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1

Blast furnace stove control  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

2

Implicit Newton-Krylov methods for modeling blast furnace stoves  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors discuss the use of an implicit Newton-Krylov method to solve a set of partial differential equations representing a physical model of a blast furnace stove. The blast furnace stove is an integral part of the iron making process in the steel industry. These stoves are used to heat air which is then used in the blast furnace to chemically reduce iron ore to iron metal. The solution technique used to solve the discrete representations of the model and control PDE`s must be robust to linear systems with disparate eigenvalues, and must converge rapidly without using tuning parameters. The disparity in eigenvalues is created by the different time scales for convection in the gas, and conduction in the brick; combined with a difference between the scaling of the model and control PDE`s. A preconditioned implicit Newton-Krylov solution technique was employed. The procedure employs Newton`s method, where the update to the current solution at each stage is computed by solving a linear system. This linear system is obtained by linearizing the discrete approximation to the PDE`s, using a numerical approximation for the Jacobian of the discretized system. This linear system is then solved for the needed update using a preconditioned Krylov subspace projection method.

Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computational Science Methods Group; Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-03-01

3

Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot blast stoves (left) and the dustcatcher (right). - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

4

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBOBLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBO-BLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Haselton Blast Furnaces, West of Center Street Viaduct, along Mahoning River, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

5

116. View looking southeast at stoves 2124 showing hot blast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

116. View looking southeast at stoves 21-24 showing hot blast main to No. 2 Furnace leading off to the right and gas main running in front of stoves. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

6

15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 IN LOWER CENTER OF PHOTO AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES. HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

7

Partnering and the WCI blast furnace reline  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, WCI Steel entered into a partnership agreement to perform a blast furnace reline. The reline included a complete rebrick from the tuyere breast to the furnace top including the tapholes. Also included was the replacement of the Paul Wurth top equipment from the receiving hoppers through the gearbox and distribution chute, a skip incline replacement, and installation of tilting runners and a casthouse roof. The bustle pipe and hot blast main were repaired. One stove was also replaced. The reline was accomplished in 36 days, wind to wind, which allowed for 29 days of construction inside the blast furnace proper.

Musolf, D.W. [WCI Steel, Inc., Warren, OH (United States)

1997-11-01

8

Blast furnace burden detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for measuring the difference between coke and pellet layers in a blast furnace is described. The measurement is based on a high frequency magnetic proximity principle where coke, a conductor, causes a change in apparent coil resistance. Theoretical and experimental results are presented. The application of the system to No.5 Blast Furnace at Inland Steel (USA) is also

H. Gerber; P. Chaubal

1999-01-01

9

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SEED ON THE LEFT, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SHED ON THE RIGHT, AND THE STOVES, BOILERS, AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

10

Blast furnace reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast a dvances h ave b een m ade in blast-furnace t echnology d uring t he p ast two decades through p lant t rials and plant d evelopments a ssisted by research to provide b etter u nderstanding of physical and chemical w orkings of the blast f urnace. T he f ields of research have i ncluded

E. T. Turkdogan

1978-01-01

11

Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations  

SciTech Connect

It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Kurashiki (Japan)

1995-10-01

12

Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-12-31

13

GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE IN THE RIGHT; THE CENTRAL COMPLEX WITH STOVES IN THE CENTER. ELECTRICAL POWER HOUSE IS ON THE LEFT BEYOND THE CONVEYOR LIFT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

14

A second-law analysis of the ``hot blast stove/gas turbine`` arrangement by applying the parameter ``usable exergy``  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is first of all to examine a coupled arrangement, in which turbine waste gas is used as oxygen carrier for the combustion of the fuel gas in the hot blast stoves and preheaters of a blast furnace; in their turn, the blast furnace gas and the turbine waste gas are preheated by the combustion of blast furnace gas, in order to achieve the necessary combustion temperatures. The arrangement makes provision also for the utilization of external thermal energy. The coupled process is compared with a hot blast stove system and a gas turbine plant without waste thermal energy recovery, which operate separately. The paper uses the concept of usable exergy, a previously defined parameter, to compare the two configurations and reverses some of the results obtained by the first law analysis.

Bisio, G. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Energy Engineering Dept.

1996-05-01

15

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

16

Rebuilding and modernization of blast furnace B'' at Cockerill-Sambre Ougree  

SciTech Connect

Blown in for the first time in 1962, the B blast furnace of Cockerill-Sambre was relined for the fourth time in 1989. The furnace produced 8,649,000 tons during the last campaign (1980 - 1989). Gunning repairs were carried out in 1985 and 1987. The blast furnace was blow down on June 30 and the burden level was lowered to the tuyere level. Afterwards a salamander of 350 tons was cast in open ladles. The relining of the blast furnace was performed on schedule and the furnace was blown in on the 4th of December 1989. The paper describes the relining goals and the main modifications. The specifications of the blast furnace are listed. Then the paper describes the modifications to the following systems: the charging computer system; the cooling system; the refractory materials; the hot stoves; blast furnace gas system; instrumentation and regulation; the blast furnace computer system; the pollution control equipment; and the cast floor.

Neuville, J.; Lecomte, P.; Massin, J.P.; Drimmer, D. (Cockerill-Sambre, Liege (Belgium))

1993-01-01

17

Low Cost Oxygen for Blast Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low cost process is examined which provides oxygen enrichment of blast air for blast furnaces to increase steel production without increasing the steelmaking or final finishing facilities. The proposed process is designed to separate the oxygen from nit...

R. Jablin

1980-01-01

18

Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

19

Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

20

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

21

Modernization of USS/KOBE No. 3 blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

The USS/KOBE Steel Company was formed on July 1, 1989 as a joint venture between USS and KOBE Steel of Japan. A major premise of the joint venture was to use generated capital for the modernization of the plant's facilities. The first major project of the new company was the total renovation of No. 3 Blast Furnace. This furnace is to be the mainstay of quality hot metal production for the future of the new company. No. 3 Blast Furnace was last operated in 1982. An original reline was planned in 1981, but was deferred due to economic conditions. Subsequent dismantling and engineering were performed in 1985 but the facility basically laid dormant for ten years until 1991. This paper discusses the various systems installed during the furnace rebuild along with some of the construction aspects of the rebuild along with some of the construction aspects of the rebuild. Modernized USS/KOBE No. 3 Blast Furnace (Blow-in: May 4, 1992) introduced various improvements of equipment and technology, such as a Paul Wurth Top, coke screening, casthouse, gas cleaning, stoves, and automatic stockhouse in order to make it a world class competitor.

Diederich, D.J.; VanderSluis, F.H.; Yukubo, Y.; Bernarding, T.F.; Emoto, E. (Kobe Steel Co., Lorain, OH (United States). USS)

1993-01-01

22

Zinc recovery from blast furnace flue dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace flue dusts are a mixture of oxides expelled from the top of the blast furnace, whose major components are iron oxides. They also contain zinc, silicon, magnesium and other minor element oxides in lesser amounts. The direct recycling of flue dust is not usually possible since it contains some undesirable elements (zinc and alkaline metals) that can cause

B. Asadi Zeydabadi; D. Mowla; M. H. Shariat; J. Fathi Kalajahi

1997-01-01

23

Blast furnace coal injection in China  

SciTech Connect

The development of blast furnace coal injection in China will be summarized. The improvements in the technical process for pneumatic conveying, injection feed control, distribution and combustion of pulverized coal will be covered. Ideas are also described concerning the use of oxy-coal technology in a blast furnace.

Zhou, J.G. (Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, Beijing (China). Central Iron and Steel Research Inst.)

1994-09-01

24

Copper staves in the blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operational data for stave cooling systems for two German blast furnaces show good correlation with predicted thermal results. Copper staves have been installed in blast furnaces in the zones exposed to the highest thermal loads. The good operational results achieved confirm the choice of copper staves in the areas of maximum heat load. Both temperature measurements and predictions establish that

R. G. Helenbrook; W. Kowalski; K. H. Grosspietsch; H. Hille

1996-01-01

25

3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

26

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

27

Creating successful blast furnace refractory systems  

SciTech Connect

Successful lifetimes of the refractories utilized in the blast furnace are dependent on a variety of external factors such as operation, geometry, cooling capability, configuration and arrangement, as well as refractory properties. These external factors, as well as the properties required to withstand the main mechanisms of wear, combine to create the successful refractory system. These significant factors and properties are reviewed with the intention of providing guidelines required for successful refractory performance in the blast furnace.

Dzermejko, A.J. [UCAR Carbon Co., Inc., Columbia, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

28

9. LOOKING NORTH AT TRESTLE, HOIST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. LOOKING NORTH AT TRESTLE, HOIST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE No. 1, AND HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

29

Copper staves in the blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Operational data for stave cooling systems for two German blast furnaces show good correlation with predicted thermal results. Copper staves have been installed in blast furnaces in the zones exposed to the highest thermal loads. The good operational results achieved confirm the choice of copper staves in the areas of maximum heat load. Both temperature measurements and predictions establish that the MAN GHH copper staves do not experience large temperature fluctuations and that the hot face temperatures will be below 250 F. This suggests that the copper staves maintain a more stable accretion layer than the cast iron staves. Contrary to initial expectations, heat flux to the copper staves is 50% lower than that to cast iron staves. The more stable accretion layer acts as an excellent insulator for the stave and greatly reduces the number of times the hot face of the stave is exposed to the blast furnace process and should result in a more stable furnace operation. In the future, it may be unnecessary to use high quality, expensive refractories in front of copper staves because of the highly stable accretion layer that appears to rapidly form due to the lower operating temperature of the staves. There is a balance of application regions for cast iron and copper staves that minimizes the capital cost of a blast furnace reline and provides an integrated cooling system with multiple campaign life potential. Cast iron staves are proven cooling elements that are capable of multiple campaign life in areas of the blast furnace which do not experience extreme heat loads. Copper staves are proving to be an effective and reliable blast furnace cooling element that are subject to virtually no wear and are projected to have a longer campaign service life in the areas of highest thermal load in the blast furnace.

Helenbrook, R.G. [ATSI, Inc., Amherst, NY (United States); Kowalski, W. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany); Grosspietsch, K.H. [Preussag Stahl AG, Saltzgitter (Germany); Hille, H. [MAN GHH AG, Oberhausen (Germany)

1996-08-01

30

Possibilities for intensifying blast-furnace smelting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An article published earlier by I. E. Sperkach and I. F. Kurunov [Metallurg, No. 2 (2005)] presented additional information\\u000a in support of the author’s proposal that blast-furnace smelting practice be changed over to the use of 600 kPa top-gas pressure\\u000a and a high-parameter combination blast (oxygen content up to 42%, natural-gas consumption up to 250 m3\\/ton pig). A blast-furnace complex

G. Yu. Kryachko

2006-01-01

31

Shougang No. 2 blast furnace enlargement  

SciTech Connect

Shougang is expanding to become a 10 million ton/year steel plant in 1995. In 1990, the capacity of Shougang No. 2 blast furnace was enlarged from 1,327 to 1,726 cu meters. The project consisted of building a new furnace on the old site while maintaining the operation of the old furnace. The project was completed in 188 calendar days, 3 days ahead of schedule. Shougang has a large, comprehensive technical force that includes design, construction and production. Most of the equipment and instrumentation, both mechanical and electrical, were fabricated by Shougang personnel. The future increase in capacity of No. 1, 3 and 4 blast furnaces will exceed that of No. 2 furnace.

Wang, Z.Z. (Shougang Iron and Steel Corp., Beijing (China))

1994-09-01

32

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection  

SciTech Connect

Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

NONE

1998-09-30

33

Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

2013-04-01

34

13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE No. 1, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 1. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

35

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX WITH LADLE HOUSE AND IRON DESULPHERIZATION BUILDING ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

36

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

37

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSEUP, IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSE-UP, IRON NOTCH IN CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

38

59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

39

1. LOOKING EAST AT BLAST FURNACES NO. 3 AND No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. LOOKING EAST AT BLAST FURNACES NO. 3 AND No. 4 FROM CRAWFORD STREET IN THE CITY OF DUQUESNE. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

40

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

41

58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED No. 3 IN FOREGROUND ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

42

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPENHEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPEN-HEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 AND CAST HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

43

31. VIEW OF TRIPPER CAR ON TOP OF BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF TRIPPER CAR ON TOP OF BLAST FURNACE STOCKING TRESTLE LOOKING EAST. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

44

70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE STOCKHOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

45

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

46

Development of automatic temperature control system in blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider automatic temperature control system which is the most important part in blast furnace operation. In general, automatic temperature control for blast furnace is very difficult and sensitive because it is affected by a number of factors. So firstly, this paper describes temperature control model for blast furnace by using Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model based on

Woosung Choi; Woojong Yoo; Sangchul Won

2006-01-01

47

Assessment of Atmospheric Emissions from Quenching of Blast Furnace Slag with Blast Furnace Blowdown Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of 15 emission measurements made on a laboratory scale facility simulating typical plant slag quenching practice. The measurements were made to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of blast furnace ...

G. Annamraju W. Kemner P. J. Schworer

1984-01-01

48

Unique Stove Process for Obtaining High Blast Temperature with Low Caloric Value BF Top Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High blast temperature is one of the necessary conditions for reducing the fuel consumption of blast furnace operation. Especially in case of using blast not enriched with oxygen, the specific injected fuel amount for tHM will much directly depends upon h...

J. Dai L. Lu X. Zhang

1987-01-01

49

Metal sorption on blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of Cu, Ni and Zn-ions from water solution by ungranulated blast-furnace slag has been studied depending on contact time, initial ion concentration, pH and solution temperature. The polymineral composition and the slag specific properties determine its high sorption activity in metal salts solutions. In the range of the concentrations studied (10?4–10?3 M), the sorption data for Cu2+, Ni2+

S. V. Dimitrova

1996-01-01

50

Carbon deposition on blast furnace raw mateials  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of various raw materials on the rate and amount of carbon deposition in the blast furnace. The isothermal deposition rate and the total carbon deposited in a simulated stack descent were measured for two lime-fluxed pellets, two dolomite-fluxed pellets, two pellets made from magnetite concentrates, one from hematite concentrate, two sinters, and an earthy hematite lump ore. The increasing carbon deposition rate with time, as the iron oxide substrate is reduced, is a powerful indication that metallic iron is the necessary catalyst for the carbon deposition reaction. Carbon deposits only on the exterior of the pellet, so carbon deposition does not depend on the internal structure of the pellet. The internal bonding in the pellet has no effect also. The study of the bulk chemical analysis of SiO/sub 2/ in the pellets to the rate of carbon deposition was given; also the correlation of the lime to magnesia ratio of the bulk chemical analysis to the total carbon deposited in the blast furnace simulation tests was included. There seemed to be a relationship between the isothermal rates of carbon deposition and the amount of carbon deposited in the blast furnace simulation. The 550/sup 0/C and 650/sup 0/C range will be the significant region when considering carbon deposition for the purpose of modeling the blast furnace, and the total amount deposited will depend on the time that a pellet spends between these two temperatures. 12 figures, 3 tables. (DP)

Geiger, G.H.; Lowry, M.L.

1981-01-01

51

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

52

Electric arc-fired blast furnace system  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to an electric-arc fired blast furnace system for the reduction of iron-bearing material utilizing electric-arc heated air containing a reducing gas or carbon-containing fuel allowing for a decrease in the amount of coke normally used in the reduction process. The excess reducing gases exiting the furnace are utilized as a source of power via a system consisting of turbines, compressors and a heat exchanger to drive the electrical generators which are used to provide electricity to the arc heaters. This arrangement forms an essentially closed loop furnace system for metal reduction. Injection of finely-divided coal into the arc-heated air to provide reductants is also employed.

Fey, M. G.

1985-04-02

53

Stable operation for No. 1 blast furnace at Baosteel  

SciTech Connect

Until Sept. 1994, No. 1 blast furnace in Baoshan Steel (Group) Co. had been operating successfully with high productivity. At present, it still keeps its strong potential for production capacity. The philosophy and methodology of the efficient blast furnace operation will be described. The most important aspect for stable operation and long campaign life of a blast furnace is reasonable gas flow distribution in the furnace. The topics to be discussed include: introduction to ironmaking in Baosteel; operational results; experience of stable operation, philosophy, gas distribution control, stabilization raw material property, furnace maintenance and supervision system.

Cai, X.; Lu, S. [Baoshan Steel Corp., Shanghai (China)

1995-07-01

54

The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The smelting of iron ore into metallic iron was first accomplished by primitive blast furnaces approximately three thousand years ago. Improvements in the process over many centuries eventually led to the mass production of iron and to the industrial revolution. The reactions of the blast furnace involve 1) combustion of the fuel and its conversion into carbon monoxide, 2) reduction

Richard S. Treptow; Luckner Jean

1998-01-01

55

17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 LOOKING EAST. THE BUSTLE PIPE IS VISIBLE ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE IMAGE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

56

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

Ensar Oguz

2004-01-01

57

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, AND No. 6, WITH ORE YARD IN THE FOREGROUND. BUILDING ON THE LEFT IS THE CENTRAL BOILER HOUSE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

58

Blast furnace lining and cooling technology: experiences at Corus IJmuiden  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the blast furnace lining and cooling concept as originally developed and applied by Hoogovens (Corus IJmuiden). The technology has also been applied by Danieli Corus in all its blast furnace projects executed in the last 25 years. The technology has helped Corus increase its PCI rate to over 200 kg/thm. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Stokman, R.; van Stein Cellenfels, E.; van Laar, R.

2004-11-01

59

Establishment of legume trees on heaps of blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag is usually stored in open air deposits and it can be carried by the wind. This problem can be reduced using plant cover. This work aim to evaluate: a) the potential of A.angustissima and M.caesalpiniifolia to cover the heaps of blast furnace slag and b) the effect of hydrogel Stockosorb ® Agro on the establishment and growth

Michele O. Macedo; Eduardo E. F. C. Campello; Aluisio G. Andrade; Sérgio M. de Faria

2006-01-01

60

Modelling ironmaking blast furnace: Solid flow and thermochemical behaviours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-, co-, cross-current moving bed reactor, where solid particles are charged at the furnace top forming a downward moving bed while gas are introduced at the lower part of furnace and travels upward through the solid bed of varying porosity, reducing solid ore to liquid iron at the cohesive zone. These three phases interact intensely. In this paper, a three-dimensional mathematical model is developed. The model describes the motion of solid and gas, based on continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the liquid flow. The model is applied to a blast furnace, where raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results demonstrate and characterize the key multiphase flow patterns of solid-gas-liquid at different regions inside the blast furnace, in particular solid flow and associated thermochemical behaviours of solid particles. This model offers a costeffective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Yu, Aibing; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter

2013-06-01

61

Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. As these wastes often contain high contents of zinc, lead, cadmium, and arsenic, significant hazards to environmental surroundings may arise from former BFS sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations (coke, iron ores, and additives such as olivine, bauxite, ilmenite and gravels) revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.093 mg kg-1. In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8 mg kg-1 with a median of 1.63 mg kg-1, which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n = 31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r = 0.695; n = 31; p < 0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r = 0.496; n = 27; p = 0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Consequently, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites.

Földi, Corinna

2014-05-01

62

26. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE BEING TAPPED, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE BEING TAPPED, 1901. (From the university of Washington Northwest collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

63

25. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE UNDER RENOVATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE UNDER RENOVATION, 1901. (From the Asahel Curtis collection, Washington State Historical Societty, Tacoma, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

64

Improvements in blast furnace operation at AHMSA Monclova  

SciTech Connect

Following the privatization of Altos Hornos de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (AHMSA) in Nov. 1991, four areas were chosen to improve blast furnace performance and hot metal costs. These areas included improvement of pellet quality, start of oil-gas co-injection, improved control of gas flow in the blast furnace and start of monitoring program to predict the remaining life of the hearth of No. 5 blast furnace. These efforts resulted in the following improvements in the first half of 1992: Production level increased to 2.4 tonnes/cu metre/24 hr with a 1992 annual production record from No. 5 furnace of 1.639 million tonnes; Coke rates decreased by 60 kg/tonne, half of which was due to process improvements and the other half to injection of oil; Silicon standard deviations decreased from 0.22% in 1991 to 0.20% in 1992; Hot metal costs decreased by 10.6%; and The major reline of No. 5 furnace postponed by at least 1.5 years. The improvement of the blast furnace process was not limited to the larger No. 5 furnace. Similar tends can be observed with No. 4 furnace which will also be equipped with oil injection. For the future, programs have been prepared to increase injection rates, improve casthouse operation and increase process stability.

Morales, J.M.; Dominguez, H. (Altos Hornos de Mexico S.A. de C.V., Monclova (Mexico). Monclova Works); Geerdes, M. (Hoogovens Technical Services B.V., Monclova (Mexico))

1994-10-01

65

Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School for Material Science and Engineering

2009-01-15

66

Computer systems for controlling blast furnace operations at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Energy accounts for a significant portion of the total blast furnace production costs and, to minimize energy consumption, both technical and economical aspects have to be considered. Thus, considerable attention has been paid to blast furnace energy consumption and productivity. The most recent furnace relines were in 1985 and 1986. At that time, the furnaces were modernized and instrumentation was increased. After the relines, operation control and monitoring of the process is done by a basic automation systems (DCS`s and PLC`s) and a supervision system (process computer). The supervision system is the core of the control system combining reports, special displays, trends and mathematical models describing in-furnace phenomena. Low energy consumption together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation have been achieved due to an improvement in raw materials quality and implementation of automation and computer systems to control blast furnace operation. Currently, the fuel rate is low and productivity is in excess of 3.0 tonnes/cu meter/day, which is one of the highest values achieved anywhere for long-term operation.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. [Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland); Seppanen, M. [Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland)

1995-08-01

67

A General Viscosity Model for Molten Blast Furnace Slag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace slag is the most abundant slag in the steel industry. Its metallurgical properties are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reliable viscosity model for blast furnace slag. In the current work, a simple, accurate, and physically meaningful viscosity model for a wide composition range of blast furnace slags is developed based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation: log ? = A + B/( T - C). The model is calibrated by a database containing 365 compositions and 1233 measurements of synthetic and industrial slags. The parameter A has a value of -3.10. The parameters B and C are related to the mass fraction ratio of (CaO + MgO) to (SiO2 + Al2O3) and liquidus temperature of the slag, respectively. Present viscosity model accurately predicts the viscosity of blast furnace slag with relative average error (?) of 0.211 (±0.180) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.239 Pa·s. A slight modification of this model can also predict the glass transition temperature of blast furnace slag satisfactorily.

Gan, Lei; Lai, Chaobin

2014-06-01

68

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD TO THE CENTER, HEYL & PATTERSON CAR DUMPER TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

69

13. Blast furnace plant embraces the east bank of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Blast furnace plant embraces the east bank of the Cuyahoga River. Plant was established in 1881 by the Cleveland Rolling Mill Co. It was absorbed by the American Steel and Wire Co. in 1899 and, two years later, by the U.S. Steel Corp., which closed it in 1978. View looking north. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

70

A predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon content in pig iron has long been used as one of the most important indices to represent the thermal state of a blast furnace. In this paper, a predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis is presented. The qualitative trend of the process in blast furnace is predicted through causal analysis and qualitative

Jian Chen

2001-01-01

71

Casthouse emission control system, No. 3 blast furnace, US\\/Kobe Steel Co  

Microsoft Academic Search

During blast furnace casting operations, hot metal generates fume and particulate emissions. Environmental regulations require that blast furnace casting emissions be controlled. The casthouse of the No. 3 blast furnace at USS\\/Kobe was completed redesigned and rebuilt during modernization of this facility. A state of the art casthouse emission control system, consisting of hoods and covers evacuated via ductwork to

T. F. Bernarding; K. K. Krol; R. C. Stinson

1993-01-01

72

Measuring thickness of the copper stave in blast furnace using ultrasonic technique in cooling line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blast furnace is used to smelt iron in the steel industry. Ore and cokes are input and hot air is blown into the chamber of the blast furnace. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the materials makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. The thickness

Sang-Woo Choi; Jung-Luel Yoo; Tae-Hwa Choi; Kwan-Tae Kim

2010-01-01

73

Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be

Bruno Kostura; Hana Kulveitová; Juraj Leško

2005-01-01

74

Phosphate removal using blast furnace slags and opoka-mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abiotic sorption efficiency of on-site wastewater treatment systems can be improved by using a strongly sorbing filter material that, if it retains phosphorus (P) in a plant available way, can be used as fertiliser when P saturation is achieved. Two materials, blast furnace slag and the siliceous sedimentary rock opoka, have shown a high P sorption capacity and were

Lena Johansson; Jon Petter Gustafsson

2000-01-01

75

Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous

Daphne Mirabile; Maria Ilaria Pistelli; Marina Marchesini; Roberta Falciani; Lisa Chiappelli

2002-01-01

76

Durability of Portland blast-furnace slag cement concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of studies carried out at the Building Research Establishment in the UK, on the performance and long-term durability of concrete where ground glassy blast-furnace slag (granulated and pelletized) has been used as a cementitious material. Using data from tests on site structures and laboratory and exposure site studies, comparisons are made of the properties and

G. J. Osborne

1999-01-01

77

Coke mineral transformations in the experimental blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Blast furnace efficiency may be improved by optimizing coke reactivity. Some but not all forms of mineral matter in the coke modify its reactivity, but changes in mineral matter that occur within coke while in the blast furnace have not been fully quantified. To determine changes in mineral matter forms in the blast furnace, coke samples from a dissection study in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF) were characterized using SEM/EDS analysis, EPMA (microprobe), and low-temperature ashing/quantitative XRD analysis. Variations in alkali concentration, particularly potassium, dominated the compositional changes. At high concentrations of potassium, the mineral matter was largely potassium-bearing but even more potassium was diffused throughout the coke and not associated with mineral matter. There was little difference in potassium concentration between the core and surface of the coke pieces, suggesting that potassium diffused rapidly through the whole coke. Iron, calcium, silicon, and aluminum concentrations were relatively constant in comparison, although the mineralogy of all elements changed significantly with changing temperature. 23 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

Kelli Kazuberns; Sushil Gupta; Mihaela Grigore; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Mats Hallin; Bo Lindblom; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD)

2008-09-15

78

CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

79

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND MACHINERY AND ARTIFACTS INCLUDING A STEAM ENGINE HUB MADE AT THE BRIERFIELD ROLLING MILL (INSCRIBED C.C. HUCKABEE AND DATED 1863) AND OTHER STEAM ENGINES. - Iron & Steel Museum of Alabama, 12632 Confederate Pkwy., Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

80

CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED CAST HOUSE LIES IN BETWEEN TWO SKIP INCLINES. HIP ROOF AT RIGHT COVERS BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

81

Fire-resistant geopolymer produced by granulated blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research into the use of granulated blast furnace slag as an active filler in the making of geopolymers. During this work it was found that geopolymer setting time correlates well with temperature, potassium hydroxide concentration, metakaolinite and sodium silicate addition. The physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymer also correlated well with the concentration of alkaline solution

T. W. Cheng; J. P. Chiu

2003-01-01

82

Recovery of Copper from Granulated Blast Furnace Slag.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines conducted bench and small-scale continuous studies to recover a recyclable copper product from a waste granulated blast furnace slag. The slag contained from 5 to 7 percent total copper, of which from 3 to 4.5 percent was metallic copp...

C. E. Jordan G. V. Sullivan E. D. Scott

1978-01-01

83

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

84

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST AND DUST CATCHER. STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, THE #2 CASTING SHED BEYOND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

85

Experiences with computer systems in blast furnace operation control at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Low energy consumption, together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation, has been achieved at Rautaruukki's Raahe Steel Works as a result of the efficient use of computer technology in process control and improvements in raw materials quality. The blast furnace supervision system is designed to support the decision-making in medium and long-term process control. The information presenting the blast furnace operation phenomena is grouped so that little time is needed to obtain the current state of the process. Due to the complexity of the blast furnace process, an expert system to guide and diagnose the short and medium-term blast furnace operation has been developed.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. (Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland). Raahe Steel Works); Seppanen, M. (Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland))

1994-09-01

86

Energy Conservation for Granular Coal Injection into a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the combustion of granular coal injected into a blast furnace, injection characteristics of granular coal were first studied through proximate analysis, element analysis, and research of explosivity, ignition point, meltability of ash, grindability, calorific value, etc. Using a sampling device in the raceway combined with petrographic analysis, during the combustion process of granular coal with high crystal water and volatile in raceway, cracks and bursts were found, leading to a reduction of particle size. Based on a model of mass control and dynamic theory of particle combustion, the transition dynamic model for cracking in combustion of granular coal was found, and the critical value of cracking ratio (?P) for granular coal combustion in the raceway was calculated. Finally, the utilization ratio and energy efficiency of granular coal used in the blast furnace were discussed, offering theoretical foundation and technical support for intensifying granular coal combustion and promoting granular coal injection.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Zhang, Jianliang; Shao, Jiugang; Zuo, Haibin; Ren, Shan

2012-08-01

87

Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

2013-07-01

88

A 3D CFD simulation of liquid flow in an ironmaking blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional CFX-based mathematical model is developed to describe the flow-heat transfer-chemical reactions behaviours of gas-solid-liquid phases in an ironmaking blast furnace (BF), where the raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The typical in-furnace phenomena of an operating blast furnace, in particular, the liquid flow in the lower part of a blast furnace is simulated in aspects of velocity and volume fraction. This model offers a cost-effective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

2013-07-01

89

Blast furnace slag as phosphorus sorbents — column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filter substrates that efficiently remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater can be used to optimise the nutrient removal by on-site wastewater treatment systems. A number of filter substrates have been investigated and the industrial by-product blast furnace slag has attracted attention as a promising substrate. To further evaluate the sorption and attenuation of PO43?, a column experiment was carried out under

Lena Johansson

1999-01-01

90

Autogenous shrinkage of concrete containing granulated blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental results and prediction model for the autogenous shrinkage of concrete made with various water-to-cementitious materials ratios (w\\/cm) ranging from 0.27 to 0.42 and granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS) in the range of 0% to 50% by mass of the total cementitious materials. Test results showed that BFS concrete exhibited greater autogenous shrinkage than ordinary concrete with

K. M. Lee; H. K. Lee; S. H. Lee; G. Y. Kim

2006-01-01

91

Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents was carried out. Gases produced in the blast furnace were washed and led towards a Dorr thickener where the sludge was obtained as a suspension. The sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on

A. López-Delgado; C. Pérez; F. A. López

1998-01-01

92

Crystallization mechanism and properties of a blast furnace slag glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex crystallization process of a Brazilian blast-furnace slag glass was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction (SAD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Three crystalline phases (merwinite, melilite and larnite) were identified after heat treatment between Tg (742°C) and the DSC crystallization peak (T=1000°C). Merwinite was identified

C. Fredericci; E. D. Zanotto; E. C. Ziemath

2000-01-01

93

Stress fields of solid flow in a model blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational fluid dynamics–discrete element method approach, supported by an averaging technique, has been employed\\u000a to quantitatively investigate the stress distributions of solid flow in a model blast furnace (BF). The results indicate that\\u000a large normal stresses are mainly observed in the lower central part of the BF, whilst small normal stresses in the vicinity\\u000a of the raceway. In the

H. P. Zhu; Z. Y. Zhou; A. B. Yu; P. Zulli

2009-01-01

94

Hydrothermal solidification of blast furnace slag by formation of tobermorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace water-cooled slag (BFWS) has been solidified using a hydrothermal processing method, in which the BFWS could\\u000a be solidified in an autoclave under saturated steam pressure (1.56 MPa) at 200 ?C for 12 h by the additions of quartz or coal\\u000a flyash. The tensile strength development was shown to depend on the formation of tobermorite and the packing state of the\\u000a formed

Zhenzi Jing; F. Jin; T. Hashida; N. Yamasaki; H. Ishida

2007-01-01

95

Diagnostics of the air-heater casings in blast furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diagnostic method for air heaters in blast furnaces is described. The method involves magnetic and ultrasonic monitoring,\\u000a thermometry, and metallographic analysis without the removal of samples. Monitoring data for several air heaters are presented.\\u000a The benefits of nondestructive monitoring methods are demonstrated. Such methods extend air-heater life and also prevent emergency\\u000a shutdowns.

V. L. Siviryuk; I. V. Gramotnik; A. N. Bezrukov

2011-01-01

96

Activation of blast furnace slag by a new method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag is used as supplementary cementing material for the production of blended cement and slag cement. Its latently hydraulic properties can be activated by several methods. Most applications employ the use of high pH values in the pore solution (>13.0) to accelerate the corrosion of the glass network of the slag.It is shown in this work that activation

F. Bellmann; J. Stark

2009-01-01

97

Phosphorus Purifing Effect of Blast Furnace Slags in Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focus on purifying phosphorus by batch and column experiment and researching phosphorus removal theory of blast furnace slags. The content includes the following main parts: experiment method and procedure, results and discussion and conclusion. The results indicated: the phosphorus removal rate of solution containing 10 mg\\/L P is above 85% with 2.5 g BF slags, at 25°C. The

Ling Huang; Haihong Xu

2009-01-01

98

Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.  

PubMed

Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

2012-05-01

99

Coal and oil mixture injection into blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

The results of the transportation loop tests indicate that the pressure drop of coal oil mixture (COM) in the pipe can be precisely estimated under the condition that the rheological characteristics of COM are determined by a pseudo-plastic fluid model and the apparent viscosity is measured by the cone and plate viscometer. Through the COM combustion test by LBF it was found that 70 to 85% intected fine coal was combustible in the raceway and there was little difference in the gas permeability between COM and oil injection. The replacement ratio of COM to heavy fuel oil was estimated to be about 0.8 to 0.9 by the mathematical blast furnace simulation model. The injection test into three tuyeres of a large commercial blast furnace has been performed with remarkable success since September 1980. The useful results obtained from these test will be reflected to the commercializing injection test into all tuyeres of Kashima No. 1 blast furnace. 36 figures, 1 table.

Yabe, S.; Kurashige, I.; Miyazaki, T.; Iba, T.; Kojima, M.; Kojima, M.; Shoji, Y.; Kamei, Y.

1981-01-01

100

Blast Furnace Dynamic Model: Reconstruction of the PLAIC Blast Furnace Dynamic Model. Volume 1. Chapters 1-6 and Appendices 1-5. Report No. 149.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new system for the dynamic simulation of the blast furnace has been constructed. The major advantages of the new simulation over the previous one are: The FORTRAN programs are extensively documented; improved execution speed; an interface system for the...

J. L. Blattner L. M. Mika J. A. Tanski T. L. Schiller

1986-01-01

101

Neural networks for the identification and control of blast furnace hot metal quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and control of blast furnaces poses a great challenge because of the difficult measurement and control problems associated with the unit. The measurement of hot metal composition with respect to silica and sulfur are critical to the economic operation of blast furnaces. The measurement of the compositions require spectrographic techniques which can be performed only off line. An

V. R Radhakrishnan; A. R Mohamed

2000-01-01

102

SSSStudy on Combustion Characteristics of the Blast Furnace Gas in the Constant Volume Combustion Bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace gas is the byproduct of smelting steel production process, and is the important secondary energy source. It is can be used as fuel for engines to generate electricity for most middle and small steel enterprises. In order to understand the combustion mechanism and provide the basis for the design of blast furnace gas engine,premixed laminar combustion experiments of

LIU YONGQI; WANG HAIFENG; LI PING

103

An image processing method based on wavelet decomposition and image enhancement for blast furnace infrared image  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an image processing method based on wavelet decomposition and image enhancement is proposed to hand of the issues that there is much noise and uneven distribution of light source and light intensity, in blast furnace infrared images. Firstly, Mallat algorithm is employed to decompose blast furnace infrared images into wavelet details and lower frequency part. Then, improved

Zhu Yin; Wu Min; Cao Weihua; He Yong

2008-01-01

104

DESTRUCTION AND REMOVAL OF POHCS (PRINCPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS) IN IRON MAKING BLAST FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

At least one steel company utilizes organic waste liquids as a heat and carbon content source to partially replace the coke that is used to charge the blast furnaces. The waste liquids fed to the blast furnace are likely to contain hazardous constituents. Temperature and residenc...

105

BLAST FURNACE SLIPS AND ACCOMPANYING EMISSIONS AS AN AIR POLLUTION SOURCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to ascertain the severity of blast-furnace slips and their accompanying bleeder-valve emissions as a source of air pollution. It describes factors contributing to the occurrence of hangs and slips in the blast furnace. It discusses the mechanic...

106

Preparation of Ceramic-Bonded Carbon Block for Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional carbon blocks for blast furnaces are mainly produced with electrically calcined anthracite owing to its good hot metal corrosion resistance. However, this kind of material shows low thermal conductivity and does not meet the demands for cooling of the hearth and the bottom of blast furnaces. In this article, a new kind of a high-performance carbon block has been prepared via ceramic-bonded carbon (CBC) technology in a coke bed at 1673 K (1400 °C) using artificial graphite aggregate, alumina, metallic aluminum, and silicon powders as starting materials. The results showed that artificial graphite aggregates were strongly bonded by the three-dimensional network of ceramic phases in carbon blocks. In this case, the good resistance of the CBC blocks against erosion/corrosion by the hot metal is provided by the ceramic matrix and the high thermal conductivity by the graphite aggregates. The microstructure of this carbon block resembles that of CBC composites with a mean pore size of less than 0.1 ?m, and up to 90 pct of the porosity shows a pore size <1 ?m. Its thermal conductivity is higher than 30 W · m-1 · K-1 [293 K (20 °C)]. Meanwhile, its hot metal corrosion resistance is better than that of traditional carbon blocks.

Li, Yiwei; Li, Yawei; Sang, Shaobai; Chen, Xilai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuanbing; Li, Shujing

2014-01-01

107

Production Analysis of Methanol and Hydrogen of a Modificated Blast Furnace Gas Using Nuclear Energy of the High Temperature Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modern blast furnaces are operated with a coke ration of 500 kg/t pig iron. The increase of the coke ratio to 1000 kg/t pig iron raises the content of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the blast furnace gas. On the basis of a blast furnace gas modificated i...

W. Peschel

1985-01-01

108

New concepts and designs for blast furnace linings and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1960`s, concurrent with major technological developments in blast furnace operation, cooling became increasingly important in extending furnace campaign life. Cooling systems developed from simple shower spray and jacket types, to intensive plate and stave systems. Each system has advantages and disadvantages. The principal furnace cooling areas are: underhearth (which has ceased to be a cause of premature end

Carmichael

1996-01-01

109

Determination of zinc in blast furnace flue dusts.  

PubMed

Two methods for the determination of zinc in blast-furnace flue dusts are described. One involves a solvent extraction step using methyl isobutyl ketone to separate the zinc from the bulk of the interfering elements, followed by a complexometric titration of the zinc with EDTA, using Eriochrome Black T as indicator. The other employs differential pulse polarography with a hydrochloric acid + pyridine supporting electrolyte. In this method, the interference of iron is prevented by reducing it with hydroxylamine hydrochloride; aluminium is complexed with potassium fluoride. Other elements, with the exception of cobalt, do not interfere. Excellent agreement between the two methods is obtained in the range 0.01-0.6% zinc. PMID:18962345

Hitchen, A; Zechanowitsch, G

110

Hydration and temperature development of concrete made with blast-furnace slag cement  

SciTech Connect

In Europe, massive concrete elements often are made with blast-furnace slag cements. To better deal with the problem of early-age thermal cracking in these cases, a new hydration model for blast-furnace slag cements is developed, which is based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests. In the hydration model, the heat production rate is calculated as a function of the degree of hydration and the temperature. The accuracy of temperature simulations using this new hydration model is evaluated by tests on hardening massive concrete cylinders made with blast-furnace slag cement.

Schutter, G. de [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium). Magnel Lab. for Concrete Research] [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium). Magnel Lab. for Concrete Research

1999-01-01

111

Utilization of plasma arc heaters for massive coal injections in blast furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technological feasibility of implementing a plasma torch on a tuyere of a blast furnace has been demonstrated by a preliminary experiment. Then, an experimentation of plasma assisted (6 torches) coal massive injection has been conducted at Uckange bla...

R. Drelon F. Mosser F. Temoin

1990-01-01

112

VIEW OF CENTRAL STEAM PLANT IN FOREGROUND, BLAST FURNACES NO.S ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF CENTRAL STEAM PLANT IN FOREGROUND, BLAST FURNACES NO.S 1,2 & 3, AND FLOODED ORE YARD. VIEW FACING EAST. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

113

Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

1982-04-30

114

Hydration and temperature development of concrete made with blast-furnace slag cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, massive concrete elements often are made with blast-furnace slag cements. To better deal with the problem of early-age thermal cracking in these cases, a new hydration model for blast-furnace slag cements is developed, which is based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests. In the hydration model, the heat production rate is calculated as a function of the degree

Geert De Schutter; G. de

1999-01-01

115

The transfer of silicon from the gas phase to molten iron in the blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of silicon transfer in a blast furnace has been studied. It is concluded that the contribution of slag-metal\\u000a reaction to silicon increase in the metal will not be very important because of the slow rate of the reaction and high oxygen\\u000a potential of slag in a blast furnace. By making use of kinetic and thermodynamic data, it is

Nobuo Tsuchiya; Masanori Tokuda; Masayasu Ohtani

1976-01-01

116

Phosphorus retention capacity of iron-ore and blast furnace slag in subsurface flow constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The suitability of iron-ore and blast furnace slag for subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands was studied over a period of four months. Dairy farm wastewater,(TP 45 mg l,) was promoted,by predominantly anaerobic,conditions due to continuous formation of amorphous,ferrous hydroxides. None of the substrates had adverse affects on reed growth. Keywords Phosphorus retention; constructed wetlands; iron-ore; blast furnace slag; dairy

B. grüneberg; J. Kern

117

Thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of PO 3? 4 adsorption on blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of adsorption of PO3?4 by blast furnace slag were found to be fast, reaching equilibrium in 20 min and following a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The adsorption behavior of PO3?4 on blast furnace slag has been studied as a function of the solution agitation speed, pH, and temperature. Results have been analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, BET, and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R)

Ensar Oguz

2005-01-01

118

The use of blast furnace slag and derived materials in the vitrification of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric arc furnace (EAF) dust was added to blast furnace granulated slag or a gel produced by dissolving slag in HNO3\\/EtOH followed by alkaline hydrolysis and gelification, and then it was vitrified. The proportion of EAF dust used was between\\u000a 5 and 30 wt pct. The physicochemical properties of the glasses produced were studied by the X-ray powder diffraction

F. A. López; E. Sáinz; A. López-delgado; L. Pascual; J. M. Fernández Navarro

1996-01-01

119

Effect of Chemical Attack and Operational Parameters on the Wear of Blast Furnace Refractories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of refractory behavior in a blast furnace has been made because refractory and furnace design problems associated with iron production may apply to coal gasification units. Iron is made in a cylindrical, refractory lined, steel shell that has an ...

R. B. Snow

1976-01-01

120

[Study on quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag].  

PubMed

Quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline and crystalline contents in blast furnace slag was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The process of quantificational analysis method includes standard samples preparation, samples preparation, X-ray diffraction measurement and data treatment. The data treatment includes integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks in certain diffraction angle range, linear fitting and quantificational coefficient determination. The preparation methods of standard samples for X-ray diffraction of blast furnace slag were proposed, including 100% crystalline sample and 100% non-crystalline sample. The 100% crystalline sample can be obtained by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1 000-1 200 degrees C, and the 100% non-crystalline sample can be obtained by quenching the molten slag with enough water. The X-ray diffraction method of quantificational analysis of non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag was proposed with the 100% non-crystalline and 100% crystalline standard samples, and the quantificational coefficient can be obtained by linear regression on the integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks of X-ray diffraction in the 2-theta range 20 degrees-40 degrees. This method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 80%. The non-crystalline and crystalline contents of original blast furnace slag are obtained by combining the X-ray diffraction results and mathematical treatment, and this method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 90%, whose process includes preparing the 100% crystalline standard sample by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1000-1200 degrees C, samples preparation with the 0.02 interval in the 0-0.1 mass ratio range of 100% crystalline to original slag, X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples prepared and data treatment using iterative linear regression. The quantificational analysis method for blast furnace slag can be applied to various kinds of blast furnace slag from different steel plants. PMID:18479048

Yan, Ding-Liu; Guo, Pei-Min; Qi, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Hai-Feng; Dai, Xiao-Tian

2008-02-01

121

Recent improvements in blast furnace operation within the AHMSA/GAN, Monclova Mexico works  

SciTech Connect

Following the privatization of Altos Hornos de Mexico in November 1991 four areas were chosen to improve blast furnace performance and hot metal costs. These areas included improvement of pellet quality, start of oil-gas co-injection in the blast furnace, improved control of gas flow in the blast furnace and start of monitoring program to predict the remaining life of the hearth of the major blast furnace at AHMSA. The efforts resulted in the following improvements in the first half of 1992: production level increased to 2.4 ton/m[sup 3]/24 hrs; moreover, the annual production record of blast furnace 5 (hearth diameter 11.2 m, 37 ft) set in 1992, was 1.639 mln tonnes; coke rates decreased by 60 kg/tonne, half of which was due to process improvements and the other half to injection of oil; silicon standard deviations decreased from 0.22% in 1991 to 0.20% in 1992; hot metal costs decreased with 10.6%; and the major reline of BF 5 can be postponed by at least 1.5 year.

Morales, J.M.; Dominguez, H.; Geerdes, M.

1993-01-01

122

Recent improvements in blast furnace operation at the Ahmsa Monclova Works  

SciTech Connect

Following the privatization of Altos Hornos de Mexico in Nov. 1991, four areas were selected to improve blast furnace performance and hot metal costs. These areas included: improvements of pellet quality; start of oil-gas coinjection; improved control of gas flow in the blast furnace; and start of monitoring program to predict the remaining life of the hearth of the major blast furnace. The efforts resulted in the following improvements in the first half of 1992: (1) Production level increased to 2.4 tonnes/cu meter/24 hr. Annual production record of blast furnace No. 5 (hearth diameter 11.2 meter), set in 1992, was 1,639 million tonnes. (2) Coke rates decreased by 60 kg/tonne, half of which was due to process improvements and the other half to injection of oil. (3) Silicon standard deviations decreased from 0.22% in 1991 to 0.20% in 1992. (4) Hot metal costs decreased by 10.6%. (5) The major reline of blast furnace No. 5 can be postponed by at least 1.5 years.

Morales-Yanez, J.M.; Dominguez-Lara, H.; Geerdes, M. (Ahmsa/Hoogovens Technical Services, Monclova (Mexico))

1993-07-01

123

Multiscale dynamic analysis of blast furnace system based on intensive signal processing.  

PubMed

In this paper, the Hilbert-Huang transform method and time delay embedding method are applied to multiscale dynamic analysis on the time series of silicon content in hot metal collected from a medium-sized blast furnace with the inner volume of 2500?m3. The results provide clear evidence of multiscale features in blast furnace ironmaking process. Ten intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are decomposed from the silicon content time series; the presence of noninteger fractal dimension, positive finite Kolmogorov entropy, and positive finite maximum Lyapunov exponent are found in some IMF components. In addition, the coupling of subscale structures of blast furnace system is studied using the dimension of interaction dynamics and a robust algorithm for detecting interdependence. It is found that IMF(3) is the main driver in the coupling system IMF(2) and IMF(3) while for the coupling system IMF(3) and IMF(4) neither subsystem can act as the driver. All these provide a guideline for studying blast furnace ironmaking process with multiscale theory and methods, and may open way for more candidate tools to model and control blast furnace system in the future. PMID:20887042

Chu, Yanxu; Gao, Chuanhou; Liu, Xiangguan

2010-09-01

124

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21

125

Gas-powder flow in blast furnace with different shapes of cohesive zone  

SciTech Connect

With high PCI rate operations, a large quantity of unburned coal/char fines will flow together with the gas into the blast furnace. Under some operating conditions, the holdup of fines results in deterioration of furnace permeability and lower production efficiency. Therefore, it is important to understand the behaviour of powder (unburnt coal/char) inside the blast furnace when operating with different cohesive zone (CZ) shapes. This work is mainly concerned with the effect of cohesive zone shape on the powder flow and accumulation in a blast furnace. A model is presented which is capable of simulating a clear and stable accumulation region in the lower central region of the furnace. The results indicate that powder is likely to accumulate at the lower part of W-shaped CZs and the upper part of V- and inverse V-shaped CZs. For the same CZ shape, a thick cohesive layer can result in a large pressure drop while the resistance of narrow cohesive layers to gas-powder flow is found to be relatively small. Implications of the findings to blast furnace operation are also discussed.

Dong, X.F.; Pinson, D.; Zhang, S.J.; Yu, A.B.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2006-11-15

126

On-line ultrasonic system for measuring thickness of the copper stave in the blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blast furnace is used make molten iron from sintered ore and the cokes in the steel industry. Recently, the copper stave cooling system placed on inner face of the blast furnace body to protect the steel shell from heat. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the material makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. It was impossible to access the copper stave with the ultrasonic sensor for measuring thickness because the copper stave is covered with the steel shell and there is backing refractory between the stave and the steel shell. The unique ultrasonic sensor which can approach the cooling stave through the cooling line was developed to measure thickness. The thickness can be measured with portable ultrasonic thickness sensor and can be monitored continuously with embedded sensors.

Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, Dohoon

2012-05-01

127

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

128

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

129

Approach for Minimizing Operating Blast Furnace Carbon Rate Using Carbon-Direct Reduction (C-DRR) Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach for reducing input carbon rate of a blast furnace using carbon-direct reduction (C-DRR) diagram has been developed. The role of shaft efficiency, blast input conditions, and heat loss rate in reducing the carbon rate has been brought out. A two-zone thermochemical model has been used to develop C-DRR diagrams for analyzing operating data of a furnace as well as predicting conditions for reducing its carbon rate. The model can be integrated with the control system of a blast furnace for driving an operating furnace to reduce carbon rates.

Paul, Soumavo; Roy, S. K.; Sen, P. K.

2013-02-01

130

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project public design report. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The public design report describes the Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection (BFGCI) project under construction at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. The project is the first installation in the United States for the British Steel technology using granular coal in blast furnaces. The objective is to demonstrate that granular coal is an economic and reliable fuel which can successfully be applied to large North American blast furnaces. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I-Design; Phase II-Procurement & Construction; and Phase III-Operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in April 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began August 1993. Construction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by a demonstration test program (Phase III).

NONE

1995-03-01

131

Investigation of hydraulic activity of ground granulated blast furnace slag in concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry, being used as an effective partial cement replacement material, has already been proven to improve several performance characteristics of concrete. The reactivity of GGBFS has been found to depend on the properties of slag, which vary with the source of slag, type of raw material used, method

S. C Pal; A Mukherjee; S. R Pathak

2003-01-01

132

A model for estimating the viscosity of blast furnace slags with optical basicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscosity is an important physical property of blast furnace slags and has a great influence on blast furnace operations. Because of time consumption and difficulties encountered during high temperature experimental measurement, viscosity data are also limited, so a reasonable and accurate estimation model is required to provide the data for controlling and optimizing the blast furnace process. In the present study a viscosity model was proposed for blast furnace slags. In the model the activation energy was calculated by the optical basicity corrected for cations required for the charge compensation of AlO{4/5-}, and the temperature dependence was described by the Weymann-Frenkel equation. The estimated viscosity values of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO, and CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-TiO2 systems fit well with experiment data, with the mean deviation less than 25%.

Hu, Xiao-jun; Ren, Zhong-shan; Zhang, Guo-hua; Wang, Li-jun; Chou, Kuo-chih

2012-12-01

133

Hydration and properties of novel blended cements based on cement kiln dust and blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present paper is to address the key technical issues pertaining to the utilization of cement kiln dust (CKD) as an activator for ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) to create nonconventional cementitious binders for concrete. The relatively high alkaline content of CKD is the predominant factor preventing its recycling in cement manufacture. However, it was observed

Maria S. Konsta-Gdoutos; Surendra P. Shah

2003-01-01

134

Fixation of CO 2 by carbonating calcium derived from blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial waste materials, such as steelmaking slags, appear to be potential raw materials for reducing CO2 emissions by carbonation. The suitability of applying a carbonation route based on acetic acid leaching to produce carbonates from blast furnace slag is presented in this study. The effect of solution pH, temperature, and CO2 pressure on the precipitation of carbonates was experimentally studied.

Sanni Eloneva; Sebastian Teir; Justin Salminen; Carl-Johan Fogelholm; Ron Zevenhoven

2008-01-01

135

Enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in forest soils near a blast furnace plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different layers of soil were sampled at ten sites at increasing distances from a blast furnace plant. PAH 7 concentrations decreased exponentially from moderately contaminated to background values. For each compound it was possible to distinguish between the source-related part, decreasing with increasing distance from the plant, and the background contribution. The relative contribution of PAHs differed between the

T. C. Van Brummelen; R. A. Verweij; S. A. Wedzinga; C. A. M. Van Gestel

1996-01-01

136

Strength and pore structure of ternary blended cement mortars containing blast furnace slag and silica fume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blended cement mortars with fixed workability and incorporating blast furnace slag and silica fume, were tested for compressive strength and mercury intrusion, with a view to comparing their performance with that of plain Portland cement mortar and\\/or slag-cement mortar. The obtained results showed that with high portions of slag and silica fume in the binding system, the mortars reached relatively

L. Bágel

1998-01-01

137

Data-driven modeling based on volterra series for multidimensional blast furnace system.  

PubMed

The multidimensional blast furnace system is one of the most complex industrial systems and, as such, there are still many unsolved theoretical and experimental difficulties, such as silicon prediction and blast furnace automation. For this reason, this paper is concerned with developing data-driven models based on the Volterra series for this complex system. Three kinds of different low-order Volterra filters are designed to predict the hot metal silicon content collected from a pint-sized blast furnace, in which a sliding window technique is used to update the filter kernels timely. The predictive results indicate that the linear Volterra predictor can describe the evolvement of the studied silicon sequence effectively with the high percentage of hitting the target, very low root mean square error and satisfactory confidence level about the reliability of the future prediction. These advantages and the low computational complexity reveal that the sliding-window linear Volterra filter is full of potential for multidimensional blast furnace system. Also, the lack of the constructed Volterra models is analyzed and the possible direction of future investigation is pointed out. PMID:22128000

Gao, Chuanhou; Jian, Ling; Liu, Xueyi; Chen, Jiming; Sun, Youxian

2011-12-01

138

A genetic algorithms based multi-objective neural net applied to noisy blast furnace data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic algorithms based multi-objective optimization technique was utilized in the training process of a feed forward neural network, using noisy data from an industrial iron blast furnace. The number of nodes in the hidden layer, the architecture of the lower part of the network, as well as the weights used in them were kept as variables, and a Pareto

Frank Pettersson; N. Chakraborti; Henrik Saxén

2007-01-01

139

General hydration model for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focusses on the evolution of the heat of hydration of hardening concrete or cement based materials. Based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests a new general hydration model is developed, valid both for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement. This hydration model enables the calculation of the heat production rate as a function of the actual temperature

L. Taerwe

1995-01-01

140

Analysis of stress and buoyancy for solids flow in the lower part of a blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quasi-stagnant coke bed formed in the lower part of blast furnace, called ‘deadman’, is replaced by new coke over a long renewal interval. The repetition motion, floating of the hearth coke bed due to buoyancy during storage of the molten material and refilling the bottom space due to descending motion of the coke bed during the discharge, is considered

H. Takahashi; H. Kawai; Y. Suzuki

2002-01-01

141

Multidimensional transient mathematical simulator of blast furnace process based on multi-fluid and kinetic theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ironmaking blast furnace is regarded as one of the biggest and most complex industrial reactors, because it includes various materials like gas, lump granular materials, liquids and powders and more than 30 major reactions and phase changes in a single reaction vessel. The mathematical simulator of this process developed in this study used the multi-fluid treatment as its framework,

Hiroshi Nogami; Mansheng Chu; Jun-ichiro Yagi

2005-01-01

142

Environmental Benefit from Blast Furnace Gas Recycling in the Integrated Steelworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) is an important kind of by-products in the integrated steelworks. Its recycling option considerably relates to the environmental performance of the integrated steelworks. In this study, a specific integrated steelworks in China is selected as the research object. The system expansion method and Weidema's procedure are referenced to resolve the allocation problem. In spite of that,

Xiao Ding; Hongyuan Li

2011-01-01

143

Silica fume-basic blast furnace slag systems activated by an alkali silica fume activator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the results of research on binder systems based on the use of silica fume. The data obtained show that the optimal proportion of blast furnace slag and alkali activator prepared from silica fume permits the obtaining of interesting materials from the point of view of their technical properties as well as from the possibility of utilizing

I. Rouseková; A. Bajza; V. Živica

1997-01-01

144

Coal-Oil Mixture Combustion Program: Injection into a Blast Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and ...

S. G. Jansto A. Mertdogan L. A. Marlin V. D. Beaucaire

1982-01-01

145

AIR POLLUTION IMPACTS WHEN QUENCHING BLAST FURNACE SLAG WITH CONTAMINATED WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an effort to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of coke plant wastewater will result in a significant increase in emissions to the atmosphere. The alternative is using the wastewater, untreated, to quench blast furnace...

146

MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF FLOWS AND TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE BLAST FURNACE HEARTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The erosion of hearth refractories typically governs the asset life of a blast furnace. Since operating conditions within the hearth make it practically impossible for direct measurement and visualisation, physical and mathematical models play an important role in understanding and assessing the cause-effect phenomena between the liquid iron, coke bed and refractories. A numerical model has been developed to predict

D. MALDONADO; P. ZULLI; B. Y. GUO

147

Calculation and Analysis of Liquid Holdup in Lower Blast Furnace by Model Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydromechanics experiment on the countercurrent flow of gas and liquid simulating the flow conditions in the lower blast furnace was carried out. A cold model of a packed bed with various packing materials and liquids was used to study the holdup of liquid. Correlations for static holdup, dynamic holdup, and total holdup were obtained. A good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental data. A mathematical model simulating the flow fields was applied to study the effect of liquid holdup in blast furnace. The results of the model calculation show that static holdup is the determinant of the total holdup of molten materials when the blast furnace works in stable condition. The slag phase generally reaches flooding holdup ahead of the hot metal. The radial distribution of gas flow is almost not influenced by the holdup of molten materials, but it has a greater influence on the pressure drop. The size of coke has far greater influence on static holdup than liquid properties does. The study is useful for acquiring a deeper understanding of the complex phenomena in the blast furnace and for determining appropriate operational actions under different production conditions.

Xiong, Wei; Bi, Xue-Gong; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Yang, Fu

2012-06-01

148

Characteristics of Portland blast-furnace slag cement containing cement kiln dust and active silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation dealt with the effect of active silica, silica fume (SF) or rice husk ash (RHA), on the mechanical and physico-chemical characteristics of the hardened blended cement pastes made of Portland blast-furnace slag cement (PSC) containing cement kiln dust (CKD) cured under normal conditions. Two blends made of PSC and CKD, improved by SF and two blends made of

A. Abdel Rahman; S. A. Abo-El-Enein; M. Aboul-Fetouh; Kh. Shehata

149

New concepts and designs for blast furnace linings and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

In the 1960`s, concurrent with major technological developments in blast furnace operation, cooling became increasingly important in extending furnace campaign life. Cooling systems developed from simple shower spray and jacket types, to intensive plate and stave systems. Each system has advantages and disadvantages. The principal furnace cooling areas are: underhearth (which has ceased to be a cause of premature end of a furnace campaign); and shell cooling using plates, staves and refractories. Plate coolers, a traditional method of furnace cooling, have developed through the years. Current designs for critical locations in the furnace include double chamber and 6-pass, single chamber copper castings. Their disadvantage is the requirement for large apertures in the furnace shell for installation that complicates the design of the shell. Stave coolers, designed to give protection to the furnace shell, even if the refractory is lost, provide more uniform cooling compared with plate coolers and extract less heat from the furnace. Although damaged stave coolers are difficult to replace, an increasing number of plants are adopting this method of cooling. There are four main types of cooling water circuits: once-through; open recirculating; evaporative; and closed loop. Greatest control of fouling, micro biological and scaling conditions is provided by a closed-loop system. The lining of a blast furnace requires a wider range of refractories than any other process in iron and steelmaking. A recent example includes the application of the following materials: micropore carbon in the hearth wall; silicon carbide in the bosh, belly and lower stack; 65% alumina in the mid-stack; and staves in the upper stack.

Carmichael, I.F. [Davy International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-08-01

150

Simplified simulation of the transient behavior of temperatures in the upper shaft of the blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

The blast furnace is the principal process in the world for production of iron for primary steelmaking. The furnace acts as a huge countercurrent heat exchange and chemical reactor with complicated heat and mass transfer phenomena and chemical reactions. The flows of burden and gas in the blast furnace shaft strongly affect the fuel economy of the process. An optimal gas flow distribution, which is obtained by controlling the burden distribution, leads to a high utilization degree of the reducing gas, smooth burden descent, and little wear of the furnace lining. Here, a one-dimensional dynamic model of the upper part of the blast furnace shaft is applied to study the evolution of gas and burden temperatures, mainly in order to shed light on the transient phenomena after charging dumps of burden. The effects of irregularities in the burden descent and charging are also studied briefly. The simulations demonstrate that the temperatures of the burden layers in the lower part of the simulated region assume a quasi-steady state, indicating that the changes in the top gas temperature experienced immediately after a dump of burden arise primarily because of heat transfer between the gas and the dump. These results support the idea that such temporary changes can be interpreted in terms of distribution of the dumps on the burden surface.

Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland)

1998-06-01

151

Ultra-high injection of natural gas to increase blast furnace production: A white paper. Topical report, November 1994  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the possibility and the economic justification of improvements in blast furnace productivity through the use of natural gas injection at high rates are presented. The paper describes the effects of blast enrichment accompanied by natural gas fuel injection on the thermal profile and hydrodynamic parameters in a blast furnace. This technique promises significant increases in productivity with no loss of flexibility or operational stability. The hydrogen content of the supplemental fuel plays a key role in determining both the coke replacement rate and the extent to which the furnace thermal profile is altered. Obtaining the maximum benefits from blast enrichment and supplemental fuel injection will require the development of new techniques to set aim values. For a given production rate, efficient utilization of hydrogen in the blast furnace stack is more cost-effective than the reduction of iron ore by an external process to produce reduced iron feeds.

Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.K.

1994-11-01

152

Extracting the core indicators of pulverized coal for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An updated approach to refining the core indicators of pulverized coal used for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis is proposed in view of the disadvantages of the existing performance indicator system of pulverized coal used in blast furnaces. This presented method takes into account all the performance indicators of pulverized coal injection, including calorific value, igniting point, combustibility, reactivity, flowability, grindability, etc. Four core indicators of pulverized coal injection are selected and studied by using principal component analysis, namely, comprehensive combustibility, comprehensive reactivity, comprehensive flowability, and comprehensive grindability. The newly established core index system is not only beneficial to narrowing down current evaluation indices but also effective to avoid previous overlapping problems among indicators by mutually independent index design. Furthermore, a comprehensive property indicator is introduced on the basis of the four core indicators, and the injection properties of pulverized coal can be overall evaluated.

Guo, Hong-wei; Su, Bu-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Zhu, Meng-yi; Chang, Jian

2013-03-01

153

Thermal-destruction products of coal in the blast-furnace gas-purification system  

SciTech Connect

The lean, poorly clinkering coal and anthracite used to replace coke in blast furnaces has a considerable content of volatile components (low-molecular thermaldestruction products), which enter the water and sludge of the blast-furnace gas-purification system as petroleum products. Therefore, it is important to study the influence of coal on the petroleum-product content in the water and sludge within this system. The liberation of primary thermal-destruction products is investigated for anthracite with around 4 wt % volatiles, using a STA 449C Jupiter thermoanalyzer equipped with a QMC 230 mass spectrometer. The thermoanalyzer determines small changes in mass and thermal effects with high accuracy (weighing accuracy 10{sup -8} g; error in measuring thermal effects 1 mV). This permits experiments with single layers of coal particles, eliminating secondary reactions of its thermal-destruction products.

A.M. Amdur; M.V. Shibanova; E.V. Ental'tsev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Russia Institute of Metallurgy

2008-10-15

154

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

Michael F. Riley

2002-10-21

155

Removal of lead and chromium by activated slag -- A blast-furnace waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blast-furnace waste generated in steel plants has been converted into a low-cost adsorbent. The resulting activated slag has been characterized and used for the removal of lead and chromium. The effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentrations, presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time on the sorption of lead and chromium were studied in batch experiments. Kinetic

S. K. Srivastava; V. K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan

1997-01-01

156

Properties of concrete incorporating fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a laboratory study on the influence of combination of fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) on the properties of high-strength concrete. A contrast study was carried out for the concrete (GGFAC) incorporating FA and GGBS, control Portland cement concrete and high-volume FA high-strength concrete (HFAC). Assessments of the concrete mixes were based on short-

Gengying Li; Xiaohua Zhao

2003-01-01

157

An experimental study on corrosion resistance of concrete with ground granulate blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental test results on corrosion resistance of concrete containing ground granulate blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and ASTM Type I or ASTM Type V cement. To investigate the problem, a series of tests were performed. First, rapid chloride permeability tests were executed in accordance with ASTM C 1202 to determine the qualitative terms of chloride-ion penetrability. Second, accelerated chloride-ion

Kyong Yun Yeau; Eun Kyum Kim

2005-01-01

158

Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

2009-03-15

159

Localized Competition and the Aggregation of Plant-Level Increasing Returns: Blast Furnaces, 1929-1935  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent empirical literature has shaken economists' confidence in the value of aggregate (industry-level) data to illuminate production relationships. But the statistical finding 'you can't aggregate,' however well documented, is not an economic explanation. Plant-level relationships do aggregate in Depression-era blast furnace operations despite the presence of very substantial interplant heterogeneity, the most common economic cause of nonaggregability. The economic

Amy L. Bertin; Timothy F. Bresnahan; Daniel M. G. Raff

1996-01-01

160

Lead removal from aqueous solutions by granulated blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of lead by sorption on granulated blast-furnace slag has been investigated as a function of pH, the metal ion concentration, the particle size and the amount of sorbent. It has been established that the process occurs with increasing pH. It was found that the dependence of the process on pH is similar to the dependence of the formation

S. V. Dimitrova; D. R. Mehandgiev

1998-01-01

161

Microstructure and microanalysis of hardened cement pastes involving ground granulated blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and composition of hardened cement pastes of a wide range of blends of ground granulated blast-furnace slag with ordinary Portland cement have been studied, using techniques of transmission electron microscopy with microanalysis combined with electron microprobe analysis. Throughout the range, a calcium silicate hydrate gel (C-S-H) is the dominant cementing phase, present in the “inner product” within the

I. G. Richardson; G. W. Groves

1992-01-01

162

EFFECT OF CURING METHOD ON THE PROPERTIES OF BLAST FURNACE SLAG CONCRETE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research has been undertaken to study the effect of curing method on the mechanical properties and pore structure characteristics of concrete made with blast furnace slag. The results were compared with those of a control concrete made with ordinary Portland cement. The concrete mixtures were prepared with o.4 water\\/cementitious materials ratio. The cement content is 400 kg\\/m 3 with

M. Anwar; K. Yamada

2007-01-01

163

Effect of magnetic water on the engineering properties of concrete containing granulated blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the compressive strength and workability of mortar and concrete, which were mixed with magnetic water and contained granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS). The test variables included the magnetic strength of water, the content of GBFS in place of cement, and the water-to-binder ratio (W\\/B). Results show that the compressive strength of mortar samples mixed with magnetic water of

Nan Su; Yeong-Hwa Wu; Chung-Yo Mar

2000-01-01

164

Solid-particle erosion of a geopolymer containing fly ash and blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-particle erosion studies were conducted on a geopolymer derived from fly ash and granulated blast-furnace slag. The erodent particles, 390?m angular Al2O3, impacted at 30, 60, or 90° at a velocity of 50, 70, or 100m\\/s. Steady-state erosion rates (ER) were obtained and the material-loss mechanisms were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The geopolymer responded to normal impact as

K. C. Goretta; Nan Chen; F. Gutierrez-Mora; J. L. Routbort; G. C. Lukey; J. S. J. van Deventer

2004-01-01

165

Ultra low and negative expansion glass-ceramic materials produced from pyrophyllite and blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra low and negative expansion glass-ceramic materials have been obtained from pyrophyllite and blast furnace slag. The\\u000a batch composition was modified with the addition of lithium carbonate, hydrated alumina, boric acid and nucleating agent (titania).\\u000a The batch was melted at 1400°C followed by casting in the form of bars and annealed at 510°C for 4 h. The annealed specimens\\u000a were

S. Mandal; S. Chakrabarti; S. Ghatak; S. K. Das

2005-01-01

166

Development of an analytical equation for calculation of the blast furnace fuel rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical expressions are developed for calculating the specific fuel rate and the direct reduction rate for the iron blast furnace process as a function of blast conditions as well as other control parameters for the process. These are relevant for carbonaceous as well as hydrogenaceous gases in the system. The equations are based on an oxygen balance and a heat balance for the bottom half of the furnace, separated from the upper half at the location where equilibrium of the gas phase with wustite and iron is assumed to occur and where the temperatures of the gas and solid streams are approximately equal. The mass and heat balances employed are those which are the basis for the classical Rist diagram. Equations were also derived for the constraints of the Carbon-Direct Reduction (C-DRR) diagram, showing that this diagram and the Rist diagram emphasize different variables of the same model. An interpretation of the constraints operating in the diagrams is also given from the point of view of blast furnace operating practice.

Kundrat, David M.

1986-12-01

167

A Mechanism Model for Raceway Formation and Variation in a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a previous mechanical model is extended to predict raceway penetration in a blast furnace (BF) and to dynamically illustrate how raceway penetration varies over time after the blast velocity varies based on Newton's second law. The model is validated by industrial measurements, and more precise predictions have been obtained using the present model. Moreover, the effects of combustion reactions on the raceway shape and size are taken into account in the present model. The mechanism for raceway formation and variation revealed by the present model is as follows: Fast movements of packed bed above a raceway roof due to blast blowing rate variation make raceway size vary rapidly and form its prototype; combustion reactions modify raceway size and shape, and they maintain its stability.

Guo, Jing; Cheng, Shusen; Zhao, Hongbo; Pan, Hongwei; Du, Pengyu; Teng, Zhaojie

2013-06-01

168

Rema Stove  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is a "Rema Stove." It was invented by Bill Rema and the design was never patented. This is likely the only remaining stove of its kind. Dr. J. D. Love added a few elements, but it is essentially built to the original specifications. This stove was used extensively by USGS field scientists. Obj...

2009-07-22

169

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

Crelling, J.C.

1995-12-31

170

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

Not Available

1990-10-01

171

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1994-12-31

172

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2008-10-15

173

Study on the early warning mechanism for the security of blast furnace hearths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The campaign life of blast furnace (BF) hearths has become the limiting factor for safety and high efficiency production of modern BFs. However, the early warning mechanism of hearth security has not been clear. In this article, based on heat transfer calculations, heat flux and erosion monitoring, the features of heat flux and erosion were analyzed and compared among different types of hearths. The primary detecting elements, mathematical models, evaluating standards, and warning methods were discussed. A novel early warning mechanism with the three-level quantificational standards was proposed for BF hearth security.

Zhao, Hong-bo; Huo, Shou-feng; Cheng, Shu-sen

2013-04-01

174

Effect of alkali bypass dust on the hydration of granulated blast furnace slag blended cement  

SciTech Connect

The hydration properties of blended cements made from portland cement and a waste material obtained from a Birla White Cement Factory known as an Alkali Bypass Dust were studied. The results showed that 5 to 10 percent addition of this waste material in the portland cement decreased the water requirements, accelerated the hydration, decreased the porosity and increased the compressive strengths at all the ages of hydration. Hydration properties of granulated blast furnace slag blended portland cement in presence of 5% alkali bypass dust have also been studied. The extent of hydration decreased as the amount of slag is increased but the compressive strength values were higher at 28 days.

Singh, N.B.; Bhattacharjee, K.N.; Shukla, A.K. [Univ. of Gorakhpur (India). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Gorakhpur (India). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-05-01

175

Direct injection of natural gas in blast furnaces at high rates: Preliminary statistical analysis of blast furnace carbon balance at Armco-Middletown. Topical report, January 1990-September 1992  

SciTech Connect

The economic benefits of supplemental fuel injections depend, in part, on the coke replacement ratio. An assessment of the accuracy with which blast furnace coke rate may be measured and a determination of the key drivers of coke rate uncertainty are offered, to provide guidance for experiments in high-rate gas injection. Using statistical analysis tools, an expression for the measurement error associated with the various terms of blast furnace carbon balance is developed. Coke rate calculations based on the material balance are most sensitive to coke carbon content and to proper tracking of hot metal tapping schedule.

Neels, J.K.; Brown, F.C.

1992-09-01

176

Numerical analysis for the multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection inside blast furnace tuyere  

SciTech Connect

The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system was modified from single lance injection into double lance injection at No. 3 Blast Furnace of CSC. It is beneficial to reduce the cost of coke. However, the injected coal was found very close to the inner wall of the tuyere during the operation, such as to cause the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. In this study a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on a computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS to simulate the fluid flow phenomena inside blast furnace tuyere. The model was capable of handling steady-state, three-dimensional multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection. The model was applied to simulate the flow patterns of the injection coal inside the tuyere with two kinds of lance design for the PCI system. The distribution of injection coal was simulated such as to estimate the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. The calculated results agreed with the operating experience of CSC plant and the optimum design of double lance was suggested. The model was also applied to simulate the oxygen concentration distribution with these different oxygen enrichments for the coal/oxygen lance system. The calculated results agreed with the experimental measurement. These test results demonstrate that the model is both reasonably reliable and efficient.

Chen, C.W. [Diwan College of Management, Tainan (Taiwan)

2005-09-01

177

Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia.  

PubMed

The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1?m. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. PMID:24793329

Mohiuddin, Kazi; Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F; Stelcer, Eduard; Evans, Tim

2014-07-15

178

Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

2009-03-15

179

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced b...

J. C. Crelling

1995-01-01

180

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced b...

J. C. Crelling E. R. Case

1993-01-01

181

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal i...

J. C. Crelling E. R. Case

1993-01-01

182

Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag—An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of

Ha-Won Song; Velu Saraswathy

2006-01-01

183

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to da...

J. C. Crelling

1994-01-01

184

Process Development for the Removal of Zinc and Cadmium from Wastewater Using Slag—A Blast Furnace Waste Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag, a waste generated in steel plants in India, has been converted into a low cost potential adsorbent. The resulting product has been characterized and used for the removal of zinc and cadmium. The effect of particle size, contact time, and surface loading of zinc and cadmium on the adsorbent for their removal have been studied at the

V. K. Gupta; Arshi Rastogi; M. K. Dwivedi; Dinesh Mohan

1997-01-01

185

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced b...

J. C. Crelling

1994-01-01

186

AN INVESTIGATION OF FOREIGN BY-PRODUCT COKE PLANT AND BLAST FURNACE WASTEWATER CONTROL TECHNOLOGY AND REGULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine if more effective wastewater control technologies for by-product coke plant and blast furnace gas-cleaning wastewaters are used in foreign plants than in the U.S. Discussions were held with plant and corporate personnel at 26 plant...

187

Evaluation of Operation Records and Forward Applications of High Efficiency Blast Furnace Gas Firing Power Generation Boiler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Boiler No. 3 at the Chiba West Power Plant of Kawasaki Steel Corp. recently started commercial operation as the world's first high efficiency blast furnace gas firing power generation boiler. In a unit performance test conducted from March 17 to 20, 1984 ...

S. Ome T. Ishihara T. Toyoda

1984-01-01

188

Study of thaumasite and ettringite phases formed in sulfate\\/blast furnace slag slurries using XRD full pattern fitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thaumasite form of sulfate attack (TSA) has been investigated using a method known to accelerate the formation of the sulfate minerals thaumasite, ettringite and gypsum. Mixes containing different cements and aggregates in magnesium sulfate solution were prepared at different water:solid ratios. The work concentrated, in particular, on the role of blast furnace slag as a cementitious material in preventing

S. J. Barnett; M. A. Halliwell; N. J. Crammond; C. D. Adam; A. R. W. Jackson

2002-01-01

189

Microstructure and Properties of Zircon-Added Carbon Refractories for Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructure and properties of zircon-added carbon refractory specimens for blast furnace (BF) were investigated with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray, mercury porosimetry, and a laser thermal conductivity (TC) meter. Additives could influence the matrix structures and improve the properties of specimens. With the increase of zircon powder content, the amount of SiC whiskers formed increased and their aspect ratio became larger, and the SiC whiskers tended to be distributed homogeneously. Zircon powder additions decreased the mean pore diameter and increased <1- ?m pore volume by filling in pores via SiC, improved the TC and the cold crushing strength (CCS) due to the in-situ formation of the more well-developed SiC whiskers with high TC, and significantly reduced the molten iron attack to carbon specimens.

Zhu, Tianbin; Li, Yawei; Sang, Shaobai; Chen, Xilai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuanbing; Li, Shujing

2012-11-01

190

Fabrication of porous materials from blast furnace slag and glass materials by the hydrothermal treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since a large amount of blast furnace (BF) slag is generated, its new recycling processes for the production of valuable materials have been required. Development of reusing method for waste glasses is also strongly demanded. The authors have tried to fabricate porous materials from those two materials by using the hydrothermal treatment. In the present work, hydrothermal hot pressing technique was conducted at 250-350°C. From BF slag, a heat-insulating material was obtained, possessing the low thermal conductivity of 0.25 W / m K. SiO2-Na2O-B2O3 glass was converted into glass containing water which exhibits the foaming as low as 200°C and becomes porous glass material.

Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro

191

Hydrothermal preparation of tobermorite from blast furnace slag for Cs+ and Sr2+ sorption.  

PubMed

Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite was formed by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of blast furnace slag with sodium silicate added at 180°C for 2-48 h. Effects of the hydrothermal treatment time were characterized by XRD, SEM, and isothermal adsorption of N2. Sorption characteristics of the obtained samples were examined for Cs(+) and Sr(2+). The sample obtained by hydrothermal treatment for 48 h (HT-48 h) consisted of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), and Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite. The HT-48 h showed the highest performance for Cs(+) and Sr(2+) selectivity in the presence of Na(+). The interlayer Na(+) of Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite and surface Ca(2+) played an important role in selective Cs(+) and Sr(2+). PMID:24412625

Tsutsumi, Takuma; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Miyake, Michihiro

2014-02-15

192

Fe-Si droplets associated with graphite on blast furnace coke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe-Si droplets on the surface of blast furnace (BF) coke from 25 to 50 cm at the tuyere level are mostly composed of Fe3Si, which has various shapes (round, elongated, and irregular) and penetration degrees into the BF coke matrix. The shapes and penetration degrees may depend on the saturation of molten iron by silicon during interaction with the coke matrix. The droplets are covered by a tiny shell of carbon. Graphite observed inside the droplets can be divided into two categories: well-formed tabular crystals with relatively large size and flakes with structures similar as those in cast iron. The textures of the droplets reflect composition, interaction with the coke matrix, and cooling conditions.

Gornostayev, Stanislav S.; Fabritius, Timo M. J.; Kerkkonen, Olavi; Härkki, Jouko J.

2012-06-01

193

Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15

194

Compare pilot-scale and industry-scale models of pulverized coal combustion in an ironmaking blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the complex phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), mathematical models have been developed at different scales: pilot-scale model of coal combustion and industry-scale model (in-furnace model) of coal/coke combustion in a real BF respectively. This paper compares these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model capability. The model development is discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model capability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that these PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The in-furnace model is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviors and then optimizing the PCI operation in practice.

Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing; Zulli, Paul

2013-07-01

195

Ceramic stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ceramic stove that may be supplied in kit form includes a base frame, a cast iron firebox secured on the base frame, a top frame attached to and surrounding the top of the firebox, and ceramic panels extending between and held by the frames in spaced relation from the firebox. The ceramic panels are ''ship-lapped'' relative to each other

1984-01-01

196

The characterization of hardened alkali-activated blast-furnace slag pastes and the nature of the calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel is the principal binding phase in hardened OPC pastes and concretes, and also when the OPC has been partially replaced by pozzolanic by-products such as ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) and pulverized fuel ash. The C-S-H gels present in commercial blast-furnace slag and synthetic-slag glass pastes produced by hydrating with 5M KOH solution have been

I. G. Richardson; A. R. Brough; G. W. Groves; C. M. Dobson

1994-01-01

197

Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used. PMID:17462882

Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

2008-03-01

198

Mechanism of physical transformations of mineral matter in the blast furnace coke with reference to its reactivity and strength  

SciTech Connect

Examinations of polished and dry cut sections of feed and tuyere coke revealed some possible mechanisms for the physical influence of mineral compounds on the reactivity and strength of coke. It was observed that rounded particles of mineral phases that are exposed to the pore walls and surface of coke at high temperature create an inorganic cover, thus reducing the surface available for gas-solid reactions. The particles of mineral matter that have a low melting point and viscosity can affect the coke at earlier stages in the blast furnace process, acting in the upper parts of the blast furnace (BF). The temperature-driven redistribution of mineral phases within the coke matrix probably leads to the creation of weak spots and in general to anisotropy in its properties, thus reducing its strength. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2006-12-15

199

An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke  

SciTech Connect

Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2007-09-15

200

Thermodynamics of TiO{sub x} in blast furnace-type slags  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium studies between CaO-SiO{sub 2}-10 pct MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 1.5}-TiO{sub 2} slags, carbon-saturated iron, and a carbon monoxide atmosphere were performed at 1773 K to determine the activities of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} in the slag. These thermodynamic parameters are required to predict the formation of titanium carbonitride in the blast furnace. In order to calculate the activity of titanium oxide, the activity coefficient of titanium in carbon-saturated iron-carbon-titanium alloys was determined by measuring the solubility of titanium in carbon-saturated iron in equilibrium with titanium carbide. The solubility and the activity coefficient of titanium obtained were 1.3 pct and 0.023 relative to 1 wt pct titanium in liquid iron or 0.0013 relative to pure solid titanium at 1773 K, respectively. Over the concentration range studied, the effect of the TiO{sub x} content on its activity coefficient is small. In the slag system studied containing 35 to 50 pct CaO, 25 to 45 pct SiO{sub 2}, 7 to 22 pct Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 10 pct MgO, the activity coefficients of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} relative to pure solid standard states range from 2.3 to 8.8 and from 0.1 to 0.3, respectively. Using thermodynamic data obtained, the prediction of the formation of titanium carbonitride was made. Assuming hypothetical TiO{sub 2}, i.e., total titanium in the slag expressed as TiO{sub 2}, and using the values of the activity coefficients of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} determined, the equilibrium distribution of titanium between blast furnace-type slags and carbon-saturated iron was computed. The value of [pct Ti]/(pct TiO{sub 2}) ranges from 0.1 to 0.2.

Morizane, Y.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1999-02-01

201

Investigation of Abrasiveness Property of Blast Furnace Slag on Ceramic Coatings via the Abrasive Slurry Wear Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the abrasiveness property of blast furnace slags emerging as a waste material in the production of crude iron was investigated. The abrasive slurry wear (ASW) method was used for experiments. For abrasiveness tests, oxides (Al2O3, Al2O3–13% TiO2, Al2O3–40%TiO2, Cr2O3), including ceramics, which is coated on the AISI 1040 medium carbon steel surface via the plasma spray coating

Yilmaz Kucuk

2012-01-01

202

Removal of Arsenic(III) from Groundwater using Low-Cost Industrial By-products—Blast Furnace Slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag (BFS), a steel industrial by-product, was tested for the removal of As(III), which is a highly toxic, mobile and predominant species in anoxic groundwater. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to determine the feasibility of BFS as an adsorbent for removing As(III) from groundwater as As(III) concentration and the pH of water were varied. The maximum As(III) adsorption

Sushil Raj Kanel; Heechul Choi; Ju-Yong Kim; Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran; Wang Geun Shim

2006-01-01

203

Synergistic effect of fly ash and blast furnace slag on the mechanical strength of traditional porcelain tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash and blast furnace slag, the by-products of Indian thermal power plant and steel plant, were gradually added to a traditional kaolin—quartz—feldspar based porcelain tile compositions singly and in combination by replacing a part of quartz and feldspar, respectively. The effects of such additions were studied by measuring the linear shrinkage, bulk density, water absorption and flexural strength of

Kausik Dana; Jayanta Dey; Swapan Kumar Das

2005-01-01

204

Drilling fluid conversion: Selection and use of Portland or blast-furnace-slag cement  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of drilling mud to oilwell cement has advanced from an unpredictable laboratory curiosity to a practical reality. Recent field introduction of polymer dispersants, organic accelerators, and an alternative cementitious material have provided two refined and practical conversion methods. Each method claims universal applicability plus performance superior to that of conventionally mixed and pumped Portland cement. Both blast-furnace-slag (BFS) and Portland cement are used for drilling-mud conversion. Portland and BFS mud conversions can use the same recently developed polymer dispersants, filtration-control materials, defoamers, and other additives that are typically used to treat high-temperature, highly-salt-contaminated drilling muds. Experience in the field and laboratory has demonstrated that conversion with BFS or Portland cement is essentially one technology from a pilot-test and application standpoint. While use of these two materials reflects essentially one technology, distinct performance and cost differences exist. These differences define the specific economic application advantages and must be considered when a decision to use BFS or Portland cement is made. Rational selection of mud-to-cement conversion depends on a detailed economic comparison of basic materials, logistics, and equipment availability.

Schlemmer, R.P.; Branam, N.E.; Edwards, T.M.; Valenziano, R.C.

1994-12-01

205

Blast furnace slag can effectively remediate coastal marine sediments affected by organic enrichment.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need to control nutrient release fluxes from organically-enriched sediments into overlying waters to alleviate the effects of eutrophication. This study aims to characterize blast furnace slag (BFS) and evaluate its remediation performance on organically-enriched sediments in terms of suppressing nutrient fluxes and reducing acid volatile sulfide. BFS was mainly composed of inorganic substances such as CaO, SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and MgO in amorphous crystal phase. Container experiments showed that the phosphate concentration in the overlying water, its releasing flux from sediment and AVS of the sediment decreased by 17-23%, 39% and 16% compared to the control without BFS, respectively. The loss on ignition was significantly decreased by 3.6-11% compared to the control. Thus, the application of BFS to organically-enriched sediment has a suppressive role on organic matter, AVS concentration and phosphate releasing flux from sediments and therefore, is a good candidate as an effective environmental remediation agent. PMID:20003992

Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji

2010-04-01

206

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1). PMID:22826355

U?ur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Ye?ingil, Z

2013-01-01

207

Preparation of nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment by recycling of blast furnace flue dust.  

PubMed

Blast furnace (BF) flue dust is one of pollutants emitted by iron and steel plants. The recycling of BF flue dust can not only reduce pollution but also bring social and environmental benefits. In this study, leaching technique was employed to the treatment of BF flue dust at first. A mixed solution of ferrous and ferric sulfate was obtained and used as raw material to prepare nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment (Fe(3)O(4), magnetite) with NaOH as precipitant. The optimal technological conditions including total iron ion concentration, Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) mole ratio, precipitant concentration and reaction temperature were studied and discussed carefully. The spectral reflectance and oil absorption were used as major parameters to evaluate performance of pigment. Furthermore, Fe(3)O(4) particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under optimized conditions obtained pigment has low average spectral reflectance (<4%), good oil absorption ( approximately 23%), high black intensity, and narrow size distribution 60-70 nm. PMID:20064689

Shen, Lazhen; Qiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Yong; Tan, Junru

2010-05-15

208

Stabilization of chloro-organics using organophilic bentonite in a cement-blast furnace slag matrix.  

PubMed

The application of cement-based stabilisation/solidification treatment to organic-containing wastes is made difficult by the adverse effect of organics on cement hydration. The use of organophilic clays as pre-solidification adsorbents of the organic compounds can reduce this problem because of the high adsorption power of these clays and their compatibility with the cementitious matrix. This work presents an investigation of the effect on hydration kinetics, physico-mechanical properties and leaching behaviour of cement-based solidified waste forms containing 2-chlorophenol and 1-chloronapthalene adsorbed on organophilic bentonites. These were prepared by cation exchange with benzyldimethyloctadecylammonium chloride and trimethyloctadecylammonium chloride. The binder was a 30% pozzolanic cement, 70% granulated blast furnace slag mixture. Several binder-to-bentonite ratios and different concentrations of the organics on the bentonite were used. Kinetics of hydration were studied by measurement of chemically bound water and by means of thermal and calorimetric analyses. Microstructure and other physico-mechanical properties of the solidified forms were studied by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy and unconfined compressive strength measurement. Leaching was checked by two different leaching tests: one dynamic, on monolithic samples, and the other static, on powdered samples. This study indicates that the incorporation of the organic-loaded bentonite in the binder matrix causes modifications in the hardened samples by altering cement hydration. The effects of the two organic contaminants are differentiated. PMID:11530921

Cioffi, R; Maffucci, L; Santoro, L; Glasser, F P

2001-01-01

209

Phase Development of NaOH Activated Blast Furnace Slag Geopolymers Cured at 90 deg. C  

SciTech Connect

Geopolymers were synthesized from blast furnace slag activated with different levels of NaOH and cured at 90 deg. C. The crystalline and amorphous phases of the resulting geopolymers were characterized by XRD quantitative analysis, and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR. Amorphous species are predominant in materials at all NaOH levels. In the amorphous phase, aluminium substituted silicate species (Q{sup 2}(1Al)) dominated among the species of Q{sup 0}, Q{sup 1}, Q{sup 2}(1Al) and Q{sup 2}(where Q{sup n}(mAl) denotes a silicate tetrahedron [SiO{sub 4}] with n bridging oxygen atoms and m adjacent tetrahedra substituted with an aluminate tetrahedron [AlO{sub 4}]). In addition, it was also found that 4-fold coordination aluminium [AlO{sub 4}] species ({sup 27}Al chemical shift 66.1 ppm) in low NaOH containing materials differs from the species ({sup 27}Al chemical shift 74.3 ppm) in high NaOH containing materials.

Zhang Bo; Bigley, C.; Ryan, M. J. [Industrial Research Limited, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); MacKenzie, K. J. D. [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Brown, I. W. M. [Industrial Research Limited, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)

2009-07-23

210

Chloride leaching from air pollution control residues solidified using ground granulated blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs) has been used to solidify air pollution control (APC) residues obtained from a major UK energy-from-waste plant. Samples were prepared with ggbs additions between 10 and 50 wt% of total dry mass and water/solids ratios between 0.35 and 0.80. Consistence, setting time, compressive strength and leaching characteristics have been investigated. Results indicated that the highly alkaline nature of APC residues due to the presence of free lime can be used to activate ggbs hydration reactions. Increasing ggbs additions and reducing the water content resulted in increased compressive strengths, with 50 wt% ggbs samples having average 28 d strengths of 20.6 MPa. Leaching tests indicate low physical encapsulation and minimal chemical fixation of chloride in ggbs solidified APC residues. The results suggest that more than 50 wt% ggbs additions would be required to treat APC residues to meet the current waste acceptance criteria limits for chloride. PMID:18805564

Lampris, Christos; Stegemann, Julia A; Cheeseman, Christopher R

2008-11-01

211

Ultrasonic-Assisted Acid Leaching of Indium from Blast Furnace Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic-assisted acid leaching was used to improve extraction of indium from blast furnace sludge. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time on extraction of indium were investigated and three leaching methods of high temperature acid leaching (HL), ultrasonic acid leaching (UL), and high temperature-ultrasonic acid leaching (HUL) were compared. The results show that extraction of indium increases with leaching time for all the methods. UL exhibits the lowest indium extraction. For HL, extraction of indium reaches 32.6 pct when the leaching time is 4 hours, and after 4 hours, the extraction increases slowly. Leaching temperature has a more positive effect on extraction of indium than ultrasonic. HUL can lead to a higher extraction of indium than high temperature acid leaching and UL, and extraction of indium reaches 40.4 pct when the leaching time is 2 hours. After 2 hours, no obvious increase occurs. HUL not only increases extraction of indium but also reduces the leaching time which can improve production efficiency.

Shen, Xingmei; Li, Liaosha; Wu, Zhaojin; Lü, Huihong; Lü, Jia

2013-12-01

212

Preparation of glass-forming materials from granulated blast furnace slag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass precursor materials, to be used for the vitrification of hazardous wastes, have been prepared from blast furnace slag powder through a sol-gel route. The slag is initially reacted with a mixture of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) and mineral acid (HNO3 or H2SO4) to give a sol principally consisting of Si, Ca, Al, and Mg alkoxides. Gelation is carried out with variable amounts of either ammonia or water. The gelation rate can be made as fast as desired by adding excess hydrolizing agent or else by distilling the excess alcohol out of the alkoxide solution. The resulting gel is first dried at low temperature and ground. The powder thus obtained is then heat treated at several temperatures. The intermediate and final materials are characterized by thermal analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. From the results, the operating conditions yielding a variety of glass precursors differing in their composition are established. The method, in comparison with direct vitrification of slag, presents a number of advantages: (1) the glass precursor obtained devitrifies at higher temperatures; (2) it enables the adjustment, to a certain extent, of the chemical composition of the glass precursor; and (3) it permits recovering marketable materials at different stages of the process.

Alonso, M.; Sáinz, E.; Lopez, F. A.

1996-10-01

213

Use of blast furnace granulated slag as a substrate in vertical flow reed beds: field application.  

PubMed

Research was conducted at Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey in 2000 to determine whether a reed bed filled with an economical Turkish fill media that has high phosphorus (P) sorption capacity, could be implemented and operated successfully under field conditions. In batch-scale P-sorption experiments, the P-sorption capacity of the blast furnace granulated slag (BFGS) of KARDEMIR Iron and Steel Ltd., Co., Turkey, was found to be higher compared to other candidate filter materials due to its higher Ca content and porous structure. In this regard, a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) (30 m(2)), planted with Phragmites australis was implemented at METU to treat primarily treated domestic wastewater, at a hydraulic rate of 100 mm d(-1), intermittently. The layers of the filtration media constituted of sand, BFGS, and gravel. According to the first year monitoring study, average influent and effluent total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were 6.61+/-1.78 mg L(-1) and 3.18+/-1.82 mg L(-1); respectively. After 12 months, slag samples were taken from the reed bed and P-extraction experiments were performed to elucidate the dominant P-retention mechanisms. Main pools for P-retention were the loosely-bounded and Ca-bounded P due to the material's basic conditions (average pH>7.7) and higher Ca content. This study indicated the potential use of the slag reed bed with higher P-removal capacity for secondary and tertiary treatment under the field conditions. However, the P-sorption isotherms obtained under the laboratory conditions could not be used favorably to determine the longevity of the reed bed in terms of P-retention. PMID:17070037

Asuman Korkusuz, E; Beklio?lu, Meryem; Demirer, Göksel N

2007-08-01

214

An approach for phosphate removal with quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag as seed crystal.  

PubMed

The phosphate removal abilities and crystallization performance of quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag were investigated. The residual phosphate concentrations in the reaction solutions were not changed by addition of the ceramsite, quartz sand and blast furnace slag. The steel slag could provide alkalinity and Ca(2+) to the reaction solution due to its hydration activity, and performed a better phosphate removal performance than the other three. Under the conditions of Ca/P 2.0, pH 8.5 and 10 mg P/L, the phosphate crystallization occurred during 12 h. The quartz sand and ceramsite did not improve the phosphate crystallization, but steel slag was an effective seed crystal. The phosphate concentration decreased drastically after 12 h after addition of steel slag, and near complete removal was achieved after 48 h. The XRD analysis showed that the main crystallization products were hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the crystallinity increased with the reaction time. Phosphate was successfully recovered from low phosphate concentration wastewater using steel slag as seed material. PMID:22378001

Qiu, Liping; Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Shoubin; Yang, Zhongxi; Li, Yanbo

2012-01-01

215

The Evolution of Structural Order as a Measure of Thermal History of Coke in the Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations were carried out on cokes heat treated in the laboratory and on cokes extracted from the experimental blast furnace (EBF) raceway and hearth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to investigate changes in structural order ( L c), chemical transformations in coke ash along with comparative thermodynamic equilibrium studies and the influence of melt. Three data processing approaches were used to compute L c values as a function of temperature and time and linear correlations were established between L c and heat treatment temperatures during laboratory investigations. These were used to estimate temperatures experienced by coke in various regions of EBF and estimated raceway temperatures were seen to follow the profile of combustion peak. The MgAl2O4 spinel was observed in coke submerged in slag during laboratory studies and in cokes found further into the raceway. Coke in contact with hot metal showed XRD peaks corresponding to presence of Fe3Si. The intensity of SiO2 peak in coke ash was seen to decrease with increasing temperature and disappeared at around 1770 K (1500 °C) due to the formation of SiC. This study has shown that the evolution of structural order and chemical transformations in coke could be used to estimate its thermal history in blast furnaces.

Lundgren, Maria; Khanna, Rita; Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo

2014-04-01

216

Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Pieces of shredded tires are fed into the top of a vertical pyrolyzing furnace in a measured amount using a weighing hopper feed mechanism. Heated gas is introduced through inlet and pyrolyzing the tire pieces on a countercurrent flow principle to produce useful hydrocarbon volatiles and residues. The pyrolyzed residue including tire reinforcing wires are efficiently removed from the furnace by a plurality of downwardly inclined screw conveyors disposed in troughs. Each screw conveyor extends into an inclined conduit and discharges into a vertical branch conduit disposed at least partially within the cross-section of the furnace so that even discharge of the pyrolyzed residue is ensured by the combined action of gravity and the screw conveyors.

Cooke, J.C.; Tilley, F.H.

1983-06-14

217

Kinetic sorption modelling of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr ions to pine bark and blast furnace slag by using batch experiments.  

PubMed

Storm water and landfill leachate can both contain significant amounts of toxic metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni. Pine bark and blast furnace slag are both residual waste products that have shown a large potential for metal removal from contaminated water. There are however many variables that must be optimized in order to achieve efficient metal retention. One of these variables is the time of which the solution is in contact with each unit of filter material. Metal sorption was studied in two laboratory experiments to improve the knowledge of the effects of contact time. The results showed that pine bark was generally more efficient than blast furnace slag when the metal concentrations were relatively small, whereas blast furnace slag sorbed most metals to a larger extent at increased metal loads. In addition, sorption to blast furnace slag was found to be faster than metal binding to pine bark. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model was able to describe the data well within 1000 s of reaction time. PMID:17532623

Nehrenheim, E; Gustafsson, J P

2008-04-01

218

Strength development of mortars containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag: Effect of curing temperature and determination of apparent activation energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength development of mortars containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag (ggbs) and portland cement was investigated. Variables were the level of ggbs in the binder, water–binder ratio and curing temperature. All mortars gain strength more rapidly at higher temperatures and have a lower calculated ultimate strength. The early age strength is much more sensitive to temperature for higher levels of

S. J. Barnett; M. N. Soutsos; S. G. Millard; J. H. Bungey

2006-01-01

219

TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates  

SciTech Connect

Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

2005-04-15

220

Development of an Operation Support System for the Blast Furnace in the Ironmaking Process: Large-scale Database-based Online Modeling and Integrated Simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the pig-ironmaking process, factors that cause operation malfunctions have increased with both the enlargement of the blast furnace and the increasing use of low quality ore. Therefore, an operation support system that predicts blast furnace performance is demanded. This paper reports the development of a blast furnace operation support system with an integrated simulator and “Large-scale database-based Online Modeling (LOM).” To develop the integrated simulator, a sophisticated burden distribution model is integrated with a two-dimensional total internal phenomenon model for the stationary state by using Java technology. Moreover, an integrated simulator for the partial non-stationary state is developed by modifying the two-dimensional total internal phenomenon model for the stationary state. To incorporate the LOM system into the operation support system, a cross-platform LOM system with general versatility is rebuilt by an existing LOM system. The operation support system is realized by the simulator of the physical modeling method and the LOM of the local modeling method. As a result, the operation support system predicts a dynamic molten pig-iron temperature in the blast furnace. The operation support system is expected to provide staff with useful information.

Ogai, Harutoshi; Ogawa, Masatoshi; Uchida, Kenko; Matsuzaki, Shinroku; Ito, Masahiro

221

Effects of partial substitution of lime with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) on the strength properties of lime-stabilised sulphate-bearing clay soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing global awareness of environmental pollution as well as increasing waste material disposal legislation is providing impetus for material upgrading by stabilisation of in situ soil as an alternative to its export to land-fill and replacement by imported granular fill. The use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), an industrial by-product, is well established as a binder in many

S Wild; J. M Kinuthia; G. I Jones; D. D Higgins

1998-01-01

222

Use of residual fuel oil in blast furnace operations. January, 1966-May, 1981 (citations from the Metals Abstracts Data Base). Report for January 1966-May 1981  

SciTech Connect

The use of residual fuel oil for blast furnace operations as opposed to natural gas is discussed. The effects of fuel additives and high sulfur content are discussed in terms of corrosion by sulfur and heavy metals, as well as the effects of these elements on the sulfur and heavy metal content of products. (Contains 106 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1981-05-01

223

Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag--An overview.  

PubMed

The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of depositing industrial wastes. The utilization of GGBFS as partial replacement of Portland cement takes advantage of economic, technical and environmental benefits of this material. Recently offshore, coastal and marine concrete structures were constructed using GGBFS concrete because high volume of GGBFS can contribute to the reduction of chloride ingress. In this paper, the influence of using GGBFS in reinforced concrete structures from the durability aspects such as chloride ingress and corrosion resistance, long term durability, microstructure and porosity of GGBFS concrete has been reviewed and discussed. PMID:16930831

Song, Ha-Won; Saraswathy, Velu

2006-11-16

224

Effect of the content of the crystalline and vitreous phases of blast-furnace slags on their properties  

SciTech Connect

Studies carried out on the hydrochannel granulation plant with a variety of blast-furnace slag from the southern Ukraine determined that, depending on their cooling conditions, it was possible to obtain materials with differing contents of the crystalline and glassy phases which have different porosities. These studies showed that, depending on the changes in these features, ordinary (solid) or porous granulated slag or slag pumice with different properties was obtained. The dependence of the hydraulic activity of the materials obtained (and cements based on them) on the cooling conditions of the melts (specific flow rates of water) has been shown to have an extremum and a maximum. The maximum value of the hydraulic activity has been determined to correspond to granulated slag which has a porous structure and contains 6-26% crystalline phase (mainly melilite), while the remainder consists of amorphous and devitrified glass, the content of the latter being of the order of 20-40%.

Gindis, Ya.P.

1987-10-01

225

Furnace  

SciTech Connect

A furnace is described. An elongate, cylindrical, combustion chamber is disposed horizontally in combination with a blower conduit means for creating a forced draft therein. The furnace is provided with an elongate water jacket surrounding the combustion chamber. The water jacket has a cylindrical outer wall and a heat-conducting, concentric, inner common wall, which forms the outer wall of the combustion chamber. An elongate water compartment is located entirely outside of the water jacket. A first heat transfer means comprises a first set of elongate, parallel fire-tubes axially-disposed in the water jacket in heat exchange relation with the water therein. Second heat transfer means comprising a second set of elongate, parallel fire-tubes axially-disposed in the water compartment in heat exchange relation with the water. Flow of water is directed through the inlet means, the first and second heat transfer means and the outlet means in succession, first into the water compartment in direct heat exchange with the second set of fire-tubes therein and then into the water jacket in direct heat exchange with the first set of fire-tubes therein and in indirect heat exchange with the combustion chamber through the common wall. The flow of combustion gases goes from the combustion chamber through the first and second sets of fire-tubes in succession. Conduit means is in heat exchange relation with the inlet which are air-filled, and from a closed pipe system. The thermally insulating layer rests on the pipes with sides of the thermally insulating layer carrying the lateral reflectors. The thermally insulating layer is provided with a dust lining on a side of the thermally insulating layer facing away from the pipes. Combustion air supplied to the burner is preheated together with a heating medium conveyed in the pipes, the heating medium consisting of the waste gases and the system air.

Walker, L.; Taylor, T.A.

1986-04-15

226

29Si and 27Al high-resolution NMR characterization of calcium silicate hydrate phases in activated blast-furnace slag pastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of improving mechanical properties of activated blast-furnace slag cements, a set of hardened pastes of 28 days age were analyzed by 29Si and 27Al high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at 9.4 T. Structural and compositional differences among C-S-H phases obtained with different activation and curing conditions were characterized by NMR. Activation of the slag was done with

J Schneider; M. A Cincotto; H Panepucci

2001-01-01

227

An experimental study on the properties of resistance to diffusion of chloride ions of fly ash and blast furnace slag concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the Nernst–Einstein equation to calculate the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions of high-performance concrete (HPC), analyzing and discussing the property of resistance to chloride ion of HPC with fly ash or blast furnace slag. The experimental results show that the diffusion coefficient of chloride ion increases with the rise of the water–binder ratio and decreases with the

Faguang Leng; Naiqian Feng; Xinying Lu

2000-01-01

228

Investigative monitoring within the European Water Framework Directive: a coastal blast furnace slag disposal, as an example.  

PubMed

The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection of estuarine and coastal waters, with the most important objective being to achieve 'good ecological status' for all waters, by 2015. Hence, Member States are establishing programmes for the monitoring of water quality status, through the assessment of ecological and chemical elements. These monitoring programmes can be of three types: surveillance monitoring; operational monitoring (both undertaken on a routine basis); and investigative monitoring (carried out where the reason of any exceedance for ecological and chemical status is unknown). Until now, nothing has been developed in relation to investigative monitoring and no clear guidance exists for this type of monitoring, as it must be tackled on a 'case-by-case' basis. Consequently, the present study uses slag disposal from a blast furnace, into a coastal area, as a case-study in the implementation of investigative monitoring, according to the WFD. In order to investigate the potential threat of such slags, this contribution includes: a geophysical study, to determine the extent of the disposal area; sediment analysis; a chemical metal analysis; and an ecotoxicological study (including a Microtox test and an amphipod bioassay). The results show that metal concentrations are several times above the background concentration. However, only one of the stations showed toxicity after acute toxicological tests, with the benthic communities being in a good status. The approaches used here show that contaminants are not bioavailable and that no management actions are required with the slags. PMID:18385866

Borja, Angel; Tueros, Itziar; Belzunce, Ma Jesús; Galparsoro, Ibon; Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Revilla, Marta; Solaun, Oihana; Valencia, Victoriano

2008-04-01

229

Preparation of a new sorbent with hydrated lime and blast furnace slag for phosphorus removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The removal of dissolvable inorganic phosphate (H(2)PO(4)(-)) by sorbents prepared from hydrated lime (HL) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was fundamentally studied by an orthogonal experiment design. Based on statistic analysis, it is revealed that the weight ratio of BFS/HL is the most significant variable, and an optimized preparation condition is figured out. With the increase of HL content, the adsorption capacity increases, suggesting that the HL plays the important role in the removal process in the gross. However, in the lower HL content, it is interesting that the adsorption capacity of as-prepared sorbents exceed the sum of the capacities of the same ratio of BFS and HL. The further analysis indicate the excess capacities linearly depend on the specific surface area of sorbents, suggesting that the removal of H(2)PO(4)(-) is closely related with the microstructure of sorbents in the lower HL content, according to the characterization with SEM, XRD and pore analysis. Additionally, an adsorption model and kinetic are discussed in this paper. PMID:19124194

Gong, Guozhuo; Ye, Shufeng; Tian, Yajun; Wang, Qi; Ni, Jiandi; Chen, Yunfa

2009-07-30

230

Effect of ?-irradiation on the electrical conductivity of some soda lime silicate glass containing blast furnace slag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of electric field strength on conduction in soda lime silicate glass doped with blast furnace slag with different concentration was studied and the value of jump distance was calculated. The structure and the mixed anion effect in the conductivity have been examined by measuring the electrical conductivity of glass samples at temperature ranging between 20 and 250 °C. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the examined glasses are divided into three ranges depending on the temperature range. The first is from room temperature to about 49.5 °C, the second is at a temperature range of 60.3-104 °C where the glass shows a decrease in its conductivity with the increase in temperature. This was followed by another increase in the electrical conductivity with the increase in temperature. The results also showed that the glass becomes more insulating as the slag content increased. The effect of irradiation was also studied by exposing glass samples to two different irradiation doses. It can be noticed that irradiation causes an increase in the electrical conductivity, especially at high temperature. The results were discussed and correlated according to the molecular structure of the prepared glass.

Elalaily, N. A.; Khalil, Magda M. I.; Ahmed, L. S.

2007-03-01

231

Use of steel plant revert and reclaimed materials in the belt-fed, bell-less top, Fairfield No. 8 blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Fairfield No. 8 Blast Furnace was blown-in November 1978, with a hearth diameter of 32 feet, a working volume of 77,520 cubic feet and 26 double compartment type tuyeres. Built for a pellet/sinter burden, the stockhouse was designed with four large silos (40,000 ft[sup 3]) to store ferrous materials, three large coke silos (34,000 ft[sup 3]) and four smaller silos (12,500 ft[sup 3]) to store miscellaneous materials. Collector belts under the silos feed four ferrous weigh hoppers, two coke weigh hoppers and one miscellaneous weigh hopper. The furnace bell-less top is fed with one main conveyor belt. The original intent of the miscellaneous system was to add trim amounts of flux and small additions of manganese ore. However, in 1982 the sinter plant was shut down and the blast furnace iron bearing charge material became acid pellets and ore. As a result, much more of these miscellaneous materials had to be charged. This paper describes the utilization of reclaimed raw material fines, with an emphasis on burden distribution parameters, the changes to the stockhouse required to evenly distribute these materials, and the changes in coke rate and furnace operating performance.

Obert, C.J. (U.S. Steel, Fairfield, AL (United States). Fairfield Works); Oshnock, T.W. (U.S. Steel Technical Center, Monroeville, PA (United States))

1993-01-01

232

Fireplace heater stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cylindrical wood-burning firebox is surrounded by a cylindrical metal outer shell which together comprise a convection heater stove which fits into any of various sizes of fireplaces with the cylinder axes directed into the fireplace. Room air enters the lower front portion of the stove between the firebox and the outer shell, is drawn toward the rear of the

Pierce

1982-01-01

233

Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder.  

PubMed

A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO(4)(2-) from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO(4)(2-) releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO(4)(2-) from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m(-2), which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum. PMID:22440404

Zhong, Shiyun; Ni, Kun; Li, Jinmei

2012-07-01

234

Phase relations associated with the aluminum blast furnace: Aluminum oxycarbide melts and Al-C-X (X=Fe, Si) liquid alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic properties and the phase relations were evaluated and estimated for the Al-O-C, Al-Si-C, and Al-Fe-C systems\\u000a which are important to understand the chemical behavior in an aluminum blast furnace. The mixing properties of binary liquid\\u000a alloys, including metal-carbon systems, were represented by the Redlich-Kister equation. The properties of liquid Al?C and\\u000a Si?C alloys were estimated so as to

Harumi Yokokawa; Masao Fujishige; Seiichi Ujiie; Masayuki Dokiya

1987-01-01

235

The structure of the calcium silicate hydrate phases present in hardened pastes of white Portland cement\\/blast-furnace slag blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The C-S-H gels present in both water- and alkali-activated hardened pastes of white Portland cement\\/blast-furnace slag blends\\u000a have been studied by solid-state 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM).\\u000a Structural data are obtained by NMR for the semi-crystalline C-S-H gels in the alkali-activated systems and extended to the\\u000a nearly amorphous gels in

I. G Richardson; G. W Groves

1997-01-01

236

Blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in aswan governorate, Upper Egypt, as an adsorbent for the removal of merocyanine dye from its aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The adsorption potential of the blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in Aswan Governorate, Egypt, to decolorize aqueous solutions of 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one 4[2] merocyanine dye (1) was investigated at room temperature. The influence of the solution pH, the quantity of adsorbent, the initial concentration of 1, and the applied contact time were studied with the batch technique. The maximum percentage of removal of 1 was observed at pH 4. The adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich than by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, confirming the formation of monolayers of 1 on the adsorbent surface. Kinetic rate constants and the transient behavior at different initial concentrations of 1 were determined with both the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and the Ho and McKay pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The calculated kinetic parameters revealed that the adsorption of 1 on blast furnace slag followed a second-order chemisorption process. PMID:20397223

Taha, Gharib Mahmoud; Mosaed, Taghreed Mahmoud

2010-04-01

237

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air tight wood burning stove (10) for heating a designated space comprises a housing (12) having an access opening (50) in the front wall (14) thereof and at least one glass panel (64) containing door (54, 56) hingedly mounted on the front wall for closing the opening (50). A latching mechanism (60) on the door (54, 56) engages with

1982-01-01

238

Strength, leachability and microstructure characterisation of Na2SiO3-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag solidified MSWI fly ash.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and the leachability of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were measured and analysed. For the leachability of unstabilized MSWI fly ash it was found that the concentrations of Pb and Cr exceeded the leaching toxicity standard. Cementitious solidification of the MSWI fly ash by Na2SiO3-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag (NS) was investigated. Results show that all solidified MSWI fly ash can meet the landfill standards after 28 days of curing. The heavy metals were immobilized within the hydration products such as C-S-H gel and ettringite through physical encapsulation, substitution, precipitation or adsorption mechanisms. PMID:17985665

Zhang, Dajie; Liu, Wenshi; Hou, Haobo; He, Xinghua

2007-10-01

239

Simulation of blast-furnace raceway conditions in a wire-mesh reactor: interference by the reactions of molybdenum mesh and initial results  

SciTech Connect

A novel trapped air injection system has been built for a wire-mesh reactor to enable tests with short exposure times to air that are intended to simulate typical residence times in blast-furnace raceways. Initial tests have shown that the molybdenum wire-mesh sample-holder reacts with O{sub 2} under conditions intended for this work. By varying the proportions of solid MoO{sub 2} (weight gain), vapor phase oxides (weight loss) may form, depending on reaction conditions. Oxide formation pathways thus become relevant to coal weight loss determinations during experiments. If, in addition to solid MoO{sub 2} formation, significant formation of vapor phase oxides occurs, then the weight change is more complicated to understand and the impact on the O{sub 2} concentration cannot be unravelled. Furthermore, it turns out that O{sub 2}-scavenging by the mesh affects the amount of O{sub 2} that is available to react with the coal sample. It was concluded that it is only possible to conduct reliable tests under conditions which the favor the formation of solid MoO{sub 2} only, as this leads to a quantifiable weight gain. Its impact can then be accounted for in the evaluation of the experimental weight change. In the case of MoO{sub 2} formation, the impact of the mesh oxidation on the amount of O{sub 2} available to react with the sample can also be estimated. It has been found that the wire-mesh reactor, equipped with the trapped air injection system, can be used to obtain valid data at up to 1600{sup o} C and 0.5 MPa. This pressure is similar to that of the blast-furnace raceway, but the temperature is several hundred degrees lower. However, preliminary tests have shown that useful kinetic data on the extents of reaction can be obtained with the equipment, provided it is operated under conditions that minimize the formation of vapor phase Mo oxides. 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Long Wu; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2006-12-15

240

68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. INTERIOR OF CAST HOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

241

7. LOOKING EAST AT HOIST HOUSE No. 1 AND BLAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. LOOKING EAST AT HOIST HOUSE No. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE No. 1, WITH ORE YARD AND ORE BRIDGES IN FOREGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

242

Diffusion of improved biomass stoves in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large-scale utilization of inefficient biofuel stoves for cooking and heating in the rural areas of China can cause ecological and environmental problems; thus, in 1982, the Chinese government encouraged the diffusion of improved biomass stoves. From 1982 to 1994, these improved biomass stoves have been used by 144 million households or the equivalent of 90% of all improved stoves

Peter Catania; Kun Huang

1996-01-01

243

Improvement of ground granulated blast furnace slag on stabilization/solidification of simulated mercury-doped wastes in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics.  

PubMed

This paper investigated the effectiveness of (ground granulated blast furnace slag) GGBFS-added chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) matrix on the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of mercury chloride and simulated mercury-bearing light bulbs (SMLB). The results showed that the maximal compressive strength was achieved when 15% and 10% ground GGBFS was added for HgCl(2)-doped and SMLB-doped CBPC matrices, respectively. The S/S performances of GGBFS-added matrices were significantly better than non-additive matrices. As pore size was reduced, the leaching concentration of Hg(2+) from GGBFS-added CBPC matrix could be reduced from 697 microg/L to about 3 microg/L when treating HgCl(2). Meanwhile, the main hydrating product of GGBFS-added matrices was still MgKPO(4).6H(2)O. The improvement of S/S effectiveness was mainly due to physical filling of fine GGBFS particles and microencapsulation of chemical cementing gel. PMID:18289781

Liu, Zhongzhe; Qian, Guangren; Zhou, Jizhi; Li, Chuanhua; Xu, Yunfeng; Qin, Zhe

2008-08-30

244

Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag  

SciTech Connect

The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH){sub 2} and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH){sub 2} occurs only with the use of Ca(OH){sub 2}, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH){sub 2}. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH){sub 2} causes some degree of carbonation.

Kim, Min Sik; Jun, Yubin; Lee, Changha, E-mail: clee@unist.ac.kr; Oh, Jae Eun, E-mail: ohjaeeun@unist.ac.kr

2013-12-15

245

The Effect of P2O5 on the Crystallization Behaviors of Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slags Using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper investigates how the P2O5 addition influences the crystallization behaviors of Ti-bearing blast furnace (Ti-BF) slags with different basicity using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique. It was found that the basicity showed a significant effect on the crystallization behaviors of the Ti-BF slags, and the trend of formation of the rod-shape crystal decreased while the trend of formation of dendrite crystal increased with increasing basicity. The addition of P2O5 was found to promote the formation of rod-shape crystal. The basicity and crystallization temperature that the rod-shape crystal could be formed increased, while the incubation time of formation of the rod-shape crystal decreased with increasing P2O5 content. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to observe the morphology and determine the crystalline phase of the Ti-enriched crystals. The results indicated that the rod-shape crystal was rutile. The kinetics of the formation of rutile was studied, and the mechanism of crystallization and growth was further discussed. The results indicated that the crystallization of rutile was one-dimensional interface-controlled growth, and the nucleation rate varied with the holding time.

Sun, Yongqi; Li, Jing; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

2014-04-01

246

102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust gases to stoves during heating cycle. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

247

Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves and Improved Stove Emission Equipment  

SciTech Connect

In developing countries, there is an urgent need for access to safe, efficient, and more affordable cooking technologies. Nearly 2.5 billion people currently use an open fire or traditional cookstove to prepare their meals, and recent models predict that use of biomass for cooking will continue to be the dominant energy use in rural, resource-poor households through 2030. For these families, cooking poses serious risks to health, safety, and income. An alarming 4 million people, primarily women and children, die prematurely each year from indoor and outdoor exposure to the harmful emissions released by solid fuel combustion. Use of traditional stoves can also have a significant impact on deforestation and climate change. This dire situation creates a critical need for cookstoves that significantly and verifiably reduce fuel use and emissions in order to reach protective levels for human health and the environment. Additionally, advances in the scientific equipment needed to measure and monitor stove fuel use and emissions have not kept pace with the significant need within the industry. While several testing centers in the developed world may have hundred thousand-dollar emissions testing systems, organizations in the field have had little more than a thermometer, a scale, and subjective observations to quantify the performance of stove designs. There is an urgent need for easy-to-use, inexpensive, accurate, and robust stove testing equipment for use by laboratory and field researchers around the world. ASAT and their research partner, Aprovecho Research Center (ARC), have over thirty years of experience addressing these two needs, improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment, with expertise spanning the full spectrum of development from conceptual design to product manufacturing and dissemination. This includes: 1) research, design, and verification of clean biomass cookstove technology and emissions monitoring equipment; 2) mass production of quality-controlled stove and emissions equipment at levels scalable to meet global demand; and 3) global distribution through a variety of channels and partners. ARC has been instrumental in designing and improving more than 100 stove designs over the past thirty years. In the last four years, ASAT and ARC have played a key role in the production and sales of over 200,000 improved stoves in the developed and developing world. The ARC-designed emissions equipment is currently used by researchers in laboratories and field studies on five continents. During Phase I of the DOE STTR grant, ASAT and ARC worked together to apply their wealth of product development experience towards creating the next generation of improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment. Highlights of Phase I for the biomass cookstove project include 1) the development of several new stove technologies that reached the DOE 50/90 benchmark; 2) fabrication of new stove prototypes by ASAT’s manufacturing partner, Shengzhou Stove Manufacturing (SSM); 3) field testing of prototype stoves with consumers in Puerto Rico and the US; and 4) the selection of three stove prototypes for further development and commercialization during Phase II. Highlights of Phase I for the emissions monitoring equipment project include: 1) creation of a new emissions monitoring equipment product, the Laboratory Emissions Monitoring System (LEMS 2) the addition of gravimetric PM measurements to the stove testing systems to meet International Standards Organization criteria; 3) the addition of a CO{sub 2} sensor and wireless 3G capability to the IAP Meter; and 4) and the improvement of sensors and signal quality on all systems. Twelve Regional Testing and Knowledge Centers purchased this equipment during the Phase I project period.

HATFIELD, MICHAEL; Still, Dean

2013-04-15

248

Speciation of Zn in blast furnace sludge from former sedimentation ponds using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Blast furnace sludge (BFS), an industrial waste generated in pig iron production, typically contains high contents of iron and various trace metals of environmental concern, including Zn, Pb, and Cd. The chemical speciation of these metals in BFS is largely unknown. Here, we used a combination of synchrotron X-ray diffraction, micro-X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Zn K-edge for solid-phase Zn speciation in 12 BFS samples collected on a former BFS sedimentation pond site. Additionally, one fresh BFS was analyzed for comparison. We identified five major types of Zn species in the BFS, which occurred in variable amounts: (1) Zn in the octahedral sheets of phyllosilicates, (2) Zn sulfide minerals (ZnS, sphalerite, or wurtzite), (3) Zn in a KZn-ferrocyanide phase (K(2)Zn(3)[Fe(CN)(6)](2)·9H(2)O), (4) hydrozincite (Zn(5)(OH)(6)(CO(3))(2)), and (5) tetrahedrally coordinated adsorbed Zn. The minerals franklinite (ZnFe(2)O(4)) and smithsonite (ZnCO(3)) were not detected, and zincite (ZnO) was detected only in traces. The contents of ZnS were positively correlated with the total S contents of the BFS. Similarly, the abundance of the KZn-ferrocyanide phase was closely correlated with the total CN contents, with the stoichiometry suggesting this as the main cyanide phase. This study provides the first quantitative Zn speciation in BFS deposits, which is of great relevance for environmental risk assessment, the development of new methods for recovering Zn and Fe from BFS, and potential applications of BFS as sorbent materials in wastewater treatment. PMID:23035937

Kretzschmar, Ruben; Mansfeldt, Tim; Mandaliev, Petar N; Barmettler, Kurt; Marcus, Matthew A; Voegelin, Andreas

2012-11-20

249

Wood Combustion in Existing Stoves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The increasing use of wood for heating Swedish residential houses after the oil crisis causes considerable polluting emissions. Still only 120,000 households so far entirely use wood for heating, out of half a million with stoves allowing it. The low comb...

P. O. Ewers K. Lindkvist

1984-01-01

250

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

251

Etude en Laboratoire des Possibilites de Valorisation des Scories d'Acieries et des Laitiers de Haut Fourneau en Construction Routiere (Laboratory Test for Utilization of Crushed Steel Slags and of Granulated or Brushed Blast-Furnace Slags in Road Construction Materials).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of crushed steel slags and of granulated or crushed blast-furnace slags were studied with a view to using these by-products of the iron and steel industry as fine or large grain road construction materials. To this end the properties w...

F. Choquet

1984-01-01

252

Monitoring and evaluation of new stoves  

SciTech Connect

Most of the people in Nepal depend on biomass for cooking and heating - be it wood, straw etc. and this is one of the reasons why we have a greater problem of deforestation which is the major component for deteriorating environment. Slowing the rate of deforestation to a limited degree at least can be achieved by improving the efficiency of wood utilization. The idea of improving the stoves in terms of firewood consumption and smokelessness has gained an increasing attention in recent years. The prefabricated household stoves (New Nepali Cooking Stoves) are being distributed and installed to the various regions of the country through the Small Farm Family Program with the support of ADB/Nepal and UNICEF/Nepal. These improved stoves make smokeless kitchens and use less firewood. The distribution of the modified Magan Stoves was first started in Budhanilkantha Village about one year before the survey. Still the stoves are being distributed to the villagers if they form a small group of 6-10 households (Small Farm Family) and the group asks for the stoves. After distribution and installations of improved stoves in various regions of the country a sample survey was conducted in Budhanilkantha to ascertain users acceptance and identify the kinds of problems inhibiting greater use. The survey was carried out in the beginning of 1983, and during the survey there were 51 stoves distributed in two Panchayats and different villages.

Basnet, K.

1983-12-01

253

Carbon monoxide poisoning while using a small cooking stove in a tent.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed wherever incomplete combustion of carbonaceous products occurs.(1) CO is the leading cause of poisoning in the United States, and common sources of CO poisoning include housefires, automobile exhaust, water heaters, kerosene space heaters, and furnaces.(2) Stoves used for cooking and heating during outdoor activities also produce significant amounts of CO. Mountain climbers have been reported to succumb to fumes generated by small cook stoves.(3) The aim of this study was to investigate if burning a cooking stove inside a tent is a potential health hazard. Seven healthy male volunteers used a cooking stove inside a small tent for 120 minutes. CO levels in the ambient tent air were measured in addition to hearth rate (HR) and pulse oximetry (SpO2). Venous blood samples were obtained every 15 minutes for measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). After 2 hours, all the subjects had significant CO levels in their blood (mean COHb = 21.5%). Mean SpO2, also fell from 98% to 95.3% (P <.05), whereas mean HR increased from 63 to 90 beats/min (P <.05). Kerosene camping stoves do produce CO when burned in a small tent. The concentration is high enough to cause significant COHb levels in venous blood after 120 minutes' stay in the tent. PMID:15138958

Thomassen, Řyvind; Brattebř, Guttorm; Rostrup, Morten

2004-05-01

254

Alternative fuels for woodburning stoves  

SciTech Connect

The main conclusion to be drawn from this brief survey of alternative fuels for woodburning stoves is that many potential fuels do exist; however, their use is not widespread. There is a tremendous potential source of fuel which is essentially untapped. The heat content of these fuels is comparable to that of wood and could therefore replace wood if availability and economics are favorable. More work is required to expand on the large body of available data. True comparisons of fuels can only be made by means of indepth economic feasibility studies which are organized regionally. For example, corn cobs may provide a reasonable fuel in the Midwest where transportation costs are minimal, but to transport corn cobs to New England would add a sizeable transportation cost in the overall energy cost.

Baroff, J.; Fink, R.

1982-09-30

255

65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR THE HOT BLAST STOVES OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

256

Pore solution chemistry of alkali-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag 1 1 This paper was originally submitted to Advanced Cement Based Materials. The paper was received at the Editorial Office of Cement and Concrete Research on 12 November 1998 and accepted in final form on 16 November 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and pH of the pore solution extracted from six different ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) pastes were determined. The concentrations of Si, Ca, Al, and Mg are functions of the pH of the aqueous phase, with high pH associated with the higher concentrations of Si and Al and the lower concentrations of Ca and Mg. When GGBFS

Sujin Song; Hamlin M Jennings

1999-01-01

257

Adoption of appropriate technology: smokeless wood stoves in Rajasthan, India  

SciTech Connect

A multi-method research design consisting of in-depth interviews with program officials and builders, field-level observation, and field surveys with randomly chosen acceptors was used to provide a unique set of insights into the process of diffusion and acceptance of improved smokeless wood stoves in Rajasthan, India. Over 450 village women were interviewed about their energy use, use of their stove, and cooking practices as well as family characteristics. These women were improved stove acceptors and non-acceptors associated with three improved stove-disseminating organizations in Rajasthan, the Rural Development Department of the Rajasthan state government, the Local Self Government Institute and the Social Work and Research Center. The improved stoves disseminated by these three programs are all largely subsidized by the Government of India. A variable named Levels of Acceptance is used to aid in quantifying differences in stove condition and frequency of stove use.

Fraser, A.H.

1987-01-01

258

Furnace seal  

SciTech Connect

A peripheral seal for a furnace, e.g., a soaking pit is disclosed that is of an elongate rectangular section fibre assembly mountable on the furnace roof or door such that a flat face of the assembly can bear on a mating face of the furnace wall, means being provided for advancing the assembly such that the flat face thereof can be maintained in contact with the wall face whereby to compensate for wear and erosion of the fibre assembly.

Payne, G.

1980-01-15

259

Primus stove burns: a persisting problem in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Primus stoves account for a large proportion of burn injuries in the developing world. The mechanism of these injuries is closely linked with factors relating to stove design, fuel characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of victims. We review the current literature on these injuries with particular attention to the injury mechanisms and epidemiological data available. We additionally summarize the initiatives so far developed worldwide for their prevention and define directions for further research into reducing the burden associated with Primus stove burn injuries.

McGlone, Emma Rose; Goutos, Ioannis; Nelson, Rebecca A; Pandya, Ankur

2011-01-01

260

Fuel efficient stoves for the poorest two billion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 2 billion people cook their daily meals on generally inefficient, polluting, biomass cookstoves. The fuels include twigs and leaves, agricultural waste, animal dung, firewood, and charcoal. Exposure to resulting smoke leads to acute respiratory illness, and cancers, particularly among women cooks, and their infant children near them. Resulting annual mortality estimate is almost 2 million deaths, higher than that from malaria or tuberculosis. There is a large diversity of cooking methods (baking, boiling, long simmers, brazing and roasting), and a diversity of pot shapes and sizes in which the cooking is undertaken. Fuel-efficiency and emissions depend on the tending of the fire (and thermal power), type of fuel, stove characteristics, and fit of the pot to the stove. Thus, no one perfect fuel-efficient low-emitting stove can suit all users. Affordability imposes a further severe constraint on the stove design. For various economic strata within the users, a variety of stove designs may be appropriate and affordable. In some regions, biomass is harvested non-renewably for cooking fuel. There is also increasing evidence that black carbon emitted from stoves is a significant contributor to atmospheric forcing. Thus improved biomass stoves can also help mitigate global climate change. The speaker will describe specific work undertaken to design, develop, test, and disseminate affordable fuel-efficient stoves for internally displaced persons (IDPs) of Darfur, Sudan, where the IDPs face hardship, humiliation, hunger, and risk of sexual assault owing to their dependence on local biomass for cooking their meals.

Gadgil, Ashok

2012-03-01

261

Self-powered automatic secondary air controllers for woodstoves and small furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a controller for automatically regulating the supply of secondary combustion air to wood stoves and small furnaces. The controller includes a movable air valve for controlling the amount of secondary air admitted into the chamber. A self powered means monitors the concentration of combustible gases and vapors and actuates the movable air valve to increase the supply

Siemer

1991-01-01

262

Furnace assembly  

DOEpatents

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01

263

INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE DEPRESSIONS, WHICH WERE COVERED WITH IRON GRATES TO SUSPEND POTS OVER THE HEAT SOURCE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

264

118. Guillotine type gate (in open position) to regulate stove ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

118. Guillotine type gate (in open position) to regulate stove exhausts to underground flue. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

265

108. Cylindrical chamber where gas exits stove to below ground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

108. Cylindrical chamber where gas exits stove to below ground flue that leads to stack. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

266

11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE WHEEL DROVE ONE PAIR OF MILLSTONES DIRECTLY; FOUND ON THE FIRST FLOOR OF THE WINDMILL AT WATERMILL - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

267

Blast injury.  

PubMed

The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C A

1967-01-28

268

Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.  

PubMed

Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM????.?) and airborne endotoxin (EU/mł, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM????.? concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) ?g/mł, while PM?.? concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) ?g/mł. Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM????.? filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/mł and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM????.? and PM?.? were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM????.? but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

2013-12-01

269

33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ON HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

270

Waste stabilization\\/solidification of an electric arc furnace dust using fly ash-based geopolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilization\\/solidification (S\\/S) of a carbon steel electric arc furnace (EAF) dust containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr or Zn using geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolinite, metakaolinite and blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of EAF waste with these geopolymeric materials and

C. Fernández Pereira; Y. Luna; X. Querol; D. Antenucci; J. Vale

2009-01-01

271

What makes people cook with improved biomass stoves. A comparative international review of Stove Programs. Energy series. World Bank technical paper  

SciTech Connect

Hundreds of millions of people rely on woodfuels for most of their energy needs, despite the problems associated with traditional use of woodfuels. Modern, efficient biomass stoves can alleviate some of these problems by reducing some householders' cash outlays for fuel, diminishing the time others must spend to collect fuel, reducing air pollution, and relieving local pressure on wood resources. The study explores the successes and failures of stove programs and suggests how adoption rates can be improved more consistently. Under the right conditions, the social, economic, and environmental benefits of promoting improved stoves are large. Programs must be targeted carefully, however, to situations in which people pay high prices for fuel or walk long distances to collect fuelwood or other biomass materials. Subsidies may aid in the distribution of stoves but may not result in actual stove use. Ultimately, dissemination programs are most effective when they allow for interaction and feedback between stove designers, producers, and users.

Barnes, D.F.; Openshaw, K.; Smith, K.R.; van der Plas, R.

1994-05-01

272

TEST METHOD EVALUATIONS AND EMISSIONS TESTING FOR RATING WOOD STOVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a comparison of three sampling methods for wood burning stoves: the EPA Modified Method 5 (MM5), the Oregon Method 7 (OM7), and the ASTM proposed Method P180. It also addresses the effect that emission format (grams per hour, grams per kilogram wood bu...

273

Chemical Characterization of Emissions from Wood-Fired Stoves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical analysis of the flue gases from combustion of wood in a typical Norwegian stove has been performed in addition to measurements of other parameters: CO, CO sub 2 , CH sub 4 , NOsub(x), particles and temperature. Measurements were performed using s...

T. Ramdahl

1981-01-01

274

63. Cam Shaft Running Egg, Stove and Nut Shakers, date ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

63. Cam Shaft Running Egg, Stove and Nut Shakers, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

275

Designing modern furnace cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

2000-02-01

276

Aerosol and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Low-Temperature Combustion in a Sawdust Packed-Bed Stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-temperature combustion in biomass-burning stoves used for cooking results in poor thermal efficiency and high emissions. A sawdust packed-bed stove has been shown to give more stable combustion at higher temperatures than woodstoves. The study examines pollutant emissions from this stove and their dependence on stove dimensions, specifically the vertical port radius and the stove-pot spacing. Emission rates of particulate

C. Venkataraman; P. Joshi; V. Sethi; S. Kohli; M. R. Ravi

2004-01-01

277

Chimney stoves modestly improved indoor air quality measurements compared with traditional open fire stoves: results from a small-scale intervention study in rural Peru.  

PubMed

Nearly half of the world's population depends on biomass fuels to meet domestic energy needs, producing high levels of pollutants responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. We compare carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and kitchen concentrations in households with study-promoted intervention (OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves) in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. We determined 48-h indoor air concentration levels of CO and PM2.5 in 93 kitchen environments and personal exposure, after OPTIMA-improved stoves had been installed for an average of 7 months. PM2.5 and CO measurements did not differ significantly between OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves. Although not statistically significant, a post hoc stratification of OPTIMA-improved stoves by level of performance revealed mean PM2.5 and CO levels of fully functional OPTIMA-improved stoves were 28% lower (n = 20, PM2.5, 136 ?g/m(3) 95% CI 54-217) and 45% lower (n = 25, CO, 3.2 ppm, 95% CI 1.5-4.9) in the kitchen environment compared with the control stoves (n = 34, PM2.5, 189 ?g/m(3), 95% CI 116-261; n = 44, CO, 5.8 ppm, 95% CI 3.3-8.2). Likewise, although not statistically significant, personal exposures for OPTIMA-improved stoves were 43% and 17% lower for PM2.5 (n = 23) and CO (n = 25), respectively. Stove maintenance and functionality level are factors worthy of consideration for future evaluations of stove interventions. PMID:23311877

Hartinger, S M; Commodore, A A; Hattendorf, J; Lanata, C F; Gil, A I; Verastegui, H; Aguilar-Villalobos, M; Mäusezahl, D; Naeher, L P

2013-08-01

278

Furnace with radiant burndown tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of burning combustible gas atmosphere in a furnace having at least one radiant burndown tube is described. The furnace has a furnace wall, a sealed furnace chamber, a conduit through the furnace wall, and the radiant burndown tube having a tube portion within the furnace chamber, the tube portion having a burner end and an exhast end, and

J. Conybear; K. Hemsath; A. Thekdi; F. Vereecke; S. Verhoff

1980-01-01

279

VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WORK ORDERS OFFICE, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WORK ORDERS OFFICE, SHOWING HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT) WITH STACK, BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE IN FRONT. SKIP HOIST ENGINE HOUSE IN MIDDLE, BLAST FURNACES E AND F (5 AND 6) TO LEFT. - Cambria Iron Company, Blast Furnaces No. 5 & 6, Lower Works, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

280

14. DETAIL OF CLEAN GAS MAIN (UPPER PIPE) AND ROUGH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DETAIL OF CLEAN GAS MAIN (UPPER PIPE) AND ROUGH GAS MAIN FOR BLAST FURNACE No. 2 AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES LOOKING EAST. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

281

Modern BLAST Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is arguably the most widely used program in bioinformatics. By sacrificing sensitivity for speed, it makes sequence comparison practical on huge sequence databases currently available. The original version of BLAST was developed in 1990. Since then it has spawned a variant of specialized programs. This chapter surveys the development of BLAST and BLAST-like programs for homology search, discusses alignment statistics that are used in assessment of reported matches in BLAST, and provides the reader with guidance to select appropriate programs and set proper parameters to match research requirements.

Ma, Jian; Zhang, Louxin

282

Clean Cook Stoves for combating air pollution problems in S. Asia: Project Surya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As much as 60% of the ambient air pollution in S. Asia is due to cooking and heating with solid biomass fuels. Project Surya has started pilot projects in India and Kenya to mitigate emissions of air pollutants (PM; Soot & CO) with improved cook stoves. We will describe nearly two years of indoor and outdoor data with traditional and improved cook stoves that helps us address issues related to scalability and sustainability of the improved stoves. The co-benefits of mitigating the pollution from cook stoves for regional climate will be assessed with the data that been collected to date.

Ramanathan, V.; Praveen, P. S.; Rehman, I. H.; Ramanathan, N.

2012-12-01

283

Electromelt furnace evaluation  

SciTech Connect

An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

1981-09-01

284

Implement proper furnace safety interlocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracking furnaces are among some of the most complex operations in chemical process industries (CPI) plants. Consider, for example, the cracking furnaces in ethylene plants. Furnace explosions can occur during the light-off process or from accumulations of unburned fuel, incomplete combustion, or introduction of flammable products into the combustion spaces of the furnace. Over half of all furnace explosions occur

C. D. Thomas; G. J. W. Schoenmaker

1996-01-01

285

Adherence to reduced-polluting biomass fuel stoves improves respiratory and sleep symptoms in children  

PubMed Central

Background Symptoms of sleep apnea are markedly increased in children exposed to smoke from biomass fuels and are reduced by kitchen stoves that improve indoor biomass pollution. However, the impact of adherence to the use of improved stoves has not been critically examined. Methods Sleep-related symptom questionnaires were obtained from children <15 years of age in 56 families residing in the communities of Lliupapuquio, Andahuaylas province in Peru before and 2 years after installation of less-polluting Inkawasi cooking stoves. Results 82 children with lifetime exposures to indoor fuel pollution were included. When compared to those alternating between both types of stoves or those using traditional stoves only, those children who exclusively used Inkawasi cooking stoves showed significant improvements in sleep and respiratory related symptoms, but some minor albeit significant improvements occurred when both stoves were concomitantly used. Conclusions Improvements in respiratory and sleep-related symptoms associated with elevated indoor biomass pollution occur only following implementation and exclusive utilization of improved kitchen stoves.

2014-01-01

286

FIELD PERFORMANCE OF WOODBURNING STOVES IN CRESTED BUTTE DURING THE 1991-92 HEATING SEASON  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the 1991-92 field performance of 11 woodburning stoves in and around Crested Butte, CO. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide, total unburned hydrocarbons, and weekly average burn rates. The monitored stoves in...

287

Greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from household stoves in China: a database for emission factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions from household stoves, especially those using solid fuels, can contribute significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories and have adverse health impacts. Few data are available on emissions from the numerous types of cookstoves used in developing countries. We have systematically measured emissions from 56 fuel\\/stove combinations in India and China, a large fraction of the combinations in use world-wide.

J. Zhang; K. R. Smith; Y. Ma; S. Ye; F. Jiang; W. Qi; P. Liu; M. A. K. Khalil; R. A. Rasmussen; S. A. Thorneloe

2000-01-01

288

Deployment of coal briquettes and improved stoves: possibly an option for both environment and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of coal briquettes and improved stoves by Chinese households has been encouraged by the government as a means of reducing air pollution and health impacts. In this study we have shown that these two improvements also relate to climate change. Our experimental measurements indicate that, if all coal were burned as briquettes in improved stoves, particulate matter (PM),

Guorui Zhi; Conghu Peng; Yingjun Chen; Dongyan Liu; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu

2009-01-01

289

Fuel use and emissions performance of fifty cooking stoves in the laboratory and related benchmarks of performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved cooking stove projects in the developing world have the potential to reduce deforestation, improve health, and slow climate change. To meet these requirements, stoves must be carefully designed through thorough testing and verification of performance. The systematic investigation of the heat transfer and combustion efficiency of stove design in the laboratory sheds light on what technologies work best and

Nordica MacCarty; Dean Still; Damon Ogle

2010-01-01

290

Gas furnace system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is disclosed for operating a gas furnace system having an air intake for supplying external air into a sealed chamber for input to a gas burner assembly. Exhaust air from within the combustion burning chamber is applied through an exhaust duct directly into an environment which is external to the furnace system but which is still within the environment

1984-01-01

291

Furnace for hazardous materials  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a continuous furnace for thoroughly treating hazardous materials to convert such materials to environmentally acceptable materials, the furnace including a continuous belt adapted to carry hazardous materials through at least one heated zone without release of noxious fumes or noxious solids to the environment.

McGinnis, F.K.; Enright, J.F. III

1989-02-07

292

Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and...

K. Tervola J. Haerkki

1996-01-01

293

Heat-transfer phenomena in water-cooled zinc-fuming furnace jackets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the zinc slag-fuming process, zinc is removed from lead blast furnace slag by reduction with a coal-air mixture injected\\u000a into the slag through submerged tuyeres. The furnace is constructed of water-cooled jackets which freeze a slag layer and\\u000a contain the bath. This greatly reduces vessel wear caused by the violently agitated and corrosive bath. The jackets, however,\\u000a fail due

K. E. Scholey; G. G. Richards; I. V. Samarasekera

1991-01-01

294

Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST, including buffer blasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discrete element computer program named DMC{_}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in 2-D. DMC{_}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts. The blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST have been expanded to include

D. S. Preece; J. P. Tidman; S. H. Chung

1996-01-01

295

Fracture process in blasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to clarify the respective roles of stress wave and gas pressure in the fragmentation of an underground blast the fracture process in the zone immediately around the borehole was studied by separating the 2 principal blast forces analytically and experimentally. In model tests the explosion wave was simulated by the pulse generated by an underwater spark discharge, and

H. K. Kutter; C. Fairhurst

1971-01-01

296

Computer cast blast modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than

S. Chung; M. McGill; D. S. Preece

1994-01-01

297

Lightweight blast shield  

DOEpatents

A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

1991-01-01

298

Toxicology of blast overpressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast overpressure (BOP) or high energy impulse noise, is the sharp instantaneous rise in ambient atmospheric pressure resulting from explosive detonation or firing of weapons. Blasts that were once confined to military and to a lesser extent, occupational settings, are becoming more universal as the civilian population is now increasingly at risk of exposure to BOP from terrorist bombings that

Nabil M. Elsayed

1997-01-01

299

Experimental control of a cupola furnace  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors present some final results from a research project focused on introducing automatic control to the operation of cupola iron furnaces. The main aim of this research is to improve the operational efficiency and performance of the cupola furnace, an important foundry process used to melt iron. Previous papers have described the development of appropriate control system architectures for the cupola. In this paper experimental data is used to calibrate the model, which is taken as a first-order multivariable system with time delay. Then relative gain analysis is used to select loop pairings to be used in a multiloop controller. The resulting controller pairs melt rate with blast volume, iron temperature with oxygen addition, and carbon composition with metal-to-coke ratio. Special (nonlinear) filters are used to compute melt rate from actual scale readings of the amount of iron produced and to smooth the temperature measurement. The temperature and melt rate loops use single-loop PI control. The composition loop uses a Smith predictor to discount the deadtime associated with mass transport through the furnace. Experiments conducted at the Department of Energy Albany Research Center`s experimental research cupola validate the conceptual controller design and provide proof-of-concept of the idea of controlling a foundry cupola.

Moore, K.L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Larsen, E.; Clark, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Abdelrahman, M.A. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; King, P. [Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

1998-08-01

300

System for supplying blasting media to a media blasting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a pressure pot system for supplying blasting media under pressure to a pressurized blasting conduit for feeding blasting media to one or more blasting guns, the system including a media storage means and a first and second pressure chambers with means for pressurizing and exhausting the first and second chambers, the media storage means being stacked above

Van Kuiken; L. L. Jr

1988-01-01

301

General purpose rocket furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multipurpose furnace for space vehicles used for material processing experiments in an outer space environment is described. The furnace contains three separate cavities designed to process samples of the widest possible range of materials and thermal requirements. Each cavity contains three heating elements capable of independent function under the direction of an automatic and programmable control system. A heat removable mechanism is also provided for each cavity which operates in conjunction with the control system for establishing an isothermally heated cavity or a wide range of thermal gradients and cool down rates. A monitoring system compatible with the rocket telemetry provides furnace performance and sample growth rate data throughout the processing cycle.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventors)

1979-01-01

302

Toward the Understanding and Optimization of Chimneys for Buoyantly Driven Biomass Stoves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of indoor combustion devices in the developed world make use of stacks (flues, vents, chimneys, smokestacks) to channel flue gases out of the operator space. In the developing world, where indoor air pollution kills several million people every year, the use of chimneys with biomass cooking and heating stoves has been met with limited success and a high level of controversy. Due to a lack of theoretical understanding, design criteria, poorly executed installation practices, and/or insufficient maintenance routines, many chimney stoves have exhibited inadequate indoor emissions reductions in addition to low thermal efficiencies. This work aims (a) shed light on the physical phenomenon of the "stack effect" as it pertains to dynamic, non-adiabatic, buoyancy-driven stoves (b) apply new understanding toward the optimization of two types of biomass chimney stoves: plancha or griddle type stoves popular in Central America and two-pot stoves common in South America. A numerical heat and fluid flow model was developed that takes into account the highly-coupled variables and dynamic nature of such systems. With a comprehensive physical model, parameter studies were conducted to determine how several field-relevant variables influence the performance of stack-outfitted systems. These parameters include, but are not limited to: power/wood consumption rate, chimney geometry, stove geometry, material properties, heat transfer, and ambient conditions. An instrumented experimental chimney was built to monitor relationships between air flow, differential pressure, gas temperatures, emissions, and thermal efficiency. The draft provided by chimneys was found to have a strong influence over the bulk air-to-fuel ratio of buoyantly-driven cookstoves, greatly affecting the stove's overall performance by affecting gas temperatures, emissions, and efficiency. Armed with new information from the modeling and experimental work, two new stoves were designed and optimized to have significant reductions in fuel use and emissions.

Prapas, Jason

303

Semicoke production and quality at Chinese vertical SJ furnaces  

SciTech Connect

In Russia there has been little interest on the thermal processing of non-sintering coal. However it may be used to obtain many special types of coke and semicoke that are necessary for processes other than blast furnace smelting and employing small metallurgical coke fractions that do not meet the relevant quality requirements. China has recently made great progress in developing the thermal processing of coal (mainly energy coal) to obtain a highly effective product, semicoke, primarily used in metallurgy and adsorption process. The article considers the operation of a Chinese semicoking plant equipped with vertical SJ furnaces. The plant is in the Shenmu district of Shanxi province (Inner Mongolia). The enterprise includes two furnaces of total output of about 100,000 t/yr of semicoke.

V.M. Strakhov; I.V. Surovtseva; A.V. D'yachenko; V.M. Men'shenin [Kuznetsk Center, Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation)

2007-05-15

304

New blast weapons.  

PubMed

Over the last decade a large number of weapon systems have appeared that use blast as their primary damage mechanism. This is a notable trend; until recently very few warheads relied on blast as their primary output. Most warheads in service use explosives to drive metal such as fragments and shaped charge jets to engage targets. New technologies are now being integrated into warheads that claim to have enhanced blast performance. Blast weapons could have been designed to fill a gap in capability; they are generally used for the attack of 'soft' targets including personnel, both in the open and within protective structures. With the increased number and range of these weapons, it is likely that UK forces will have to face them in future conflicts. This paper briefly describes fuel-air explosive blast weapons and reviews a range of enhanced blast weapons that have been developed recently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the reasons why enhanced blast technologies may be proliferating and how this could affect the Defence Medical Services. PMID:11307681

Dearden, P

2001-02-01

305

Passive blast pressure sensor  

SciTech Connect

A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

2013-03-19

306

Particle Morphology From Wood-Burning Cook Stoves Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from three wood-burning cook stoves were sampled to collect particles. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) copper grids were placed on the last two stages of an 8-stage MOUDI cascade impactor (d50= 0.32, and 0.18 ?m). Samples were obtained on two heating stages of cooking, the first is a quick heating process to boil 1 liter of water, and the second is to keep the water at 90 C. Absorption coefficient, scattering coefficients, and particles concentration (0.01 - 2.5 ?m aerodynamic diameter) were measured simultaneously using an absorption photometer (operated at 550 nm), a portable integrating nephelometer (at 530 nm), and a condensation particle counter connected to a chamber to dilute the wood stoves emissions. Transmission electron micrographic images of soot particles were acquired at different magnifications using a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) JEOL HRTEM 4000EX operating at 200 kV, equipped with a GATAN digital micrograph system for image acquisition. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles sampled on the first heating stage exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df, which are present as aggregates formed by carbon ceno-spheres. The presence of high numbers of carbon ceno-spheres can be attributed to pyrolysis, thermal degradation, and others processes prior to combustion. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the elemental composition of particles. EDS analysis in particles with d50= 0.18 ?m showed a higher content of carbonaceous material and relevant amounts of Si, S and K.

Peralta, O.; Carabali, G.; Castro, T.; Torres, R.; Ruiz, L. G.; Molina, L. T.; Saavedra, I.

2013-12-01

307

CO and NO emissions from pellet stoves: an experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a report on an experimental investigation on pellet stoves aimed to fully understand which parameters influence CO and NO emissions and how it is possible to find and choose the optimal point of working. Tests are performed on three pellet stoves varying heating power, combustion chamber size and burner pot geometry. After a brief review on the factors which influence the production of these pollutants, we present and discuss the results of experimental tests aimed to ascertain how the geometry of the combustion chamber and the distribution of primary and secondary air, can modify the quantity of CO and NO in the flue gas. Experimental tests show that production of CO is strongly affected by the excess air and by its distribution: in particular, it is critical an effective control of air distribution. In these devices a low-level of CO emissions does require a proper setup to operate in the optimal range of excess air that minimizes CO production. In order to simplify the optimization process, we propose the use of instantaneous data of CO and O2 concentration, instead of average values, because they allow a quick identification of the optimal point. It is shown that the optimal range of operation can be enlarged as a consequence of proper burner pot design. Finally, it is shown that NO emissions are not a critical issue, since they are well below threshold enforced by law, are not influenced by the distribution of air in the combustion chamber, and their behavior as a function of air excess is the same for all the geometries investigated here.

Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

2014-04-01

308

High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

Bates, Stephen C.

1997-01-01

309

Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) without the EAC internal support structure. Flown on USML-1 and USML-2. The Principal Investigators on these flights were: Larson, Lehoczky, Matthiesen, Wiedemeier. Processed 6 samples on USML-1 and 7 samples on USML-2.

1991-01-01

310

Franklin Furnace Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

311

Infrared domestic furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This residential space-heating furnace generates infrared radiation in a sealed combustion chamber for improved heating efficiency, reduced air pollution (both nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide), and a lower fuel requirement (40-50% less natural gas) than conventional heaters. The burner comprises a hat-shaped fibrous matrix mounted on a cooling drum. The furnace 1) circulates only that air previously in the room,

1982-01-01

312

Application to Industrial Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we go on to consider an industrial furnace situation. A furnace consists of a heat source (burner producing\\u000a a flame), a heat sink (the tube bank of a boiler or heat exchanger, or cooling tubes), and the refractory walls. The discussion\\u000a here is on application of the developed method to the classical radiative heat transfer problem in

Aristide Mbiock; Roman Weber

313

Evaluation of Manufactured Wood-Burning Stoves in Dadaab Refugee Camps, Kenya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the potential suitability of a new generation of manufactured biomass cooking stoves for refugee and Internally Displaced Person (IDP) environments as well as disaster relief situations. Berkeley Air ...

2010-01-01

314

ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

E.F. fitch

1995-03-13

315

Software Verification with BLAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Introduction. Blast (the Berkeley Lazy Abstraction Software verificationTool) is a verification system for checking safety properties of C programs usingautomatic property-driven construction and model checking of software abstractions. Blast implements an abstract-model check-refine loop to check forreachability of a specified label in the program. The abstract model is built onthe fly using predicate abstraction. This model is then checked

Thomas A. Henzinger; Ranjit Jhala; Rupak Majumdar; Grégoire Sutre

2003-01-01

316

VIEW OF CENTRAL COMPLEX FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #1 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF CENTRAL COMPLEX FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #1 BLAST FURNACE ON THE RIGHT, THE #2 BLAST FURNACE ON THE LEFT, AND THE BOILERS AND STOVES IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

317

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE STOCK BINS IN THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE STOCK BINS IN THE FOREGROUND, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE ON THE RIGHT, STOVES IN THE CENTER, AND THE #2 BLAST FURNACE ON THE LEFT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

318

Low cost stove-top thermoelectric generator for regions with unreliable electricity supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the winter months in regions where constant electric power supply cannot be relied upon, power may be derived parasitically from heating stoves. A proportion of heat from these 20–50 kW wood or diesel-heated stoves may be utilized to drive a thermoelectric generator (TEG) consisting of several commercially available low-cost modules. These are Peltier modules operating in a power generating

R. Y. Nuwayhid; D. M. Rowe; G. Min

2003-01-01

319

High gradient directional solidification furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D.

1985-10-01

320

High gradient directional solidification furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventor)

1985-01-01

321

In-Home Performance of Exempt Pellet Stoves in Medford, Oregon.  

SciTech Connect

Pellet stoves that are considered exempt'' operate at an air-to-fuel ratio in excess of 35:1. They therefore qualify for exemption from the emissions certification process. A primary goal of this project was to determine how a sample of such stoves, operated in homes, would perform compared to their certified cousins,'' which were evaluated the previous year. In-home performance data documenting emissions from exempt stoves and net delivered efficiencies was particularly desired. This project evaluated six pellet stoves representing three major brands in Medford, Oregon. There were three Breckwell model P24FS, one Horizon Eclipse, one Horizon Destiny, and one Earth Stove TP40. The stoves were monitored for four week-long intervals in January and February 1991, for a total of 24 tests. Evaluations were conducted for particulate, CO (carbon monoxide) and PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) emissions and net efficiency. Monitoring was conducted using the AWES (automated woodstove emissions sampler) sampling system. A new data logger, developed for this project, was used to control the AWES and record real time data. 22 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Barnett, Stockton G.; Fields, Paula G.

1991-07-05

322

Cooking in India: The impact of improved stoves on indoor air quality  

SciTech Connect

Cooking period kitchen concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and exposure rates to total suspended particulates (TSP) experienced by household cooks were monitored in nearly 200 households in 13 villages in three regions of India. Roughly half used traditional open-combustion stoves and the other half used one of seven different kinds of improved stoves disseminated in these areas. In all cases except one, CO concentrations were significantly lower in kitchens using improved stoves, whether fitted with flues or not. Because of high sample variability, no conclusions could be drawn about the degree of TSP exposure rate improvement, if any, represented by three improved stoves. In the case of three other improved stoves with larger sample sizes, no significant differences were found. Only in one case, the combination of traditional stove with fireplace-like hood, were TSP exposure rates significantly lower. There are a number of important lessons from this work to be considered in designing and conducting these kinds of field measurements in the future.

Ramakrishna, J.; Smith, K.R. (Environment and Policy Institute, Honolulu, HI (USA)); Durgaprasad, M.B. (Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Institute, Gujarat (India))

1989-01-01

323

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

324

Secondary Waves from Nozzle Blast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blast signatures at the gunner's position produced by recoilless rifles and rocket launchers often exhibit a strong secondary wave following chamber blowdown. To identify its source a series of experiments was performed using a helium-driven blast simulat...

G. C. Carofano

1984-01-01

325

Pollutant emissions and energy efficiency of chinese gasifier cooking stoves and implications for future intervention studies.  

PubMed

Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is the leading environmental health risk factor globally. In China, almost half of all homes use solid fuel to meet their household energy demands. Gasifier cookstoves offer a potentially affordable, efficient, and low-polluting alternative to current solid fuel combustion technology, but pollutant emissions and energy efficiency performance of this class of stoves are poorly characterized. In this study, four Chinese gasifier cookstoves were evaluated for their pollutant emissions and efficiency using the internationally recognized water boiling test (WBT), version 4.1.2. WBT performance indicators included PM2.5, CO, and CO2 emissions and overall thermal efficiency. Laboratory investigation also included evaluation of pollutant emissions (PM2.5 and CO) under stove operating conditions designed to simulate common Chinese cooking practices. High power average overall thermal efficiencies ranged from 22 to 33%. High power average PM2.5 emissions ranged from 120 to 430 mg/MJ of useful energy, and CO emissions ranged from 1 to 30 g/MJ of useful energy. Compared with several widely disseminated "improved" cookstoves selected from the literature, on average, the four Chinese gasifier cookstoves had lower PM2.5 emissions and higher CO emissions. The recent International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Workshop Agreement on tiered cookstove ranking was developed to help classify stove performance and identify the best-performing stoves. The results from this study highlight potential ways to further improve this approach. Medium power stove operation emitted nearly twice as much PM2.5 as was emitted during high power stove operation, and the lighting phase of a cooking event contributed 45% and 34% of total PM2.5 emissions (combined lighting and cooking). Future approaches to laboratory-based testing of advanced cookstoves could improve to include greater differentiation between different modes of stove operation, beyond those evaluated with the WBT. PMID:24784418

Carter, Ellison M; Shan, Ming; Yang, Xudong; Li, Jiarong; Baumgartner, Jill

2014-06-01

326

Blasting: Another environmental woe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The much increased use of explosives to move and extract rock masses in construction and mining over the past two decades has resulted in a plethora of complaints from the general public in areas of close proximity to public facilities, communication, and transportation systems. Air blasts and ground vibrations caused by explosive detonation can have desultory and damaging effects to public and private property, impose adverse effects on underground mining operations, and change the course of flow or effect the availability of surface and groundwater. Attempts to prevent damage and alleviate problems from blasting have been initiated by the federal and state governments by the promulgation of rules and regulations to prevent against vagrant and negligent blasting procedures. The Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) provided regulations in the Federal Register on March 8, 1983, with particular reference to surface mining practices. Most of the states have adopted the OSMRE guidelines to enforce these rules and regulations.

Simpson, Thomas A.

1989-03-01

327

Energy saving furnace construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A furnace shell has a fire pot centrally located therein, the walls of the shell and fire pot being spaced to form a fluid heat transfer chamber therebetween. Heat transfer is effected between the pot and the chamber to heat the fluid medium in the chamber. The shell is located in an interior to be heated, such as a building

McCarty

1979-01-01

328

Furnace ash air seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the present invention, a sealing chamber is provided into which a noncombustible residue from an incinerator, furnace or the like is moved. The residue may be sprayed with a liquid upon entering the sealing chamber to effect cooling and compaction of the residue. The sealing chamber is provided with a vibratory discharge mechanism which serves to convey the

Musschoot

1985-01-01

329

Arc furnace electrode control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control is described for positioning the electrodes of a poly-phase electric arc furnace energized by a poly-phase transformer having primary and secondary windings, and including control means for individually elevating and lowering each of the electrodes, the improvement comprising: first circuit means each coupled respectively to one of the primary phases of the transformer. Each is operable respectively to

J. A. Persson; R. E. Andrews; M. Maola

1986-01-01

330

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

331

An innovative method for nondestructive analysis of cast iron artifacts at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). For this study, we sampled iron ore, cast iron furnace products, slag, soil, groundwater, streamflow, and streambed sediment to determine the fate of trace metals released into the environment during the iron-smelting process. Standard techniques were used to sample and analyze all media except cast iron. We analyzed the trace-metal content of the cast iron using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, which provided rapid, on-site, nondestructive analyses for 23 elements. The artifacts analyzed included eight cast iron stoves, a footed pot, and a kettle in the Hopewell Furnace museum. We measured elevated concentrations of arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc in the cast iron. Lead concentrations as great as 3,150 parts per million were measured in the stoves. Cobalt was detectable but not quantifiable because of interference with iron. Our study found that arsenic, cobalt, and lead were not released to soil or slag, which could pose a significant health risk to visitors and employees. Instead, our study demonstrates these heavy metals remained with the cast iron and were removed from the site.

Sloto, R. A.; Helmke, M. F.

2011-01-01

332

New possibilities of Consteel furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disadvantages of Consteel electric furnaces, which are mainly caused by the low efficiency of heating of a charged metal scrap by effluent furnace gases, are considered. A new concept of an electric-arc furnace with scrap heating on a conveyer by powerful burners, which provide fast scrap heating to 800°C, is proposed. As follows from calculations, the capacity of such a furnace increases substantially, the specific electric power consumption decreases, and the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere decreases as compared to the existing Consteel furnaces.

Tuluevskii, Yu. N.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shver, V. G.

2012-06-01

333

Indoor Air Pollution from Portable Kerosene-Fired Space Heaters, Wood-Burning Stoves, and Wood-Burning Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory tests were conducted on four portable kerosene-fired heaters to identify the pollutants they emit and their emission rates. Results show that carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and formaldehyde are emitted by both ...

G. W. Traynor J. R. Allen M. G. Apte J. F. Dillworth J. R. Girman

1982-01-01

334

Numerical investigation of the flow inside the combustion chamber of a plant oil stove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently a low cost cooking device for developing and emerging countries was developed at KIT in cooperation with the company Bosch und Siemens Hausgeräte GmbH. After constructing an innovative basic design further development was required. Numerical investigations were conducted in order to investigate the flow inside the combustion chamber of the stove under variation of different geometrical parameters. Beyond the performance improvement a further reason of the investigations was to rate the effects of manufacturing tolerance problems. In this paper the numerical investigation of a plant oil stove by means of RANS simulation will be presented. In order to reduce the computational costs different model reduction steps were necessary. The simulation results of the basic configuration compare very well with experimental measurements and problematic behaviors of the actual stove design could be explained by the investigation.

Pritz, B.; Werler, M.; Wirbser, H.; Gabi, M.

2013-10-01

335

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTION DEVICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: PHASE IIA HOUSEHOLD STOVES IN INDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a database containing a systematic set of measurements of the CO2, CO, CH4, TNMOC, N2O, SO2, NO2, and TSP emissions from the most common combustion devices in the world, household stoves in developing countries. A number of different stoves using 8 biomass fu...

336

Chemical characterisation of PM10 emissions from combustion in a closed stove of common woods grown in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of source tests were conducted to determine the wood elemental composition, combustion gases and the chemical constitution of PM10 emissions from the closed stove combustion of four species of woods grown in Portugal: Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia. The burning tests were made in a closed stove with a dilution source sampler. To ascertain

C. Gonçalves; C. Alves; C. Pio; M. Rzaca; C. Schmidl; H. Puxbaum

2009-01-01

337

Performance testing for monitoring improved biomass stove interventions: experiences of the Household Energy and Health Project1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the monitoring and evaluation of three improved cookstove dissemination projects implemented between 2004 and 2006 by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in India and Mexico. The projects assessed stove performance using lab-based water boiling tests (WBTs), which yield a number of performance indicators including time to boil water, specific fuel consumption, and energy efficiency when the stove is operated

Rob Bailis; Victor Berrueta; Chaya Chengappa; Karabi Dutta; Rufus Edwards; Omar Masera; D STILL; K SMITH

2007-01-01

338

High efficiency furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-12-31

339

High Efficiency Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-08-27

340

Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Cook Stove Emissions on Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Approximately half the world’s population uses biomass fuel for indoor cooking and heating. This form of combustion typically occurs in open fires or primitive stoves. Human exposure to emissions from indoor biomass combustion is a global health concern, causing an estimated 1.5 million premature deaths each year. Many ‘improved’ stoves have been developed to address this concern; however, studies that examine exposure-response with cleaner-burning, more efficient stoves are few. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of traditional and cleaner burning stove emissions on an established model of the bronchial epithelium. We exposed well-differentiated, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to emissions from a single biomass combustion event using either a traditional three-stone fire or one of two energy-efficient stoves. Air-liquid interface cultures were exposed using a novel, aerosol-to-cell deposition system. Cellular expression of a panel of three pro-inflammatory markers was evaluated at 1 and 24 hours following exposure. Cells exposed to emissions from the cleaner burning stoves generated significantly fewer amounts of pro-inflammatory markers than cells exposed to emissions from a traditional, three stone fire. Particulate matter emissions from each cookstove were substantially different, with the three-stone fire producing the largest concentrations of particles (by both number and mass). This study supports emerging evidence that more efficient cookstoves have the potential to reduce respiratory inflammation in settings where solid fuel combustion is used to meet basic domestic needs.

Hawley, Brie; Volckens, John

2012-01-01

341

Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST, including buffer blasting  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program named DMC{_}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in 2-D. DMC{_}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts. The blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST have been expanded to include independently dipping geologic layers, top surface, bottom surface and pit floor. The pit can also now be defined using coordinates based on the toe of the bench. A method for modeling decked explosives has been developed which allows accurate treatment of the inert materials (stemming) in the explosive column and approximate treatment of different explosives in the same blasthole. A DMC{_}BLAST user can specify decking through a specific geologic layer with either inert material or a different explosive. Another new feature of DMC{_}BLAST is specification of an uplift angle which is the angle between the normal to the blasthole and a vector defining the direction of explosive loading on particles adjacent to the blasthole. A buffer (choke) blast capability has been added for situations where previously blasted material is adjacent to the free face of the bench preventing any significant lateral motion during the blast.

Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidman, J.P.; Chung, S.H. [ICI Explosives (Canada)

1996-12-31

342

Non-carbon induction furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

1984-01-06

343

Performance of blasting caps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

Bement, Laurence J. (inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (inventor)

1993-01-01

344

COMPARATIVE PULMONARY TOXICITY OF BLASTING SAND AND FIVE SUBSTITUTE ABRASIVE BLASTING AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blasting sand is used for abrasive blasting, but its inhalation is associated with pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Consequently, safer substitute materials for blasting sand are needed. In a previous study from this laboratory, the comparative pulmonary toxicity of five abrasive blasting substitutes and blasting sand was reported. In this study, the pulmonary toxicity of blasting sand was compared to five

Dale W. Porter; Ann F. Hubbs; Victor A. Robinson; Lori A. Battelli; Mark Greskevitch; Mark Barger; Douglas Landsittel; William Jones; Vincent Castranova

2002-01-01

345

Programmable Grit-Blasting System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In programmable grit-blasting system undergoing design, controller moves blasting head to precise positions to shape or remove welding defects from parts. Controller holds head in position for preset dwell time and moves head to new position along predetermined path. Position of articulated head established by pair of servomotors according to programmed signals from controller. Head similar to video borescope. Used to remove welding defects in blind holes. Suited for repetitive production operations in grit-blast box.

Burley, Richard K.

1988-01-01

346

Water gas furnace  

SciTech Connect

A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

Gallaro, C.

1985-12-03

347

Exposure to indoor combustion and adult asthma outcomes: environmental tobacco smoke, gas stoves, and woodsmoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because they have chronic airway inflammation, adults with asthma may be particularly susceptible to indoor air pollution. Despite widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), gas stoves, and woodsmoke, the impact of these exposures on adult asthma has not been well characterised. Methods: Data were used from a prospective cohort study of 349 adults with asthma who underwent structured

M D Eisner; E H Yelin; P P Katz; G Earnest; P D Blanc

2002-01-01

348

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

349

Improved stoves in Sub-Saharan Africa: the case of the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper estimates charcoal demand and supply elasticities to determine rebound effects from improved stoves in the Sudan. These are increases in fuel consumption resulting from gains in real income upon the use of more efficient appliances, and from downward price adjustments associated with the reduction in fuel requirements. The findings are that: (1) charcoal markets are characterized by low

Eiman O. Zein-Elabdin

1997-01-01

350

Results of Laboratory Tests on Wood-Stove Emissions and Efficiency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air-tight, wood-burning stoves were operated in a manner consistent with typical residential heating requirements in order to determine particulate and carbon monoxide emissions and creosote build-up. Test data are presented as functions of burn-rates and...

B. R. Hubble J. B. L. Harkness

1981-01-01

351

Combating Deforestation? – Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination on Charcoal Consumption in Urban Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

With 2.7 billion people relying on woodfuels for cooking in developing countries, the dissemination of improved cooking stoves (ICS) is frequently considered an effective instrument to combat deforestation particularly in arid countries. This paper evaluates the impacts of an ICS dissemination project in urban Senegal on charcoal consumption using data collected among 624 households. The virtue of our data is

Gunther Bensch; Jörg Peters

2011-01-01

352

Combating Deforestation? - Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination on Charcoal Consumption in Urban Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissemination of improved cooking stoves (ICS) is frequently considered an effective instrument to combat deforestation. This paper evaluates the impacts of an ICS dissemination project in urban Senegal implemented by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (German Agency for International Cooperation, or GIZ). Based on a survey among 624 households, we examine the effects of the intervention on charcoal consumption.

Gunther Bensch; Jörg Peters

2011-01-01

353

Deployment of coal briquettes and improved stoves: possibly an option for both environment and climate.  

PubMed

The use of coal briquettes and improved stoves by Chinese households has been encouraged by the government as a means of reducing air pollution and health impacts. In this study we have shown that these two improvements also relate to climate change. Our experimental measurements indicate that if all coal were burned as briquettes in improved stoves, particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) could be annually reduced by 63 +/- 12%, 61 +/- 10%, and 98 +/- 1.7%, respectively. Also, the ratio of BC to OC (BC/OC) could be reduced by about 97%, from 0.49 to 0.016, which would make the primary emissions of household coal combustion more optically scattering. Therefore, it is suggested that the government consider the possibility of: (i) phasing out direct burning of bituminous raw-coal-chunks in households; (ii) phasing out simple stoves in households; and, (iii) financially supporting the research, production, and popularization of improved stoves and efficient coal briquettes. These actions may have considerable environmental benefits by reducing emissions and mitigating some of the impacts of household coal burning on the climate. International cooperation is required both technologically and financially to accelerate the emission reduction in the world. PMID:19731648

Zhi, Guorui; Peng, Conghu; Chen, Yingjun; Liu, Dongyan; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

2009-08-01

354

Greenhouse gases from biomass and fossil fuel stoves in developing countries: A Manila pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were also taken. All samples were analyzed for CO 2, CO, CH 4, NzO, and total non-methane organic

K. R. Smith; M. A. K. KhaliP; R. A. Rasmussen; S. A. Thorneloe; F. Manegdeg; M. Apte

1993-01-01

355

Revisiting the Need of Improved Stoves: Estimating Health, Time and Carbon Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor air pollution (IAP), especially through the smoke released when burning solid biomass fuel for cooking, is a major environmental health problem in Nepal. About 85 percent of Nepalese households are dependent on solid biomass fuels for cooking energy. Among households using such fuels, most cook in poorly ventilated kitchens using inefficient stoves, leading to indoor air pollution and consequently

Min Bikram Malla Thakuri

356

A laboratory comparison of the global warming impact of five major types of biomass cooking stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

With over 2 billion of the world's population living in families using biomass to cook every day, the possibility of improved stoves helping to mitigate climate change is generating increasing at- tention. With their emissions of CO2, methane, and black carbon, among other substances, is there a cleaner, practical option to provide to the families that will need to continue

Nordica MacCarty; Damon Ogle; Dean Still; Tami Bond; Christoph Roden

2008-01-01

357

FIELD PERFORMANCE OF WOODBURNING STOVES IN COLORADO DURING THE 1995-96 HEATING SEASON  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of evaluations of the field performance of 13 EPA-certified woodburning stoves in Crested Butte and Curecanti National Park, CO, during the winter of 1995-96. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and weekly average burn rat...

358

FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ENHANCED COMBUSTION VIA IMPROVED WOOD STOVE FIREBOX DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an examination of materials that might be used within the firebox of a wood-burning stove to produce more uniform and complete combustion. Although many materials were initially considered, refractory materials appear to possess the qualities desired re...

359

Personal exposures of preschool children to carbon monoxide: Roles of ambient air quality and gas stoves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal 1 h mean CO exposures of preschool children in two day care centers (Töölö and Vallila) in Helsinki were measured with continuously recording personal exposure monitors. In Vallila, the median CO exposure of children from homes with gas stoves was 2.0 mg m -3, and with electric stoves, 0.9 mg m -3. In Töölö, the corresponding values were 1.9 and 1.0 mg m -3, respectively. The national ambient air quality guidelines for CO in Finland were exceeded in a few percent of the exposure measurements. The results were compared to fixed-site ambient air monitoring data and related to the presence of town-gas fired stoves in the children's homes. The results show that fixed-site ambient air monitors are of little value in predicting personal exposures of children or even their relative differences between areas. They also show that town-gas fired stoves may have a profound effect on the CO exposures of the children.

Alm, S.; Reponen, A.; Mukala, K.; Pasanen, P.; Tuomisto, J.; Jantunen, M. J.

360

Deployment of coal briquettes and improved stoves: possibly an option for both environment and climate  

SciTech Connect

The use of coal briquettes and improved stoves by Chinese households has been encouraged by the government as a means of reducing air pollution and health impacts. In this study we have shown that these two improvements also relate to climate change. Our experimental measurements indicate that, if all coal were burned as briquettes in improved stoves, particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) could be annually reduced by 63 {+-} 12%, 61 {+-} 10%, and 98 {+-} 1.7%, respectively. Also, the ratio of BC to OC (BC/OC) could be reduced by about 97%, from 0.49 to 0.016, which would make the primary emissions of household coal combustion more optically scattering. Therefore, it is suggested that the government consider the possibility of: (i) phasing out direct burning of bituminous raw-coal-chunks in households; (ii) phasing out simple stoves in households; and, (iii) financially supporting the research, production, and popularization of improved stoves and efficient coal briquettes. These actions may have considerable environmental benefits by reducing emissions and mitigating some of the impacts of household coal burning on the climate. International cooperation is required both technologically and financially to accelerate the emission reduction in the world. 50 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Guorui Zhi; Conghu Peng; Yingjun Chen; Dongyan Liu; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry

2009-08-15

361

Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model  

SciTech Connect

The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

Seymour Katz

2004-12-31

362

Two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

1998-05-05

363

Two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1998-05-05

364

Assessing the impact of a wood stove replacement program on air quality and children's health.  

PubMed

Many rural mountain valley communities experience elevated ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM*) in the winter, because of contributions from residential wood-burning appliances and sustained temperature inversion periods during the cold season. A wood stove change-out program was implemented in a community heavily affected by wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of this intervention program on ambient and indoor PM2.5 concentrations and to identify possible corresponding changes in the frequency of childhood respiratory symptoms and infections and illness-related school absences. Over 1100 old wood stoves were replaced with new EPA-certified wood stoves or other heating sources. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 30% lower in the winter after the changeout program, compared with baseline winters, which brought the community's ambient air within the PM2.5 standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The installation of a new wood stove resulted in an overall reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a small sample of wood-burning homes, but the effects were highly variable across homes. Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were associated with decreased reports of childhood wheeze and of other childhood respiratory health conditions. The association was not limited to children living in homes with wood stoves nor does it appear to be limited to susceptible children (e.g., children with asthma). Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were also associated with lower illness-related school absences among older children, but this finding was not consistent across all age-groups. This community-level intervention provided a unique opportunity to prospectively observe exposure and outcome changes resulting from a targeted air pollution reduction strategy. PMID:22852484

Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J; Navidi, William; Sheppard, Lianne; Bergauff, Megan; Palmer, Chris

2011-12-01

365

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

Dr. M.A. Ebadian

2000-01-13

366

Propagation of Nonideal Blast Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The propagation of non-ideal blast waves initiated by finite power density sources has been classified into three regimes. The early-time motion of a non-ideal blast reflects the characteristics of the energy-time profile of the particular initiation ener...

C. M. Guirao G. G. Bach J. H. Lee

1974-01-01

367

Blast load assessment using hydrocodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of pressures and impulses produced by blast loads with the aid of hydrocodes is studied in this paper. Numerical results are compared with those obtained with existing analytical expressions for different scaled distances and boundary conditions. In particular, the capacity of both methods to capture multiple reflections of the blast load is analyzed. The effects of mesh size

B. Luccioni; D. Ambrosini; R. Danesi

2006-01-01

368

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01

369

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14

370

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01

371

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14

372

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

William S. McPhee

1999-05-31

373

The impact of improved wood-burning stoves on fine particulate matter concentrations in rural Mexican homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the impact of improved wood burning stoves on indoor air pollution, 53 homes in a rural town in Michoacán, Mexico, were selected from a health intervention study and monitored before and after receiving improved wood-burning stoves. Fine particulate matter — particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) — concentrations were measured in the central plaza of

Miriam Zuk; Leonora Rojas; Salvador Blanco; Paulina Serrano; Jephte Cruz; Felipe Angeles; Guadalupe Tzintzun; Cynthia Armendariz; Rufus D. Edwards; Michael Johnson; Horacio Riojas-Rodriguez; Omar Masera

2007-01-01

374

Critical distance for blast-resistant design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast loads have, in the recent past, become important service loads for certain categories of structures. An important task in blast-resistant design is to make a realistic prediction of the blast pressures. The distance of explosion from the structure is an important datum, governing the magnitude and duration of the blast loads. The current practice is to choose some arbitrary

M. V. Dharaneepathy; M. N. Keshava Rao; A. R. Santhakumar

1995-01-01

375

Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam

S. H. Chung; D. S. Preece

1998-01-01

376

Neurological effects of blast injury.  

PubMed

Over the last few years, thousands of soldiers and an even greater number of civilians have suffered traumatic injuries due to blast exposure, largely attributed to improvised explosive devices in terrorist and insurgent activities. The use of body armor is allowing soldiers to survive blasts that would otherwise be fatal due to systemic damage. Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to a blast can produce neurologic consequences in the brain but much remains unknown. To elucidate the current scientific basis for understanding blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), the NIH convened a workshop in April 2008. A multidisciplinary group of neuroscientists, engineers, and clinicians were invited to share insights on bTBI, specifically pertaining to: physics of blast explosions, acute clinical observations and treatments, preclinical and computational models, and lessons from the international community on civilian exposures. This report provides an overview of the state of scientific knowledge of bTBI, drawing from the published literature, as well as presentations, discussions, and recommendations from the workshop. One of the major recommendations from the workshop was the need to characterize the effects of blast exposure on clinical neuropathology. Clearer understanding of the human neuropathology would enable validation of preclinical and computational models, which are attempting to simulate blast wave interactions with the central nervous system. Furthermore, the civilian experience with bTBI suggests that polytrauma models incorporating both brain and lung injuries may be more relevant to the study of civilian countermeasures than considering models with a neurologic focus alone. PMID:20453776

Hicks, Ramona R; Fertig, Stephanie J; Desrocher, Rebecca E; Koroshetz, Walter J; Pancrazio, Joseph J

2010-05-01

377

Neurological Effects of Blast Injury  

PubMed Central

Over the last few years, thousands of soldiers and an even greater number of civilians have suffered traumatic injuries due to blast exposure, largely attributed to improvised explosive devices in terrorist and insurgent activities. The use of body armor is allowing soldiers to survive blasts that would otherwise be fatal due to systemic damage. Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to a blast can produce neurological consequences in the brain, but much remains unknown. To elucidate the current scientific basis for understanding blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), the NIH convened a workshop in April, 2008. A multidisciplinary group of neuroscientists, engineers, and clinicians were invited to share insights on bTBI, specifically pertaining to: physics of blast explosions, acute clinical observations and treatments, preclinical and computational models, and lessons from the international community on civilian exposures. This report provides an overview of the state of scientific knowledge of bTBI, drawing from the published literature, as well as presentations, discussions, and recommendations from the workshop. One of the major recommendations from the workshop was the need to characterize the effects of blast exposure on clinical neuropathology. Clearer understanding of the human neuropathology would enable validation of preclinical and computational models, which are attempting to simulate blast wave interactions with the central nervous system. Furthermore, the civilian experience with bTBI suggests that polytrauma models incorporating both brain and lung injuries may be more relevant to the study of civilian countermeasures than considering models with a neurological focus alone.

Hicks, Ramona R.; Fertig, Stephanie J.; Desrocher, Rebecca E.; Koroshetz, Walter J.; Pancrazio, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

378

Indoor air pollution in rural China: Cooking fuels, stoves, and health status  

SciTech Connect

Solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in less developed countries the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. The authors conducted a large cross-sectional study of rural Chinese households to determine associations between individual health status and domestic cooking as a source of indoor air pollution. The study included measures of health status as well as measures of indoor air-pollution sources, such as solid cooking fuels and cooking stoves. Compared with other fuel types, coal was associated with a lower health status, including negative impacts on exhaled carbon monoxide level, forced vital capacity, lifetime prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and health care utilization. Decreasing household coal use, increasing use of improved stove technology, and increasing kitchen ventilation may decrease the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution.

Peabody, J.W.; Riddell, T.J.; Smith, K.R.; Liu, Y.P.; Zhao, Y.Y.; Gong, J.H.; Milet, M.; Sinton, J.E. [Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)

2005-03-15

379

Condensing furnaces: Lessons from a utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

for the last several years about 90% of the new natural gas furnaces installed in Wisconsin have been condensing furnaces and a number of lessons have been learned. If you avoid the common mistakes, condensing furnaces typically can deliver heating savings of 20-35 % assuming the old furnace was in the 60% AFUE range. This article describes the common mistakes

Beers

1994-01-01

380

Use of vacuum furnaces in heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum furnaces with a cylindrical chamber, with a rectangular-cross-section chamber, and special-purpose furnaces produced by SECO\\/WARWICK are considered. Examples of the use of vacuum furnaces for hardening, tempering, and carburizing are given. Prospects for improvement of the furnaces are considered.

J. Oleinik

2004-01-01

381

Blast From the Past  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recently recovered deep-sea core supports theories that an asteroid collided with the earth 65 million years ago, around the time of the extinction of the dinosaurs. The Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History's new site, Blast from the Past, contains details on this cataclysmic event. Colorful graphics provide conceptual illustrations of the asteroid impact and aftermath, accompanied by photographs of the deep-sea core. Text summaries, followed by bibliographic references, describe the asteroid hypothesis, the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary, and the utility of deep-sea cores. With links to other paleobiological sites and related museum exhibits, this site is a useful resource for those wanting to know more about fateful asteroid impacts.

382

Toxicology of blast overpressure.  

PubMed

Blast overpressure (BOP) or high energy impulse noise, is the sharp instantaneous rise in ambient atmospheric pressure resulting from explosive detonation or firing of weapons. Blasts that were once confined to military and to a lesser extent, occupational settings, are becoming more universal as the civilian population is now increasingly at risk of exposure to BOP from terrorist bombings that are occurring worldwide with greater frequency. Exposure to incident BOP waves can cause auditory and non-auditory damage. The primary targets for BOP damage are the hollow organs, ear, lung and gastrointestinal tract. In addition, solid organs such as heart, spleen and brain can also be injured upon exposure. However, the lung is more sensitive to damage and its injury can lead to death. The pathophysiological responses, and mortality have been extensively studied, but little attention, was given to the biochemical manifestations, and molecular mechanism(s) of injury. The injury from BOP has been, generally, attributed to its external physical impact on the body causing internal mechanical damage. However, a new hypothesis has been proposed based on experiments conducted in the Department of Respiratory Research, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and later in the Department of Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh. This hypothesis suggests that subtle biochemical changes namely, free radical-mediated oxidative stress occur and contribute to BOP-induced injury. Understanding the etiology of these changes may shed new light on the molecular mechanism(s) of injury, and can potentially offer new strategies for treatment. In this symposium. BOP research involving auditory, non-auditory, physiological, pathological, behavioral, and biochemical manifestations as well as predictive modeling and current treatment modalities of BOP-induced injury are discussed. PMID:9217311

Elsayed, N M

1997-07-25

383

Furnace brazing under partial vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

Mckown, R. D.

1979-01-01

384

An Automatic Electric Annealing Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel technique for annealing corundum crystals consists in rapidly cooling the crystals to room temperature after growth is complete, transferring them to an automatically programmed electric furnace and reheating them to 1980 deg. C, and then cooling ...

J. A. Adamski W. A. Yasinski

1968-01-01

385

NCBI BLAST: a better web interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is a sequence similarity search program. The public interface of BLAST, http:\\/\\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\\/ blast, at the NCBI website has recently been reengineered to improve usability and performance. Key new features include simplified search forms, improved navigation, a list of recent BLAST results, saved search strategies and a documentation directory. Here, we describe the BLAST web

Mark Johnson; Irena Zaretskaya; Yan Raytselis; Yuri Merezhuk; Scott Mcginnis; Thomas L. Madden

2008-01-01

386

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOEpatents

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

387

Integration of Thermoelectric Generators and Wood Stove to Produce Heat, Hot Water, and Electrical Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional fire stoves are characterized by low efficiency. In this experimental study, the combustion chamber of the stove is augmented by two devices. An electric fan can increase the air-to-fuel ratio in order to increase the system's efficiency and decrease air pollution by providing complete combustion of wood. In addition, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) produce power that can be used to satisfy all basic needs. In this study, a water-based cooling system is designed to increase the efficiency of the TEGs and also produce hot water for residential use. Through a range of tests, an average of 7.9 W was achieved by a commercial TEG with substrate area of 56 mm × 56 mm, which can produce 14.7 W output power at the maximum matched load. The total power generated by the stove is 166 W. Also, in this study a reasonable ratio of fuel to time is described for residential use. The presented prototype is designed to fulfill the basic needs of domestic electricity, hot water, and essential heat for warming the room and cooking.

Goudarzi, A. M.; Mazandarani, P.; Panahi, R.; Behsaz, H.; Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

2013-07-01

388

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14

389

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

390

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2010-10-26

391

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-22

392

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-15

393

Blasting, graphical interfaces and Unix.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discrete element computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed to simulate blast-induced rock motion. To simplify the complex task of entering material and explosive design parameters as well as bench configuration, a full-featured graphica...

S. Knudsen D. S. Preece

1993-01-01

394

Water blasting paint removal methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water blasting is a paint removal technique that has been used for cleaning and paint removal for many years. The major disadvantages until recently were the slow rate of paint removal and the possibility of damage to the substrate from the high pressures used. With the improvement in nozzle design that allows for higher operating pressures and the use of environmentally compliant paint softeners or strippers, water blasting is becoming a recognized technique for paint removal in the aircraft industry.

Foster, Terry

1995-04-01

395

Rate-sensitive numerical analysis of dynamic responses of arched blast doors subjected to blast loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current practice in analysis and design of blast doors subjected to blast loading considers only simple boundary conditions\\u000a and material properties. The boundary conditions and material properties, in fact, have considerable influence on the response\\u000a of blast doors subjected to blast loading. In this paper, the dynamic responses of a reinforced concrete arched blast door\\u000a under blast loading were analyzed

Li Chen; Qin Fang; Yi Zhang; Yadong Zhang

2008-01-01

396

Evaluation of exposure reduction to indoor air pollution in stove intervention projects in Peru by urinary biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites.  

PubMed

Burning biomass fuels such as wood on indoor open-pit stoves is common in developing regions. In such settings, exposure to harmful combustion products such as fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide (CO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of concern. We aimed to investigate if the replacement of open pit stoves by improved stoves equipped with a chimney would significantly reduce exposure to PAHs, PM(2.5) and CO. Two stove projects were evaluated in Peru. Program A was part of the Juntos National Program in which households built their own stoves using materials provided. In Program B, Barrick Gold Corporation hired a company to produce and install the stoves locally. A total of 30 and 27 homes participated in Program A and B, respectively. We collected personal and kitchen air samples, as well as morning urine samples from women tasked with cooking in the households before and after the installation of the improved stoves. Median levels of PM(2.5) and CO were significantly reduced in kitchen and personal air samples by 47-74% after the installation of the new stoves, while the median reduction of 10 urinary hydroxylate PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) was 19%-52%. The observed OH-PAH concentration in this study was comparable or higher than the 95th percentile of the general U.S. population, even after the stove intervention, indicating a high overall exposure in this population. PMID:21524795

Li, Zheng; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Horton, Kevin; Fitzgerald, Christopher L; Eppler, Adam; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Naeher, Luke P

2011-10-01

397

Impact of Reduced Maternal Exposures to Wood Smoke from an Introduced Chimney Stove on Newborn Birth Weight in Rural Guatemala  

PubMed Central

Background: A growing body of evidence indicates a relationship between household indoor air pollution from cooking fires and adverse neonatal outcomes, such as low birth weight (LBW), in resource-poor countries. Objective: We examined the effect of reduced wood smoke exposure in pregnancy on LBW of Guatemalan infants in RESPIRE (Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects). Methods: Pregnant women (n = 266) either received a chimney stove (intervention) or continued to cook over an open fire (control). Between October 2002 and December 2004 we weighed 174 eligible infants (69 to mothers who used a chimney stove and 105 to mothers who used an open fire during pregnancy) within 48 hr of birth. Multivariate linear regression and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were used to estimate differences in birth weight and LBW (< 2,500 g) associated with chimney-stove versus open-fire use during pregnancy. Results: Pregnant women using chimney stoves had a 39% reduction in mean exposure to carbon monoxide compared with those using open fires. LBW prevalence was high at 22.4%. On average, infants born to mothers who used a stove weighed 89 g more [95% confidence interval (CI), –27 to 204 g] than infants whose mothers used open fires after adjusting for maternal height, diastolic blood pressure, gravidity, and season of birth. The adjusted OR for LBW was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.33–1.66) among infants of stove users compared with open-fire users. Average birth weight was 296 g higher (95% CI, 109–482 g) in infants born during the cold season (after harvest) than in other infants; this unanticipated finding may reflect the role of maternal nutrition on birth weight in an impoverished region. Conclusions: A chimney stove reduced wood smoke exposures and was associated with reduced LBW occurrence. Although not statistically significant, the estimated effect was consistent with previous studies.

Bruce, Nigel; Eskenazi, Brenda; Diaz, Anaite; Pope, Daniel; Smith, Kirk R.

2011-01-01

398

Tyre-blast injuries.  

PubMed

A teenager college student was fatally injured by burst tyre air pressure while waiting on a public bus stand to catch a bus to reach her college at Kuala Lumpur. She accidentally came near the wheel while boarding when tube and tyre got burst .The air pressure had blown the girl in the air and she subsequently fell on a rough surface. The iron-locking rim of the wheel acted as a missile and hit the girl. She died on her way to the hospital. A medico-legal autopsy was performed which showed extensive injuries in the cranial and chest cavity. Head had large scalp laceration with diffuse separation and gaping from in the vault region; skull bones were fractured. Chest cavity had extensive rib fractures, lacerated lungs and haemo-thorax while externally there was no obvious injury. It requires intensive care management and screening of the victims. Tyre-blast injuries are not so common. This case exposes the hazard due to burst tyre. PMID:19329081

Murty, O P

2009-05-01

399

Lead smelting in a submerged arc furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead is still principally produced in shaft and flame-fired furnaces. However, electric furnaces increase metal recovery, reduce environmental burdens and decrease energy consumption compared to conventional processes. Because lead has low melting and boiling points and aggressive slags, the design of the furnace, energy input, and slag conductivity and composition are very important. Secondary materials are easily handled in electric furnaces. Since additional amounts of lead will become available from secondary sources in the future, electric furnaces are expected to replace conventional smelting furnaces.

Rath, G.; Vlajcic, T.; Metelmann, O.

1990-06-01

400

Head Kinematics Resulting from Simulated Blast Loading Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blast wave overpressure has been associated with varying levels of traumatic brain injury in soldiers exposed to blast loading. In realistic blast loading scenarios, the mechanisms of primary blast injury are not well known due to the complex interactions...

A. Bouamoul D. Singh D. S. Cronin P. A. Lockhart T. N. Haladuick

2012-01-01

401

Symptoms of respiratory illness in young children and the use of wood-burning stoves for indoor heating  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness among preschool children living in homes heated by wood-burning stoves was examined by conducting an historical prospective study (n . 62) with an internal control group (matched for age, sex, and town of residence). Exposures of subjects were not significantly different (P greater than .05) with respect to parental smoking, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and use of humidifiers. The control group made significantly greater use of gas stoves for cooking whereas the study group made greater use of electric stoves for cooking and of air filters (P less than .05). Only one home used a kerosene space heater. During the winter of 1982, moderate and severe symptoms in all categories were significantly greater for the study group compared with the control group (P less than .001). These differences could not be accounted for by medical histories (eg, allergies, asthma), demographic or socioeconomic characteristics, or by exposure to sources of indoor air pollution other than wood-burning stoves. Present findings suggest that indoor heating with wood-burning stoves may be a significant etiologic factor in the occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness in young children.

Honicky, R.E.; Osborne, J.S.; Akpom, C.A.

1985-03-01

402

30 CFR Blasting - Surface and Underground  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Surface and Underground Blasting Electric Blasting Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric BlastingâSurface and...

2010-07-01

403

Characteristics of gaseous pollutants from biofuel-stoves in rural China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research team analyzed the emission characteristics of gaseous pollutants, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), from biomass combustion in improved stoves in rural China. The research included measurements from five biofuels and two stove types in the months of January, April, and September. The measurements were conducted according to U.S. EPA Method 25 using a collection system with a cooling device and two-level filters. CO, CO 2, NO x, CH 4 and THC analyzers were used for in-field, real-time emission measurements. The emission data indicate that gaseous pollutants were emitted at higher concentrations in the early combustion stage and lower concentrations in the later stage. CH 4 and THC, as well as CO and CO 2, presented positive relationships during the whole entire combustion process for all tests. The chemical profiles of flue gas samples were analyzed by GC/MS and GC/FID/ECD. Aromatics, carbonyls, and alkenes & alkynes dominated the VOC emissions, respectively accounting for 37%, 33%, and 23% of total VOC emissions by volume. Benzene was the most abundant VOC species, consisting of 17.3 ± 8.1% of VOCs, followed by propylene (11.3 ± 3.5%), acetone (10.8 ± 8.2%), toluene (7.3 ± 5.7%) and acetaldehyde (6.5 ± 7.3%). Carbon mass balance approach was applied to calculate CO, CO 2, CH 4, NO x, and VOC species emission factors. This analysis includes a discussion of the differences among VOC emission factors of different biofuel-stove combinations.

Wang, Shuxiao; Wei, Wei; Du, Li; Li, Guanghui; Hao, Jiming

404

Energy-Efficiency Directory of Oil Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this directory is to inform consumers about the energy costs of operating oil furnaces. Information contained in this directory includes the type of furnace, the output capacity, and the annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE). This direc...

T. G. Statt J. L. Coggins

1981-01-01

405

Energy-Efficiency Directory of Gas Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this directory is to inform consumers about the energy costs of operating natural gas or propane furnaces. Information contained in this directory includes the type of furnace, the output capacity, and the annual fuel utilization efficiency...

T. G. Statt J. L. Coggins

1981-01-01

406

Blasting, graphical interfaces and Unix  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed to simulate blast-induced rock motion. To simplify the complex task of entering material and explosive design parameters as well as bench configuration, a full-featured graphical interface has been developed. DMC is currently executed on both Sun SPARCstation 2 and Sun SPARCstation 10 platforms and routinely used to model bench and crater blasting problems. This paper will document the design and development of the full-featured interface to DMC. The development of the interface will be tracked through the various stages, highlighting the adjustments made to allow the necessary parameters to be entered in terms and units that field blasters understand. The paper also discusses a novel way of entering non-integer numbers and the techniques necessary to display blasting parameters in an understandable visual manner. A video presentation will demonstrate the graphics interface and explains its use.

Knudsen, S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-11-01

407

BLAST: improvements for better sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) is a sequence similarity search program. The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) main- tains a BLAST server with a home page at http:\\/\\/ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\\/BLAST\\/. We report here on recent enhancements to the results produced by the BLAST server at the NCBI. These include features to highlight mismatches between similar sequences, showwherethequerywasmaskedforlow-complexity sequence, and

Jian Ye; Scott Mcginnis; Thomas L. Madden

2006-01-01

408

Evaluating the effectiveness of a commercial portable air purifier in homes with wood burning stoves: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Wood burning for residential heating is prevalent in the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Studies have shown that wood stoves can be a significant source of PM(2.5) within homes. In this study, the effectiveness of an electrostatic filter portable air purifier was evaluated (1) in a home where a wood stove was the sole heat source and (2) in a home where a wood stove was used as a supplemental heat source. Particle count concentrations in six particle sizes and particle mass concentrations in two particle sizes were measured for ten 12-hour purifier on and ten purifier off trials in each home. Particle count concentrations were reduced by 61-85 percent. Similar reductions were observed in particle mass concentrations. These findings, although limited to one season, suggest that a portable air purifier may effectively reduce indoor particulate matter concentrations associated with wood combustion during home heating. PMID:21331283

Hart, Julie F; Ward, Tony J; Spear, Terry M; Rossi, Richard J; Holland, Nicholas N; Loushin, Brodie G

2011-01-01

409

Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Commercial Portable Air Purifier in Homes with Wood Burning Stoves: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Wood burning for residential heating is prevalent in the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Studies have shown that wood stoves can be a significant source of PM2.5 within homes. In this study, the effectiveness of an electrostatic filter portable air purifier was evaluated (1) in a home where a wood stove was the sole heat source and (2) in a home where a wood stove was used as a supplemental heat source. Particle count concentrations in six particle sizes and particle mass concentrations in two particle sizes were measured for ten 12-hour purifier on and ten purifier off trials in each home. Particle count concentrations were reduced by 61–85 percent. Similar reductions were observed in particle mass concentrations. These findings, although limited to one season, suggest that a portable air purifier may effectively reduce indoor particulate matter concentrations associated with wood combustion during home heating.

Hart, Julie F.; Ward, Tony J.; Spear, Terry M.; Rossi, Richard J.; Holland, Nicholas N.; Loushin, Brodie G.

2011-01-01

410

Blast waves in rotating media.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The model investigated involves a cylindrically symmetric blast wave generated by an infinitely long line explosion in a cold and homogeneous gas rotating rigidly in its self-gravitational field. It is found that within the context of rotation in a gravitational field a blast wave will not adopt the one-zone form familiar from similarity solutions but, rather, a two-zone form. The inner compression zone arises as a response to the presence of the restoring force, which drives a rarefaction wave into the outer compression zone.

Rossner, L. F.

1972-01-01

411

Explosive blasting method and means  

SciTech Connect

An explosive blasting method and apparatus are claimed for producing rock fragmentation and reducing the amplitude of seismic effects (ground vibration) in the vicinity of the blast. It utilizes an air gap method and apparatus for superheating the air surrounding the charge in a borehole. This raises the pressure therein coupled with the use of multiple detonation points along the borehole for the reduction of burn time. This reduces the quantity of explosives used along with a marked reduction of seismic shock, sound, and dust effects to the surrounding area.

Bowling, D.S.; Moore, R.N.

1983-05-10

412

Community response to blast noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although community response to impulsive noise from military operations is usually discussed for NEPA-related purposes in terms of the prevalence of annoyance, it is managed on a local, daily basis in terms of numbers of recent complaints. Reconciling blast noise complaint rates with the annoyance predicted by dosage-effect analysis would be of considerable benefit to the Army, since it would provide insight into the dynamics of community reaction to this distinctive form of noise exposure, and put its assessment and management on a common footing. This paper describes a systematic approach to the challenges of quantifying community reaction to blast noise. [Work supported by ERDC-CERL.

Nykaza, Edward T.; Pater, Larry L.; Fidell, Sanford; Schomer, Paul

2005-09-01

413

Applicability of Carbonated Electric Arc Furnace Slag to Mortar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authors have been studying the absorption of CO2 in the steelmaking slag. In this study, an application of the electric arc furnace slag after the carbonation to admixture of mortar was investigated with the JIS (A6206-1997) method for ground granulated blast-furnace slag for concrete. The percent flows for the test mortar were smaller than that for the standard mortar. The percent flow of the carbonated slag whose average particle size of more than approximately 4 ?m increased with an increase in the average size of the particles. Because the compressive strengths of the test mortar cured for 91 days were almost the same as those cured 28 days, the slag after the carbonation was thought not to have self-hardening property for a medium and long term. The compressive strength for the test mortar was almost unchanged within a range of approximately 2 to 7 ?m of the average particle size, and it in this range was highest. The activity indexes for the test mortar prepared with the slag after the carbonation ranged from approximately 40 to 60 %.

Yokoyama, S.; Arisawa, R.; Hisyamudin, M. N. N.; Murakami, K.; Maegawa, A.; Izaki, M.

2012-03-01

414

Corrosion of furnace heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic investigations and field data indicate that corrosion of furnace heat exchangers is affected primarily by condensation tendencies caused by installation, design, and operating conditions and aggravated by the presence of contaminants, reports the Canadian Gas Research Institute. Designing for maximum heat-transfer efficiency can cause excessive chilling in some areas of the heat exchanger, resulting in condensation of combustion products

S. W. Khoo; F. D. Williamson

1976-01-01

415

Training Guidelines: Glass Furnace Operators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological development in the glass industry is constantly directed towards producing high quality glass at low operating costs. Particularly, changes have taken place in melting methods which mean that the modern furnace operator has greater responsibilities than any of his predecessors. The complexity of control systems, melting rates, tank…

Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

416

Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

1989-01-01

417

Crystal growth and furnace analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal analysis of Hg/Cd/Te solidification in a Bridgman cell is made using Continuum's VAST code. The energy equation is solved in an axisymmetric, quasi-steady domain for both the molten and solid alloy regions. Alloy composition is calculated by a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate its effect on melt thermal conductivity and, consequently, on the temperature field within the cell. Solidification is assumed to occur at a fixed temperature of 979 K. Simplified boundary conditions are included to model both the radiant and conductive heat exchange between the furnace walls and the alloy. Calculations are performed to show how the steady-state isotherms are affected by: the hot and cold furnace temperatures, boundary condition parameters, and the growth rate which affects the calculated alloy's composition. The Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), developed by NASA, is also thermally analyzed using the CINDA code. The objective is to determine the performance and the overall power requirements for different furnace designs.

Dakhoul, Youssef M.

1986-01-01

418

High temperature transparent furnace development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype transparent furnace was designed, fabricated, and tested at temperatures up to 1473 K. Radiation containment using an outer infrared mirror tube and convection elimination using vacuum insulation reduce electrical power consumption and heat loads on critical components. High vacuum was necessary to eliminate convection; even 0.001% atmosphere pressure caused large convective heat losses. A heat transfer model was developed to predict the behavior of the transparent furnace and permit projection of performance improvements resulting from design changes. The mirror tube that reflects infrared radiation and transmits some visible radiation was modified to eliminate radiation absorption in the mirror tube itself. Radiation shields were added to the ends of the furnace to further reduce radiative heat losses. Conductive heat losses were minimized by minimizing solid connections to the cooled furnace ends and by using quartz supports. All components were designed to survive high temperature operation. Extensive experiments were performed with a succession of preliminary prototypes, leading to a final prototype successfully tested at 1473 K.

Bates, Stephen C.; Knight, Kim S.; Yoel, David W.

1998-01-01

419

Simulation of Blast Waves with Headwind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The blast wave resulting from an explosion was simulated to provide guidance for models estimating risks for human spacecraft flight. Simulations included effects of headwind on blast propagation, Blasts were modelled as an initial value problem with a uniform high energy sphere expanding into an ambient field. Both still air and cases with headwind were calculated.

Olsen, Michael E.; Lawrence, Scott W.; Klopfer, Goetz H.; Mathias, Dovan; Onufer, Jeff T.

2005-01-01

420

Blast casting requires fresh assessment of methods  

SciTech Connect

The article says that because blast casting differs from conventional blasting, our ideas about explosive products, drilling, and initiating methods must change. The author discusses how to select a casting explosive and what factors are important in its selection. He also looks at how to determine the best blasthole diameter and burden blasting pattern.

Pilshaw, S.R.

1987-08-01

421

Method of loading blast hole with explosive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for loading an ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) explosive mixture upward into a vertical blast hole is discussed. The blast hole may extend as much as 70 ft or more from the open end at the face of the rock structure into which the blast hole is drilled. In order to achieve adequate packing in the hole, the ANFO

1977-01-01

422

29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underwater blasting. 1926.912 Section 1926...the Use of Explosives § 1926.912 Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall...of explosives aboard vessels used in underwater blasting operations shall be...

2013-07-01

423

Safe drinking water and clean air: An experimental study evaluating the concept of combining household water treatment and indoor air improvement using the Water Disinfection Stove (WADIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor air pollution and unsafe water remain two of the most important environmental risk factors for the global burden of infectious diseases. Improved stoves and household water treatment (HWT) methods represent two of the most effective interventions to fight respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses at household level. Since new improved stoves are highly accepted and HWT methods have their drawbacks regarding

Andri Christen; Carlos Morante Navarro; Daniel Mäusezahl

2009-01-01

424

Slot Forge Furnace demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A Hague International Slot Forge Furnace was tested and installed to demonstrate a high performance energy conserving slot forge furnace in an industrial environment. This furnace was used to heat 2-1/2'' round x 31-1/8'' long bars in preparation for an upsetting operation. Each piece was heated twice, in separate operations, and upset on both ends. The Hague International Model IV Slot Forge Furnace used in the program was designed with a nominal throughput capacity of 3000 lbs/h. Due to production requirements the demonstration furnace was operated in the range of 3800 lbs/h. A base case furnace adjacent to the Hague furnace operated simultaneously. Fuel consumption and steel throughput data for both furnaces were collected and analyzed. A heating rate of 746 Btu/lb for the Hague furnace and 1620 Btu/lb for the base case furnace was demonstrated. Data demonstrated the Hague furnace's ability to save 54% of the fuel consumed by the base case furnace.

None

1981-02-01

425

Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In glass manufacturing 70% of the total energy utilized is consumed in the melting process. Three basic furnaces are in use: regenerative, recuperative, and direct fired design. The present paper focuses on secondary heat recovery from regenerative furnaces. A diagram of a typical regenerative furnace is given. Three recovery bottoming cycles were evaluated as part of a comparative systems analysis:

J. G. Hnat; J. S. Patten

1982-01-01

426

System for supplying blasting media to a media blasting system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pressure pot system for supplying blasting media under pressure to a pressurized blasting conduit for feeding blasting media to one or more blasting guns, the system including a media storage means and a first and second pressure chambers with means for pressurizing and exhausting the first and second chambers, the media storage means being stacked above the pressure chambers with the first pressure chamber stacked above the second pressure chamber; first and second media valve means for providing communication between the storage means and the first pressure chamber and between the pressure chambers, respectively; air valve means for controlling the air pressurizing and exhausting of the first and second pressure chambers, the improvement comprising: means for opening and closing the first and second media valve means and the air valve means, the first, second and air valve means being offset from each other in both vertical and horizontal dimensions; push rods extending vertically upward from the valve means and spaced one from the other for actuating the valve means to open and close the same; an overhead cam shaft means mounted above the push rods and having a plurality of spaced cams, each of the cams being aligned and operatively associated with one of the push rods for actuating the push rods and thereby the valve means to control the opening and closing of the first and second media valve means and the air valve means; and actuating means for actuating the cam shaft means.

Van Kuiken, L.L. Jr.

1988-10-25

427

Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study  

SciTech Connect

In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all farmers born 1917 through 1951 and living in Xuanwei as of 1 January 1976. The analysis included a total of 42,422 cohort members. Follow-up identified all deaths in the cohort from 1976 through 1996. Ages at entry into and at exit from follow-up ranged from 24 to 59 years and from 25 to 80 years, respectively. The record search detected 225 deaths from pneumonia, and 32,332 (76%) were alive as of 31 December 1996. We constructed multivariable Cox models (time variable = age) to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Use of coal, especially smokeless coal, was positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Annual tonnage and lifetime duration of smoky and smokeless coal use were positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Stove improvement was associated with a 50% reduction in pneumonia deaths (smoky coal users: HR, 0.521; 95% CI, 0.340-0.798; smokeless coal users: HR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.215-0.937). Our analysis is the first to suggest that indoor air pollution from unvented coal burning is an important risk factor for pneumonia death in adults and that improving ventilation by installing a chimney is an effective measure to decrease it.

Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Vermeulen, R.; Tian, L.W.; Zheng, T.Z.; Chen, B.E.; Engels, E.A.; He, X.Z.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (USA)

2009-02-15

428

Characterization and problems of indoor pollution due to cooking stove smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Findings from the five groups of matched houses, each using either cattle dung, wood, coal, kerosene or liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuels are presented with emphasis on cross comparison of indoor pollution levels during the cooking period. The houses using LPG were considered as controls. The characterization of pollution was made by measurements of total suspended particulates (TSP), carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide and particle sizing of TSP, which were further analysed for the evaluation of levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A correlation between the pollutants as a function of fuel type has also been looked for. The study revealed that 50-80% of the TSP emissions from biomass and coal-burning cooking stoves were in a respirable fraction of ?2 ?m size and that a large amount of the PAHs (> 75%) belonged to this fraction only. Air quality biomass-using houses was the worst among the users of the five aforementioned fuels and levels were relatively high. The findings stress that a conserted effort towards a solution should be made as a large fraction of the world's population regularly uses biomass as a prime domestic fuel. The problems associated with cooking stoves in India and immediate research needs are outlined.

Raiyani, C. V.; Shah, S. H.; Desai, N. M.; Venkaiah, K.; Patel, J. S.; Parikh, D. J.; Kashyap, S. K.

429

Community response to blast noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although community response to impulsive noise from military operations is usually discussed for NEPA-related purposes in terms of the prevalence of annoyance, it is managed on a local, daily basis in terms of numbers of recent complaints. Reconciling blast noise complaint rates with the annoyance predicted by dosage-effect analysis would be of considerable benefit to the Army, since it would

Edward T. Nykaza; Larry L. Pater; Sanford Fidell; Paul Schomer

2005-01-01

430

Strong Blast Wave Computer Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a computer program package for the computation of the flow field within a strong blast bubble. The programs are based on Sedov-Laporte-Chang formulas and compute any of the following: shock front location and corresponding flow value...

A. Celmins

1980-01-01

431

Drill and Blast Tunneling Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance drill and blast methods for tunnel construction require that each of the individual working elements that constitute the construction process are optimized and considered as a system of sequential and parallel activities. The advantage of integrating the logistic backup systems facilitates an increase in performance. To achieve increased production, it is necessary to improve the drilling, explosive loading, temporary

Gerhard Girmscheid; Cliff Schexnayder

2002-01-01

432

Blasting, graphical interfaces and Unix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discrete element computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed to simulate blast-induced rock motion. To simplify the complex task of entering material and explosive design parameters as well as bench configuration, a full-featured graphical interface has been developed. DMC is currently executed on both Sun SPARCstation 2 and Sun SPARCstation 10 platforms and routinely used to model bench

S. Knudsen; D. S. Preece

1993-01-01

433

Gun Blast from Naval Guns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The available data on gun blasts from naval guns are complied utilizing computer curve fitting techniques. Curves of peak free-air pressure are presented for all naval guns, ranging in size from 20 mm to 16in./50. In addition, curves of arrival time, dura...

M. F. Walther

1972-01-01

434

Laboratory blast wave driven instabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation discusses experiments well-scaled to the blast wave driven instabilities during the explosion phase of SN1987A. Blast waves occur following a sudden, finite release of energy, and consist of a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. When a blast wave crosses an interface with a decrease in density, hydrodynamic instabilities will develop. These experiments include target materials scaled in density to the He/H layer in SN1987A. About 5 kJ of laser energy from the Omega Laser facility irradiates a 150 ?m plastic layer that is followed by a low density foam layer. A blast wave structure similar to those in supernovae, is created in the plastic layer. The blast wave crosses a perturbed interface, which produces nonlinear, unstable growth dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. Recent experiments have been performed using complex initial conditions featuring a three-dimensional interface structure with a wavelength of 71 ?m in two orthogonal directions, at times supplemented by an additional sinusoidal mode of 212 ?m or 424 ?m. We have detected the interface structure under these conditions, using dual orthogonal radiographs on some shots, and will show some of the resulting data. Recent advancements in our x-ray backlighting techniques have greatly improved the resolution of our x-ray radiographic images. Under certain conditions, the improved images show some mass extending beyond the RT spike and penetrating further than previously observed. Current simulations do not show this phenomenon. This presentation will discuss the amount of mass in these spike extensions as well as the error analysis of this calculation. Future experiments will also be discussed. They will be focusing on realistic initial conditions based on 3D stellar evolution models. This research was sponsored by the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program through DOE Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058, DE-FG52-04NA00064, and other grants and contracts.

Kuranz, Carolyn

2008-04-01

435

Glass melting furnace and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Leone International Sales Corp.'s new glass-melting furnace, heat transfer from the burning fuel to the melting glass is substantially increased by precisely adjusting the position of the burners to substantially reduce the excess-air requirement while maintaining an acceptable carbon monoxide level (35 to 50 ppM) in the flue gases, and to maximize flame coverage of the raw batch material

J. D. Nesbitt; D. H. Larson; M. E. Fejer

1974-01-01

436

Residential indoor PM2.5 in wood stove homes: follow-up of the Libby changeout program  

PubMed Central

In 2005 through 2008 a small rural mountain valley community engaged in a wood stove changeout program to address concerns of poor ambient air quality. During this program we assessed changes to indoor air quality before and after the introduction of a new, lower emission wood stove. We previously reported a greater than 70% reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations in homes following the installation of a new EPA-certified stove within the home. We report here on follow-up of the experiences in these and other homes over three winters of sample collection. In 21 homes, we compared pre-changeout PM2.5 concentrations (mean (sd) = 45.0 (33.0) ?g/m3) to multiple post-changeout measures of PM2.5 concentrations using a DustTrak. The mean reduction (and 95% confidence interval) from pre-changeout to post-changeout was ?18.5 ?g/m3 (?31.9, ?5.2), adjusting for ambient PM2.5, ambient temperature, and other factors. Findings across homes and across years were highly variable, and a subset of homes did not experience a reduction in PM2.5 following changeout. Reductions were also observed for organic carbon, elemental carbon, and levoglucosan, but increases were observed for dehydroabietic acid and abietic acid. Despite overall improvements in indoor air quality, the varied response across homes may be due to factors other than the introduction of a new wood stove.

Noonan, Curtis W.; Navidi, William; Sheppard, Lianne; Palmer, Christopher P.; Bergauff, Megan; Hooper, Kathi; Ward, Tony J.

2012-01-01

437

Chemical characterisation of fine particle emissions from wood stove combustion of common woods growing in mid-European Alpine regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodsmoke samples derived from the combustion of beech, oak, spruce, larch and softwood briquettes in a closed stove have been collected and analysed so as to derive chemical profiles for ambient particulate matter (PM) source apportionment studies, for example, by CMB modelling. Trace metals, soluble ions, carbon species total carbon (TC), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), anhydrosugars, polar

Christoph Schmidl; Iain L. Marr; Alexandre Caseiro; Petra Kotianová; Axel Berner; Heidi Bauer; Anne Kasper-Giebl; Hans Puxbaum

2008-01-01

438

Eye discomfort, headache and back pain among Mayan Guatemalan women taking part in a randomised stove intervention trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) from combustion of biomass fuels represents a global health problem, estimated to cause 1.6 million premature deaths annually.Aims: RESPIRE (Randomised Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects) Guatemala is the first randomised controlled trial ever performed on health effects from solid fuel use. Its goal is to assess the effect of improved stoves (planchas)

Esperanza Di?az; Tone Smith-Sivertsen; Dan Pope; Rolv T Lie; Anaite Di?az; John McCracken; Byron Arana; Kirk R Smith; Nigel Bruce

2007-01-01

439

COMPARISONS BETWEEN MM5 (MODIFIED METHOD 5), OM7 (OREGON METHOD 7), AND DRAFT ASTM MEASUREMENTS OF WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper compares three candidate sampling methods--the EPA Modified Method 5 (MM5), the Oregon Method 7 (OM7), and the ASTM proposed Method P180--preparatory to selecting a wood stove operating procedure and related emission sampling method. (NOTE: The EPA is developing a New S...

440

High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

Smith, James E., Jr.

1992-01-01

441

Measurement and modeling of indoor air pollution in rural households with multiple stove interventions in Yunnan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the developing world, indoor air pollution (IAP) created from solid fuel used in traditional biomass cook stoves is a leading contributor of poor respiratory health, global burden of disease, and greenhouse pollutant emissions. In the present study, we piloted an experimental cross-sectional monitoring and evaluation design with 30 households in rural Lijiang and Deqin counties in northwest Yunnan province, China. This approach offers the ability to examine the effectiveness of improved cook stove (ICS) programs with a much smaller sample size than the typical population based pre- and post-intervention study that requires a large sample representative of the population. Continuous PM2.5 was measured with the UCB (currently known as UCB-PATS) and the TSI DustTrak and continuous CO was measured with the HOBO CO logger. Using the traditional method of cooking and heating, mean 24-h PM2.5 and CO concentrations in the kitchen were measured in the range of 0.15-0.71 mg m-3 for PM2.5 and 3.0-11 ppm for CO. These concentrations were compared to using a combination of improved stoves in the kitchen where PM2.5 and CO concentrations were measured in the range of 0.08-0.18 mg m-3 for PM2.5 and 0.7-5.5 ppm for CO. These concentrations yielded statistically significant reduction in IAP when replacing the traditional fireplace or traditional stove with an improved stove combination. Finally, we show a strong correlation between CO and PM2.5 (R2 = 0.72-0.76). The combination of this experimental design along with the monitoring and evaluation protocol presented here may provide a robust framework to rapidly assess the effectiveness of ICS interventions in progress.

Chowdhury, Zohir; Campanella, Luke; Gray, Christen; Al Masud, Abdullah; Marter-Kenyon, Jessica; Pennise, David; Charron, Dana; Zuzhang, Xia

2013-03-01

442

Chimney Stove Intervention to Reduce Long-term Wood Smoke Exposure Lowers Blood Pressure among Guatemalan Women  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective RESPIRE, a randomized trial of an improved cookstove, was conducted in Guatemala to assess health effects of long-term reductions in wood smoke exposure. Given the evidence that ambient particles increase blood pressure, we hypothesized that the intervention would lower blood pressure. Methods Two study designs were used: a) between-group comparisons based on randomized stove assignment, and b) before-and-after comparisons within subjects before and after they received improved stoves. From 2003 to 2005, we measured personal fine particle (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 ?m; PM2.5) exposures and systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) among women > 38 years of age from the chimney woodstove intervention group (49 subjects) and traditional open wood fire control group (71 subjects). Measures were repeated up to three occasions. Results Daily average PM2.5 exposures were 264 and 102 ?g/m3 in the control and intervention groups, respectively. After adjusting for age, body mass index, an asset index, smoking, secondhand tobacco smoke, apparent temperature, season, day of week, time of day, and a random subject intercept, the improved stove intervention was associated with 3.7 mm Hg lower SBP [95% confidence interval (CI), ?8.1 to 0.6] and 3.0 mm Hg lower DBP (95% CI, ?5.7 to ?0.4) compared with controls. In the second study design, among 55 control subjects measured both before and after receiving chimney stoves, similar associations were observed. Conclusion The between-group comparisons provide evidence, particularly for DBP, that the chimney stove reduces blood pressure, and the before-and-after comparisons are consistent with this evidence.

McCracken, John P.; Smith, Kirk R.; Diaz, Anaite; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schwartz, Joel

2007-01-01

443

Background to plastic media blasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical strippers based on active phenolic components in a chlorinated solvent have been the traditional method for removing of paints and coatings from aircraft. With the recent recognition of the environmental and health concerns of chlorinated solvents and the problem disposing of phenols there have been some major developments in paint removal technology. One of the first techniques developed to replace chemical strippers and now one of the most widely used techniques for paint removal from aircraft was plastic media blasting (PMB). The PMB technique is similar to traditional grit blasting (slag, sand alumina or carborundum) techniques used on steel and other metals (based on grits) but using polymer based media that are softer and less aggressive. Plastic media are ranked by hardness and density as well as chemical composition.

Foster, Terry

1995-04-01

444

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

William S. McPhee

2001-08-31

445

Laboratory blast wave driven instabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation discusses experiments involving the evolution of hydrodynamic instabilities in the laboratory under high-energy-density (HED) conditions. These instabilities are driven by blast waves, which occur following a sudden, finite release of energy, and consist of a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. When a blast wave crosses an interface with a decrease in density, hydrodynamic instabilities will develop. Instabilities evolving under HED conditions are relevant to astrophysics. These experiments include target materials scaled in density to the He/H layer in SN1987A. About 5 kJ of laser energy from the Omega Laser facility irradiates a 150 ?m plastic layer that is followed by a low-density foam layer. A blast wave structure similar to those in supernovae is created in the plastic layer. The blast wave crosses an interface having a 2D or 3D sinusoidal structure that serves as a seed perturbation for hydrodynamic instabilities. This produces unstable growth dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the nonlinear regime. We have detected the interface structure under these conditions using x-ray backlighting. Recent advances in our diagnostic techniques have greatly improved the resolution of our x-ray radiographic images. Under certain conditions, the improved images show some mass extending beyond the RT spike and penetrating further than previously observed or predicted by current simulations. The observed effect is potentially of great importance as a source of mass transport to places not anticipated by current theory and simulation. I will discuss the amount of mass in these spike extensions, the associated uncertainties, and hypotheses regarding their origin We also plan to show comparisons of experiments using single mode and multimode as well as 2D and 3D initial conditions. This work is sponsored by DOE/NNSA Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058 (Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances) and DE-FG52-04NA00064 (National Laser User Facility).

Kuranz, Carolyn

2008-11-01

446

Blasting Injuries in Surface Mining with Emphasis on Flyrock and Blast Area Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blasting is a hazardous component of surface mining. Serious injuries and fatalities result from improper judgement or practice during rock blasting. This paper describes several fatal injury case studies, analyzes causative factors, and emphasizes preven...

D. K. Ingram G. L. Mowrey T. R. Rehak T. S. Bajpayee

2008-01-01

447

Emission factors from biomass burning in three types of appliances: fireplace, woodstove and pellet stove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, the importance of biomass fuels has increased mainly for two reasons. One of them is the effort to control the emissions of greenhouse gases, and on the other hand, the increasing costs associated with fossil fuels. Besides that, biomass burning is now recognised as one of the major sources contributing to high concentrations of particulate matter, especially during winter time. Southern European countries have a lack of information regarding emission profiles from biomass burning. Because of that, in most source apportionment studies, the information used comes from northern and alpine countries, whose combustion appliances, fuels and habits are different from those in Mediterranean countries. Due to this lack of information, series of tests using different types of equipment, as well as fuels, were carried out in order to obtain emission profiles and emission factors that correspond to the reality in southern European countries. Tests involved three types of biomass appliances used in Portugal, a fireplace, a woodstove and a modern pellet stove. Emission factors (mg.kg-1 fuel, dry basis) for CO, THC and PM10 were obtained. CO emission factors ranged from 38, for pine on the woodstove, to 84 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. THC emissions were between 4 and 24, for pine in the woodstove and eucalyptus in the fireplace, respectively. PM10 emission factors were in the range from 3.99, for pine in the woodstove, to 17.3 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. On average, the emission factors obtained for the fireplace are 1.5 (CO) to 4 (THC) times higher than those of the woodstove. The fireplace has emission factors for CO, THC and PM10 10, 35 and 32 times, respectively, higher than the pellet stove.

Duarte, Márcio; Vicente, Estela; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luis; Alves, Célia

2014-05-01

448

Hot-water-furnace supplemental heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a hot-water-furnace, supplemental water heater to be used with a furnace of the type having essentially parallel, vertically-oriented, multiple heating tubes surrounded by water for conveying combustion materials from a firebox to an exit area adjacent the multiple heating tubes. The hot-water furnace forms a flat support wall at the exit area. The supplemental water heater comprises:

1987-01-01

449

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

1992-12-29

450

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

1992-12-29

451

Seismic vibrations in bulk blasting with high-precise electronic and nonelectric blasting systems at quarries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report measurement data on seismic waves in bulk blasting at quarries by using new high-precise electronic and\\u000a pyrotechnic blasting systems. It is proved that both systems are efficient, intensity of seismic waves is much lower in large-scale\\u000a bulk blasting. The authors implemented numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation under a short-delay bulk blast at a\\u000a quarry. Influence of

E. N. Sher; A. G. Chernikov

2009-01-01

452

Condensing furnaces: Lessons from a utility  

SciTech Connect

for the last several years about 90% of the new natural gas furnaces installed in Wisconsin have been condensing furnaces and a number of lessons have been learned. If you avoid the common mistakes, condensing furnaces typically can deliver heating savings of 20-35 % assuming the old furnace was in the 60% AFUE range. This article describes the common mistakes and how to avoid them: outside air needed 100%; benefits of sealed combustion; follow the installation manual scrupulously; how to avoid potential problems; tips on venting.

Beers, J. [Madison Gas and Electric Company, WI (United States)

1994-11-01

453

Recent developments in electric arc furnace operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The provision of water cooled electric arc furnace walls and roofs, the increased use of iron pellets in the raw material charge, the use of solid state devices in electrode drive systems and the application of digital control are discussed. Integration of computer control of the separate aspects of arc furnace operation into an optimal direct digital control strategy for the furnace is considered. Use of dc plasma torches as an alternative to the ac electric arc as an energy source is forecast. Potential advantages of these include reduced energy costs, use of nonconsumable electrodes, and noncontamination of steel by electrodes. An operational 40 tonne dc plasma torch furnace is reported.

Morris, A. S.

1983-06-01

454

Influence of electric arc furnace pressure on power consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace steelmakers are aware of the fact that an over-evacuated furnace loses heat through the off-gas elbow. Quantitatively, how much energy can be lost by operating a furnace under too negative a pressure or how much can be gained by maintaining a positive pressure in the furnace is not known. Electric arc furnace emission regulation 40 CFR Part

M. Bender; R. Zemp; R. Ineichen

1996-01-01

455

Influence of electric arc furnace pressure on power consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace steelmakers are aware that an over-evacuated furnace loses heat through the off-gas elbow. Exactly how much energy can be lost by operating a furnace under too negative a pressure or how much can be gained by maintaining a positive pressure in the furnace is not known. Electric arc furnace emission regulations 40 CFR Part 60 AA and

M. Bender; R. Zemp; R. Ineichen

1995-01-01

456

Procedure for calculating drilling and blasting parameters and experience of blasting in constrained material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tight-face blasting is a production method which provides an improvement in drilling and blasting (DAB) indices and it involves the fact that the blasted volume over the breaking front is 'overloaded' by constrained material. The constraining material used is previously broken rock mass which has an acoustic stiffness several times less than the material being broken and a capacity to

N. I. Semenyakin; V. V. Arshavskii; A. S. Bykovtsev; V. N. Oparin; V. B. Vil'chinskii

1993-01-01

457

30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310 Section...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only...

2013-07-01

458

Factors in Selecting and Applying Commercial Explosives and Blasting Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report commercial blasting compounds are classified according to their nitroglycerin (or equivalent explosive oil) and ammonium nitrate content as dynamites, gelatins, blasting agents, military explosives, and blasting accessories. The ingredients ...

R. A. Dick

1968-01-01

459

30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tests shall be conducted using a blasting multimeter or other instrument...designed for such use. (3) The blasting cable or detonator circuitry...approaching each other, cutting, drilling and blasting shall be done at only one...

2010-07-01

460

30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tests shall be conducted using a blasting multimeter or other instrument...designed for such use. (3) The blasting cable or detonator circuitry...approaching each other, cutting, drilling and blasting shall be done at only one...

2009-07-01

461

30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tests shall be conducted using a blasting multimeter or other instrument...designed for such use. (3) The blasting cable or detonator circuitry...approaching each other, cutting, drilling and blasting shall be done at only one...

2012-07-01

462

30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tests shall be conducted using a blasting multimeter or other instrument...designed for such use. (3) The blasting cable or detonator circuitry...approaching each other, cutting, drilling and blasting shall be done at only one...

2011-07-01

463

Experimental Measures of Blast and Acoustic Trauma in Marine Mammals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blast traumas are essentially mechanical responses, therefore blast effects are inducible and measurable in post-mortem specimens. To determine onset of damage zones for blast trauma in marine mammals, fresh post-mortem specimens were implanted with press...

D. R. Ketten

2004-01-01

464

Coupled rock motion and gas flow modeling in blasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The spherical element computer code DMC (Distinct Motion Code) used to model rock motion resulting from blasting has been enhanced to allow routine computer simulations of bench blasting. The enhancements required for bench blast simulation include: (1) m...

D. S. Preece S. D. Knudsen

1991-01-01

465

Tryckverkan i Slutna Volymer. (Blast Effects in Confined Volumes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives a brief presentation of blast effects in confined volumes. In particular, blast effects in naval structures are discussed. Examples of typical structural damages and simple methods for assessment of blast effects are given. Further on, me...

L. Fast

2001-01-01

466

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

1999-03-16

467

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1999-03-16

468

Fuel Efficient Stoves for Darfur Camps of Internally DisplacedPersons - Report of Field Trip to North and South Darfur, Nov. 16 -Dec.17, 2005  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 2.2 million internally displaced persons (''IDPs'') in Darfur are living in dense camps scattered in arid areas with low fuelwood productivity. Unsustainable harvesting of fuelwood by the IDPs has created ever increasing zones of denudation, that now (in November 2005) have reached several kilometers from the camp boundaries. Leaving the safety of the camps to fetch fuelwood from farther and farther away imposes great risk and hardship on the IDP women. Three different metal fuel efficient stove (''FES'') designs were tested in Darfur IDP camps for their suitability to substantially reduce the fuelwood needs of IDPs. The mud-and-dung ''ITDG'' stoves being promoted under the current FES program were also examined and tested. A modified design of the ITDG mud-and-dung stove, ''Avi'', was developed, built and tested. Systematic informal surveys of IDP households were undertaken in North and South Darfur to understand the household parameters related to family size, food, fuel, cooking habits, cooking pots, expenditure on fuel, and preferences related to alternative ways to spend time/money if fuel could be saved. Surveys found that a significant fraction of families are missing meals for lack of fuel (50% in South Darfur, and 90% in the North Darfur camps visited by the mission). About 60% of women in South Darfur, and about 90% of women in North Darfur camps purchase fuelwood. Selling some of the food rations to purchase fuel to cook meals was significant (40%) in South Darfur and has become common (80%) in North Darfur. The LBNL mission found that two of the metal stoves and the mud-and-dung Avi can significantly reduce fuelwood consumption using the same fuel, pot, cooking methods, and food ingredients used by Darfur IDPs. The most suitable design for Darfur conditions would be a modified ''Tara'' stove. With training of the cooks in tending the fire, this stove can save 50% fuel for the IDPs. The stove costs less than $10 (US) to produce in Darfur, and saves fuelwood worth $160 annually at local market prices. For programmatic and administrative reasons, the LBNL mission do not recommend a mud-and-dung stove, for which control of quality and dimensional accuracy is expensive and cumbersome to administer, particularly in a rapid large rollout effort. A light metal stove, on the other hand, can be rapidly produced in large numbers locally in Darfur, with good quality control exercised on the material and dimensions of the stoves right at the workshop where it is produced. LBNL mission also recommends immediate trials of 50 Tara stoves in a pilot technical rollout, 500 Tara stoves in a pilot social rollout, in parallel with a technical effort to modify the Tara design to make it better suited for Darfur camp conditions. The mission also recommends a program for manufacturing, disseminating the metal stoves, and educating the IDPs in fuel-efficient cooking practices. Monitoring of the stove quality, dissemination effort and training should be an integral part of the program, with systematic summaries planned with 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 stoves have been disseminated. In the above pilot rollouts as well as in the final implementation, it is important to continue to pay attention to training of the cooks in tending the cooking fire in the stoves, and offer continued social reinforcement to this training (e.g., through periodic competitions to cook normal meals with the least fuelwood use.)

Galitsky, Christina; Gadgil, Ashok; Jacobs, Mark; Lee, Yoo-Mi

2006-02-01

469

Rodent model of direct cranial blast injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosive blast is one of the most serious wounds suffered by warfighters, yet the effects of explosive blast overpressure directly impacting the head are poorly understood. We developed a rodent model of direct cranial blast injury (dcBI), in which a blast overpressure could be delivered exclusively to the head, precluding indirect brain injury via thoracic transmission of the blast wave. We constructed and validated a Cranium Only Blast Injury Apparatus (COBIA) to deliver blast overpressures generated by detonating .22 caliber cartridges of smokeless powder. Blast waveforms generated by COBIA replicated those recorded within armored vehicles penetrated by munitions. Lethal dcBI (LD(50) ? 515?kPa) was associated with: (1) apparent brainstem failure, characterized by immediate opisthotonus and apnea leading to cardiac arrest that could not be overcome by cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (2) widespread subarachnoid hemorrhages without cortical contusions or intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhages; and (3) no pulmonary abnormalities. Sub-lethal dcBI was associated with: (1) apnea lasting up to 15?sec, with transient abnormalities in oxygen saturation; (2) very few delayed deaths; (3) subarachnoid hemorrhages, especially in the path of the blast wave; (4) abnormal immunolabeling for IgG, cleaved caspase-3, and ?-amyloid precursor protein (?-APP), and staining for Fluoro-Jade C, all in deep brain regions away from the subarachnoid hemorrhages, but in the path of the blast wave; and (5) abnormalities on the accelerating Rotarod that persisted for the 1 week period of observation. We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction. PMID:21639724

Kuehn, Reed; Simard, Philippe F; Driscoll, Ian; Keledjian, Kaspar; Ivanova, Svetlana; Tosun, Cigdem; Williams, Alicia; Bochicchio, Grant; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

2011-10-01

470

30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. 816.66 Section 816.66...Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting...the blasting schedule. (c) Access control. Access within the...

2013-07-01

471

Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and microhardness testing respectively.

Bernier, Evan Thomas

472

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

473

Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

1986-01-01

474

Chaotic responses in electric arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the findings of ongoing research into the nature and extent of electric fluctuations occuring in electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These fluctuations are indicators of the state of the furnace system and may serve as precursors for use in predictive control of the system. Current and voltage wave forms taken from a small-scale, 200 lb capacity alternating current

Paul E. King; Thomas L. Ochs; Alan D. Hartman

1994-01-01

475

Recent developments in electric arc furnace operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provision of water cooled electric arc furnace walls and roofs, the increased use of iron pellets in the raw material charge, the use of solid state devices in electrode drive systems and the application of digital control are discussed. Integration of computer control of the separate aspects of arc furnace operation into an optimal direct digital control strategy for

A. S. Morris

1983-01-01

476

Chaotic responses in electric arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the findings of ongoing research into the nature and extent of electric fluctuations occurring in electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These fluctuations are indicators of the state of the furnace system and may serve as precursors for use in predictive control of the system. Current and voltage wave forms taken from a small-scale, 200 lb capacity alternating current

Paul E. King; Thomas L. Ochs; Alan D. Hartman

1994-01-01

477

Crystal growth furnace safety system validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings are reported regarding the safe operation of the NASA crystal growth furnace (CGF) and potential methods for detecting containment failures of the furnace. The main conclusions are summarized by ampoule leak detection, cartridge leak detection, and detection of hazardous species in the experiment apparatus container (EAC).

Mackowski, D. W.; Hartfield, R.; Bhavnani, S. H.; Belcher, V. M.

1994-01-01

478

Quartz Liner Tube Inside Tube Furnace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the American Physical Society, gives a brief description of a furnace at Kansas State University that is used in semiconductor research. An image shows heat radiation from the quartz liner in this furnace, which is used in silicon-doping experiments.

2008-09-10

479

Gas Pressure Sintering Furnace for Structural Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The grant was initiated on February 1, 1998. A no-cost extension for one year was requested in January 1999. We have designed, purchased and received a gas pressure sintering furnace from Centorr Inc. (Model 2723EP). This furnace is in full operation. We ...

I. Chen

2001-01-01

480

Method for controlling combustion in industrial furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for controlling combustion of atomized fuel in industrial furnaces, in which flame radiation and temperature distributions in a furnace are controlled into optimum conditions in terms of heat efficiency by adjusting a feed rate of an atomizing medium and\\/or a distal end position of a burner.

T. Suzuki; K. Morimoto

1985-01-01

481

Flame breaker for industrial furnace heating element  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a generally elongated tubular burner heating element for the furnace chamber of an industrial furnace there is provided within the heating element at an end thereof opposite the end at which the burner is located a flame breaker assembly arranged to extend along the length of the burner heating element comprising a plurality of generally circular baffle plates spaced

Stiasny

1979-01-01

482

An intelligent ladle furnace control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an intelligent ladle furnace control system is presented. The main functions and system structure is introduced. The system applied combined artificial intelligent technology for ladle furnace heat balance calculation and steel temperature prediction, dynamic energy input optimization and intelligent electrode control. The application results achieved are given to demonstrate the capability or this intelligent control system

Sun Yanguang; Wang Daixian; Tao Baisheng; Yan Tao; Shi Yang; Fang Shubiao; Wang Yuanhou

2000-01-01

483

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace