obtain various angles of cross flow over the blade. Because the tunnel wall acts as a plane of sytry, the measured aerodynamic characteristics correspond to those of an airfoil having various angles of sweepforward and sweepback. Tests were made with the vents on the lower surface open and also with the vents sealed and the internal pressure held at -20 inches of water producing an internal pressure coefficient of -1.059. The change in contour resulting from the range of internal pressures used had very little effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the blade. The test methods were considered to simulate inadequately the flow conditions over the rotor blade because the effects of cross flow were limited to conditions corresponding to sweep of the blade. The results indicated that this type of cross flow had only minor effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of the blade. It is believed, therefore, that future tests to determine the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of cross flow should utilize complete rotors.

  10. Dynamic-stall and structural-modeling effects on helicopter blade stability with experimental correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barwey, D.; Gaonkar, Gopal H.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of blade and root-flexure elasticity and dynamic stall on the stability of hingeless rotor blades are investigated. The dynamic stall description is based on the ONERA models of lift, drag, and pitching moment. The structural analysis is based on three blade models that range from a rigid flap-lag model to two elastic flap-lag-torsion models, which differ in representing root-flexure elasticity. The predictions are correlated with the measured lag damping of an experimental isolated three-blade rotor; the correlation covers rotor operations from near-zero-thrust conditions in hover to highly stalled, high-thrust conditions in foward flight. That correlation shows sensitivity of lag-damping predictions to structural refinements in blade and root-flexure modeling. Moreover, this sensitivity increases with increasing control pitch angle and advance ratio. For high-advance-ratio and high-thrust conditions, inclusion of dynamic stall generally improves the correlation.

  11. Reduction of high-speed impulsive noise by blade planform modification of a model helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. A.; Hoad, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The reduction of high speed impulsive noise for the UH-1H helicopter was investigated by using an advanced main rotor system. The advanced rotor system had a tapered blade planform compared with the rectangular planform of the standard rotor system. Models of both the advanced main rotor system and the UH-1H standard main rotor system were tested at 1/4 scale in the 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel. In plane acoustic measurements of the high speed impulsive noise demonstrated that the advanced rotor system on the UH-1H helicopter reduced the high speed impulsive noise by up to 20 dB, with a reduction in overall sound pressure level of up to 5 dB.

  12. Experimental and numerical study of the British Experimental Rotor Programme blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Alan; Duque, Earl P. N.

    1990-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests on the British Experimental Rotor Programme (BERP) tip are described, and the results are compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results. The test model was molded using the Lynx-BERP blade tooling to provide a semispan, cantilever wing comprising the outboard 30 percent of the rotor blade. The tests included both surface-pressure measurements and flow visualization to obtain detailed information of the flow over the BERP tip for a range of angles of attack. It was observed that, outboard of the notch, favorable pressure gradients exist which ensure attached flow, and that the tip vortex also remains stable to large angles of attack. On the rotor, these features yield a very gradual break in control loads when the retreating-blade limit is eventually reached. Computational and experimental results were generally found to be in good agreement.

  13. Inspection of spar-core bond in helicopter rotor blades using finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Barnard, Daniel J.; Dayal, Vinay

    2015-03-01

    This work focuses on inspection of spar-core bond of a helicopter rotor blade using finite element analysis. Structures which have high density, high stiffness cores can be very difficult to inspect due to various mode conversions. FEM was used to capture these mode conversions effectively. The structure consists of a thin spar section followed by a spar-core half space and another thin spar section. A Lamb wave excited in the spar section can mode convert into a Rayleigh wave in the spar-core section due to the coupling of the core material. This in turn mode converts back into a Lamb wave upon interacting with the next spar section. This work focuses solely on capturing the mode conversions between Rayleigh and Lamb modes at different discontinuities in the geometry.

  14. Effect of blade loading and rotor speed on the optimal aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Christopher; Hussain, Fazle; Barhorst, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Optimization of wind turbine torque as a function of angle of attack - over the entire speed range from start-up to cut-off - is studied by considering the full trigonometric relations projecting lift and drag to thrust and torque. Since driving force and thrust are geometrically constrained, one cannot be changed without affecting the other. Increasing lift to enhance torque simultaneously increases thrust, which subsequently reduces the inflow angle with respect to the rotor plane via an increased reduction in inflow velocity. Reducing the inflow angle redirects the lift force away from the driving force generating the torque, which may reduce overall torque. Similarly, changes in the tip-speed ratio (TSR) affect the inflow angle and thus the optimal torque. Using the airfoil data from the NREL 5 MW reference turbine, the optimal angle of attack over the operational TSR range (4 to 15) was computed using a BEM model to incorporate the dynamic coupling, namely the interdependency of blade loading and inflow angle. The optimal angle of attack is close to minimum drag during start-up phase (high TSR) and continuously increases toward maximum lift at high wind speeds (low TSR).

  15. An approximate closed-form solution for lead lag damping of rotor blades in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Simple stability methods are used to derive an approximate, closed-form expression for the lead-lag damping of rotor blades in hover. Destabilizing terms are shown to be a result of two dynamic mechanisms. First, the destabilizing aerodynamic forces that can occur when blade lift is higher than a critical value are maximized when the blade motion is in a straight line equidistant from the blade chord and the average direction of the air flow velocity. This condition occurs when the Coriolis terms vanish and when the elastic coupling terms align the blade motion with this least stable direction. Second, the nonconservative stiffness terms that result from pitch-flap or pitch-lag coupling can add or subtract energy from the system depending upon whether the motion of the blade tip is clockwise or counterclockwise.

  16. A Unified Development of Basis Reduction Methods for Rotor Blade Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzicka, Gene C.; Hodges, Dewey H.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The axial foreshortening effect plays a key role in rotor blade dynamics, but approximating it accurately in reduced basis models has long posed a difficult problem for analysts. Recently, though, several methods have been shown to be effective in obtaining accurate,reduced basis models for rotor blades. These methods are the axial elongation method,the mixed finite element method, and the nonlinear normal mode method. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the close relationships among these methods, which are seemingly disparate at first glance. First, the difficulties inherent in obtaining reduced basis models of rotor blades are illustrated by examining the modal reduction accuracy of several blade analysis formulations. It is shown that classical, displacement-based finite elements are ill-suited for rotor blade analysis because they can't accurately represent the axial strain in modal space, and that this problem may be solved by employing the axial force as a variable in the analysis. It is shown that the mixed finite element method is a convenient means for accomplishing this, and the derivation of a mixed finite element for rotor blade analysis is outlined. A shortcoming of the mixed finite element method is that is that it increases the number of variables in the analysis. It is demonstrated that this problem may be rectified by solving for the axial displacements in terms of the axial forces and the bending displacements. Effectively, this procedure constitutes a generalization of the widely used axial elongation method to blades of arbitrary topology. The procedure is developed first for a single element, and then extended to an arbitrary assemblage of elements of arbitrary type. Finally, it is shown that the generalized axial elongation method is essentially an approximate solution for an invariant manifold that can be used as the basis for a nonlinear normal mode.

  17. A New Higher-Order Composite Theory for Analysis and Design of High Speed Tilt-Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Thomas Robert

    1996-01-01

    A higher-order theory is developed to model composite box beams with arbitrary wall thicknesses. The theory, based on a refined displacement field, represents a three-dimensional model which approximates the elasticity solution. Therefore, the cross-sectional properties are not reduced to one-dimensional beam parameters. Both inplane and out-of-plane warping are automatically included in the formulation. The model accurately captures the transverse shear stresses through the thickness of each wall while satisfying all stress-free boundary conditions. Several numerical results are presented to validate the present theory. The developed theory is then used to model the load carrying member of a tilt-rotor blade which has thick-walled sections. The composite structural analysis is coupled with an aerodynamic analysis to compute the aeroelastic stability of the blade. Finally, a multidisciplinary optimization procedure is developed to improve the aerodynamic, structural and aeroelastic performance of the tilt-rotor aircraft. The Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser function is used to formulate the multiobjective function problem and a hybrid approximate analysis is used to reduce the computational effort. The optimum results are compared with the baseline values and show significant improvements in the overall performance of the tilt-rotor blade.

  18. Induced strain actuation of composite beams and rotor blades with embedded piezoceramic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Chopra, Inderjit

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a dynamically-scaled (Froude scale) helicopter rotor blade with embedded piezoceramic elements as sensors and actuators to control blade vibrations. A 6 ft diameter 2-bladed bearingless rotor model was built where each blade is embedded with banks of piezoelectric actuators at 0964-1726/5/1/005/img1 degree angles with respect to the beam axis on the top and bottom surfaces. A twist distribution along the blade span is achieved through in-phase excitation of the top and bottom actuators at equal potentials, while a bending distribution is achieved through out-of-phase excitation. In order to fix design variables and to optimize blade performance, a uniform strain beam theory is formulated to analytically predict the static bending and torsional response of composite rectangular beams with embedded piezoelectric actuators. Parameters such as bond thicknesses, actuator skew angle and actuator spacing are investigated by experiments and then validated by theory. The static bending and torsional response of the rotor blades is experimentally measured and correlated with theory. Dynamic torsional and bending responses are experimentally determined for frequencies from 2 - 120 Hz to assess the viability of a vibration reduction system based on piezo-actuation of blade twist. To assess the performance of the piezo-actuators in rotation, hover tests were conducted where accelerometers embedded in the blades were used to resolve the tip twist amplitudes. Although the magnitudes of blade twist attained in this experiment were small, it is expected that future models can be built with improved performance.

  19. A Subjective Test of Modulated Blade Spacing for Helicopter Main Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Analytically, uneven (modulated) spacing of main rotor blades was found to reduce helicopter noise. A study was performed to see if these reductions transferred to improvements in subjective response. Using a predictive computer code, sounds produced by six main rotor configurations: 4 blades evenly spaced, 5 blades evenly spaced and four configurations with 5 blades with modulated spacing of varying amounts, were predicted. These predictions were converted to audible sounds corresponding to the level flyover, takeoff and approach flight conditions. Subjects who heard the simulations were asked to assess the overflight sounds in terms of noisiness on a scale of 0 to 10. In general the evenly spaced configurations were found less noisy than the modulated spacings, possibly because the uneven spacings produced a perceptible pulsating sound due to the very low fundamental frequency.

  20. Incidence loss for fan turbine rotor blade in two-dimensional cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, J. F.; Moffitt, T. P.; Stabe, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of incidence angle on the aerodynamic performance of a fan turbine rotor blade was investigated experimentally in a two dimensional cascade. The test covered a range of incidence angles from -15 deg to 10 deg and exit ideal critical velocity ratios from 0.75 to 0.95. The principal measurements were blade-surface static pressures and cross-channel survey of exit total pressure, static pressure, and flow angle. Flow adjacent to surfaces was examined using a visualization technique. The results of the investigation include blade-surface velocity distribution and overall kinetic energy loss coefficients for the incidence angles and exit velocity ratios tested. The measured losses are compared with those from a reference core turbine rotor blade and also with two common analytical methods of predicting incidence loss.

  1. Helicopter rotor rotational noise predictions based on measured high-frequency blade loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosier, R. N.; Ramakrishnan, R.

    1974-01-01

    In tests conducted at the Langley helicopter rotor test facility, simultaneous measurements of up to 200 harmonics of the fluctuating aerodynamic blade surface pressures and far-field radiated noise were made on a full-scale nontranslating rotor system. After their characteristics were determined, the measured blade surface pressures were converted to loading coefficients and used in an existing theory to predict the far-field rotational noise. A comparison of the calculated and measured noise shows generally good agreement up to 300 to 600 Hz, depending on the discreteness of the loading spectrum. Specific attention is given to the effects of the blade loading coefficients, chordwise loading distributions, blade loading phases, and observer azimuthal position on the calculations.

  2. Performance of two-stage fan having low-aspect-ratio first-stage rotor blading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urasek, D. C.; Gorrell, W. T.; Cunnan, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA two stage fan was tested with a low aspect ratio first stage rotor having no midspan dampers. At design speed the fan achieved an adiabatic design efficiency of 0.846, and peak efficiencies for the first stage and rotor of 0.870 and 0.906, respectively. Peak efficiency occurred very close to the stall line. In an attempt to improve stall margin, the fan was retested with circumferentially grooved casing treatment and with a series of stator blade resets. Results showed no improvement in stall margin with casing treatment but increased to 8 percent with stator blade reset.

  3. Three dimensional flow field inside compressor rotor, including blade boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galmes, J. M.; Pouagere, M.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1982-01-01

    The Reynolds stress equation, pressure strain correlation, and dissipative terms and diffusion are discussed in relation to turbulence modelling using the Reynolds stress model. Algebraic modeling of Reynolds stresses and calculation of the boundary layer over an axial cylinder are examined with regards to the kinetic energy model for turbulence modelling. The numerical analysis of blade and hub wall boundary layers, and an experimental study of rotor blade boundary layer in an axial flow compressor rotor are discussed. The Patankar-Spalding numerical method for two dimensional boundary layers is included.

  4. Axial-thrust responses due to a gas turbine's rotor blade distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebele-Alawa, B. T.

    2010-11-01

    The axial thrust imposed on the shaft of a gas turbine depends upon its rotor blade inlet inclination to the turbine's axial direction: this inclination can change due to the distortions resulting from fouling, aging, tip rubbing, erosion, thermal-fatigue cracks, and corrosion. Relevant influential parameters for an operational gas turbine were measured. Theoretical predictions for the behavior of the same turbine were obtained from computer simulations. The results of both measurements and theoretical predictions were compared and showed qualitative correspondence. The rotor blade profile distortions result in significant increases in the axial thrust on the compressor, which adversely affects the gas turbine's thermodynamic performance, reliability, and operational life.

  5. Extension-twist coupling of composite circular tubes with application to tilt rotor blade design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Mark W.

    1987-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine if twist deformation required for the design of full-scale extension-twist-coupled tilt-rotor blades can be achieved within material design limit loads, and to demonstrate the accuracy of a coupled-beam analysis in predicting twist deformations. Two extension-twist-coupled tilt-rotor blade designs were developed based on theoretically optimum aerodynamic twist distributions. The designs indicated a twist rate requirement of between .216 and .333 deg/in. Agreement between axial tests and analytical predictions was within 10 percent at design limit loads. Agreement between the torsion tests and predictions was within 11 percent.

  6. Study of the capacitance technique for measuring high-temperature blade tip clearance on ceramic rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Higher operating temperatures required for increased engine efficiency can be achieved by using ceramic materials for engine components. Ceramic turbine rotors are subject to the same limitations with regard to gas path efficiency as their superalloy predecessors. In this study, a modified frequency-modulation system is proposed for the measurement of blade tip clearance on ceramic rotors. It is expected to operate up to 1370 C (2500 F), the working temperature of present engines with ceramic turbine rotors. The design of the system addresses two special problems associated with nonmetallic blades: the capacitance is less than that of a metal blade and the effects of temperature may introduce uncertainty with regard to the blade tip material composition. To increase capacitance and stabilize the measurement, a small portion of the rotor is modified by the application of 5-micron-thick platinum films. The platinum surfaces on the probe electrodes and rotor that are exposed to the high-velocity gas stream are coated with an additional 10-micron-thick protective ceramic topcoat. A finite-element method is applied to calculate the capacitance as a function of clearance.

  7. Data Summary Report for the Open Rotor Propulsion Rig Equipped With F31/A31 Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David

    2014-01-01

    An extensive wind tunnel test campaign was undertaken to quantify the performance and acoustics of a counter-rotating open rotor system. The present document summarizes the portion of this test performed with the so-called Historical Baseline rotor blades, designated F31A31. It includes performance and acoustic data acquired at Mach numbers from take-off to cruise. It also includes the effect of propulsor angle of attack as well as an upstream pylon. This report is accompanied by an electronic data set including relevant acoustic and performance measurements for all of the F31A31 data.

  8. Influence of alternating loads on nonlinear vibration characteristics of cracked blade in rotor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Jiang, Dongxiang; Chu, Fulei

    2015-09-01

    As important causes of fatigue and crack failure, alternating loads also affect vibration characteristics of cracked blades in rotor system and probably influence formulation of diagnostic rule. This work carried out analysis of nonlinear vibration of cracked blade in rotor system with crack breathing effects and alternating loads taken into account. Firstly, equations of motion are formed with Finite Element Method (FEM), and breathing crack is modeled with cracked hexahedral element (CHE) where the breathing behavior is load-dependent. Secondly, displacement responses of cracked blade are obtained, and the results with CHE and contact element are identical. The stiffness of the cracked blade is obtained with CHE and proved to be time-varying and dependent on the alternating loads. Thirdly, natural frequencies of cracked blade in stationary condition are analyzed including normal model, linear model (open crack) and nonlinear model (breathing crack), and the requirement of the inclusion of breathing effects in blades with fatigue crack is proved. Finally, influence of alternating loads on critical frequency of cracked blade in rotating condition is compared. The results show that the critical frequency is significantly affected due to the co-effects of the rotating speed and alternating loads. The proposed method can estimate nonlinear vibration characteristics of crack blade which is beneficial for the formulation of the diagnostic rule.

  9. Updated Assessment of an Open Rotor Airplane Using an Advanced Blade Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Eric S.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Application of open rotor propulsion systems (historically referred to as "advanced turboprops" or "propfans") to subsonic transport aircraft received significant attention and research in the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Recent volatility in fuel prices and concern for aviation's environmental impact have renewed interest in open rotor propulsion, and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Over the last few years, NASA has revived and developed analysis capabilities to assess aircraft designs with open rotor propulsion systems. These efforts have been described in several previous papers along with initial results from applying these capabilities. The initial results indicated that open rotor engines have the potential to provide large reductions in fuel consumption and emissions. Initial noise analysis indicated that current noise regulations can be met with modern baseline blade designs. Improved blades incorporating low-noise features are expected to result in even lower noise levels. This paper describes improvements to the initial assessment, plus a follow-on study using a more advanced open rotor blade design to power the advanced singleaisle transport. The predicted performance and environmental results of these two advanced open rotor concepts are presented and compared.

  10. Simulation of unsteady flows through stator and rotor blades of a gas turbine using the Chimera method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, S.; Scott, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    A two-dimensional model to solve compressible Navier-Stokes equations for the flow through stator and rotor blades of a turbine is developed. The flow domains for the stator and rotor blades are coupled by the Chimera method that makes grid generation easy and enhances accuracy because the area of the grid that have high turning of grid lines or high skewness can be eliminated from the computational domain after the grids are generated. The results of flow computations show various important features of unsteady flows including the acoustic waves interacting with boundary layers, Karman vortex shedding from the trailing edge of the stator blades, pulsating incoming flow to a rotor blade from passing stator blades, and flow separation from both suction and pressure sides of the rotor blades.

  11. Simulation of unsteady flows through stator and rotor blades of a gas turbine using the Chimera method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, S.; Scott, J. N.

    1993-11-01

    A two-dimensional model to solve compressible Navier-Stokes equations for the flow through stator and rotor blades of a turbine is developed. The flow domains for the stator and rotor blades are coupled by the Chimera method that makes grid generation easy and enhances accuracy because the area of the grid that have high turning of grid lines or high skewness can be eliminated from the computational domain after the grids are generated. The results of flow computations show various important features of unsteady flows including the acoustic waves interacting with boundary layers, Karman vortex shedding from the trailing edge of the stator blades, pulsating incoming flow to a rotor blade from passing stator blades, and flow separation from both suction and pressure sides of the rotor blades.

  12. COBSTRAN - COMPOSITE BLADE STRUCTURAL ANALYZER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiello, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    The COBSTRAN (COmposite Blade STRuctural ANalyzer) program is a pre- and post-processor that facilitates the design and analysis of composite turbofan and turboprop blades, as well as composite wind turbine blades. COBSTRAN combines composite mechanics and laminate theory with a data base of fiber and matrix properties. As a preprocessor for NASTRAN or another Finite Element Method (FEM) program, COBSTRAN generates an FEM model with anisotropic homogeneous material properties. Stress output from the FEM program is provided as input to the COBSTRAN postprocessor. The postprocessor then uses the composite mechanics and laminate theory routines to calculate individual ply stresses, strains, interply stresses, thru-the-thickness stresses and failure margins. COBSTRAN is designed to carry out the many linear analyses required to efficiently model and analyze blade-like structural components made of multilayered angle-plied fiber composites. Components made from isotropic or anisotropic homogeneous materials can also be modeled as a special case of COBSTRAN. NASTRAN MAT1 or MAT2 material cards are generated according to user supplied properties. COBSTRAN is written in FORTRAN 77 and was implemented on a CRAY X-MP with a UNICOS 5.0.12 operating system. The program requires either COSMIC NASTRAN or MSC NASTRAN as a structural analysis package. COBSTRAN was developed in 1989, and has a memory requirement of 262,066 64 bit words.

  13. Sound generation by non-synchronously oscillating rotor blades in turbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Di; Wang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Jun; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the sound generation by non-synchronously oscillating rotor blades in axial compressor is investigated with emphasis on establishing an analytical model for the corresponding sound field inside an annular duct. In terms of the present model, it is found that the acoustic frequency and propagating modes generated by non-synchronously oscillating rotor blades are not only associated with the blade vibration frequency and rotational speed, but also depend on the cascade inter-blade phase angle (IBPA) and the interaction between blades, which is clearly distinguished from typical Doppler effect. Moreover, it is also shown that although the IBPA of cascade is non-constant practically, the characteristics of sound generation are only slightly affected. Besides, the present work has conducted experimental investigations in order to gain insight into the generation mechanism of such complex sound field. Excellent agreement between the model prediction and experimental measurement in the near and far fields is generally observed in the circumstances with different parameter settings. Since the present study links the sound generation with blade oscillation, it would be very helpful to the fault diagnosis of rotor non-synchronous oscillation to some extent.

  14. Infrared thermal wave nondestructive testing for rotor blades in wind turbine generators non-destructive evaluation and damage monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi bin; Zhang, Cun-lin; Wu, Nai-ming; Duan, Yu-xia; Li, Hao

    2009-07-01

    The rotor blades are key components in wind turbine generators. A visual inspection of the laminated shells for delaminations, air pockets, missing/disoriented fabric etc. is in most cases also not possible due to the manufacturing process, so Non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT & E) techniques for assessing the integrity of rotor blades structure are essential to both reduce manufacturing costs and out of service time of wind turbine generators due to maintenance. Nowadays, Infrared Thermal Wave Nondestructive Testing (Pulsed thermography) is commonly used for assessing composites. This research work utilizes Infrared Thermal Wave Nondestructive Testing system (EchoTherm, Thermal Wave Imaging, Inc.) to inspect a specimen with embedded defects (i.e. foreign matter and air inclusions) in different depth which is a part of rotor blades in wind turbine generators, we have successfully identified defects including foreign matter and air inclusions, and discovered a defective workmanship. The system software allows us to simultaneously view and analyze the results for an entire transition.

  15. Nonlinear equations of motion for the elastic bending and torsion of twisted nonuniform rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, D. H.; Dowell, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    The equations of motion are developed by two complementary methods, Hamilton's principle and the Newtonian method. The resulting equations are valid to second order for long, straight, slender, homogeneous, isotropic beams undergoing moderate displacements. The ordering scheme is based on the restriction that squares of the bending slopes, the torsion deformation, and the chord/radius and thickness/radius ratios are negligible with respect to unity. All remaining nonlinear terms are retained. The equations are valid for beams with mass centroid axis and area centroid (tension) axis offsets from the elastic axis, nonuniform mass and stiffness section properties, variable pretwist, and a small precone angle. The strain-displacement relations are developed from an exact transformation between the deformed and undeformed coordinate systems. These nonlinear relations form an important contribution to the final equations. Several nonlinear structural and inertial terms in the final equations are identified that can substantially influence the aeroelastic stability and response of hingeless helicopter rotor blades.

  16. The N/rev phenomenon in simulating a blade-element rotor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    When a simulation model produces frequencies that are beyond the bandwidth of a discrete implementation, anomalous frequencies appear within the bandwidth. Such is the case with blade element models of rotor systems, which are used in the real time, man in the loop simulation environment. Steady state, high frequency harmonics generated by these models, whether aliased or not, obscure piloted helicopter simulation responses. Since these harmonics are attenuated in actual rotorcraft (e.g., because of structural damping), a faithful environment representation for handling qualities purposes may be created from the original model by using certain filtering techniques, as outlined here. These include harmonic consideration, conventional filtering, and decontamination. The process of decontamination is of special interest because frequencies of importance to simulation operation are not attenuated, whereas superimposed aliased harmonics are.

  17. The N/Rev phenomenon in simulating a blade-element rotor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    When a simulation model produces frequencies that are beyond the bandwidth of a discrete implementation, anomalous frequencies appear within the bandwidth. Such is the case with blade element models of rotor systems, which are used in the real time, man in the loop simulation environment. Steady state, high frequency harmonics generated by these models, whether aliased or not, obscure piloted helicopter simulation responses. Since these harmonics are attenuated in actual rotorcraft (e.g., because of structural damping), a faithful environment representation for handling qualities purposes may be created from the original model by using certain filtering techniques, as outlined here. These include harmonic consideration, conventional filtering, and decontamination. The process of decontamination is of special interest because frequencies of importance to simulation operation are not attenuated, whereas superimposed aliased harmonics are.

  18. Experimental investigation of an 0.8 hub-tip radius-ratio,nontwisted-rotor-blade turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvern, David H; Slivka, William R

    1951-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a 0.8 hub-tip radius ratio, nontwisted-rotor-blade turbine designed for a stagnation-pressure ratio of 2.5 and an equivalent mean blade speed of 643 feet per second was made in a cold-air turbine with (a) nontwisted stator blades, and (b) twisted stator blades designed to maintain zero rotor-inlet incidence angles. Turbine efficiencies of the order of 0.85 at the design point were obtained with a nontwisted-rotor-blade turbine with a hub-tip radius ratio of 0.80. The turbine with the twisted stator blades gave higher efficiencies at the design point (of the order of 1.5 percentage points) than the turbine with the nontwisted stator blades.

  19. An application of Floquet theory to prediction of mechanical instability. [in helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of helicopter mechanical instability is considered for the case where one blade damper is inoperative, and it is shown that if the hub is considered to be nonisotropic, the equations of motion have periodic coefficients which cannot be eliminated. The Floquet transition matrix method is shown to be an effective way of dealing with the nonisotropic hub and nonisotropic rotor situation. Time history calculations are examined and shown to be inferior to the Floquet technique for determining system stability. It is shown that instabilities which occur when one blade damper is inoperative may consist of nearly pure blade motion or they may be similar to the classical mechanical instability.

  20. Euler solutions to nonlinear acoustics of non-lifting hovering rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeder, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    For the first time a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is used to calculate directly the high-speed impulsive (HSI) noise of a non-lifting hovering rotor blade out to a distance of over three rotor radii. In order to accurately propagate the acoustic wave in a stable and efficient manner, an implicit upwind-biased Euler method is solved on a grid with points clustered along the line of propagation. A detailed validation of the code is performed for a rectangular rotor blade at tip Mach numbers ranging from 0.88 to 0.92. The agreement with experiment is excellent at both the sonic cylinder and at 2.18 rotor radii. The agreement at 3.09 rotor radii is still very good, showing improvements over the results from the best previous method. Grid sensitivity studies indicate that with special attention to the location of the boundaries a grid with approximately 60,000 points is adequate. This results in a computational time of approximately 40 minutes on a Cray-XMP. The practicality of the method to calculate HSI noise is demonstrated by expanding the scope of the investigation to examine the rectangular blade as well as a highly swept and tapered blade over a tip Mach number range of 0.80 to 0.95. Comparisons with experimental data are excellent and the advantages of planform modifications are clearly evident. New insight is gained into the mechanisms of nonlinear propagation and the minimum distance at which a valid comparison of different rotors can be made: approximately two rotor radii from the center of rotation.

  1. Field Telemetry of Blade-rotor Coupled Torsional Vibration at Matuura Power Station Number 1 Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isii, Kuniyoshi; Murakami, Hideaki; Otawara, Yasuhiko; Okabe, Akira

    1991-01-01

    The quasi-modal reduction technique and finite element model (FEM) were used to construct an analytical model for the blade-rotor coupled torsional vibration of a steam turbine generator of the Matuura Power Station. A single rotor test was executed in order to evaluate umbrella vibration characteristics. Based on the single rotor test results and the quasi-modal procedure, the total rotor system was analyzed to predict coupled torsional frequencies. Finally, field measurement of the vibration of the last stage buckets was made, which confirmed that the double synchronous resonance was 124.2 Hz, meaning that the machine can be safely operated. The measured eigen values are very close to the predicted value. The single rotor test and this analytical procedure thus proved to be a valid technique to estimate coupled torsional vibration.

  2. The effect of tip vortex structure on helicopter noise due to blade/vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, T. L.; Widnall, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A potential cause of helicopter impulsive noise, commonly called blade slap, is the unsteady lift fluctuation on a rotor blade due to interaction with the vortex trailed from another blade. The relationship between vortex structure and the intensity of the acoustic signal is investigated. The analysis is based on a theoretical model for blade/vortex interaction. Unsteady lift on the blades due to blade/vortex interaction is calculated using linear unsteady aerodynamic theory, and expressions are derived for the directivity, frequency spectrum, and transient signal of the radiated noise. An inviscid rollup model is used to calculate the velocity profile in the trailing vortex from the spanwise distribution of blade tip loading. A few cases of tip loading are investigated, and numerical results are presented for the unsteady lift and acoustic signal due to blade/vortex interaction. The intensity of the acoustic signal is shown to be quite sensitive to changes in tip vortex structure.

  3. Aeroelastic Analysis of Helicopter Rotor Blades Incorporating Anisotropic Piezoelectric Twist Actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, W. Keats; Belvin, W. Keith; Park, K. C.

    1996-01-01

    A simple aeroelastic analysis of a helicopter rotor blade incorporating embedded piezoelectric fiber composite, interdigitated electrode blade twist actuators is described. The analysis consists of a linear torsion and flapwise bending model coupled with a nonlinear ONERA based unsteady aerodynamics model. A modified Galerkin procedure is performed upon the rotor blade partial differential equations of motion to develop a system of ordinary differential equations suitable for dynamics simulation using numerical integration. The twist actuation responses for three conceptual fullscale blade designs with realistic constraints on blade mass are numerically evaluated using the analysis. Numerical results indicate that useful amplitudes of nonresonant elastic twist, on the order of one to two degrees, are achievable under one-g hovering flight conditions for interdigitated electrode poling configurations. Twist actuation for the interdigitated electrode blades is also compared with the twist actuation of a conventionally poled piezoelectric fiber composite blade. Elastic twist produced using the interdigitated electrode actuators was found to be four to five times larger than that obtained with the conventionally poled actuators.

  4. An aeroelastic analysis of helicopter rotor blades incorporating piezoelectric fiber composite twist actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, W. Keats; Park, K. C.

    1996-01-01

    A simple aeroelastic analysis of a helicopter rotor blade incorporating embedded piezoelectric fiber composite, interdigitated electrode blade twist actuators is described. The analysis consist of a linear torsion and flapwise bending model coupled with a nonlinear ONERA based unsteady aerodynamics model. A modified Galerkin procedure is performed upon the rotor blade partial differential equations of motion to develop a system of ordinary differential equations suitable for numerical integration. The twist actuation responses for three conceptual full-scale blade designs with realistic constraints on blade mass are numerically evaluated using the analysis. Numerical results indicate that useful amplitudes of nonresonant elastic twist, on the order of one to two degrees, are achievable under one-g hovering flight conditions for interdigitated electrode poling configurations. Twist actuation for the interdigitated electrode blades is also compared with the twist actuation of a conventionally poled piezoelectric fiber composite blade. Elastic twist produced using the interdigitated electrode actuators was found to be four to five times larger than that obtained with the conventionally poled actuators.

  5. A new aeroelastic model for composite rotor blades with straight and swept tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Kuo-An; Friedmann, Peretz P.; Venkatesan, Comandur

    1992-01-01

    An analytical model for predicting the aeroelastic behavior of composite rotor blades with straight and swept tips is presented. The blade is modeled by beam type finite elements along the elastic axis. A single finite element is used to model the swept tip. The nonlinear equations of motion for the finite element model are derived using Hamilton's principle and based on a moderate deflection theory and accounts for: arbitrary cross-sectional shape, pretwist, generally anisotropic material behavior, transverse shears and out-of-plane warping. Numerical results illustrating the effects of tip sweep, anhedral and composite ply orientation on blade aeroelastic behavior are presented. Tip sweep can induce aeroelastic instability by flap-twist coupling. Tip anhedral causes lag-torsion and flap-axial couplings, however, its effects on blade stability is less pronounced than the effect due to sweep. Composite ply orientation has a substantial effect on blade stability.

  6. Calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on rotor blades using integral methods

    SciTech Connect

    Karimipanah, M.T.; Olsson, E. )

    1993-04-01

    The important effects of rotation and compressibility on rotor blade boundary layers are theoretically investigated. The calculations are based on the momentum integral method and results from calculations of a transonic compressor rotor are presented. Influence of rotation is shown by comparing the incompressible rotating flow with the stationary one. Influence of compressibility is shown by comparing the compressible rotating flow with the incompressible rotating one. Two computer codes for three-dimensional laminar and turbulent boundary layers, originally developed by SSPA Maritime Consulting AB, have been further developed by introducing rotation and compressibility terms into the boundary layer equations. The effect of rotation and compressibility on the transition have been studied. The Coriolis and centrifugal forces that contribute to the development of the boundary layers and influence its behavior generate crosswise flow inside the blade boundary layers, the magnitude of which depends upon the angular velocity of the rotor and the rotor geometry. The calculations show the influence of rotation and compressibility on the boundary layer parameters. Momentum thickness and shape factor increase with increasing rotation and decrease when compressible flow is taken into account. For skin friction such effects have inverse influences. The different boundary layer parameters behave similarly on the suction and pressure sides with the exception of the crossflow angle, the crosswise momentum thickness, and the skin friction factor. The codes use a nearly orthogonal streamline coordinate system, which is fixed to the blade surface and rotates with the blade.

  7. Reduced order modeling, statistical analysis and system identification for a bladed rotor with geometric mistuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, Vinod

    Modified Modal Domain Analysis (MMDA) is a novel method for the development of a reduced-order model (ROM) of a bladed rotor. This method utilizes proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) data of blades' geometries and sector analyses using ANSYS. For the first time ROM of a geometrically mistuned industrial scale rotor (Transonic rotor) with large size of Finite Element (FE) model is generated using MMDA. Two methods for estimating mass and stiffness mistuning matrices are used a) exact computation from sector FE analysis, b) estimates based on POD mistuning parameters. Modal characteristics such as mistuned natural frequencies, mode shapes and forced harmonic response are obtained from ROM for various cases, and results are compared with full rotor ANSYS analysis and other ROM methods such as Subset of Nominal Modes (SNM) and Fundamental Model of Mistuning (FMM). Accuracy of MMDA ROM is demonstrated with variations in number of POD features and geometric mistuning parameters. It is shown for the aforementioned case b) that the high accuracy of ROM studied in previous work with Academic rotor does not directly translate to the Transonic rotor. Reasons for such mismatch in results are investigated and attributed to higher mistuning in Transonic rotor. Alternate solutions such as estimation of sensitivities via least squares, and interpolation of mass and stiffness matrices on manifolds are developed, and their results are discussed. Statistics such as mean and standard deviations of forced harmonic response peak amplitude are obtained from random permutations, and are shown to have similar results as those of Monte Carlo simulations. These statistics are obtained and compared for 3 degree of freedom (DOF) lumped parameter model (LPM) of rotor, Academic rotor and Transonic rotor. A state -- estimator based on MMDA ROM and Kalman filter is also developed for offline or online estimation of harmonic forcing function from

  8. Blade tip, finite aspect ratio, and dynamic stall effects on the Darrieus rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Desy, P.; Masson, C.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of the work described in this paper was to apply the Boeing-Vertol dynamic stall model in an asymmetric manner to account for the asymmetry of the flow between the left and right sides of the rotor. This phenomenon has been observed by the flow visualization of a two-straight-bladed Darrieus rotor in the IMST water tunnel. Also introduced into the aerodynamic model are the effects of the blade tip and finite aspect ratio on the aerodynamic performance of the Darrieus wind turbine. These improvements are compatible with the double-multiple-streamtube model and have been included in the CARDAAV computer code for predicting the aerodynamic performance. Very good agreement has been observed between the test data (Sandia 17 m) and theoretical predictions; a significant improvement over the previous dynamic stall model was obtained for the rotor power at low tip speed ratios, while the inclusion of the finite aspect ratio effects enhances the prediction of the rotor power for high tip speed ratios. The tip losses and finite aspect ratio effects were also calculated for a small-scale vertical-axis wind turbine, with a two-straight-bladed (NACA 0015) rotor. 15 references.

  9. Air and ground resonance of helicopters with elastically tailored composite rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Edward C.; Chopra, Inderjit

    1993-01-01

    The aeromechanical stability, including air resonance in hover, air resonance in forward flight, and ground resonance, of a helicopter with elastically tailored composite rotor blades is investigated. Five soft-inplane hingeless rotor configurations, featuring elastic pitch-lag, pitch-flap and extension-torsion couplings, are analyzed. Elastic couplings introduced through tailored composite blade spars can have a powerful effect on both air and ground resonance behavior. Elastic pitch-flap couplings (positive and negative) strongly affect body, rotor and dynamic inflow modes. Air resonance stability is diminished by elastic pitch-flap couplings in hover and forwrad flight. Negative pitch-lag elastic coupling has a stabilizing effect on the regressive lag mode in hover and forward flight. The negative pitch-lag coupling has a detrimental effect on ground resonance stability. Extension-torsion elastic coupling (blade pitch decreases due to tension) decreases regressive lag mode stability in both airborne and ground contact conditions. Increasing thrust levels has a beneficial influence on ground resonance stability for rotors with pitch-flap and extension-torsion coupling and is only marginally effective in improving stability of rotors with pitch-lag coupling.

  10. Aeromechanical stability of helicopters with composite rotor blades in forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Edward C.; Chopra, Inderjit

    1992-01-01

    The aeromechanical stability, including air resonance in hover, air resonance in forward flight, and ground resonance, of a helicopter with elastically tailored composite rotor blades is investigated. Five soft-inplane hingeless rotor configurations, featuring elastic pitch-lag, pitch-flap and extension-torsion couplings, are analyzed. Elastic couplings introduced through tailored composite blade spars can have a powerful effect on both air and ground resonance behavior. Elastic pitch-flap couplings (positive and negative) strongly affect body, rotor and dynamic inflow modes. Air resonance stability is diminished by elastic pitch-flap couplings in hover and forward flight. Negative pitch-lag elastic coupling has a stabilizing effect on the regressive lag mode in hover and forward flight. The negative pitch-lag coupling has a detrimental effect on ground resonance stability. Extension-torsion elastic coupling (blade pitch decreases due to tension) decreases regressive lag mode stability in both airborne and ground contact conditions. Increasing thrust levels has a beneficial influence on ground resonance stability for rotors with pitch-flap and extension-torsion coupling and is only marginally effective in improving stability of rotors with pitch-lag coupling.

  11. Structural tailoring of engine blades (STAEBL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, C. E.; Pratt, T. K.; Brown, K. W.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical optimization procedure was developed for the structural tailoring of engine blades and was used to structurally tailor two engine fan blades constructed of composite materials without midspan shrouds. The first was a solid blade made from superhybrid composites, and the second was a hollow blade with metal matrix composite inlays. Three major computerized functions were needed to complete the procedure: approximate analysis with the established input variables, optimization of an objective function, and refined analysis for design verification.

  12. Vibration reduction in helicopter rotors using an active control surface located on the blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millott, T. A.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1992-01-01

    A feasibility study of vibration reduction in a four-bladed helicopter rotor using individual blade control (IBC), which is implemented by an individually controlled aerodynamic surface located on each blade, is presented. For this exploratory study, a simple offset-hinged spring restrained model of the blade is used with fully coupled flap-lag-torsional dynamics for each blade. Deterministic controllers based on local and global system models are implemented to reduce 4/rev hub loads using both an actively controlled aerodynamic surface on each blade as well as conventional IBC, where the complete blade undergoes cyclic pitch change. The effectiveness of the two approaches for simultaneous reduction of the 4/rev hub shears and hub moments is compared. Conventional IBC requires considerably more power to achieve approximately the same level of vibration reduction as that obtained by implementing IBC using an active control surface located on the outboard segment of the blade. The effect of blade torsional flexibility on the vibration reduction effectiveness of the actively controlled surface was also considered and it was found that this parameter has a very substantial influence.

  13. A Study of the Effects of Blade Shape on Rotor Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Burley, Casey L.

    1997-01-01

    A new rotor noise prediction system called the Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Code (TRAC) has been developed under the Short Haul (Civil Tiltrotor) program between NASA, the Army, and the U.S. helicopter industry. This system couples the comprehensive rotorcraft code CAMRAD.Mod1 with either the high resolution sectional loads code HIRES or the full potential CFD code FPRBVI to predict unsteady blade loads, which are then input to the noise prediction program WOPWOP. In this paper, HIRES will be used to predict the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise trends associated with blade shape. The baseline shape selected was a 17% scale model of a contemporary design 4 bladed rotor. Measurements for this rotor were acquired in the Duits-Nederslandse Windtunnel (DNW). The code is used to predict noise for the base configuration and the results are compared to the measured data. This provides a firm foundation for investigating the BVI noise trends associated with blade shape. The shapes selected for study are based on variation of sweep and taper which reflect plausible "passive" design concepts. Comparisons of power required, integrated noise, and aerodynamics are made and important trends are noted.

  14. Loads and Performance Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Generic Model Helicopter Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to acquire data for use in assessing the ability of current and future comprehensive analyses to predict helicopter rotating-system and fixed-system vibratory loads. The investigation was conducted with a generic model helicopter rotor system using blades with rectangular planform, no built-in twist, uniform radial distribution of mass and stiffnesses, and a NACA 0012 airfoil section. Rotor performance data, as well as mean and vibratory components of blade bending and torsion moments, fixed-system forces and moments, and pitch link loads were obtained at advance ratios up to 0.35 for various combinations of rotor shaft angle-of-attack and collective pitch. The data are presented without analysis.

  15. Investigation of Rotor Performance and Loads of a UH-60A Individual Blade Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Romander, Ethan A.; Norman, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale wind tunnel test was recently conducted (March 2009) in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-FootWind Tunnel to evaluate the potential of an individual blade control (IBC) system to improve rotor performance and reduce vibrations, loads, and noise for a UH-60A rotor system [1]. This test was the culmination of a long-termcollaborative effort between NASA, U.S. Army, Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, and ZF Luftfahrttechnik GmbH (ZFL) to demonstrate the benefits of IBC for a UH-60Arotor. Figure 1 shows the UH-60Arotor and IBC system mounted on the NFAC Large Rotor Test Apparatus (LRTA). The IBC concept used in the current study utilizes actuators placed in the rotating frame, one per blade. In particular, the pitch link of the rotor blade was replacedwith an actuator, so that the blade root pitch can be changed independently. This concept, designed for a full-scale UH-60A rotor, was previously tested in the NFAC 80- by 120-FootWind Tunnel in September 2001 at speeds up to 85 knots [2]. For the current test, the same UH-60A rotor and IBC system were tested in the 40- by 80-FootWind Tunnel at speeds up to 170 knots. Figure 2 shows the servo-hydraulic IBC actuator installed between the swashplate and the blade pitch horn. Although previous wind tunnel experiments [3, 4] and analytical studies on IBC [5, 6] have shown the promise to improve the rotor s performance, in-depth correlation studies have not been performed. Thus, the current test provides a unique resource that can be used to assess the accuracy and reliability of prediction methods and refine theoretical models, with the ultimate goal of providing the technology for timely and cost-effective design and development of new rotors. In this paper, rotor performance and loads calculations are carried out using the analyses CAMRAD II and coupled OVERFLOW-2/CAMRAD II and the results are compared with these UH-60A/IBC wind tunnel test data.

  16. The Effect of Rotor Blade Speed to the Best Efficiency Point of Single Stage Axial Flow Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukri, Mohamad Firdaus; Wasbari, Faizil; Mat, Shafizal

    2010-06-01

    The best efficiency point is ideal operational point for any turbomachinery. Selections of turbomachines in industry such as pump, turbine, compressor, etc are basically based on their operating point. The best efficiency point is a point at the highest efficiency. Therefore, turbomachines with nearest operating point to best efficiency point will be chosen due to higher efficiency thus produce great reduction in cost saving. Different speed of rotor blade will cause effect to the best efficiency point, as well as different in rotor and stator blade angle. If angle of rotor and stator blade constant while speed of rotor blade increased, the net head produced by the compressor will also increased. Thus, it will increase the brake horse power and fluid horse power. Although the efficiency of the compressor increases if fluid horse power increased, the increasing in brake horse power will produce lower efficiency. In this paper, the effect of rotor blade speed on best efficiency point of an axial flow compressor will be investigated and discussed. Through this paper, the highest efficiency is only 73 %, achieved at rotor blade speed of 750 rpm with net head of 9.4 mmWG, and air volumetric flow rate of 0.56m3/s. For higher net head, the rotor blade speed must be increased, but the efficiency will decrease simultaneously. The type of compressor used in this research is single stage axial flow compressor; model Dixson FM36, manufactured by Dixson FA Engineering Sdn. Bhd.

  17. Three dimensional mean flow and turbulence characteristics of the near wake of a compressor rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindranath, A.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1980-01-01

    The investigation was carried out using the rotating hot wire technique. Measurements were taken inside the end wall boundary layer to discern the effect of annulus and hub wall boundary layer, secondary flow, and tip leakage on the wake structure. Static pressure gradients across the wake were measured using a static stagnation pressure probe insensitive to flow direction changes. The axial and the tangential velocity defects, the radial component of velocity, and turbulence intensities were found to be very large as compared to the near and far wake regions. The radial velocities in the trailing edge region exhibited characteristics prevalent in a trailing vortex system. Flow near the blade tips found to be highly complex due to interaction of the end wall boundary layers, secondary flows, and tip leakage flow with the wake. The streamwise curvature was found to be appreciable near the blade trailing edge. Flow properties in the trailing edge region are quite different compared to that in the near and far wake regions with respect to their decay characteristics, similarity, etc. Fourier decomposition of the rotor wake revealed that for a normalized wake only the first three coefficients are dominant.

  18. Investigation of rotor blade element airloads for a teetering rotor in the blade stall regime (second wind tunnel test)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dadone, L. U.; Fukushima, T.

    1975-01-01

    A test was conducted in the NASA-Ames 7 x 10 ft low speed wind tunnel on a seven-foot diameter model of a teetering rotor. The objectives of the test were: (1) acquire pressure data for correlation with laser and flow visualization measurements; (2) explore rotor propulsive force limits by varying the advance ratio at constant lift and propulsive force coefficients; (3) obtain additional data to define the differences between teetering and articulated rotors; and (4) verify the acceleration sensitivity of experimental transducers. Results are presented.

  19. Aeroelastic modeling of rotor blades with spanwise variable elastic axis offset: Classic issues revisited and new formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielawa, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    In response to a systematic methodology assessment program directed to the aeroelastic stability of hingeless helicopter rotor blades, improved basic aeroelastic reformulations and new formulations relating to structural sweep were achieved. Correlational results are presented showing the substantially improved performance of the G400 aeroelastic analysis incorporating these new formulations. The formulations pertain partly to sundry solutions to classic problem areas, relating to dynamic inflow with vortex-ring state operation and basic blade kinematics, but mostly to improved physical modeling of elastic axis offset (structural sweep) in the presence of nonlinear structural twist. Specific issues addressed are an alternate modeling of the delta EI torsional excitation due to compound bending using a force integration approach, and the detailed kinematic representation of an elastically deflected point mass of a beam with both structural sweep and nonlinear twist.

  20. Structural Tailoring of SSME Blades (vanes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, R.

    1985-01-01

    The engine blade design optimization program STAEBL (Structural Tailoring of Engine Blades) is available at the NASA Lewis computer facility. The analysis capabilities of this program were extended to typical loading conditions for SSME turbopump blades including thermal and pressure loading. Input files for representative SSME blade designs were developed and sample optimization studies for these blades completed. The structural tailoring program combines a general optimization package and a finite element blade analysis package. The analysis package's capabilities include natural frequency, maximum stress, and forced response computation, and fatigue life and flutter analysis. Optimization is performed using the feasible directions method. The current design is modified by perturbing the design variables so that the design constraints are satisfied while the objective function, such as blade weight, is reduced at the maximum rate. The program's geometric design variables include blade thickness distribution, thickness to chord ratios, and root chord.

  1. Isolated Open Rotor Noise Prediction Assessment Using the F31A31 Historical Blade Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, William T.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Zawodny, Nikolas S.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to mitigate next-generation fuel efficiency and environmental impact concerns for aviation, open rotor propulsion systems have received renewed interest. However, maintaining the high propulsive efficiency while simultaneously meeting noise goals has been one of the challenges in making open rotor propulsion a viable option. Improvements in prediction tools and design methodologies have opened the design space for next generation open rotor designs that satisfy these challenging objectives. As such, validation of aerodynamic and acoustic prediction tools has been an important aspect of open rotor research efforts. This paper describes validation efforts of a combined computational fluid dynamics and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation methodology for open rotor aeroacoustic modeling. Performance and acoustic predictions were made for a benchmark open rotor blade set and compared with measurements over a range of rotor speeds and observer angles. Overall, the results indicate that the computational approach is acceptable for assessing low-noise open rotor designs. Additionally, this approach may be used to provide realistic incident source fields for acoustic shielding/scattering studies on various aircraft configurations.

  2. A flight investigation of blade section aerodynamics for a helicopter main rotor having NLR-1T airfoil sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Stevens, D. D.; Tomaine, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A flight investigation was conducted using a teetering-rotor AH-1G helicopter to obtain data on the aerodynamic behavior of main-rotor blades with the NLR-1T blade section. The data system recorded blade-section aerodynamic pressures at 90 percent rotor radius as well as vehicle flight state, performance, and loads. The test envelope included hover, forward flight, and collective-fixed maneuvers. Data were obtained on apparent blade-vortex interactions, negative lift on the advancing blade in high-speed flight and wake interactions in hover. In many cases, good agreement was achieved between chordwise pressure distributions predicted by airfoil theory and flight data with no apparent indications of blade-vortex interactions.

  3. Aeroelastic modeling of composite rotor blades with straight and swept tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Kuo-An; Friedmann, Peretz P.; Venkatesan, Comandur

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the aeroelastic behavior of composite rotor blades with straight and swept tips. The blade is modeled by beam type finite elements. A single finite element is used to model the swept tip. The nonlinear equations of motion for the FEM are derived using Hamilton's principle and based on a moderate deflection theory and accounts for: arbitrary cross-sectional shape, pretwist, generally anisotropic material behavior, transverse shears and out-of-plane warping. Numerical results illustrating the effects of tip sweep, anhedral and composite ply orientation on blade aeroelastic behavior are presented. It is shown that composite ply orientation has a substantial effect on blade stability. At low thrust conditions, certain ply orientations can cause instability in the lag mode. The flap-torsion coupling associated with tip sweep can also induce aeroelastic instability in the blade. This instability can be removed by appropriate ply orientation in the composite construction. These results illustrate the inherent potential for aeroelastic tailoring present in composite rotor blades with swept tips, which still remains to be exploited in the design process.

  4. Application of Out-of-Plane Warping to Control Rotor Blade Twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanWeddingen, Yannick; Bauchau, Olivier; Kottapalli, Sesi; Ozbay, Serkan; Mehrotra, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this ongoing study is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a blade actuation system to dynamically change the twist, and/or the camber, of an airfoil section and, consequently, alter the in-flight aerodynamic loading on the blade for efficient flight control. The required analytical and finite element tools are under development to enable an accurate and comprehensive aeroelastic assessment of the current Full-Blade Warping and 3D Warping Actuated Trailing Edge Flap concepts. The feasibility of the current concepts for swashplateless rotors and higher harmonic blade control is also being investigated. In particular, the aim is to complete the following objectives, some of which have been completed (as noted below) and others that are currently ongoing: i) Develop a Vlasov finite element model and validate against the ABAQUS shell models (completed). ii) Implement the 3D warping actuation concept within the comprehensive analysis code DYMORE. iii) Perform preliminary aeroelastic simulations of blades using DYMORE with 3D warping actuation: a) Investigate the blade behavior under 1 per/rev actuation. Determine whether sufficient twist can be generated and sustained to achieve primary blade control. b) Investigate the behavior of a trailing edge flap configuration under higher harmonic excitations. Determine how much twist can be obtained at the harmonics 2-5 per/rev. iv) Determine actuator specifications such as the power required, load and displacements, and identify the stress and strain distributions in the actuated blades. In general, the completion of Item ii) above will give an additional research capability in rotorcraft dynamics analyses, i.e., the capability to calculate the rotor blade twist due to warping, something that is not currently available in any of the existing comprehensive rotorcraft analyses.

  5. Computation of transonic potential flow on helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costes, M.; Jones, H. E.

    1987-01-01

    Two computer codes, the full-potential three-dimensional (FP3D) code and the full-potential rotor (FPR) code have recently been developed. Both of these codes solve the three-dimensional conservative formulation of the full potential equation. The FPR code was developed at the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) while the FP3D code was a joint development by ONERA and AFDD. Both of these codes were used to predict the nonlifting, unsteady flow over a rotor operating at high advance ratio and tip speed. Three different rotor tip planform shapes were studied: a rectangular tip, a 30 deg aft swept tip and a 30 deg forward swept tip. Results of these computations are compared to results obtained using an earlier small-disturbances code. Also, the lifting flow over a rectangular tip operating at a slightly different condition was computed. These results are also compared with the small disturbances computations and with experimental results.

  6. Peak power and blade loads on stall-regulated rotors as influenced by different airfoil families

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.L.; Tu, P.K.C.

    1988-08-01

    At the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), new airfoils have been developed to help improve the performance and economics of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTS). The objective of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of one of these airfoil families to other commonly used airfoil series for a typical three-bladed, stall-regulated HAWT. The traditional airfoil series chosen for comparison with SERI's new thin airfoil family were the NACA 23XXX, NACA 44XX, and NASA LS(1). The Micon 110 wind turbine was chosen because it is a typical three-bladed, stall-regulated rigid rotor system. The performance characteristics of the different airfoil series were derived analytically using the Eppler airfoil design code in the analysis mode. On a relative basis, this approach to comparing airfoils was considered more accurate than using airfoil performance characteristics based on wind-tunnel test data. After generating the performance characteristics for each airfoil series, the subsequent rotor performance and blade loads were calculated using SERI's PROPSH computer code. Resulting annual energy output, which is dependent on the wind-speed distribution, was calculated using SERI's Systems Engineering and Analysis Computer Code (SEACC). The results of the study show that fixed-wing airfoils generally result in excessive peak power for stall regulated, rigid rotors. By operating the wind turbine at a less desirable blade pitch angle, peak power can be reduced at the expense of higher mean blade loads and lower annual energy output. In contrast, the thin airfoil family was designed to reduce peak power at optimum blade pitch to minimize blade loads and maximize annual energy output. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Dynamic characteristics of rotor blades with pendulum absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.; Goglia, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    The point transmission matrix for a vertical plane pendulum on a rotating blade undergoing combined flapwise bending, and chordwise bending and torsion is derived. The equilibrium equation of the pendulum is linearized for small oscillations about the steady state. A FORTRAN program was written for the case of a vertical plane pendulum attached to a uniform blade with flapwise bending degree of freedom for cantilever boundary conditions. The frequency has a singular value right at the uncoupled pendulum natural frequency and thus introduces two frequencies corresponding to the nearest natural frequency of the blade without pendulum. In both of these modes it was observed that the pendulum deflection is large. One frequency can be thought of as a coupled pendulum frequency and the other as a coupled bending and pendulum frequency.

  8. Optimal design application on the advanced aeroelastic rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, F. S.; Jones, R.

    1985-01-01

    The vibration and performance optimization procedure using regression analysis was successfully applied to an advanced aeroelastic blade design study. The major advantage of this regression technique is that multiple optimizations can be performed to evaluate the effects of various objective functions and constraint functions. The data bases obtained from the rotorcraft flight simulation program C81 and Myklestad mode shape program are analytically determined as a function of each design variable. This approach has been verified for various blade radial ballast weight locations and blade planforms. This method can also be utilized to ascertain the effect of a particular cost function which is composed of several objective functions with different weighting factors for various mission requirements without any additional effort.

  9. An Experimental Study of the Nonlinear Stiffness of a Rotor Blade Undergoing Flap, Lag and Twist Deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.; Traybar, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The large deformation of a cantilevered beam under a gravity tip load was studied. The beam root is rotated so that the tip load is oriented at various angles with respect to the beam principal axes. Static twist and bending deflections of the tip and bending natural frequencies were measured as a function of tip load magnitude and orientation. The experimental data are compared with the results of a recently developed nonlinear structural theory and agreement is good for deflections that are small compared to the beam span with systematic deviations for larger deflections. These results support the validity and utility of the nonlinear structural theory for rotor blade applications.

  10. Integrated actuation system for individual control of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushko, Dariusz A.; Fenn, Ralph C.; Gerver, Michael J.; Berry, John R.; Phillips, Frank; Merkley, Donald J.

    1996-05-01

    The unique configuration of the rotorcraft generates problems unknown to fixed wing aircraft. These problems include high vibration and noise levels. This paper presents the development and test results of a Terfenol-D based actuator designed to operate in an individual blade control system in order to reduce vibration and noise and increase performance on Army UH- 60A helicopter. The full-scale, magnetostrictive, Terfenol-D based actuator was tested on a specially designed testbed that simulated operational conditions of a helicopter blade in the laboratory. Tests of actuator performance (strike, force moment, bandwidth, fatigue life under operational loading) were performed.

  11. Load Mitigation with Bending/Twist-coupled Blades on Rotors using Modern Control Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobitz, Don W.; Veers, Paul S.

    2003-04-01

    The prospect of installing blades that twist as they bend and/or extend on horizontal axis wind turbines provides opportunities for enhanced energy capture and/or load mitigation. Although this coupling could be achieved in either an active or a passive manner, the passive approach is much more attractive owing to its simplicity and economy. As an example, a blade design might employ coupling between bending and twisting, so that as the blade bends owing to the action of the aerodynamic loads, it also twists, modifying the aerodynamic performance in some way. For reducing loads the blades are designed to twist towards feather as they bend. For variable-speed pitch-controlled rotors, dynamic computer simulations with turbulent inflow show that twist coupling substantially decreases fatigue damage over all wind speeds, without reducing average power. Maximum loads also decrease modestly. For constant-speed stall-controlled and variable-speed stall-controlled rotors, significant decreases in fatigue damage are observed at the lower wind speeds and smaller decreases at the higher wind speeds. Maximum loads also decrease slightly. As a general observation, whenever a rotor is operating in the linear aerodynamic range (lower wind speeds for stall control and all wind speeds for pitch control), substantial reductions in fatigue damage are realized.

  12. Effect of tip vortex structure on helicopter noise due to blade-vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widnall, S. E.; Wolf, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A potential cause of helicopter impulsive noise, commonly called blade slap, is the unsteady lift fluctuation on a rotor blade due to interaction with the vortex trailed from another blade. The relationship between vortex structure and the intensity of the acoustic signal is investigated. Unsteady lift on the blades due to blade-vortex interaction is calculated using linear unsteady aerodynamic theory, and expressions are derived for the directivity, frequency spectrum, and transient signal of the radiated noise. The inviscid rollup model of Betz is used to calculate the velocity profile in the trailing vortex from the spanwise distribution of blade tip loading. A few cases of tip loading are investigated, and numerical results are presented for the unsteady lift and acoustic signal due to blade-vortex interaction. The intensity of the acoustic signal is shown to be quite sensitive to changes in tip vortex structures.

  13. Analysis of Gas Turbine Rotor Blade Tip and Shroud Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, A. A.; Steinthorsson, E.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the rate of heat transfer to the tip and shroud of a gas turbine rotor blade are presented. The simulations are performed with a multiblock computer code which solves the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The effect of inlet boundary layer thickness as well as rotation rate on the tip and shroud heat transfer is examined. The predictions of the blade tip and shroud heat transfer are in reasonable agreement with the experimental measurements. Areas of large heat transfer rates are identified and physical reasoning for the phenomena presented.

  14. Three dimensional flow field inside compressor rotor, including blade boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouagare, M.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Galmes, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The space marching code was modified in order to be able to predict the flow field inside a rotor passage, including the blade and hub wall boundary layers. The basic changes incorporated are modifications of the equations so that the code can handle three dimensional configurations with changes in the radial direction (for example changes in stagger angle, blade camber and thickness), extensions and modifications in order to implement a physically realistic turbulence model such as a k sigma model and an algebraic Reynolds stress model.

  15. Whirl flutter analysis of a horizontal-axis wind turbine with a two-bladed teetering rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janetzke, D. C.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1981-01-01

    Whirl flutter and the effect of pitch-flap coupling on teetering motion of a wind turbine were investigated. The equations of motion are derived for an idealized five-degree-of-freedom mathematical model of a horizontal-axis wind turbine with a two-bladed teetering rotor. The model accounts for the out-of-plane bending motion of each blade, the teetering motion of the rotor, and both the pitching and yawing motions of the rotor support. Results show that the design is free from whirl flutter. Selected results are presented indicating the effect of variations in rotor support damping, rotor support stiffness, and pitch-flap coupling on pitching, yawing, teetering, and blade bending motions.

  16. Acoustic measurements from a rotor blade-vortex interaction noise experiment in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Schultz, K.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data are presented from a 40 percent scale model of the 4-bladed BO-105 helicopter main rotor, measured in the large European aeroacoustic wind tunnel, the DNW. Rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data in the low speed flight range were acquired using a traversing in-flow microphone array. The experimental apparatus, testing procedures, calibration results, and experimental objectives are fully described. A large representative set of averaged acoustic signals is presented.

  17. A flight investigation of blade-section aerodynamics for a helicopter main rotor having RC-SC2 airfoil sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure data at 90 percent blade radius for a helicopter main rotor with RC-SC2 blade sections was obtained. Concurrent measurements were made of vehicle flight state, performance and some rotor loads. The test envelope included hover, level flight from about 65 to 144 knots, climb and descent, and collective fixed maneuvers. Airfoil pressure distributions obtained in flight agree with those theoretical calculations for two dimensional, steady flow.

  18. Structural Evaluation of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali

    1996-01-01

    Thermal and structural finite-element analyses were performed on the first high pressure fuel turbopump turbine blade of the space shuttle main engine (SSME). A two-dimensional (2-D) finite-element model of the blade and firtree disk attachment was analyzed using the general purpose MARC (finite-element) code. The loading history applied is a typical test stand engine cycle mission, which consists of a startup condition with two thermal spikes, a steady state and a shutdown transient. The blade material is a directionally solidified (DS) Mar-M 246 alloy, the blade rotor is forged with waspalloy material. Thermal responses under steady-state and transient conditions were calculated. The stresses and strains under the influence of mechanical and thermal loadings were also determined. The critical regions that exhibited high stresses and severe localized plastic deformation were the blade-rotor gaps.

  19. Helicopter vibration suppression using simple pendulum absorbers on the rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, G. A.; Hanouva, M. N. H.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive anaytical design procedure for the installation of simple pendulums on the blades of a helicopter rotor to suppress the root reactions is presented. A frequency response anaysis is conducted of typical rotor blades excited by a harmonic variation of spanwise airload distributions as well as a concentrated load at the tip. The results presented included the effect of pendulum tuning on the minimization of the hub reactions. It is found that a properly designed flapping pendulum attenuates the root out-of-plane force and moment whereas the optimum designed lead-lag pendulum attenuates the root in-plane reactions. For optimum pendulum tuning the parameters to be determined are the pendulum uncoupled natural frequency, the pendulum spanwise location and its mass. It is found that the optimum pendulum frequency is in the vicinity of the excitation frequency. For the optimum pendulum a parametric study is conducted. The parameters varied include prepitch, pretwist, precone and pendulum hinge offset.

  20. Periodic control of the individual-blade-control helicopter rotor. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckillip, R. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an investigation into methods of controller design for an individual helicopter rotor blade in the high forward-flight speed regime are described. This operating condition poses a unique control problem in that the perturbation equations of motion are linear with coefficients that vary periodically with time. The design of a control law was based on extensions to modern multivariate synthesis techniques and incorporated a novel approach to the reconstruction of the missing system state variables. The controller was tested on both an electronic analog computer simulation of the out-of-plane flapping dynamics, and on a four foot diameter single-bladed model helicopter rotor in the M.I.T. 5x7 subsonic wind tunnel at high levels of advance ratio. It is shown that modal control using the IBC concept is possible over a large range of advance ratios with only a modest amount of computational power required.

  1. Euler solutions for self-generated rotor blade-vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, A. A.; Tung, C.; Sankar, L. N.

    1990-01-01

    A finite-difference procedure was developed, on the basis of the conservation form of the unsteady three-dimensional Euler equations, for the prediction of rotor blade-vortex interactions (BVIs). Numerical solution procedures were obtained for the analysis of the model parallel BVIs and the more realistic helicopter self-generated-rotor BVIs. It was found that, for self-generated subcritical interactions, the accuracy of the predicted leading edge pressures relied heavily on the user-specified vortex core radius and on the CAMRAD-code-predicted geometry of the interaction vortex elements and their relative orientation with respect to the blade. It was also found that the free-wake model used in CAMRAD to predict the tip vortex trajectory for use in the Euler solution yields lower streamwise and higher axial wake convective velocities than those inferred from the experimental data.

  2. Damage tolerance and structural monitoring for wind turbine blades.

    PubMed

    McGugan, M; Pereira, G; Sørensen, B F; Toftegaard, H; Branner, K

    2015-02-28

    The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure. By improving the understanding of material properties that control damage propagation it will be possible to combine damage tolerant structural design, monitoring systems, inspection techniques and modelling to manage the life cycle of the structures. This will allow an efficient operation of the wind turbine in terms of load alleviation, limited maintenance and repair leading to a more effective exploitation of offshore wind. PMID:25583858

  3. Damage tolerance and structural monitoring for wind turbine blades

    PubMed Central

    McGugan, M.; Pereira, G.; Sørensen, B. F.; Toftegaard, H.; Branner, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure. By improving the understanding of material properties that control damage propagation it will be possible to combine damage tolerant structural design, monitoring systems, inspection techniques and modelling to manage the life cycle of the structures. This will allow an efficient operation of the wind turbine in terms of load alleviation, limited maintenance and repair leading to a more effective exploitation of offshore wind. PMID:25583858

  4. Penetrating head injury from a pedestal fan rotor blade in a child - an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Singh, Hukum; Sharma, Karam Chand

    2006-01-01

    Penetrating head injuries in children constitute only a small part of the total number of traumatic head injuries seen in casualty. A number of household articles have been described to cause penetrating injuries, apart from gunshot and pellet injuries. We describe, for the first time, an unusual case of penetrating injury due to the rotor blade of pedestal fan used very commonly in the Indian subcontinent. PMID:17047422

  5. The effect of Reynolds number on transonic compressor blade rotor section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti Amiri, H.; Shahrabi Farahani, A.; Khazaei, H.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of Reynolds number on transonic compressor blade rotor section is investigated. After passing through the first transonic compressor stages , the flow becomes remarkably compressed. In the present work, it is intended to numerically investigate the effects of the inflow Reynolds number on the unique incidence, flow losses, deviation angle, and shock position, at three different important points of "Minimum Loss" and "Choked Flow" in started conditions and "Stall Operation" in un-started conditions.

  6. Stress analysis of advanced attack helicopter composite main rotor blade root end lug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Stress analysis of the Advanced Attack Helicopter (AAH) composite main rotor blade root end lug is described. The stress concentration factor determined from a finite element analysis is compared to an empirical value used in the lug design. The analysis and test data indicate that the stress concentration is primarily a function of configuration and independent of the range of material properties typical of Kevlar-49/epoxy and glass epoxy.

  7. Aeroelastic response and stability of tiltrotors with elastically-coupled composite rotor blades. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Mark W.

    1993-01-01

    There is a potential for improving the performance and aeroelastic stability of tiltrotors through the use of elastically-coupled composite rotor blades. To study the characteristics of tiltrotors with these types of rotor blades it is necessary to formulate a new analysis which has the capabilities of modeling both a tiltrotor configuration and an anisotropic rotor blade. Background for these formulations is established in two preliminary investigations. In the first, the influence of several system design parameters on tiltrotor aeroelastic stability is examined for the high-speed axial flight mode using a newly-developed rigid-blade analysis with an elastic wing finite element model. The second preliminary investigation addresses the accuracy of using a one-dimensional beam analysis to predict frequencies of elastically-coupled highly-twisted rotor blades. Important aspects of the new aeroelastic formulations are the inclusion of a large steady pylon angle which controls tilt of the rotor system with respect to the airflow, the inclusion of elastic pitch-lag coupling terms related to rotor precone, the inclusion of hub-related degrees of freedom which enable modeling of a gimballed rotor system and engine drive-train dynamics, and additional elastic coupling terms which enable modeling of the anisotropic features for both the rotor blades and the tiltrotor wing. Accuracy of the new tiltrotor analysis is demonstrated by a comparison of the results produced for a baseline case with analytical and experimental results reported in the open literature. Two investigations of elastically tailored blades on a baseline tiltrotor are then conducted. One investigation shows that elastic bending-twist coupling of the rotor blade is a very effective means for increasing the flutter velocity of a tiltrotor, and the magnitude of coupling required does not have an adverse effect on performance or blade loads. The second investigation shows that passive blade twist control via

  8. Investigation of Rotor Performance and Loads of a UH-60A Individual Blade Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Romander, Ethan A.; Norman, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Wind tunnel measurements of performance, loads, and vibration of a full-scale UH-60A Black Hawk main rotor with an individual blade control (IBC) system are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive helicopter analysis CAMRAD II and a coupled CAMRAD II/OVERFLOW 2 analysis. Measured data show a 5.1% rotor power reduction (8.6% rotor lift to effective-drag ratio increase) using 2/rev IBC actuation with 2.0 amplitude at = 0.4. At the optimum IBC phase for rotor performance, IBC actuator force (pitch link force) decreased, and neither flap nor chord bending moments changed significantly. CAMRAD II predicts the rotor power variations with the IBC phase reasonably well at = 0.35. However, the correlation degrades at = 0.4. Coupled CAMRAD II/OVERFLOW 2 shows excellent correlation with the measured rotor power variations with the IBC phase at both = 0.35 and = 0.4. Maximum reduction of IBC actuator force is better predicted with CAMRAD II, but general trends are better captured with the coupled analysis. The correlation of vibratory hub loads is generally poor by both methods, although the coupled analysis somewhat captures general trends.

  9. Investigation of Rotor Performance and Loads of a UH-60A Individual Blade Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Romander, Ethan A.; Norman, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Wind tunnel measurements of performance, loads, and vibration of a full-scale UH-60A Black Hawk main rotor with an individual blade control (IBC) system are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive helicopter analysis CAMRAD II and a coupled CAMRAD II/OVERFLOW 2 analysis. Measured data show a 5.1% rotor power reduction (8.6% rotor lift to effective-drag ratio increase) using 2/rev IBC actuation with 2.0. amplitude at u = 0.4. At the optimum IBC phase for rotor performance, IBC actuator force (pitch link force) decreased, and neither flap nor chord bending moments changed significantly. CAMRAD II predicts the rotor power variations with IBC phase reasonably well at u = 0.35. However, the correlation degrades at u = 0.4. Coupled CAMRAD II/OVERFLOW 2 shows excellent correlation with the measured rotor power variations with IBC phase at both u = 0.35 and u = 0.4. Maximum reduction of IBC actuator force is better predicted with CAMRAD II, but general trends are better captured with the coupled analysis. The correlation of vibratory hub loads is generally poor by both methods, although the coupled analysis somewhat captures general trends.

  10. Asymptotical modeling of initially curved and twisted composite rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Atilgan, Ali R.

    1991-05-01

    A methodology is presented for asymptotically exact analysis of initially curved and twisted, nonhomogeneous, anisotropic blades. The application of the methods is shown to result in two sets of equations: namely, cross-sectional and beam global analyses. For the former, 2D functionals can be derived, facilitating the determination of sectional elastic constants for the beam. Relations between the beam displacement and generalized strain measures and the 3D displacement and strain fields can also be obtained. The global behavior is governed by published exact intrinsic equilibrium equations and exact kinematical equations based on relations between the generalized strain measures and suitable displacement and rotational variables.

  11. Wind turbine rotor blade with in-plane sweep and devices using the same, and methods for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Wetzel, Kyle Kristopher

    2014-06-24

    A wind turbine includes a rotor having a hub and at least one blade having a torsionally rigid root, an inboard section, and an outboard section. The inboard section has a forward sweep relative to an elastic axis of the blade and the outboard section has an aft sweep.

  12. Wind turbine rotor blade with in-plane sweep and devices using same, and methods for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wetzel, Kyle Kristopher

    2008-03-18

    A wind turbine includes a rotor having a hub and at least one blade having a torsionally rigid root, an inboard section, and an outboard section. The inboard section has a forward sweep relative to an elastic axis of the blade and the outboard section has an aft sweep.

  13. Structural optimization procedure of a composite wind turbine blade for reducing both material cost and blade weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weifei; Park, Dohyun; Choi, DongHoon

    2013-12-01

    A composite blade structure for a 2 MW horizontal axis wind turbine is optimally designed. Design requirements are simultaneously minimizing material cost and blade weight while satisfying the constraints on stress ratio, tip deflection, fatigue life and laminate layup requirements. The stress ratio and tip deflection under extreme gust loads and the fatigue life under a stochastic normal wind load are evaluated. A blade element wind load model is proposed to explain the wind pressure difference due to blade height change during rotor rotation. For fatigue life evaluation, the stress result of an implicit nonlinear dynamic analysis under a time-varying fluctuating wind is converted to the histograms of mean and amplitude of maximum stress ratio using the rainflow counting algorithm Miner's rule is employed to predict the fatigue life. After integrating and automating the whole analysis procedure an evolutionary algorithm is used to solve the discrete optimization problem.

  14. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 1-Composite Blades for 80- to 120-Meter Rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, D.A.

    2001-04-30

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) implemented the Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program. As part of the WindPACT program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC (GEC), was awarded contract number YAM-0-30203-01 to examine Technical Area 1-Blade Scaling, Technical Area 2-Turbine Rotor and Blade Logistics, and Technical Area 3-Self-Erecting Towers. This report documents the results of GEC's Technical Area 1-Blade Scaling. The primary objectives of the Blade-Scaling Study are to assess the scaling of current materials and manufacturing technologies for blades of 40 to 60 meters in length, and to develop scaling curves of estimated cost and mass for rotor blades in that size range.

  15. A wireless sensor network for online identification of rotor blade crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Yan, Xiaojun

    2016-06-01

    Online identification of rotor blades’ crack can prevent serious faults in the rotor system. Current wired-based crack identification needs structure modifications to lay out lead wires, which is not suitable for online applications. To achieve the online identification of rotor blades’ crack, this note presents an innovative method based on a wireless sensor network (WSN). The WSN’s sensors distribution and system’s operation sequence are properly designed, and its effectiveness is verified by experimental tests.

  16. An experimental study of static and oscillating rotor blade sections in reverse flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Andrew Hume

    The rotorcraft community has a growing interest in the development of high-speed helicopters to replace outdated fleets. One barrier to the design of such helicopters is the lack of understanding of the aerodynamic behavior of retreating rotor blades in the reverse flow region. This work considers two fundamental models of this complex unsteady flow regime: static and oscillating (i.e., pitching) airfoils in reverse flow. Wind tunnel tests have been performed at the University of Maryland (UMD) and the United States Naval Academy (USNA). Four rotor blade sections are considered: two featuring a sharp geometric trailing edge (NACA 0012 and NACA 0024) and two featuring a blunt geometric trailing edge (ellipse and cambered ellipse). Static airfoil experiments were performed at angles of attack through 180 deg and Reynolds numbers up to one million, representative of the conditions found in the reverse flow region of a full-scale high-speed helicopter. Time-resolved velocity field measurements were used to identify three unsteady flow regimes: slender body vortex shedding, turbulent wake, and deep stall vortex shedding. Unsteady airloads were measured in these three regimes using unsteady pressure transducers. The magnitude of the unsteady airloads is high in the turbulent wake regime when the separated shear layer is close to the airfoil surface and in deep stall due to periodic vortex-induced flow. Oscillating airfoil experiments were performed on a NACA 0012 and cambered ellipse to investigate reverse flow dynamic stall characteristics by modeling cyclic pitching kinematics. The parameter space spanned three Reynolds numbers (165,000; 330,000; and 500,000), five reduced frequencies between 0.100 and 0.511, three mean pitch angles (5,10, and 15 deg), and two pitch amplitudes (5 deg and 10 deg). The sharp aerodynamic leading edge of the NACA 0012 airfoil forces flow separation resulting in deep dynamic stall. The number of associated vortex structures depends strongly

  17. Reduced-Order Blade Mistuning Analysis Techniques Developed for the Robust Design of Engine Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is to develop vibration analysis tools, design tools, and design strategies to significantly improve the safety and robustness of turbine engine rotors. Bladed disks in turbine engines always feature small, random blade-to-blade differences, or mistuning. Mistuning can lead to a dramatic increase in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses. Ultimately, this results in high-cycle fatigue, which is a major safety and cost concern. In this research program, the necessary steps will be taken to transform a state-of-the-art vibration analysis tool, the Turbo-Reduce forced-response prediction code, into an effective design tool by enhancing and extending the underlying modeling and analysis methods. Furthermore, novel techniques will be developed to assess the safety of a given design. In particular, a procedure will be established for using eigenfrequency curve veerings to identify "danger zones" in the operating conditions--ranges of rotational speeds and engine orders in which there is a great risk that the rotor blades will suffer high stresses. This work also will aid statistical studies of the forced response by reducing the necessary number of simulations. Finally, new strategies for improving the design of rotors will be pursued. Several methods will be investigated, including the use of intentional mistuning patterns to mitigate the harmful effects of random mistuning, and the modification of disk stiffness to avoid reaching critical values of interblade coupling in the desired operating range. Recent research progress is summarized in the following paragraphs. First, significant progress was made in the development of the component mode mistuning (CMM) and static mode compensation (SMC) methods for reduced-order modeling of mistuned bladed disks (see the following figure). The CMM method has been formalized and extended to allow a general treatment of mistuning. In addition, CMM allows individual mode

  18. Observations in Flight of the Region of Stalled Flow over the Blades of an Autogiro Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, F J , Jr; Gustafon, F B

    1939-01-01

    The flow over the inner halves of the rotor blades on a Kellet YG-1B autogiro was investigated in flight by making camera records of the motion of silk streamers attached to the upper surfaces of the blades. These records were analyzed to determine the boundaries of the region within which the flow over the blade sections was stalled for various tip-speed ratios. For the sake of comparison, corresponding theoretical boundaries were obtained. Both the size of the stalled area and its rate of growth with increasing tip-speed ratio were found to be larger than the theory predicted, although experiment agreed with theory with regard to shape and general location of the stalled area. The stalled region may be an important factor in both the rotor lift-drag ratio and the blade flapping motion at the higher tip-speed ratios. The method of study used in this paper should be useful in further studies of the problem, including the reduction of the size of the region.

  19. Cyclic Structural Analyses of SSME Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Manderscheid, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The problems of calculating the structural response of high-temperature space propulsion components such as turbine blades for the fuel turbopump are addressed. The first high-pressure-stage fuel turbine blade (HPFTB) in the liquid-hydrogen turbopump of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) was selected for this study. In the past these blades have cracked in the blade shank region and at the airfoil leading edge adjacent to the platform. To achieve the necessary durability, these blades are currently being cast by using directional solidification. Single-crystal alloys are also being investigated for future SSME applications. The study evaluated the utility of advanced structural analysis methods in assessing the low-cycle fatigue lives of these anisotropic components. The turbine blade airfoil of the high-pressure stage of the SSME fuel turbopump was analyzed because it has a history of rapid crack initiation.

  20. Incidence loss for a core turbine rotor blade in a two-dimensional cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stabe, R. G.; Kline, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of incidence angle on the aerodynamic performance of an uncooled core turbine rotor blade was investigated experimentally in a two-dimensional cascade. The cascade test covered a range of incidence angles from minus 15 deg to 15 deg in 5-degree increments and a range of pressure ratios corresponding to ideal exit critical velocity ratios of 0.6 to 0.95. The principal measurements were blade-surface static pressures and cross-channel surveys of exit total pressure, static pressure, and flow angle. The results of the investigation include blade-surface velocity distribution and overall performance in terms of weight flow and loss for the range of incidence angles and exit velocity ratios investigated. The measured losses are also compared with two common methods of predicting incidence loss.

  1. Preliminary structural design conceptualization for composite rotor for verdant power water current turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, J. A.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Verdant Power Inc. (VPI) have partnered under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a new kinetic hydropower rotor. The rotor features an improved hydrodynamic and structural design which features state-of-the-art technology developed for the wind industry. The new rotor will have higher energy capture, increased system reliability, and reduction of overall cost of energy. This project was divided into six tasks: (1) Composite Rotor Project Planning and Design Specification; (2) Baseline Fatigue Testing and Failure analysis; (3) Develop Blade/Rotor Performance Model; (4) Hydrofoil Survey and Selection; (5) FEM Structural Design; and (6) Develop Candidate Rotor Designs and Prepare Final Report.

  2. Main rotor free wake geometry effects on blade air loads and response for helicopters in steady maneuvers. Volume 1: Theoretical formulation and analysis of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A mathematical model and computer program were implemented to study the main rotor free wake geometry effects on helicopter rotor blade air loads and response in steady maneuvers. The theoretical formulation and analysis of results are presented.

  3. Facile synthesis and theoretical conformation analysis of a triazine-based double-decker rotor molecule with three anthracene blades.

    PubMed

    Kory, Max J; Bergeler, Maike; Reiher, Markus; Schlüter, A Dieter

    2014-06-01

    The facile synthesis of a rotor-shaped compound with two stacked triazine units, which are symmetrically connected by three anthracene blades through oxygen linkers, is presented. This new double-decker, which is a potential monomer for two-dimensional polymerization, was synthesized by using readily available, cheap building blocks, exploiting the known selectivity difference for the nucleophilic substitution of cyanuric chloride. The crystal structure of a C3h symmetric rotor-shaped compound with 9,10-dihydroanthracene blades, which is a direct precursor to the targeted monomer, and the crystal structure of the new double-decker with the desired C3h symmetry, are also reported. The synthetic efforts were preceded by a computational analysis, which was triggered by the question of conformational stability of the potential monomer. Two stable conformers could be found, and the barrier for the transition path in the gas phase between these conformers was determined by quantum chemical calculations. Exploratory Born-Oppenheimer molecular-dynamics simulations revealed a strong influence of solvent-solute interactions on the stability of the conformers, which resulted in an energetic preference of the C3h symmetric conformation of the double-decker. PMID:24737578

  4. Helicopter rotor blade frequency evolution with damage growth and signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Niranjan; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2005-05-01

    Structural damage in materials evolves over time due to growth of fatigue cracks in homogenous materials and a complicated process of matrix cracking, delamination, fiber breakage and fiber matrix debonding in composite materials. In this study, a finite element model of the helicopter rotor blade is used to analyze the effect of damage growth on the modal frequencies in a qualitative manner. Phenomenological models of material degradation for homogenous and composite materials are used. Results show that damage can be detected by monitoring changes in lower as well as higher mode flap (out-of-plane bending), lag (in-plane bending) and torsion rotating frequencies, especially for composite materials where the onset of the last stage of damage of fiber breakage is most critical. Curve fits are also proposed for mathematical modeling of the relationship between rotating frequencies and cycles. Finally, since operational data are noisy and also contaminated with outliers, denoising algorithms based on recursive median filters and radial basis function neural networks and wavelets are studied and compared with a moving average filter using simulated data for improved health-monitoring application. A novel recursive median filter is designed using integer programming through genetic algorithm and is found to have comparable performance to neural networks with much less complexity and is better than wavelet denoising for outlier removal. This filter is proposed as a tool for denoising time series of damage indicators.

  5. Hub and blade structural loads measurements of an SA349/2 helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Heffernan, Ruth M.; Gaubert, Michel

    1988-01-01

    Data from 23 flight conditions, including level flights ranging from advance ratio mu = 0.14 to 0.37 and steady turning flights from advance ratio mu = 0.26 to 0.35, are presented for an Aerospatiale SA349/2 Gazelle helicopter. The data include hub loads data (for 6 of the 23 conditions), blade structural data at eleven different blade radial stations, and fuselage structural data. All dynamic data are presented as harmonic analysis coefficients (ten harmonics per rotor revolution). The data acquisition and reduction procedures are also documented. Blade structural and inertial properties are provided in addition to control system geometry and properties.

  6. An evaluation of free- and fixed-vane flowmeters with curved- and flat-bladed Savonius rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Antony; Desa, Ehrlich

    1994-04-01

    Speed and direction performances of flowmeters, designed by the authors for in-house use, employing an Aanderaa-type curved-bladed Savonius rotor and a free vane and an Aanderaa-type flat-bladed Savonius rotor and a fixed vane, are discussed. It has been observed that accuracy, linearity, and tilt response of a meter using the Aanderaa curved-bladed rotor is superior to those of a meter using the Aanderaa flat-bladed rotor. Analysis showed that the azimuth response of a flowmeter is affected by the presence of support rods surrounding its rotor. The change in azimuth response arises from flow pattern modifications in the vicinity of the rotor, imposed by the changes in the horizontal angle of the support rods of the rotor relative to the flow streamlines. While the use of two support rods may be suitable for a fixed-vane system, it is undesirable for a free-vane system where the meter's orientation with respect to the flow direction is not defined. Flow direction calibration results indicated that a fixed-vane system exhibits superior direction performance compared to a free-vane system. The comparatively poor direction performance of the free-vane system stems from the poor coupling to the 'vane-follower' magnet from the external vane.

  7. Effects of diffusion factor, aspect ratio and solidity on overall performance of 14 compressor middle stages. [the effects of varying both diffusion through the rotor and compressor blades and blade aspect ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britsch, W. R.; Osborn, W. M.; Laessig, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    A series of high hub tip radius ratio compressor stages representative of the middle and latter stages of axial flow compressors is discussed. The effects of aspect ratio, diffusion factor, and solidity on rotor and stage performance are determined. Fourteen middle stages are tested to study the effects on performance of varying both diffusion through the rotor and stator blades and blade aspect ratio. The design parameters in the streamline analysis program, the blade geometry program, and the blade coordinate program are presented.

  8. A flight investigation of performance and loads for a helicopter with 10-64C main rotor blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K.; Tomaine, R. L.; Stevens, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    A flight investigation produced data on performance and rotor loads for a teetering rotor, AH-1G helicopter flown with a main rotor that had the NLR-1T airfoil as the blade section contour. The test envelope included hover, forward flight speeds from 34 to 83 m/sec (65 to 162 knots), and collective fixed maneuvers at about 0.25 tip speed ratio. The data set for each test point describes vehicle flight state, control positions, rotor loads, power requirements, and blade motions. Rotor loads are reviewed primarily in terms of peak to peak and harmonic content. Lower frequency components predominated for most loads and generally increased with increased airspeed, but not necessarily with increased maneuver load factor. Detailed data for an advanced airfoil on an AH-1G are presented.

  9. A flight investigation of performance and loads for a helicopter with NLR-1T main-rotor blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Tomaine, R. L.; Stevens, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    Data on performance and rotor loads for a teetering-rotor, AH-1G helicopter flown with a main rotor that had the NLR-1T airfoil as the blade-section contour are presented. The test envelope included hover, forward-flight speed sweeps from 35 to 85 m/sec, and collective-fixed maneuvers at about 0.25 tip-speed ratio. The data set for each test point described vehicle flight state, control positions, rotor loads, power requirements, and blade motions. Rotor loads are reviewed primarily in terms of peak-to-peak and harmonic content. Lower frequency components predominated for most loads and generally increased with increased airspeed, but not necessarily with increased maneuver load factor.

  10. Parametric Investigation of the Effect of Hub Pitching Moment on Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise of an Isolated Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malpica, Carlos; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben

    2016-01-01

    At the most fundamental level, main rotor loading noise is caused by the harmonically-varying aerodynamic loads (acoustic pressures) exerted by the rotating blades on the air. Rotorcraft main rotor noise is therefore, in principle, a function of rotor control inputs, and thus the forces and moments required to achieve steady, or "trim", flight equilibrium. In certain flight conditions, the ensuing aerodynamic loading on the rotor(s) can result in highly obtrusive harmonic noise. The effect of the propulsive force, or X-force, on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise is well documented. This paper presents an acoustics parametric sensitivity analysis of the effect of varying rotor aerodynamic pitch hub trim moments on BVI noise radiated by an S-70 helicopter main rotor. Results show that changing the hub pitching moment for an isolated rotor, trimmed in nominal 80 knot, 6 and 12 deg descent, flight conditions, alters the miss distance between the blades and the vortex in ways that have varied and noticeable effects on the BVI radiated-noise directionality. Peak BVI noise level is however not significantly altered. The application of hub pitching moment allows the attitude of the fuselage to be controlled; for example, to compensate for the uncomfortable change in fuselage pitch attitude introduced by a fuselage-mounted X-force controller.

  11. Minimum weight design of rectangular and tapered helicopter rotor blades with frequency constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.

    1988-01-01

    The minimum weight design of a helicopter rotor blade subject to constraints on coupled flap-lag natural frequencies has been studied. A constraint has also been imposed on the minimum value of the autorotational inertia of the blade in order to ensure that it has sufficient inertia to autorotate in the case of engine failure. The program CAMRAD is used for the blade modal analysis and CONMIN is used for the optimization. In addition, a linear approximation analysis involving Taylor series expansion has been used to reduce the analysis effort. The procedure contains a sensitivity analysis which consists of analytical derivatives of the objective function and the autorotational inertia constraint and central finite difference derivatives of the frequency constraints. Optimum designs have been obtained for both rectangular and tapered blades. Design variables include taper ratio, segment weights, and box beam dimensions. It is shown that even when starting with an acceptable baseline design, a significant amount of weight reduction is possible while satisfying all the constraints for both rectangular and tapered blades.

  12. The spectral characteristics of rotor blade-vortex interaction noise - Experimental and mathematical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.; Hardin, Jay C.

    1987-01-01

    The BVI impulsive content of a rotor acoustic signal is shown to appear in the mid-frequency range of the power spectrum, between the fifth and thirtieth harmonics of the blade passage frequency, concentrated at the harmonics of the blade passage frequency. These harmonics exhibit a humped or scalloped shape in this mid-frequency spectral region. Increased energy at the harmonics of the shaft frequency appears when the BVI impulsive content demonstrates unsteadiness and blade-to-blade differences in the time domain. A mathematical model of a generalized BVI acoustic signal and its power spectrum shows that the power spectrum is scalloped and filtered by a comb function. The spectrum amplitude is defined by the impulse amplitude and emission time. The scalloping of the spectrum is related to the emission time of the impulse itself, and the spacing of the comb function is related to the repetition time (period) of the impulse. The decay rate of the spectral humps is governed by the inverse of frequency squared. The mathematical model validates the characteristics observed in the data and verify that these characteristics are due to blade-vortex interaction activity.

  13. An experimental investigation of the flap-lag stability of a hingeless rotor with comparable levels of hub and blade stiffness in hovering flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.; Putman, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the flap-lag stability of a hingeless rotor in hovering flight is presented and discussed. The rotor blade and hub configuration were selected such that the hub and blade had comparable levels of bending stiffness. Experimental measurements of the lag damping were made for various values of rotor rotational speed and blade pitch angle. Specifically at a blade pitch angle of 8 deg at three-quarters radius, the lag damping was determined over a range of rotational speeds from 200 RPM to 320 RPM and also over a range of blade pitch angles from 0 deg to 8 deg.

  14. The effect of rotor blade thickness and surface finish on the performance of a small axial flow turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of blade profile inaccuracies and surface finish on the aerodynamic performance of a 11.13 cm tip diameter turbine. The as-received cast rotor blades had a significantly thicker profile than the design intent and a fairly rough surface finish. Stage test results showed an increase of one point in efficieny by smoothing the surface finish and another three points by thinning the blade profiles to near the design profile. Most of the performance gain between the as-cast thick and the thinned rotor blades both with the same surface finish, was attributed to reduced trailing edge losses of the recontoured blades.

  15. Comparison of experimental and analytical predictions of rotor blade-vortex interactions using model scale acoustic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. M.; Elliott, J. W.; Hoad, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Helicopter blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is studied using a model scale rotor acoustic data base and an analytical rotor wake prediction method. The variation of BVI acoustic levels with vehicle flight conditions (forward speed and disk attitude) is presented. Calculations of probable BVI locations on the rotor disk are made for a range of operating conditions using the measured acoustic signals and an acoustic ray tracing technique. Analytical predictions of possible BVI locations on the rotor disk are made using a generalized distorted wake analysis program. Comparisons of the interaction locations are made with the results of both the analytic approach and the acoustic ray tracing technique.

  16. NREL Advanced Research Turbine (ART) Aerodynamic Design of ART-2B Rotor Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, D.A.

    2000-09-05

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) installed two Advanced Research Turbines (ART) at the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado, to use as full-scale test beds for ongoing research efforts, including three-dimensional blade aerodynamics and the effects of various control methods on turbine loads and performance. The Westinghouse WWG-0600 was selected as a baseline configuration for the ART turbines. The first turbine, ART-1, is currently operational and has been used to collect a baseline set of performance and loads data. A second turbine, ART-2A, incorporates several major modifications and may be upgraded further to a configuration designated aRT-2B. Possible features of the ART-2B turbine include a multi-degree of freedom hum and newly designed rotor blades. Global energy concepts, L.L.C. provided engineering support to NREL in designing the components for the ART-2B turbine. This document provides a summary of work performed by GEC on the aerodynamic design of ART-2B rotor blades.

  17. Blade Deflection Measurements of a Full-Scale UH-60A Rotor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Lawrence E.; Abrego, Anita; Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2010-01-01

    Blade deflection (BD) measurements using stereo photogrammetry have been made during the individual blade control (IBC) testing of a UH-60A 4-bladed rotor system in the 40 by 80-foot test section of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC). Measurements were made in quadrants one and two, encompassing advance ratios from 0.15 to 0.40, thrust coefficient/solidities from 0.05 to 0.12 and rotor-system drive shaft angles from 0.0 to -9.6 deg. The experiment represents a significant step toward providing benchmark databases to be utilized by theoreticians in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. In addition to describing the stereo measurement technique and reporting on preliminary measurements made to date, the intent of this paper is to encourage feedback from the rotorcraft community concerning continued analysis of acquired data and to solicit suggestions for improved test technique and areas of emphasis for measurements in the upcoming UH-60A Airloads test at the NFAC.

  18. Effects of Unsteadiness Due to Wake Passing on Rotor Blade Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali A.; Rigby, David L.; Heidmann, James; Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Fabian, John C.

    2007-01-01

    14. ABSTRACT In a gas turbine engine, the turbine rotor blades are buffeted by the wakes of the vanes located upstream. There is a transient effect from the passing of wakes on the blade heat transfer. This transient effect has been computed for a representative rotor by introducing a wake upstream via an unsteady inlet flow boundary condition, or "gust" condition. Two cases of turbulent flow and laminar flow with Reynolds numbers of 385,000 and 385 respectively were considered. For the turbulent flow case a quasi-steady calculation was also performed. The variation in the unsteady heat transfer coefficient was found to be as high as 120 percent of the mean. For the turbulent flow case a quasisteady calculation was also performed. The time mean of the unsteady heat transfer, the mean of the quasi-steady variations and the steady results agree reasonably well on all blade locations except for the turbulent results which differ near the leading edge. The quasi-steady heat transfer results do not agree with the instantaneous unsteady results, although the time-mean values are similar.

  19. Advancing-side directivity and retreating-side interactions of model rotor blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. M.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Schultz, K.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data are presented from a 40 percent scale model of the four-bladed BO-105 helicopter main rotor, tested in a large aerodynamic wind tunnel. Rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data in the low-speed flight range were acquired using a traversing in-flow microphone array. Acoustic results presented are used to assess the acoustic far field of BVI noise, to map the directivity and temporal characteristics of BVI impulsive noise, and to show the existence of retreating-side BVI signals. The characterics of the acoustic radiation patterns, which can often be strongly focused, are found to be very dependent on rotor operating condition. The acoustic signals exhibit multiple blade-vortex interactions per blade with broad impulsive content at lower speeds, while at higher speeds, they exhibit fewer interactions per blade, with much sharper, higher amplitude acoustic signals. Moderate-amplitude BVI acoustic signals measured under the aft retreating quadrant of the rotor are shown to originate from the retreating side of the rotor.

  20. Effects of perforation number of blade on aerodynamic performance of dual-rotor small axial flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongjun; Wang, Yanping; Li, Guoqi; Jin, Yingzi; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2015-04-01

    Compared with single rotor small axial flow fans, dual-rotor small axial flow fans is better regarding the static characteristics. But the aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans is worse than that of single rotor small axial flow fans. In order to improve aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans, the pre-stage blades with different perforation numbers are designed in this research. The RANS equations and the standard k-ɛ turbulence model as well as the FW-H noise model are used to simulate the flow field within the fan. Then, the aerodynamic performance of the fans with different perforation number is compared and analyzed. The results show that: (1) Compared to the prototype fan, the noise of fans with perforation blades is reduced. Additionally, the noise of the fans decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (2) The vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades of perforated fans is reduced. It is found that the vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (3) Compared to the prototype fan, the total pressure rising and efficiency of the fans with perforation blades drop slightly.

  1. Improved Structure and Fabrication of Large, High-Power KHPS Rotors - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Corren, Dean; Colby, Jonathan; Adonizio, Mary Ann

    2013-01-29

    Verdant Power, Inc, working in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), among other partners, used evolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and techniques to improve the structure and fabrication of large, high-power composite Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) rotor blades. The objectives of the project were to: design; analyze; develop for manufacture and fabricate; and thoroughly test, in the lab and at full scale in the water, the improved KHPS rotor blade.

  2. Structural Testing of the Blade Reliability Collaborative Effect of Defect Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, M.; Hughes, S.; Paquette, J.

    2015-06-08

    Two 8.3-meter (m) wind turbine blades intentionally constructed with manufacturing flaws were tested to failure at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) south of Boulder, Colorado. Two blades were tested; one blade was manufactured with a fiberglass spar cap and the second blade was manufactured with a carbon fiber spar cap. Test loading primarily consisted of flap fatigue loading of the blades, with one quasi-static ultimate load case applied to the carbon fiber spar cap blade. Results of the test program were intended to provide the full-scale test data needed for validation of model and coupon test results of the effect of defects in wind turbine blade composite materials. Testing was part of the Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) led by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The BRC seeks to develop a deeper understanding of the causes of unexpected blade failures (Paquette 2012), and to develop methods to enable blades to survive to their expected operational lifetime. Recent work in the BRC includes examining and characterizing flaws and defects known to exist in wind turbine blades from manufacturing processes (Riddle et al. 2011). Recent results from reliability databases show that wind turbine rotor blades continue to be a leading contributor to turbine downtime (Paquette 2012).

  3. Operational experience with VAWT blades. [structural performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, W. N.

    1979-01-01

    The structural performance of 17 meter diameter wind turbine rotors is discussed. Test results for typical steady and vibratory stress measurements are summarized along with predicted values of stress based on a quasi-static finite element model.

  4. Contact Versus Non-Contact Measurement of a Helicopter Main Rotor Composite Blade

    SciTech Connect

    Luczak, Marcin; Dziedziech, Kajetan; Peeters, Bart; Van der Auweraer, Herman; Vivolo, Marianna; Desmet, Wim

    2010-05-28

    The dynamic characterization of lightweight structures is particularly complex as the impact of the weight of sensors and instrumentation (cables, mounting of exciters...) can distort the results. Varying mass loading or constraint effects between partial measurements may determine several errors on the final conclusions. Frequency shifts can lead to erroneous interpretations of the dynamics parameters. Typically these errors remain limited to a few percent. Inconsistent data sets however can result in major processing errors, with all related consequences towards applications based on the consistency assumption, such as global modal parameter identification, model-based damage detection and FRF-based matrix inversion in substructuring, load identification and transfer path analysis [1]. This paper addresses the subject of accuracy in the context of the measurement of the dynamic properties of a particular lightweight structure. It presents a comprehensive comparative study between the use of accelerometer, laser vibrometer (scanning LDV) and PU-probe (acoustic particle velocity and pressure) measurements to measure the structural responses, with as final aim the comparison of modal model quality assessment. The object of the investigation is a composite material blade from the main rotor of a helicopter. The presented results are part of an extensive test campaign performed with application of SIMO, MIMO, random and harmonic excitation, and the use of the mentioned contact and non-contact measurement techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of the applied instrumentation are discussed. Presented are real-life measurement problems related to the different set up conditions. Finally an analysis of estimated models is made in view of assessing the applicability of the various measurement approaches for successful fault detection based on modal parameters observation as well as in uncertain non-deterministic numerical model updating.

  5. Contact Versus Non-Contact Measurement of a Helicopter Main Rotor Composite Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luczak, Marcin; Dziedziech, Kajetan; Vivolo, Marianna; Desmet, Wim; Peeters, Bart; Van der Auweraer, Herman

    2010-05-01

    The dynamic characterization of lightweight structures is particularly complex as the impact of the weight of sensors and instrumentation (cables, mounting of exciters…) can distort the results. Varying mass loading or constraint effects between partial measurements may determine several errors on the final conclusions. Frequency shifts can lead to erroneous interpretations of the dynamics parameters. Typically these errors remain limited to a few percent. Inconsistent data sets however can result in major processing errors, with all related consequences towards applications based on the consistency assumption, such as global modal parameter identification, model-based damage detection and FRF-based matrix inversion in substructuring, load identification and transfer path analysis [1]. This paper addresses the subject of accuracy in the context of the measurement of the dynamic properties of a particular lightweight structure. It presents a comprehensive comparative study between the use of accelerometer, laser vibrometer (scanning LDV) and PU-probe (acoustic particle velocity and pressure) measurements to measure the structural responses, with as final aim the comparison of modal model quality assessment. The object of the investigation is a composite material blade from the main rotor of a helicopter. The presented results are part of an extensive test campaign performed with application of SIMO, MIMO, random and harmonic excitation, and the use of the mentioned contact and non-contact measurement techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of the applied instrumentation are discussed. Presented are real-life measurement problems related to the different set up conditions. Finally an analysis of estimated models is made in view of assessing the applicability of the various measurement approaches for successful fault detection based on modal parameters observation as well as in uncertain non-deterministic numerical model updating.

  6. The Development of a Tool for Semi-Automated Generation of Structured and Unstructured Grids about Isolated Rotorcraft Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanmugasundaram, Ramakrishnan; Garriz, Javier A.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    1997-01-01

    The grid generation used to model rotorcraft configurations for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is highly complicated and time consuming. The highly complex geometry and irregular shapes encountered in entire rotorcraft configurations are typically modeled using overset grids. Another promising approach is to utilize unstructured grid methods. With either approach the majority of time is spent manually setting up the topology. For less complicated geometries such as isolated rotor blades, less time is obviously required. This paper discusses the capabilities of a tool called Rotor blade Optimized Topology Organizer and Renderer(ROTOR) being developed to quickly generate block structured grids and unstructured tetrahedral grids about isolated blades. The key algorithm uses individual airfoil sections to construct a Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline(NURBS) surface representation of the rotor blade. This continuous surface definition can be queried to define the block topology used in constructing a structured mesh around the rotor blade. Alternatively, the surface definition can be used to define the surface patches and grid cell spacing requirements for generating unstructured surface and volume grids. Presently, the primary output for ROTOR is block structured grids using 0-H and H-H topologies suitable for full-potential solvers. This paper will discuss the present capabilities of the tool and highlight future work.

  7. Impact of rotor-stator interaction on turbine blade film cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Abhari, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study is to quantify the impact of rotor-stator interaction on surface heat transfer of film cooled turbine blades. In Section 1, a steady-state injection model of the film cooling is incorporated into a two-dimensional, thin shear layer, multiblade row CFD code. This injection model accounts for the penetration and spreading of the coolant jet, as well as the entrainment of the boundary layer fluid by the coolant. The code is validated, in the steady state, by comparing its predictions to data from a blade tested in linear cascade. In Section 2, time-resolved film cooled turbine rotor heat transfer measurements are compared with numerical predictions. Data were taken on a fully film cooled blade in a transonic, high pressure ratio, single-stage turbine in a short duration turbine test facility, which simulates full-engine non-dimensional conditions. Film cooled heat flux on the pressure surface is predicted to be as much as a factor of two higher in the time average of the unsteady calculations compared to the steady-state case. Time-resolved film cooled heat transfer comparison of data to prediction at two spanwise positions is used to validate the numerical code. The unsteady stator-rotor interaction results in the pulsation of the coolant injection flow out of the film holes with large-scale fluctuations. The combination of pulsating coolant flow and the interaction of the coolant with this unsteady external flow is shown to lower the local pressure side adiabatic film effectiveness by as much as 64% when compared to the steady-state case.

  8. Prediction of tip vortex self-induced motion parameters in terms of rotor blade loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, Donald B.

    1987-01-01

    The self-induced motion of curved vortex filaments at the tip of a helicopter rotor blade is investigated analytically. The derivation of a method for inviscid roll-up (IRU) is presented in detail, with attention to the cutoff-distance reformulation of the problem, a control-volume analysis of the self-induction properties of the vortex core, the adaptation of the roll-up method of Betz (1932) to IRU in three dimensions, the treatment of linear and elliptic loading, vortices with turbulent central cores, and the effect of cutoff distance on helicopter free-wake computations. Numerical results showing the significant effect of core properties on the geometry of a rotor wake in hover are presented in graphs and briefly characterized.

  9. Helicopter Model Rotor-Blade Vortex Interaction Impulsive Noise: Scalability and Parametric Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model-scale data were compared with averaged full-scale, in-flight acoustic data under similar non-dimensional test conditions using an improved data analysis technique. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 - 0.194), the BVI impulsive noise data scale remarkably well in level, waveform, and directivity patterns. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 - 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model-scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full-scale BVI noise. Presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Measured BVI noise radiation is highly sensitive to all of the four governing nondimensional parameters--hover tip Mach number, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient.

  10. Nonlinear Curvature Expressions for Combined Flapwise Bending, Chordwise Bending, Torsion and Extension of Twisted Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, R. G.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1976-01-01

    The nonlinear curvature expressions for a twisted rotor blade or a beam undergoing transverse bending in two planes, torsion, and extension were developed. The curvature expressions were obtained using simple geometric considerations. The expressions were first developed in a general manner using the geometrical nonlinear theory of elasticity. These general nonlinear expressions were then systematically reduced to four levels of approximation by imposing various simplifying assumptions, and in each of these levels the second degree nonlinear expressions were given. The assumptions were carefully stated and their implications with respect to the nonlinear theory of elasticity as applied to beams were pointed out. The transformation matrices between the deformed and undeformed blade-fixed coordinates, which were needed in the development of the curvature expressions, were also given for three of the levels of approximation. The present curvature expressions and transformation matrices were compared with corresponding expressions existing in the literature.

  11. Investigation about Rotor-stator Interaction with an Adjustable Leaned Vane Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yadong; Tian, Jie; Ouyang, Hua; Du, Zhaohui; Liu, Haijian

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the noise reduction benefits of stator lean effect for rotor-stator interaction. The compressor with 3 blade lean angle of downstream stator was investigated by experimental and numerical study. The noise spectra of the acoustic measurement were obtained by the outside noise test. And the tone noise was extracted from the total noise sound pressure level (SPL). The unsteady loading of the stators' blade surface were also obtained. The pressure fluctuation amplitude was extracted from the numerical study, and the phase distribution of the wake presented the detail distribution of the wake phase. The numerical study shows that lean positive has less unsteady loading than negative, and lean positive case has the maximum phase lag.

  12. Blade Displacement Predictions for the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bledron, Robert T.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    An unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver for unstructured grids is loosely coupled to a rotorcraft comprehensive code and used to simulate two different test conditions from a wind-tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60A rotor. Performance data and sectional airloads from the simulation are compared with corresponding tunnel data to assess the level of fidelity of the aerodynamic aspects of the simulation. The focus then turns to a comparison of the blade displacements, both rigid (blade root) and elastic. Comparisons of computed root motions are made with data from three independent measurement systems. Finally, comparisons are made between computed elastic bending and elastic twist, and the corresponding measurements obtained from a photogrammetry system. Overall the correlation between computed and measured displacements was good, especially for the root pitch and lag motions and the elastic bending deformation. The correlation of root lead-lag motion and elastic twist deformation was less favorable.

  13. Shape memory alloy actuators for in-flight tracking of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Jeanette J.; Chopra, Inderjit

    1998-07-01

    This paper examines, analytically and experimentally, a shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuator to be used for in- flight tracking of helicopter rotor blades. The recovery characteristics of SMA's are utilized to detect a trailing edge trim tab. Conceptually, the tab is deflected using SMA wires with initial pre-strains, and any differential recovery displacement due to a thermal field is transformed into an angular motion of the tab. A 1D thermo-mechanical constitutive model is used to predict the constrained recovery characteristics of SMA's and predicted results are validated with measured values. Good correlation between measured and predicted values is obtained.

  14. Performance of tandem-bladed transonic compressor rotor with tip speed of 1375 feet per second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urasek, D. C.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    The design and experimental performance of a 20-inch diameter tandem-bladed axial-flow transonic compressor rotor is presented. Radial surveys were made of the flow conditions. At design speed the peak efficiency was 0.88 and occurred at an equivalent weight flow of 63 pounds per second. At peak efficiency the total pressure and total temperature ratios were 1.77 and 1.20, respectively. The stall margin at design speed was 10 percent based on weight flows and total pressure ratios at peak efficiency and near stall.

  15. Analytical study of stresses recorded in the DH 2011 rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kretz, M.; Aubrun, J. N.; Larche, M.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical study of stresses in the blades recorded during the tests of the DH 2011 jet flap rotor was performed. The main objective of the study was to compare the experimental results with analyticaly determined stresses. The comparison extended over 15 specific flight cases has been only partially successful. In fact computed 3P and 4P stress components showed only a poor correlation with the test data obtained. It is believed that the simplified model of aeroelastic effects used is mainly responsible for this lack of agreement with test results.

  16. NDT detection and quantification of induced defects on composite helicopter rotor blade and UAV wing sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findeis, Dirk; Gryzagoridis, Jasson; Musonda, Vincent

    2008-09-01

    Digital Shearography and Infrared Thermography (IRT) techniques were employed to test non-destructively samples from aircraft structures of composite material nature. Background information on the techniques is presented and it is noted that much of the inspection work reviewed in the literature has focused on qualitative evaluation of the defects rather than quantitative. There is however, need to quantify the defects if the threshold rejection criterion of whether the component inspected is fit for service has to be established. In this paper an attempt to quantify induced defects on a helicopter main rotor blade and Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) composite material is presented. The fringe patterns exhibited by Digital Shearography were used to quantify the defects by relating the number of fringes created to the depth of the defect or flaw. Qualitative evaluation of defects with IRT was achieved through a hot spot temperature indication above the flaw on the surface of the material. The results of the work indicate that the Shearographic technique proved to be more sensitive than the IRT technique. It should be mentioned that there is "no set standard procedure" tailored for testing of composites. Each composite material tested is more likely to respond differently to defect detection and this depends generally on the component geometry and a suitable selection of the loading system to suit a particular test. The experimental procedure that is reported in this paper can be used as a basis for designing a testing or calibration procedure for defects detection on any particular composite material component or structure.

  17. Structural analysis considerations for wind turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Approaches to the structural analysis of wind turbine blade designs are reviewed. Specifications and materials data are discussed along with the analysis of vibrations, loads, stresses, and failure modes.

  18. WIND- THREE DIMENSIONAL POTENTIAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW ABOUT WIND TURBINE ROTOR BLADES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    This computer program, WIND, was developed to numerically solve the exact, full-potential equation for three-dimensional, steady, inviscid flow through an isolated wind turbine rotor. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional, boundary-conforming grid and iteratively solves the full-potential equation while fully accounting for both the rotating and Coriolis effects. WIND is capable of numerically analyzing the flow field about a given blade shape of the horizontal-axis type wind turbine. The rotor hub is assumed representable by a doubly infinite circular cylinder. An arbitrary number of blades may be attached to the hub and these blades may have arbitrary spanwise distributions of taper and of the twist, sweep, and dihedral angles. An arbitrary number of different airfoil section shapes may be used along the span as long as the spanwise variation of all the geometeric parameters is reasonably smooth. The numerical techniques employed in WIND involve rotated, type-dependent finite differencing, a finite volume method, artificial viscosity in conservative form, and a successive overrelaxation combined with the sequential grid refinement procedure to accelerate the iterative convergence rate. Consequently, WIND is cabable of accurately analyzing incompressible and compressible flows, including those that are locally transonic and terminated by weak shocks. Along with the three-dimensional results, WIND provides the results of the two-dimensional calculations to aid the user in locating areas of possible improvement in the aerodynamic design of the blade. Output from WIND includes the chordwise distribution of the coefficient of pressure, the Mach number, the density, and the relative velocity components at spanwise stations along the blade. In addition, the results specify local values of the lift coefficient and the tangent and axial aerodynamic force components. These are also given in integrated form expressing the total torque and the total axial

  19. Important Scaling Parameters for Testing Model-Scale Helicopter Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the effects of aerodynamic and aeroelastic scaling parameters on model scale helicopter rotors has been conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The effect of varying Reynolds number, blade Lock number, and structural elasticity on rotor performance has been studied and the performance results are discussed herein for two different rotor blade sets at two rotor advance ratios. One set of rotor blades were rigid and the other set of blades were dynamically scaled to be representative of a main rotor design for a utility class helicopter. The investigation was con-densities permits the acquisition of data for several Reynolds and Lock number combinations.

  20. Structural tailoring of engine blades (STAEBL) theoretical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, K. W.

    1985-01-01

    This Theoretical Manual includes the theories included in the Structural Tailoring of Engine Blades (STAEBL) computer program which was developed to perform engine fan and compressor blade numerical optimizations. These blade optimizations seek a minimum weight or cost design that satisfies practical blade design constraints, by controlling one to twenty design variables. The STAEBL constraint analyses include blade stresses, vibratory response, flutter, and foreign object damage. Blade design variables include airfoil thickness at several locations, blade chord, and construction variables: hole size for hollow blades, and composite material layup for composite blades.

  1. Structural tailoring of engine blades (STAEBL) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, K. W.

    1985-01-01

    This User's Manual contains instructions and demonstration case to prepare input data, run, and modify the Structural Tailoring of Engine Blades (STAEBL) computer code. STAEBL was developed to perform engine fan and compressor blade numerical optimizations. This blade optimization seeks a minimum weight or cost design that satisfies realistic blade design constraints, by tuning one to twenty design variables. The STAEBL constraint analyses include blade stresses, vibratory response, flutter, and foreign object damage. Blade design variables include airfoil thickness at several locations, blade chord, and construction variables: hole size for hollow blades, and composite material layup for composite blades.

  2. Estimation of UH-60 blade aerodynamic loads and rotor impedance using generalized strain pattern/Kalman filter approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhis, Ofer; Duval, Ronald W.; Idan, Moshe

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop and verify a methodology capable of predicting the vibration levels and estimating the aerodynamic loads and rotor impedance of a rotorcraft blade. Simulated flight test data is generated, blade airloads and elastic hub motions are estimated from the simulated data through the use of the Kalman filter/smoother, simulation upgrading and parameter identification are performed, and the ability to identify rotor impedance from a simulation by isolating the rotor model and providing a prescribed motion for the hub as rotor excitation is demonstrated. It is pointed out that the statistical estimation procedure utilized in the proposed methodology minimizes the impact of sensor noise, truncation error, and instrumentation bias on the results.

  3. Design of rotors for improved structural life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Major rotor design criteria are discussed with particular emphasis on those aspects of rotor design that ensure long life component integrity. Dynamic considerations, that necessitate tuning of bladed disk and seal assemblies to avoid excessive vibratory stress at both design and off-design conditions are reviewed as well as low cycle fatigue considerations, which have resulted in detailed analysis procedures to establish part temperature and stress variation throughout an operating cycle and extensive specimen and component fatigue testing to establish safe cyclic operating limits. The frequency, size, and behavior of intrinsic material defects were investigated. Manufacturing process improvements, including the application of increasingly sophisticated inspection techniques and quality control procedures are reviewed in light of their impact on component durability.

  4. Acoustic performance of low pressure axial fan rotors with different blade chord length and radial load distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carolus, Thomas

    The paper examines the acoustic and aerodynamic performance of low-pressure axial fan rotors with a hub/tip ratio of 0.45. Six rotors were designed for the same working point by means of the well-known airfoil theory. The condition of an equilibrium between the static pressure gradient and the centrifugal forces is maintained. All rotors have unequally spaced blades to diminish tonal noise. The rotors are tested in a short cylindrical housing without guide vanes. All rotors show very similar flux-pressure difference characteristics. The peak efficiency and the noise performance is considerably influenced by the chosen blade design. The aerodynamically and acoustically optimal rotor is the one with the reduced load at the hub and increased load in the tip region under satisfied equilibrium conditions. It runs at the highest aerodynamic efficiency, and its noise spectrum is fairly smooth. The overall sound pressure level of this rotor is up to 8 dB (A) lower compared to the other rotors under consideration.

  5. Theoretical and experimental investigation on the sudden unbalance and rub-impact in rotor system caused by blade off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cun; Zhang, Dayi; Ma, Yanhong; Liang, Zhichao; Hong, Jie

    2016-08-01

    Blade loss from a running turbofan rotor will introduce sudden unbalance into the dynamical system, and as a consequence leads to the rub-impact, the asymmetry of rotor and a series of interesting dynamic characteristics. The paper focuses on the theoretical study on the sudden unbalance and rub-impact caused by blade loss, in particular investigates the response of the rotor on a rotor test rig with sudden unbalance and rub-impact device designed respectively. The results reveal that the sudden unbalance will induce impact effect on the rotor, and critical speed frequency is excited in frequency spectrum. Meantime, the impact effect is more obvious for the rotor operating above critical speed. The influence of rub-impact is considered as additional constraint to the rotor, analyzed by the theory of time-varying system for the first time, and the results are evaluated by experimental tests. The study shows that great attention should be paid to the dynamical design for the overhung rotor system, additional constraint and corresponding analysis method in rub-impact need to be intensively studied.

  6. Experimental investigation of effects of blade tip geometry on loads and performance for an articulated rotor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests of an aeroelastically designed helicopter rotor model were carried out to determine the effects on dynamic response and aerodynamic performance of varying the design of the outboard 8 percent of the blade lengths. Four different blade tip geometries or shapes having different amounts of planform sweep, thickness and chordwise taper, and anhedral angle were studied. Each configuration was tested at several shaft angles of attack for advance ratios of 0.20, 0.30, 0.35, and 0.40. For each combination of shaft angle and advance ratio, rotor lift was varied over a wide range to include high lift conditions.

  7. Aeroelastic analysis for helicopter rotors with blade appended pendulum vibration absorbers. Mathematical derivations and program user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielawa, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical development is presented for the expanded capabilities of the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) G400 Rotor Aeroelastic Analysis. This expanded analysis, G400PA, simulates the dynamics of teetered rotors, blade pendulum vibration absorbers and the higher harmonic excitations resulting from prescribed vibratory hub motions and higher harmonic blade pitch control. Formulations are also presented for calculating the rotor impedance matrix appropriate to these higher harmonic blade excitations. This impedance matrix and the associated vibratory hub loads are intended as the rotor blade characteristics elements for use in the Simplified Coupled Rotor/Fuselage Vibration Analysis (SIMVIB). Sections are included presenting updates to the development of the original G400 theory, and material appropriate to the user of the G400PA computer program. This material includes: (1) a general descriptionof the tructuring of the G400PA FORTRAN coding, (2) a detaild description of the required input data and other useful information for successfully running the program, and (3) a detailed description of the output results.

  8. Computer code for off-design performance analysis of radial-inflow turbines with rotor blade sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, P. L.; Glassman, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis procedure of an existing computer program was extended to include rotor blade sweep, to model the flow more accurately at the rotor exit, and to provide more detail to the loss model. The modeling changes are described and all analysis equations and procedures are presented. Program input and output are described and are illustrated by an example problem. Results obtained from this program and from a previous program are compared with experimental data.

  9. The influence of quadrupole sources in the boundary layer and wake of a blade on helicopter rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1991-01-01

    It is presently noted that, for an observer in or near the plane containing a helicopter rotor disk, and in the far field, part of the volume quadrupole sources, and the blade and wake surface quadrupole sources, completely cancel out. This suggests a novel quadrupole source description for the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation which retain quadrupoles with axes parallel to the rotor disk; in this case, the volume and shock surface sourse terms are dominant.

  10. Rotordynamic analysis of asymmetric turbofan rotor due to fan blade-loss event with contact-impact rub loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sunil K.

    2013-04-01

    Loss of a blade from a running turbofan rotor introduces not only huge imbalance into the dynamical system rather it makes the entire rotor asymmetric as well. In a nonsymmetric rotor, the various terms of mass, gyroscopic and stiffness matrices also become time-dependent. In this paper, all the dynamical equations include the effect of the rotary inertia and gyroscopic moments as a result of both shaft bending as well as staggered blades flexing in-and-out of the plane of the disk. The governing equations also account for internal material damping in the shaft and the external damping in the support bearing system. In addition to the unbalance load at the disk location, the shaft may also be subjected to a torque and axial forces. Here, the fan blades are modeled as pre-twisted thin shallow shells. They have coupled flexural-torsional motion in the lateral out-of-plane direction as well as extensional degrees-of-freedom in the longitudinal spanwise direction of the blade airfoil. The effect of blade tip rub forces being transmitted to the shaft are analyzed in terms of the dynamic stability of the rotor, especially during windmilling.

  11. Single-stage experimental evaluation of tandem-airfoil rotor and stator blading for compressors. Part 5: Analysis and design of stages D and E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brent, J. A.; Cheatham, J. G.; Clemmons, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    A conventional and a tandem bladed stage were designed for a comparative experimental evaluation in a 0.8 hub/tip ratio single-stage compressor. Based on a preliminary design study, a radially constant work input distribution was selected for the rotor designs. Velocity diagrams and blade leading and trailing edge angles selected for the conventional rotor and stator were used in the design of the tandem blading. The effects of axial velocity ratio and secondary flow on turning were included in the selection of blade leading and trailing edge angles. Design values of rotor tip velocity and stage pressure ratio were 757 ft/sec and 1.26, respectively.

  12. Flag-lag-torsional dynamics of extensional and inextensional rotor blades in hover and in forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespodasilva, M. R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The formulation of differential equations of motion for both extensional and inextensional rotor blades, and the effect of cubic nonlinearities was examined. The developed differential equations are reduced to a set of three integro partial differential equations for a hingeless blade by eliminating the extension variable. Aerodynamic forces are modelled using Greenberg's extension of Theodorsen's strip theory. Equations of motion are expanded into polynomial nonlinearities to evaluate the motion of the system.

  13. A critical assessment of UH-60 main rotor blade airfoil data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Many current comprehensive rotorcraft analyses employ lifting-line methods that require main rotor blade airfoil data, typically obtained from wind tunnel tests. In order to effectively evaluate these lifting-line methods, it is of the utmost importance to ensure that the airfoil section data are free of inaccuracies. A critical assessment of the SC1095 and SC1094R8 airfoil data used on the UH-60 main rotor blade was performed for that reason. Nine sources of wind tunnel data were examined, all of which contain SC1095 data and four of which also contain SC1094R8 data. Findings indicate that the most accurate data were generated in 1982 at the 11-Foot Wind Tunnel Facility at NASA Ames Research Center and in 1985 at the 6-inch by 22-inch transonic wind tunnel facility at Ohio State University. It has not been determined if data from these two sources are sufficiently accurate for their use in comprehensive rotorcraft analytical models of the UH-60. It is recommended that new airfoil tables be created for both airfoils using the existing data. Additional wind tunnel experimentation is also recommended to provide high quality data for correlation with these new airfoil tables.

  14. A chambered porous damper for rotor vibration control: Part 2. Imbalance response and blade loss simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.; Martin, M. )

    1993-04-01

    In this paper, results of experimental rotordynamic evaluations of a novel, high load chambered porous damper design are presented. The chambered porous damper concept was evaluated for gas turbine engine application since this concept avoids the nonlinearities associated with high-eccentricity operation of conventional squeeze film dampers. The rotordynamic testing was conducted under large steady-state imbalance and simulated transient blade-loss conditions for up to 0.254 mm (0.01 in.) mass c.g offset or 180 g-cm (2.5 oz-in.) imbalance. The chambered porous damper demonstrated that the steady-state imbalance and simulated blade-loss transient response of a flexible rotor operating above its first bending critical speed could be readily controlled. Rotor system imbalance sensitivity and logarithmic decrement are presented showing the characteristics of the system with the damper installed. The ability to accommodate high steady-state and transient imbalance conditions makes this damper well suited to a wide range of rotating machinery, including aircraft gas turbine engines.

  15. A critical assessment of UH-60 main rotor blade airfoil data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Many current comprehensive rotorcraft analyses employ lifting-line methods that require main rotor blade airfoil data, typically obtained from wind tunnel tests. In order to effectively evaluate these lifting-line methods, it is of the utmost importance to ensure that the airfoil section data are free of inaccuracies. A critical assessment of the SC1095 and SC1094R8 airfoil data used on the UH-60 main rotor blade was performed for that reason. Nine sources of wind tunnel data were examined, all of which contain SC1095 data and four of which also contain SC1094R8 data. Findings indicate that the most accurate data were generated in 1982 at the 11-Foot Wind Tunnel Facility at NASA Ames Research Center and in 1985 at the 6-inch-by-22-inch transonic wind tunnel facility at Ohio State University. It has not been determined if data from these two sources are sufficiently accurate for their use in comprehensive rotorcraft analytical models of the UH-60. It is recommended that new airfoil tables be created for both airfoils using the existing data. Additional wind tunnel experimentation is also recommended to provide high quality data for correlation with these new airfoil tables.

  16. Performance of Single-Stage Turbine of Mark 25 Torpedo Power Plant with Two Nozzles and Three Rotor-Blade Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schum, Harold J.; Whitney, Warren J.

    1949-01-01

    A single-stage modification of the turbine from a Mark 25 torpedo power plant was investigated to determine the performance with two nozzles and three rotor-blade designs. The performance was evaluated in terms of brake, rotor, and blade efficiencies at pressure ratios of 8, 15 (design), and 20. The blade efficiencies with the two nozzles are compared with those obtained with four other nozzles previously investigated with the same three rotor-blade designs. Blade efficiency with the cast nozzle of rectangular cross section (J) was higher than that with the circular reamed nozzle (K) at all speeds and pressure ratios with a rotor having a 0.45-inch 17 degree-inlet-angle blades. The efficiencies for both these nozzles were generally low compared with those of the four other nozzles previously investigated in combination with this rotor. At pressure ratios of 15 and 20, the blade efficiencies with nozzle K and the two rotors with 0.40-inch blades having different inlet angles were higher than with the four other nozzles, but the efficiency with nozzle J was generally low. Increasing the blade inlet angle from 17 degrees to 20 degrees had little effect on turbine performance, whereas changing the blade length from 0.40 to 0.45 inch had a marked effect. Although a slight correlation of efficiency with nozzle size was noted for the rotor with 0.45-inch 17 degree-inlet-angle blades, no such effect was discernible ,for the two rotors with 0.40-inch blades.Losses in the supersonic air stream resulting from the complex flow path in the small air passages are probably a large percentage of the total losses, and apparently the effects of changing nozzle size and shape within the limits investigated are of secondary importance.

  17. Assessment of Lightning Transients on a De-Iced Rotor Blade with Predictive Tools and Coaxial Return Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, S.; Gosmain, A.; Ducoux, W.; Ponçon, M.; Fontaine, G.; Desseix, P.; Perraud, P.

    2012-05-01

    The increasing use of composite materials in aircrafts primary structures has led to different problematics in the field of safety of flight in lightning conditions. The consequences of this technological mutation, which occurs in a parallel context of extension of electrified critical functions, are addressed by aircraft manufacturers through the enhancement of their available assessment means of lightning transient. On the one hand, simulation tools, provided an accurate description of aircraft design, are today valuable assessment tools, in both predictive and operative terms. On the other hand, in-house test means allow confirmation and consolidation of design office hardening solutions. The combined use of predictive simulation tools and in- house test means offers an efficient and reliable support for all aircraft developments in their various life-time stages. The present paper provides PREFACE research project results that illustrate the above introduced strategy on the de-icing system of the NH90 composite main rotor blade.

  18. Overall and blade element performance of a 1.20-pressure-ratio fan stage with rotor blades reset -5 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, G. W., Jr.; Osborn, W. M.; Moore, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A 51-cm-diam model of a fan stage for a short haul aircraft was tested in a single stage-compressor research facility. The rotor blades were set 5 deg toward the axial direction (opened) from design setting angle. Surveys of the air flow conditions ahead of the rotor, between the rotor and stator, and behind the stator were made over the stable operating range of the stage. At the design speed of 213.3 m/sec and a weight flow of 31.5 kg/sec, the stage pressure ratio and efficiency were 1.195 and 0.88, respectively. The design speed rotor peak efficiency of 0.91 occurred at the same flow rate.

  19. A computer program for the determination of the acoustic pressure signature of helicopter rotors due to blade thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.; Farassat, F.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program is presented for the determination of the thickness noise of helicopter rotors. The results were obtained in the form of an acoutic pressure time history. The parameters of the program are the rotor geometry and the helicopter motion descriptors, and the formulation employed is valid in the near and far fields. The blade planform must be rectangular, but the helicopter motion is arbitrary; the observer position is fixed with respect to the ground with a maximum elevation of 45 deg above or below the rotor plane. With these restrictions, the program can also be used for the calculation of thickness noise of propellers.

  20. Composite Blade Structural Analyzer (COBSTRAN) demonstration manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiello, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    The input deck setup is described for a computer code, composite blade structural analyzer (COBSTRAN) which was developed for the design and analysis of composite turbofan and turboprop blades and also for composite wind turbine blades. This manual is intended for use in conjunction with the COBSTRAN user's manual. Seven demonstration problems are described with pre- and postprocessing input decks. Modeling of blades which are solid thru-the-thickness and also aircraft wing airfoils with internal spars is shown. Corresponding NASTRAN and databank input decks are also shown. Detail descriptions of each line of the pre- and post-processing decks is provided with reference to the Card Groups defined in the user's manual. A dictionary of all program variables and terms used in this manual may be found in Section 6 of the user's manual.

  1. Composite blade structural analyzer (COBSTRAN) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiello, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    The installation and use of a computer code, COBSTRAN (COmposite Blade STRuctrual ANalyzer), developed for the design and analysis of composite turbofan and turboprop blades and also for composite wind turbine blades was described. This code combines composite mechanics and laminate theory with an internal data base of fiber and matrix properties. Inputs to the code are constituent fiber and matrix material properties, factors reflecting the fabrication process, composite geometry and blade geometry. COBSTRAN performs the micromechanics, macromechanics and laminate analyses of these fiber composites. COBSTRAN generates a NASTRAN model with equivalent anisotropic homogeneous material properties. Stress output from NASTRAN is used to calculate individual ply stresses, strains, interply stresses, thru-the-thickness stresses and failure margins. Curved panel structures may be modeled providing the curvature of a cross-section is defined by a single value function. COBSTRAN is written in FORTRAN 77.

  2. Resolution of tower shadow models for downwind mounted rotors and its effects on the blade fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiso, M.; Muskulus, M.

    2014-12-01

    A simulation study on the wind field resolution in computer load simulations has been conducted, both in transversal/vertical and longitudinal direction, to determine the effect on blade fatigue loading. Increasing the transversal/vertical resolution decreased the loading significantly, while only small changes to the load, at very low frequencies were found for increased longitudinal resolution. Next the influence of the tower shadow for a downwind mounted rotor was investigated, with respect to blade fatigue loading. The influence of different components to the total tower shadow effect was studied, both for a monopile and a truss tower, latter at inclination 0 and 22.5 degrees with respect to the incoming wind direction. Four components were considered, both individually and in combinations: mean wind speed, mean velocity deficit, unsteady motions from vortex shedding, and turbulence. The mean velocity deficit and turbulence were the main contributors to blade fatigue loading, and the unsteady motions can be neglected for the truss tower. For the monopile, neglecting the unsteady motions resulted in an underestimation of fatigue loading in the order of 3 percent.

  3. Analysis of Coolant-flow Requirements for an Improved, Internal-strut-supported, Air-cooled Turbine-rotor Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Wilson B; Nachtigall, Alfred J

    1952-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of a new typ An analytical evaluation of a new type of air-cooled turbine-rotor-blade design, based on the principle of submerging the load-carrying element in cooling air within a thin high-temperature sheel, indicates that this principle of blade design permits the load carrying element to be operated at considerably lower temperature than that of the enveloping shell. Comparison with an air-cooled shell-supported air-cooled blade has greater potentiality to withstand increased stresses that can be anticipated in future engines.

  4. A study of the noise radiation from four helicopter rotor blades. [tests in Ames 40 by 20 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A.; Mosher, M.

    1978-01-01

    Acoustic measurements were taken of a modern helicopter rotor with four blade tip shapes in the NASA Ames 40-by-80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The four tip shapes are: rectangular, swept, trapezoidal, and swept tapered in platform. Acoustic effects due to tip shape changes were studied based on the dBA level, peak noise pressure, and subjective rating. The swept tapered blade was found to be the quietest above an advancing tip Mach number of about 0.9, and the swept blade was the quietest at low speed. The measured high speed impulsive noise was compared with theoretical predictions based on thickness effects; good agreement was found.

  5. Fluid-structure coupling for wind turbine blade analysis using OpenFOAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, Bastian; Herraez, Ivan; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    Modern wind turbine rotor blades are designed increasingly large and flexible. This structural flexibility represents a problem for the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), which is used for accurate load calculations and detailed investigations of rotor aerodynamics. As the blade geometries within CFD simulations are considered stiff, the effect of blade deformation caused by aerodynamic loads cannot be captured by the common CFD approach. Coupling the flow solver with a structural solver can overcome this restriction and enables the investigation of flexible wind turbine blades. For this purpose, a new Finite Element (FE) solver was implemented into the open source CFD code OpenFOAM. Using a beam element formulation based on the Geometrically Exact Beam Theory (GEBT), the structural model can capture geometric non-linearities such as large deformations. Coupled with CFD solvers of the OpenFOAM package, the new framework represents a powerful tool for aerodynamic investigations. In this work, we investigated the aerodynamic performance of a state of the art wind turbine. For different wind speeds, aerodynamic key parameters are evaluated and compared for both, rigid and flexible blade geometries. The present work is funded within the framework of the joint project Smart Blades (0325601D) by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) under decision of the German Federal Parliament.

  6. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

  7. Research on measurement and control of helicopter rotor response using blade-mounted accelerometers 1991-92

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Norman D.; Mckillip, Robert M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary wind tunnel tests of the hill-size Model 412/IBC rotor at the Ames Research Center, NASA, are described. Blade flapping motion was excited by swash plate oscillation, and the flapping response was measured using blade-mounted accelerometers and compared with flapping motion inferred form blade strain measurements. The recorded open-loop accelerometer signals were used as input to the flapping-IBC system in the laboratory. The resulting controller cyclic pitch outputs are compared with the original cyclic pitch excitation inputs, and the potential effectiveness of the controller in suppressing the original excitation is evaluated. Control of blade flapping excites blade lagging, and vice versa; the paper describes a theoretical investigation of these coupling effects.

  8. Computer experiments on periodic systems identification using rotor blade transient flapping-torsion responses at high advance ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenemser, K. H.; Prelewicz, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Systems identification methods have recently been applied to rotorcraft to estimate stability derivatives from transient flight control response data. While these applications assumed a linear constant coefficient representation of the rotorcraft, the computer experiments described in this paper used transient responses in flap-bending and torsion of a rotor blade at high advance ratio which is a rapidly time varying periodic system.

  9. Effect of rotation on heat transfer and hydraulic resistance in the radial cooling channels of turbine rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskakov, K. M.; Trushin, O. V.; Tsaplin, M. I.; Shatalov, Yu. S.

    Results of a modeling study indicate that rotation significantly (up to 60 percent) changes local heat transfer and increases, by a factor of 5-6, hydraulic resistance in the smooth radial channels of turbine rotor blades with a low-pressure cooling system. The results of the study have been used in the design of a turbine cooling system for a turbofan engine.

  10. Flag-lag-torsional dynamics or extensional and inextensional rotor blades in hover and in forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespodasilva, M. R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The differential equations describing the flap-lag-torsional motion of a flexible rotor blade including third-order nonlinearities were derived for hover and forward flight. Making use of the two boundary conditions, those equations were reduced to a set of three integro partial differential equations written in terms of the flexural deflections and the torsional variable.

  11. Fluid Structure Interaction in a Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorla, Rama S. R.

    2004-01-01

    An unsteady, three dimensional Navier-Stokes solution in rotating frame formulation for turbomachinery applications is presented. Casting the governing equations in a rotating frame enabled the freezing of grid motion and resulted in substantial savings in computer time. The turbine blade was computationally simulated and probabilistically evaluated in view of several uncertainties in the aerodynamic, structural, material and thermal variables that govern the turbine blade. The interconnection between the computational fluid dynamics code and finite element structural analysis code was necessary to couple the thermal profiles with the structural design. The stresses and their variations were evaluated at critical points on the Turbine blade. Cumulative distribution functions and sensitivity factors were computed for stress responses due to aerodynamic, geometric, mechanical and thermal random variables.

  12. Symbolic generation of elastic rotor blade equations using a FORTRAN processor and numerical study on dynamic inflow effects on the stability of helicopter rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The process of performing an automated stability analysis for an elastic-bladed helicopter rotor is discussed. A symbolic manipulation program, written in FORTRAN, is used to aid in the derivation of the governing equations of motion for the rotor. The blades undergo coupled bending and torsional deformations. Two-dimensional quasi-steady aerodynamics below stall are used. Although reversed flow effects are neglected, unsteady effects, modeled as dynamic inflow are included. Using a Lagrangian approach, the governing equations are derived in generalized coordinates using the symbolic program. The program generates the steady and perturbed equations and writes into subroutines to be called by numerical routines. The symbolic program can operate on both expressions and matrices. For the case of hovering flight, the blade and dynamic inflow equations are converted to equations in a multiblade coordinate system by rearranging the coefficients of the equations. For the case of forward flight, the multiblade equations are obtained through the symbolic program. The final multiblade equations are capable of accommodating any number of elastic blade modes. The computer implementation of this procedure consists of three stages: (1) the symbolic derivation of equations; (2) the coding of the equations into subroutines; and (3) the numerical study after identifying mass, damping, and stiffness coefficients. Damping results are presented in hover and in forward flight with and without dynamic inflow effects for various rotor blade models, including rigid blade lag-flap, elastic flap-lag, flap-lag-torsion, and quasi-static torsion. Results from dynamic inflow effects which are obtained from a lift deficiency function for a quasi-static inflow model in hover are also presented.

  13. Structural tailoring of SSME turbopump blades (SSME/STAEBL). [Structural Tailoring of Engine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, R.; Chamis, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Computer structural optimization is applied to the design of Space Shuttle main engine turbopump blades. The optimization is implemented by the program SSME/STAEBL. A general description of this program is given. Design optimization studies for typical blade designs are presented.

  14. Structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Mark A.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2008-03-01

    As electric utility wind turbines increase in size, and correspondingly, increase in initial capital investment cost, there is an increasing need to monitor the health of the structure. Acquiring an early indication of structural or mechanical problems allows operators to better plan for maintenance, possibly operate the machine in a de-rated condition rather than taking the unit off-line, or in the case of an emergency, shut the machine down to avoid further damage. This paper describes several promising structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques that were recently exercised during a fatigue test of a 9 meter glass-epoxy and carbon-epoxy wind turbine blade. The SHM systems were implemented by teams from NASA Kennedy Space Center, Purdue University and Virginia Tech. A commercial off-the-shelf acoustic emission (AE) NDT system gathered blade AE data throughout the test. At a fatigue load cycle rate around 1.2 Hertz, and after more than 4,000,000 fatigue cycles, the blade was diagnostically and visibly failing at the out-board blade spar-cap termination point at 4.5 meters. For safety reasons, the test was stopped just before the blade completely failed. This paper provides an overview of the SHM and NDT system setups and some current test results.

  15. Single-stage experimental evaluation of tandem-airfoil rotor and stator blading for compressors. Part 3: Data and performance for stage C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brent, J. A.; Clemmons, D.

    1972-01-01

    Stage C, comprised of tandem-airfoil rotor C and tandem-airfoil stator B, was designed and tested to establish performance data for comparison with the performance of conventional single-airfoil blading. Velocity diagrams and blade leading and trailing edge metal angles selected for the conventional rotor and stator blading were used in the design of the tandem blading. The rotor had an inlet hub/tip ratio of 0.8 and a design tip velocity of 757 ft/sec. At design equivalent rotor speed, rotor C achieved a maximum adiabatic efficiency of 91.8% at a pressure ratio of 1.31. The stage maximum adiabatic efficiency was 86.5% at a pressure ratio of 1.31.

  16. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 3; Analysis of Rotor and Blade Temperatures in Liquid-Cooled Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. Byron; Livingood, John N. B.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the radial temperature distribution through the rotor and constant cross sectional area blades near the coolant passages of liquid cooled gas turbines was made. The analysis was applied to obtain the rotor and blade temperatures of a specific turbine using a gas flow of 55 pounds per second, a coolant flow of 6.42 pounds per second, and an average coolant temperature of 200 degrees F. The effect of using kerosene, water, and ethylene glycol was determined. The effect of varying blade length and coolant passage lengths with water as the coolant was also determined. The effective gas temperature was varied from 2000 degrees to 5000 degrees F in each investigation.

  17. Rotor tip clearance effects on overall and blade-element performance of axial-flow transonic fan stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of tip clearance on the overall and blade-element performance of an axial-flow transonic fan stage are presented. The 50-centimeter-diameter fan was tested at four tip clearances (nonrotating) from 0.061 to 0.178 centimeter. The calculated radial growth of the blades was 0.040 centimeter at design conditions. The decrease in overall stage performance with increasing clearance is attributed to the loss in rotor performance. For the rotor the effects of clearance on performance parameters extended to about 70 percent of blade span from the tip. The stage still margin based on an assumed operating line decreased from 15.3 to 0 percent as the clearance increased from 0.061 to 0.178 centimeter.

  18. Influence of the Feed Moisture, Rotor Speed, and Blades Gap on the Performances of a Biomass Pulverization Technology

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Siyi; Zhou, Yangmin; Yi, Chuijie; Luo, Yin; Fu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a novel biomass pulverization technology was proposed by our group. In this paper, further detailed studies of this technology were carried out. The effects of feed moisture and crusher operational parameters (rotor speed and blades gap) on product particle size distribution and energy consumption were investigated. The results showed that higher rotor speed and smaller blades gap could improve the hit probability between blades and materials and enhance the impacting and grinding effects to generate finer products, however, resulting in the increase of energy consumption. Under dry conditions finer particles were much more easily achieved, and there was a tendency for the specific energy to increase with increasing feed moisture. Therefore, it is necessary for the raw biomass material to be dried before pulverization. PMID:24587724

  19. Helicopter far-field acoustic levels as a function of reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Philip

    1990-07-01

    During the design of a helicopter, the weight, engine, rotor speed, and rotor geometry are given significant attention when considering the specific operations for which the helicopter will be used. However, the noise radiated from the helicopter and its relationship to the design variables is currently not well modeled with only a limited set of full-scale field test data to study. In general, limited field data have shown that reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach numbers result in reduced far-field noise levels. The status of a recent helicopter noise research project is reviewed. It is designed to provide flight experimental data which may be used to further understand helicopter main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number effects on far-field acoustic levels. Preliminary results are presented relative to tests conducted with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter operating with both the rotor speed and the flight speed as the control variable. The rotor speed was operated within the range of 107 to 90 percent NR at nominal forward speeds of 35, 100, and 155 knots.

  20. Helicopter far-field acoustic levels as a function of reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Philip

    1990-01-01

    During the design of a helicopter, the weight, engine, rotor speed, and rotor geometry are given significant attention when considering the specific operations for which the helicopter will be used. However, the noise radiated from the helicopter and its relationship to the design variables is currently not well modeled with only a limited set of full-scale field test data to study. In general, limited field data have shown that reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach numbers result in reduced far-field noise levels. The status of a recent helicopter noise research project is reviewed. It is designed to provide flight experimental data which may be used to further understand helicopter main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number effects on far-field acoustic levels. Preliminary results are presented relative to tests conducted with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter operating with both the rotor speed and the flight speed as the control variable. The rotor speed was operated within the range of 107 to 90 percent NR at nominal forward speeds of 35, 100, and 155 knots.

  1. Comparison of Rotor Structural Loads Calculated using Comprehensive Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yeo, Hyeonsoo

    2005-01-01

    Blade flap and chord bending and torsion moments are investigated for six rotors operating at transition and high speed: H-34 in flight and wind tunnel, SA 330 (research Puma), SA 349/2, UH-60A full-scale, and BO- 105 model (HART-I). The measured data from flight and wind tunnel tests are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. The calculations were made using two free wake models: rolled-up and multiple-trailer with consolidation models. At transition speed, there is fair to good agreement for the flap and chord bending moments between the test data and analysis for the H-34, research Puma, and SA 349/2. Torsion moment correlation, in general, is fair to good for all the rotors investigated. Better flap bending and torsion moment correlation is obtained for the UH-60A and BO-105 rotors by using the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model. In the high speed condition, the analysis shows generally better correlation in magnitude than in phase for the flap bending and torsion moments. However, a significant underprediction of chord bending moment is observed for the research Puma and UH-60A. The poor chord bending moment correlation appears to be caused by the airloads model, not the structural dynamics.

  2. In-flight tracking of helicopter rotor blades using shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Jeanette J.; Chopra, Inderjit

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes the concept, design, fabrication and control of a shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuator for tracking helicopter rotor blades while in-flight. A NACA 0012 wing section that has a 12 in chord and span was constructed with a trailing-edge tab with a 4 in span and a 2.4 in chord. A shape memory alloy wire actuator was embedded into the wing section. The actuator consists of a wire clamp, a hinge tube and several pre-strained, 0.015 in diameter SMA (Nitinol) wires. It was shown that with SMA wires that have 3.158% initial pre-strain, a tab deflection of 29° could be obtained.

  3. Optical tomography for flow visualization of the density field around a revolving helicopter rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R.; Hesselink, L.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a tomographic procedure for reconstructing the density field around a helicopter rotor blade tip from remote optical line-of-sight measurements is discussed. Numerical model studies have been carried out to investigate the influence of the number of available views, limited width viewing, and ray bending on the reconstruction. Performance is measured in terms of the mean-square error. It is found that very good reconstructions can be obtained using only a small number of views even when the width of view is smaller than the spatial extent of the object. An iterative procedure is used to correct for ray bending due to refraction associated with the sharp density gradients (shocks).

  4. Gas turbine rotor blade film cooling with and without simulated NGV shock waves and wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, M. J.; Johnson, A. B.; Oldfield, M. L. G.

    1990-06-01

    Detailed heat transfer measurements have been made around a film-cooled transonic gas turbine rotor blade in the Oxford Isentropic Light Piston Tunnel. Film cooling behavior for four film cooling configurations have been analyzed for a range of blowing rates both without and with simulated nozzle guide vane (NGV) shock wave and wake passing. The superposition model of film cooling has been employed in analysis of time-mean heat transfer data, while time resolved unsteady heat transfer measurements have been analyzed to determine interaction between film-cooling and unsteady shock wave and wake passing. It is found that there is a significant change of film-cooling behavior on the suction surface when simulated NGV unsteady effects are introduced.

  5. The reduction of environmental effects on tension-twist coupled composite rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Stephen C.; Winckler, Steven J.

    1991-05-01

    A method is presented for designing composite laminates which will produce tension-twist coupling in rotor blades independent of hygrothermal effects. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate coupling variations due to changes in temperature and moisture content. These effects are modeled theoretically as the variation of constituent shear moduli since shear modulus dominates coupling behavior. Hybrid laminates were developed which can reduce or eliminate hygrothermal sensitivity while retaining coupling. These are based on laminates which do not exhibit temperature-induced shear deformation. Shear modulus variation was measured experimentally and used as the basis for the theoretical model. The model predicts the same form of variation as seen in the experimental coupling measurements.

  6. Aerodynamic parameter studies and sensitivity analysis for rotor blades in axial flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. Danny; Peters, David A.

    1991-01-01

    The analytical capability is offered for aerodynamic parametric studies and sensitivity analyses of rotary wings in axial flight by using a 3-D undistorted wake model in curved lifting line theory. The governing equations are solved by both the Multhopp Interpolation technique and the Vortex Lattice method. The singularity from the bound vortices is eliminated through the Hadamard's finite part concept. Good numerical agreement between both analytical methods and finite differences methods are found. Parametric studies were made to assess the effects of several shape variables on aerodynamic loads. It is found, e.g., that a rotor blade with out-of-plane and inplane curvature can theoretically increase lift in the inboard and outboard regions respectively without introducing an additional induced drag.

  7. Detailed measurements in the SSME high pressure fuel turbine with smooth rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Susan T.

    1993-07-01

    Several tests of the Rocketdyne configuration of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) Turbine have been completed in the Turbine Test Equipment (TTE) at Marshall Space Flight Center. The tests involved using scaled performance parameters and model measurements to predict the performance of the turbine. The overall performance has been the primary objective of the tests to date, but more detailed measurements are also of interest. During the most recent test of the Rocketdyne configuration of the HPFTP turbine with smooth rotor blades, several different measurement techniques were used to study the turbine inlet and exit velocity profiles, boundary layer thicknesses, turbulence intensities, etc. Data has been obtained using various hot film probes and three-hole cobra probes. Laser Velocimeter measurements were also made. The test plan and test data will be presented and discussed as well as lessons learned on how to obtain the various types of data.

  8. Investigation of the effect of hub support parameters on two-bladed rotor oscillatory loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. D.; White, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a test program and analysis to investigate the effects of inplane hub support parameters on the oscillatory chordwise loads of a two-bladed teetering rotor. The test program was conducted in two phases. The first consisted of a shake test to define the impedance of a number of test configurations as a function of frequency. The second phase was the test of these configurations in the NASA-Langley transonic dynamics tunnel. The test showed that the one-per-rev inplane bending moments could be changed by a factor of 2.0 as a function of the pylon configuration at the same aerodynamic operating condition. The higher harmonic inplane, flapwise, and torsional bending moments, and pitch link axial loads were not affected by changes in inplane hub impedance. The maximum inplane loads occurred for the pylon configuration with the minimum spring rate and maximum inertia.

  9. Detailed measurements in the SSME high pressure fuel turbine with smooth rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Susan T.

    1993-01-01

    Several tests of the Rocketdyne configuration of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) Turbine have been completed in the Turbine Test Equipment (TTE) at Marshall Space Flight Center. The tests involved using scaled performance parameters and model measurements to predict the performance of the turbine. The overall performance has been the primary objective of the tests to date, but more detailed measurements are also of interest. During the most recent test of the Rocketdyne configuration of the HPFTP turbine with smooth rotor blades, several different measurement techniques were used to study the turbine inlet and exit velocity profiles, boundary layer thicknesses, turbulence intensities, etc. Data has been obtained using various hot film probes and three-hole cobra probes. Laser Velocimeter measurements were also made. The test plan and test data will be presented and discussed as well as lessons learned on how to obtain the various types of data.

  10. Enhancing the damping of wind turbine rotor blades, the DAMPBLADE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaviaropoulos, P. K.; Politis, E. S.; Lekou, D. J.; Sørensen, N. N.; Hansen, M. H.; Bulder, B. H.; Winkelaar, D.; Lindenburg, C.; Saravanos, D. A.; Philippidis, T. P.; Galiotis, C.; Hansen, M. O. L.; Kossivas, T.

    2006-01-01

    A research programme enabling the development of damped wind turbine blades, having the acronym DAMPBLADE, has been supported by the EC under its 5th Framework Programme. In DAMPBLADE the following unique composite damping mechanisms were exploited aiming to increase the structural damping: tailoring of laminate damping anisotropy, damping layers and damped polymer matrices. Additional objectives of the project were the development of the missing critical analytical technologies enabling the explicit modelling of composite structural damping and a novel composite blade design capacity enabling the direct prediction of aeroelastic stability and fatigue life; the development and characterization of damped composite materials; and the evaluation of new technology via the design and fabrication of damped prototype blades and their full-scale laboratory testing. After 4 years of work a 19 m glass/polyester damped blade was designed, manufactured and tested using the know-how acquired. Modal analysis of this blade at the testing facility of CRES showed a nearly 80% increase in the damping ratio of both the first flap and lag modes compared with the earlier, standard, design practice. Copyright

  11. A Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Rotor Behavior Under Extreme Operating Conditions with a Description of Blade Oscillations Attributed to Pitch-Lag Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKee, John W.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1959-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was made to study the behavior of a model helicopter rotor under extreme operating conditions. A 1/8-scale model of the front rotor of a tandem helicopter was built and tested to obtaining blade motion and rotor aerodynamic characteristics for conditions that could be encountered in high-speed pullout maneuvers. The data are presented without analysis. A description is given in an appendix of blade oscillations that were experienced during the course of the investigation and of the part that blade pitch-lag coupling played in contributing to the oscillatory condition.

  12. Measured and predicted rotor performance for the SERI advanced wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.; Smith, B.; Kelley, N.; Jager, D.

    1992-02-01

    Measured and predicted rotor performance for the SERI advanced wind turbine blades were compared to assess the accuracy of predictions and to identify the sources of error affecting both predictions and measurements. An awareness of these sources of error contributes to improved prediction and measurement methods that will ultimately benefit future rotor design efforts. Propeller/vane anemometers were found to underestimate the wind speed in turbulent environments such as the San Gorgonio Pass wind farm area. Using sonic or cup anemometers, good agreement was achieved between predicted and measured power output for wind speeds up to 8 m/sec. At higher wind speeds an optimistic predicted power output and the occurrence of peak power at wind speeds lower than measurements resulted from the omission of turbulence and yaw error. In addition, accurate two-dimensional (2-D) airfoil data prior to stall and a post stall airfoil data synthesization method that reflects three-dimensional (3-D) effects were found to be essential for accurate performance prediction. 11 refs.

  13. Design, development, and hover testing of a helicopter rotor blade chord extension morphing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Farhan; Hayden, Eric

    2015-03-01

    A rotor blade chord extension system was designed, fabricated and hover tested, using electromechanical and pneumatic actuation. A 1.5 in actuator stroke output in the spanwise direction was converted into chordwise motion of a trailing-edge plate (TEP), via a rigid link. On the hover stand, with a 20 V dc input, the electromechanical actuator was shown to fully extend and retract the plate at rotational speeds up to 385 RPM (which put the system at a centrifugal loading of 209.5 g, or 47.2% of that on a Black Hawk helicopter at 73% span). The configuration was changed to reduce the actuator force requirement for the pneumatic actuator. The rotor test facility allowed a maximum of 105 psi pressure input through the rotary union (significantly lower than the rating of the actuator). At these moderate pressure inputs, full TEP deployment was observed at 315 RPM (140.2 g, or 31.6% of that on a Black Hawk helicopter at 73% span). The model prediction of TEP displacement versus pressure showed good correlation with test results.

  14. Helicopter model rotor-blade vortex interaction impulsive noise: Scalability and parametric variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.

  15. Helicopter model rotor-blade vortex interaction impulsive noise - Scalability and parametric variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scalig deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.

  16. Experimental investigation of an axial-flow-compressor inlet stage operating at transonic relative inlet Mach numbers V : rotor blade-element performance at a reduced blade angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, Francis C; Lewis, George W , Jr; Lieblein, Seymour

    1957-01-01

    At a corrected speed of 1100 feet per second, the low-blade-angle rotor operated with a relative inlet Mach number of 1.2, a diffusion factor of 0.65, and an axial velocity ratio of 0.71 in the tip region (11 percent of passage height away from the outer wall). The measured minimum-loss coefficient was 0.35, and this value falls above a previous correlation of rotor losses with diffusion factor. Through a comparison with data for three other rotors, the occurrence of high losses was related to a high suction-surface Mach number. These comparisons also indicated that axial velocity ratios between 0.73 and 1.10 have no independent effect on losses.

  17. Numerical investigation on super-cooled large droplet icing of fan rotor blade in jet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masaya; Yamamoto, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    Icing (or ice accretion) is a phenomenon in which super-cooled water droplets impinge and accrete on a body. It is well known that ice accretion on blades and vanes leads to performance degradation and has caused severe accidents. Although various anti-icing and deicing systems have been developed, such accidents still occur. Therefore, it is important to clarify the phenomenon of ice accretion on an aircraft and in a jet engine. However, flight tests for ice accretion are very expensive, and in the wind tunnel it is difficult to reproduce all climate conditions where ice accretion can occur. Therefore, it is expected that computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which can estimate ice accretion in various climate conditions, will be a useful way to predict and understand the ice accretion phenomenon. On the other hand, although the icing caused by super-cooled large droplets (SLD) is very dangerous, the numerical method has not been established yet. This is why SLD icing is characterized by splash and bounce phenomena of droplets and they are very complex in nature. In the present study, we develop an ice accretion code considering the splash and bounce phenomena to predict SLD icing, and the code is applied to a fan rotor blade. The numerical results with and without the SLD icing model are compared. Through this study, the influence of the SLD icing model is numerically clarified.

  18. An analysis of rotor blade twist variables associated with different Euler sequences and pretwist treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkire, K.

    1984-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis which is necessary to adequately model elastic helicopter rotor blades experiencing moderately large deformations was examined. The analysis must be based on an appropriate description of the blade's deformation geometry including elastic bending and twist. Built-in pretwist angles complicate the deformation process ant its definition. Relationships between the twist variables associated with different rotation sequences and corresponding forms of the transformation matrix are lasted. Relationships between the twist variables associated with first, the pretwist combined with the deformation twist are included. Many of the corresponding forms of the transformation matrix for the two cases are listed. It is shown that twist variables connected with the combined twist treatment are related to those where the pretwist is applied initially. A method to determine the relationships and some results are outlined. A procedure to evaluate the transformation matrix that eliminates the Eulerlike sequence altogether is demonstrated. The resulting form of the transformation matrix is unaffected by rotation sequence or pretwist treatment.

  19. Nonlinear Equations of Motion for Cantilever Rotor Blades in Hover with Pitch Link Flexibility, Twist, Precone, Droop, Sweep, Torque Offset, and Blade Root Offset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Nonlinear equations of motion for a cantilever rotor blade are derived for the hovering flight condition. The blade is assumed to have twist, precone, droop, sweep, torque offset and blade root offset, and the elastic axis and the axes of center of mass, tension, and aerodynamic center coincident at the quarter chord. The blade is cantilevered in bending, but has a torsional root spring to simulate pitch link flexibility. Aerodynamic forces acting on the blade are derived from strip theory based on quasi-steady two-dimensional airfoil theory. The equations are hybrid, consisting of one integro-differential equation for root torsion and three integro-partial differential equations for flatwise and chordwise bending and elastic torsion. The equations are specialized for a uniform blade and reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by Galerkin's method. They are linearized for small perturbation motions about the equilibrium operating condition. Modal analysis leads to formulation of a standard eigenvalue problem where the elements of the stability matrix depend on the solution of the equilibrium equations. Two different forms of the root torsion equation are derived that yield virtually identical numerical results. This provides a reasonable check for the accuracy of the equations.

  20. Extension-torsion coupling behavior of advanced composite tilt-rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmatka, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    An analytic model was developed to study the extension-bend-twist coupling behavior of an advanced composite helicopter or tilt-rotor blade. The outer surface of the blade is defined by rotating an arbitrary cross section about an initial twist axis. The cross section can be nonhomogeneous and composed of generally anisotropic materials. The model is developed based upon a three dimensional elasticity approach that is recast as a coupled two-dimensional boundary value problem defined in a curvilinear coordinate system. Displacement solutions are written in terms of known functions that represent extension, bending, and twisting and unknown functions for local cross section deformations. The unknown local deformation functions are determined by applying the principle of minimum potential energy to the discretized two-dimensional cross section. This is an application of the Ritz method, where the trial function family is the displacement field associated with a finite element (8-node isoparametric quadrilaterals) representation of the section. A computer program was written where the cross section is discretized into 8-node quadrilateral subregions. Initially the program was verified using previously published results (both three-dimensional elasticity and technical beam theory) for pretwisted isotropic bars with an elliptical cross section. In addition, solid and thin-wall multi-cell NACA-0012 airfoil sections were analyzed to illustrate the pronounced effects that pretwist, initial twist axis location, and spar location has on coupled behavior. Currently, a series of advanced composite airfoils are being modeled in order to assess how the use of laminated composite materials interacts with pretwist to alter the coupling behavior of the blade. These studies will investigate the use of different ply angle orientations and the use of symmetric versus unsymmetric laminates.