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1

Blast furnace stove control  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

2

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBOBLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBO-BLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Haselton Blast Furnaces, West of Center Street Viaduct, along Mahoning River, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

3

Hot blast stove process model and model-based controller  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed and verified using plant data. This model is used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The model is also used to predict maximum and minimum temperature constraint violations within the stove so that the controller can take corrective actions while still achieving the required stove performance.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computational Science Methods Group; Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

4

VIEW FACING EAST, VIEW FROM RIVER OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FACING EAST, VIEW FROM RIVER OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3. DORR THICKENER & ORE BRIDGE AT LEFT, HOT BLAST STOVES & DUST CATCHER CENTER, CAST HOUSE AT RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

5

3. DETAIL, 3/4 VIEW OF HOT BLAST STOVE ON TOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. DETAIL, 3/4 VIEW OF HOT BLAST STOVE ON TOP OF FURNACE SHOWING CAST-IRON RETORTS AND TURNED HEAD (WHERE RAW MATERIALS WERE LOADED INTO FURNACE). - Nassawango Iron Furnace, Furnace Road, 1.2 miles west of Maryland Route 12, Snow Hill, Worcester County, MD

6

Saugus Iron Works Blast Furnace  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of the Saugus Iron Works blast furnace, which smelted the iron from limonite, an iron ore. The limonite formed in nearby bogs, and was heated in the blast furnace until the iron melted and ran out the bottom of the furnace....

7

GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE IN THE RIGHT; THE CENTRAL COMPLEX WITH STOVES IN THE CENTER. ELECTRICAL POWER HOUSE IS ON THE LEFT BEYOND THE CONVEYOR LIFT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

8

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

9

First and second-law analyses of energy recoveries in blast-furnace regenerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine various systems for the recovery of thermal energy from waste gases and for preheating in blast-furnace Cowper stoves, with the basic aim of improving efficiencies when utilizing blast-furnace gas with low net heating value at constant peak temperature. Using first- and second-law analyses, with suitably defined exergetic quantities, numerical values are given to measure energy savings.

G. Bisio

1996-01-01

10

The Saugus Iron Works Blast Furnace  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of the Saugus Iron Works blast furnace, which smelted the iron from limonite, an iron ore. The limonite formed in nearby bogs, and was heated in the blast furnace until the iron melted and ran out the bottom of the furnace. ...

11

Fiber optic pyrometer and its application in hot-blast stove temperature measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced in this paper are a technique of fiber optic dual-wavelength pyrometer and its principle, structure and characteristics. It was successfully applied under the hostile environment in hot-blast stoves to measure high-temperature. The efforts to overcome all difficulties, such as pressure, water vapor, and probe bend caused by thermal expansion, are reported in details. The resulting device is reliable, stable and accurate, and has immunity to harmful gas corrosion. The proposed pyrometer has a long lifetime. Therefore, it can replace the conventional thermo-electric-couple for temperature measurement in a blast furnace.

Li, Weilai; Jiang, Desheng; Zhu, Weijia

2004-03-01

12

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

13

Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions  

SciTech Connect

Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy

2009-07-15

14

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSEUP, IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSE-UP, IRON NOTCH IN CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

15

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

16

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPENHEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPEN-HEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 AND CAST HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

17

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

18

6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

19

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX WITH LADLE HOUSE AND IRON DESULPHERIZATION BUILDING ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

20

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

21

Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

2013-04-01

22

Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent. PMID:25078829

Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

2013-12-01

23

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

24

Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge.  

PubMed

Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.097mgkg(-1). In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8mgkg(-1) with a median of 1.63mgkg(-1), which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n=31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r=0.695; n=31; p<0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r=0.496; n=27; p=0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Finally, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites. PMID:24290303

Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

2014-03-01

25

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, AND No. 6, WITH ORE YARD IN THE FOREGROUND. BUILDING ON THE LEFT IS THE CENTRAL BOILER HOUSE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

26

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building to the right is the crucible steel building - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

27

Blast-furnace performance with coal-dust injection  

SciTech Connect

For the blast furnace shop at OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (AMK) the injection of pulverized fuel is promising. Preliminary steps toward its introduction are underway, including analytical research. In this context, blast furnace performance when using pulverized coal is calculated in this study.

G.G. Vasyura [OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat, Alchevsk (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

28

29. Blast furnace plant, looking southeast. The Machine Shop and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Blast furnace plant, looking southeast. The Machine Shop and Turbo Blower Building are at left, the pig-casting machine and Furnace A at center right. In foregound are the 50-ton ladle cars used to transport hot metal to Valley Mould & Iron Co. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

29

Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. As these wastes often contain high contents of zinc, lead, cadmium, and arsenic, significant hazards to environmental surroundings may arise from former BFS sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations (coke, iron ores, and additives such as olivine, bauxite, ilmenite and gravels) revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.093 mg kg-1. In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8 mg kg-1 with a median of 1.63 mg kg-1, which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n = 31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r = 0.695; n = 31; p < 0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r = 0.496; n = 27; p = 0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Consequently, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites.

Földi, Corinna

2014-05-01

30

Stove  

SciTech Connect

A solid fuel-burning stove is disclosed, which has a fire chamber defined by its walls and top. And an upper gas recirculating chamber with a convex portion is provided in the top section of the stove.

Cummer, L.W.

1983-08-02

31

Pulverized coal injection operation on CSC No. 3 blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

The pulverized coal injection system was introduced for the first time in No. 1 and No. 2 blast furnace at China Steel Corporation (CSC) in 1988. Currently the coal injection rate for both blast furnaces has steadily risen to 70--89 kg/thm (designed value). No 3 blast furnace (with an inner volume of 3400 m3) was also equipped with a PCI system of Armco type and started coal injection on November 17, 1993. During the early period, some problems such as injection lance blocking, lance-tip melting down, flexible hose wear, grind mill tripping occasionally interrupted the stable operation of blast furnace. After a series of efforts offered on equipment improvement and operation adjustment, the PC rate currently reaches to 90--110 kg/thm and furnace stable operation is still being maintained with productivity more than 2.20.

Chan, C.M.; Hsu, C.H. [China Steel Corp., Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

1996-12-31

32

VIEW OF DOUBLE ROOF CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF DOUBLE ROOF CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3. COKE PLANT & MONESSEN BUSINESS DISTRICT IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FACING EAST. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

33

DETAIL VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND SKIP HOIST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND SKIP HOIST. DUST CATCHER IS AT THE RIGHT. VIEW IS FROM THE EAST. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

34

Develop of the Blast Furnace Soft Water Temperature Measurement System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to ensure normal operation of the blast furnace (BF) closed loop soft water cooling system, cooling water temperature and the heat load must be controlled. It is the most important how the hundreds of large-scale blast furnace soft water temperature points for real-time detection. The DS18B20 digital thermometer was used as a temperature sensor. The DS18B20 communicates over

Zhang Lei; Zhou Fei; Qian Ya-ping

2008-01-01

35

Stove  

SciTech Connect

A stove having walls which are shaped and supported to prevent warping thereof is described. A combustion chamber in the stove is defined by bottom and side walls positioned and oriented to maximize the space available for such a chamber. The walls of the combustion chamber have top caps thereon for ensuring and maintaining the proper positioning of those walls. Further holding elements are included in the stove to maintain the combustion chamber walls in position. An alternative embodiment of the stove includes front opening access doors.

Hayter, J.D.; Judge, K.E.

1980-10-28

36

VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE FROM THE EAST, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE FROM THE EAST, SHOWING SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS IN THE FOREGROUND. #2 CASTING SHED IS TO THE LEFT, HOT BLAST MAIN IS ON THE RIGHT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

37

Improvements in blast furnace operation at AHMSA Monclova  

SciTech Connect

Following the privatization of Altos Hornos de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (AHMSA) in Nov. 1991, four areas were chosen to improve blast furnace performance and hot metal costs. These areas included improvement of pellet quality, start of oil-gas co-injection, improved control of gas flow in the blast furnace and start of monitoring program to predict the remaining life of the hearth of No. 5 blast furnace. These efforts resulted in the following improvements in the first half of 1992: Production level increased to 2.4 tonnes/cu metre/24 hr with a 1992 annual production record from No. 5 furnace of 1.639 million tonnes; Coke rates decreased by 60 kg/tonne, half of which was due to process improvements and the other half to injection of oil; Silicon standard deviations decreased from 0.22% in 1991 to 0.20% in 1992; Hot metal costs decreased by 10.6%; and The major reline of No. 5 furnace postponed by at least 1.5 years. The improvement of the blast furnace process was not limited to the larger No. 5 furnace. Similar tends can be observed with No. 4 furnace which will also be equipped with oil injection. For the future, programs have been prepared to increase injection rates, improve casthouse operation and increase process stability.

Morales, J.M.; Dominguez, H. (Altos Hornos de Mexico S.A. de C.V., Monclova (Mexico). Monclova Works); Geerdes, M. (Hoogovens Technical Services B.V., Monclova (Mexico))

1994-10-01

38

A General Viscosity Model for Molten Blast Furnace Slag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace slag is the most abundant slag in the steel industry. Its metallurgical properties are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reliable viscosity model for blast furnace slag. In the current work, a simple, accurate, and physically meaningful viscosity model for a wide composition range of blast furnace slags is developed based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation: log ? = A + B/( T - C). The model is calibrated by a database containing 365 compositions and 1233 measurements of synthetic and industrial slags. The parameter A has a value of -3.10. The parameters B and C are related to the mass fraction ratio of (CaO + MgO) to (SiO2 + Al2O3) and liquidus temperature of the slag, respectively. Present viscosity model accurately predicts the viscosity of blast furnace slag with relative average error (?) of 0.211 (±0.180) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.239 Pa·s. A slight modification of this model can also predict the glass transition temperature of blast furnace slag satisfactorily.

Gan, Lei; Lai, Chaobin

2014-06-01

39

A dynamic simulation of a lead blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic model has been developed to simulate the operation of the stack zone of a lead blast furnace. The mathematical formulation of the governing equations of change leads to a system of 2nd order partial differential equations, which is solved by finite difference methods. A reduction model of ash-layer diffusion controlled mechanism, which allows the stepwise reduction to the lowest oxide or metal thermodynamically possible for the local gas composition within the sinter, is employed in this model. The surface reaction and the internal diffusion in the porous solid particles are taken into account in the coke gasification reaction. The profiles of the temperatures of gases and solids, solid compositions, and gas compositions and pressure in both radial and axial directions are predicted by the model. The results provide a good representation of the experimental data obtained for the blast furnace at Brunswick Mining and Smelting Corp., Ltd., New Brunswick, Canada and also of the less extensive data available for the Cominco blast furnace at Trail, British Columbia, Canada. In addition to the modelling of the stack, a mass and energy balance for the bosh zone is also included in the present calculation. The improvement of coke efficiency due to oxygen enrichment in the blast air for the Brunswick Furnace were interpreted semiquantitatively. The effect of sinter size distribution on the furnace performance has also been studied.

Chao, John T.

1981-06-01

40

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD TO THE CENTER, HEYL & PATTERSON CAR DUMPER TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

41

Stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood-burning stove with a vertically corrugated surrounding wall is described. The vertical corrugations have an outer side in direct contact with the atmosphere and an inner side directly contactable by the wood fuel. The corrugated wall has air inlets which can be controlled by adjustable dampers.

Sedore, E.

1980-01-01

42

51. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM THE CLARK AVENUE BRIDGE. BLAST FURNACES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM THE CLARK AVENUE BRIDGE. BLAST FURNACES AND LOWER ORE DOCK CAN BE SEEN AT CENTER; COKE CONVEYOR IS AT LEFT; AT RIGHT, THE TERMINAL TOWER CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

43

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND MACHINERY AND ARTIFACTS INCLUDING A STEAM ENGINE HUB MADE AT THE BRIERFIELD ROLLING MILL (INSCRIBED C.C. HUCKABEE AND DATED 1863) AND OTHER STEAM ENGINES. - Iron & Steel Museum of Alabama, 12632 Confederate Pkwy., Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

44

Integrated automatic control system for blast-furnace production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the existing automatic control system gives rise to a proposal for an integrated automated system regulating the\\u000a blast furnace, the thermoelectric generation center, and steam and air supply center. The benefits of this system are outlined.\\u000a Experience in automating the multifuel steam boiler at OAO Dneprovskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat is described.

A. V. Sadovoi; V. I. Romanenko; N. T. Tishchenko; R. S. Volyanski

2009-01-01

45

CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED CAST HOUSE LIES IN BETWEEN TWO SKIP INCLINES. HIP ROOF AT RIGHT COVERS BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

46

GENERAL VIEW OF SITE OF BLAST FURNACE PLANT; THE BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF SITE OF BLAST FURNACE PLANT; THE BUILDING IN THE DISTANCE TO THE FAR RIGHT WAS LIKELY THE BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. THE FUNCTION OF THE SMALL WOOD-FRAME BUILDING TO THE LEFT IS UNKNOWN - Kemble Coal & Iron Company, Riddlesburg Works, Riddlesburg, Bedford County, PA

47

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST AND DUST CATCHER. STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, THE #2 CASTING SHED BEYOND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

48

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

49

Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel  

SciTech Connect

Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01

50

Hot metal Si control at Kwangyang blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Studies of Si transfer in blast furnaces have shown that the Si level in pig iron is influenced more by the reaction of silicon oxide gas generation in the raceway than the chemical reaction between hot metal and slag at the drop zone. Specifications require a Si content of pig iron below 0.15% at the Kwangyang Works, but the use of soft coking coal in the blend for coke ovens, high pulverized coal injection rate into the blast furnace, and the application of lower grade iron ore has resulted in the need to develop methods to control Si in hot metal. In this paper, the results of in furnace Si control and the desiliconization skills at the casthouse floor are described.

Hur, N.S.; Cho, B.R.; Kim, G.Y.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, B.H. [POSCO, Cheollanamdo (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works

1995-12-01

51

Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

2013-07-01

52

Energy Conservation for Granular Coal Injection into a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the combustion of granular coal injected into a blast furnace, injection characteristics of granular coal were first studied through proximate analysis, element analysis, and research of explosivity, ignition point, meltability of ash, grindability, calorific value, etc. Using a sampling device in the raceway combined with petrographic analysis, during the combustion process of granular coal with high crystal water and volatile in raceway, cracks and bursts were found, leading to a reduction of particle size. Based on a model of mass control and dynamic theory of particle combustion, the transition dynamic model for cracking in combustion of granular coal was found, and the critical value of cracking ratio (?P) for granular coal combustion in the raceway was calculated. Finally, the utilization ratio and energy efficiency of granular coal used in the blast furnace were discussed, offering theoretical foundation and technical support for intensifying granular coal combustion and promoting granular coal injection.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Zhang, Jianliang; Shao, Jiugang; Zuo, Haibin; Ren, Shan

2012-08-01

53

Hydrothermal solidification of blast furnace slag by formation of tobermorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace water-cooled slag (BFWS) has been solidified using a hydrothermal processing method, in which the BFWS could\\u000a be solidified in an autoclave under saturated steam pressure (1.56 MPa) at 200 ?C for 12 h by the additions of quartz or coal\\u000a flyash. The tensile strength development was shown to depend on the formation of tobermorite and the packing state of the\\u000a formed

Zhenzi Jing; F. Jin; T. Hashida; N. Yamasaki; H. Ishida

2007-01-01

54

Apparatus for cleaning blast-furnace exhaust gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for cleaning the exhaust gas of a high-pressure blast furnace comprises a coarse-particle separator, a prewasher and a differential-pressure annular gap washer traversed in succession by the gases. The exhaust gases can be passed through a main duct provided with an expansion turbine or through a bypass duct around the expansion turbine. The expansion turbine unit controls the

K. R. Hegemann; G. Finger; A. Brinkmann; H. Weissert

1977-01-01

55

Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.  

PubMed

Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

2012-05-01

56

New methods for monitoring the technical state of blast furnace enclosure without stopping the technological process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of technical monitoring of the state of blast furnaces are considered in the context of extending the service\\u000a life of furnaces, and estimating the reliability of their structural elements. The method of videomonitoring of the technical\\u000a state of the blast furnace enclosure without stopping the process is described for the first time.

V. I. Bol’shakov; A. L. Chaika; S. P. Sushchev; A. A. Suslonov; A. B. Yur’yev; S. F. Bugaev; G. V. Panchokha; A. V. Borodulin

2007-01-01

57

Efficient fuel burning stove or furnace with thermal energy slow propagation flue structure  

SciTech Connect

A stove or furnace for combusting and extracting heat from wood and wood-type fuels includes a firebox arrangement for primary combustion and a flue structure coupled to the firebox which includes a plurality of flue gas decelerating chambers for slowing propagation of flue gas, heat exchange to the environment , and further combustion of fuel constituents in the flue gas. The chambers are coupled in series through restricting and accelerating passageways for maintaining draft between chambers, finally leading to an outlet chimney. The chambers are formed with baffles for greater turbulant mixing, combustion, and heat exchange. Furthermore, a tubular conduit may be provided extending from the firebox through the flue structure chambers. The tubular conduit is formed with orifices for injecting burning flue gas from the firebox primary combustion directly into the series coupled chambers to enhance secondary burning. A new method for combustion of wood and carbonaceous fuels and extracting heat is also described.

Herne, R. H.

1981-09-29

58

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

59

Preparation of Ceramic-Bonded Carbon Block for Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional carbon blocks for blast furnaces are mainly produced with electrically calcined anthracite owing to its good hot metal corrosion resistance. However, this kind of material shows low thermal conductivity and does not meet the demands for cooling of the hearth and the bottom of blast furnaces. In this article, a new kind of a high-performance carbon block has been prepared via ceramic-bonded carbon (CBC) technology in a coke bed at 1673 K (1400 °C) using artificial graphite aggregate, alumina, metallic aluminum, and silicon powders as starting materials. The results showed that artificial graphite aggregates were strongly bonded by the three-dimensional network of ceramic phases in carbon blocks. In this case, the good resistance of the CBC blocks against erosion/corrosion by the hot metal is provided by the ceramic matrix and the high thermal conductivity by the graphite aggregates. The microstructure of this carbon block resembles that of CBC composites with a mean pore size of less than 0.1 ?m, and up to 90 pct of the porosity shows a pore size <1 ?m. Its thermal conductivity is higher than 30 W · m-1 · K-1 [293 K (20 °C)]. Meanwhile, its hot metal corrosion resistance is better than that of traditional carbon blocks.

Li, Yiwei; Li, Yawei; Sang, Shaobai; Chen, Xilai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuanbing; Li, Shujing

2014-01-01

60

Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition  

SciTech Connect

The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

1995-12-01

61

The Utilization and Recovery of Energy from Blast Furnaces and Converters  

E-print Network

The Bischoff Blast Furnace Top Gas Process for high pressure blast furnaces is presented as an example of a modern gas treatment process in the iron and steel industry: the work potential of the high pressure top gas is utilized in a plant...

Hegemann, K. R.; Niess, T.; Baare, R. D.

1979-01-01

62

DESTRUCTION AND REMOVAL OF POHCS (PRINCPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS) IN IRON MAKING BLAST FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

At least one steel company utilizes organic waste liquids as a heat and carbon content source to partially replace the coke that is used to charge the blast furnaces. The waste liquids fed to the blast furnace are likely to contain hazardous constituents. Temperature and residenc...

63

Microstructure and durability of mortars modified with medium active blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical characteristics and durability properties of blast furnace slag cement composites largely depend on the hydraulic activity of the slag. In this paper, a Granulated Blast Furnace Slag with a low reactivity index is used in modifying mortar composition. Microstructure and durability of mixes containing 0%, 30% and 50% of slag as substitution to OPC are respectively compared and analyzed.

Ahmed Hadj-sadok; Said Kenai; Luc Courard; Anne Darimont

2011-01-01

64

Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin [Enakievo Metallurgical Plant, Enakievo (Ukraine)

2009-05-15

65

Cold blast furnace syndrome: a new source of toxic inhalation by nitrogen oxides  

PubMed Central

Methods: Fourteen workers developed acute respiratory symptoms shortly after exposure to "air blast" from blast furnace tuyeres. These included chest tightness, dyspnoea, rigors, and diaphoresis. Chest radiographs showed pulmonary infiltrates, and lung function a restrictive abnormality. This report includes a description of clinical features of the affected workers and elucidation of the probable cause of the outbreak. Results: Clinical features and occupational hygiene measurements suggested the most likely cause was inhalation of nitrogen oxides at high pressure and temperature. While the task could not be eliminated, engineering controls were implemented to control the hazard. No further cases have occurred. Conclusions: "Cold blast furnace syndrome" represents a previously undescribed hazard of blast furnace work, probably due to inhalation of nitrogen oxides. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute toxic inhalational injuries in blast furnace workers. PMID:15090669

Tague, I; Llewellin, P; Burton, K; Buchan, R; Yates, D

2004-01-01

66

PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF BLAST FURNACE WASTEWATERS USING MOBILE PILOT UNITS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents an in-depth pilot-plant investigation of the applicability of advanced waste treatment methods for upgrading ironmaking blast furnace wastewaters to Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BATEA) levels. Mobile treatments facilities, designed to op...

67

VIEW OF CENTRAL STEAM PLANT IN FOREGROUND, BLAST FURNACES NO.S ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF CENTRAL STEAM PLANT IN FOREGROUND, BLAST FURNACES NO.S 1,2 & 3, AND FLOODED ORE YARD. VIEW FACING EAST. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

68

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

Unknown

1999-10-01

69

Mathematical modeling of the burden distribution in the blast furnace shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process efficiency in the blast furnace is influenced by the gas flow pattern, which is dictated by the burden profile. Therefore,\\u000a it is important to control the burden distribution so as to achieve reasonable gas flow in the blast furnace operation. Additionally,\\u000a the charging pattern selection is important as it affects the burden trajectory and stock profile. For analysis of

Jong-In Park; Hun-Je Jung; Min-Kyu Jo; Han-Sang Oh; Jeong-Whan Han

2011-01-01

70

Effect of chemical attack and operational parameters on the wear of blast furnace refractories  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of refractory behavior in a blast furnace has been made because refractory and furnace design problems associated with iron production may apply to coal gasification units. Iron is made in a cylindrical, refractory lined, steel shell that has an internal height of 80 to 90 feet and an internal diameter at tuyere level of 20 to 45 feet.

1976-01-01

71

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-12-31

72

An Integrated Model of Coal/Coke Combustion in a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional integrated mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate the operation of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates two parts: pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed and the coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements in terms of coal burnout and gas composition, respectively. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are simulated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. In addition, underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are analyzed. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI process in full-scale blast furnaces.

Shen, Y. S.; Guo, B. Y.; Yu, A. B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P.

2010-03-01

73

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21

74

Multiscale dynamic analysis of blast furnace system based on intensive signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Hilbert-Huang transform method and time delay embedding method are applied to multiscale dynamic analysis on the time series of silicon content in hot metal collected from a medium-sized blast furnace with the inner volume of 2500 m3. The results provide clear evidence of multiscale features in blast furnace ironmaking process. Ten intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are decomposed from the silicon content time series; the presence of noninteger fractal dimension, positive finite Kolmogorov entropy, and positive finite maximum Lyapunov exponent are found in some IMF components. In addition, the coupling of subscale structures of blast furnace system is studied using the dimension of interaction dynamics and a robust algorithm for detecting interdependence. It is found that IMF(3) is the main driver in the coupling system IMF(2) and IMF(3) while for the coupling system IMF(3) and IMF(4) neither subsystem can act as the driver. All these provide a guideline for studying blast furnace ironmaking process with multiscale theory and methods, and may open way for more candidate tools to model and control blast furnace system in the future.

Chu, Yanxu; Gao, Chuanhou; Liu, Xiangguan

2010-09-01

75

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

Crelling, J.C.

1993-12-31

76

On-line ultrasonic system for measuring thickness of the copper stave in the blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blast furnace is used make molten iron from sintered ore and the cokes in the steel industry. Recently, the copper stave cooling system placed on inner face of the blast furnace body to protect the steel shell from heat. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the material makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. It was impossible to access the copper stave with the ultrasonic sensor for measuring thickness because the copper stave is covered with the steel shell and there is backing refractory between the stave and the steel shell. The unique ultrasonic sensor which can approach the cooling stave through the cooling line was developed to measure thickness. The thickness can be measured with portable ultrasonic thickness sensor and can be monitored continuously with embedded sensors.

Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, Dohoon

2012-05-01

77

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-09-01

78

Hydration and properties of novel blended cements based on cement kiln dust and blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present paper is to address the key technical issues pertaining to the utilization of cement kiln dust (CKD) as an activator for ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) to create nonconventional cementitious binders for concrete. The relatively high alkaline content of CKD is the predominant factor preventing its recycling in cement manufacture. However, it was observed

Maria S. Konsta-Gdoutos; Surendra P. Shah

2003-01-01

79

Data-driven modeling based on volterra series for multidimensional blast furnace system.  

PubMed

The multidimensional blast furnace system is one of the most complex industrial systems and, as such, there are still many unsolved theoretical and experimental difficulties, such as silicon prediction and blast furnace automation. For this reason, this paper is concerned with developing data-driven models based on the Volterra series for this complex system. Three kinds of different low-order Volterra filters are designed to predict the hot metal silicon content collected from a pint-sized blast furnace, in which a sliding window technique is used to update the filter kernels timely. The predictive results indicate that the linear Volterra predictor can describe the evolvement of the studied silicon sequence effectively with the high percentage of hitting the target, very low root mean square error and satisfactory confidence level about the reliability of the future prediction. These advantages and the low computational complexity reveal that the sliding-window linear Volterra filter is full of potential for multidimensional blast furnace system. Also, the lack of the constructed Volterra models is analyzed and the possible direction of future investigation is pointed out. PMID:22128000

Gao, Chuanhou; Jian, Ling; Liu, Xueyi; Chen, Jiming; Sun, Youxian

2011-12-01

80

Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Iron-Slag Ratio at Taphole of Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the initial process in an integrated steel-making plant, molten iron is produced in a blast furnace. The molten iron has a temperature between 1700 K and 1900 K. The outflow stream discharged from a taphole comprises the molten iron and slag (which is a mixture of molten oxides). Monitoring of the stream temperature is important because it has information on the thermal condition inside the blast furnace. A newly developed simultaneous measurement technique for temperature and iron-slag ratio is reported. A monochromatic CCD camera with a short exposure time is used to obtain a thermal image of the rapidly moving stream. The thermal image has a marble-like pattern caused by the physical separation of the iron and slag and their different optical properties. Iron thermometry is realized by automatically detecting the peak of the iron gray-level distribution on a histogram. Meanwhile, the thermal radiance of the semitransparent slag varies as a function of the thickness. The slag temperature is calculated from the maximum gray level, presuming that the emissivity of the slag is constant at a thick slag part. The slag ratio is measured by counting the number of pixels on the histogram. A field test was carried out at an operating blast furnace. The iron temperature, slag temperature, and slag ratio were successfully measured. This multiple image measurement is expected to be the new information source for stable blast furnace operation.

Sugiura, M.; Shinotake, A.; Nakashima, M.; Omoto, N.

2014-07-01

81

AIR POLLUTION IMPACTS WHEN QUENCHING BLAST FURNACE SLAG WITH CONTAMINATED WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an effort to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of coke plant wastewater will result in a significant increase in emissions to the atmosphere. The alternative is using the wastewater, untreated, to quench blast furnace...

82

Waste plastics as supplemental fuel in the blast furnace process: improving combustion efficiencies.  

PubMed

The possibility of using waste plastics as a source of secondary fuel in a blast furnace has been of recent interest. The success of this process, however, will be critically dependent upon the optimization of operating systems. For instance, the supply of waste plastics must be reliable as well as economically attractive compared with conventional secondary fuels such as heavy oil, natural gas and pulverized coal. In this work, we put special importance on the improvement of the combustibility of waste plastics as a way to enhance energy efficiency in a blast furnace. As experimental variables to approach this target, the effects of plastic particle size, blast temperature, and the level of oxygen enrichment were investigated using a custom-made blast model designed to simulate a real furnace. Lastly, the combustion efficiency of the mixture of waste plastics and pulverized coal was tested. The observations made from these experiments led us to the conclusion that with the increase of both blast temperature and the level of oxygen enrichment, and with a decrease in particle size, the combustibility of waste polyethylene could be improved at a given distance from the tuyere. Also it was found that the efficiency of coal combustion decreased with the addition of plastics; however, the combustion efficiency of mixture could be comparable at a longer distance from the tuyere. PMID:12220825

Kim, Dongsu; Shin, Sunghye; Sohn, Seungman; Choi, Jinshik; Ban, Bongchan

2002-10-14

83

The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the furnace from a chemical thermodynamics perspective. Examines the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy change for each reaction of importance. These properties are interpreted on the molecular level then used to deduce the conditions necessary for each reaction to occur in its intended direction. Chemical kinetics is also discussed.…

Treptow, Richard S.; Jean, Luckner

1998-01-01

84

Using coal-dust fuel in Ukrainian and Russian blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Ukrainian and Russian blast-furnace production falls short of the best global practices. It is no secret that, having switched to oxygen and natural gas in the 1960s, the blast-furnace industries have improved the batch and technological conditions and have attained a productivity of 2.5 and even 3 t/(m{sup 3} day), but have not been able to reduce coke consumption below 400 kg/t, which was the industry standard 40 years ago. The situation is particularly bad in Ukraine: in 2007, furnace productivity was 1.5-2 t/m{sup 3}, with a coke consumption of 432-530 kg/t. Theoretical considerations and industrial experience over the last 20 years show that the large-scale introduction of pulverized fuel, with simultaneous improvement in coke quality and in batch and technological conditions, is the only immediately available means of reducing coke consumption considerably (by 20-40%). By this means, natural-gas consumption is reduced or eliminated, and the efficiency of blast-furnace production and ferrous metallurgy as a whole is increased.

A.A. Minaev; A.N. Ryzhenkov; Y.G. Banninkov; S.L. Yaroshevskii; Y.V. Konovalov; A.V. Kuzin [Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15

85

Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop  

SciTech Connect

In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel'nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova [OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), Magnitogorsk, (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15

86

Thermal-destruction products of coal in the blast-furnace gas-purification system  

SciTech Connect

The lean, poorly clinkering coal and anthracite used to replace coke in blast furnaces has a considerable content of volatile components (low-molecular thermaldestruction products), which enter the water and sludge of the blast-furnace gas-purification system as petroleum products. Therefore, it is important to study the influence of coal on the petroleum-product content in the water and sludge within this system. The liberation of primary thermal-destruction products is investigated for anthracite with around 4 wt % volatiles, using a STA 449C Jupiter thermoanalyzer equipped with a QMC 230 mass spectrometer. The thermoanalyzer determines small changes in mass and thermal effects with high accuracy (weighing accuracy 10{sup -8} g; error in measuring thermal effects 1 mV). This permits experiments with single layers of coal particles, eliminating secondary reactions of its thermal-destruction products.

A.M. Amdur; M.V. Shibanova; E.V. Ental'tsev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Russia Institute of Metallurgy

2008-10-15

87

Extracting the core indicators of pulverized coal for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An updated approach to refining the core indicators of pulverized coal used for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis is proposed in view of the disadvantages of the existing performance indicator system of pulverized coal used in blast furnaces. This presented method takes into account all the performance indicators of pulverized coal injection, including calorific value, igniting point, combustibility, reactivity, flowability, grindability, etc. Four core indicators of pulverized coal injection are selected and studied by using principal component analysis, namely, comprehensive combustibility, comprehensive reactivity, comprehensive flowability, and comprehensive grindability. The newly established core index system is not only beneficial to narrowing down current evaluation indices but also effective to avoid previous overlapping problems among indicators by mutually independent index design. Furthermore, a comprehensive property indicator is introduced on the basis of the four core indicators, and the injection properties of pulverized coal can be overall evaluated.

Guo, Hong-wei; Su, Bu-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Zhu, Meng-yi; Chang, Jian

2013-03-01

88

Influence of tobermorite formation on mechanical properties of hydrothermally solidified blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrothermal processing method has been used to solidify blast furnace water-cooled slag (BFWS), in which the BFWS could\\u000a be solidified in an autoclave under saturated steam pressure (1.56 MPa) at 200 °C for 12 h by the additions of quartz or coal\\u000a fly ash. The experimental results showed that the addition of the quartz or fly ash was favorable to the formation

Zhenzi Jing; F. Jin; T. Hashida; N. Yamasaki; Emile H. Ishida

2008-01-01

89

Use of blast furnace granulated slag as a substrate in vertical flow reed beds: Field application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted at Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey in 2000 to determine whether a reed bed filled with an economical Turkish fill media that has high phosphorus (P) sorption capacity, could be implemented and operated successfully under field conditions. In batch-scale P-sorption experiments, the P-sorption capacity of the blast furnace granulated slag (BFGS) of KARDEM?R Iron and

E. Asuman Korkusuz; Meryem Beklio?lu; Göksel N. Demirer

2007-01-01

90

Impact of blast-furnace plant emissions in a dune ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

The study describes the levels and patterns of distribution of Fe, Mn and Zn in a dune ecosystem, partly constituting a nature reserve in Holland. A blast-furnace plant complex is situated in the centre of the area. The availability of the metals to invertebrate fauna, and the accumulation of the metals through producer-herbivore systems was studied. In one of the insect species (Thyria jacobaea L.), the excretion mechanism for iron and manganese was studied in detail.

Joosse, E.N.G.; Van Vliet, L.H.H.

1982-09-01

91

Investigation on Carbon-Deposition Behavior from Heating Cycle Gas in Oxygen Blast Furnace Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the different ways to study carbon deposition in the ironmaking process, not much attention was paid to that of heating the gas mixture, especially cycle gas in an oxygen blast furnace. In this work, the carbon-deposition characteristics of heating 100 pct CO, CO-H2 gas mixture, and cycle gas in the oxygen blast furnace process were, respectively, experimentally and theoretically investigated. First, the thermodynamics on carbon-deposition reactions were calculated. Then, the impacts of discharging operation temperature, the proportion of CO/H2 in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture, and the CO2 concentration in heating the cycle gas of an oxygen blast furnace on the carbon deposition were tested and investigated. Furthermore, the carbon-deposition behaviors in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture were compared with the thermodynamic calculation results for discussing the role of H2. In addition, carbon deposition in heating cycle gas includes CO decomposition and a carbon-deposition reaction by hybrid of CO and H2; the possible roles of each were analyzed by comparing thermodynamic calculation and experimental results. The deposited carbon was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the deposited carbon microstructure.

Liu, Jinzhou; Wang, Jingsong; She, Xuefeng; Zhang, Shiyang; Xue, Qingguo

2015-02-01

92

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

Crelling, J.C.

1995-12-31

93

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 March 1993--31 May 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. The basic program is designed to determine the reactivity of both coal and its derived char under blast furnace conditions and to compare the results to similar properties of blast furnace coke. The results of the first two experiments in which coal char pyrolyzed in nitrogen at 1000{degrees}C in an EPR were reacted isothermally in air at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. The reactivity values of the same char in these two experiments were different by an order of magnitude. The char reactivity at 1000{degrees}C was 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} grams per minute while the reactivity. of the char at 1200{degrees}C was 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} grams per minute. These results suggest that the temperature of the blast air in the tuyere may be critical in achieving complete carbon burnout.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-09-01

94

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposed study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. The Amanda furnace of Armco is the only one in North America currently using coal injection and is, therefore, the only full scale testing facility available. During this quarter complete petrographic analyses of all of the samples so far collected were completed.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-05-01

95

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

Not Available

1990-10-01

96

Production and blast-furnace smelting of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets  

SciTech Connect

Industrial test data are presented regarding the production (at Sokolovsk-Sarbaisk mining and enrichment enterprise) and blast-furnace smelting (at Magnitogorsk metallurgical works) of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets (500000 t). It is shown that, thanks to the presence of boron, the compressive strength of the roasted pellets is increased by 18.5%, while the strength in reduction is doubled; the limestone consumption is reduced by 11%, the bentonite consumption is halved, and the dust content of the gases in the last section of the roasting machines is reduced by 20%. In blast-furnace smelting, the yield of low-sulfur (<0.02%) hot metal is increased from 65-70 to 85.1% and the furnace productivity from 2.17-2.20 to 2.27 t/(m{sup 3} day); coke consumption is reduced by 3-8 kg/t of hot metal. The plasticity and stamping properties of 08IO auto-industry steel are improved by microadditions of boron.

A.A. Akberdin; A.S. Kim [Abishev Chemicometallurgical Institute, Abishev (Kazakhstan)

2008-08-15

97

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1994-12-31

98

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2008-10-15

99

Novel Recognition Method of Blast Furnace Dust Composition by Multifeature Analysis Based on Comprehensive Image-Processing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional artificial recognition methods for the blast furnace dust composition have several disadvantages, including a great deal of information to dispose, complex operation, and low working efficiency. In this article, a multifeature analysis method based on comprehensive image-processing techniques was proposed to automatically recognize the blast furnace dust composition. First, the artificial recognition and feature analysis, which included image preprocessing, Harris corner feature, Canny edge feature, and Ruffle feature analysis, was designed to build the template image, so that any unknown dust digital image could be tested. Second, the composition of coke, microvariation pulverized coal, vitric, ash, and iron from dust would be distinguished according to their different range of values based on the multifeature analysis. The method is valid for recognizing the blast furnace dust composition automatically, and it is fast and has a high recognition accuracy.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Bai, Zhenlong; Zhang, Jianliang; Li, Xinyu

2014-11-01

100

Novel Recognition Method of Blast Furnace Dust Composition by Multifeature Analysis Based on Comprehensive Image-Processing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional artificial recognition methods for the blast furnace dust composition have several disadvantages, including a great deal of information to dispose, complex operation, and low working efficiency. In this article, a multifeature analysis method based on comprehensive image-processing techniques was proposed to automatically recognize the blast furnace dust composition. First, the artificial recognition and feature analysis, which included image preprocessing, Harris corner feature, Canny edge feature, and Ruffle feature analysis, was designed to build the template image, so that any unknown dust digital image could be tested. Second, the composition of coke, microvariation pulverized coal, vitric, ash, and iron from dust would be distinguished according to their different range of values based on the multifeature analysis. The method is valid for recognizing the blast furnace dust composition automatically, and it is fast and has a high recognition accuracy.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Bai, Zhenlong; Zhang, Jianliang; Li, Xinyu

2014-09-01

101

Numerical analysis for the multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection inside blast furnace tuyere  

SciTech Connect

The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system was modified from single lance injection into double lance injection at No. 3 Blast Furnace of CSC. It is beneficial to reduce the cost of coke. However, the injected coal was found very close to the inner wall of the tuyere during the operation, such as to cause the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. In this study a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on a computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS to simulate the fluid flow phenomena inside blast furnace tuyere. The model was capable of handling steady-state, three-dimensional multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection. The model was applied to simulate the flow patterns of the injection coal inside the tuyere with two kinds of lance design for the PCI system. The distribution of injection coal was simulated such as to estimate the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. The calculated results agreed with the operating experience of CSC plant and the optimum design of double lance was suggested. The model was also applied to simulate the oxygen concentration distribution with these different oxygen enrichments for the coal/oxygen lance system. The calculated results agreed with the experimental measurement. These test results demonstrate that the model is both reasonably reliable and efficient.

Chen, C.W. [Diwan College of Management, Tainan (Taiwan)

2005-09-01

102

Computational fluid dynamics study of pulverized coal combustion in blast furnace raceway  

SciTech Connect

In this work, a numerical model is used to study the flow and coal combustion along the coal plume in a large-scale setting simulating the lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway region of a blast furnace. The model formulation is validated against the measurements in terms of burnout for both low and high volatile coals. The typical phenomena related to coal combustion along the coal plume are simulated and analyzed. The effects of some operational parameters on combustion behavior are also investigated. The results indicate that oxygen as a cooling gas gives a higher coal burnout than methane and air. The underlying mechanism of coal combustion is explored. It is shown that under the conditions examined, coal burnout strongly depends on the availability of oxygen and residence time. Moreover, the influences of two related issues, i.e. the treatment of volatile matter (VM) and geometric setting in modeling, are investigated. The results show that the predictions of final burnouts using three different VM treatments are just slightly different, but all comparable to the measurements. However, the influence of the geometric setting is not negligible when numerically examining the combustion of pulverized coal under blast furnace conditions.

Shen, Y.S.; Maldonado, D.; Guo, B.Y.; Yu, A.B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science & Engineering

2009-12-15

103

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-05-01

104

Model of Draining of the Blast Furnace Hearth with an Impermeable Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to demands of lower costs and higher productivity in the steel industry, the volume of operating blast furnaces has grown during the last decades. As the height is limited by the allowable pressure drop, the hearth diameter has grown considerably and, along with this, also draining-related problems. In this paper a mathematical model is developed for simulating the drainage in the case where an impermeable region exists in the blast furnace hearth. The model describes the quasi-stationary drainage process of a hearth with two operating tapholes, where the communication between the two pools of molten slag and iron can be controlled by parameterized expressions. The model also considers the case where the buoyancy of the liquids is sufficient for lifting the coke bed. The implications of different size of the liquid pools, communication between the pools, bed porosity, etc. are studied by simulation, and conclusions concerning their effect on the drainage behavior and evolution of the liquid levels in the hearth are drawn. The simulated liquid levels are finally demonstrated to give rise to a pressure profile acting on the hearth which agrees qualitatively with signals from strain gauges mounted in the hearth wall of an industrial ironmaking process.

Saxén, Henrik

2015-02-01

105

Model of Draining of the Blast Furnace Hearth with an Impermeable Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to demands of lower costs and higher productivity in the steel industry, the volume of operating blast furnaces has grown during the last decades. As the height is limited by the allowable pressure drop, the hearth diameter has grown considerably and, along with this, also draining-related problems. In this paper a mathematical model is developed for simulating the drainage in the case where an impermeable region exists in the blast furnace hearth. The model describes the quasi-stationary drainage process of a hearth with two operating tapholes, where the communication between the two pools of molten slag and iron can be controlled by parameterized expressions. The model also considers the case where the buoyancy of the liquids is sufficient for lifting the coke bed. The implications of different size of the liquid pools, communication between the pools, bed porosity, etc. are studied by simulation, and conclusions concerning their effect on the drainage behavior and evolution of the liquid levels in the hearth are drawn. The simulated liquid levels are finally demonstrated to give rise to a pressure profile acting on the hearth which agrees qualitatively with signals from strain gauges mounted in the hearth wall of an industrial ironmaking process.

Saxén, Henrik

2014-08-01

106

Process Simulation and Control Optimization of a Blast Furnace Using Classical Thermodynamics Combined to a Direct Search Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several numerical approaches have been proposed in the literature to simulate the behavior of modern blast furnaces: finite volume methods, data-mining models, heat and mass balance models, and classical thermodynamic simulations. Despite this, there is actually no efficient method for evaluating quickly optimal operating parameters of a blast furnace as a function of the iron ore composition, which takes into account all potential chemical reactions that could occur in the system. In the current study, we propose a global simulation strategy of a blast furnace, the 5-unit process simulation. It is based on classical thermodynamic calculations coupled to a direct search algorithm to optimize process parameters. These parameters include the minimum required metallurgical coke consumption as well as the optimal blast chemical composition and the total charge that simultaneously satisfy the overall heat and mass balances of the system. Moreover, a Gibbs free energy function for metallurgical coke is parameterized in the current study and used to fine-tune the simulation of the blast furnace. Optimal operating conditions and predicted output stream properties calculated by the proposed thermodynamic simulation strategy are compared with reference data found in the literature and have proven the validity and high precision of this simulation.

Harvey, Jean-Philippe; Gheribi, Aïmen E.

2013-12-01

107

Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

2009-03-15

108

Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia.  

PubMed

The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 ?m. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. PMID:24793329

Mohiuddin, Kazi; Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F; Stelcer, Eduard; Evans, Tim

2014-07-15

109

Three-Dimensional Modeling of Flow and Thermochemical Behavior in a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a complex high-temperature moving bed reactor involving counter-, co- and cross-current flows of gas, liquid and solid, coupled with heat and mass exchange and chemical reactions. Two-dimensional (2D) models were widely used for understanding its internal state in the past. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) CFX-based mathematical model is developed for describing the internal state of a BF in terms of multiphase flow and the related thermochemical behavior, as well as process indicators. This model considers the intense interactions between gas, solid and liquid phases, and also their competition for the space. The model is applied to a BF covering from the burden surface at the top to the liquid surface in the hearth, where the raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results show that the key in-furnace phenomena such as flow/temperature patterns and component distributions of solid, gas and liquid phases can be described and characterized in different regions inside the BF, including the gas and liquids flow circumferentially over the 3D raceway surface. The in-furnace distributions of key performance indicators such as reduction degree and gas utilization can also be predicted. This model offers a cost-effective tool to understand and control the complex BF flow and performance.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

2015-02-01

110

CFD study of ejector flow behavior in a blast furnace gas galvanizing plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been a growing interest toward Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as a low-grade energy source for industrial furnaces. This paper considers the revamping of a galvanic plant furnace converted to BFG from natural gas. In the design of the new system, the ejector on the exhaust line is a critical component. This paper studies the flow behavior of the ejector using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The CFD model is based on a 3D representation of the ejector, using air and exhaust gases as working fluids. This paper is divided in three parts. In the first part, the galvanic plant used as case study is presented and discussed, in the second part the CFD approach is outlined, and in the third part the CFD approach is validated using experimental data and the numerical results are presented and discussed. Different Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models ( k-? SST and k-? Realizable) are evaluated in terms of convergence capability and accuracy in predicting the pressure drop along the ejector. Suggestions for future optimization of the system are also provided.

Besagni, Giorgio; Mereu, Riccardo; Inzoli, Fabio

2015-02-01

111

Three-Dimensional Modeling of Flow and Thermochemical Behavior in a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a complex high-temperature moving bed reactor involving counter-, co- and cross-current flows of gas, liquid and solid, coupled with heat and mass exchange and chemical reactions. Two-dimensional (2D) models were widely used for understanding its internal state in the past. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) CFX-based mathematical model is developed for describing the internal state of a BF in terms of multiphase flow and the related thermochemical behavior, as well as process indicators. This model considers the intense interactions between gas, solid and liquid phases, and also their competition for the space. The model is applied to a BF covering from the burden surface at the top to the liquid surface in the hearth, where the raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results show that the key in-furnace phenomena such as flow/temperature patterns and component distributions of solid, gas and liquid phases can be described and characterized in different regions inside the BF, including the gas and liquids flow circumferentially over the 3D raceway surface. The in-furnace distributions of key performance indicators such as reduction degree and gas utilization can also be predicted. This model offers a cost-effective tool to understand and control the complex BF flow and performance.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

2014-10-01

112

Speciation of Zn in Blast Furnace Sludge from Former Sedimentation Ponds Using Synchrotron Xray Diffraction, Fluorescence, and  

E-print Network

Speciation of Zn in Blast Furnace Sludge from Former Sedimentation Ponds Using Synchrotron Xray concern, including Zn, Pb, and Cd. The chemical speciation of these metals in BFS is largely unknown. Here-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Zn K- edge for solid-phase Zn speciation in 12 BFS samples collected

113

Combined treatment of coke-plant waste water and blast furnace blowdown water in a coupled biological fluidized bed system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical and economic feasibility of treating a combined stream of coke plant waste water and blast furnace blowdown water in a coupled fluidised bed process, operated in the denitrification-denitrification flow mode, was evaluated. More than 90% removal of total nitrogen was achieved at a total system hydraulic retention time of 4.5 h. Removal of other conventional contaminants, including filtered

Melcer

1984-01-01

114

AN INVESTIGATION OF FOREIGN BY-PRODUCT COKE PLANT AND BLAST FURNACE WASTEWATER CONTROL TECHNOLOGY AND REGULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine if more effective wastewater control technologies for by-product coke plant and blast furnace gas-cleaning wastewaters are used in foreign plants than in the U.S. Discussions were held with plant and corporate personnel at 26 plant...

115

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter a sample of the feed coal that is being used for injection into the No. 7 Blast Furnace of Inland Steel has been analyzed petrographically and compared to both the Herrin No. 6 coal and Armco feed coal. Additional characterization is underway and an advanced program of pyrolysis and reactivity testing has been initiated.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1994-06-01

116

Study of thaumasite and ettringite phases formed in sulfate\\/blast furnace slag slurries using XRD full pattern fitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thaumasite form of sulfate attack (TSA) has been investigated using a method known to accelerate the formation of the sulfate minerals thaumasite, ettringite and gypsum. Mixes containing different cements and aggregates in magnesium sulfate solution were prepared at different water:solid ratios. The work concentrated, in particular, on the role of blast furnace slag as a cementitious material in preventing

S. J. Barnett; M. A. Halliwell; N. J. Crammond; C. D. Adam; A. R. W. Jackson

2002-01-01

117

Hydrothermal preparation of tobermorite from blast furnace slag for Cs+ and Sr2+ sorption.  

PubMed

Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite was formed by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of blast furnace slag with sodium silicate added at 180°C for 2-48 h. Effects of the hydrothermal treatment time were characterized by XRD, SEM, and isothermal adsorption of N2. Sorption characteristics of the obtained samples were examined for Cs(+) and Sr(2+). The sample obtained by hydrothermal treatment for 48 h (HT-48 h) consisted of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), and Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite. The HT-48 h showed the highest performance for Cs(+) and Sr(2+) selectivity in the presence of Na(+). The interlayer Na(+) of Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite and surface Ca(2+) played an important role in selective Cs(+) and Sr(2+). PMID:24412625

Tsutsumi, Takuma; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Miyake, Michihiro

2014-02-15

118

Effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag particle size distribution on paste rheology: A preliminary model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely combined with Portland cement as a supplementary material, and is also used in alkali-activated binders (geopolymers) and in supersulfated cements, which are potential replacements for Portland cement with significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The rheology of a cementitious material is important in terms of its influence on workability, especially in self leveling concretes. The current research investigates the effects of different particle size distributions of slag particles on paste rheology. Rheological measurements results show a direct relationship between the modal particle size and the yield stress of the paste. An empirical model is introduced to calculate the yield stress value of each paste based on the particle size distribution, and applied to a range of systems at single water to solids ratio. The model gives a very good match with the experimental data.

Kashani, Alireza; Provis, John L.; van Deventer, Jannie S. J.

2013-06-01

119

Improvement of the Blast Furnace Viscosity Prediction Model Based on Discrete Points Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscosity is considered to be a significant indicator of the metallurgical property of blast furnace slag. An improved model for viscosity prediction based on the Chou model was presented in this article. The updated model has optimized the selection strategy of distance algorithm and negative weights at the reference points. Therefore, the extensionality prediction disadvantage in the original model was ameliorated by this approach. The model prediction was compared with viscosity data of slags of compositions typical to BF operations obtained from a domestic steel plant. The results show that the approach can predict the viscosity with average error of 9.23 pct and mean standard deviation of 0.046 Pa s.

Guo, Hongwei; Zhu, Mengyi; Li, Xinyu; Guo, Jian; Du, Shen; Zhang, Jianliang

2015-02-01

120

Microstructure and Properties of Zircon-Added Carbon Refractories for Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructure and properties of zircon-added carbon refractory specimens for blast furnace (BF) were investigated with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray, mercury porosimetry, and a laser thermal conductivity (TC) meter. Additives could influence the matrix structures and improve the properties of specimens. With the increase of zircon powder content, the amount of SiC whiskers formed increased and their aspect ratio became larger, and the SiC whiskers tended to be distributed homogeneously. Zircon powder additions decreased the mean pore diameter and increased <1- ?m pore volume by filling in pores via SiC, improved the TC and the cold crushing strength (CCS) due to the in-situ formation of the more well-developed SiC whiskers with high TC, and significantly reduced the molten iron attack to carbon specimens.

Zhu, Tianbin; Li, Yawei; Sang, Shaobai; Chen, Xilai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuanbing; Li, Shujing

2012-11-01

121

Assessment of blast furnace retrofit for the co-manufacture of steel, electricity, and synfuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to assess a potentially high payoff concept through preliminary engineering. Two retrofit approaches were evaluated in the study: minimal retrofit and synfuels retrofit. The minimal retrofit approach consists of operating a blast furnace with a minimum amount of changes to its operating conditions. The blast furnace combustion temperatures and amount of gas produced are maintained at substantially similar levels to normal blast furnace operation for pig iron production. In the synfuels retrofit approach, the minimum retrofit case was upgraded to an oxygen-blown, medium-Btu gasifier suitable for the production of synthesis gas. This gas can then be converted to electricity, substitute natural gas, or methanol. This concept, which was based on converting a blast furnace to a British Gas/Lurgi slagging gasifier, appears to be technically feasible. While some engineering problems were identified, they do not appear to be insurmountable. The synfuels retrofit facility, designed to produce electricity, methanol, or substitute natural gas from coal, shows a capital investment of $1.726 billion or $62.8 per trillion Btu. When compared to a grass roots facility producing the same product slate ($70.3 per trillion Btu), the retrofit represents a savings or cost avoidance of only 10% over a new facility. It can be concluded that the economics of coal gasification, in general, are currently not favorable due to the relatively low cost and apparent availability of oil and natural gas. Even site favorable situations, such as integration with steel mill operations, do not seem to be sufficient to make blast furnace retrofits economically attractive at this time. 26 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

Not Available

1985-05-01

122

Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15

123

Compare pilot-scale and industry-scale models of pulverized coal combustion in an ironmaking blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the complex phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), mathematical models have been developed at different scales: pilot-scale model of coal combustion and industry-scale model (in-furnace model) of coal/coke combustion in a real BF respectively. This paper compares these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model capability. The model development is discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model capability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that these PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The in-furnace model is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviors and then optimizing the PCI operation in practice.

Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing; Zulli, Paul

2013-07-01

124

An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke  

SciTech Connect

Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2007-09-15

125

Mechanism of physical transformations of mineral matter in the blast furnace coke with reference to its reactivity and strength  

SciTech Connect

Examinations of polished and dry cut sections of feed and tuyere coke revealed some possible mechanisms for the physical influence of mineral compounds on the reactivity and strength of coke. It was observed that rounded particles of mineral phases that are exposed to the pore walls and surface of coke at high temperature create an inorganic cover, thus reducing the surface available for gas-solid reactions. The particles of mineral matter that have a low melting point and viscosity can affect the coke at earlier stages in the blast furnace process, acting in the upper parts of the blast furnace (BF). The temperature-driven redistribution of mineral phases within the coke matrix probably leads to the creation of weak spots and in general to anisotropy in its properties, thus reducing its strength. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2006-12-15

126

Influence of granulated blast furnace slag on the reaction, structure and properties of fly ash based geopolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) has been used to alter the geopolymerisation behaviour of fly ash. The influence\\u000a of varying amount of GBFS (5–50%) on the reaction kinetics has been studied using isothermal conduction calorimetry. It was\\u000a observed that the reaction at 27 °C is dominated by the GBFS activation, whereas the reaction at 60 °C is due to combined\\u000a interaction

Sanjay KumarRakesh KumarS; Rakesh Kumar; S. P. Mehrotra

2010-01-01

127

Improvement of the early-age reactivity of fly ash and blast furnace slag cementitious systems using limestone filler  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the effects of the addition of limestone filler on the hydration rate, setting times and early-age mechanical\\u000a properties of binary and ternary-binder mortars containing Portland cement, blast furnace slag (BFS) and fly ash (FA), with\\u000a various substitution rates of cement with mineral additions going up to 50%. Vicat needle penetration tests and measurements\\u000a of heat flow of

Pierre Mounanga; Muhammad Irfan Ahmad Khokhar; Rana El Hachem; Ahmed Loukili

2011-01-01

128

Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 ± 0.011 and 0.038 ± 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

Naqvi, A. A.; Maslehuddin, M.; Garwan, M. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Al-Amoudi, O. S. B.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Raashid, M.

2011-01-01

129

Durability of traditional plasters with respect to blast furnace slag-based plaster  

SciTech Connect

Blast furnace slag is a residue of steel production. It is a latent hydraulic binder and is normally used to improve the durability of concrete and mortars. Slag could be also used as rendering mortar for masonry and old buildings. Today, cement and hydraulic lime are the most popular hydraulic binders used to make plasters. They are characterised by a low durability when exposed to the action of chemical and physical agents. The aim of this study was to provide a comparison between the physical-mechanical properties of some renders made with ordinary Portland cement, hydraulic lime, or slag. Furthermore, an investigation was carried out to analyse mortar resistance to several aggressive conditions like acid attack, freezing and thawing cycles, abrasion, sulphate aggression, cycles in ultraviolet screening device, and salt diffusion. The specimens, after chemical attack, have been characterised from the chemical-physical [specific surface according to the BET (Brunauer-Emmet-Teller) method], crystal-chemical (X-ray diffraction, XRD), and morphological (scanning electron microscopy, SEM) points of view.

Cerulli, T.; Pistolesi, C.; Maltese, C.; Salvioni, D

2003-09-01

130

Time series analysis and prediction on complex dynamical behavior observed in a blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a strategy for building a predictive model for actual complex time series. Time series data of temperature fluctuations observed in a blast furnace for iron-making are taken as an example. Chaotic features of the data are investigated with diagnostic algorithm for instability and parallelism of neighboring trajectories in phase space reconstructed from the time series data. Stationarity of the data is examined with diagnostic algorithm based on the KM 2O-Langevin equations developed by Okabe. A short time series for which no control actions were taken to the plant during measurement is diagnosed as possibly low-dimensional chaos, while for a long time series including many control actions during measurement, determinism is less visible and its predicted behavior exhibits a scaling property similar to self-affine random noise. Characteristic exponents are estimated from the scaling properties of the prediction error as a function of the prediction-time interval. Such information is exploited as prior knowledge for designing a generalized Gaussian radial basis function network as a predictor. The performance of the network is improved when linear algebraic polynomials are added to the network. The characteristic exponents estimated are used as reliability indices of forecasting future trends of the data.

Miyano, T.; Kimoto, S.; Shibuta, H.; Nakashima, K.; Ikenaga, Y.; Aihara, K.

131

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1). PMID:22826355

U?ur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Ye?ingil, Z

2013-01-01

132

Rema Stove  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is a "Rema Stove." It was invented by Bill Rema and the design was never patented. This is likely the only remaining stove of its kind. Dr. J. D. Love added a few elements, but it is essentially built to the original specifications. This stove was used extensively by USGS field scientists. Obj...

2009-07-22

133

[Emission characteristics of PM2.5 from blast furnace iron making].  

PubMed

Electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) was used to online analyze the PM2.5 particle size and mass concentration distribution in the trapping field and ore tank of blast furnace iron-making plant. Results showed that the grain number concentration of PM2.5 in trapping field after dust removal was in the range of 10(5)-10(6)cm-3 , and the particle size was mainly below 0. 1 ?m. While the grain number concentration of the PM2.5 in ore tank after dust removal was in the range of 10(4)-10(5) cm-3, the particle size was mainly below 1.0 ?m, and the mass concentration distribution showed a single peak. The micro-morphology of PM2.5 monomer was mainly divided into two categories, spherical particles and irregular aggregates. Chemical composition analysis indicated that the concentrations of water soluble SO(2-)(4) , K+ , Ca2+ were higher than other ions in PM2.5, with the percentage of 10. 32% -28.55% , 10. 36% -12. 15% , 3.97% -15. 4% , respectively. The major elements was Fe, Si, Al, with 16. 8% -31. 62% , 2. 24% -8.76% , 1.24% -5. 89% of total mass, respectively; organic carbon and elementary carbon were 2. 7% -4. 6% and 0. 8% -1. 3% , respectively. The emission factors of PM2.5 in trapping field and in ore tank after dust removal were ranged from 0.045 to 0.085 kg t(-1) and 0.042 to 0.071 kg t-1, respectively. PMID:25518643

Fan, Zhen-zhen; Zhao, Ya-li; Zhao, Hao-ning; Liang, Xing-yin; Sun, Jing-wen; Wang, Bao-gui; Wang, Ya-jun

2014-09-01

134

A Novel Conversion of Ti-Bearing Blast-Furnace Slag into Water Splitting Photocatalyst with Visible-Light-Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel visible-light-response photocatalyst was prepared through the heat treatment of Ti-bearing blast-furnace slag with sodium nitrate and subsequently leaching processes in which most of the SiO2, Al2O3, and MgO in Ti-slag (TS) have been separated. The photocatalytic activity of the TTS was studied by observing the evolution of H2 under the UV-Vis and visible light. Compared with the TS and commercial perovskite CaTiO3, the sample prepared exhibited an exclusive visible-light-response activity and enhanced H2 evolution.

Lü, Huihong; Li, Ning; Wu, Xingrong; Li, Liaosha; Gao, Zhifang; Shen, Xingmei

2013-12-01

135

Heating stove  

SciTech Connect

This stove invention relates to wood and coal burning stoves employed for heating. More effective draft control and heat transfer is achieved by a stove employing straight and serpentine flues, a control rod to coordinate movement of a baffle and damper for defining passageways to the flues, and a channel for apportioning air above and below the fuel and into first and second combustion chambers.

Johnson, V.

1982-03-23

136

Blast furnace key to earth's birth P11 Balancing the body clock P14  

E-print Network

Building a Hydrodynamics Code with Kinetic Theory This article has been downloaded from IOPscience to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience #12;Building simulations and focus here on the Sedov blast wave test. The blast wave problem describes the evolution

Liley, David

137

An approach for phosphate removal with quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag as seed crystal.  

PubMed

The phosphate removal abilities and crystallization performance of quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag were investigated. The residual phosphate concentrations in the reaction solutions were not changed by addition of the ceramsite, quartz sand and blast furnace slag. The steel slag could provide alkalinity and Ca(2+) to the reaction solution due to its hydration activity, and performed a better phosphate removal performance than the other three. Under the conditions of Ca/P 2.0, pH 8.5 and 10 mg P/L, the phosphate crystallization occurred during 12 h. The quartz sand and ceramsite did not improve the phosphate crystallization, but steel slag was an effective seed crystal. The phosphate concentration decreased drastically after 12 h after addition of steel slag, and near complete removal was achieved after 48 h. The XRD analysis showed that the main crystallization products were hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the crystallinity increased with the reaction time. Phosphate was successfully recovered from low phosphate concentration wastewater using steel slag as seed material. PMID:22378001

Qiu, Liping; Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Shoubin; Yang, Zhongxi; Li, Yanbo

2012-01-01

138

The Evolution of Structural Order as a Measure of Thermal History of Coke in the Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations were carried out on cokes heat treated in the laboratory and on cokes extracted from the experimental blast furnace (EBF) raceway and hearth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to investigate changes in structural order ( L c), chemical transformations in coke ash along with comparative thermodynamic equilibrium studies and the influence of melt. Three data processing approaches were used to compute L c values as a function of temperature and time and linear correlations were established between L c and heat treatment temperatures during laboratory investigations. These were used to estimate temperatures experienced by coke in various regions of EBF and estimated raceway temperatures were seen to follow the profile of combustion peak. The MgAl2O4 spinel was observed in coke submerged in slag during laboratory studies and in cokes found further into the raceway. Coke in contact with hot metal showed XRD peaks corresponding to presence of Fe3Si. The intensity of SiO2 peak in coke ash was seen to decrease with increasing temperature and disappeared at around 1770 K (1500 °C) due to the formation of SiC. This study has shown that the evolution of structural order and chemical transformations in coke could be used to estimate its thermal history in blast furnaces.

Lundgren, Maria; Khanna, Rita; Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo

2014-04-01

139

TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates  

SciTech Connect

Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

2005-04-15

140

Effect of the content of the crystalline and vitreous phases of blast-furnace slags on their properties  

SciTech Connect

Studies carried out on the hydrochannel granulation plant with a variety of blast-furnace slag from the southern Ukraine determined that, depending on their cooling conditions, it was possible to obtain materials with differing contents of the crystalline and glassy phases which have different porosities. These studies showed that, depending on the changes in these features, ordinary (solid) or porous granulated slag or slag pumice with different properties was obtained. The dependence of the hydraulic activity of the materials obtained (and cements based on them) on the cooling conditions of the melts (specific flow rates of water) has been shown to have an extremum and a maximum. The maximum value of the hydraulic activity has been determined to correspond to granulated slag which has a porous structure and contains 6-26% crystalline phase (mainly melilite), while the remainder consists of amorphous and devitrified glass, the content of the latter being of the order of 20-40%.

Gindis, Ya.P.

1987-10-01

141

Combined treatment of coke-plant waste water and blast furnace blowdown water in a coupled biological fluidized bed system  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of treating a combined stream of coke plant waste water and blast furnace blowdown water in a coupled fluidised bed process, operated in the denitrification-denitrification flow mode, was evaluated. More than 90% removal of total nitrogen was achieved at a total system hydraulic retention time of 4.5 h. Removal of other conventional contaminants, including filtered organic carbon, phenolic compounds, thiocyanate, and cyanide consistently approached or exceeded 90%. Capital costs associated with treatment of 4950 m/SUP/3/d of combined waste water were estimated to be 2.3 million Canadian dollars. Direct operating costs were calculated to be 0.14 Canadian dollars m/SUP/3 treated effluent.

Melcer, H.

1984-02-01

142

Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag--An overview.  

PubMed

The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of depositing industrial wastes. The utilization of GGBFS as partial replacement of Portland cement takes advantage of economic, technical and environmental benefits of this material. Recently offshore, coastal and marine concrete structures were constructed using GGBFS concrete because high volume of GGBFS can contribute to the reduction of chloride ingress. In this paper, the influence of using GGBFS in reinforced concrete structures from the durability aspects such as chloride ingress and corrosion resistance, long term durability, microstructure and porosity of GGBFS concrete has been reviewed and discussed. PMID:16930831

Song, Ha-Won; Saraswathy, Velu

2006-11-16

143

Woodburning stove  

SciTech Connect

A woodburning stove is described having an inner housing and an outer housing spaced therefrom providing air passages therebetween. A blower circulates air through the air passages for absorbing heat from the walls of the housing and exhausting the heated air into the room where the stove is located. A substantially horizontal plate is spaced below the top wall of the inner housing defining an afterburner space. A duct extends between the passages extending between the two housings and the afterburner space. The duct is provided with a valve so that fresh air can be controllably applied to the afterburner space for causing combustion of gases flowing through the afterburner space. A fresh air duct extends along the side of the stove and connects with the blower for supplying fresh air from the front of the stove to the blower.

Hawkins, B.C.; Mckay, J.

1981-11-17

144

Heating stove  

SciTech Connect

A heating stove has a fire box composed of first and second pluralities of parallel aligned connected vertically oriented curved open-ended conduits. The lower extremities of the conduits of said first and second pluralities being aligned for contacting a common planar surface to support the stove, with the fire box further being formed by generally planar front and back plates, of substantially the same size and shape, with the front plate having an inlet port therethrough and the back plate having an exhaust port therein. The conduit central portions are largely within the stove fire box. A baffle within the fire box promotes three-pass flow of hot air across the conduit surfaces within the fire box. The first and second pluralities of curved conduits are opposed and in interdigitated engagement. Curved strips separate the curved conduits and thus facilitate stove construction with the conduits in interdigitated engagement. A closing mechanism for the stove door operates with caming action to assure that the door, when closed, is tightly fastened so that the hot coals cannot escape. In another embodiment, the fire box is cylindrical , formed by two curved side plates and two generally planar end plates, and the curved conduits pass through the fire box.

Darnell, E.

1980-10-28

145

Fireplace stove  

SciTech Connect

A woodburning stove adapted to be inserted into a fireplace having inner walls operatively forming a fire chamber and outer walls spaced from the inner walls to form air heating chambers through which air to be heated is forced by a fan disposed beneath the fire chamber adjacent to the front face of the stove. The inner walls are arranged to channel air beneath, behind, on top of and to the sides of the fire chamber in successive order before discharge out the front of the stove. A special fire chamber and flue means cause the hot exhaust gases of the fire chamber to flow along the rear and top walls of the fire chamber and through a damper in the front of the stove and into a flue chamber before flowing into the fireplace flue. The temperature of a heating surface disposed on top of the flue chamber above the damper is controlled by damper control means at the front wall of the stove.

Berryhill, R.A.

1983-06-07

146

Biomass stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stove is described which comprises: an outer chamber having a hollow interior; chamber air inlet means for introducing air into the interior of the outer chamber; a fuel basket having a hollow interior for containing fuel; a grate located in the hollow interior of the fuel basket and positioned within the hollow interior of the fuel basket spaced upwardly

F. W. Hottenroth

1988-01-01

147

Recycling ground granulated blast furnace slag as cold bonded artificial aggregate partially used in self-compacting concrete.  

PubMed

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product from iron industry, was recycled as artificial coarse aggregate through cold bonding pelletization process. The artificial slag aggregates (ASA) replaced partially the natural coarse aggregates in production of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Moreover, as being one of the most widely used mineral admixtures in concrete industry, fly ash (FA) was incorporated as a part of total binder content to impart desired fluidity to SCCs. A total of six concrete mixtures having various ASA replacement levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) were designed with a water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.32. Fresh properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) were observed through slump flow time, flow diameter, V-funnel flow time, and L-box filling height ratio. Compressive strength of hardened SCCs was also determined at 28 days of curing. It was observed that increasing the replacement level of ASA resulted in decrease in the amount of superplasticizer to achieve a constant slump flow diameter. Moreover, passing ability and viscosity of SCC's enhanced with increasing the amount of ASA in the concrete. The maximum compressive strength was achieved for the SCC having 60% ASA replacement. PMID:22951223

Geso?lu, Mehmet; Güneyisi, Erhan; Mahmood, Swara Fuad; Öz, Hatice Öznur; Mermerda?, Kas?m

2012-10-15

148

Woodburning stove  

SciTech Connect

An efficient, clean burning, woodburning stove in which super heated fresh air and exhaust gases from the primary combustion of the wood fire are introduced into a secondary combustion chamber wherein these gases are mixed to recombust remaining fuel particles. Exhaust from the secondary combustion chamber enters a heat exchange chamber wherein the heat content of the exhaust gas is transferred to the cooking surface of the stove. The burning rate of both the primary and secondary combustion can be independently controlled by individually selecting the air supplies to the combustion areas. An inclined grate, in combination with the direction of the exhaust gases, provides a self feeding feature in which an even burning rate of the fire is insured.

Jarboe, J.E.

1982-06-22

149

Woodburning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove having a lower main fire box and a vertically offset oven unit. Directly under the cooking surface of the lower firebox is an auxiliary firebox; the air supply inlet has means to selectively direct the incoming air to either firebox so that a small cooking fire can be used alone. The main firebox door has a glass panel and a removable stainless steel plate to reflect heat back to the glass to burn off accumulated deposits thereon.

Kroupa, E.A.

1983-01-18

150

Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum has suitable workability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strength of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is higher than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dry shrinkage of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is lower than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The leaching of sulfate ion of mortar is studied. - Abstract: A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg{center_dot}m{sup -2}, which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum.

Zhong Shiyun, E-mail: tjzhongshiyun@163.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ni Kun; Li Jinmei [Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2012-07-15

151

Woodburning stoves today  

SciTech Connect

In the last decade or so, the British have been reconverted to the concept of heating their homes with waste timber. As a result sales of woodburning stoves and boilers have boomed and manufacturers are producing a large range of designs of woodburning stoves. This is a survey of the stoves available in Britain from both overseas and home sources.

Not Available

1980-10-01

152

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove having improved air flow characteristics for effective combustion and purging of gaseous combustion by-products. A primary air inlet is provided below the loading door of the stove for feeding air to the firebox proper for combustion. A plurality of opposing supplementary air inlets are provided in opposite sides of the stove, at least two of the

Halchek

1984-01-01

153

A neural network model for predicting the silicon content of the hot metal at No. 2 blast furnace of SSAB Luleaa  

SciTech Connect

To predict the silicon content of hot metal at No. 2 blast furnace, SSAB, Luleaa Works, a three-layer Back-Propagation network model has been established. The network consists of twenty-eight inputs, six middle nodes and one output and uses a generalized delta rule for training. Different network structures and different training strategies have been tested. A well-functioning network with dynamic updating has been designed. The off-line test and the on-line application results showed that more than 80% of the predictions can match the actual silicon content in hot metal in a normal operation, if the allowable prediction error was set to {+-}0.05% Si, while the actual fluctuation of the silicon content was larger than {+-}0.10% Si.

Zuo Guangqing; Ma Jitang; Bo, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Process Metallurgy

1996-12-31

154

Stove blower control accessory  

SciTech Connect

A temperature responsive blower control attachment for a woodburning stove. The attachment is mountable to or seatable on a heated external surface of the stove and provides thermostatically regulated operation of an electrically operated blower or fan that circulates air heated by the stove. Temperature is sensed through an element which is in contact with the heated surface of the stove, but the other circuit elements of the attachment are isolated from and are not subjected to the potentially damaging temperature of the stove surface.

Baker, R.D.

1982-03-16

155

68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. INTERIOR OF CAST HOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

156

Wood-burning stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stove is described which has a parallelepiped-shaped combustion chamber and a parallelepiped-shaped flue chamber smaller in all dimensions than the combustion chamber and with four similar shaped flue outlet frames on the top, rear and sides thereof. The stove includes one flue outlet collar and three blanking plates which can be fitted in any chosen arrangement to the flue

Marchant

1979-01-01

157

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is disclosed which includes a stove housing that defines an upper zone comprising storage and exhaust chambers, and a lower zone for accommodating a wood burning fire. The exhaust and storage chambers are separated by a divider, both chambers having bottom openings that communicate directly with the top of the lower fire zone. Covering one opening

1982-01-01

158

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a stove primarily for the burning of wood, but also capable of burning other combustible materials. The stove is characterized by a unique combustion chamber, together with a recirculating combustion chamber and baffle for more perfect combustion and characterized by a heat radiating chamber which may be closed so as to be used as an oven, and by

R. F. Bruce; W. W. Byrd

1980-01-01

159

Log-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A log-burning stove having a stove door with an angled plate element secured thereto, the top portion of the plate element deflecting combustion gases inwardly to the combustion chamber, and the lower portion deflecting draft air inwardly and downwardly into the combustion chamber, the plate element also forming a log-support and log-sliding surface.

Choate, J.R.

1982-11-23

160

Wood-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood stove is of all welded steel plate construction except for the door which is of heavy cast iron. When the door is closed, the only source of combustion air is through an adjustable air inlet on the face of the door. The door is hollow and serves to preheat the incoming air. The inner wall of the door divides the incoming air into lower and upper, primary and secondary, respectively, combustion air flows. The stove has an internal upper baffle running from rear to front which helps to promote air flow and combustion efficiency and to knock out entrained matter from the products of combustion. The flue connection is in the rear of the stove above the baffle and is stepped into the back of the stove to allow the stove to be fitted against a wall.

Hicks, A.W.; Jolicoeur, G.D.

1981-05-19

161

Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag  

SciTech Connect

The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH){sub 2} and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH){sub 2} occurs only with the use of Ca(OH){sub 2}, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH){sub 2}. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH){sub 2} causes some degree of carbonation.

Kim, Min Sik; Jun, Yubin; Lee, Changha, E-mail: clee@unist.ac.kr; Oh, Jae Eun, E-mail: ohjaeeun@unist.ac.kr

2013-12-15

162

Calculating the parameters of self-oscillations in the vertical combustion chamber of the blast-furnace air heater during unstable combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure for simplified calculation of the parameters of self-oscillations excited during unstable (vibrating) combustion in the vertical combustion chambers of blast-furnace air heaters is developed. The proposed procedure is based on an independent nonlinear dynamic system similar to the equations from the theory of a blade supercharger stalling and surging mode. The head characteristic considered in the blade supercharger stalling and surging theory determines the part of the supercharger drive rotation energy that is converted into the head developed by the supercharger. In the considered system, the supercharger head characteristic is replaced by the combustion chamber head characteristic. Being a function of flow rate, this characteristic describes the part of heat supplied to flow that is converted to the flow head. Unlike the supercharger head characteristic, which is determined by experiment, the combustion chamber head characteristic is determined by calculation, due to which it becomes much easier to calculate the parameters of self-oscillations according to the proposed procedure. In particular, an analysis of the periodic solutions of the obtained dynamic system made it possible to determine the pattern in which the amplitude of considered self-oscillations depends on the surge impedance of the vertical combustion chamber.

Basok, B. I.; Gotsulenko, V. V.

2015-01-01

163

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove having improved air flow characteristics for effective combustion and purging of gaseous combustion by-products. A primary air inlet is provided below the loading door of the stove for feeding air to the firebox proper for combustion. A plurality of opposing supplementary air inlets are provided in opposite sides of the stove, at least two of the supplementary inlets being on the level of the primary air inlet, for introducing air into the firebox supplemental to the air flow through the primary inlet.

Halchek, J.

1984-09-18

164

Why stoves are resisted  

SciTech Connect

The acceptance of improved wood-burning stoves by rural communities in developing countries is affected by technical, economic, infrastructural (extension and credit), cultural and social factors. (Refs. 17).

Agarwal, B.

1983-01-01

165

Fireplace heater stove  

SciTech Connect

A cylindrical wood-burning firebox is surrounded by a cylindrical metal outer shell which together comprise a convection heater stove which fits into any of various sizes of fireplaces with the cylinder axes directed into the fireplace. Room air enters the lower front portion of the stove between the firebox and the outer shell, is drawn toward the rear of the heater stove, rises between the firebox and the outer shell as the air is heated by the firebox, and exits as hot air from the upper front of the stove between the firebox and the outer shell. The front face of the firebox is recessed relative to the outer shell. A coil through which a fluid can flow can be provided in the gap between the firebox and the outer shell, said coil having an axis also directed into the fireplace.

Pierce, H.W.

1982-03-23

166

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue in communication therewith for removal of exhaust from the chamber with a catalytic converter means being movably mounted in the flue whereby the impedance presented to the exhaust by the converter may be selectively varied so as to minimize the impedance presented by the converter means when additional fuel is added to the stove.

Allaire, R.A.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

1982-08-24

167

Wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove.

Squires

1983-01-01

168

50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

169

38. 8 sisters and powerhouse, pulverizer building for powerhouse, coal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. 8 sisters and powerhouse, pulverizer building for powerhouse, coal conveyor, blast stoves, "A" furnace, stoves, "B" furnace, stoves, "C" furnace, bottle cars. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

170

Space heating stove  

SciTech Connect

An efficient space heating stove has a combustion chamber substantially completely enclosed with insulating firebrick whereby the operating temperatures within the combustion chamber can be maintained above the ignition temperature of the fuel being consumed. Combustible gases liberated by the wood fuel are burned as they pass through a perforated, hollow, tubular member located within the combustion chamber and through which the combustible gases must pass before they are exhausted from the stove. Fuel within the combustion chamber is efficiently burned before useful heat energy is extracted.

Murch, C.J.

1983-06-14

171

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

This is a stove primarily for the burning of wood, but also capable of burning other combustible materials. The stove is characterized by a unique combustion chamber, together with a recirculating combustion chamber and baffle for more perfect combustion and characterized by a heat radiating chamber which may be closed so as to be used as an oven, and by a unique damper placement in combination with the exhaust flue pipe so adapted as to automatically activate in order to cool the flue pipe in the event it should exceed safe heat limits.

Bruce, R.F.; Byrd, W.W.

1980-01-08

172

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust therefrom and also a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. A passageway is provided for bypassing the exhaust around the catalytic converter means, the passageway being controlled by a bypass damper for controlling access to the passageway for varying impedance otherwise presented to the exhaust by the converter, for example, during the addition of fuel to the stove. Such an arrangement minimizes back pressure caused by the converter means.

Allaire, R.A.; Pardue, W.F.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

1982-05-18

173

Refractories for lining blast furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions At the Chasov Yar refractories combine we developed and introduced a technology for the production of chamotte kaolin refractories with a porosity of not more than 12% and a mass proportion of not less than 42% Al2O3 on the basis of chamotte from high-grade Polozhe kaolin, and also additions to the batch of finely milled mullite-corundum chamotte.

R. M. Fedoruk; N. V. Pitak; É. L. Karyakina; T. P. Khmelenko; V. S. Baksheeva; V. B. Kulakov; V. A. Khreshchenyuk; I. P. Konnov; V. I. Koroteeva; N. I. Al'nikova

1985-01-01

174

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal interconnected by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox grate made up of spaced bricks supported by metal holders

Willson

1981-01-01

175

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air tight wood burning stove (10) for heating a designated space comprises a housing (12) having an access opening (50) in the front wall (14) thereof and at least one glass panel (64) containing door (54, 56) hingedly mounted on the front wall for closing the opening (50). A latching mechanism (60) on the door (54, 56) engages with

1982-01-01

176

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove having a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust from the chamber wherein the improvement comprises the addition of a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. In one embodiment, the catalytic converter means is situated in a flue immediately adjacent the combustion chamber. In another embodiment, the

van Dewoestine

1983-01-01

177

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust therefrom and also a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. A passageway is provided for bypassing the exhaust around the catalytic converter means, the passageway being controlled by a bypass damper for controlling access to the passageway for

R. A. Allaire; W. F. Pardue; R. V. Vandewoestine

1982-01-01

178

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood or coal burning metal stove is described that is formed with a base, a top wall, a casing between the two and a lining extending completely around the lower part of the casing, the base having no openings for draft, but the draft openings being through a casing door and the lower edge of the liner. Bolts between

Bette

1978-01-01

179

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal interconnected by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox grate made up of spaced bricks supported by metal holders

Willson

1979-01-01

180

Fireplace heater stove  

SciTech Connect

A heater stove which fits into a fireplace, the heater stove comprising a cylindrical firebox having (A) a front face, a back face, and a side wall, with a first closed-curve cross-section, extending between the front face and the back face and (B) an axis directed into the fireplace when the heater stove is within the fireplace; an outer cylindrical shell having a side wall with a second closed-curve cross-section and a back wall, the shell surrounding and being spaced apart from the back face and the side wall of the firebox, the side wall of the shell and the side wall of the firebox having a gap therebetween the gap including an opening at the front of the stove; and means for angularly dividing the gap proximate the opening into a plurality of regions which extend a short distance in the axial direction between the firebox side wall and the shell side wall, the regions including at least one lower region into which unheated air is drawn and at least one upper region from which heated air exits, air drawn through the at least one lower region (A) mixing with air flowing in other of the regions, (B) being heated by the firebox, and (C) exiting through at least one of the at least one upper regions. The first and second closed-curve cross-sections may alternatively be the same or different.

Pierce, H.W.

1983-02-22

181

Wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An airtight combustion chamber in a house has a draft hole formed through a first end and a draft door movably mounted thereon to selectively open the draft hole to a desired extent, controlled by a thermostat. The wall of the second spaced opposite end of the combustion chamber has a steel stove door movably mounted thereon. The second end

Steffen

1979-01-01

182

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This disclosure relates to a wood burning stove which includes an innermost combustion chamber within and generally spaced from an intermediate air-circulating chamber in turn generally within an outermost chamber, all of the chambers having generally spaced top, rear, bottom and pairs of side walls, all of the side walls having openings and ducts associated therewith through which air is

Burnette

1983-01-01

183

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved wood burning stove for providing heated air to a room or similar area includes an enclosed fire chamber, a hearth at the bottom of the fire chamber, draft inlet means at the front of the fire chamber and a flue at the rear of the fire chamber. Within the fire chamber is an enclosed air chamber having lower

1983-01-01

184

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove comprises a fire chamber of which the upper part is constituted as a heat exchanger. A primary air supply is provided as is a secondary air supply, the secondary air supply permitting air to be mixed with the gaseous products of combustion to support complete combustion of those gaseous products. Both air supplies have dampers, the

Down

1982-01-01

185

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue in communication therewith for removal of exhaust from the chamber with a catalytic converter means being movably mounted in the flue whereby the impedance presented to the exhaust by the converter may be selectively varied so as to minimize the impedance presented by the converter

R. A. Allaire; R. V. Vandewoestine

1982-01-01

186

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove for providing heated air to a room or similar area is disclosed which includes a fire chamber, a hearth in the forward portion of the fire chamber, draft inlet means at the front of the fire chamber and a flue at the rear of the fire chamber. Between the hearth and the flue is an enclosed

1978-01-01

187

Wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood stove is of all welded steel plate construction except for the door which is of heavy cast iron. When the door is closed, the only source of combustion air is through an adjustable air inlet on the face of the door. The door is hollow and serves to preheat the incoming air. The inner wall of the door

A. W. Hicks; G. D. Jolicoeur

1981-01-01

188

Wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is the most practical, least expensive way to alternative heating. It is easy to install, non-polluting, and fun. With wood as fuel, the air can be clean. This thoroughly detailed and illustrated guide offers tips on whether one wishes to convert the home or to supplement the present heating system with wood heat. Information is included

1977-01-01

189

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood burning stoves are of a type having a lower chamber and an upper chamber interconnected by a port. Air inlets are located laterally of the base of a fire in the lower chamber with a natural draft therein effecting a multitude of upwardly rising air streams of which one type is hot and oxygen poor and which carry and

Nason

1984-01-01

190

Stove-hearth combinations  

SciTech Connect

Stove-hearth combinations are described that are comprised of a combustion chamber having a pair of side walls supported on a base in opposing relation and joined by a rear wall. A cover or hood defines with the base and front edges of the side walls an opening to the chamber. Two doors are each hingedly associated with upper and lower pivot pins which when the door is in a closed position are disposed adjacent but outside a respective side wall front edge. Along upper and lower side edges of each side wall are formed parallel grooves adapted to be engaged slidably by the upper and lower pivot pins. As the door is opened from a stove to a hearth position the pivot pins are displaced along the grooves causing the door to be led gradually into a position along the outer side of its side wall.

Nesje, A.

1980-08-26

191

Wood-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove. A plate is adjusted to control the flow of air into the manifold. An access door has openings in a spacer side wall for supplying air as desired to the firebox. The spacer walls of the door support a glass panel at an outwardly spaced location from a deflector to prevent deposits of creosote and other materials on the glass.

Squires, W.

1983-09-06

192

Solid fuel burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A solid fuel burning stove includes a firebox having an insulated bottom chamber in which fuel is burned. The bottom chamber includes an insulated bottom surface and walls which provides for heat retention when fuel is burn therein thereby creating high temperatures. The bottom chamber of the firebox is divided from a top chamber by a horizontally extending baffle which directs flow of exhaust gases from the bottom to the top of the firebox. The exhaust gases are burned in the top portion of the firebox by means of the heat generated within the lower chamber and the introduction of fresh combustion air. This fresh combustion air is drawn in through an orificed pipe extending along the length of the firebox. After the gases are burned in the top portion of the stove, they are communicated to a heat saver including an inverted v-shaped flow diverter which reduces the velocity of the exiting gases and provides for greater recovery of heat therefrom. The stove in accordance with the invention provides for a two-stage burning process wherein solid fuel is burned in the first stage and the volatile gases released by the fuel are burned in the second stage. In this way, the fuel is consumed in a most efficient manner.

Good, L.D.

1982-07-13

193

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

An improved wood burning stove for providing heated air to a room or similar area includes an enclosed fire chamber, a hearth at the bottom of the fire chamber, draft inlet means at the front of the fire chamber and a flue at the rear of the fire chamber. Within the fire chamber is an enclosed air chamber having lower and upper portions; the lower portion communicates at the bottom of the stove with the ambient air and extends upwardly adjacent the rear wall of the fire chamber to a point below the flue, where it joins with the upper portion. The upper portion of the air chamber extends upwardly toward the front of the fire chamber at an acute angle with the horizontal, preferably between five and twenty-five degrees; at the forward end of the upper portion the air chamber communicates with one or more air pipes which extend to the front of the stove and there open to the ambient air. Ambient air is heated by passing it through the air chamber and air pipes after they have been heated by hot gases rising from a fire burning on the hearth; the hot gases contact the air pipes and the bottom surface of the air chamber's upper portion and, because their normal path of travel to the flue is altered by the positioning of the upper portion of the air chamber, contact the top surface of the air chamber's upper portion as well.

Baker, A.L.

1983-02-08

194

Stove for burning solid fuel  

SciTech Connect

A stove for burning solid fuels such as wood, briquettes, peat and the like includes a stove structure having a front and rear and two side walls. The front and rear walls have a width greater than the width of the two sidewalls, and one of the two sidewalls is provided with an access fire door for feeding the solid fuel into the side of the stove.

Koppe, E.

1983-03-01

195

Wood and coal burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A stove for burning wood, coal and other fuels comprised of flammable solids that among other things produce one or more flammable gases when heating or burning. The preferred form of the stove has three modes of operation-a rapid burning mode, a normal or medium burning mode and a banked mode. The user makes a preliminary decision as to whether the stove is to be operated in its normal mode or banked mode. Thereafter, controlled by temperature responsive means, the stove moves itself fully automatically back and forth from the rapid burning mode to whichever one of the other two modes of operation has been preselected by the user.

Barsness, G. H.; Kleine, R. A.

1985-12-03

196

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

197

Quantitative metrics of stove adoption using Stove Use Monitors (SUMs)  

E-print Network

: Improved stove dissemination Diffusion of innovations Energy use behavior Monitoring and evaluation Indoor air pollution Fuel and stove stacking a b s t r a c t The sustained use of cookstoves% respectively. Cookstove age and household size at baseline did not affect usage. Qualitative indicators of use

Silver, Whendee

198

Quantitative metrics of stove adoption using Stove Use Monitors (SUMs)  

PubMed Central

The sustained use of cookstoves that are introduced to reduce fuel use or air pollution needs to be objectively monitored to verify the sustainability of these benefits. Quantifying stove adoption requires affordable tools, scalable methods and validated metrics of usage. We quantified the longitudinal patterns of chimney-stove use of 80 households in rural Guatemala, monitored with Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) during 32 months. We counted daily meals and days in use at each monitoring period and defined metrics like the percent stove-days in use (the fraction of days in use from all stoves and days monitored). Using robust Poisson regressions we detected small seasonal variations in stove usage, with peaks in the warm-dry season at 92% stove-days (95%CI: 87%,97%) and 2.56 average daily meals (95%CI: 2.40,2.74). With respect to these values, the percent stove-days in use decreased by 3% and 4% during the warm-rainy and cold-dry periods respectively, and the daily meals by 5% and 12% respectively. Cookstove age and household size at baseline did not affect usage. Qualitative indicators of use from recall questionnaires were consistent with SUMs measurements, indicating stable sustained use and questionnaire accuracy. These results reflect optimum conditions for cookstove adoption and for monitoring in this project, which may not occur in disseminations undertaken elsewhere. The SUMs measurements suggests that 90% stove-days is a more realistic best-case for sustained use than the 100% often assumed. Half of sample reported continued use of open-cookfires, highlighting the critical need to verify reduction of open-fire practices in stove disseminations. PMID:25258474

Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Walker, Joan L.; Smith, Kirk R.

2014-01-01

199

Quantitative metrics of stove adoption using Stove Use Monitors (SUMs).  

PubMed

The sustained use of cookstoves that are introduced to reduce fuel use or air pollution needs to be objectively monitored to verify the sustainability of these benefits. Quantifying stove adoption requires affordable tools, scalable methods and validated metrics of usage. We quantified the longitudinal patterns of chimney-stove use of 80 households in rural Guatemala, monitored with Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) during 32 months. We counted daily meals and days in use at each monitoring period and defined metrics like the percent stove-days in use (the fraction of days in use from all stoves and days monitored). Using robust Poisson regressions we detected small seasonal variations in stove usage, with peaks in the warm-dry season at 92% stove-days (95%CI: 87%,97%) and 2.56 average daily meals (95%CI: 2.40,2.74). With respect to these values, the percent stove-days in use decreased by 3% and 4% during the warm-rainy and cold-dry periods respectively, and the daily meals by 5% and 12% respectively. Cookstove age and household size at baseline did not affect usage. Qualitative indicators of use from recall questionnaires were consistent with SUMs measurements, indicating stable sustained use and questionnaire accuracy. These results reflect optimum conditions for cookstove adoption and for monitoring in this project, which may not occur in disseminations undertaken elsewhere. The SUMs measurements suggests that 90% stove-days is a more realistic best-case for sustained use than the 100% often assumed. Half of sample reported continued use of open-cookfires, highlighting the critical need to verify reduction of open-fire practices in stove disseminations. PMID:25258474

Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Walker, Joan L; Smith, Kirk R

2013-10-01

200

Wood stove air flow regulating  

SciTech Connect

A wood stove has primary and secondary air regulator doors at the bottom and top, respectively, of the stove door each rotating about the axis of a tightening knob in the center of the door opposite a baffle plate that defines with the door inside an air channel open at the top and bottom.

Brefka, P.E.

1983-10-04

201

Wood and coal burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stove for burning wood, coal and other fuels comprised of flammable solids that among other things produce one or more flammable gases when heating or burning. The preferred form of the stove has three modes of operation-a rapid burning mode, a normal or medium burning mode and a banked mode. The user makes a preliminary decision as to whether

G. H. Barsness; R. A. Kleine

1985-01-01

202

Low emissions wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a wood burning stove. It comprises firebox means for forming a primary chamber for primary combustion of fuel received therein; catalytic cell means communicating with the primary chamber for forming a secondary chamber within the stove, the catalytic cell means having an inlet and an outlet; catalytic combustor means disposed in the secondary chamber for catalytically combusting

1989-01-01

203

Wood burning stove heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove includes a water circulating grate within the stove fire chamber which includes horizontally extending, vertically spaced, first and second tubular manifolds. Fuel supporting pipes, including bottom portions which define a ''V'', physically and fluidly interconnect the manifolds. An inlet pipe extends throughout the majority of the length of the bottom manifold, and the top manifold is

Manno

1985-01-01

204

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove having a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust from the chamber wherein the improvement comprises the addition of a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. In one embodiment, the catalytic converter means is situated in a flue immediately adjacent the combustion chamber. In another embodiment, the catalytic converter means is situated in the combustion chamber itself. In addition, the nature and structure of a catalytic converter means have been determined for marginal acceptable and optimum performance with adequate pressure drop thereacross.

van Dewoestine, R.V.

1983-02-15

205

21. Photocopy of ca. 1951 view (when furnaces were still ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Photocopy of ca. 1951 view (when furnaces were still in blast) looking north at central furnace complex with railroad cars of furnace charging materials in foreground and No. 2 Furnace at left. Photo marked on back 'David W. Corson from A. Devaney, N.Y.' - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

206

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal interconnected by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox grate made up of spaced bricks supported by metal holders secured in heat conducting relation to said inner side walls. The rear side air passageway is divided into central and outer vertical sections, the central one of which is closed at the bottom end and communicates with the atmosphere through an opening in the outer wall intermediate to its vertical ends and with the stove interior above the firebox and below the grate through openings in the inner wall intermediate to its vertical ends and adjacent to its bottom end, respectively. A vertical baffle between these inner and outer walls separates said intermediate openings from each other, and a thermostatically controlled damper associated with the opening in the outer wall controls the amount of room air delivered either under the firebox grate or above it. The front side air passageway is divided into upper and lower sections separated by a viewing box closed at its outer end by a glass window and removably closed at its inner end by a pair of hinged doors.

Willson, A.C.

1981-02-03

207

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure relates to a wood burning stove which includes an innermost combustion chamber within and generally spaced from an intermediate air-circulating chamber in turn generally within an outermost chamber, all of the chambers having generally spaced top, rear, bottom and pairs of side walls, all of the side walls having openings and ducts associated therewith through which air is introduced into the combustion chamber, all of the top walls having openings housing a duct through which products of combustion are exhausted from the combustion chamber, openings in the bottom walls of the intermediate and outermost chambers through which hot air is directed from the hot-air chamber for subsequent utilization, damper means associated with the top wall of the combustion chamber and the bottom wall of the intermediate chamber for respectively regulating the flow of gases through the openings or ducts associated therewith, and openings in the rear walls of the outermost and intermediate chambers through which air is blown by an associated blower for circulating within the hot-air chamber and being blown outwardly therefrom through the openings of the bottom walls and the ducts associated therewith as well as front openings in a front wall of the stove.

Burnette, C.S.

1983-01-25

208

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove is disclosed which includes a stove housing that defines an upper zone comprising storage and exhaust chambers, and a lower zone for accommodating a wood burning fire. The exhaust and storage chambers are separated by a divider, both chambers having bottom openings that communicate directly with the top of the lower fire zone. Covering one opening in the housing and providing access to the fire zone is a fire door while another opening provides access at the top of the storage chamber and is covered by a wood fill door. The exhaust chamber communicates with and discharges smoke into a stovepipe or flue retaining chimney. A supply of logs is loaded into the storage chamber through its fill door. These feed automatically and sequentially by gravity from the storage chamber bottom into the fire zone for consumption by a fire burning therein. The frequency of wood loading operations is reduced in that a suitable supply of logs for burning and maintaining a continuous fire over a long period of time is provided in one loading operation.

Sullivan, P.D.

1982-07-27

209

Stove with multiple chambers  

SciTech Connect

A stove is described for burning a solid fuel such as wood. The wall means defines a main air inlet, a combustion gas outlet, and four chambers through which gas passes sequentially from the main air inlet to the combustion gas outlet. The chambers comprises a pre-heat plenum chamber into which the main air inlet opens. A main combustion chamber contains solid fuel to be burned into which gas passes from the pre-heat plenum chamber, a second combustion chamber which is downstream of the main combustion chamber with respect to the flow of gas from the main air inlet to the combustion gas outlet, and a third combustion chamber from which the combustion gas outlet opens. The stove also comprises a plate having a restricted opening for providing communication between the second and third combustion chambers. And a catalytic converter comprises a body of solid material formed with passageways, the body of solid material being fitted in the restricted opening so that gas passes from the second combustion chamber to the third combustion chamber by way of the passageways in the body.

Black, A.

1987-04-21

210

Diffusion of improved biomass stoves in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large-scale utilization of inefficient biofuel stoves for cooking and heating in the rural areas of China can cause ecological and environmental problems; thus, in 1982, the Chinese government encouraged the diffusion of improved biomass stoves. From 1982 to 1994, these improved biomass stoves have been used by 144 million households or the equivalent of 90% of all improved stoves

Peter Catania; Kun Huang

1996-01-01

211

Old stoves: Making a comeback  

SciTech Connect

If you`ve been heating with a wood stove for as long as I have, your faithful Blaze King or Upland Elk may be getting long enough in the tooth that it needs refurbishing or maybe even a replacement. Since some of the best designed stoves ever made were operating before I was, it would be a crime to consign them to the rubbish heap in the backyard just because they lack a little polish and care. It is discussed how to restore and operate the good old free-breathing stoves yourself.

Vivian, J.

1994-01-01

212

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Wood burning stoves are of a type having a lower chamber and an upper chamber interconnected by a port. Air inlets are located laterally of the base of a fire in the lower chamber with a natural draft therein effecting a multitude of upwardly rising air streams of which one type is hot and oxygen poor and which carry and heat another type of air stream which is oxygen rich. The port is so dimensioned and spaced in relation to the lower chamber and to the flue outlet of the upper chamber that a secondary combustion zone is provided in which the upwardly rising streams are suddenly contracted, expanded and intermingled with simultaneous heat loss minimized ensuring the maintenance of a temperature adequate to result in the combustion of pyrolitic products.

Nason, M.L.

1984-09-25

213

Wood Burning Stove (Olin College)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is aimed at improving an existing wood burning stove design by Estufas Ixiles Stove Co., an initiative of Community Enterprise Solutions. There are two primary focuses to this project.\\u000aThe first is to improve the design, making it: Less expensive Easier to assemble Appeal to the design values of our users Be at least as energy efficient as

Christopher Carrick; Ryan Hubbard; Melina Martinez; Carmelle Tsai; Stephen Westwood

2008-01-01

214

Perceptions of the health effects of stoves in Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the views of stove users in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia on how stoves affect their health. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In this paper focus groups were conducted with improved stove users; traditional stove users; and a mix of traditional and improved stove users. Individual interviews were also held with various types of stove users.

Joanna K. Gordon; Nick D. Emmel; Semira Manaseki; Jacky Chambers

2007-01-01

215

Wood by-pass furnace  

SciTech Connect

This wood by-pass furnace is designed in such a manner, as to have the oxygen for combustion controlled, to the extent that the wood does not blaze, but only produces red, glowing coals for heating a home, and the outside cover will not burn anyone when touched. It primarily consists of am inside fire chamber of cylindrical shape, to distribute heat to the top, and it includes a top baffle, that extends from the front of the fire chamber, to the rear of the furnace. It further includes the side baffles, to protect the sides of the heat chamber, and smoke and heat travels up and over the top of the top baffle, to the front of the stove or furnace, and passes out an eight inch pipe. The top baffle further serves to condense the black smoke into liquid, which will dry out and will burn in its dry form.

Stephenson, P.S. Sr.

1983-08-30

216

Air tight fuel burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A fuel burning stove is claimed for holding and burning fuel to heat the surrounding atmosphere in a room where the stove is employed. The stove includes a fire box which supports the fuel and where the combustion is sustained. An air inlet is provided to the fire box allowing the inflow of air for combustion with the fuel. The air is preheated upon entry into the fire box for mixture with volatiles formed by the burning fuel directed toward the entering air by a baffle means to effect a secondary combustion. In addition, a movable damper cooperates with the baffle to direct volatiles toward the incoming heated air when the damper is in the closed position and to provide a more direct path to the chimney when in the open position.

Nietupski, V.J.

1980-03-11

217

Wood stove having catalytic converter  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal spaced apart by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox floor supported in heat conducting relationship with the inner side walls. A catalytic converter is disposed over the fire area in the upper portion of the stove, and is arranged to receive preheated fresh secondary air which mixes with hot, incompletely combusted compounds from the fire and, in the presence of the catalyst, induces a secondary combustion of the substances. This mixture is channeled into a heat extraction chamber where the secondary combustion is completed and the resultant heat is transferred to the metal body of the stove. An exhaust passageway is provided for releasing the products of complete combustion into the atmosphere.

Willson, A.C.

1982-12-14

218

Particle emissions from pellets stoves and modern and old-type wood stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to characterise particle emissions from pellets stoves and modern and old-type residential wood stoves. The mass concentration of particulate material in the hot flue gas was 19–82 mg\\/MJ, roughly the same for wood stoves and pellets stoves, but the old-type wood stoves tended to emit even higher quantities. Furthermore, during combustion of wood logs the

Linda S. Bäfver; Bo Leckner; Claes Tullin; Morten Berntsen

2011-01-01

219

Thermoelectric power generation from biomass cook stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biomass cook stoves is widespread in the rural communities of developing countries. It is important to improve the efficiency of these stoves in order to reduce the global warming contribution. An improved biomass fired stove has been developed in our laboratory and a prototype has been built. The combustion chamber is designed to achieve the almost complete

D. Champier; J. P. Bedecarrats; M. Rivaletto; F. Strub

2010-01-01

220

Wood burning space heating stove  

SciTech Connect

The design of a space heating wood burning stove, formed as a rectangular fire box, having a plurality of horizontal flue ducts leading to a flue manifold, adapted to generate substantial vertical convection currents of air, and further including vertical fins to enhance said convection currents, and further including a plurality of draft valves in substantial alignment with respective ones of said flue ducts for efficient burning of wood within said fire box is presented. Assembly of the fire box of the stove is completed under stressed conditions to prevent warping of the fire box panels from heating and cooling cycles.

Bane, J.H.

1981-08-04

221

Low emissions wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a wood burning stove. It comprises firebox means for forming a primary chamber for primary combustion of fuel received therein; catalytic cell means communicating with the primary chamber for forming a secondary chamber within the stove, the catalytic cell means having an inlet and an outlet; catalytic combustor means disposed in the secondary chamber for catalytically combusting primary combustion exhausts; exhaust path means for defining an exhaust path in the cell means extending from the inlet through combustor means to outlet; and heat shield means for exchanging thermal radiation with combustor means.

Hazard, G.M.

1989-09-05

222

New wood stoves are tops for efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the new efficient wood stoves and discusses problems in nomenclature with some prefabricated fireplaces that include baffles, catalytic combustors and other devices previously associated with the wood stove. Wood stoves are subject to strict US EPA emission control regulations and fireplaces are not. Officials at the EPA evaluate wood burners on a case-by-case basis to determine if they should be subject to the stove regulations. To date, there are over 100 EPA-approved wood stoves on the market.

Barnhart, R.

1989-09-01

223

Wood burning space heating stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a space heating wood burning stove, formed as a rectangular fire box, having a plurality of horizontal flue ducts leading to a flue manifold, adapted to generate substantial vertical convection currents of air, and further including vertical fins to enhance said convection currents, and further including a plurality of draft valves in substantial alignment with respective ones

Bane

1981-01-01

224

Combination coal and wood stove  

SciTech Connect

The combination stove has a fire chamber that is partially cylindrical including a side loading door for loading wood or other combustible material such as coke or coal into the fire chamber. The front of the stove may be opened to enable viewing of the wood or coal burning in the stove by means of an arcuate sliding door that is operable to substantially totally close the chamber or open a section of the front thereof for viewing purposes. The sliding door is covered by a window construction including a tempered glass face. The stove is provided with an open base for supporting the chamber in a shroud covering the top and back of the chamber, preferably including blower means associated therewith. Particularly for wood combustion, the chamber is provided with a top draft extending longitudinally of the chamber and has supported therein a grate. For coal combustion, air input draft is coupled under the grate, preferably also including the capability of forced air draft using a portion of the forced air from the blower.

Gillis, G.A.; Lucier, R.

1983-05-17

225

Self feeding wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is described which consists of: an upright housing, the bottom portion of which defines a sump, the opposite side walls of which are symmetrically arrayed about a generally horizontal axis, substantially in parallel therewith, and slope downwardly toward the bottom line of the sump disposed in the vertical plane of the axis: means in the housing

Steindal

1986-01-01

226

Self loading wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self loading wood burning stove is described which comprises: (a) a fire box having an air intake vent for supplying a flow of combustible air therin an an exhaust conduit in flow communication with the fire box for exhausting combustion gases therefrom: (b) a storage bin for retaining a plurality of logs, the storage bin having a generally zig-zag

E. Gonzales; G. Spector

1987-01-01

227

Low emission wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a wood burning stove. It comprises: firebox means for forming a chamber for primary combustion of fuel received therein; door means comprising a door which may be opened and closed for selectively accessing the firebox means; stationary grate means defining a first series of openings located in fixed position below the firebox means; ash pan means comprising

1991-01-01

228

Wood burning stove and oven  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is a wood burning stove comprising an essentially air tight firebox module having three or more sides, an essentially horizontal cooking top and a bottom, both of said cooking top and bottom extending outwardly from a side to form firebox oven flanges, to which may be secured an oven module, a fire door at the front of the

DAlessandro

1984-01-01

229

Wood burning stove and fireplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove, a free standing fireplace or fireplace insert is constructed to receive one of three possible types of inserts to make the unit adaptable to a convection, hot air or hot water heating system. The wood or like fuel combustion rate is automatically controlled by a temperature sensor and draft control system. The insert may be a

Kolb

1980-01-01

230

Automatic wood burning heating stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic wood burning heating stove has a fire chamber, a fuel feeding opening, closeably by an airtight door which is removable to convert the heater to an open fireplace. The door has a reflective ceramic surface on its inner face to direct heat toward preheating tubes having outlets directed above the fire zone. The door also reflects heat toward

K. H. McIntire; J. E. McIntire

1978-01-01

231

Coal and wood burning stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention provides a stove for burning a charge of fuel by primary air directed either above or underneath through the firebed. A firebed support is defined by an array of alternating fixed and movable bars, the movable bars having a length greater than their width when viewed endwise and being rotatable between a vertical attitude in which they permit

Th. A. Babbage; F. W. Cousins

1984-01-01

232

Kinetics of the reaction of iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents with SO{sub 2} at low temperatures: effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx  

SciTech Connect

The effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx in the flue gas on the kinetics of the sulfation of blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents at low temperatures were studied using a differential fixed-bed reactor. When O{sub 2} and NOx were not present simultaneously, the reaction kinetics was about the same as that under the gas mixtures containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2} only, being affected mainly by the relative humidity. The sulfation of sorbents can be described by the surface coverage model and the model equations derived for the latter case. When both O{sub 2} and NOx, were present, the sulfation of sorbents was greatly enhanced, forming a great amount of sulfate in addition to sulfite. The surface coverage model is still valid in this case, but the model equations obtained show a more marked effect of relative humidity and negligible effects of SO{sub 2} concentration and temperature on the reaction. The effect of sorbent composition on the reaction kinetics was entirely represented by the effects of the initial specific surface area (S{sub g0}) and the Ca molar content (M{sup -1}) of sorbent. The initial conversion rate of sorbent increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}, and the ultimate conversion increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}M{sup -1}. The model equations obtained in this work are applicable to describe the kinetics of the sulfation of the sorbents in the low-temperature dry and semidry fine gas desulfurization processes either with an upstream NOx, removal unit or without.111

Liu, C.F.; Shih, S.M. [Industrial Technological Research Institute, Hsinchu (Taiwan)

2009-09-15

233

Solar furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace is a device for applying high temperatures to a specimen by concentrating solar radiation on it. A brief historical review concerning the development of solar furnaces is presented and fundamental operational and design principles for solar furnaces are discussed. A paraboloidal mirror is used as a radiation concentrator of the reflection type. According to the procedures used

T. Sakurai

1977-01-01

234

Solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace receiving reflected solar energy from a battery of remote, positionable mirrors with the furnace having primary and secondary reflectors directing concentrated radiant energy toward a Fresnel lens is described. The focal point of the lens is located within a furnace chamber into which is advanced a carbon conduit, the advancing end of which is vaporized by focal

1977-01-01

235

Solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar furnace is constructed of evacuated glass block solar elements that include an interior face, or surface, of zinc. Because of this material, substantial solar radiant energy is retained and radiated to the interior of the furnace, permitting the furnace to reach temperatures of 300° C. and more when located at latitudes between the 35th parallels. Evacuated insulating elements

Clavier

1985-01-01

236

Afterburner for a wood stove  

SciTech Connect

An afterburner for a wood stove for use as a retrofit assembly comprises a rectangular housing having openings in the upper and lower surfaces provided with cylindrical collars for cooperation with the flue duct and with the opening in the top of the wood stove respectively. The openings are positioned at the rear of the housing so as to provide a forward section spaced from the openings. A catalytic combuster mounted in a cylindrical support is movable from a position directly above the opening in the bottom surface into the front section by a manually operable handle extending through the front face of the housing. A baffle mounted on the support and arranged at a shallow angle to the horizontal overlies the major part of the combuster so as to direct gases into the front section of the housing for heat exchange contact with the walls thereof.

Dorach, E.H.; Dorsch, H.

1984-08-21

237

Wood burning stove heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove includes a water circulating grate within the stove fire chamber which includes horizontally extending, vertically spaced, first and second tubular manifolds. Fuel supporting pipes, including bottom portions which define a ''V'', physically and fluidly interconnect the manifolds. An inlet pipe extends throughout the majority of the length of the bottom manifold, and the top manifold is connected-through a container having a larger cross-sectional area than the cross-sectional area of the manifold-to an outlet. The inlet to and outlet from the manifold are connected up to a hydronic space heating system. The container supports a heat exchanger comprising a finned copper tube, so that the heat exchanger extends generally horizontally and within the first manifold. The heat exchanger is connected up to a domestic hot water supply. The container also supports one or more electric resistance heating coils, which heat liquid within the container in emergency situations.

Manno, J. T.

1985-08-13

238

Combuston unit for woodburning stove  

SciTech Connect

A combustor unit for a woodburning stove comprises a generally T-shaped flue assembly interiorly receiving a combustor having a catalyst to facilitate combustion of exhaust gases. The combustor is pivotal between a combustion position wherein the combustor is positioned across an exhaust passageway to an open position wherein the combustor is substantially removed from the exhaust gas stream and positioned within an access passageway.

Piontkowski, C. F.

1985-11-05

239

Wood burning stove and fireplace  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove, a free standing fireplace or fireplace insert is constructed to receive one of three possible types of inserts to make the unit adaptable to a convection, hot air or hot water heating system. The wood or like fuel combustion rate is automatically controlled by a temperature sensor and draft control system. The insert may be a baffle structure, an air to air heat exchanger or an air to water heat exchanger.

Kolb, R.C.

1980-04-29

240

Pellet stoves wood energy for all  

SciTech Connect

While it`s true that specialized pellet stoves, capable of burning fuels as diverse as reprocessed paper waste and feed corn, are expensive and occasionally clunky, they also represent one of the best hopes for introducing clean burning, reliable renewable energy to those now heating with gas and oil. This article explores the benefits and operation of the stoves including discussions of the following: ecological benefits, combustion, stove venting, ashes, costs, fuels, and the future of wood heat. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-10-01

241

Monitoring and evaluation of new stoves  

SciTech Connect

Most of the people in Nepal depend on biomass for cooking and heating - be it wood, straw etc. and this is one of the reasons why we have a greater problem of deforestation which is the major component for deteriorating environment. Slowing the rate of deforestation to a limited degree at least can be achieved by improving the efficiency of wood utilization. The idea of improving the stoves in terms of firewood consumption and smokelessness has gained an increasing attention in recent years. The prefabricated household stoves (New Nepali Cooking Stoves) are being distributed and installed to the various regions of the country through the Small Farm Family Program with the support of ADB/Nepal and UNICEF/Nepal. These improved stoves make smokeless kitchens and use less firewood. The distribution of the modified Magan Stoves was first started in Budhanilkantha Village about one year before the survey. Still the stoves are being distributed to the villagers if they form a small group of 6-10 households (Small Farm Family) and the group asks for the stoves. After distribution and installations of improved stoves in various regions of the country a sample survey was conducted in Budhanilkantha to ascertain users acceptance and identify the kinds of problems inhibiting greater use. The survey was carried out in the beginning of 1983, and during the survey there were 51 stoves distributed in two Panchayats and different villages.

Basnet, K.

1983-12-01

242

Solid fuel stove utilizable as a fireplace  

SciTech Connect

A so-called stack stove, especially for the burning of solid fuels and particularly wood has a hood or apron extending downwardly and outwardly along the upper portion of at least its front above the opening into the combustion chamber. A window door is mounted so as to be shiftable upwardly into the hood and locked therein so that it is substantially completely concealed by the hood when the stove is operated in a fireplace mode. In its lower position the door closes the chamber opening and the stove can function as a sealed stove with limited air entry for efficient combustion.

Debus, G.; Herrmann, G.; Hof, E.

1982-05-18

243

VIEW FROM PARK DRIVE LOOKING WEST, SHOWING WHEELING PITTSBURGH BLAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM PARK DRIVE LOOKING WEST, SHOWING WHEELING PITTSBURGH BLAST FURNACES WITH PAROCHIAL SCHOOL (ST. LEONARDS) IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

244

VIEW FROM PARK DRIVE LOOKING WEST, SHOWING WHEELING PITTSBURGH BLAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM PARK DRIVE LOOKING WEST, SHOWING WHEELING PITTSBURGH BLAST FURNACES WITH PAROCHIAL SCHOOL (ST. LEONARDS) IN FOREGROUND - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

245

Emission of pollutants from a biomass stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to know the mechanisms by which biomass combustion in a stove emits pollutants in order that appropriate remedial steps may be taken to protect the environment in general and to safeguard the health requirements of stove users who are predominantly in the Third World. In this paper, the levels of concentration of emissions have been investigated by

C. K. W. Ndiema; F. M. Mpendazoe; A. Williams

1998-01-01

246

Wood burning stove and oven  

SciTech Connect

This invention is a wood burning stove comprising an essentially air tight firebox module having three or more sides, an essentially horizontal cooking top and a bottom, both of said cooking top and bottom extending outwardly from a side to form firebox oven flanges, to which may be secured an oven module, a fire door at the front of the firebox, a draft control means, a chimney attachment means, disposed to the rear and the top of the firebox, a grate, and leg support means.

D'Alessandro, S.

1984-12-04

247

Countering creosote and fumes in wood stoves  

SciTech Connect

As wood stoves can pollute the air and fires can be caused by creosote buildup, companies are making products which help to solve these problems. These firms include a company which makes a liquid catalyst spray which minimizes the emission of polluting particles while preventing creosote buildup and another whose product aids the combustion of soot and forms a shield on chimney and stove surfaces against corrosive combustion products. Some stove makers have their own method for reducing emissions by incorporating a catalytic combustor.

Not Available

1984-08-01

248

Estrogenic effects from household stoves.  

PubMed

With the application of a genetically modified yeast, estrogen receptor-activating compounds were detected in the soot and emission gas of a wood-burning household stove. The EC50 value of 17beta-estradiol was divided by the EC50 value of soot, and the obtained relative estrogenic value for raw soot was 2.37E-5, indicating that soot was about 100,000 times less estrogenic than 17beta-estradiol. Chemical analysis revealed that alkyl phenol, benzonic acid, and PAHs represented the major constituents in the most potent fractions of the soot. Along with PAHs, other constituents might also contribute to the estrogenicity of soot. PMID:12481859

Wu, W Z; Chen, J; Rehmann, K; Schramm, K W; Kettrup

2002-09-01

249

Self loading wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A self loading wood burning stove is described which comprises: (a) a fire box having an air intake vent for supplying a flow of combustible air therin an an exhaust conduit in flow communication with the fire box for exhausting combustion gases therefrom: (b) a storage bin for retaining a plurality of logs, the storage bin having a generally zig-zag vertically arranged compartment for holding a zig-zag row of the logs, the storage bin having a log entry opening at upper portion and a pair of pivotable doors at lower portion for dispensing the logs individually therefrom; and (c) means for delivering the logs from the doors of the storage bin to the fire box of the stove, wherein the delivering means comprises: (d) a conveyor for receiving the logs from the doors of the storage bin and conducting the logs upwardly in a substantially angular fashion; and (e) means for placing the logs from the conveyor into upper portion of the fire box; wherein the conveyor comprises: (f) a plurality of rollers; (g) an endless belt formed around the rollers, the belt having a plurality of push lugs; and (h) a motor to driven one of the rollers to operate the belt so that the push lug will drive the log upwardly; wherein the placing means comprises: (i) a housing having a plurality of legs mounted to the upper portion of the fire box, the housing having a log guide roller in rotatable contact with the belt of the conveyor and a pair of spring loaded trap doors that are opened by weight of the log so that log will far therethrough; and (j) the first box having an inclined top and a pivotable top door that is opened by weight of the log so that the log will roll therein.

Gonzales, E.; Spector, G.

1987-08-25

250

Wood-burning stoves produce new market  

SciTech Connect

The annual report of the Forestry Commission for Wales, notes that wood-burning stoves have produced a new market for timber as fuel, and the Commission are selling cutting rights for hardwood thinnings to contractors.

Not Available

1982-06-05

251

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

252

Low emission wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a wood burning stove. It comprises: firebox means for forming a chamber for primary combustion of fuel received therein; door means comprising a door which may be opened and closed for selectively accessing the firebox means; stationary grate means defining a first series of openings located in fixed position below the firebox means; ash pan means comprising an ash pan disposed below the stationary grate means for receiving ashes from the firebox means; moveable grate means defining a second series of openings, the moveable grate means being mounted above the stationary grate means and positionable between a first position wherein the first series of openings does not communicate with the second series of openings and a second position wherein the first series of openings communicate with the second series of opening to provide communication between the chamber and the ash pan means and; handle means connected to the moveable grate means for engagement from exteriorly of the firebox means for transforming the moveable grate means from the first position to the second position and engageable with the door so that when the door is closed, the moveable grate means is forced to the first position.

Hazard, G.M.

1991-01-15

253

Furnace assembly  

DOEpatents

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01

254

Improved stove programs need robust methods to estimate carbon offsets  

E-print Network

gases from biomass and fossil-fuel stoves in developingstove specific emission factors are not required, with biomassBiomass Bioenergy 23:453–469 Climate Care (2008) Methodology for improved cook-stoves

Johnson, Michael; Edwards, Rufus; Masera, Omar

2010-01-01

255

Blast injury.  

PubMed

The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C A

1967-01-28

256

Blast Injury  

PubMed Central

The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C. A.

1967-01-01

257

Self feeding wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove is described which consists of: an upright housing, the bottom portion of which defines a sump, the opposite side walls of which are symmetrically arrayed about a generally horizontal axis, substantially in parallel therewith, and slope downwardly toward the bottom line of the sump disposed in the vertical plane of the axis: means in the housing defining a pair of spaced septa which depend within the sump on opposite sides of the axis, substantially in parallel therewith, and cooperate with the sidewalls of the sump in defining a pair of log feed magazines in each of which a plurality of elongated logs can be stacked on top of one another substantially on parallels to the axis to form a pair of sloping, single-log-wide, axially extending stacks of the same which converge in the bottom of the sump at points above the slot adjacent the plane of the axis: means in the gap defining a pair of spaced abutments which are disposed upright in the vertical plane of the axis so as to engage between the opposing faces of the bottommost logs and form an air flow channel therebetween above the slot when the bottommost logs collect at the points in the gap: means on the septa forming a chamber above the gap which opens into the channel between the bottommost logs above the slot to confine the flames and the flow of combustion products from the channel to the space between the septa when the opposing faces of the bottommost logs are ignited; and means connected with the chamber to discharge the combustion products from the same to a low pressure zone outside of the housing where the products can escape to atmosphere or the like.

Steindal, K.

1986-08-19

258

Device for automatically charging a woodburning stove  

SciTech Connect

A device for automatically dropping logs at a predetermined time for charging a fire laid on the bottom of a woodburning stove. The device includes a pair of elongated arcuate shaped log supporting members each of which is journaled within the stove adjacent a respective top side corner thereof. A latching system is connected to the log supporting member for releasably maintaining the log supporting members in a substantially horizontal supporting position. An electrically operated movable member is connected to the latching system for releasing the latching system upon being energized under control of a timing device at a predetermined time. As a result, the stove can be automatically charged during the middle of the night ensuring a fire in the morning.

Michael, J.A.

1981-12-29

259

Improved stoves in India: A study of sustainable business models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning of biomass for cooking is associated with health problems and climate change impacts. Many previous efforts to disseminate improved stoves – primarily by governments and NGOs – have not been successful. Based on interviews with 12 organizations selling improved biomass stoves, we assess the results to date and future prospects of commercial stove operations in India. Specifically, we consider

Gireesh Shrimali; Xander Slaski; Mark C. Thurber; Hisham Zerriffi

2011-01-01

260

Part I: Experimental studies on a pulverised fuel stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with development of a pulverised fuel stove with improved conversion efficiency and minimal emissions at near constant power level without the use of external power. The design originates from a cylindrical sawdust stove with a central porthole being lit from the bottom. Such a stove will have a flame in port with enhanced sooting tendency. For

C. S. Bhaskar Dixit; P. J. Paul; H. S. Mukunda

2006-01-01

261

Monitoring the Heat Output of a Wood-Burning Stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

To find a simple means for monitoring the heat output of a wood stove, general engineering models of heat transfer are used to develop a model that predicts the heat output of a stove from measurements of surface temperature. Using the surface area and the measured surface temperature as inputs, the model predicts the heat output of the stove by

M. P. MODERA

1986-01-01

262

Analysis of wood burning stoves as a supplemental heat source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of wood burning stoves as a supplemental residential heat source is examined. Three common types of wood burners are considered: the wood stove, the wood boiler, and the Franklin?combination stove. The analysis focuses upon three main areas: cost, energy and environmental effects. Indications are that the large scale use of wood as a fuel source is a viable

1983-01-01

263

Heat control device for a wood or coal burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A heat control device for a stove which burns solid fuel and in which the heat output of fuel combustion is regulated in order to control within preselected temperature ranges the temperature of the combustion chamber of the stove and the ambient air temperature of the environment being heated by the stove.

Pearson, P.W.

1983-05-17

264

Heat control device for a wood or coal burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat control device for a stove which burns solid fuel and in which the heat output of fuel combustion is regulated in order to control within preselected temperature ranges the temperature of the combustion chamber of the stove and the ambient air temperature of the environment being heated by the stove.

1983-01-01

265

Wood-burning stove and method for burning wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood-burning stove utilizes a volatilization chamber inserted within the combustion chamber of the stove. The volatilization chamber contains a charge of wood which is heated to drive off combustible gases and vapors. The combustible gases and vapors are thereafter burned in the combustion chamber of the stove by being passed through a layer of solid fuel W hich includes

Van Der Linden

1983-01-01

266

Solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace electricity generating system is provided herein. It includes a concentrator and accumulator for the sun's rays to generate a concentrated high temperature solar beam. A heat hearth is disposed, e.g., in the ground, to absorb the concentrated high temperature solar beam. A plurality of concentric alternating heat-transfer-medium-containing chambers and heat absorption zones are provided around the heat

1983-01-01

267

Wood burning stove having water heater  

SciTech Connect

A solid fuel burning stove having a hot water heating means. A water containing chamber open at the top for communication with room air serves the dual purpose of providing a heat sink for preheating water while at the same time providing a means for humidifying the room air. Domestic water heating coils are positioned so that cold water flows first through coils located at the water containing reservoir where it is preheated and then passes into the combustion chamber where it is heated to a high temperature before flowing into a hot water tank. The stove is preferably also provided with a small baking oven.

Moffett, D.J.

1984-03-27

268

Wood burning water-circulating stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood or coal burning stove having walls defining a fire chamber with a flue disposed in one of the walls is disclosed. A door provides access to the fire chamber, and a vent for controlling the combustion air is provided in the door. A manifold connected to inlet and outlet pipes passing through the walls provides for circulation of

J. T. Manno; F. A. Scopetti; E. Vaughn

1980-01-01

269

Draft tube for wood burning stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A draft tube in a wood burning stove is provided with a nozzle at the lower end thereof for directing a portion of the draft air downwardly against the charge of burning wood, coal, etc. And deflects a portion thereof sideways into a zone above the fuel to provide a more complete combustion of the rising volatiles. The nozzle may

A. D. Evans; R. Leavens

1980-01-01

270

Secondary combustion system for wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved secondary combustion system for combusting the exhaust gases exiting from a fire box in a wood burning stove comprising: an insulated conduit defining an exhaust passageway leading from an intake opening to an exit opening; screen means interposed across the exhaust passageway in the vicinity of the intake opening to impart a rapid acceleration to

von Conta; P. E. W

1986-01-01

271

Wood burning stove with forced air heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses a stove having an external casing provided with an opening and a cylindrical fire chamber disposed within the casing and provided with a hole arranged adjacent to and in communication with the opening of the casing. Extending transversely across the cylindrical fire chamber is a grate, while a door assembly is disposed removably covering the opening provided

Glover

1979-01-01

272

Wood burning stove having water heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid fuel burning stove having a hot water heating means. A water containing chamber open at the top for communication with room air serves the dual purpose of providing a heat sink for preheating water while at the same time providing a means for humidifying the room air. Domestic water heating coils are positioned so that cold water flows

1984-01-01

273

ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL COAL STOVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation, in cooperation with the State of Vermont's Agency of Environmental Conservation, of emissions generated by anthracite and bituminous coal used for residential heating. A residential coal stove was operated with both coals, while comparin...

274

Adoption of appropriate technology: smokeless wood stoves in Rajasthan, India  

SciTech Connect

A multi-method research design consisting of in-depth interviews with program officials and builders, field-level observation, and field surveys with randomly chosen acceptors was used to provide a unique set of insights into the process of diffusion and acceptance of improved smokeless wood stoves in Rajasthan, India. Over 450 village women were interviewed about their energy use, use of their stove, and cooking practices as well as family characteristics. These women were improved stove acceptors and non-acceptors associated with three improved stove-disseminating organizations in Rajasthan, the Rural Development Department of the Rajasthan state government, the Local Self Government Institute and the Social Work and Research Center. The improved stoves disseminated by these three programs are all largely subsidized by the Government of India. A variable named Levels of Acceptance is used to aid in quantifying differences in stove condition and frequency of stove use.

Fraser, A.H.

1987-01-01

275

Crystal Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A "melt recharging" technique which eliminates the cooldown and heating periods in a crystal "growing" crucible, resulted from a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/Kayex Corporation program. Previously, the cost of growing the silicon solar cells had been very high. The JPL/Kayex system improved productivity by serially growing crystals from the same crucible using a melt recharger which made it possible to add raw silicon to an operating crucible. An isolation value, developed by Kayex, allowed the hopper to be lowered into the crucible without disturbing the inert gas atmosphere. The resulting product, a CG6000 crystal growing furnace, has become the company's major product.

1985-01-01

276

Electrical performance analysis and economic evaluation of combined biomass cook stove thermoelectric (BITE) generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biomass cook stoves is widespread in the domestic sector of developing countries, but the stoves are not efficient. To advance the versatility of the cook stove, we investigated the feasibility of adding a commercial thermoelectric (TE) module made of bismuth-telluride based materials to the stove’s side wall, thereby creating a thermoelectric generator system that utilizes a proportion

C. Lertsatitthanakorn

2007-01-01

277

Effects of burn rate, wood species, altitude, and stove type on wood-stove emissions  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses an emission measurement program in Boise, ID, designed to identify the potential mutagenic impact of residential wood burning on ambient and indoor air. One facet of this field sampling involved obtaining emission samples from chimneys serving wood burning appliances in Boise. A parallel project was undertaken in an instrumented woodstove test laboratory to quantify woodstove emissions during operations typical of Boise usage. Test results showed wide variability probably due primarily to the difficulty in duplicating conditions during stove start-up. Total woodstove dilution sampling system (WSDSS) emissions showed the expected inverse correlation with burnrate for the conventional stove and nearly flat for the catalytic stove. While there appeared to be little or no correlation of total WSDSS emissions with altitude, the sum of the 16 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) quantified showed a direct correlation with altitude: higher PAH emissions at the higher altitude. Two woodstoves were operated in the test laboratory over a range of burnrates, burning either eastern oak or white pine from the Boise area. A conventional stove, manufactured in the Boise area, was tested at altitudes of 90 and 825 m. A catalytic stove was tested only at the high altitude. Pine produced a higher PAH emission rate than oak.

McCrillis, R.C.; Burnet, P.G.

1990-01-01

278

Wood stove with safety forced air system  

SciTech Connect

A high efficiency, air-tight wood stove has a firebox with front, side, rear, top and bottom walls, primary air introducing means for admitting combustion air into the firebox, air flow means adjacent the bottom of the firebox for directing a flow of air upwardly across at least one firebox wall, at least one supplemental air inlet for diverting a portion of the air from the air flow means into the firebox, fan means for forcing air through the air flow means and through the supplemental air inlet, the size of the primary air introducing means being chosen to automatically restrict the combustion in the firebox if the fan means stops to maintain the temperature of the stove and surroundings at safe levels.

Erickson, A.J.; Thulman, R.D.

1982-08-03

279

Evaluation of low-emission wood stoves. Research report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

Emissions and efficiencies of five residential wood-burning heaters were measured. Measured emissions included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), total combustibles, elemental carbon, cyanide (CN-), ammonia (NH/sub 3/) and creosote. Three fuels were used, although not in all appliances -- dimensional Douglas fir lumber (as specified in the Oregon and Colorado emissions standards), seasoned oak logs and green oak logs. The appliances consisted of a conventional airtight stove, a catalytic stove, two non-catalytic advanced technology stoves, and a wood pellet stove. Appliance effects were strong. All products of incomplete combustion (PM, CO, HC, benzene, PAH, elemental carbon, creosote and combustibles) were lowest for the pellet burner, next lowest for the catalytic stove, and highest for the conventional airtight stove.

Shelton, J.W.; Gay, L.W.

1986-06-01

280

Secondary combustion system for woodburning stove  

SciTech Connect

A secondary combustion system for a woodburning stove employs a concave shaped screen for dispersing exhaust gases. A mixing chamber is formed in an insulated conduit between the concave screen and a second planar screen. The planar screen is perforated to form a random array of flaps which increase the turbulence of the exhaust stream so that a secondary combustion of the exhaust gases is produced.

von Conta, P. E. W.

1985-11-19

281

Indoor air pollution to emissions from wood burning stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood-burning stoves have been found under some conditions to contribute to indoor concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and suspended particles, including benzo-A-pyrene. Indoor pollutant emissions from wood-burning stoves can be emitted into the indoor environment during starting, stoking, and reloading operations, or they can be emitted continuously if a leak or crack exists in the stove or

G. W. Traynor; M. G. Apte; A. R. Carruthers; J. F. Dillworth; D. T. Grimsrud; L. A. Gundel

1984-01-01

282

Wood-burning stove and method for burning wood  

SciTech Connect

A wood-burning stove utilizes a volatilization chamber inserted within the combustion chamber of the stove. The volatilization chamber contains a charge of wood which is heated to drive off combustible gases and vapors. The combustible gases and vapors are thereafter burned in the combustion chamber of the stove by being passed through a layer of solid fuel W hich includes a substantial amount of charcoal residue from previous volatilized wood. The heat generated by burning the volatile material is used to produce additional volatiles as well as to heat the stove.

Van Der Linden, R.E.

1983-02-08

283

33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ON HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

284

Structural blast design  

E-print Network

Blast design is a necessary part of design for more buildings in the United States. Blast design is no longer limited to underground shelters and sensitive military sites, buildings used by the general public daily must ...

Kieval, Tamar S. (Tamar Shoshana), 1980-

2004-01-01

285

28. Turbo Blower Building (1927), looking south. Large pipes, center, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Turbo Blower Building (1927), looking south. Large pipes, center, carried the hot air blast to the stoves of Furnaces A and D. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

286

Adoption and use of improved biomass stoves in Rural Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In households that rely on biomass for a large percentage of their energy needs, adoption of improved biomass stoves can result in significant reduction of indoor air pollutants and emissions of greenhouse gasses with concurrent health co-benefits. To maximize the effectiveness of the stove dissemination process, promoters should choose target populations that are both likely to adopt the new technology

Kathleen Pine; Rufus Edwards; Omar Masera; Astrid Schilmann; Adriana Marrón-Mares; Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez

2011-01-01

287

Fuel efficient stoves for the poorest two billion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 2 billion people cook their daily meals on generally inefficient, polluting, biomass cookstoves. The fuels include twigs and leaves, agricultural waste, animal dung, firewood, and charcoal. Exposure to resulting smoke leads to acute respiratory illness, and cancers, particularly among women cooks, and their infant children near them. Resulting annual mortality estimate is almost 2 million deaths, higher than that from malaria or tuberculosis. There is a large diversity of cooking methods (baking, boiling, long simmers, brazing and roasting), and a diversity of pot shapes and sizes in which the cooking is undertaken. Fuel-efficiency and emissions depend on the tending of the fire (and thermal power), type of fuel, stove characteristics, and fit of the pot to the stove. Thus, no one perfect fuel-efficient low-emitting stove can suit all users. Affordability imposes a further severe constraint on the stove design. For various economic strata within the users, a variety of stove designs may be appropriate and affordable. In some regions, biomass is harvested non-renewably for cooking fuel. There is also increasing evidence that black carbon emitted from stoves is a significant contributor to atmospheric forcing. Thus improved biomass stoves can also help mitigate global climate change. The speaker will describe specific work undertaken to design, develop, test, and disseminate affordable fuel-efficient stoves for internally displaced persons (IDPs) of Darfur, Sudan, where the IDPs face hardship, humiliation, hunger, and risk of sexual assault owing to their dependence on local biomass for cooking their meals.

Gadgil, Ashok

2012-03-01

288

The emissions from a space-heating biomass stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the flue gas emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOX), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and soot from an improved space-heating biomass stove and thermal efficiency of the stove have been investigated. Various biomass fuels such as firewood, wood shavings, hazelnut shell, walnut shell, peanut shell, seed shell of apricot (sweet and hot seed type), kernel removed corncob,

T. Koyuncu; Y. Pinar

2007-01-01

289

A wood-gas stove for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the millennia wood stoves for cooking have been notoriously inefficient and slow. Electricity, gas or liquid fuels are preferred for cooking - when they can be obtained. In the last few decades a number of improvements have been made in woodstoves, but still the improved wood stoves are difficult to control and manufacture and are often not accepted by

T. B. Reed; Ronal Larson

1996-01-01

290

Improved flue for wood burning stove. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stove is the Russian Fireplace - a heavy masonry heater used in northern Europe for hundreds of years. These fireplaces use a long winding flue within the stove to extract most of the usable heat. The design of the flue and operating experience are reviewed. (MHR)

Tate

1983-01-01

291

Blow back prevention apparatus for a wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device is presented for preventing blow back through the fuel loading door in stoves or heaters in which the rate of combustion is controlled by restricting the supply of air to the combustion chamber. When the stove is burning during normal operation the fuel loading door is closed and an air inlet to the combustion chamber is blocked by

1982-01-01

292

Department of Engineering Fall 2012 Sustainable Cook Stove  

E-print Network

of the world's population cooks their daily meals by burning biomass fuel (wood, animal dung or agriculturalPENNSTATE Department of Engineering Fall 2012 Sustainable Cook Stove Overview Nearly half waste). Most meals are cooked on open fires or rudimentary, inefficient stoves that release high levels

Demirel, Melik C.

293

Combustion air intake system for wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hinged doors are provided on the front of a stove for sealably closing across a large opening through which logs can be loaded into a firebox within the stove. A cylindrical draft chamber is formed on an exterior surface of one or each of the doors. A draft cap is rotatable on a threaded stud which is coaxially secured in

Eisiminger

1982-01-01

294

Acid-potential emission factors for residential wood burning stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work conducted by OMNI has resulted in defining the factors of stove design and operation that most influence particulate and carbon monoxide emissions, which in turn are the origin of the acidic compounds. The more important factors include: stove firebox size, fuel type, moisture content, fuel loading density and burn rate. The purpose of this paper is to provide information

P. Burnet; N. Edmisten; P. Tiegs; R. Yoder

1985-01-01

295

Catalytic combustion assembly for wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalytic combustor is described for a wood-burning stove. The stove includes a flue outlet and a firebox having a ceiling and a primary air inlet for supplying primary air to the firebox. The assembly consists of: an insertable housing having a pair of spaced-apart parallel walls having tops, the walls defining an airtight passageway for volatile gases from the

D. R. Jencks; M. R. Nelson

1987-01-01

296

Flue arrangement for stove and fireplace  

SciTech Connect

A coal or wood burning stove or fireplace including a fire chamber, the upper part of which is defined by a cooking surface having a horizontally disposed top portion and an arcuate portion extending forwardly and downwardly from the top portion. A flue is disposed within the fire chamber parallel to the top portion and has an open end terminating at the midpoint of the radius of the arcuate portion. The position of the end of the flue with respect to the arcuate portion permits slow, even and complete burning of the fuel in the fire chamber.

Wolf, M.L.

1982-03-23

297

Engineering development of a clean burning residential wood stove  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of a survey undertaken to assess the basic problems of residential wood stoves and the design approaches for the development of a clean wood-burning stove. It is determined that mean combustion temperatures approaching 1000C are needed, and that well-mixed, well-aerated flames are essential for low emissions. Also, controlled pyrolysis hot char-volatiles interaction, and controlled air flow are important considerations for clean burning of sticks and logs. The development of a mathematical and computational model of the residential wood stove based upon gasification, pyrolysis, combustion, fluid dynamic, and heat transfer processes in the stove is discussed. It is determined that a modular stove for laboratory testing and prototype design is feasible.

Knoke, G.S.; Malte, P.C.; Butler, G.W.

1982-04-01

298

Stove with co-axial vent and flue design  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a stove of the type having a firebox and a second outer wall that defines an air passageway around the fire-box. Provided with the stove is a fan for forcing air around the defined air passageway for collecting heat from a burning fire within the firebox. A flue is communicatively connected with the firebox and extends therefrom through the defined air passageway and on through the outer wall structure of the stove. Co-axially disposed around the flue and communicatively connected with the air passageway is a vent for directing heated air from the stove. The co-axial relationship of the vent and flue assures that the flue gases must pass within the heated air passing in the vent or vice versa, and this gives rise to a very efficient stove inasmuch as a substantial portion of the heat associated with the flue gases being exhausted is transferred to the vented air.

Hyatt, J.R.

1983-02-15

299

Adapter for venting a stove through a fireplace  

SciTech Connect

An adapter is provided for use in venting a coal or wood burning stove through the flue of a fireplace. The adapter includes a fireproof board and a metal pressure plate, each formed with a central opening to receive the exhaust end of stove pipe from the stove. The board and plate are fitted into the fireplace flue and held there by means of a pair of longitudinally adjustable legs, the lower ends of which press against the floor of the fireplace. The pressure plate is provided with studs to receive the upper ends of the legs and tabs are provided on the plate at the sides of the stove pipe hole for fastening with the stove pipe.

Scullin, R.J.

1982-05-18

300

Indoor air quality impacts of an improved wood stove in Ghana and an ethanol stove in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to assess the potential of two types of improved cookstoves to reduce indoor air pollution in African homes. An ethanol stove, the CleanCook, was tested in three locations in Ethiopia: the city of Addis Ababa and the Bonga and Kebribeyah Refugee Camps, while a wood-burning rocket stove, the Gyapa, was evaluated in Accra, Ghana. In both

David Pennise; Simone Brant; Seth Mahu Agbeve; Wilhemina Quaye; Firehiwot Mengesha; Wubshet Tadele; Todd Wofchuck

2009-01-01

301

Solid-fuel household cook stoves: Characterization of performance and emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 14 solid-fuel household cook stove and fuel combinations, including 10 stoves and four fuels, were tested for performance and pollutant emissions using a WBT (Water Boiling Test) protocol. Results from the testing showed that some stoves currently used in the field have improved fuel efficiency and lower pollutant emissions compared with traditional cooking methods. Stoves with smaller-mass

James J. Jetter; Peter Kariher

2009-01-01

302

Heat treatment furnace  

DOEpatents

A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

2014-10-21

303

Primus stove burns: a persisting problem in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Primus stoves account for a large proportion of burn injuries in the developing world. The mechanism of these injuries is closely linked with factors relating to stove design, fuel characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of victims. We review the current literature on these injuries with particular attention to the injury mechanisms and epidemiological data available. We additionally summarize the initiatives so far developed worldwide for their prevention and define directions for further research into reducing the burden associated with Primus stove burn injuries. PMID:22928153

McGlone, Emma Rose; Goutos, Ioannis; Nelson, Rebecca A; Pandya, Ankur

2011-01-01

304

Particulate emissions from wood stoves in a residential area  

SciTech Connect

A field study was made to measure toluene extractable particulates emitted by wood burning stoves in a community. Two areas were selected to determine the increase in organic particulates emitted by these stoves. In one area wood burning stoves were used as an alternate heat source for some of the houses but not in the other area. A sign test was used to determine whether there was a statistical difference between the two areas in terms of toluene extractables. There was approximately a 21% increase in toluene extractables in the wood burning area.

Lao, Y.J.

1983-11-01

305

Plasma furnace treatment of metallurgical by-product streams  

SciTech Connect

It is a common misconception that plasma furnace technology only has application for exotic and very high temperature processes. With the increasing importance placed on waste minimization and the environmental constraints imposed on heavy metals present in byproducts from mainstream operations, plasma technology is finding widespread application. Tetronics is a premier supplier of plasma tundish heating systems for the steel industry. More recently the company has found growing interest in electric arc furnace dust treatment, lead blast furnace slag treatment and metal recovery, copper, nickel and cobalt scavenging from primary smelter slags, dross treatment, platinum group metals (PGM) recovery from catalysts and vitrification and detoxification of heavy metal contaminated waste byproducts. The principal advantages of the plasma arc technology are the close metallurgical control of the furnace environment, minimal off-gas handling requirements and overall high energy efficiency of the processes. A number of applications in the ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry are described.

Whellock, J.G. [JW Technologies, LLC, Englewood, CO (United States); Heanley, C.P.; Chapman, C.S. [Tetronics Ltd., Faringdon (United Kingdom)

1997-12-31

306

Heating stove which includes a pyrolysis gasifier  

SciTech Connect

A heating stove is described comprising: gasifier means for reduction of biomass input material to produce fuel gas and charcoal; means for burning the fuel gas produced by the gasifier means; means for drawing air through the gasifier means and for moving the fuel gas produced by the gasifier means to the fuel gas burner; means for automatically adding biomass input material to the gasifier means when the biomass input material present in the gasifier means is below a preselected level; means for automatically igniting the existing charcoal is the gasifier means in response to a thermostat changing to an on condition from an off condition; means for automatically controlling the level of charcoal in the gasifier means; and means for automatically terminating the operation of the gasifier means when the thermostat is in an off condition and the biomass input material has been substantially all reduced to charcoal.

Beierle, F.P.; Boyer, B.T.; Suisse, R.A.

1988-04-19

307

Secondary combustion system for wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved secondary combustion system for combusting the exhaust gases exiting from a fire box in a wood burning stove comprising: an insulated conduit defining an exhaust passageway leading from an intake opening to an exit opening; screen means interposed across the exhaust passageway in the vicinity of the intake opening to impart a rapid acceleration to a gas stream entering the exhaust passageway; rotation means to impart a rotation to the gas stream in a first portion of the exhaust passageway; counter-rotation means to impart a counter-rotation to the gas stream in a second portion of the exhaust passageway; deceleration means to decelerate the gas stream in the second portion of the exhaust passageway; and secondary air means to inject a source of secondary air into the exhaust passageway.

von Conta, P.E.W.

1986-12-16

308

Dry ice blasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

1992-04-01

309

Blast injury research models  

PubMed Central

Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. Blast casualties also commonly suffer secondary and tertiary blast injuries resulting in significant blood loss. The presence of hypoxaemia owing to blast lung complicates the process of fluid resuscitation. Consequently, prolonged hypotensive resuscitation was found to be incompatible with survival after combined blast lung and haemorrhage. This article describes studies addressing new forward resuscitation strategies involving a hybrid blood pressure profile (initially hypotensive followed later by normotensive resuscitation) and the use of supplemental oxygen to increase survival and reduce physiological deterioration during prolonged resuscitation. Surprisingly, hypertonic saline dextran was found to be inferior to normal saline after combined blast injury and haemorrhage. New strategies have therefore been developed to address the needs of blast-injured casualties and are likely to be particularly useful under circumstances of enforced delayed evacuation to surgical care. PMID:21149352

Kirkman, E.; Watts, S.; Cooper, G.

2011-01-01

310

INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE DEPRESSIONS, WHICH WERE COVERED WITH IRON GRATES TO SUSPEND POTS OVER THE HEAT SOURCE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

311

118. Guillotine type gate (in open position) to regulate stove ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

118. Guillotine type gate (in open position) to regulate stove exhausts to underground flue. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

312

Performance Evaluation of Developed Domestic Cook Stove with Jatropha Shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, SPRERI gasifier stove and double pot improved household cookstove were tested with Jatropha shell. Thermal performance and pollutant emissions during water boiling test were evaluated. Jatropha shell combust properly in SPRERI gasifier stove and thermal efficiency was recorded about 31.10%. In case of double pot improved\\u000a cookstove mixed fuel (1:1) Jatropha shell and babul wood was used

N. L. Panwar

2010-01-01

313

Emissions From Small Scale Pellets Stoves and Boilers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two automatically feeded pellets stoves, the smaller one an indoor fireplace stove ( 5kW) the bigger one a boiler with about 40kW of power output, were tested under various operating conditions. Contrary to the usual testing procedure, the systems were also sampled during start-up and simulated maloperation to gauge the full extent of possible gaseous and particulate emissions. Due to

M. Luisser; C. Schmidl

314

Porcine head response to blast  

E-print Network

Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational ...

Nyein, Michelle K.

315

Coal-fired tile stoves: Efficiency and emissions  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired tile stoves are widely used in Poland for domestic heating. These massive stoves,are fired for short periods once or twice each day, and the stored heat is slowly released into the room by natural convection Low-quality coal is typically used, and these stoves are therefore a major source of air pollution. A facility has been constructed to study the efficiency and emissions characteristics of these stoves. Stove exhaust gas is directed into a dilution tunnel in which pollutant concentrations and emission rates are measured. Efficiency is determined using a heat loss method. In baseline tests, stove efficiencies were found to be higher than expected -- 60% to 65%. Emission factors are high for particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), and organics. Low-volatility ``smokeless fuels`` were tested as an alternative to the normal fuels. Using the normal operating procedure, these were found to yield a factor of 10 reduction in particulate emissions but a 50% increase in CO emissions. A new operating procedure was developed with these fuels in which CO levels were lower than with the normal fuel and efficiency increased to 70%. These smokeless fuels are seen as attractive options for improving regional air quality, partly because their use does not require capital investment by residents.

Jaszczur, T.; Zaczkowski, A.; Lewandowski, M.; Butcher, T.; Szewczyk, W.

1995-08-01

316

Monitoring the heat output of a wood-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

To find a simple means for monitoring the heat output of a wood stove, general engineering models of heat transfer are used to develop a model that predicts the heat output of a stove from measurements of surface temperature. Using the surface area and the measured surface temperature as inputs, the model predicts the heat output of the stove by radiation and natural convection. As a means of verification, surface temperature data from four wood stoves monitored in a calorimeter room are used to make heat output predictions. The predicted heat outputs are then compared with the actual heat outputs measured by the calorimeter room. The predictions involve several potential monitoring schemes: (1) separate temperature measurements for each surface of the stove, (2) an average temperature measurement for all stove surfaces, and (3) a single surface temperature measurement. The accuracies of the predictions are characterized by their geometric bias and scatter as well as their predictions of total energy delivered. The scatter is a measure of the trackability of the model, analogous to the arithmetic standard deviation. Predictions made from average temperature measurements are found to be as accurate as those based on individual temperature measurements, whereas single-temperature measurements cause an additional 5% uncertainty in predictions. For both the average temperature and individual temperature predictions, the bias is between 2% and 24%, with 16% as the typical scatter. The trend in the bias is underprediction, possible causes of which are discussed at length.

Modera, M.P.

1986-01-01

317

Electromelt furnace evaluation  

SciTech Connect

An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

1981-09-01

318

Lightweight blast shield  

DOEpatents

A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

1991-01-01

319

Topping turbine generator in blast furnace power house  

SciTech Connect

A project to install a 22 megawatt topping turbine for waste heat utilization is described in this paper. Selection criteria, design, installation, startup, and initial operation are described in detail. The facility was initially depressurizing and desuperheating steam sufficient to generator 8 MW(e). Analysis showed that, with the addition of a low pressure feedwater heater, the capacity of the 900 psig boilers could be increased. This allowed a turbine generator capacity increase and a shutdown of the low pressure boilers. Minor startup problems were identified and corrected, and the project is generating significant revenue.

Mooney, R.E. [REM Engineering, Roswell, GA (United States); Ganga, R.C. [The McBurney Corp., Norcross, GA (United States); Owen, P. [US Steel, Birmingham, AL (United States)

1996-12-31

320

The Effect of Marketing Messages, Liquidity Constraints, and Household Bargaining on Willingness to Pay for a Nontraditional Cook-stove  

E-print Network

exclusively three-stone fires, 12% own charcoal stoves, 11%three-stone fire—73%, while 12% also report owning a charcoal stove,stove both safer and faster in cooking time than a traditional three-stone

Beltramo, Theresa; Levine, David I; Blalock, Garrick

2014-01-01

321

Carbon Arc Image Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various optical systems are discussed with reference to their use with carbon arc image furnaces. A new optical system which employs two elliptical mirrors is described and shown to have numerous practical advantages. Using modifications of motion picture projection lamps, measurements have been made of carbon arc image furnaces ranging up to more than 26-kw power input, producing approximately 3000-watts

M. R. Null; W. W. Lozier

1958-01-01

322

Secondary combustion device for woodburning stove  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a wood burning stove including an exhaust flue opening, a combustion chamber for primary combustion having an access door, a support for wood to be burnt and a primary air inlet means for supplying air to support primary combustion of the wood to produce flue gases containing combustible particulate material. A conduit means for directing the flue gases is included from the combustion chamber to the flue opening in a preselected path. Also included is a secondary combustion means for burning particulate material in flue gases before flue gases pass through the exhaust flue opening. The improvement comprises: secondary combustion means including an elongated manifold extending laterally across and above the combustion chamber at a preselected position on the preselected path; a number of air openings spaced longitudinally along the manifold and facing the path of the flue gases and an air inlet means for supplying ambient; secondary combustion air to the manifold for flow from openings into the path of the flue gases in distinct jets; and a laterally elongated passageway above the manifold with upper and lower portions and defined at its upper portion by a sheet metal wall, and a layer of extremely low heat conducting insulation in the passageway. On the sheet metal wall the layer of insulation prevents appreciable conduction of heat from the passageway into the sheet metal wall and flue gases flow through the passageway and from passageway in a generally wide thin flow pattern.

Craver, R.D.

1987-06-16

323

Secondary combustion device for woodburning stove  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes in a wood burning stove including an exhaust flue opening, a combustion chamber for primary combustion having an access door, a support for wood to be burned and a primary air inlet means for supplying air to support primary combustion of the wood to produce flue gases containing combustible particulate material, plenum means for directing the flue gases in a direction from the combustion chamber to the flue opening in a preselected path, and secondary combustion means for burning the particulate material in the flue gases before flue gases through the exhaust flue opening. The improvement comprising: the combustion chamber having a flue gas exit opening extending laterally across the top of the combustion chamber and communicating the combustion chamber with the plenum means, an elongated manifold extending laterally across and above the combustion chamber substantially coextensively with the flue gas exit opening, a number of air opening spaced longitudinally along the manifold and facing opposite the direction of the flue gases closely adjacent the flue gas exit opening, and an air inlet means for supplying ambient, secondary combustion air to the manifold for counterflow thereof from the openings into the path of the flue gases in a plurality of distinct jets.

Craver, R.D.

1989-08-08

324

Advanced steel reheat furnace  

SciTech Connect

Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1997-10-01

325

Passive blast pressure sensor  

SciTech Connect

A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

2013-03-19

326

Secondary air systems for improved residential wood stove combustion  

SciTech Connect

Three wood burning stoves were modified by the addition of preheated secondary air systems to keep burn volatile gases given off during the initial stage of combustion. This report describes the modifications and the performance of the stoves after modification. Stoves tested during the year's study included a Jotul 118, a Garrison IV and a Hearthstone I. After modification, total particulate emissions decreased in the three stoves by 56%, 69% and 4%, respectively. Flue gas CO/sub 2/ (a by-product of combustion and an indicator of the completeness of combustion) increased by 15%, 15% and 17%, respectively. Temperatures in the secondary combustion zones increased by 17%, 50% and 6%. On the basis of these measurements, other internal temperatures and visual observations, we believe the modifications significantly increased the combustion efficiencies of the Jotul and the Garrison. No improvement was discerned in the Hearthstone's performance (possibly due to unrealistic burn rate compared to firebox size). The design concepts developed, refined and tested under this year's study should be readily applicable to the majority of residential wood stoves on the market.

Poirot, R.L.; Sanborn, C.R.

1982-12-21

327

Wood-stove hot-water systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this grant was to evaluate the efficiency and economics of installing hot water heating systems or wood stoves. To evaluate the efficiency, six systems were installed in North Florida households and monitored over two heating systems. Three of the systems installed were placed in the flue pipe and three in the stove box. Tests indicate the in-pipe systems yielded on an average 1575 to 1675 Btu/hour, while in-stove systems yielded from 1850 to 2700 Btu/hour on the average. A detailed analysis of the economics of system performance concluded that the installation of wood-stove hot water heating systems is a marginal investment for the Tallahassee area without the current energy tax credit program and a reasonably good investment with it. It was determined that if a person used the stove as a regular heat source in the Tallahassee area and system cost was near $400.00 that person was guaranteed to recover their investment in current dollars within the useful life of the system. As a person travels north to areas where the heating season is longer, these systems become more justified.

Leitman, S.

1982-07-01

328

Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.  

PubMed

Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM????.?) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m³, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM????.? concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) ?g/m³, while PM?.? concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) ?g/m³. Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM????.? filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m³ and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM????.? and PM?.? were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM????.? but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

2013-12-01

329

Experimental analysis of stove top designs for pine needle combustion in a semi-gasifier burner  

E-print Network

The motivation behind this project was to develop a better understanding of the role that the stove top plays in a stove where pine needles are the main fuel source. Pine needles have distinct characteristics in their ...

Roqué, Alyssa J

2011-01-01

330

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

331

Cooking method and apparatus for use with wood-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A solid fuel burning heating apparatus, used as a parlor stove, is also used for cooking. The stove is provided with a self-clearing top smoke chamber having a top cover over an aperture. A cooking tray is supported in the aperture when the stove is operating. The tray has a surface for holding coals and an opening communicating between the aperture and the interior of the stove. A perforate cooking surface is supported above the tray.

Syme, D.C.

1984-08-21

332

Indoor air pollution due to emissions from wood-burning stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four wood-burning stoves, three airtight and one non-airtight, were operated in a single-floor 236-m³ residence and tested for indoor pollutant emissions. Results showed the airtight stoves emitted minor amounts of carbon monoxide and respirable suspended particles during door-opening operations, while the nonairtight stove continuously injected pollutants indoors under certain operating conditions. During airtight stove operation, carbon monoxide levels reached a

Gregory W. Traynor; Michael G. Apte; Andrew R. Carruthers; James F. Dillworth; David T. Grimsrud; Lara A. Gundel

1987-01-01

333

ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

E.F. fitch

1995-03-13

334

Mother`s 1993: Wood and coal stove advisory  

SciTech Connect

If you`re like me, you`ve been heating and cooking with wood long enough that you don`t want another lecture about the cozy charm of a wood fire, the money you can save over electric heat, why to clean your flue or how to stack a cord of wood. What you may want to know, however, is why you can`t get an efficient, new wood stove anymore without paying hundreds of dollars extra for a government-approved catalytic smoke combustor or {open_quotes}Hi-Tech{close_quotes} stove; how the wood smoke that we once considered benign can degrade our air quality, endangering health and property; and how the new government presence in home heating affects your use or sale of the {open_quotes}low-tech{close_quotes} Intrepid, Kodiak or Ashley airtight wood stove (or the faithful old coal-burner) that has warmed you for years.

Vivian, J.

1993-12-01

335

Influence of testing parameters on biomass stove performance and development of an improved testing protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass fuels are used by nearly half the world's population on a daily basis for cooking. While these stoves often look simple in appearance they are notoriously difficult to test. By their very nature biomass stoves are typically fairly uncontrolled devices which often exhibit a large amount of variability in their performance. In order to characterize a stove and understand

C. L'Orange; M. DeFoort; B. Willson

336

An assessment of programs to promote improved household stoves in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002, a team of US and Chinese researchers collaborated on an independent, multidisciplinary review of China's improved rural household stove programs that have been carried out since the 1980s. The objectives were to delineate and evaluate the methods used to promote improved stoves, to as sess the development of commercial stove production and marketing organizations, and to measure the

Jonathan E. Sinton; Kirk R. Smith; John W. Peabody; Liu Yaping; Zhang Xiliang; Rufus Edwards; Gan Quan

2004-01-01

337

Design and performance evaluation of a 5 kW producer gas stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the studies of a wood gas stove in meeting cooking energy requirement using biomass gasification. The stove works on natural draft mode. The thermal efficiency of the stove was recorded at about 26.5% and it can be started, operated and stopped with very low emissions. It can use a wide variety of biomass fuels. The produced wood

N. L. Panwar; N. S. Rathore

2008-01-01

338

Cooking method and apparatus for use with wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid fuel burning heating apparatus, used as a parlor stove, is also used for cooking. The stove is provided with a self-clearing top smoke chamber having a top cover over an aperture. A cooking tray is supported in the aperture when the stove is operating. The tray has a surface for holding coals and an opening communicating between the

Syme

1984-01-01

339

Semicoke production and quality at Chinese vertical SJ furnaces  

SciTech Connect

In Russia there has been little interest on the thermal processing of non-sintering coal. However it may be used to obtain many special types of coke and semicoke that are necessary for processes other than blast furnace smelting and employing small metallurgical coke fractions that do not meet the relevant quality requirements. China has recently made great progress in developing the thermal processing of coal (mainly energy coal) to obtain a highly effective product, semicoke, primarily used in metallurgy and adsorption process. The article considers the operation of a Chinese semicoking plant equipped with vertical SJ furnaces. The plant is in the Shenmu district of Shanxi province (Inner Mongolia). The enterprise includes two furnaces of total output of about 100,000 t/yr of semicoke.

V.M. Strakhov; I.V. Surovtseva; A.V. D'yachenko; V.M. Men'shenin [Kuznetsk Center, Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation)

2007-05-15

340

High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

Bates, Stephen C.

1997-01-01

341

Development of Zone Melting Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mirror furnace (Image Furnace (IMF)) for the First Material Processing Test (FMPT) project had been successfully developed in 1986. The IMF will be launched by the space shuttle 'Endeavor' on September, 1992. Based on the experience of the IMF development, an improved mirror furnace (Zone Melting Furnace (ZMF)) is now being developed as experimental equipment for the Japanese Experiment

Shinichi Yoda; Kiwao Shibukawa; Keishi Murakami; Kazumori Hama; Kiyoshi Tanaka; Takao Yokota; Hiroshi Nishimura; Seiichi Takasu

1992-01-01

342

Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) without the EAC internal support structure. Flown on USML-1 and USML-2. The Principal Investigators on these flights were: Larson, Lehoczky, Matthiesen, Wiedemeier. Processed 6 samples on USML-1 and 7 samples on USML-2.

1991-01-01

343

Franklin Furnace Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

344

Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas  

SciTech Connect

The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

345

What makes people cook with improved biomass stoves. A comparative international review of Stove Programs. Energy series. World Bank technical paper  

SciTech Connect

Hundreds of millions of people rely on woodfuels for most of their energy needs, despite the problems associated with traditional use of woodfuels. Modern, efficient biomass stoves can alleviate some of these problems by reducing some householders' cash outlays for fuel, diminishing the time others must spend to collect fuel, reducing air pollution, and relieving local pressure on wood resources. The study explores the successes and failures of stove programs and suggests how adoption rates can be improved more consistently. Under the right conditions, the social, economic, and environmental benefits of promoting improved stoves are large. Programs must be targeted carefully, however, to situations in which people pay high prices for fuel or walk long distances to collect fuelwood or other biomass materials. Subsidies may aid in the distribution of stoves but may not result in actual stove use. Ultimately, dissemination programs are most effective when they allow for interaction and feedback between stove designers, producers, and users.

Barnes, D.F.; Openshaw, K.; Smith, K.R.; van der Plas, R.

1994-05-01

346

Chemical and biological characterization of emissions from small residential stoves burning wood and charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Emissions from a small residential wood stove and a newly developed residential stove burning charcoal have been characterized by chemical analysis and mutagenicity testing (Ames Salmonella test). For wood burning the samples were taken under normal and starved air conditions burning birch and spruce separately. The burning conditions in the stove seemed to influence the emissions to a larger extent than the type of wood. The emissions of aldehydes, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the charcoal-burning stove are lower by a factor of 25-1000 as compared to the wood stove. The mutagenicity of the emissions showed a similar trend.

Ramdahl, T. (Central Inst. for Industrial Research, Oslo, Norway); Alfheim, I.; Rustad, S.; Olsen, T.

1982-01-01

347

30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires...

2012-07-01

348

30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires...

2013-07-01

349

30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires...

2011-07-01

350

30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.  

...Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires...

2014-07-01

351

Development and optimization of a stove-powered thermoelectric generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost a third of the world's population still lacks access to electricity. Most of these people use biomass stoves for cooking which produce significant amounts of wasted thermal energy, but no electricity. Less than 1% of this energy in the form of electricity would be adequate for basic tasks such as lighting and communications. However, an affordable and reliable means

Dan Mastbergen

2008-01-01

352

Development and optimization of a stove-powered thermoelectric generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost a third of the world's population still lacks access to electricity. Most of these people use biomass stoves for cooking which produce significant amounts of wasted thermal energy, but no electricity. Less than 1% of this energy in the form of electricity would be adequate for basic tasks such as lighting and communications. However, an affordable and reliable means of accomplishing this is currently nonexistent. The goal of this work is to develop a thermoelectric generator to convert a small amount of wasted heat into electricity. Although this concept has been around for decades, previous attempts have failed due to insufficient analysis of the system as a whole, leading to ineffective and costly designs. In this work, a complete design process is undertaken including concept generation, prototype testing, field testing, and redesign/optimization. Detailed component models are constructed and integrated to create a full system model. The model encompasses the stove operation, thermoelectric module, heat sinks, charging system and battery. A 3000 cycle endurance test was also conducted to evaluate the effects of operating temperature, module quality, and thermal interface quality on the generator's reliability, lifetime and cost effectiveness. The results from this testing are integrated into the system model to determine the lowest system cost in $/Watt over a five year period. Through this work the concept of a stove-based thermoelectric generator is shown to be technologically and economically feasible. In addition, a methodology is developed for optimizing the system for specific regional stove usage habits.

Mastbergen, Dan

353

FIELD PERFORMANCE OF WOODBURNING STOVES IN CRESTED BUTTE, COLORADO  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses field emissions from woodstoves measured in Crested Butte, Colorado, during the winters of 1988-89 and 1989-90. Both particulate matter and carbon monoxide emissions were measured. The database from this work is large, including conventional stoves and EPA-cer...

354

FIELD PERFORMANCE OF WOODBURNING STOVES IN CRESTED BUTTE, COLORADO  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses field emissions from woodstoves measured in Crested Butte, Colorado, during the winters of 1988-89 and 1989-90. oth particulate matter and carbon monoxide emissions were measured. he database from this work is large, including conventional stoves and EPA-certi...

355

Stove having auxiliary damper operably connected to access door  

SciTech Connect

A stove of the wood burning type is provided with a smoke passage having a main opening adjacent the access door of the stove and an auxiliary opening therein which is located further away from the access door and more closely adjacent the rear portion of the smoke passage and the chimney than the main opening. A regulator damper controls the rate of flow of products of combustion from the combustion chamber through the main opening and the smoke passage to the chimney, and an auxiliary damper normally closes the auxiliary opening when the access door is in a normally closed position. Apparatus is operably associated with the auxiliary damper and the stove access door for effecting movement of the auxiliary damper from the normally closed position to the opened position prior to the access door being opened for redirecting the products of combustion through the auxiliary opening and thus further away from the access door so as to thereby prevent the escapement of smoke through the stove access opening when the access door is opened.

Webb, J.E.

1981-07-28

356

Children's Respiratory Health After an Efficient Biomass Stove (Patsari) Intervention.  

PubMed

Household use of fuelwood represents a socio-ecological condition with important health effects mainly in rural areas from developing countries. One approach to tackle this problem has been the introduction of efficient wood-burning chimney stoves. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the introduction of Patsari stoves on the respiratory health of young children in highlands Michoacán, Mexico. A total of 668 households in six rural communities in a fuelwood using region were selected and randomized to receive an improved stove (Patsari) or rely entirely on the traditional wood fire until the end of the follow-up including 10 monthly visits. Adherence to the intervention was variable over the follow-up time. The actual use of the Patsari stove as reported by the mother showed a protective effect mainly on the upper and lower respiratory infection duration (IRR URI 0.79, 95% CI 0.70-0.89, and LRI 0.41, 95% CI 0.21-0.80) compared to households that used only an open fire. Fewer days of child's ill health represents saved time for the woman and avoided disease treatment costs for the family, as well as a decrease in public health costs due to a reduction in the frequency of patient visits. PMID:25201350

Schilmann, Astrid; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Ramírez-Sedeño, Karina; Berrueta, Víctor M; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Romieu, Isabelle

2014-09-01

357

63. Cam Shaft Running Egg, Stove and Nut Shakers, date ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

63. Cam Shaft Running Egg, Stove and Nut Shakers, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

358

Results of laboratory tests on wood-stove emissions and efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Air-tight, wood-burning stoves were operated in a manner consistent with typical residential heating requirements in order to determine particulate and carbon monoxide emissions and creosote build-up. Test data are presented as functions of burn-rates and stove efficiencies. The principal conclusions are that emissions from the stove used in this study are related to log-size and wood burn-rate and that CO and particulate emissions and creosote build-up increased with increasing efficiency of operation. Therefore, future environmental testing should be conducted at typical stove operating conditions, low burn-rates with large logs. In addition, heat-loss calculations show a trade-off between sensible heat loss and CO-fuel heat loss over the range of burn-rates studied. This indicates that, if further improvements in stove efficiencies are desired, improvements in stove combustion efficiency are needed. This also decreases stove emissions.

Hubble, B.R.; Harkness, J.B.L.

1981-01-01

359

Aerosol and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Low-Temperature Combustion in a Sawdust Packed-Bed Stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-temperature combustion in biomass-burning stoves used for cooking results in poor thermal efficiency and high emissions. A sawdust packed-bed stove has been shown to give more stable combustion at higher temperatures than woodstoves. The study examines pollutant emissions from this stove and their dependence on stove dimensions, specifically the vertical port radius and the stove-pot spacing. Emission rates of particulate

C. Venkataraman; P. Joshi; V. Sethi; S. Kohli; M. R. Ravi

2004-01-01

360

Breeding a Better Stove: the Use of Genetic Algorithms and Computational Fluid Dynamics to Improve Stove Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Half the world cooks using wood, often on open fires or on inefficient stoves. Collecting firewood is often left to women and children. As well as reducing the time available for education and other activities, there are many cases of women being raped while trying to collect firewood outside of refugee camps in the Darfur region. The aim of this

Hugh Burnham-Slipper; Michael John Clifford; Stephen J Pickering

361

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace operator on platform measures temperature inside bottle car. Looking southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

362

Chimney stoves modestly improved indoor air quality measurements compared with traditional open fire stoves: results from a small-scale intervention study in rural Peru.  

PubMed

Nearly half of the world's population depends on biomass fuels to meet domestic energy needs, producing high levels of pollutants responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. We compare carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and kitchen concentrations in households with study-promoted intervention (OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves) in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. We determined 48-h indoor air concentration levels of CO and PM2.5 in 93 kitchen environments and personal exposure, after OPTIMA-improved stoves had been installed for an average of 7 months. PM2.5 and CO measurements did not differ significantly between OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves. Although not statistically significant, a post hoc stratification of OPTIMA-improved stoves by level of performance revealed mean PM2.5 and CO levels of fully functional OPTIMA-improved stoves were 28% lower (n = 20, PM2.5, 136 ?g/m(3) 95% CI 54-217) and 45% lower (n = 25, CO, 3.2 ppm, 95% CI 1.5-4.9) in the kitchen environment compared with the control stoves (n = 34, PM2.5, 189 ?g/m(3), 95% CI 116-261; n = 44, CO, 5.8 ppm, 95% CI 3.3-8.2). Likewise, although not statistically significant, personal exposures for OPTIMA-improved stoves were 43% and 17% lower for PM2.5 (n = 23) and CO (n = 25), respectively. Stove maintenance and functionality level are factors worthy of consideration for future evaluations of stove interventions. PMID:23311877

Hartinger, S M; Commodore, A A; Hattendorf, J; Lanata, C F; Gil, A I; Verastegui, H; Aguilar-Villalobos, M; Mäusezahl, D; Naeher, L P

2013-08-01

363

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

DOEpatents

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18

364

CRCHD E-blast  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD E-blast CRCHD Web Site Updates The Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities (CRCHD) has recently updated some of its Web pages! Please take the time to browse through these updates. Site updates include: 2013 Annual Report to the Nation on

365

Wood or coal burning stove having a top with a pivotable lid for top loading of wood or coal into the stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to a wood or coal burning stove having a bottom, sidewalls, front and rear end walls and a top. The front end wall has a wood or coal loading opening therein and a door normally closes the opening. The door is openable for loading of wood or coal into the stove through the opening. The top includes

Matherly

1980-01-01

366

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

367

Strengthen flame stability during the furnace`s load decrease  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the result of the study of the coal combustion characteristic and flame stability during the load decrease of PCFF (corner burner arrangement). Considering the relation between flame stability and furnace load during the furnace load change, some method must be used to strengthen the pulverized coal ignition and combustion for the furnace to maintain the flame stability especially for the furnace which fires low rank anthracite. Experimental results show that when the furnace load decreased, the temperature distribution in furnace decreased and the flame stability in furnace had changed because of the load changing. This paper also introduces a new pulverized coal burner: Bluff-body with cavity burner. According to the result of application of this burner, this kind of pulverized coal burner can improve the coal ignition and combustion efficiency. Especially for low load operation of furnace the bluff-body with cavity burner has demonstrated its ability in strengthening coal ignition and improving the flame stability for furnace operation. Experimental results show that using bluff-body with cavity burner, the lowest load for furnace fired bituminous is 40% MCR and 50% MCr for low rank anthracite (V{sup r} < 12%, A{sup f} > 45%). This burner has simple structure and is very easy to set up for furnace.

Zhang Zhiguo; Sun Xuexin; Li Fujin; Qiu Jihua; Chen Gang [HuaZhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

1996-12-31

368

Combustion air intake system for wood-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Hinged doors are provided on the front of a stove for sealably closing across a large opening through which logs can be loaded into a firebox within the stove. A cylindrical draft chamber is formed on an exterior surface of one or each of the doors. A draft cap is rotatable on a threaded stud which is coaxially secured in the cylindrical draft chamber. The draft cap includes an annular flange forming a sliding close-tolerance fit with an interior cylindrical wall of the draft chamber so that the cap can be rotated to vary the size of the draft chamber to selectively restrict the flow of air from a source through the draft chamber to the firebox whenever the doors are closed.

Eisiminger, L.D.

1982-02-23

369

Predicting wood pellet stove ownership and acquisition in Albuquerque, NM  

SciTech Connect

Wood pellet stove (WPS) ownership and acquisition in Albuquerque, New Mexico was predicted using a model of qualitative choice. Using data obtained from a telephone survey, households were divided into four groups: current WPS owners, non-owners considering ownership, non-owners not considering ownership, and those who had not heard of WPS technology. Variables used to predict what category a household will be in include homeowners` socioeconomic and home-heating characteristics. Results indicate few WPS stoves are currently in use in Albuquerque. However, current WPS owners and those considering WPS acquisition tend to have higher incomes, more years of education, larger homes, and use their fireplaces more frequently than average. Clean air regulations in Albuquerque will require changes in home woodburning. The WPS is an efficient and clean device; however, lack of knowledge of WPS technology, satisfaction with current heating systems, and limited awareness of the potential impact of clean air regulations indicate WPS usage in Albuquerque will remain limited.

Lansford, R.; Skaggs, R.; Owensby, F. [Southwest Tech. Institute, NMSU, Las Cruces, NM (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31

370

Induced secondary combustion in wood stoves. Report for September 1988-March 1989  

SciTech Connect

The paper provides information useful for wood-stove designers concerned with reducing emissions. A dual-chamber wood stove was modified to induce secondary combustion by utilizing an ignition source and forced flow of secondary air. The ignition source was an electric flow plug installed in the secondary chamber. Secondary air flow was maintained at a preset flow rate and supply temperature. Wood was burned in the stove in a laboratory following a standard protocol, and the stack emissions were monitored continuously. The modified stove generally emitted less pollution than the same stove did prior to modification. Emission levels generally declined as the flow rate of secondary air and the supply air temperature were increased. Incorporating these modifications into a wood stove, with appropriate controls, represents an effective emission-control technology.

Spolek, G.A.; Wasser, J.H.; Hall, R.E.; Butts, N.L.

1989-01-01

371

Evaluating high-temperature intumescent insulation materials under fire and blast conditions  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes recent testing conducted to evaluate the performance of high-temperature intumescent materials under adverse fire and blast conditions. Results from fire performance evaluations currently protecting offshore oil platforms are presented. Extensive fire and blast qualification testing of epoxy-based intumescent materials has been conducted utilizing specially designed blast chambers, jet fire facilities, and laboratory furnaces. Blast chambers are capable of loading up to a 3 x 3-m insulated bulkhead assembly to a 2 bar over pressure and having a duration of approximately 250 millisecond generated by a controlled flammable vapor cloud explosion. The jet fire test exposes an insulated test specimen to a fire environment characterized by temperatures of approximately 1100 C, sonic gas velocities, and peak heat flux levels in excess of 300 kW/m{sup 2}.

Parker, A.J. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1997-11-01

372

Investigation of CTARA wood-burning stove. Part I. Experimental investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes experimental investigation of a single pot wood-burning stove developed atCtara. The stove incorporates features such as a converging combustion space, a grate, preheated secondary air and a swirling-device.\\u000a Using chipped wood and a large diameter vessel (30 cm), efficiencies in excess of 40% have been measured. An electric stove,\\u000a having a geometry similar to that of the

S Bhandari; S Gopi; Anil Date

1988-01-01

373

High Efficiency Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-08-27

374

High efficiency furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-12-31

375

Carbon-free induction furnace  

SciTech Connect

An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

1985-10-29

376

Non-carbon induction furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

1984-01-06

377

4. STRAIGHT ON VIEW OF CASTIRON RETORTS AT TOP OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. STRAIGHT ON VIEW OF CAST-IRON RETORTS AT TOP OF FURNACE SHOWING PORTION OF HOT BLAST STOVE AND TURNED HEAD. - Nassawango Iron Furnace, Furnace Road, 1.2 miles west of Maryland Route 12, Snow Hill, Worcester County, MD

378

Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements  

E-print Network

Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements Tim Gandler Energy Coordinator Baytown Olefins Plant, Baytown Tx 2010 Industrial Energy Technology Conference May, 2010 Page 2 ? Baytown Complex ? Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Furnace overview... high temperature to adequately ?crack? ? The lighter the feed the higher the temperature ? Very energy intensive process; furnace fuel accounts for ~60% of plants energy use Ethylene Plant Energy Consumption 60% 5% 35% Fuel Steam Power Quench...

Gandler, T.

379

An innovative method for nondestructive analysis of cast iron artifacts at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). For this study, we sampled iron ore, cast iron furnace products, slag, soil, groundwater, streamflow, and streambed sediment to determine the fate of trace metals released into the environment during the iron-smelting process. Standard techniques were used to sample and analyze all media except cast iron. We analyzed the trace-metal content of the cast iron using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, which provided rapid, on-site, nondestructive analyses for 23 elements. The artifacts analyzed included eight cast iron stoves, a footed pot, and a kettle in the Hopewell Furnace museum. We measured elevated concentrations of arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc in the cast iron. Lead concentrations as great as 3,150 parts per million were measured in the stoves. Cobalt was detectable but not quantifiable because of interference with iron. Our study found that arsenic, cobalt, and lead were not released to soil or slag, which could pose a significant health risk to visitors and employees. Instead, our study demonstrates these heavy metals remained with the cast iron and were removed from the site.

Sloto, R.A.; Helmke, M.F.

2011-01-01

380

Climate change impact of biochar cook stoves in western Kenyan farm households: system dynamics model analysis.  

PubMed

Cook stoves that produce biochar as well as heat for cooking could help mitigate indoor air pollution from cooking fires and could enhance local soils, while their potential reductions in carbon (C) emissions and increases in soil C sequestration could offer access to C market financing. We use system dynamics modeling to (i) investigate the climate change impact of prototype and refined biochar-producing pyrolytic cook stoves and improved combustion cook stoves in comparison to conventional cook stoves; (ii) assess the relative sensitivity of the stoves' climate change impacts to key parameters; and (iii) quantify the effects of different climate change impact accounting decisions. Simulated reductions in mean greenhouse gas (GHG) impact from a traditional, 3-stone cook stove baseline are 3.50 tCO(2)e/household/year for the improved combustion stove and 3.69-4.33 tCO(2)e/household/year for the pyrolytic stoves, of which biochar directly accounts for 26-42%. The magnitude of these reductions is about 2-5 times more sensitive to baseline wood fuel use and the fraction of nonrenewable biomass (fNRB) of off-farm wood that is used as fuel than to soil fertility improvement or stability of biochar. Improved cookstoves with higher wood demand are less sensitive to changes in baseline fuel use and rely on biochar for a greater proportion of their reductions. PMID:21446727

Whitman, Thea; Nicholson, Charles F; Torres, Dorisel; Lehmann, Johannes

2011-04-15

381

SUPPORTING INFORMATION Patterns of stove usage after introduction of an advanced cookstove: the long-term  

E-print Network

S1 SUPPORTING INFORMATION Patterns of stove usage after introduction of an advanced cookstove, we evaluated the number of discrete events occurring within 40 minutes of each other; for example the Philips was evaluated by households for applicability. Use of the traditional stove remained relatively

382

Design considerations for field studies of changes in indoor air pollution due to improved stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring the actual improvements in indoor air quality as a result of installation of improved stoves is critical in assessment of the effectiveness of improved stove interventions. Households are complicated places, however - many things that affect air pollution are the same in households within a geographically distinct locality, but there are many factors that are different. Thus, to be

Rufus Edwards; Alan Hubbard; Asheena Khalakdina; David Pennise; Kirk R. Smith

2007-01-01

383

Adherence to reduced-polluting biomass fuel stoves improves respiratory and sleep symptoms in children  

PubMed Central

Background Symptoms of sleep apnea are markedly increased in children exposed to smoke from biomass fuels and are reduced by kitchen stoves that improve indoor biomass pollution. However, the impact of adherence to the use of improved stoves has not been critically examined. Methods Sleep-related symptom questionnaires were obtained from children <15 years of age in 56 families residing in the communities of Lliupapuquio, Andahuaylas province in Peru before and 2 years after installation of less-polluting Inkawasi cooking stoves. Results 82 children with lifetime exposures to indoor fuel pollution were included. When compared to those alternating between both types of stoves or those using traditional stoves only, those children who exclusively used Inkawasi cooking stoves showed significant improvements in sleep and respiratory related symptoms, but some minor albeit significant improvements occurred when both stoves were concomitantly used. Conclusions Improvements in respiratory and sleep-related symptoms associated with elevated indoor biomass pollution occur only following implementation and exclusive utilization of improved kitchen stoves. PMID:24433576

2014-01-01

384

APPLICATION OF AHP FOR PRIORITIZING BARRIERS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF IMPROVED BIOMASS COOKING STOVES IN THAILAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inefficient use of fuel wood is considered as the important cause of deforestation. Use of efficient cooking stove is one of the measures that can reduce fuel wood and charcoal demand and help in lowering the deforestation and conservation of energy. However, the implementation of efficient stoves still represents a small fraction due to some problems often known as barriers.

B. Sajjakulnukit; S. C. Bhattacharya

385

FIELD PERFORMANCE OF WOODBURNING STOVES IN CRESTED BUTTE DURING THE 1991-92 HEATING SEASON  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the 1991-92 field performance of 11 woodburning stoves in and around Crested Butte, CO. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide, total unburned hydrocarbons, and weekly average burn rates. The monitored stoves in...

386

Autonomy and Proximity in Household Heating Practices: the Case of Wood-Burning Stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of wood-burning stoves as a source of household heating is increasing in Denmark, a development that is leading to considerable levels of particle pollution in residential neighbourhoods. This article reports from a sociological study of wood-burning stove users, the results of which are interpreted in relation to broader discussions regarding social preconditions for integrating environmental considerations into household

Lars Kjerulf Petersen

2008-01-01

387

Performance of certified wood stoves under field conditions. Report for August 1985-September 1987  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the monitoring of wood-stove performance under field conditions in 34 Northeast U.S. houses for two heating seasons, and in 8 Northwest U.S. and 14 Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada, houses for one heating season. Stoves included models certified or capable of being certified to Oregon Department of Environmental Quality and U.S. EPA standards. Objectives of the studies were to evaluate the performance of advanced-technology stoves (catalytic, noncatalytic low emission, and catalytic add-on/retrofit devices) relative to conventional technology stoves. Stoves were monitored for particulate emissions, wood use, and creosote accumulation in flue systems. The new-technology stoves models showed the potential to reduce particulate emissions, fuel use, and creosote accumulation. Good performance in at least one installation for most of the stove models indicates that factors such as stove maintenance and fueling practices, as well as technology factors, are important in reducing emissions. Reducing firebox size appears to be a consistent factor in reducing emissions.

Burnet, P.G.; McCrillis, R.C.; Morgan, S.J.

1988-05-01

388

Circulating-air heating stove with exit air heat extractor  

SciTech Connect

A circulating air wood burning heating stove/fireplace combination has a combustion chamber for burning fuel. The combustion chamber is in the form of a shell defined by inner walls of the stove and a rearwardly disposed air outlet manifold. Spaced outer auxiliary back and top walls and the corresponding shell walls form therebetween air passages through which ambient air is recirculated into the room over the manifold. The manifold is provided with a plurality of spaced heat conductive metal strips disposed about its periphery. An air inlet is provided at the bottom of the back air passage and an electric fan or blower is attached to the inlet to force air into the back air passage. This air then passes upwardly in the space between the back walls , over and under the air outlet manifold and past the heat conductive metal strips, through the air passage formed between the top walls which extend across the top of the fire chamber and then exits through an upper grill work provided in the front face of the stove into the space to be heated. Additional heat conductive metal strips may be provided in the top air passage connected directly to the top wall of the fire chamber to extract heat thereof and improve the heat exchange prior to discharge of the heated air into the space to be heated. A baffle is provided in the fire chamber to create turbulence and to provide a torturous path for the combustion products within the fire chamber so as to prevent the combustion gases or products from escaping directly through the inlet openings of the manifold to the flue.

Homolik, M.W.

1982-11-30

389

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

Dr. M.A. Ebadian

2000-01-13

390

Water gas furnace  

SciTech Connect

A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

Gallaro, C.

1985-12-03

391

Fuel use and emissions performance of fifty cooking stoves in the laboratory and related benchmarks of performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved cooking stove projects in the developing world have the potential to reduce deforestation, improve health, and slow climate change. To meet these requirements, stoves must be carefully designed through thorough testing and verification of performance. The systematic investigation of the heat transfer and combustion efficiency of stove design in the laboratory sheds light on what technologies work best and

Nordica MacCarty; Dean Still; Damon Ogle

2010-01-01

392

Identification and characterization of trace metals in black solid materials deposited from biomass burning at the cooking stoves in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we have reported the emissions of trace metals from biomass burning at the cooking stoves. Black solid materials deposited from two different types of biomass (rice husk coils – type 1; mixed (straw, bamboo, cow dung, leaves and plants) biomasses - type 2) burning at the cooking stoves were collected from the top of the stoves (but

Mahmodul Hasan; Abdus Salam; A. M. Shafiqul Alam

2009-01-01

393

Centrifugal shot blast system  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

NONE

1998-02-01

394

Impact of EPA wood stove regulations on air quality  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the national regulation of wood stoves. The primary purpose of this paper is to present an opinion on the probable effectiveness of the regulation, and to discuss possible additional regulatory actions. The author conducted research on residential wood-burning systems for 15 years. According to this analysis, in the long run wood heating will survive only if it does not contribute seriously to air quality problems. Regulation of residential wood combustion emissions must work in the real world in order to preserve the enterprise of burning wood and the industry which supports it.

Shelton, J. (Sheldon Research Inc., Santa Fe, NM (USA))

1988-01-01

395

Mutagenicity assay of emission extracts from wood stoves: comparison with other emission parameters.  

PubMed

The emission from wood stoves of several types of air pollutants has been measured under standardized burning conditions with emphasis on the amount of organic compounds and determination of the mutagenic activity with the Salmonella/microsome assay. The study corroborates earlier findings that conventional wood stoves can be a significant source of hydrocarbon and tar compounds in the ambient air. The emission of mutagenic compounds comprise both compounds requiring mammalian activation and compounds which are active in the test without exogenous activation. The mutagenicity tests show that nitroaromatic compounds are present in wood stove emissions, although the emission of nitrogen oxides is low. A wood stove constructed using the downdraft principle emitted much less hydrocarbons and tar, less mutagenic components and slightly less carbon monoxide than conventional wood stoves. PMID:3547645

Löfroth, G; Lazaridis, G; Rudling, L

1986-12-31

396

Feeder apparatus for melting furnaces, particularly for plasma melting furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention comprises a charging apparatus for melting furnaces, especially for plasma melting furnaces, for the continuous melting of preferably prepared aluminum scrap material. With the help of the proposed solution a controlled and regulated supply of the scrap material along with the prevention of a direct application of the plasma arc or other energy sources directly to the material

K. Primke; P. Papsdorf; G. Pohle; K. P. Trautmann

1984-01-01

397

Biomass conservation potential of pottery/ceramic lined Mamta Stove: An improved stove promoted under National Programme on Improved Cookstoves in India  

SciTech Connect

To combat biomass scarcity and ensure a cleaner cooking environment with less drudgery, among other things, a variety of improved stoves are promoted under National Programme on Improved Cookstoves (NPIC). Mamta Stove (MS) is one among such improved stoves. An indepth study was undertaken covering a sample of twenty-five rural families with the primary objective of assessing fuel saving potential of MS under field conditions through Kitchen Performance Test (KPT). Conventional stove (CS) used in almost all the families was shielded horse-shoe shaped stove with a negligible proportion using three stone open fire. Nearly 88% depended only on zero private cost fuels. The mean number of persons for whom the stoves were used on the days of field measurements in case of CS and MS were 5.6 and 5.7 respectively with an SD of 1.16 and standard adult equivalent (SAE) was approximately 4. Cooking pots included a concave roasting pan, a deep frying pan and flat bottomed pots. The mean daily fuel consumption on CS and MS were estimated to be 4.88 kg and 3.75 kg respective, thereby, resulting in fuel saving to the tune of 24% on MS. The paper discusses at length the design features of CS and MS, meal pattern, cooking habits, need for user training, consumerism in the area of cooking and stove technology, economics of switching over to MS and policy implications of commercialization of hitherto subsidized stove program. Further, salient characteristics of high and low cooking fuel consumers on MS are presented to bring to limelight their profile.

George, R.; Yadla, V.L. [M.S. Univ. of Baroda, Vadodara (India). Home Management Dept.

1995-10-01

398

Particulate matter and carbon monoxide in highland Guatemala: indoor and outdoor levels from traditional and improved wood stoves and gas stoves.  

PubMed

Area 22-h average carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particulates (TSP), particles less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), and particles less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) measurements were made in three test homes of highland rural Guatemala in kitchens, bedrooms, and outdoors on a longitudinal basis, i.e. before and after introduction of potential exposure-reducing interventions. Four cookstove conditions were studied sequentially: background (no stove in use); traditional open woodstove, improved woodstove with flue (plancha), and bottled-gas (LPG) stove. With nine observations each, kitchen PM2.5 levels were 56 micrograms/m3 under background conditions, 528 micrograms/m3 for open fire conditions, 96 micrograms/m3 for plancha conditions, and 57 micrograms/m3 for gas stove conditions. Corresponding PM10/TSP levels were 173/174, 717/836, 210/276, 186/218 micrograms/m3. Corresponding CO levels were 0.2, 5.9, 1.4, 1.2 ppm. Comparisons with other studies in the area indicate that the reductions in indoor concentrations achieved by improved wood-burning stoves deteriorate with stove age. Mother and child personal CO and PM2.5 measurements for each stove condition demonstrate the same trend as area measurements, but with less differentiation. PMID:10979201

Naeher, L P; Leaderer, B P; Smith, K R

2000-09-01

399

Two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1998-05-05

400

Method of constructing solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace of dish-shaped configuration for the reflection of solar rays toward a heat exchanger through which passes a heated medium is described. The reflective surface of the furnace comprises a multitude of mirror elements incorporated into a fiber glass reinforced plastic structure with each of the mirror elements located so as to reflect rays toward a common focus.

1976-01-01

401

Catalytic combustion assembly for wood-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A catalytic combustor is described for a wood-burning stove. The stove includes a flue outlet and a firebox having a ceiling and a primary air inlet for supplying primary air to the firebox. The assembly consists of: an insertable housing having a pair of spaced-apart parallel walls having tops, the walls defining an airtight passageway for volatile gases from the firebox to the outlet; a catalytic combustor mounted within the housing across the passageway to intercept the volatile cases and burn them with the secondary air; a bypass door pivotally mounted to a base of the housing for opening and closing a bypass opening in the base; a mixing screen sealingly mounted within the housing across the defined passageway upstream of the catalytic combustor, the screen having holes to promote mixing of the secondary air released from the transverse conduit and the volatile gases from the firebox; and an inclined baffle mounted within the housing across the passageway downstream of the catalytic combustor for impeding the gas flow therethrough to increase the residency time of the gases within the catalytic combustor and thereby promote a cleaner burn, the baffle positioned below the flue outlet and including an upturned tip portion for guiding the gas flow into the outlet.

Jencks, D.R.; Nelson, M.R.

1987-09-01

402

Self-cleaning, high heat exchange wood or coal stove  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of burning wood or coal fuel in a home-heating stove comprising the steps of: providing a rotatable,squirrel-cage grate of spaced parallel rigid tubes arranged in a continuous circular cylindrical squirrel-cage configuration, rotatably mounting the grate for rotation about a generally horizontal axis within a stove housing having a flue for exit of combustion gases, providing an accessible fuel-loading opening at one axial end of the cylindrical squirrel-cage grate, loading fuel into the rotatable grate through the fuel-loading opening at the axial end of the grate, burning the fuel in the grate with the gaseous products of combustion passing out of the housing through the flue, blowing room air through all of the air tubes for heating the room air and for cooling all of the tubes and for condensing creosote on the cooled tubes which happen to be near the top of the grate, and periodically rotating the grate through a portion of a full revolution during combustion of the fuel for moving the creosote-coated tubes down toward the bottom of the grate where combustion is occurring for burning the creosote off from the tubes for obtaining the heat value of the burned creosote and also for reducing the accumulation of creosote in the flue.

Chelminski, S.V.

1986-06-24

403

Field performance of woodburning stoves in Colorado during the 1995-1996 heating season. Final report, December 1995-April 1996  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of evaluations of the field performance of 13 EPA-certified woodburning stoves in Crested Butte and Curecanti National Park, CO, during the winter of 1995-96. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and weekly average burn rates. Six non-catalytic Phase II stoves, six catalytic Phase II stoves, and one catalytic Phase I stove were monitored. The study adds to the existing database on the field emissions of newer and older certified stoves. The report compares values with results from previous studies and suggests reasons that field performance is poor relative to what might be expected from certification test results.

Correll, R.; Jaasma, D.R.; Mukkamala, Y.

1997-10-01

404

Blast investigation by fast multispectral radiometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge regarding the processes involved in blasts and detonations is required in various applications, e.g. missile interception, blasts of high-explosive materials, final ballistics and IED identification. Blasts release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some part of this energy is released as intense radiation in the optical spectral bands. This paper proposes to measure the blast radiation by

A. D. Devir; Y. Bushlin; I. Mendelewicz; A. B. Lessin; M. Engel

2011-01-01

405

Building BLAST for Coprocessor Accelerators Using Macah  

E-print Network

Building BLAST for Coprocessor Accelerators Using Macah by Ben Weintraub A senior thesis submitted sequences is fun- damental to many research pursuits in biology and genetics. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment the performance of the BLAST algorithm is a problem of great interest. BLAST compares a single query sequence

Hauck, Scott

406

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01

407

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01

408

Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools  

SciTech Connect

In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing; evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.

Cameron, A.R. [Golder Associates Ltd., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); Kleine, T.H. [Golder Associates Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Forsyth, W.W. [Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

1995-12-31

409

Toward the Understanding and Optimization of Chimneys for Buoyantly Driven Biomass Stoves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of indoor combustion devices in the developed world make use of stacks (flues, vents, chimneys, smokestacks) to channel flue gases out of the operator space. In the developing world, where indoor air pollution kills several million people every year, the use of chimneys with biomass cooking and heating stoves has been met with limited success and a high level of controversy. Due to a lack of theoretical understanding, design criteria, poorly executed installation practices, and/or insufficient maintenance routines, many chimney stoves have exhibited inadequate indoor emissions reductions in addition to low thermal efficiencies. This work aims (a) shed light on the physical phenomenon of the "stack effect" as it pertains to dynamic, non-adiabatic, buoyancy-driven stoves (b) apply new understanding toward the optimization of two types of biomass chimney stoves: plancha or griddle type stoves popular in Central America and two-pot stoves common in South America. A numerical heat and fluid flow model was developed that takes into account the highly-coupled variables and dynamic nature of such systems. With a comprehensive physical model, parameter studies were conducted to determine how several field-relevant variables influence the performance of stack-outfitted systems. These parameters include, but are not limited to: power/wood consumption rate, chimney geometry, stove geometry, material properties, heat transfer, and ambient conditions. An instrumented experimental chimney was built to monitor relationships between air flow, differential pressure, gas temperatures, emissions, and thermal efficiency. The draft provided by chimneys was found to have a strong influence over the bulk air-to-fuel ratio of buoyantly-driven cookstoves, greatly affecting the stove's overall performance by affecting gas temperatures, emissions, and efficiency. Armed with new information from the modeling and experimental work, two new stoves were designed and optimized to have significant reductions in fuel use and emissions.

Prapas, Jason

410

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-15

411

Blasting casting to raise productivity  

SciTech Connect

Normally, surface mines employ draglines or truck and shovel systems to remove overburden. Blasting merely fragments and displaces the overburden enough to allow for easy digging. But during the past two decades, the effect of inflation and increased labor costs have encouraged unconventional methods of overburden removal. All of us are aware of the tremendous inflationary effects on costs of equipment, fuel, labor, interest, insurance, environmental compliance, etc. This has allowed the authors to take a new look at the use of explosives as an effective alternate method of overburden removal. This technique is known by several names, but basically blast casting or just casting best describes it. Other terms in vogue are explosive casting, controlled trajectory blasting, trajectory control blasting, and whatever terminology comes to mind.

Pilshaw, S.R.

1987-07-01

412

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

SciTech Connect

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2010-10-26

413

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-22

414

Skid resistance performance of asphalt wearing courses with electric arc furnace slag aggregates.  

PubMed

Metallurgical slags are by-products of the iron and steel industry and are subdivided into blast furnace slag and steel slag according to the different steel-producing processes. In Greece, slags are mostly produced from steelmaking using the electric arc furnace process, and subsequently are either disposed in a random way or utilized by the cement industry. Steel slag has been recently used, worldwide, as hard aggregates in wearing courses in order to improve the skidding resistance of asphalt pavements. At the Highway Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki research has been carried out in the field of steel slags, and especially in electric arc furnace (EAF) slag, to evaluate their possible use in highway engineering. In this paper, the recent results of anti-skidding performance of steel slag aggregates in highway pavements are presented. PMID:19423603

Kehagia, Fotini

2009-05-01

415

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2010-07-01

416

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2012-07-01

417

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2014-07-01

418

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2011-07-01

419

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2013-07-01

420

Particle Morphology From Wood-Burning Cook Stoves Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from three wood-burning cook stoves were sampled to collect particles. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) copper grids were placed on the last two stages of an 8-stage MOUDI cascade impactor (d50= 0.32, and 0.18 ?m). Samples were obtained on two heating stages of cooking, the first is a quick heating process to boil 1 liter of water, and the second is to keep the water at 90 C. Absorption coefficient, scattering coefficients, and particles concentration (0.01 - 2.5 ?m aerodynamic diameter) were measured simultaneously using an absorption photometer (operated at 550 nm), a portable integrating nephelometer (at 530 nm), and a condensation particle counter connected to a chamber to dilute the wood stoves emissions. Transmission electron micrographic images of soot particles were acquired at different magnifications using a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) JEOL HRTEM 4000EX operating at 200 kV, equipped with a GATAN digital micrograph system for image acquisition. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles sampled on the first heating stage exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df, which are present as aggregates formed by carbon ceno-spheres. The presence of high numbers of carbon ceno-spheres can be attributed to pyrolysis, thermal degradation, and others processes prior to combustion. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the elemental composition of particles. EDS analysis in particles with d50= 0.18 ?m showed a higher content of carbonaceous material and relevant amounts of Si, S and K.

Peralta, O.; Carabali, G.; Castro, T.; Torres, R.; Ruiz, L. G.; Molina, L. T.; Saavedra, I.

2013-12-01

421

CO and NO emissions from pellet stoves: an experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a report on an experimental investigation on pellet stoves aimed to fully understand which parameters influence CO and NO emissions and how it is possible to find and choose the optimal point of working. Tests are performed on three pellet stoves varying heating power, combustion chamber size and burner pot geometry. After a brief review on the factors which influence the production of these pollutants, we present and discuss the results of experimental tests aimed to ascertain how the geometry of the combustion chamber and the distribution of primary and secondary air, can modify the quantity of CO and NO in the flue gas. Experimental tests show that production of CO is strongly affected by the excess air and by its distribution: in particular, it is critical an effective control of air distribution. In these devices a low-level of CO emissions does require a proper setup to operate in the optimal range of excess air that minimizes CO production. In order to simplify the optimization process, we propose the use of instantaneous data of CO and O2 concentration, instead of average values, because they allow a quick identification of the optimal point. It is shown that the optimal range of operation can be enlarged as a consequence of proper burner pot design. Finally, it is shown that NO emissions are not a critical issue, since they are well below threshold enforced by law, are not influenced by the distribution of air in the combustion chamber, and their behavior as a function of air excess is the same for all the geometries investigated here.

Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

2014-04-01

422

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOEpatents

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

423

Wood-burning stoves and lower respiratory tract infection in American Indian children.  

PubMed

Some studies suggest that home use of wood-burning stoves is an independent risk factor for lower respiratory tract infection in young children. To test this hypothesis in a population with a high prevalence of wood-burning stove use, we studied Navajo children with diagnosed pneumonia or bronchiolitis. We matched each case (less than or equal to 24 months of age) with a child of identical sex and age who was seen for well-child care or a minor health problem, and we interviewed an adult caretaker about family history and environmental exposures. Analyzing 58 case-control pairs, we found that home wood-burning stove use, recent respiratory illness exposure, family history of asthma, dirt floors, and lack of running water in the home increased the risk of lower respiratory tract infection. On multiple logistic regression analysis, however, only wood-burning stove use and respiratory illness exposure were independently associated with higher risk. PMID:2294707

Morris, K; Morgenlander, M; Coulehan, J L; Gahagen, S; Arena, V C; Morganlander, M

1990-01-01

424

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14

425

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

426

Steady-State Thermochemical Model of a Wood-Burning CookStove  

Microsoft Academic Search

In naturally aspirated wood-burning stoves, the air-flow is driven by buoyancy forces which overcome the flow resistances inside the stove. This air flow, in turn, determines the wood-burning rate as well as the overall thermal and combustion efficiencies. The flow and associated heat\\/mass transfer and combustion phenomena are 3-dimensional and time dependent. In this paper, a simplified 4-zone well-stirred thermochemical

Rahul Shah; A. W. Date

2011-01-01

427

Temperature dataloggers as stove use monitors (SUMs): Field methods and signal analysis.  

PubMed

We report the field methodology of a 32-month monitoring study with temperature dataloggers as Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) to quantify usage of biomass cookstoves in 80 households of rural Guatemala. The SUMs were deployed in two stoves types: a well-operating chimney cookstove and the traditional open-cookfire. We recorded a total of 31,112 days from all chimney cookstoves, with a 10% data loss rate. To count meals and determine daily use of the stoves we implemented a peak selection algorithm based on the instantaneous derivatives and the statistical long-term behavior of the stove and ambient temperature signals. Positive peaks with onset and decay slopes exceeding predefined thresholds were identified as "fueling events", the minimum unit of stove use. Adjacent fueling events detected within a fixed-time window were clustered in single "cooking events" or "meals". The observed means of the population usage were: 89.4% days in use from all cookstoves and days monitored, 2.44 meals per day and 2.98 fueling events. We found that at this study site a single temperature threshold from the annual distribution of daily ambient temperatures was sufficient to differentiate days of use with 0.97 sensitivity and 0.95 specificity compared to the peak selection algorithm. With adequate placement, standardized data collection protocols and careful data management the SUMs can provide objective stove-use data with resolution, accuracy and level of detail not possible before. The SUMs enable unobtrusive monitoring of stove-use behavior and its systematic evaluation with stove performance parameters of air pollution, fuel consumption and climate-altering emissions. PMID:25225456

Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Smith, Kirk R

2012-12-01

428

Temperature dataloggers as stove use monitors (SUMs): Field methods and signal analysis  

PubMed Central

We report the field methodology of a 32-month monitoring study with temperature dataloggers as Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) to quantify usage of biomass cookstoves in 80 households of rural Guatemala. The SUMs were deployed in two stoves types: a well-operating chimney cookstove and the traditional open-cookfire. We recorded a total of 31,112 days from all chimney cookstoves, with a 10% data loss rate. To count meals and determine daily use of the stoves we implemented a peak selection algorithm based on the instantaneous derivatives and the statistical long-term behavior of the stove and ambient temperature signals. Positive peaks with onset and decay slopes exceeding predefined thresholds were identified as “fueling events”, the minimum unit of stove use. Adjacent fueling events detected within a fixed-time window were clustered in single “cooking events” or “meals”. The observed means of the population usage were: 89.4% days in use from all cookstoves and days monitored, 2.44 meals per day and 2.98 fueling events. We found that at this study site a single temperature threshold from the annual distribution of daily ambient temperatures was sufficient to differentiate days of use with 0.97 sensitivity and 0.95 specificity compared to the peak selection algorithm. With adequate placement, standardized data collection protocols and careful data management the SUMs can provide objective stove-use data with resolution, accuracy and level of detail not possible before. The SUMs enable unobtrusive monitoring of stove-use behavior and its systematic evaluation with stove performance parameters of air pollution, fuel consumption and climate-altering emissions. PMID:25225456

Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Smith, Kirk R.

2013-01-01

429

In-Home Performance of Exempt Pellet Stoves in Medford, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pellet stoves that are considered exempt'' operate at an air-to-fuel ratio in excess of 35:1. They therefore qualify for exemption from the emissions certification process. A primary goal of this project was to determine how a sample of such stoves, operated in homes, would perform compared to their certified cousins,'' which were evaluated the previous year. In-home performance data documenting

Stockton G. Barnett; Paula G. Fields

1991-01-01

430

Field performance of wood-burning stoves in Crested Butte, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses field emissions from woodstoves measured in Crested Butte, Colorado, during the winters of 1988-89 and 1989-90. Both particulate matter and carbon monoxide emissions were measured. The database from the work is large, including conventional stoves and EPA-certified stoves of the catalytic and noncatalytic types. The data are discussed and compared to results of other field studies.

D. R. Jaasma; M. Gundappa; M. R. Champion; R. C. McCrillis

1991-01-01

431

Wood burning stoves: Material selection and thermal shock testing of fired ceramic bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall design philosophy of wood-fired stoves is reviewed. The factors affecting the choice of materials are discussed\\u000a and the relative merits of various alternatives considered. Detailed consideration is given to the development of an appropriate\\u000a method for evaluating thermal shock resistance of ceramics for stove applications. The method proposed requires the measurement\\u000a of impact strength subsequent to repeated shocks

C. R. Chaplin

1983-01-01

432

The impact of wood stove technology upgrades on indoor residential air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) air pollution has been linked to adverse health impacts, and combustion sources including residential wood-burning may play an important role in some regions. Recent evidence suggests that indoor air quality may improve in homes where older, non-certified wood stoves are exchanged for lower emissions EPA-certified alternatives. As part of a wood stove exchange program in northern British Columbia, Canada, we sampled outdoor and indoor air at 15 homes during 6-day sampling sessions both before and after non-certified wood stoves were exchanged. During each sampling session two consecutive 3-day PM 2.5 samples were collected onto Teflon filters, which were weighed and analyzed for the wood smoke tracer levoglucosan. Residential PM 2.5 infiltration efficiencies ( Finf) were estimated from continuous light scattering measurements made with nephelometers, and estimates of Finf were used to calculate the outdoor- and indoor-generated contributions to indoor air. There was not a consistent relationship between stove technology and outdoor or indoor concentrations of PM 2.5 or levoglucosan. Mean Finf estimates were low and similar during pre- and post-exchange periods (0.32 ± 0.17 and 0.33 ± 0.17, respectively). Indoor sources contributed the majority (˜65%) of the indoor PM 2.5 concentrations, independent of stove technology, although low indoor-outdoor levoglucosan ratios (median ? 0.19) and low indoor PM 2.5-levoglucosan correlations ( r ? 0.19) suggested that wood smoke was not a major indoor PM 2.5 source in most of these homes. In summary, despite the potential for extensive wood stove exchange programs to reduce outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations in wood smoke-impacted communities, we did not find a consistent relationship between stove technology upgrades and indoor air quality improvements in homes where stoves were exchanged.

Allen, Ryan W.; Leckie, Sara; Millar, Gail; Brauer, Michael

2009-12-01

433

Indoor air pollution from portable kerosene-fired space heaters, wood-burning stoves, and wood-burning furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests were conducted on four portable kerosene-fired heaters to identify the pollutants they emit and their emission rates. Results show that carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and formaldehyde are emitted by both radiant and convective kerosene heaters and that radiant heaters also emit trace amounts of fine particles. For some pollutants, emissions per caloric value of

G. W. Traynor; J. R. Allen; M. G. Apte; J. F. Dillworth; J. R. Girman; C. D. Hollowell; J. F. Jr. Koonce

1982-01-01

434

Greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from household stoves in China: a database for emission factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from household stoves, especially those using solid fuels, can contribute significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories and have adverse health impacts. Few data are available on emissions from the numerous types of cookstoves used in developing countries. We have systematically measured emissions from 56 fuel/stove combinations in India and China, a large fraction of the combinations in use world-wide. A database was generated containing emission factors of direct and indirect GHGs and other airborne pollutants such as CO 2, CO, CH 4, TNMHC, N 2O, SO 2, NO x, TSP, etc. In this paper, we report on the 28 fuel/stove combinations tested in China. Since fuel and stove parameters were measured simultaneously along with the emissions, the database allows construction of complete carbon balances and analyses of the trade-off of emissions per unit fuel mass and emissions per delivered energy. Results from the analyses show that the total emissions per unit delivered energy were substantially greater from burning the solid fuels than from burning the liquid or gaseous fuels, due to lower thermal and combustion efficiencies for solid-fuel/stove combinations. For a given biomass fuel type, increasing overall stove efficiency tends to increase emissions of products of incomplete combustion. Biomass fuels are typically burned with substantial production of non-CO 2 GHGs with greater radiative forcing, indicating that biomass fuels have the potential to produce net global warming commitments even when grown renewably.

Zhang, J.; Smith, K. R.; Ma, Y.; Ye, S.; Jiang, F.; Qi, W.; Liu, P.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Thorneloe, S. A.

435

In-Home Performance of Exempt Pellet Stoves in Medford, Oregon.  

SciTech Connect

Pellet stoves that are considered exempt'' operate at an air-to-fuel ratio in excess of 35:1. They therefore qualify for exemption from the emissions certification process. A primary goal of this project was to determine how a sample of such stoves, operated in homes, would perform compared to their certified cousins,'' which were evaluated the previous year. In-home performance data documenting emissions from exempt stoves and net delivered efficiencies was particularly desired. This project evaluated six pellet stoves representing three major brands in Medford, Oregon. There were three Breckwell model P24FS, one Horizon Eclipse, one Horizon Destiny, and one Earth Stove TP40. The stoves were monitored for four week-long intervals in January and February 1991, for a total of 24 tests. Evaluations were conducted for particulate, CO (carbon monoxide) and PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) emissions and net efficiency. Monitoring was conducted using the AWES (automated woodstove emissions sampler) sampling system. A new data logger, developed for this project, was used to control the AWES and record real time data. 22 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Barnett, Stockton G.; Fields, Paula G.

1991-07-05

436

Control of wood stove emissions using improved secondary combustion. Final report Mar 81-Oct 82  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of the operation of two wood stoves in the laboratory with simultaneous on-line chemical analysis of the gases entering the secondary combustion zone and those leaving the stove. (NOTE: Self-initiating secondary combustion in wood stoves is encouraged by designs that introduce additional heated air and turbulence to the primary combustion products. This can be very effective in reducing CO and hydrocarbon emissions at high burning rates. At low burning rates, the effectiveness is limited by low temperatures, inadequate mixing, and thermal quenching by the primary air which bypasses the wood.) Stove modifications providing increased temperatures and improved mixing in the secondary combustion zone in a small box stove resulted in minor improvements in secondary burning. The continued burning of CO in the secondary zone was not greatly affected. In a large side-draft stove, with effective secondary burning at high burning rates, the secondary burning at low rates was not effective at any air flow distribution available to the operator.

Allen, J.M.; Piispanen, W.H.

1984-05-01

437

Cooking in India: The impact of improved stoves on indoor air quality  

SciTech Connect

Cooking period kitchen concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and exposure rates to total suspended particulates (TSP) experienced by household cooks were monitored in nearly 200 households in 13 villages in three regions of India. Roughly half used traditional open-combustion stoves and the other half used one of seven different kinds of improved stoves disseminated in these areas. In all cases except one, CO concentrations were significantly lower in kitchens using improved stoves, whether fitted with flues or not. Because of high sample variability, no conclusions could be drawn about the degree of TSP exposure rate improvement, if any, represented by three improved stoves. In the case of three other improved stoves with larger sample sizes, no significant differences were found. Only in one case, the combination of traditional stove with fireplace-like hood, were TSP exposure rates significantly lower. There are a number of important lessons from this work to be considered in designing and conducting these kinds of field measurements in the future.

Ramakrishna, J.; Smith, K.R. (Environment and Policy Institute, Honolulu, HI (USA)); Durgaprasad, M.B. (Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Institute, Gujarat (India))

1989-01-01

438

Health effects of an efficient vented stove in the highlands of Guatemala.  

PubMed

In Guatemala, as in many places throughout the world, millions of indigenous people cook over non-ventilated indoor open fires. Indoor air pollution and accidental burns are well-known problems attributed to such fires. Efforts have been made to improve health outcomes by placing more efficient vented stoves in homes to decrease such exposure. The purpose of this study is to see if there are any measurable improvements in health outcomes after placement of such stoves within a community. Specifically, this study is designed to evaluate the health effects of placement of the ONIL stove, a rocket-style stove that has been shown to decrease household carbon monoxide (CO) levels and wood-fuel use. The ONIL stove was installed in more than 90% of the homes in Santa Avelina, Quiche, Guatemala between 2002 and 2006. The number of clinic visits per year for acute upper- and lower-respiratory illnesses in this village was compared for the years 2002 and 2006. Clinic visits for upper- and lower-respiratory illnesses combined decreased by 26%, and for acute lower respiratory solely, by 45% between 2002 and 2006. This study suggests that the placement of an improved vented stove may be associated with a corresponding decrease in acute respiratory illnesses. PMID:21086208

Harris, Steven A; Weeks, James B; Chen, Juan Perez; Layde, Peter

2011-01-01

439

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOEpatents

A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1984-01-01

440

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOEpatents

A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1982-01-01

441

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

SciTech Connect

A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, R.C.

1984-09-25

442

Wood stove effects on indoor air quality in Brazilian homes: carcinogens, suspended particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide analysis.  

PubMed

The effects of wood burning stoves on indoor air quality was investigated in a rural community of southern Brazil, during the winter season of 1991. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were assessed in houses with wood stoves and the results compared with levels found in houses with gas stoves. Strikingly higher (p < 0.01) levels of PAHs, and much higher (p = 0.07) levels of SPM were found in the kitchens with wood stoves. In contrast, NO2 concentrations in the kitchen as well in personal exposure, were found to be slightly higher in houses with gas stoves. All these differences were minimally affected by smoking, outdoor air pollution or other emissions from indoor combustion products. These findings appear to support the hypothesis that domestic wood burning stoves are risk factors for some upper digestive and respiratory tract cancers in Brazil. PMID:1300673

Hamada, G S; Kowalski, L P; Murata, Y; Matsushita, H; Matsuki, H

1992-10-01

443

Estimate of blast wave properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlation and TNT-equivalent models for UVCE blast wave properties are reviewed, and a model which estimates blast parameters from information on the cloud and its location and uses these parameters to evaluate damage is presented. The prediction model is based on calculations for an ideal, homogeneous, hemispherical, centrally ignited vapor cloud. In case of a deflagration an energy release rate function, equivalent to a certain flame path, is assumed. The results of these calculations (peak pressures as a function of distance) are used together with data for a detonating cloud. The positive phase duration is derived from separate calculations. The method estimates maximum effect, and it is not possible to predict when little or no blast will be generated.

Zeeuwen, J. P.

444

Porcine Head Response to Blast  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740?kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9?ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30?s and the remaining two recovered within 8?min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390?kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830?kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2?=?0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for computer model validation. PMID:22586417

Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

2012-01-01

445

Bronchiolitis obliterans in a man who used his wood-burning stove to burn synthetic construction materials.  

PubMed

Many people heat their homes with wood-burning stoves. However, toxic fire effluent can escape from old or improperly operated stoves. The authors describe a case in which bronchiolitis obliterans developed in a man within hours after he burned synthetic construction materials in his wood-burning stove. Certain factors, such as careless or improper use of the stove, the size of the room, the lack of open-air ventilation and the composition of the materials burned, strongly point to inhalation of the fire effluent as the cause. PMID:9141990

Janigan, D T; Kilp, T; Michael, R; McCleave, J J

1997-04-15

446

Blast casting requires fresh assessment of methods  

SciTech Connect

The article says that because blast casting differs from conventional blasting, our ideas about explosive products, drilling, and initiating methods must change. The author discusses how to select a casting explosive and what factors are important in its selection. He also looks at how to determine the best blasthole diameter and burden blasting pattern.

Pilshaw, S.R.

1987-08-01

447

Simulation of Blast Waves with Headwind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The blast wave resulting from an explosion was simulated to provide guidance for models estimating risks for human spacecraft flight. Simulations included effects of headwind on blast propagation, Blasts were modelled as an initial value problem with a uniform high energy sphere expanding into an ambient field. Both still air and cases with headwind were calculated.

Olsen, Michael E.; Lawrence, Scott W.; Klopfer, Goetz H.; Mathias, Dovan; Onufer, Jeff T.

2005-01-01

448

MOLECULAR CONTROL OF THE RICE BLAST DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea is a major constraint to rice production worldwide. The rice blast system is one of the best-characterized monocot model systems. The goal of this project is to understand molecular mechanisms of disease resistance using rice blast as a model system....

449

Law Vendor Coupon Co2 Blasting Tests  

SciTech Connect

The objectives identified in the test specification for the vendor CO2 blasting tests are to determine the ability of CO2 blasting to remove a measurable amount of surface material from Type 304L stainless steel and to identify the approximate blasting parameters for future testing on radioactively contaminated coupons.

May, C.G.

2003-07-25

450

What makes people cook with improved biomass stoves. A comparative international review of Stove Programs. Energy series. World Bank technical paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of millions of people rely on woodfuels for most of their energy needs, despite the problems associated with traditional use of woodfuels. Modern, efficient biomass stoves can alleviate some of these problems by reducing some householders' cash outlays for fuel, diminishing the time others must spend to collect fuel, reducing air pollution, and relieving local pressure on wood resources.

D. F. Barnes; K. Openshaw; K. R. Smith; R. van der Plas

1994-01-01

451

Pollutant emissions and energy efficiency of Chinese gasifier cooking stoves and implications for future intervention studies.  

PubMed

Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is the leading environmental health risk factor globally. In China, almost half of all homes use solid fuel to meet their household energy demands. Gasifier cookstoves offer a potentially affordable, efficient, and low-polluting alternative to current solid fuel combustion technology, but pollutant emissions and energy efficiency performance of this class of stoves are poorly characterized. In this study, four Chinese gasifier cookstoves were evaluated for their pollutant emissions and efficiency using the internationally recognized water boiling test (WBT), version 4.1.2. WBT performance indicators included PM2.5, CO, and CO2 emissions and overall thermal efficiency. Laboratory investigation also included evaluation of pollutant emissions (PM2.5 and CO) under stove operating conditions designed to simulate common Chinese cooking practices. High power average overall thermal efficiencies ranged from 22 to 33%. High power average PM2.5 emissions ranged from 120 to 430 mg/MJ of useful energy, and CO emissions ranged from 1 to 30 g/MJ of useful energy. Compared with several widely disseminated "improved" cookstoves selected from the literature, on average, the four Chinese gasifier cookstoves had lower PM2.5 emissions and higher CO emissions. The recent International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Workshop Agreement on tiered cookstove ranking was developed to help classify stove performance and identify the best-performing stoves. The results from this study highlight potential ways to further improve this approach. Medium power stove operation emitted nearly twice as much PM2.5 as was emitted during high power stove operation, and the lighting phase of a cooking event contributed 45% and 34% of total PM2.5 emissions (combined lighting and cooking). Future approaches to laboratory-based testing of advanced cookstoves could improve to include greater differentiation between different modes of stove operation, beyond those evaluated with the WBT. PMID:24784418

Carter, Ellison M; Shan, Ming; Yang, Xudong; Li, Jiarong; Baumgartner, Jill

2014-06-01

452

Indoor particle size distributions in homes with open fires and improved Patsari cook stoves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate pollution has been clearly linked with adverse health impacts from open fire cookstoves, and indoor air concentrations are frequently used as a proxy for exposures in health studies. Implicit are the assumptions that the size distributions for the open fire and improved stove are not significantly different, and that the relationship between indoor concentrations and personal exposures is the same between stoves. To evaluate the impact of these assumptions size distributions of particulate matter in indoor air were measured with the Sioutas cascade impactor in homes using open fires and improved Patsari stoves in a rural Purepecha community in Michoacan, Mexico. On average indoor concentrations of particles less than 0.25 ?m were 72% reduced in homes with improved Patsari stoves, reflecting a reduced contribution of this size fraction to PM 2.5 mass concentrations from 68% to 48%. As a result the mass median diameter of indoor PM 2.5 particulate matter was increased by 29% with the Patsari improved stove compared to the open fire (from 0.42 ?m to 0.59 ?m, respectively). Personal PM 2.5 exposure concentrations for women in homes using open fires were approximately 61% of indoor concentration levels (156 ?g m -3 and 257 ?g m -3 respectively). In contrast personal exposure concentrations were 77% times indoor air concentration levels for women in homes using improved Patsari stoves (78 ?g m -3and 101 ?g m -3 respectively). Thus, if indoor air concentrations are used in health and epidemiologic studies significant bias may result if the shift in size distribution and the change in relationship between indoor air concentrations and personal exposure concentrations are not accounted for between different stove types.

Armendáriz-Arnez, Cynthia; Edwards, Rufus D.; Johnson, Michael; Rosas, Irma A.; Espinosa, F.; Masera, Omar R.

2010-08-01

453

Electrical performance analysis and economic evaluation of combined biomass cook stove thermoelectric (BITE) generator.  

PubMed

The use of biomass cook stoves is widespread in the domestic sector of developing countries, but the stoves are not efficient. To advance the versatility of the cook stove, we investigated the feasibility of adding a commercial thermoelectric (TE) module made of bismuth-telluride based materials to the stove's side wall, thereby creating a thermoelectric generator system that utilizes a proportion of the stove's waste heat. The system, a biomass cook stove thermoelectric generator (BITE), consists of a commercial TE module (Taihuaxing model TEP1-1264-3.4), a metal sheet wall which acts as one side of the stove's structure and serves as the hot side of the TE module, and a rectangular fin heat sink at the cold side of the TE module. An experimental set-up was built to evaluate the conversion efficiency at various temperature ranges. The experimental set-up revealed that the electrical power output and the conversion efficiency depended on the temperature difference between the cold and hot sides of the TE module. At a temperature difference of approximately 150 degrees C, the unit achieved a power output of 2.4W. The conversion efficiency of 3.2% was enough to drive a low power incandescent light bulb or a small portable radio. A theoretical model approximated the power output at low temperature ranges. An economic analysis indicated that the payback period tends to be very short when compared with the cost of the same power supplied by batteries. Therefore, the generator design formulated here could be used in the domestic sector. The system is not intended to compete with primary power sources but serves adequately as an emergency or backup source of power. PMID:16904888

Lertsatitthanakorn, C

2007-05-01

454

Indoor pollution and burning practices in wood stove management.  

PubMed

This study evaluates effects of good burning practice and correct installation and management of wood heaters on indoor air pollution in an Italian rural area. The same study attests the role of education in mitigating wood smoke pollution. In August 2007 and winters of 2007 and 2008, in a little mountain village of Liguria Apennines (Italy), indoor and outdoor benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) concentrations were measured in nine wood-heated houses. During the first sampling, several mistakes in heating plant installations and management were found in all houses. Indoor BTEX concentrations increased during use of wood burning. Low toluene/benzene ratios were in agreement with wood smoke as main indoor and outdoor pollution source. Other BTEX sources were identified as the indoor use ofsolvents andpaints and incense burning. Results obtained during 2007 were presented and discussed with homeowners. Following this preventive intervention, in the second winter sampling all indoor BTEX concentrations decreased, in spite of the colder outdoor air temperatures. Information provided to families has induced the adoption of effective good practices in stoves and fire management. These results highlight the importance ofeducation, supported by reliable data on air pollution, as an effective method to reduce wood smoke exposures. PMID:25509552

Piccardo, M T; Cipolla, M; Stella, A; Ceppi, M; Bruzzone, M; Izzotti, A; Valerio, F

2014-11-01

455

High resolution powder blast micromachining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder blasting, or Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials like glass, silicon and ceramics. By introducing electroplated copper as a new mask material, the feature size of this process was decreased. It

Henk Wensink; J. W. Berenschot; Henri V. Jansen; Miko C. Elwenspoek

2000-01-01

456

Wood or coal burning stove having a top with a pivotable lid for top loading of wood or coal into the stove  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a wood or coal burning stove having a bottom, sidewalls, front and rear end walls and a top. The front end wall has a wood or coal loading opening therein and a door normally closes the opening. The door is openable for loading of wood or coal into the stove through the opening. The top includes a stationary substantially horizontally extending tier remote from the front end wall and a further wall extending from the tier in a direction downward and toward the front end wall. The further wall defines a horizontally extending recess at the lower end thereof which opens in a direction toward the front end wall. The top further includes a lid pivotable about a horizontal axis, immediately adjacent the upper end of the further wall, from a normally closed substantially horizontally extending position in which the lid extends into the recess and effectively closes off the stove from the outside air to an open position, in which the lid swings out of the recess initially in a direction upwardly and toward the front end wall, for loading of wood or coal into the stove from the top. The lid comprises a planar section which when the lid is closed extends horizontally outwardly beyond the front end wall and the sidewalls. The lid also includes a lip section substantially perpendicular to and extending from the planar section. The lip section extends along in close proximity to and is parallel to the exterior of the front end wall and the sidewalls when the lid is closed to further effectively close off the stove to outside air.

Matherly, F.

1980-02-19

457

16 CFR Appendix G2 to Part 305 - Furnaces- Electric  

...2014-01-01 false Furnaces- Electric G2 Appendix G2 to Part 305...to Part 305—Furnaces— Electric Furnace type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Electric Furnaces—All Capacities...

2014-01-01

458

Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF)  

E-print Network

Submerged Arc Furnaces are used to produce high temperature alloys. These furnaces typically run at 3000°F using high voltage electricity along with metallurgical carbon to reduce metal oxides to pure elemental form. The process as currently...

O'Brien, T.

2008-01-01

459

Transparent furnace made of heat mirror  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of transparent furnace was fabricated with a heat mirror, a glass–ceramic (Neoceram-0) coated with an antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb–SnO2) film. It was compared with a gold furnace, which is the usual transparent furnace. Their performance was almost equivalent, so the Sb–SnO2-coated Neoceram is applicable to the transparent furnace.

M. Kojima; F. Takahashi; K. Kinoshita; T. Nishibe; M. Ichidate

2001-01-01

460

Analysis of residential coal stove emissions. Final report, June 1982-July 1983  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of an evaluation, in cooperation with the State of Vermont's Agency of Environmental Conservation, of emissions generated by anthracite and bituminous coal used for residential heating. A residential coal stove was operated with both coals, while comparing high and low burn rate operations. A second stove, a commercial stove designed for wood burning but modified by the manufacturer for coal, was also tested with both coals. Combustion gases were collected by two techniques: evacuated glass bulbs and a Modified Method 5 sampling train. Volatile species were analyzed by direct gas mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography using selective detectors. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. High levels of particulates, total organics, and sulfur dioxide were found in the emissions from bituminous coal combustion in a residential coal stove. High PAH emissions were found with both bituminous and anthracite combustion. The stove converted from wood to coal burning proved to be highly polluting, especially when used with bituminous coal.

Cooke, M.; Bresler, W.E.; Iden, R.B.; Hayes, T.L.; Rogers, S.E.

1983-12-01

461

Indoor air pollution due to emissions from wood-burning stoves  

SciTech Connect

Four wood-burning stoves, three airtight and one non-airtight, were operated in a single-floor 236-m/sup 3/ residence and tested for indoor pollutant emissions. Results showed the airtight stoves emitted minor amounts of carbon monoxide and respirable suspended particles during door-opening operations, while the nonairtight stove continuously injected pollutants indoors under certain operating conditions. During airtight stove operation, carbon monoxide levels reached a maximum of 4 ppm, while average total suspended particulate levels ranged from 24 to 71 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. During normal nonairtight stove operation, carbon monoxide levels reached a maximum of 8 ppm, while total suspended particulate levels ranged from 30 to 650/sup +/g/m/sup 3/. Outdoor carbon monoxide levels were 1.1 ppm or less, and outdoor particulate levels ranged from 7 to 31 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. Five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo(a)pyrene, were measured in the collected particulate samples, and the results are reported. Source strengths for carbon monoxide, total suspended particles, and five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are reported. 26 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Carruthers, A.R.; Dillworth, J.F.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Gundel, L.A.

1987-07-01

462

Field performance of woodburning stoves in crested butte during the 1991-1992 heating season. Report for November 1991-April 1992  

SciTech Connect

The 1991-92 field performance of 11 woodburning stoves in and around Crested Butte, CO, was evaluated. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), and weekly average burn rates. The monitored stoves included EPA-certified catalytic stoves and EPA-certified noncatalytic stoves. The main emphasis of the continuing study is to characterize the emissions of EPA-certified stoves as they age with normal use. The emissions of a previously monitored Phase II noncatalytic stove appeared to be unchanged when variations in field moisture content and burn rate were taken into account. A second Phase II noncatalytic stove also performed at the emission levels which has been observed for noncatalytic stoves in previous monitoring.

Jaasma, D.R.; Stern, C.H.; Champion, M.R.; McCrillis, R.C.

1992-01-01

463

Field performance of woodburning stoves in crested butte during the 1991-92 heating season. Final report, November 1991-April 1992  

SciTech Connect

The 1991-92 field performance of eleven woodburning stoves in and around Crested Butte, CO, was evaluated. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), and weekly average burn rates. The monitored stoves included EPA-certified catalytic stoves and EPA-certified noncatalytic stoves. The main emphasis of this continuing study is to characterize the emissions of EPA certified stoves as they age with normal use. The emissions of a previously monitored Phase II noncatalytic stove appeared to be unchanged when variations in fuel moisture content and burn rate were taken into account. A second Phase II noncatalytic stove also performed at the emission levels which had been observed for noncatalytic stoves in previous monitoring.

Jaasma, D.R.; Stern, C.H.; Champion, M.

1994-04-01

464

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to

V. Dosaj; M. D. Brumels; C. M. Haines; J. B. May

1991-01-01

465

Computer simulation of electric multizone tube furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the numerical model and computer program of calculations allowing the electric multizone tube furnace to be simulated. The program allows calculation of temperature distribution in thermally unsteady-state status in thermal insulation of the furnace and in the heating chamber. The program also enables the longitudinal distribution of temperature in the furnace to be calculated. The calculations involve

T. Teodorczyk; K. T. Januszkiewicz

1999-01-01

466

PV-5 automatic furnace control  

SciTech Connect

While refurbishing a Harwood Engineering, Inc. designed gas autoclave facility (designated PV-5) for hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of various materials at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a furnace power supply problem was encountered. One phase of the furnace's variable AC power supply was devastated when a fault condition occurred. In the process of diagnosing the cause of the fault and repairing the AC power supply of the 30KW furnace for the autoclave vessel, a recommendation to replace the existing, outdated 3-phase saturable-core reactor variable power supplies was implemented. Three new Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) phase-angle fired AC power supplies, one for each phase of the 3-phase 480 volt circuit, were installed. To improve operator control over the new power supplies, a new 0--5 mA controller was connected as a slave to a process programmer to automatically heat the furnace according to preprogrammed temperature profiles. Data acquisition of the process parameters was enhanced by the installation of a hybrid strip chart recorder. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Younkin, J.R.

1991-06-25

467

High temperature transparent furnace development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype transparent furnace was designed, fabricated, and tested at temperatures up to 1473 K. Radiation containment using an outer infrared mirror tube and convection elimination using vacuum insulation reduce electrical power consumption and heat loads on critical components. High vacuum was necessary to eliminate convection; even 0.001% atmosphere pressure caused large convective heat losses. A heat transfer model was

Stephen C. Bates; Kim S. Knight; David W. Yoel

1998-01-01

468

Concrete linings of heating furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metallurgical and machine-building industries have more than a thousand heating and heat-treatment furnaces lined with refractory parts. The life of the linings is up to 2 years including intermediate repairs of individual elements. The primary reason for the low life of linings is their insufficient structural strength and also failure of refractory parts in periodic sharp heating and cooling.

S. R. Zamyatin

1993-01-01

469

Crystal growth and furnace analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal analysis of Hg/Cd/Te solidification in a Bridgman cell is made using Continuum's VAST code. The energy equation is solved in an axisymmetric, quasi-steady domain for both the molten and solid alloy regions. Alloy composition is calculated by a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate its effect on melt thermal conductivity and, consequently, on the temperature field within the cell. Solidification is assumed to occur at a fixed temperature of 979 K. Simplified boundary conditions are included to model both the radiant and conductive heat exchange between the furnace walls and the alloy. Calculations are performed to show how the steady-state isotherms are affected by: the hot and cold furnace temperatures, boundary condition parameters, and the growth rate which affects the calculated alloy's composition. The Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), developed by NASA, is also thermally analyzed using the CINDA code. The objective is to determine the performance and the overall power requirements for different furnace designs.

Dakhoul, Youssef M.

1986-01-01

470

High temperature transparent furnace development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype transparent furnace was designed, fabricated, and tested at temperatures up to 1473 K. Radiation containment using an outer infrared mirror tube and convection elimination using vacuum insulation reduce electrical power consumption and heat loads on critical components. High vacuum was necessary to eliminate convection; even 0.001% atmosphere pressure caused large convective heat losses. A heat transfer model was developed to predict the behavior of the transparent furnace and permit projection of performance improvements resulting from design changes. The mirror tube that reflects infrared radiation and transmits some visible radiation was modified to eliminate radiation absorption in the mirror tube itself. Radiation shields were added to the ends of the furnace to further reduce radiative heat losses. Conductive heat losses were minimized by minimizing solid connections to the cooled furnace ends and by using quartz supports. All components were designed to survive high temperature operation. Extensive experiments were performed with a succession of preliminary prototypes, leading to a final prototype successfully tested at 1473 K.

Bates, Stephen C.; Knight, Kim S.; Yoel, David W.

1998-01-01

471

Performance testing for monitoring improved biomass stove interventions: experiences of the Household Energy and Health Project1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the monitoring and evaluation of three improved cookstove dissemination projects implemented between 2004 and 2006 by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in India and Mexico. The projects assessed stove performance using lab-based water boiling tests (WBTs), which yield a number of performance indicators including time to boil water, specific fuel consumption, and energy efficiency when the stove is operated

Rob Bailis; Victor Berrueta; Chaya Chengappa; Karabi Dutta; Rufus Edwards; Omar Masera; D STILL; K SMITH

2007-01-01

472

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTION DEVICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: PHASE IIA HOUSEHOLD STOVES IN INDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a database containing a systematic set of measurements of the CO2, CO, CH4, TNMOC, N2O, SO2, NO2, and TSP emissions from the most common combustion devices in the world, household stoves in developing countries. A number of different stoves using 8 biomass fu...

473

Wood fuel use in the traditional cooking stoves in the rural floodplain areas of Bangladesh: A socio-environmental perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted, using a multistage simple random sampling design, to determine the structural characteristics of the traditional cooking stoves, amount of wood fuel consumed in the rural floodplain areas in Bangladesh, and also to figure out the socio-economic and environmental consequences of wood fuel usage in the traditional cooking stove. The study showed that family size, income, amount

Harun Al Rashid; Man Yong Shin

2009-01-01

474

A simplified model for understanding natural convection driven biomass cooking stoves—Part 1: Setup and baseline validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that half the world's population cooks over an open biomass fire; improved biomass cooking stove programs have the potential to impact indoor air quality, deforestation, climate change, and quality of life on a global scale. The majority of these cooking stoves operate in a natural convection mode (being driven by chimney effect buoyant fluid forces). Simplified theories

Joshua Agenbroad; Morgan DeFoort; Allan Kirkpatrick; Cory Kreutzer

2011-01-01

475

Patterns of stove usage after introduction of an advanced cookstove: the long-term application of household sensors.  

PubMed

Household air pollution generated from solid fuel use for cooking is one of the leading risk factors for ill-health globally. Deployment of advanced cookstoves to reduce emissions has been a major focus of intervention efforts. However, household usage of these stoves and resulting changes in usage of traditional polluting stoves is not well characterized. In Palwal District, Haryana, India, we carried out an intervention utilizing the Philips HD4012 fan-assisted stove, one of the cleanest biomass stoves available. We placed small, unobtrusive data-logging iButton thermometers on both the traditional and Philips stoves to collect continuous data on use patterns in 200 homes over 60 weeks. Intervention stove usage declined steadily over time and stabilized after approximately 200 days; use of the traditional stove remained relatively constant. We additionally evaluated how well short-duration usage measures predicted long-term use. Measuring usage over time of both traditional and intervention stoves provides better understanding of cooking behaviors and can lead to more precise quantification of potential exposure reductions and consequent health benefits attributable to interventions. PMID:25390366

Pillarisetti, Ajay; Vaswani, Mayur; Jack, Darby; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Bates, Michael N; Arora, Narendra K; Smith, Kirk R

2014-12-16

476

Numerical investigation of the flow inside the combustion chamber of a plant oil stove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently a low cost cooking device for developing and emerging countries was developed at KIT in cooperation with the company Bosch und Siemens Hausgeräte GmbH. After constructing an innovative basic design further development was required. Numerical investigations were conducted in order to investigate the flow inside the combustion chamber of the stove under variation of different geometrical parameters. Beyond the performance improvement a further reason of the investigations was to rate the effects of manufacturing tolerance problems. In this paper the numerical investigation of a plant oil stove by means of RANS simulation will be presented. In order to reduce the computational costs different model reduction steps were necessary. The simulation results of the basic configuration compare very well with experimental measurements and problematic behaviors of the actual stove design could be explained by the investigation.

Pritz, B.; Werler, M.; Wirbser, H.; Gabi, M.

2013-10-01

477

Measurements of indoor pollutant emissions from EPA phase II wood stoves  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of indoor pollutant emissions were made for four wood stoves meeting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Phase II emission requirements in a 37 sq. m (400 sq. ft) test house at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The stoves were operated in a manner consistent with typical residential use and in accordance with the manufacturers` instructions. Three tests were conducted for each stove, with each test lasting approximately ten hours. During the tests some of the following quantities monitored included: combined gaseous and particulate phase concentrations of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) averaged over the test period, including benzo(a)pyrene (BAP); and, indoor and outdoor air temperature and relative humidity. Based on these measurements, emission rates of the individual PAH compounds were determined for each test.

Nabinger, S.J.; Persily, A.K.; Sharpless, K.S.; Wise, S.A.

1995-02-01

478

76 FR 2708 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From Korea AGENCY...on imports of top-of-the- stove stainless steel cooking ware from Korea would be...on imports of top-of-the-stove stainless steel cooking ware from Korea is...

2011-01-14

479

75 FR 62144 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China and Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...China and Taiwan; Top-of- the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From Korea AGENCY...duty orders on top-of-the-stove stainless steel cooking ware from Korea...duty orders on top-of-the-stove stainless steel cooking ware from Korea would...

2010-10-07

480

A laboratory fuel efficiency and emissions comparison between Tanzanian traditional and improved biomass cooking stoves and alternative fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large amounts of aerosols are emitted from domestic biomass burning globally every day. Nearly three billion people cook in their homes using traditional fires and stoves. Biomass is the primary fuel source which results in detrimental levels of indoor air pollution as well as having a strong impact on climate change. Variations in emissions occur depending on the combustion process and stove design as well as the condition and type of fuel used. The three most commonly used fuels for domestic biomass burning are wood, charcoal, and crop residue. In addition to these commonly used fuels and because of the increased difficulty of obtaining charcoal and wood due to a combination of deforestation and new governmental restrictions, alternative fuels are becoming more prevalent. In the Republic of Tanzania a field campaign was executed to test previously adopted and available traditional and improved cooking stoves with various traditional and alternative fuels. The tests were conducted over a two month period and included four styles of improved stoves, two styles of traditional cooking methods, and eight fuel types. The stoves tested include a sawdust stove, ceramic and brick insulated metal stoves, and a mud stove. A traditional three-stone fire was also tested as a benchmark by which to compare the other stoves. Fuel types tested include firewood, charcoal (Acacia), sawdust, pressed briquettes, charcoal dust briquettes, and carbonized crop residue. Water boiling tests were conducted on each stove with associated fuel types during which boiling time, water temperature, CO, CO2, and PM2.5?m emissions were recorded. All tests were conducted on-site in Arusha, Tanzania enabling the use of local materials and fuels under local conditions. It was found that both stove design and fuel type play a critical role in the amount of emissions produced. The most influential design aspect affecting emissions was the size of the combustion chamber in combination with air intake. However, it was clear that varying fuel types has the largest influence on emissions and therefore has greater potential for reducing emissions compared to stove design. Most notably, alternative fuels such as carbonized crop residue produced far fewer particulates and lower carbon monoxide levels. With particulates and carbon monoxide emissions having the most damaging effects to human health, alternative fuels offer a cleaner burning option. The testing expanded understanding of current stove design and common cooking practices in and around the Arusha region of Tanzania while laying the foundation for future development of a more efficient stove and a cleaner burning biomass fuel.

Mitchell, B. R.; Maggio, J. C.; Paterson, K.

2010-12-01

481

Effects of burnrate, wood species, altitude, and stove type on woodstove emissions  

SciTech Connect

During the winter of 1986-87, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted an emission measurement program in Boise, ID, as part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP). This program was designed to identify the potential mutagenic impact of residential wood burning on ambient and indoor air. One facet of this field sampling effort involved obtaining emission samples from chimneys serving wood burning appliances in Boise. As a companion to the field source sampling, a parallel project was undertaken in an instrumented woodstove test laboratory to quantify woodstove emissions during operations typical of Boise usage. Two woodstoves were operated in a test laboratory over a range of burnrates, burning either eastern oak or white pine from the Boise, ID, area. A conventional stove, manufactured in the Boise area, was tested at altitudes of 90 and 825 m. A catalytic stove was tested only at the high altitude facility. All emission tests were started with kindling a fire in a cold stove using black and white newsprint. Emissions were collected using the wood stove dilution sampling system (WSDSS) for a continuous period of about 8 hours, encompassing start-up and several wood additions. The results showed wide variability probably due primarily to the difficulty in duplicating conditions during start-up. Total WSDSS emissions showed the expected inverse correlations with burnrate for the conventional stove and nearly flat for the catalytic stove. While there appeared to be little or no correlation of total WSDSS emissions with altitude, the sum of the 16 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) quantified showed an inverse correlation with altitude: higher PAH emissions at the lower altitude.

McCrillis, R.C.; Burnet, P.G. (Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1990-10-01

482

Effects of burnrate, wood species, altitude, and stove type on woodstove emissions.  

PubMed

During the winter of 1986-87, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted an emission measurement program in Boise, ID, as part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP). This program was designed to identify the potential mutagenic impact of residential wood burning on ambient and indoor air. One facet of this field sampling effort involved obtaining emission samples from chimneys serving wood burning appliances in Boise. As a companion to the field source sampling, a parallel project was undertaken in an instrumented woodstove test laboratory to quantify woodstove emissions during operations typical of Boise usage. Two woodstoves were operated in a test laboratory over a range of burnrates, burning either eastern oak or white pine from the Boise, ID, area. A conventional stove, manufactured in the Boise area, was tested at altitudes of 90 and 825 m. A catalytic stove was tested only at the high altitude facility. All emission tests were started with kindling a fire in a cold stove using black and white newsprint. Emissions were collected using the wood stove dilution sampling system (WSDSS) for a continuous period of about 8 hours, encompassing start-up and several wood additions. The results showed wide variability probably due primarily to the difficulty in duplicating conditions during start-up. Total WSDSS emissions showed the expected inverse correlations with burnrate for the conventional stove and nearly flat for the catalytic stove. While there appeared to be little or no correlation of total WSDSS emissions with altitude, the sum of the 16 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) quantified showed an inverse correlation with altitude: higher PAH emissions at the lower altitude. PMID:2274995

McCrillis, R C; Burnet, P G

1990-10-01

483

Extragalactic Submillimetric Surveys with BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently conducted an extragalactic submillimetric survey of the Chandra Deep Field South region of unprecedented size, depth, and angular resolution in three wavebands centered at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. BLAST wavelengths are chosen to study the Cosmic Infrared Background near its peak at 200 ?m. We find that most of the CIB at these wavelengths is contributed by galaxies detected at 24 ?m by the MIPS instrument on Spitzer, and that the source counts distribution shows a population with strongly evolving density and luminosity. These results anticipate what can be expected from the surveys that will be conducted with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel space observatory.

Pascale, E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Devlin, M. J.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Moncelsi, L.; Netterfield, C. B.; Ngo, H.; Olmi, L.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N.; Truch, M. D. P.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

484

Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology  

SciTech Connect

The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

Dosaj, V.D. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Freeland, MI (United States); Arvidson, A.N. [Meadow Materials, Manitoba (Canada)

1994-05-01

485

Developments in blast fragmentation measurement  

SciTech Connect

The digital image analysis program WipFrag has been developed under contract to INCO for use in quality control of underground blasting operations. This paper outlines the relevance of fragmentation to underground mining, the hardware and photography requirements, and key features and operating principles of the software. The science of granulometry offers a wide choice of statistics relating to the size and shape of fragments and the fabric and geometry of the rockpile. From these the authors have chosen to represent size distribution by the mass median diameter and the Rosin-Rammler coefficients. Fragment shape is measured by practical sphericity, a useful index to the slabbiness of the rock, which is often a factor in increased costs for loading, transportation and crushing. Concepts of resolution and accuracy are reviewed as they apply to digital image analysis systems. A method of calibration is described, using sieved crushed rock standards that simulate a range of rockpile uniformity conditions. Alternative zoom-merge procedures that combine images at various scales of magnification are expected to replace the empirical methods. Further research into blast optimization will require quantification of the triangular relationship between rock quality, blast parameters, and fragmentation statistics. Any one of these can be predicted knowing the other two, thus suggesting a new approach to measurement of rock mass quality. Routine fragmentation measurements might therefore give early warning of the need for modifications in stope spans, pit wall angles, and ground reinforcement and stabilization systems. Applications to measurement of rockfalls and rockbursts are also proposed.

Franklin, J.A. [Franklin Geotechnical Ltd., Orangeville, Ontario (Canada); [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Maerz, N.H.; Santamarina, J.C. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

486

The impact of improved wood-burning stoves on fine particulate matter concentrations in rural Mexican homes.  

PubMed

To evaluate the impact of improved wood burning stoves on indoor air pollution, 53 homes in a rural town in Michoacán, Mexico, were selected from a health intervention study and monitored before and after receiving improved wood-burning stoves. Fine particulate matter--particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM(2.5))--concentrations were measured in the central plaza of the community and in three microenvironments in the home (next to the stove, in the kitchen away from the stove, and outdoor patio). Forty-eight hour mean PM(2.5) concentrations in homes that burned wood in open fires were 693 microg/m(3) (95% CI: 246-1338) near the stove, 658 microg/m(3) (95% CI: 67-1448) in the kitchen away from the stove, and 94 microg/m(3) (95% CI: 36-236) on the patio. Mean ambient 24-h concentrations in the main plaza of the community were 59 microg/m(3) (95% CI: 29-92). Paired measurements before and after the installation of the Patsari improved wood-burning stove indicate a median 71% reduction in PM(2.5) concentrations near the stove and 58% reductions in kitchen concentrations, whereas patio and main plaza concentrations remain unaffected. Only 44% of participants reported to use their Patsari stoves exclusively during the transition period. Even with the predominant mixed use of the Patsari stove with open fires, estimated daily average personal exposures to PM(2.5) were reduced by 50%. PMID:16721411

Zuk, Miriam; Rojas, Leonora; Blanco, Salvador; Serrano, Paulina; Cruz, Jephte; Angeles, Felipe; Tzintzun, Guadalupe; Armendariz, Cynthia; Edwards, Rufus D; Johnson, Michael; Riojas-Rodriguez, Horacio; Masera, Omar

2007-05-01

487

Photographs of Blast Effects on Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This photograph collection shows a wood-frame house located 1,100 meters from ground zero, exposed to a nuclear blast at the Nevada Test Site. The test was Upshot-Knothole Annie, a 16 Kt tower shot, on March 17, 1953. Exposure to thermal radiation was 25 cal/cm2, about one-quarter of that experienced at ground zero in Hiroshima. The blast over pressure was 5 psi, and the blast wave created surface winds of 160 mph.

Christopher Griffith

488

High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

Smith, James E., Jr.

1992-01-01

489

Improved Biomass Stove Intervention in Rural Mexico Impact on the Respiratory Health of Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Exposure to biomass smoke has been related to adverse health effects. In Mexico, one household in four still cooks with biomass fuel, but there has been no evaluation of the health impact of reducing indoor air pollution. Objectives: To evaluate the health impact of the introduction of an improved biomass stove (Patsari; Interdisciplinary Group for Appro- priate Rural Technology

Isabelle Romieu; Horacio Riojas-Rodriguez; Adriana Teresa Marron-Mares; Astrid Schilmann; Rogelio Perez-Padilla; Omar Masera

490

Indoor particle size distributions in homes with open fires and improved Patsari cook stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate pollution has been clearly linked with adverse health impacts from open fire cookstoves, and indoor air concentrations are frequently used as a proxy for exposures in health studies. Implicit are the assumptions that the size distributions for the open fire and improved stove are not significantly different, and that the relationship between indoor concentrations and personal exposures is the

Cynthia Armendáriz-Arnez; Rufus D. Edwards; Michael Johnson; Irma A. Rosas; F. Espinosa; Omar R. Masera

2010-01-01

491

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

492

Implications of changes in household stoves and fuel use in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades China has pursued a number of national energy policies as integral components of its 5-year development plans including the unprecedented dissemination of several generations of fuel saving stoves in the majority of its rural populations. These programs, although designed for conservation of fuel wood resources and using deceptively simple technologies, have much wider impacts on both a

Rufus D. Edwards; Kirk R. Smith; Junfeng Zhang; Yuqing Ma

2004-01-01

493

Cleaner Hearths, Better Homes: New Stoves for India and the Developing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a largely globalized world, characterized by immense technological advancements in many sectors, many developing countries depend on biomass energy for sustenance even today. Much of the Government of India's projects related to the improved stove programme have been branded a 'failure'. However, they appear to have promising features. Cleaner Hearths, Better Homes draws on case studies from the Indian

Douglas F. Barnes; Priti Kumar; Keith Openshaw

494

Experience with improved charcoal and wood stoves for households and institutions in Kenya  

SciTech Connect

Efforts at promoting more fuel-efficient charcoal stoves to replace traditional charcoal stoves in Kenya offer some lessons for the dissemination of appropriate technologies. This paper looks at the market-based approach which has made the Kenyan charcoal stoves project a success. Trends in woodfuels (wood and charcoal) consumption in Kenya are identified; the traditional technology for charcoal combustion and the upgraded traditional technologies are described; production achievement and the dissemination and promotion strategy used are examined; and a financial and economic analysis is performed with social, health and environmental effects assessed. Other ways to achieve a more favourable balance between woodfuels consumption and supply are then discussed looking at more efficient charcoal kilns and household woodstoves, improved institutional stoves and increased wood production. The replication potential of the Kenya experiment in other countries is also explored. The lessons learnt from the the Kenya experience concern the relationship between technology, choice and delivery systems as they interact with, economic, institutional, and policy factors. In this case, the design work accepted the traditional technology as a starting point which helped ensure widespread acceptance by households. The potential desirability of relying on local artisans to manufacture consumer durables using existing private sector channels to market these goods is also shown. It also highlights the importance of going beyond a laissez-faire approach and supporting training, demonstration, and publicity to faciliate the workings of the private sector. In the Kenyan case, technology choice was relatively unsubsidized and left ot the preferences of consumers.

Hyman, E.L.

1985-01-01

495

A laboratory comparison of the global warming impact of five major types of biomass cooking stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

With over 2 billion of the world's population living in families using biomass to cook every day, the possibility of improved stoves helping to mitigate climate change is generating increasing at- tention. With their emissions of CO2, methane, and black carbon, among other substances, is there a cleaner, practical option to provide to the families that will need to continue

Nordica MacCarty; Damon Ogle; Dean Still; Tami Bond; Christoph Roden

2008-01-01

496

FIELD PERFORMANCE OF WOODBURNING STOVES IN COLORADO DURING THE 1995-96 HEATING SEASON  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of evaluations of the field performance of 13 EPA-certified woodburning stoves in Crested Butte and Curecanti National Park, CO, during the winter of 1995-96. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and weekly average burn rat...

497

Emissions and efficiency of a domestic gas stove burning natural gases with various compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heating value of a fuel, which depends on its composition, strongly affects burner performance. Using the same gas stove to burn natural gas with various heating values is inappropriate and hazardous due to the possible occurrence of incomplete combustion (i.e. a great increase of CO emissions and\\/or soot formation), liftoff, flashback and inadequate heat input. In this study, we

Yung-Chang Ko; Ta-Hui Lin

2003-01-01

498

Greenhouse gases from biomass and fossil fuel stoves in developing countries: A Manila pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were also taken. All samples were analyzed for CO 2, CO, CH 4, NzO, and total non-methane organic

K. R. Smith; M. A. K. KhaliP; R. A. Rasmussen; S. A. Thorneloe; F. Manegdeg; M. Apte

1993-01-01

499

First Arkansas Mill of its kind turns sawdust into stove pellets  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a new mill in Arkansas that converts waste sawdust into pellets for use in a new kind of stove like the ones two Resource Conservation and Development Districts placed in 20 districts as a demonstration project. A review of the wood pellet industry and of this particular project is provided.

NONE

1994-12-31

500

Hypoelectrolytemia, hypovolemia, and alkalosis in cystic fibrosis with wood-burning stove in winter.  

PubMed

Hypoelectrolytemia, alkalosis, and shock were present in an infant subsequently diagnosed as having cystic fibrosis (CF). Environmental temperature control was poorly maintained by a wood-burning stove in winter and contributed to the process of fluid and electrolyte loss. Pediatricians must consider CF and other processes when electrolytes and fluid are lost during environmental heat excess. PMID:2608549

Berezin, S; Ruddy, R M; Dozor, A J; Newman, L

1989-09-01