Sample records for blast furnace stove

  1. Blast furnace stove control

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

    1998-12-31

    This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

  2. 47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork askew after collapse of support posts. Note pattern of checkerwork refractories. looking west - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  3. Highly effective thin-walled hexagonal checker parts for blast furnace hot-blast stoves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Primachenko; R. S. Shulyak; V. L. Bulakh; V. V. Martynenko; N. M. Anzheurov; V. D. Troyan; V. Ya. Sakulin; M. Z. Noginskii

    1987-01-01

    Conclusions Experimental lots of thin-walled hexagonal checker parts with a specific heating surface of 48 m2\\/m3 for high-temperature blast furnace hot blast-stoves were produced under production conditions, chamotte ones at Borovichi Refractory Combine, mullite-corundum ones at Zaporozhe and Semiluki Refractory Plants, and dinas at Pervouralsk Dinas Plant.

  4. Hot blast stove process model and model-based controller

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computational Science Methods Group; Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed and verified using plant data. This model is used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The model is also used to predict maximum and minimum temperature constraint violations within the stove so that the controller can take corrective actions while still achieving the required stove performance.

  5. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SEED ON THE LEFT, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SHED ON THE RIGHT, AND THE STOVES, BOILERS, AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE IN THE RIGHT; THE CENTRAL COMPLEX WITH STOVES IN THE CENTER. ELECTRICAL POWER HOUSE IS ON THE LEFT BEYOND THE CONVEYOR LIFT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Dynamic properties of blast furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Naboka; G. A. Polyanskii; A. P. Fomenko; N. V. Krutas

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the dynamic properties of the blast-furnace process in terms of the two control signals (change in the ore load and change in the blast parameters), as well as random perturbing signals that change the composition of the furnace gas as a function of the ratio of direct and indirect ferrousoxide (FeO) reduction and the

  8. Rebuilding and modernization of blast furnace B'' at Cockerill-Sambre Ougree

    SciTech Connect

    Neuville, J.; Lecomte, P.; Massin, J.P.; Drimmer, D. (Cockerill-Sambre, Liege (Belgium))

    1993-01-01

    Blown in for the first time in 1962, the B blast furnace of Cockerill-Sambre was relined for the fourth time in 1989. The furnace produced 8,649,000 tons during the last campaign (1980 - 1989). Gunning repairs were carried out in 1985 and 1987. The blast furnace was blow down on June 30 and the burden level was lowered to the tuyere level. Afterwards a salamander of 350 tons was cast in open ladles. The relining of the blast furnace was performed on schedule and the furnace was blown in on the 4th of December 1989. The paper describes the relining goals and the main modifications. The specifications of the blast furnace are listed. Then the paper describes the modifications to the following systems: the charging computer system; the cooling system; the refractory materials; the hot stoves; blast furnace gas system; instrumentation and regulation; the blast furnace computer system; the pollution control equipment; and the cast floor.

  9. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States). Ironmaking Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

  10. Inland Steel's No. 7 blast furnace third reline

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrance, K.F. II (Inland Steel Flat Products Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)); Johansson, J.; Carter, W.L. (Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States))

    1994-09-01

    The background information, investigation and benchmarking that led to a decision by Inland Steel to partially reline No. 7 blast furnace is covered. This approach reduced actual downtime on the furnace and extended the current campaign. This alternative allowed for the rebalancing of the physical plant of No. 7 blast furnace. Areas of scope covered are hearth, stack, stoves, gas cleaning and furnace top. Included are highlights of the execution of the project including schedules, blowdown, salamander tap, quench, dig out/descale, scaffolding used and brick installation. A summary of the actual results of the work is presented along with information on production planned, blow-in and the first 20 days of production.

  11. Partial reline of Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrance, K.F. II [Inland Steel Flat Products Co., East Chicago, IN (United States); Johansson, J.; Carter, W.L. [Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The background for the decision to partially reline No. 7 blast furnace that would achieve the same results as a complete reline is discussed. This approach was designed to reduce actual downtime on the furnace at a critical production period. Areas of work included the hearth, stack, stoves, gas cleaning and furnace top. Highlights of the project execution were: schedules; blowdown; salamander tap; quench; dig out/descale; scaffolding used; and brick installation. The furnace was blown-in 29 days after the blowdown and producing in excess of 9,000 tons/day after 12 days of operation. Inland has adopted a new definition for establishing campaign life based on refractory wear that includes a hearth monitoring system.

  12. Gasification of phosphorus in the blast furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Polulyakh; A. L. Petelin; V. Ya. Dashevskii; A. Ya. Travyanov; Yu. S. Yusfin

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of phosphorus in blast-furnace smelting requires further study, in order to determine its distribution among the products. It is conventional to assume that practically all the phosphorus supplied to the blast furnace with the batch enters the hot metal [1]. However, in recent balance calculations, estimates have been obtained for the ratio of the quantity of phosphorus supplied

  13. Zinc recovery from blast furnace flue dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Asadi Zeydabadi; D. Mowla; M. H. Shariat; J. Fathi Kalajahi

    1997-01-01

    Blast furnace flue dusts are a mixture of oxides expelled from the top of the blast furnace, whose major components are iron oxides. They also contain zinc, silicon, magnesium and other minor element oxides in lesser amounts. The direct recycling of flue dust is not usually possible since it contains some undesirable elements (zinc and alkaline metals) that can cause

  14. Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions

    SciTech Connect

    I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy

    2009-07-15

    Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

  15. 3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  17. Single taphole blast furnace casthouse performance optimizing cost and availability

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, R.D.; Searls, J.B.; Peay, W.R. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States); Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    The No. 2 blast furnace is a single taphole furnace with a convection air-cooled iron trough. The iron runner system is designed to fill four 90 ton open-top ladles per cast, which are transported by locomotive to the steel shop. The slag runner system is capable of filling three 800 ft{sup 3} slag pots per cast. The No. 2 blast furnace was blown in from mini-reline with this new casthouse configuration in early December 1991. It was operated for nearly three years until it was banked for planned stove repairs and a trough rebuild in late September 1994. During this period, the furnace produced just over 2.5 million tons of hot metal across the original trough refractory lining system, with 13 intermediate hot patch castable repairs. The entire casthouse refractory usage (main trough, runner systems, and covers) during this campaign was 1.06 pounds per net ton of hot metal. Investigation of the lining during demolition indicated that the trough lining campaign could have been extended to at least 3.0 million tons. This paper will discuss how operating practices, mechanical design, refractory design, maintenance philosophy, and attention to detail synergistically contributed to the long campaign life and low refractory consumption rate.

  18. Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

  19. 6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  20. INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. 70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE STOCKHOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED No. 3 IN FOREGROUND ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX WITH LADLE HOUSE AND IRON DESULPHERIZATION BUILDING ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Blast-furnace smelting with improved coke at OAO Zaporozhkoks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Fomenko; V. I. Naboka; N. V. Krutas; M. E. Sharapov; V. N. Rubchevskii; Yu. A. Chernyshov; A. I. Kompaniets; A. V. Podlubnyi; E. T. Kovalev; I. V. Shul’ga; Yu. S. Kaftan

    2009-01-01

    As an experiment, coke from batteries 5 and 6 at OAO Zaporozhkoks is used in blast furnace 5 at Zaporozhstal, in order to\\u000a determine the influence of coke quality on blast-furnace operation. This research is associated with the prospects for coal-dust\\u000a injection into the blast furnace at OAO Zaporozhstal.

  7. Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

    2013-12-01

    Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent. PMID:25078829

  8. Blast furnace on-line simulation model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Saxén

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical model of the ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is presented. The model describes the steady-state operation of\\u000a the furnace in one spatial dimension using real process data sampled at the steelworks. The measurement data are reconciled\\u000a by an interface routine which yields boundary conditions obeying the conservation laws of atoms and energy. The simulation\\u000a model, which provides a picture

  9. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  10. Heat transfer analysis of blast furnace stave

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijun Wu; Xun Xu; Weiguo Zhou; Yunlong Su; Xiaojing Li

    2008-01-01

    The three-dimensional mathematical model of temperature and thermal stress field of the blast furnace stave is built. The radiation heat transmitted from solid materials (coke and ore) to inner surface of the stave, which has been neglected by other studies, is taken into account. The cast steel stave is studied and the finite element method is used to perform the

  11. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  12. BLAST FURNACE CAST HOUSE EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study describes the state-of-the-art of controlling fumes escaping from blast furnace cast houses. Background information is based on: a study of existing literature; visits to blast furnaces in the U.S., Japan, and Europe; meetings with an ad hoc group of experienced blast f...

  13. Metal sorption on blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Dimitrova

    1996-01-01

    The removal of Cu, Ni and Zn-ions from water solution by ungranulated blast-furnace slag has been studied depending on contact time, initial ion concentration, pH and solution temperature. The polymineral composition and the slag specific properties determine its high sorption activity in metal salts solutions. In the range of the concentrations studied (10?4–10?3 M), the sorption data for Cu2+, Ni2+

  14. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ensar Oguz

    2004-01-01

    Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

  15. Blast-furnace performance with coal-dust injection

    SciTech Connect

    G.G. Vasyura [OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat, Alchevsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    For the blast furnace shop at OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (AMK) the injection of pulverized fuel is promising. Preliminary steps toward its introduction are underway, including analytical research. In this context, blast furnace performance when using pulverized coal is calculated in this study.

  16. Minerals and iron-making reactions in blast furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gupta; R. Sakurovs; M. Grigore; H. Sun; T. Cham; T. Hilding; M. Hallin; B. Lindblom; V. Sahajwalla

    2008-01-01

    Coke is central to blast furnace operation, but because it is the most expensive raw material used, there is continuing pressure to minimize its use. Consequently, it has become increasingly pertinent to measure and predict the factors affecting coke performance more accurately. Coke performance is affected both by its properties and blast furnace operation. Recently, the importance of the minerals

  17. Latest Evolution in Blast Furnace Hearth thermo-Mechanical Stress Modelling Jrme BRULIN, Frdric ROULET (1)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Latest Evolution in Blast Furnace Hearth thermo-Mechanical Stress Modelling Jérôme BRULIN.blond@univ-orleans.fr; alain.gasser@univ-orleans.fr Keywords: blast-furnace, modeling, hearth, ceramic cup Abstract Saint-Gobain has a long experience in the design and supply of blast furnace hearth linings. The Blast Furnace

  18. 24. LOOKING SOUTH AT CLEAN BLAST FURNACE GAS PIPE LEADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. LOOKING SOUTH AT CLEAN BLAST FURNACE GAS PIPE LEADING INTO THE EASTERN WALL OF THE CENTRAL BOILER HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Portland cement-blast furnace slag blends in oilwell cementing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.T.; DiLullo, G.; Hibbeler, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Recent investigations of blast furnace slag cementing technologies. have been expanded to include Portland cement/blast furnace slag blends. Mixtures of Portland cement and blast furnace slag, while having a long history of use in the construction industry, have not been used extensively in oilwell cementing applications. Test results indicate that blending blast furnace slag with Portland cement produces a high quality well cementing material. Presented are the design guidelines and laboratory test data relative to mixtures of blast furnace slag and Portland cements. Case histories delineating the use of blast furnace slag - Portland cement blends infield applications are also included.

  20. Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School for Material Science and Engineering

    2009-01-15

    A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

  1. Triple-activated blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, W.J. [Geochemical Corporation, Ridgewood, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The current shortage of portland cement in the world will require the use of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) to fill demands in many industrialized countries. Therefore, an extensive series of triple-activated slag experiments have been undertaken to optimize an economical combination of mechanical properties for alkali-activated slags. Na{sub 2}OSiO{sub 2} (N Grade), Ca(OH){sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} have been added as activators in 5 to 10, 0 to 5 and 0 to 5 weight percentages of water and slag in a mix with a water:cement ratio of 1:1. Silica Fume and Sika 10 superplasticizer have been added as 1 and 10 weight percent of slag. Set times, initial hardening times and compressive strengths at percentages of the mix to identify more refined formulations. Finally, the resulting aggregate to develop a triple-activated slag formulation with the ultimate objective of contributing toward satisfying the world shortage of high performance concrete.

  2. Blow-down and blow-in of Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, J.; Quisenberry, P.; Carter, W. [Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    After extensive and detailed planning, a mini-reline of the 13.7 meter No. 7 Blast Furnace was executed in November 1993. The furnace lining had 18 million metric tons of production and the bosh, belly and lower stack lining were being maintained through a scheduled grouting practice. The mini-reline was planned for 33 days and the reline work included (a) replacing the bosh, belly and lower stack alumina lining with graphite brick, (b) gunning the middle and upper stack, (c) rebuilding the furnace top, stove burners and tapholes and (d) minor repairs to other auxiliary equipment. During this 33 day reline period the two 8 meter furnaces could only produce 40% of the normal production requirement, therefore the blow-down, quench, salamander tap and blow-in activities were critical to meeting the planned schedule. The planning of these activities was started in the spring of 1993 and included review of Inland`s past blow-down and blow-in performance as well as bench marking the performance of other large blast furnaces in North America, Japan and Europe. The development of the 1993 procedures focused on opportunities to accelerate the blow-down, quench, salamander tap and blow-in as well as having a clean hearth and stack which could also save time during the demolition phase of the reline. Any time that could be saved in these activities directly translated to an early start-up and more plantwide production. This paper will cover the successful planning and implementation of these activities which resulted in a 2 day reduction in the reline schedule, an accelerated production curve and an earlier than planned use of PCI during blow-in.

  3. Thermomechanical Modelling of a Blast Furnace Hearth J. Brulin1,2

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Thermomechanical Modelling of a Blast Furnace Hearth J. Brulin1,2 , A. Rekik1 , E. Blond1 , L Abstract The goal of this work is to develop a thermo-mechanical model of a blast furnace hearth able-situ instrumentation results. 1. Introduction The blast furnace (BF) hearth is the most critical part within the whole

  4. A predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Chen

    2001-01-01

    Silicon content in pig iron has long been used as one of the most important indices to represent the thermal state of a blast furnace. In this paper, a predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis is presented. The qualitative trend of the process in blast furnace is predicted through causal analysis and qualitative

  5. 20. TAKING A CAST AT BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. WORKERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TAKING A CAST AT BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. WORKERS, LIKE THE ONE STANDING ON THE BRIDGE ABOVE THE 'BOTTLE' INTO WHICH THE HOT IRON FLOWS, ARE PROTECTED BY HEAVY FIREPROOF GARMENTS. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Kostura; Hana Kulveitová; Juraj Leško

    2005-01-01

    The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be

  7. Phosphate removal using blast furnace slags and opoka-mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Johansson; Jon Petter Gustafsson

    2000-01-01

    The abiotic sorption efficiency of on-site wastewater treatment systems can be improved by using a strongly sorbing filter material that, if it retains phosphorus (P) in a plant available way, can be used as fertiliser when P saturation is achieved. Two materials, blast furnace slag and the siliceous sedimentary rock opoka, have shown a high P sorption capacity and were

  8. Fire-resistant geopolymer produced by granulated blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Cheng; J. P. Chiu

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes research into the use of granulated blast furnace slag as an active filler in the making of geopolymers. During this work it was found that geopolymer setting time correlates well with temperature, potassium hydroxide concentration, metakaolinite and sodium silicate addition. The physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymer also correlated well with the concentration of alkaline solution

  9. Durability of Portland blast-furnace slag cement concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Osborne

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of studies carried out at the Building Research Establishment in the UK, on the performance and long-term durability of concrete where ground glassy blast-furnace slag (granulated and pelletized) has been used as a cementitious material. Using data from tests on site structures and laboratory and exposure site studies, comparisons are made of the properties and

  10. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

  11. Coke mineral transformations in the experimental blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Kelli Kazuberns; Sushil Gupta; Mihaela Grigore; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Mats Hallin; Bo Lindblom; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD)

    2008-09-15

    Blast furnace efficiency may be improved by optimizing coke reactivity. Some but not all forms of mineral matter in the coke modify its reactivity, but changes in mineral matter that occur within coke while in the blast furnace have not been fully quantified. To determine changes in mineral matter forms in the blast furnace, coke samples from a dissection study in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF) were characterized using SEM/EDS analysis, EPMA (microprobe), and low-temperature ashing/quantitative XRD analysis. Variations in alkali concentration, particularly potassium, dominated the compositional changes. At high concentrations of potassium, the mineral matter was largely potassium-bearing but even more potassium was diffused throughout the coke and not associated with mineral matter. There was little difference in potassium concentration between the core and surface of the coke pieces, suggesting that potassium diffused rapidly through the whole coke. Iron, calcium, silicon, and aluminum concentrations were relatively constant in comparison, although the mineralogy of all elements changed significantly with changing temperature. 23 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

  13. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND MACHINERY AND ARTIFACTS INCLUDING A STEAM ENGINE HUB MADE AT THE BRIERFIELD ROLLING MILL (INSCRIBED C.C. HUCKABEE AND DATED 1863) AND OTHER STEAM ENGINES. - Iron & Steel Museum of Alabama, 12632 Confederate Pkwy., Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  14. METHODS FOR MONITORING HEAT FLOW INTENSITY IN THE BLAST FURNACE WALL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Terpák; L. Pivka

    In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measure- ment and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat

  15. Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2012-05-01

    Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

  16. Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

  17. Phosphorus Purifing Effect of Blast Furnace Slags in Sewage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Huang; Haihong Xu

    2009-01-01

    The paper focus on purifying phosphorus by batch and column experiment and researching phosphorus removal theory of blast furnace slags. The content includes the following main parts: experiment method and procedure, results and discussion and conclusion. The results indicated: the phosphorus removal rate of solution containing 10 mg\\/L P is above 85% with 2.5 g BF slags, at 25°C. The

  18. Crystallization mechanism and properties of a blast furnace slag glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Fredericci; E. D. Zanotto; E. C. Ziemath

    2000-01-01

    The complex crystallization process of a Brazilian blast-furnace slag glass was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction (SAD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Three crystalline phases (merwinite, melilite and larnite) were identified after heat treatment between Tg (742°C) and the DSC crystallization peak (T=1000°C). Merwinite was identified

  19. Recovery of silica gel from blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizia Seggiani; Sandra Vitolo

    2003-01-01

    This work concerns a process for the recovery of silica gel from blast furnace slag. It consists of a leaching of the slag with H2SO4, separation of gypsum, precipitation of silica gel from the filtrate at pH 3.2, followed by the washing of the raw precipitate. The effect of the slag particle-size, the leaching time and the washing extent on

  20. Hydration of alkali-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Song; D. Sohn; H. M. Jennings; T. O. Mason

    2000-01-01

    The hydration of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) at 25 °C in controlled pH environments was investigated during 28 days of hydration. GGBFS was activated by NaOH, and it was found that the rate of reaction depends on the pH of the starting solution. The main product was identified as C-S-H, and, in the pastes with high pH, hydrotalcite

  1. Activation of blast furnace slag by a new method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bellmann; J. Stark

    2009-01-01

    Blast furnace slag is used as supplementary cementing material for the production of blended cement and slag cement. Its latently hydraulic properties can be activated by several methods. Most applications employ the use of high pH values in the pore solution (>13.0) to accelerate the corrosion of the glass network of the slag.It is shown in this work that activation

  2. Hydration of mechanically activated granulated blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh Kumar; Sanjay Kumar; S. Badjena; S. P. Mehrotra

    2005-01-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is known to possess latent hydraulic activity, i.e., it shows cementitious properties when in contact with water over a long period of time. Results are presented in this article\\u000a to show that, in sharp contrast to published literature on the hydration of neat GGBFS, the complete hydration of slag is\\u000a possible in a short

  3. Autogenous shrinkage of concrete containing granulated blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Lee; H. K. Lee; S. H. Lee; G. Y. Kim

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results and prediction model for the autogenous shrinkage of concrete made with various water-to-cementitious materials ratios (w\\/cm) ranging from 0.27 to 0.42 and granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS) in the range of 0% to 50% by mass of the total cementitious materials. Test results showed that BFS concrete exhibited greater autogenous shrinkage than ordinary concrete with

  4. Blast furnace slag as phosphorus sorbents — column studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Johansson

    1999-01-01

    Filter substrates that efficiently remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater can be used to optimise the nutrient removal by on-site wastewater treatment systems. A number of filter substrates have been investigated and the industrial by-product blast furnace slag has attracted attention as a promising substrate. To further evaluate the sorption and attenuation of PO43?, a column experiment was carried out under

  5. Hydrothermal solidification of blast furnace slag by formation of tobermorite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenzi Jing; F. Jin; T. Hashida; N. Yamasaki; H. Ishida

    2007-01-01

    Blast furnace water-cooled slag (BFWS) has been solidified using a hydrothermal processing method, in which the BFWS could\\u000a be solidified in an autoclave under saturated steam pressure (1.56 MPa) at 200 ?C for 12 h by the additions of quartz or coal\\u000a flyash. The tensile strength development was shown to depend on the formation of tobermorite and the packing state of the\\u000a formed

  6. Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. López-Delgado; C. Pérez; F. A. López

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents was carried out. Gases produced in the blast furnace were washed and led towards a Dorr thickener where the sludge was obtained as a suspension. The sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on

  7. Apparatus for producing blast furnace coke by coal compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Brayton, W.E.; Fun, F.; Hendrickson, L.G.; Shoenberger, R.W.

    1981-03-24

    The method of producing blast furnace coke by (1) compacting a finely divided coal wherein at least about 60% by weight of the coal has a diameter of less than about 1/8 inch to form a coal compact, which compact immediately after removal from the compacting means comprises at least about 20% by weight of particles having a particle size of less than 1/4 inch in diameter; (2) breaking the thus formed compact such that the bulk density is sufficiently increased to be capable of conversion into coke suitable for use in large blast furnaces upon carbonization thereof; and (3) carbonizing the broken compact to thereby produce blast furnace coke having a minimum hardness of about 68 and a minimum stability of about 55. The compacting is preferably performed at a pressure equivalent to that achieved by passing the finely divided coal between rolls at a pressure applied to the coal of between about 20 and about 60 tons per lineal inch. Also preferably in the breaking step at least about 95% of the compacted coal is reduced to particle sizes rangi from about one inch to less than about 100 mesh. The invention also includes a system comprising a coal blender, a coal compactor, apparatus for breaking the formed coal compact, and a coking oven and apparatus for charging the broken compact into the oven.

  8. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  9. DESTRUCTION AND REMOVAL OF POHCS (PRINCPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS) IN IRON MAKING BLAST FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least one steel company utilizes organic waste liquids as a heat and carbon content source to partially replace the coke that is used to charge the blast furnaces. The waste liquids fed to the blast furnace are likely to contain hazardous constituents. Temperature and residenc...

  10. Computational model for estimation of refractory wear and skull deposition in blast furnace hearth wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhinav Mithal; Toma Hentea

    2010-01-01

    Knowing how much refractory remains in the hearth is critical to the assessing when a blast furnace hearth needs to be relined. In this work a computational model coupled with a finite state machine and a neural network pattern recognition block has been developed for the blast furnace hearth to determine the thickness of two refractory layers and formation of

  11. Neural networks for the identification and control of blast furnace hot metal quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R Radhakrishnan; A. R Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    The operation and control of blast furnaces poses a great challenge because of the difficult measurement and control problems associated with the unit. The measurement of hot metal composition with respect to silica and sulfur are critical to the economic operation of blast furnaces. The measurement of the compositions require spectrographic techniques which can be performed only off line. An

  12. BLAST FURNACE SLIPS AND ACCOMPANYING EMISSIONS AS AN AIR POLLUTION SOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to ascertain the severity of blast-furnace slips and their accompanying bleeder-valve emissions as a source of air pollution. It describes factors contributing to the occurrence of hangs and slips in the blast furnace. It discusses the mechanic...

  13. Production of blast furnace coke via novel briquetting system

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, F.W.; Wasson, G.E.

    1982-12-07

    A method of making high strength coke briquettes suitable for use as blast furnace coke comprising, (A) providing coal, (B) heating the coal at a temperature at or above the softening point of the coal to form partially carbonized char, (C) cooling the partially carbonized char below the softening point of the coal, (D) mixing the cooled partially carbonized char and tar to form a mixture of tar and partially carbonized char, (E) briquetting the mixture of tar and partially carbonized char to form briquettes of tar and partially carbonized char, (F) calcinating the briquettes to form high strength briquettes.

  14. Marble-type glass based on blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkisov, P.D.; Smirnov, V.G.; Trifonova, T.E.; Sergeev, Yu.N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the recovery and use of blast furnace wastes as coloring agents in the manufacture of imitation marble glass. The slags consist of a series of metal oxides each of which is tested for the color it generates when reacted and annealed with the molten glass. Comparative tests were also run against non-waste coloring agents and it was found that the waste-derived colorants were equal or superior both in process behavior and in generating the appropriate optical properties in the finished glass.

  15. Process Simulation and Control Optimization of a Blast Furnace Using Classical Thermodynamics Combined to a Direct Search

    E-print Network

    Martin, Alain

    Process Simulation and Control Optimization of a Blast Furnace Using Classical Thermodynamics approaches have been proposed in the literature to simulate the behavior of modern blast furnaces: finite of a blast furnace as a function of the iron ore composition, which takes into account all potential chemical

  16. Speciation of Zn in Blast Furnace Sludge from Former Sedimentation Ponds Using Synchrotron Xray Diffraction, Fluorescence, and

    E-print Network

    Speciation of Zn in Blast Furnace Sludge from Former Sedimentation Ponds Using Synchrotron Xray *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Blast furnace sludge (BFS), an industrial waste generated in pig materials in wastewater treatment. INTRODUCTION Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a hazardous industrial waste

  17. Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin [Enakievo Metallurgical Plant, Enakievo (Ukraine)

    2009-05-15

    This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

  18. Cold blast furnace syndrome: a new source of toxic inhalation by nitrogen oxides

    PubMed Central

    Tague, I; Llewellin, P; Burton, K; Buchan, R; Yates, D

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Fourteen workers developed acute respiratory symptoms shortly after exposure to "air blast" from blast furnace tuyeres. These included chest tightness, dyspnoea, rigors, and diaphoresis. Chest radiographs showed pulmonary infiltrates, and lung function a restrictive abnormality. This report includes a description of clinical features of the affected workers and elucidation of the probable cause of the outbreak. Results: Clinical features and occupational hygiene measurements suggested the most likely cause was inhalation of nitrogen oxides at high pressure and temperature. While the task could not be eliminated, engineering controls were implemented to control the hazard. No further cases have occurred. Conclusions: "Cold blast furnace syndrome" represents a previously undescribed hazard of blast furnace work, probably due to inhalation of nitrogen oxides. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute toxic inhalational injuries in blast furnace workers. PMID:15090669

  19. Hydration and temperature development of concrete made with blast-furnace slag cement

    SciTech Connect

    Schutter, G. de [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium). Magnel Lab. for Concrete Research] [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium). Magnel Lab. for Concrete Research

    1999-01-01

    In Europe, massive concrete elements often are made with blast-furnace slag cements. To better deal with the problem of early-age thermal cracking in these cases, a new hydration model for blast-furnace slag cements is developed, which is based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests. In the hydration model, the heat production rate is calculated as a function of the degree of hydration and the temperature. The accuracy of temperature simulations using this new hydration model is evaluated by tests on hardening massive concrete cylinders made with blast-furnace slag cement.

  20. Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions.

    PubMed

    Kostura, Bruno; Kulveitová, Hana; Lesko, Juraj

    2005-05-01

    The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be described by a model involving pseudo-second-order reactions. For all slag types, phosphorus sorption follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The acid neutralizing capacities of crystalline and amorphous slags were determined. In the case of the crystalline slags, buffering intervals were found to exist during which the slag minerals dissolve in the sequence bredigite-gehlenite-diaspor. There is a high correlation (R2=0.9989) between ANC3.8 and the saturation capacities of crystalline and amorphous slags. PMID:15899277

  1. Greener durable concretes through geopolymerisation of blast furnace slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamane, N. P.; Nataraja, M. C.; Jeyalakshmi, R.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2015-05-01

    The eco-friendliness of concrete is quantified by parameters such as ‘embodied energy’ (EE) and ‘embodied CO2 emission’ (ECO2e), besides duration of designed ‘service life’. It may be noted that ECO2e is also referred as carbon footprint (CF) in the literature. Geopolymer (GP) is an inorganic polymeric gel, a type of amorphous alumino-silicate product, which can be synthesised by polycondensation reactions. The concrete reported in this paper was prepared using industrial wastes in the form of blast furnace slag, fly ash as geopolymeric source materials and sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide as activators. Many mechanical properties such as compressive strength, chloride diffusion, steel corrosion, rapid chloride permeability test and rapid migration test are compared with Portland cement.

  2. Waste Heat Recovery from Blast Furnace Slag by Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuelin; Lv, Xuewei; Bai, Chenguang; Qiu, Guibao; Chen, Pan

    2012-08-01

    Blast furnace (BF) slag, which is the main byproduct in the ironmaking process, contains large amounts of sensible heat. To recover the heat, a new waste heat-recovery system—granulating molten BF slag by rotary multinozzles cup atomizer and pyrolyzing printed circuited board with obtained hot BF slag particle—was proposed in this study. The feasibility of the waste heat-recovery system was verified by dry granulation and pyrolyzation experiments. The energy of hot BF slag could be converted to chemical energy through the pyrolysis reaction, and a large amount of combustible gas like CO, H2, C m H n , and CH4 can be generated during the process.

  3. Nuclear techniques for the inspection of blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, J. S.; Lanza, R. C. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3046 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    1999-06-10

    Carbon hearth wall failures in blast furnaces create safety risks and require a large expense to repair. To avoid failures they are replaced early, incurring costs in wasted hearth wall use. Two non-invasive measurements provide realtime analysis of wall integrity. The two major failure modes are erosion of carbon thickness and iron-filled cracks in the bricks. Measurements of backscattered gamma-ray spectra and thermal neutron decay rate can identify both phenomena. Gamma-ray spectra from a compact Linac beam primarily respond to average carbon thickness. Neutron decay time, using a pulsed neutron source, is sensitive to iron in the carbon volume. Each measurement is sensitive to the other failure made, but the combination permits each phenomenon to be resolved. These techniques can detect a high atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section material behind one of low atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section.

  4. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  5. PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF BLAST FURNACE WASTEWATERS USING MOBILE PILOT UNITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents an in-depth pilot-plant investigation of the applicability of advanced waste treatment methods for upgrading ironmaking blast furnace wastewaters to Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BATEA) levels. Mobile treatments facilities, designed to op...

  6. Cold bonded briquettes with high temperature properties for blast furnace burdens

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, R.; Auslander, E. [Ferrous Environmental Recycling Corp., Dearborn, MI (United States); Rankin, R. [Rouge Steel Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A combination briquetting process and proprietary binder system, that combines numerous revert materials into a productive blast furnace feed material, has been developed by Ferrous Environmental Recycling Corporation (FERCO). It has been proven that, when used at 5% of the blast furnace burden, these briquettes yield a coke savings of 40 lbs./NTHM and a production rate increase of approximately 4%. Residual elements in the briquettes are controlled through chemical analysis and careful blending, so that there are no adverse effects in steelmaking. The process combines several revert materials, including coke breeze and blast furnace flue dust, with a proprietary binder to produce a briquette with excellent high temperature properties. The briquette is designed to consume waste stream reverts with the significant added benefits of lower blast furnace fuel rates and increased hot metal production. Since 1988, nearly 750,000 tons of these briquettes have been produced and consumed.

  7. Phosphorus retention capacity of iron-ore and blast furnace slag in subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. grüneberg; J. Kern

    Abstract The suitability of iron-ore and blast furnace slag for subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands was studied over a period of four months. Dairy farm wastewater,(TP 45 mg l,) was promoted,by predominantly anaerobic,conditions due to continuous formation of amorphous,ferrous hydroxides. None of the substrates had adverse affects on reed growth. Keywords Phosphorus retention; constructed wetlands; iron-ore; blast furnace slag; dairy

  8. A study of grounding resistance reduction agent using granulated blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Hsiung Chen; Jiann-Fuh Chen; Tsorng-Juu Liang; Wen-I Wang

    2004-01-01

    One by-product of steel making, granulated blast furnace slag, is often wasted. When it is used, it is used in civil engineering and building engineering and mostly applied to road-building. It will soon have many other environmental uses. The granulated blast furnace slag has similar characteristics to glue, and low resistivity was found. With a cement-hydrate catalyst, it can be

  9. Hydration and temperature development of concrete made with blast-furnace slag cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geert De Schutter; G. de

    1999-01-01

    In Europe, massive concrete elements often are made with blast-furnace slag cements. To better deal with the problem of early-age thermal cracking in these cases, a new hydration model for blast-furnace slag cements is developed, which is based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests. In the hydration model, the heat production rate is calculated as a function of the degree

  10. Effect of components fineness on strength of blast furnace slag cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Öner; K Erdo?du; A Günlü

    2003-01-01

    The strength development of 1:1 mixes of clinker and blast furnace slag with varying fineness of components from 3000 to 6000 cm2\\/g has been studied. Overall results indicate that in manufacturing blast furnace slag cement (BFSC), it is not only the fineness of the clinker–slag mix but also of the individual components which govern the choice of the mix composition

  11. Thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of PO 3? 4 adsorption on blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ensar Oguz

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of adsorption of PO3?4 by blast furnace slag were found to be fast, reaching equilibrium in 20 min and following a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The adsorption behavior of PO3?4 on blast furnace slag has been studied as a function of the solution agitation speed, pH, and temperature. Results have been analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, BET, and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R)

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of blast-furnace top gas pressure recovery turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Bisio, G. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Energy and Conditioning Dept.; Simonetti, S. [S.R.L., Genoa (Italy). Energy Section

    1995-12-31

    The pressure existing at the top of modern large-size blast furnaces constitutes an exergy potential that can be used for the generation of electrical energy, provided the top gas is decompressed in a suitable recovery turbine. The aim of this paper is to examine such a problem in general, considering literature and operation data, and specifically to compare the effect of dry or wet gas cleaning on the performance of blast-furnace top-gas turbines.

  13. Radial gas flow in the upper shaft and its influence on blast furnace performance

    SciTech Connect

    Beppler, E.; Kowalski, W.; Langner, K.; Wachsmuth, H. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Knowledge of and control of gas flow in the upper shaft and over the blast furnace radius is an important factor for constant optimization of blast furnace performance in terms of fuel consumption and productivity. Radial gas flow in the blast furnace is generally controlled by the radial distribution of burden and coke. However, there are other influencing variables which determine radial gas flow, in particular central gas flow: (a) Increased sinter degradation displaces the cohesive zone downwards, constricting the gas flow between the dead man and the cohesive zone. This hinders central gas flow. (b) Lower coke strengths also lead to deterioration in gas flow between the dead man and the cohesive zone and hence to decline in central gas flow. (c) Decreasing coke layers in the blast furnace hinder central gas flow. (d) Increasing coal injection rates produce higher coke degradation in the blast furnace and hence also hinder central gas flow. (e) High coal rates and lower CSR values lead to shortening of combustion zone, which hinders the gas flow to the blast furnace center. (f) Finally, increasing hot metal-slag levels divert the gas to the outside. As the significance of the question of the central gas flow is growing,and because radial gas flow at Thyssen Stahl AG can only be measured sporadically with an in-burden probe, an inclined probe (inclination 35{degree}) just above the stock line was developed for simultaneous temperature measurement and gas sampling at 9 points along the radius.

  14. Effects of Grinding Aids on Grinding Fineness and Activity Index of Ground Blast Furnace Slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huifen Yang; Feng Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates and compares the effects of five kinds of grinding aids, i.e., triethanolamine, calcium lignosulphonate, sodium oleate, sodium tripolyphosphate and glyceryl alcohol, on grinding fineness and activity index of ground blast furnace slag. The results show that, both calcium lignosulphonate and sodium oleate are effective grinding aids, which can improve grinding fineness and activity index of ground blast

  15. [Study on quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ding-Liu; Guo, Pei-Min; Qi, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Hai-Feng; Dai, Xiao-Tian

    2008-02-01

    Quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline and crystalline contents in blast furnace slag was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The process of quantificational analysis method includes standard samples preparation, samples preparation, X-ray diffraction measurement and data treatment. The data treatment includes integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks in certain diffraction angle range, linear fitting and quantificational coefficient determination. The preparation methods of standard samples for X-ray diffraction of blast furnace slag were proposed, including 100% crystalline sample and 100% non-crystalline sample. The 100% crystalline sample can be obtained by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1 000-1 200 degrees C, and the 100% non-crystalline sample can be obtained by quenching the molten slag with enough water. The X-ray diffraction method of quantificational analysis of non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag was proposed with the 100% non-crystalline and 100% crystalline standard samples, and the quantificational coefficient can be obtained by linear regression on the integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks of X-ray diffraction in the 2-theta range 20 degrees-40 degrees. This method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 80%. The non-crystalline and crystalline contents of original blast furnace slag are obtained by combining the X-ray diffraction results and mathematical treatment, and this method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 90%, whose process includes preparing the 100% crystalline standard sample by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1000-1200 degrees C, samples preparation with the 0.02 interval in the 0-0.1 mass ratio range of 100% crystalline to original slag, X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples prepared and data treatment using iterative linear regression. The quantificational analysis method for blast furnace slag can be applied to various kinds of blast furnace slag from different steel plants. PMID:18479048

  16. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

  17. Vanadium bioavailability in soils amended with blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Maja A; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik; Cubadda, Francesco; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2015-10-15

    Blast furnace (BF) slags are commonly applied as soil amendments and in road fill material. In Sweden they are also naturally high in vanadium. The aim of this study was to assess the vanadium bioavailability in BF slags when applied to soil. Two soils were amended with up to 29% BF slag (containing 800mgVkg(-1)) and equilibrated outdoors for 10 months before conducting a barley shoot growth assay. Additional soil samples were spiked with dissolved vanadate(V) for which assays were conducted two weeks (freshly spiked) and 10 months (aged) after spiking. The BF slag vanadium was dominated by vanadium(III) as shown by V K-edge XANES spectroscopy. In contrast, results obtained by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that vanadium(V), the most toxic vanadium species, was predominant in the soil solution. Barley shoot growth was not affected by the BF slag additions. This was likely due to limited dissolution of vanadium from the BF slag, preventing an increase of dissolved vanadium above toxic thresholds. The difference in vanadium bioavailability among treatments was explained by the vanadium concentration in the soil solution. It was concluded that the vanadium in BF slag is sparingly available. These findings should be of importance in environmental risk assessment. PMID:25917693

  18. Sulfide capacity of high alumina blast furnace slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Amitabh; Görnerup, Märten; Seetharaman, S.; Lahiri, A. K.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfide capacities of high alumina blast furnace slags were experimentally determined using the gas-slag equilibration technique. Two different slag systems were considered for the current study, namely, CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 quaternary and CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2 quinary system. The liquid slag was equilibrated with the Ar-CO-CO2-SO2 gas mixture. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 1773 to 1873 K. The effects of temperature, basicity, and the MgO and TiO2 contents of slags on sulfide capacity were studied. As expected, sulfide capacity was found to increase with the increase in temperature and basicity. At the higher experimental temperature, titania decreases the sulfide capacity of slag. However, at the lower temperature, there was no significant effect of titania on the sulfide capacity of slag. Sulfide capacity increases with the increase in MgO content of slag if the MgO content is more than 5 pct.

  19. An Integrated Model of Coal/Coke Combustion in a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. S.; Guo, B. Y.; Yu, A. B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P.

    2010-03-01

    A three-dimensional integrated mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate the operation of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates two parts: pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed and the coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements in terms of coal burnout and gas composition, respectively. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are simulated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. In addition, underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are analyzed. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI process in full-scale blast furnaces.

  20. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

  1. An evaluation of hydrogen production from the perspective of using blast furnace gas and coke oven gas as feedstocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Hsin Chen; Mu-Rong Lin; Tzong-Shyng Leu; Shan-Wen Du

    2011-01-01

    Blast furnace (BF) is a large-scale reactor for producing hot metal where coke and coal are consumed as reducing agent and fuel, respectively. As a result, a large amount of CO2 is liberated into the atmosphere. The blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) from the ironmaking process can be used for H2 production in association with carbon

  2. Blast furnace slag slurries may have limits for oil field use

    SciTech Connect

    Benge, O.G.; Webster, W.W. (Mobil Exploration Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States))

    1994-07-18

    Thorough testing, economic evaluations, and environmental evaluations of blast furnace slag slurries revealed that replacing Portland cement with slag slurries may compromise essential properties in a cementing operation. The use of blast furnace slag (BFS) slurries should be analyzed on a per case basis for oil well cementing operations. BFS slurry technology may be a viable mud solidification process, but the slurries are not cement and should not be considered as such. Several slurries using field and laboratory prepared drilling fluids solidified with blast furnace slag were investigated to determine thickening time, compressive strength, free water, and other pertinent properties. The tests included an evaluation of the expansion of the set material and shear bond, as well as rheological compatibility studies of the finished slurries with the base muds. These additional tests are critical in the potential application of this process under field conditions.

  3. On-line ultrasonic system for measuring thickness of the copper stave in the blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, Dohoon

    2012-05-01

    The blast furnace is used make molten iron from sintered ore and the cokes in the steel industry. Recently, the copper stave cooling system placed on inner face of the blast furnace body to protect the steel shell from heat. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the material makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. It was impossible to access the copper stave with the ultrasonic sensor for measuring thickness because the copper stave is covered with the steel shell and there is backing refractory between the stave and the steel shell. The unique ultrasonic sensor which can approach the cooling stave through the cooling line was developed to measure thickness. The thickness can be measured with portable ultrasonic thickness sensor and can be monitored continuously with embedded sensors.

  4. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

  5. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

  6. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  7. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  8. Hydration of ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sujin

    1998-12-01

    The hydration of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) has been studied for 28 days of hydration at 25sp°C. The reaction between GGBFS and DI water is slow, however, activated hydration was observed for GGBFS pastes mixed with NaOH solutions. When NaOH was added into the mixing solution to control the pH, the rate of reaction was dependent on the pH of the starting solution and it was quantified using heat evolution characteristics. The main hydration product was identified as C-S-H, and hydrotalcite was observed when the paste reached high degree of hydration. The non-evaporable water content of fully hydrated GGBFS pastes was determined to be 0.162 g Hsb2O/g of slag, indicating that the stoichiometry of C-S-H formed in GGBFS paste is close to Csb{1.7}SHsb{1.5}. GGBFS paste showed microstructure consisted of poorly crystalline, homogeneous solid and highly disconnected pores. Highly disconnected capillary pore structure was responsible for low conductivity as well as low water transport through GGBFS pastes. C-S-H formed on the surface of GGBFS particles had honeycomb-like morphology close to Type II C-S-H. Pore solution chemistry of GGBFS paste provided important understanding with respect to the role of pH in alkali-activated hydration of GGBFS. pH was concluded to be a very important variable controlling the aqueous solubility, the equilibrium between C-S-H and aqueous phase, and the alkali-activation of GGBFS. At early stages of hydration, the pH was determined by the amount of NaOH added into initial mixing solution. High pH in the pore solution increases the solubilities of Si and Al, but decreases the solubilities of Ca and Mg. This pH-dependent solubility behavior is well explained using solubility equations from thermodynamics. The solubility of Si is the most important variable affecting alkali-activation of GGBFS since it is hard to solubilize Si from solid into aqueous phase due to the low Si solubility at pH < 11.5, which is the critical pH value to activate the hydration of GGBFS. The pH-dependency of solubilities also suggests the effect of pH on the nature of C-S-H, such as chemical composition, microstructure and properties, which are to be explored.

  9. Hydration of mechanically activated granulated blast furnace slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Badjena, S.; Mehrotra, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is known to possess latent hydraulic activity, i.e., it shows cementitious properties when in contact with water over a long period of time. Results are presented in this article to show that, in sharp contrast to published literature on the hydration of neat GGBFS, the complete hydration of slag is possible in a short time (days), even without a chemical activator. This is achieved if the slag used for hydration is mechanically activated, using an attrition mill. The nature of the hydration product of the mechanically activated slag depends not only on the initial specific surface area (SSA) of the slag but also on the surface activation, as manifested by the change in the zeta potential ( ?) of the slag during the milling process. Depending upon the SSA and the ?, the hydration product changed from nonreacted slag with high porosity (slag SSA < 0.3 m2/g, ?>-29 mV) to hydrated slag with a compact structure (SSA=0.3 to 0.4 m2/g, ?=-29 to -31 mV), and, finally, to fully hydrated slag with high porosity (SSA>0.4 m2/g, ? ˜ 26 mV). Unlike the poorly crystalline hydration product formed by the nonactivated slag, even after prolonged hydration for years, the hydration product of mechanically activated slag was crystalline in nature. The crystallinity of the product improved as the duration of the mechanical activation increased. The calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phases present in the slag hydration product, characterized by a Ca/Si ratio of 0.7 to 1.5, were similar to those found for the hydraulic cement binder, except for the presence of Mg and Al as impurities. In addition, the presence of a di-calcium-silicate-hydrate phase ( ?-C2SH), which normally forms under hydrothermal conditions, and a Ca-deficient and Si-Al-rich phase (average Ca/Si mole ratio < 0.1 and Si/Al ˜ 3) is indicated, especially in the hydration product of slag that was activated for a longer time.

  10. Strength development of ternary blended cement with limestone filler and blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Menéndez; V Bonavetti; E. F Irassar

    2003-01-01

    The benefits of limestone filler (LF) and granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS) as partial replacement of portland cement are well established. However, both supplementary materials have certain shortfalls. LF addition to portland cement causes an increase of hydration at early ages inducing a high early strength, but it can reduce the later strength due to the dilution effect. On the other

  11. Durability of concrete incorporating non-ground blast furnace slag and bottom ash as fine aggregate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?sa Yüksel; Turhan Bilir; Ömer Özkan

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents investigation of how the usage of bottom ash (BA), granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), and combination of both of these materials as fine aggregate in concrete affects the concrete durability. To assess durability characteristics of concrete, durability tests were conducted and the results were evaluated comparing with reference concrete. Three series concrete were produced. GBFS, BA and

  12. Estimation of the environmental credit for the recycling of granulated blast furnace slag based on LCA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun-Mo Lee; Pil-Ju Park

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to quantify the environmental credit of the granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) recycling, and then to propose a recycling option best suited for the maximization of the environmental credit. The most appropriate method for the quantification of the environmental credit resulting from the recycling of byproducts is the system expansion method. The system expansion

  13. Performance of ground blast furnace slag and ground basaltic pumice concrete against seawater attack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanifi Binici; Orhan Aksogan; Ela Bahsude Görür; Hasan Kaplan; Mehmet Nuri Bodur

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to investigate the seawater resistance of the concrete incorporating ground blast furnace slag (GBS) and ground basaltic pumice (GBP) each separately or both together. The variable investigated in this study is the level of fine aggregate replacement by GBS and GBP. Compressive strength measured on 150mm cubes was used to assess the changes

  14. Strengthening effects of finely ground fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag, and their combination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kefeng Tan; Xincheng Pu

    1998-01-01

    The effect of finely ground fly ash (FGFA), finely ground granulated blast furnace slag (FGGBS), and their combination on the compressive strength of concrete was studied. Test results showed that incorporating 20% FGFA or FGGBS can significantly increase the compressive strength of concrete after 3 days. The compressive strength of concrete incorporating the combination of FGFA and FGGBS is higher

  15. Ground iron blast furnace slag as a matrix for cellulose-cement materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Savastano; P. G Warden; R. S. P Coutts

    2001-01-01

    The use of ground iron blast furnace slag (BFS) as a low-cost alternative to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) binders in fibre-cement products was examined. Both high quality softwood fibres and residual sisal from agricultural waste were chemically pulped and used as reinforcement. Composites based on several different binder formulations consisting of slag chemically activated by mixtures of gypsum and hydrated

  16. Strength and pore structure of ternary blended cement mortars containing blast furnace slag and silica fume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bágel

    1998-01-01

    Blended cement mortars with fixed workability and incorporating blast furnace slag and silica fume, were tested for compressive strength and mercury intrusion, with a view to comparing their performance with that of plain Portland cement mortar and\\/or slag-cement mortar. The obtained results showed that with high portions of slag and silica fume in the binding system, the mortars reached relatively

  17. General hydration model for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Taerwe

    1995-01-01

    This paper focusses on the evolution of the heat of hydration of hardening concrete or cement based materials. Based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests a new general hydration model is developed, valid both for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement. This hydration model enables the calculation of the heat production rate as a function of the actual temperature

  18. Fixation of CO 2 by carbonating calcium derived from blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanni Eloneva; Sebastian Teir; Justin Salminen; Carl-Johan Fogelholm; Ron Zevenhoven

    2008-01-01

    Industrial waste materials, such as steelmaking slags, appear to be potential raw materials for reducing CO2 emissions by carbonation. The suitability of applying a carbonation route based on acetic acid leaching to produce carbonates from blast furnace slag is presented in this study. The effect of solution pH, temperature, and CO2 pressure on the precipitation of carbonates was experimentally studied.

  19. Silica fume-basic blast furnace slag systems activated by an alkali silica fume activator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Rouseková; A. Bajza; V. Živica

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the results of research on binder systems based on the use of silica fume. The data obtained show that the optimal proportion of blast furnace slag and alkali activator prepared from silica fume permits the obtaining of interesting materials from the point of view of their technical properties as well as from the possibility of utilizing

  20. Durability of traditional plasters with respect to blast furnace slag-based plaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Cerulli; C. Pistolesi; C. Maltese; D Salvioni

    2003-01-01

    Blast furnace slag is a residue of steel production. It is a latent hydraulic binder and is normally used to improve the durability of concrete and mortars. Slag could be also used as rendering mortar for masonry and old buildings. Today, cement and hydraulic lime are the most popular hydraulic binders used to make plasters. They are characterised by a

  1. Freezing and de-icing salt resistance of blast furnace slag concretes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Deja

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results on investigations made into a concrete containing cement rich in granulated blast furnace slag (57%). Whereas slag cement concretes have proved successful in structures subjected to chemical attack, their use in structures subjected to freezing and de-icing salt attack is a problem of numerous investigations. The results concerning water\\/cement ratio and air content in concrete

  2. A study of intergrinding and separate grinding of blast furnace slag cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Öner

    2000-01-01

    Grinding-related parameters of blast furnace slag cements (BFC), such as Bond grindability, specific rate of breakage and breakage distributions were determined employing separate and intergrinding modes. Strength tests were performed on mortar specimens made by BFC prepared by these modes of grinding to the same fineness. Overall results favor the use of separate grinding mode in view of lower specific

  3. Hydration and properties of novel blended cements based on cement kiln dust and blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria S. Konsta-Gdoutos; Surendra P. Shah

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to address the key technical issues pertaining to the utilization of cement kiln dust (CKD) as an activator for ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) to create nonconventional cementitious binders for concrete. The relatively high alkaline content of CKD is the predominant factor preventing its recycling in cement manufacture. However, it was observed

  4. Investigation of hydraulic activity of ground granulated blast furnace slag in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C Pal; A Mukherjee; S. R Pathak

    2003-01-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry, being used as an effective partial cement replacement material, has already been proven to improve several performance characteristics of concrete. The reactivity of GGBFS has been found to depend on the properties of slag, which vary with the source of slag, type of raw material used, method

  5. Characteristics of Blast Furnace Slag Leachate Produced Under Reduced and Oxidized Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. SCHWAB; J. HICKEY; J. HUNTER; M. K. BANKS

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the environmental conditions necessary to reproduce leachates observed emerging from blast furnace slag acting as the foundation of highways in northwest Indiana. The leachates in the field are often highly alkaline with a pungent sulfur odor, a distinct green or milky-white in color, and sulfate concentrations exceeding 2000 mg\\/L. Slag was equilibrated in

  6. CFD Simulation on Dense Gas-Solid Flow for Blast Furnace Slag Waste Heat Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Liu; Jianxiang Guo; Baojin Yang; Chang Liu

    2010-01-01

    In order to recover efficiently the rich heat released from 1450? blast furnace slag in the fluidized bed, we find the best control parameters by seeking the relationship among the control parameters, and their influence on heat transfer rate between gas and slag. This paper focus on CFD simulation of the fluidized bed heat transfer process. It adopts Eurelian-Eurelian approach,

  7. Waste plastics as supplemental fuel in the blast furnace process: improving combustion efficiencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongsu Kim; Sunghye Shin; Seungman Sohn; Jinshik Choi; Bongchan Ban

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using waste plastics as a source of secondary fuel in a blast furnace has been of recent interest. The success of this process, however, will be critically dependent upon the optimization of operating systems. For instance, the supply of waste plastics must be reliable as well as economically attractive compared with conventional secondary fuels such as heavy

  8. Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Iron-Slag Ratio at Taphole of Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, M.; Shinotake, A.; Nakashima, M.; Omoto, N.

    2014-07-01

    As the initial process in an integrated steel-making plant, molten iron is produced in a blast furnace. The molten iron has a temperature between 1700 K and 1900 K. The outflow stream discharged from a taphole comprises the molten iron and slag (which is a mixture of molten oxides). Monitoring of the stream temperature is important because it has information on the thermal condition inside the blast furnace. A newly developed simultaneous measurement technique for temperature and iron-slag ratio is reported. A monochromatic CCD camera with a short exposure time is used to obtain a thermal image of the rapidly moving stream. The thermal image has a marble-like pattern caused by the physical separation of the iron and slag and their different optical properties. Iron thermometry is realized by automatically detecting the peak of the iron gray-level distribution on a histogram. Meanwhile, the thermal radiance of the semitransparent slag varies as a function of the thickness. The slag temperature is calculated from the maximum gray level, presuming that the emissivity of the slag is constant at a thick slag part. The slag ratio is measured by counting the number of pixels on the histogram. A field test was carried out at an operating blast furnace. The iron temperature, slag temperature, and slag ratio were successfully measured. This multiple image measurement is expected to be the new information source for stable blast furnace operation.

  9. A genetic algorithms based multi-objective neural net applied to noisy blast furnace data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Pettersson; N. Chakraborti; Henrik Saxén

    2007-01-01

    A genetic algorithms based multi-objective optimization technique was utilized in the training process of a feed forward neural network, using noisy data from an industrial iron blast furnace. The number of nodes in the hidden layer, the architecture of the lower part of the network, as well as the weights used in them were kept as variables, and a Pareto

  10. A model for estimating the viscosity of blast furnace slags with optical basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao-jun; Ren, Zhong-shan; Zhang, Guo-hua; Wang, Li-jun; Chou, Kuo-chih

    2012-12-01

    Viscosity is an important physical property of blast furnace slags and has a great influence on blast furnace operations. Because of time consumption and difficulties encountered during high temperature experimental measurement, viscosity data are also limited, so a reasonable and accurate estimation model is required to provide the data for controlling and optimizing the blast furnace process. In the present study a viscosity model was proposed for blast furnace slags. In the model the activation energy was calculated by the optical basicity corrected for cations required for the charge compensation of AlO{4/5-}, and the temperature dependence was described by the Weymann-Frenkel equation. The estimated viscosity values of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO, and CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-TiO2 systems fit well with experiment data, with the mean deviation less than 25%.

  11. Mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by blast furnace slag and steel furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-gao Lu; Shi-qiang Bai; Hong-dan Shan

    2008-01-01

    We report the adsorption of phosphate and discuss the mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by burst furnace\\u000a slag (BFS) and steel furnace slag (SFS). The results show that the adsorption of phosphate on the slag was rapid and the majority\\u000a of adsorption was completed in 5?10 min. The adsorption capacity of phosphate by the slag was reduced dramatically

  12. Thermal-destruction products of coal in the blast-furnace gas-purification system

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Amdur; M.V. Shibanova; E.V. Ental'tsev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Russia Institute of Metallurgy

    2008-10-15

    The lean, poorly clinkering coal and anthracite used to replace coke in blast furnaces has a considerable content of volatile components (low-molecular thermaldestruction products), which enter the water and sludge of the blast-furnace gas-purification system as petroleum products. Therefore, it is important to study the influence of coal on the petroleum-product content in the water and sludge within this system. The liberation of primary thermal-destruction products is investigated for anthracite with around 4 wt % volatiles, using a STA 449C Jupiter thermoanalyzer equipped with a QMC 230 mass spectrometer. The thermoanalyzer determines small changes in mass and thermal effects with high accuracy (weighing accuracy 10{sup -8} g; error in measuring thermal effects 1 mV). This permits experiments with single layers of coal particles, eliminating secondary reactions of its thermal-destruction products.

  13. Comparison of CO2 emission between COREX and blast furnace iron-making system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changqing; Han, Xiaowei; Li, Zhihong; Zhang, Chunxia

    2009-01-01

    Steel works faced increasing demand to minimize the emission of GHGs. The CO2 emissions of COREX and blast furnace iron-making system were compared. It is point out that COREX contribute little to CO2 emission reduction. Comparing to conventional blast furnace iron-making system, direct CO2 emissions of COREX is higher. Considering the credits of export gases for power generation, the total CO2 emission of COREX have advantages only when the COREX is joined with high-efficiency generating units which efficiency is greater than 45% and CO2 emission factor of the grid is higher than 0.9 kgCO2/kWh. PMID:25084406

  14. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME III. BLAST FURNACE IRONMAKING, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  15. Development of ceramic tiles from common clay and blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syamal Ghosh; Mihir Das; S Chakrabarti; S Ghatak

    2002-01-01

    With an objective of making ceramic tile, granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and common clay were mixed whereby calcia:silica ratio (w\\/w) varied from 0.04 to 0.86. Calcia and silica combined to form wollastonite as the major phase in the sintered microstructure. Excess silica combined with magnesia, iron oxide and alumina to form enstatite, fyalite and alumino silicates respectively during sintering.

  16. Blast furnace slag cement: a 29Si and 27Al NMR study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Murgier; Hélène Zanni; Daniel Gouvenot

    2004-01-01

    Ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) is a secondary product of cast-iron industry that can be used like a standard hydraulic binder. Nevertheless, it requires a chemical activation to start the slag-hydration process. In this work, four activators are studied. Solid-state NMR and mechanical compression tests are used to determine the hydration products microstructure and performances. To cite this article : S.

  17. Residual compressive behaviour of pre-heated high-performance concrete with blast–furnace–slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianzhuang Xiao; Meng Xie; Ch. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    An experimental program was designed and carried out to study the residual compressive behaviour of high-performance concrete (HPC) with blast–furnace–slag (BFS) at elevated temperatures ranging from 20 to 800°C. The residual cube compressive strength is examined and the relationship between the residual compressive strength and temperature is investigated based on the heated cube specimens (100×100×100mm3) tested on a universal test

  18. Predicting the compressive strength of ground granulated blast furnace slag concrete using artificial neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cahit Bilim; Cengiz D. Atis; Harun Tanyildizi; Okan Karahan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an artificial neural networks study was carried out to predict the compressive strength of ground granulated blast furnace slag concrete. A data set of a laboratory work, in which a total of 45 concretes were produced, was utilized in the ANNs study. The concrete mixture parameters were three different water–cement ratios (0.3, 0.4, and 0.5), three different

  19. Differential scanning calorimetry study of hydrated ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Sha; G. B. Pereira

    2001-01-01

    The present work involves using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in an investigation of the thermal behaviour of hydration products in ground granulated blast-furnace slag (ggbs). The two-step loss of water from calcium silicate hydrates and dehydroxylation of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) contribute, respectively, to the two major peaks in the DSC curves. Peaks due to the formation of ettringite and Fe2O3

  20. Interaction of blast-furnace slag with heavy metal ions in water solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Dimitrova; D. R. Mehanjiev

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of Cu, Zn and Ni ions with blast-furnace slag has been investigated in 10?3moll?1 solutions at pH=4.0. It has been established that the sorption of metal ions is accompanied by the partial solubilisation and hydrolysis of the calcium silicates and aluminosilicates of the slag. The sorption is due to various processes: ion-exchange and replacement of calcium ions from

  1. An experimental study on corrosion resistance of concrete with ground granulate blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyong Yun Yeau; Eun Kyum Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents experimental test results on corrosion resistance of concrete containing ground granulate blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and ASTM Type I or ASTM Type V cement. To investigate the problem, a series of tests were performed. First, rapid chloride permeability tests were executed in accordance with ASTM C 1202 to determine the qualitative terms of chloride-ion penetrability. Second, accelerated chloride-ion

  2. Solid-particle erosion of a geopolymer containing fly ash and blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Goretta; Nan Chen; F. Gutierrez-Mora; J. L. Routbort; G. C. Lukey; J. S. J. van Deventer

    2004-01-01

    Solid-particle erosion studies were conducted on a geopolymer derived from fly ash and granulated blast-furnace slag. The erodent particles, 390?m angular Al2O3, impacted at 30, 60, or 90° at a velocity of 50, 70, or 100m\\/s. Steady-state erosion rates (ER) were obtained and the material-loss mechanisms were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The geopolymer responded to normal impact as

  3. Properties of concrete incorporating fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gengying Li; Xiaohua Zhao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a laboratory study on the influence of combination of fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) on the properties of high-strength concrete. A contrast study was carried out for the concrete (GGFAC) incorporating FA and GGBS, control Portland cement concrete and high-volume FA high-strength concrete (HFAC). Assessments of the concrete mixes were based on short-

  4. Properties of blast-furnace slags containing high amounts of manganese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Péra; Jean Ambroise; Michel Chabannet

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents results of tests performed to characterize the physical and chemical properties of five blast-furnace slags having MnO content up to 21%. The interactions between ordinary Portland cement or calcium oxide and each slag were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and thermoanalysis. Mortars and concretes using these slags were cast. When ground to a Blaine surface

  5. General hydration model for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement

    SciTech Connect

    De Schutter, G.; Taerwe, L. [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Ghent (Belgium)] [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Ghent (Belgium)

    1995-04-01

    This paper focuses on the evolution of the heat of hydration of hardening concrete or cement based materials. Based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests a new general hydration model is developed, valid both for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement. This hydration model enables the calculation of the heat production rate as a function of the actual temperature and the degree of hydration.

  6. Determination of Kinetic Equations of Alkaline Activation of Blast Furnace Slag by Means of Calorimetric Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Fernandez-Jimenez; F. Puertas; A. Arteaga

    1998-01-01

    The alkaline activation of blast furnace slag promotes the formation of new cement materials. These materials have many advantages\\u000a over ordinary Portland cement, including high strength, low production cost and good durability. However, many aspects of\\u000a the chemistry of alkaline activated slags are not yet very well understood. Some authors consider that these processes occur\\u000a through a heterogeneous reaction, and

  7. Strength and pore structure of ternary blended cement mortars containing blast furnace slag and silica fume

    SciTech Connect

    Bagel, L. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Construction and Architecture] [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Construction and Architecture

    1998-07-01

    Blended cement mortars with fixed workability and incorporating blast furnace slag and silica fume, were tested for compressive strength and mercury intrusion, with a view to comparing their performance with that of plain Portland cement mortar and/or slag-cement mortar. The obtained results showed that with high portions of slag and silica fume in the binding system, the mortars reached relatively satisfactory level of compressive strength and contributed to the significantly denser pore structure.

  8. Microstructure and microanalysis of hardened cement pastes involving ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. G. Richardson; G. W. Groves

    1992-01-01

    The microstructure and composition of hardened cement pastes of a wide range of blends of ground granulated blast-furnace slag with ordinary Portland cement have been studied, using techniques of transmission electron microscopy with microanalysis combined with electron microprobe analysis. Throughout the range, a calcium silicate hydrate gel (C-S-H) is the dominant cementing phase, present in the “inner product” within the

  9. Lead removal from aqueous solutions by granulated blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Dimitrova; D. R. Mehandgiev

    1998-01-01

    The removal of lead by sorption on granulated blast-furnace slag has been investigated as a function of pH, the metal ion concentration, the particle size and the amount of sorbent. It has been established that the process occurs with increasing pH. It was found that the dependence of the process on pH is similar to the dependence of the formation

  10. Effect of magnetic water on the engineering properties of concrete containing granulated blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Su; Yeong-Hwa Wu; Chung-Yo Mar

    2000-01-01

    This research investigates the compressive strength and workability of mortar and concrete, which were mixed with magnetic water and contained granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS). The test variables included the magnetic strength of water, the content of GBFS in place of cement, and the water-to-binder ratio (W\\/B). Results show that the compressive strength of mortar samples mixed with magnetic water of

  11. Efficiency of a blast furnace slag cement for immobilizing simulated borate radioactive liquid waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Guerrero; S Goñi

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency of a blast furnace slag cement (Spanish CEM III\\/B) for immobilizing simulated radioactive borate liquid waste [containing H3BO3, NaCl, Na2SO4 and Na(OH)] has been evaluated by means of a leaching attack in de-mineralized water at the temperature of 40 °C over 180 days. The leaching was carried out according to the ANSI\\/ANS-16.1-1986 test. Moreover, changes of the matrix microstructure

  12. Wet and dry cured compressive strength of concrete containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cengiz Duran Ati?; Cahit Bilim

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a part of an ongoing laboratory investigation in which the compressive strength of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) concrete studied under dry and wet curing conditions. In the study, a total of 45 concretes, including control normal Portland cement (NPC) concrete and GGBFS concrete, were produced with three different water-cement ratios (0.3, 0.4, 0.5), three different cement

  13. Blast furnace slag-modified grouts for in situ stabilization of chromium-contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Allan; L. E. Kukacka

    1995-01-01

    Blast furnace slag-modified grouts were used to stabilize soils contaminated with trivalent and hexavalent chromium. Slag content, grout\\/soil ratio and water\\/cementitious material ratio were varied to determine the effects on leachability of chromium, permeability and compressive strength. Slag-modified grouts successfully stabilized Cr(VI)-contaminated soil to give low leachability, thereby allowing omission of the pretreatment stage to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) necessary

  14. Mechanism of phase separation in BFS (blast furnace slag) glass phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Li; XiaoMing Liu; HengHu Sun; DaQiang Cang

    2011-01-01

    XRD, TEM, ED, and NMR analyzed four types of blast furnace slags (BFS) with different structures in this paper. The composition\\u000a requirement for phase separation in BFS glass phase was then put forward, that is the composition of slag locates in the coexisting\\u000a phase region of melilite and any silicate mineral with Q0 units. The special structure of melilite units,

  15. Effect of phase separation structure on cementitious reactivity of blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Li; HengHu Sun; XiaoMing Liu; ZengDi Cui

    2009-01-01

    Blast furnace slag samples with phase separation structure were prepared by re-melting and then water quenching process. By\\u000a use of XRD, DTA and SEM technologies in combination with mechanical property experiment, the structure characteristics of\\u000a samples were determined and their effects on cementitious reactivity were investigated. The results show that the samples\\u000a with phase separation have better cementitious reactivity than

  16. Ultra low and negative expansion glass-ceramic materials produced from pyrophyllite and blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mandal; S. Chakrabarti; S. Ghatak; S. K. Das

    2005-01-01

    Ultra low and negative expansion glass-ceramic materials have been obtained from pyrophyllite and blast furnace slag. The\\u000a batch composition was modified with the addition of lithium carbonate, hydrated alumina, boric acid and nucleating agent (titania).\\u000a The batch was melted at 1400°C followed by casting in the form of bars and annealed at 510°C for 4 h. The annealed specimens\\u000a were

  17. Hydrolyzed Portland cement clinker and air-cooled blast furnace slag SO{sub 2} sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, M.D.; Kenney, M.E.

    1999-07-01

    The preparation, morphologies, densities, mean particle sizes, surface areas, compositions, SO{sub 2}-uptakes, calcium utilizations and 100% SO{sub 2} capture times of SO{sub 2} flue gas sorbents derived by the hydrolysis of cement clinker and of air-cooled blast furnace slag are described and discussed. The hydrolyzed clinker sorbent is highly effective. While it is less effective, the slag sorbent, because it is so much cheaper, is the more attractive of the two.

  18. Removal of lead and chromium by activated slag -- A blast-furnace waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Srivastava; V. K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan

    1997-01-01

    The blast-furnace waste generated in steel plants has been converted into a low-cost adsorbent. The resulting activated slag has been characterized and used for the removal of lead and chromium. The effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentrations, presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time on the sorption of lead and chromium were studied in batch experiments. Kinetic

  19. Crystallization characteristics of iron-rich glass ceramics prepared from nickel slag and blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong-Jie Wang; Wen Ni; Ke-Qing Li; Xiao-Yan Huang; Li-Ping Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization process of iron-rich glass-ceramics prepared from the mixture of nickel slag (NS) and blast furnace slag\\u000a (BFS) with a small amount of quartz sand was investigated. A modified melting method which was more energy-saving than the\\u000a traditional methods was used to control the crystallization process. The results show that the iron-rich system has much lower\\u000a melting temperature, glass

  20. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  1. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

  2. Process and apparatus for producing blast furnace coke by coal compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Brayton, W.E.; Fun, F.; Hendrickson, L.G.; Shoenberger, R.W.

    1980-01-29

    A method is disclosed of producing blast furnace coke by (1) compacting a finely divided coal wherein at least about 60% by weight of the coal has a diameter of less than about 1/8 inch to form a coal compact, which compact immediately after removal from the compacting means comprises at least about 20% by weight of particles having a particle size of less than 1/4 inch in diameter; (2) breaking the thus formed compact such that the bulk density is sufficiently increased to be capable of conversion into coke suitable for use in large blast furnaces upon carbonization thereof; and (3) carbonizing the broken compact to thereby produce blast furnace coke having a minimum hardness of about 68 and a minimum stability of about 55. The compacting is preferably performed at a pressure equivalent to that achieved by passing the finely divided coal between rolls at a pressure applied to the coal of between about 20 and about 60 tons per linear inch. Also preferably in the breaking step at least about 95% of the compacted coal is reduced to particle sizes range from about one inch to less than about 100 mesh. The invention also includes apparatus for carrying out the above -described process.

  3. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

  4. Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel'nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova [OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), Magnitogorsk, (Russian Federation)

    2009-04-15

    In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

  5. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

    1993-05-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposed study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. The Amanda furnace of Armco is the only one in North America currently using coal injection and is, therefore, the only full scale testing facility available. During this quarter complete petrographic analyses of all of the samples so far collected were completed.

  6. Pilot-plant production of prime western grade zinc from lead blast-furnace slags using the Enviroplas process

    SciTech Connect

    Schoukens, A.F.S.; Denton, G.M.; Jones, R.T. [Mintek, Randburg (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    A 5.6 MVA pyrometallurgical demonstration-scale pilot plant was commissioned at Mintek, South Africa, in 1994, using lead blast-furnace slag and coke as raw materials. The plant included a d.c. power supply, two plasma-are furnaces and an ISP lead-splash condenser. Slags containing typically 12 percent zinc oxide and 3 percent lead oxide are produced as a waste during the smelting of lead in a blast furnace. These slags are a potential resource for the recovery of lead and zinc. During 1994, about 600 t of lead blast-furnace slag was processed through the pilot plant using the Enviroplas process. Zinc and lead oxides were reduced to their respective metals, volatilized, and collected in an ISP lead-splash condenser. Prime Western grade zinc, and slags disposable in accordance with current US legislation, were produced. Zinc condensation efficiencies of about 80 percent were achieved.

  7. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  8. Novel Recognition Method of Blast Furnace Dust Composition by Multifeature Analysis Based on Comprehensive Image-Processing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Bai, Zhenlong; Zhang, Jianliang; Li, Xinyu

    2014-11-01

    The traditional artificial recognition methods for the blast furnace dust composition have several disadvantages, including a great deal of information to dispose, complex operation, and low working efficiency. In this article, a multifeature analysis method based on comprehensive image-processing techniques was proposed to automatically recognize the blast furnace dust composition. First, the artificial recognition and feature analysis, which included image preprocessing, Harris corner feature, Canny edge feature, and Ruffle feature analysis, was designed to build the template image, so that any unknown dust digital image could be tested. Second, the composition of coke, microvariation pulverized coal, vitric, ash, and iron from dust would be distinguished according to their different range of values based on the multifeature analysis. The method is valid for recognizing the blast furnace dust composition automatically, and it is fast and has a high recognition accuracy.

  9. Novel Recognition Method of Blast Furnace Dust Composition by Multifeature Analysis Based on Comprehensive Image-Processing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Bai, Zhenlong; Zhang, Jianliang; Li, Xinyu

    2014-09-01

    The traditional artificial recognition methods for the blast furnace dust composition have several disadvantages, including a great deal of information to dispose, complex operation, and low working efficiency. In this article, a multifeature analysis method based on comprehensive image-processing techniques was proposed to automatically recognize the blast furnace dust composition. First, the artificial recognition and feature analysis, which included image preprocessing, Harris corner feature, Canny edge feature, and Ruffle feature analysis, was designed to build the template image, so that any unknown dust digital image could be tested. Second, the composition of coke, microvariation pulverized coal, vitric, ash, and iron from dust would be distinguished according to their different range of values based on the multifeature analysis. The method is valid for recognizing the blast furnace dust composition automatically, and it is fast and has a high recognition accuracy.

  10. Effect of alkali bypass dust on the hydration of granulated blast furnace slag blended cement

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N.B.; Bhattacharjee, K.N.; Shukla, A.K. [Univ. of Gorakhpur (India). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Gorakhpur (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    The hydration properties of blended cements made from portland cement and a waste material obtained from a Birla White Cement Factory known as an Alkali Bypass Dust were studied. The results showed that 5 to 10 percent addition of this waste material in the portland cement decreased the water requirements, accelerated the hydration, decreased the porosity and increased the compressive strengths at all the ages of hydration. Hydration properties of granulated blast furnace slag blended portland cement in presence of 5% alkali bypass dust have also been studied. The extent of hydration decreased as the amount of slag is increased but the compressive strength values were higher at 28 days.

  11. Distribution of niobium or tantalum between fluorine-containing slag and iron in blast furnace smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qiyong; Deng, Jian; Huang, Shiliang; Fang, Ying

    1990-10-01

    The distribution of Nb or Ta between iron and slag in blast furnace smelting is closely related to Si-Nb or Si-Ta equilibrium. Most of the Nb or Ta enters the iron when the equilibrium distribution of Nb or Ta is reached. The equilibrium distribution ratios of Nb and Ta are substantially independent of both the basicity and the CaF2 content of the slag but are markedly affected by the reaction temperature. The Ta contents in slag and iron were measured by the radioactive isotope182Ta.

  12. Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace hearth breakout, repair and rescue

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.J.; Fischer, A.J.; Sharp, R.M.; Stothart, D.W. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    On May 5, 1994, after producing 9.5 million metric tons of iron, Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace experienced a hearth breakout 250 millimeters below the west taphole. The hot metal spill caused a fire resulting in severe damage and 33 days of lost production. During a 26-day period, electrical wiring, water drainage systems and both tapholes were repaired. Recovery from an unprepared furnace stop of this length, with the deadman depleted is difficult. To aid with the rescue Hoogovens-designed oxygen/fuel lances were commissioned. The furnace recovery began with a lance in each taphole and all tuyeres plugged. Six days after startup the furnace was casting into torpedo cars, and after nine days operation had returned to normal. This incident prompted Dofasco to expand the hearth monitoring system to detect and prevent similar occurrences. During the repair, 203 new thermocouples were installed in the hearth, concentrating on the tapholes and elephant foot areas. These thermocouples were installed at various depths and locations to allow heat flux calculations. This hearth monitoring system has already identified other problem areas and provided valuable information about hearth drainage patterns. This information has allowed them to develop control strategies to manage localized problem areas.

  13. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

  14. Chromium stabilization chemistry of paint removal wastes in Portland cement and blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A. [Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The use of cement based systems for solidification and stabilization of hazardous wastes has been proposed. The stabilization of Cr contaminated paint removal wastes in ordinary Portland cement and in a Portland cement and blast furnace slag matrix was investigated. A loading by volume of 75% waste and 25% cement (or cement + slag) was used. The expression of pore solution was utilized to determine the chemical environment encountered by the waste species in the cement matrix. The highly alkaline conditions of ordinary Portland cement determined the stability of the metal species, with Cr being highly soluble. The replacement of 25% of the Portland cement by blast furnace slag was found to decrease the [OH-] of the pore solution resulting in a decrease of the Cr concentration. For cement wastes forms hydrated for 28 days, the Cr concentration decreased in the expressed pore solution. During the TCLP tests the cement waste form and extraction solution were found to react, changing the chemistry of the extraction solution. The expression of pore solution was found to give a direct measure of the chemistry of the waste species in the cement matrix. This avoids the reaction of the TCLP extraction solution with the cement matrix which changes the solubility of the hazardous metals. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics study of pulverized coal combustion in blast furnace raceway

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.S.; Maldonado, D.; Guo, B.Y.; Yu, A.B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science & Engineering

    2009-12-15

    In this work, a numerical model is used to study the flow and coal combustion along the coal plume in a large-scale setting simulating the lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway region of a blast furnace. The model formulation is validated against the measurements in terms of burnout for both low and high volatile coals. The typical phenomena related to coal combustion along the coal plume are simulated and analyzed. The effects of some operational parameters on combustion behavior are also investigated. The results indicate that oxygen as a cooling gas gives a higher coal burnout than methane and air. The underlying mechanism of coal combustion is explored. It is shown that under the conditions examined, coal burnout strongly depends on the availability of oxygen and residence time. Moreover, the influences of two related issues, i.e. the treatment of volatile matter (VM) and geometric setting in modeling, are investigated. The results show that the predictions of final burnouts using three different VM treatments are just slightly different, but all comparable to the measurements. However, the influence of the geometric setting is not negligible when numerically examining the combustion of pulverized coal under blast furnace conditions.

  16. Model of Draining of the Blast Furnace Hearth with an Impermeable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxén, Henrik

    2015-02-01

    Due to demands of lower costs and higher productivity in the steel industry, the volume of operating blast furnaces has grown during the last decades. As the height is limited by the allowable pressure drop, the hearth diameter has grown considerably and, along with this, also draining-related problems. In this paper a mathematical model is developed for simulating the drainage in the case where an impermeable region exists in the blast furnace hearth. The model describes the quasi-stationary drainage process of a hearth with two operating tapholes, where the communication between the two pools of molten slag and iron can be controlled by parameterized expressions. The model also considers the case where the buoyancy of the liquids is sufficient for lifting the coke bed. The implications of different size of the liquid pools, communication between the pools, bed porosity, etc. are studied by simulation, and conclusions concerning their effect on the drainage behavior and evolution of the liquid levels in the hearth are drawn. The simulated liquid levels are finally demonstrated to give rise to a pressure profile acting on the hearth which agrees qualitatively with signals from strain gauges mounted in the hearth wall of an industrial ironmaking process.

  17. Consumption of residual char in blast furnace during coal injection -- Slag/carbon/gas interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, A.S.; Sahajwalla, V. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Co-operative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilisation; Poveromo, J.J. [Quebec Cartier Mining Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    One of the factors limiting the maximum rate of coal injection in the blast furnace is the accumulation of unburnt char. The interaction of unburnt char with slag, hot metal and the gaseous phases could have a significant influence on char assimilation. This work examines the interaction of a low iron oxide bearing slag with different carbonaceous substrates with varying levels of ash content (0.05%--12.25%). Experiments were conducted in a high temperature tube furnace at 1,500 C (2,732 F) in an argon atmosphere, and the slag/carbon/gas interactions were studied in-situ. The results showed that ash content and composition of the carbonaceous substrates influenced their wettability by the slag. With good wetting, there is a significant decrease in the contact angle from the initiation of melting. The carbonaceous materials that showed good wetting were reacting with the slag phase and resulting in a change in the slag composition. The consumption of carbon could occur when it is in contact with a slag bearing appreciable levels of iron oxide, for example. The kinetics of iron oxide reduction reaction could dictate the consumption rate of carbon in a char present in the blast furnace during coal injection. The dissolution of ash components in a char into the slag phase could also result in the consumption of char during coal injection. These research topics are currently under investigation at the CRC for Black Coal Utilisation in the School of Materials Science and Engineering UNSW, Sydney; the investigation presented here forms a part of the overall study.

  18. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. CFD study of ejector flow behavior in a blast furnace gas galvanizing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besagni, Giorgio; Mereu, Riccardo; Inzoli, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest toward Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as a low-grade energy source for industrial furnaces. This paper considers the revamping of a galvanic plant furnace converted to BFG from natural gas. In the design of the new system, the ejector on the exhaust line is a critical component. This paper studies the flow behavior of the ejector using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The CFD model is based on a 3D representation of the ejector, using air and exhaust gases as working fluids. This paper is divided in three parts. In the first part, the galvanic plant used as case study is presented and discussed, in the second part the CFD approach is outlined, and in the third part the CFD approach is validated using experimental data and the numerical results are presented and discussed. Different Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models ( k-? SST and k-? Realizable) are evaluated in terms of convergence capability and accuracy in predicting the pressure drop along the ejector. Suggestions for future optimization of the system are also provided.

  20. Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag—An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ha-Won Song; Velu Saraswathy

    2006-01-01

    The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of

  1. Characterization of the Tunisian blast-furnace slag and its application in the formulation of a cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basma Samet; Moncef Chaabouni

    2004-01-01

    The Tunisian blast-furnace slag has been characterized by several physicochemical methods to evaluate its hydraulic reactivity. It has been noted that nearly all the slag is glassy, so its use as a replacement of cement is possible.This result has been confirmed by different physical tests applied to blended cements as specific surface, normal consistency, setting time, stability to expansion and

  2. Tensile and fiber dispersion performance of ECC (engineered cementitious composites) produced with ground granulated blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Keun Kim; Jeong-Su Kim; Gee Joo Ha; Yun Yong Kim

    2007-01-01

    An engineered cementitious composite (ECC) produced with ground granulated blast furnace slag was developed for the purpose of achieving moderately high composite strength while maintaining high ductility, represented by strain-hardening behavior in uniaxial tension. In the material development, single fiber pullout tests and matrix fracture tests were performed, followed by micromechanical analyses to properly select the range of mixture proportion.

  3. Study of thaumasite and ettringite phases formed in sulfate\\/blast furnace slag slurries using XRD full pattern fitting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Barnett; M. A. Halliwell; N. J. Crammond; C. D. Adam; A. R. W. Jackson

    2002-01-01

    The thaumasite form of sulfate attack (TSA) has been investigated using a method known to accelerate the formation of the sulfate minerals thaumasite, ettringite and gypsum. Mixes containing different cements and aggregates in magnesium sulfate solution were prepared at different water:solid ratios. The work concentrated, in particular, on the role of blast furnace slag as a cementitious material in preventing

  4. Effect of perovskite phase precipitation on viscosity of Ti-bearing blast furnace slag under the dynamic oxidation condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zhang; M. Y. Wang; T. P. Lou; Z. T. Sui; J. S. Jang

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the dynamic oxidation on the viscosity of Ti-bearing blast furnace slag, on a selective enrichment, a precipitation and a growth of the Ti component were studied. The oxygen source was the air that was blown into the molten slag through a lance during the dynamic oxidation process. It was found that the oxidation of TiC, metallic Fe,

  5. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

  6. AN INVESTIGATION OF FOREIGN BY-PRODUCT COKE PLANT AND BLAST FURNACE WASTEWATER CONTROL TECHNOLOGY AND REGULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine if more effective wastewater control technologies for by-product coke plant and blast furnace gas-cleaning wastewaters are used in foreign plants than in the U.S. Discussions were held with plant and corporate personnel at 26 plant...

  7. Process Development for the Removal of Zinc and Cadmium from Wastewater Using Slag—A Blast Furnace Waste Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Gupta; Arshi Rastogi; M. K. Dwivedi; Dinesh Mohan

    1997-01-01

    Blast furnace slag, a waste generated in steel plants in India, has been converted into a low cost potential adsorbent. The resulting product has been characterized and used for the removal of zinc and cadmium. The effect of particle size, contact time, and surface loading of zinc and cadmium on the adsorbent for their removal have been studied at the

  8. Strengthening effects of finely ground fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag, and their combination

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K. [Southwest Inst. of Tech., Mianyang, Sichuan (China)] [Southwest Inst. of Tech., Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Pu, X. [Chongqing Jianzhu Univ. (China)] [Chongqing Jianzhu Univ. (China)

    1998-12-01

    The effect of finely ground fly ash (FGFA), finely ground granulated blast furnace slag (FGGBS), and their combination on the compressive strength of concrete was studied. Test results showed that incorporating 20% FGFA or FGGBS can significantly increase the compressive strength of concrete after 3 days. The compressive strength of concrete incorporating the combination of FGFA and FGGBS is higher than both FGFA concrete and FGGBS concrete, and is quantitatively similar to that of silica fume concrete. Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed that, after the incorporation of the combination of FGFA and FGGBS, a great quantity of a stick-like substance exist in the surface of hardened paste being investigated. The electron probe x-ray microanalyzer analysis showed that the stick-like substance was most probably the sheet C-S-H rolled up during specimen preparation for scanning electron microscopic analysis, which may be the mechanism of the strengthening effect of the combination of FGFA and FGGBS.

  9. Alkali-silicate admixture for cement composites incorporating pozzolan or blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Zivica, V. (Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Inst. of construction and Architecture)

    1993-09-01

    This research was devoted to the study of the influence of the developed alkali-silicate admixture (AS admixture) on mortar properties. The obtained results shown that the admixture significantly increased the strength of the mortars made from portland cement (PC) and silica fume (SF) or blast furnace slag (SL). For example after 24 h hardening of mortar (30% SF + 70% PC), with the admixture, reached value of compression strength 18,7 MPa opposite to the value of 5.6 MPa of control mortar (100% PC). The same accelerating effect of AS admixture was observed also with mortar incorporating slag and with slag mortar (100% SL). Further results show that the mortars with AS admixture had an increased content of hydration products and substantially more dense pore structure than mortars of the same composition, but without the admixture.

  10. Properties of blast-furnace slags containing high amounts of manganese

    SciTech Connect

    Pera, J.; Ambroise, J.; Chabannet, M. [Inst. National des Sciences Appliquees, Lyon (France). Unite de Recherche Genie Civil-Materiaux] [Inst. National des Sciences Appliquees, Lyon (France). Unite de Recherche Genie Civil-Materiaux

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents results of tests performed to characterize the physical and chemical properties of five blast-furnace slags having MnO content up to 21%. The interactions between ordinary Portland cement or calcium oxide and each slag were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and thermoanalysis. Mortars and concretes using these slags were cast. When ground to a Blaine surface area of 300 m{sup 2}/kg, the slags were utilized in road binders in combination with calcium oxide or Portland cement. When ground to a Blaine surface area of 600 m{sup 2}/kg, the slags were introduced into the composition of different concretes instead of fly ash or silica fume. Based on the resulting high strengths, fine grinding of manganese-rich slag for use in concrete appears to be a good way of beneficiation.

  11. Pore solution chemistry of alkali-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Song, S.; Jennings, H.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)] [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1999-02-01

    The chemical composition and pH of the pore solution extracted from six different ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) pastes were determined. The concentrations of Si, Ca, Al, and Mg are functions of the pH of the aqueous phase, with high pH associated with the higher concentrations of Si and Al and the lower concentrations of Ca and Mg. When GGBFS is mixed with an aqueous phase with pH higher than 11.5, the reaction is activated or accelerated. The main hydration product was identified as C-S-H, and hydrotalcite, at later stages of hydration, was observed in the pastes with an aqueous phase of a high pH. The effect of pore solution on the alkali activation of GGBFS is discussed with reference to the hydration products.

  12. Hydrothermal preparation of tobermorite from blast furnace slag for Cs+ and Sr2+ sorption.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Takuma; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Miyake, Michihiro

    2014-02-15

    Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite was formed by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of blast furnace slag with sodium silicate added at 180°C for 2-48 h. Effects of the hydrothermal treatment time were characterized by XRD, SEM, and isothermal adsorption of N2. Sorption characteristics of the obtained samples were examined for Cs(+) and Sr(2+). The sample obtained by hydrothermal treatment for 48 h (HT-48 h) consisted of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), and Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite. The HT-48 h showed the highest performance for Cs(+) and Sr(2+) selectivity in the presence of Na(+). The interlayer Na(+) of Al-substituted 11?-tobermorite and surface Ca(2+) played an important role in selective Cs(+) and Sr(2+). PMID:24412625

  13. Fabrication of porous materials from blast furnace slag and glass materials by the hydrothermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    Since a large amount of blast furnace (BF) slag is generated, its new recycling processes for the production of valuable materials have been required. Development of reusing method for waste glasses is also strongly demanded. The authors have tried to fabricate porous materials from those two materials by using the hydrothermal treatment. In the present work, hydrothermal hot pressing technique was conducted at 250-350°C. From BF slag, a heat-insulating material was obtained, possessing the low thermal conductivity of 0.25 W / m K. SiO2-Na2O-B2O3 glass was converted into glass containing water which exhibits the foaming as low as 200°C and becomes porous glass material.

  14. Improvement of the Blast Furnace Viscosity Prediction Model Based on Discrete Points Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhu, Mengyi; Li, Xinyu; Guo, Jian; Du, Shen; Zhang, Jianliang

    2015-02-01

    Viscosity is considered to be a significant indicator of the metallurgical property of blast furnace slag. An improved model for viscosity prediction based on the Chou model was presented in this article. The updated model has optimized the selection strategy of distance algorithm and negative weights at the reference points. Therefore, the extensionality prediction disadvantage in the original model was ameliorated by this approach. The model prediction was compared with viscosity data of slags of compositions typical to BF operations obtained from a domestic steel plant. The results show that the approach can predict the viscosity with average error of 9.23 pct and mean standard deviation of 0.046 Pa s.

  15. Effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag particle size distribution on paste rheology: A preliminary model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashani, Alireza; Provis, John L.; van Deventer, Jannie S. J.

    2013-06-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely combined with Portland cement as a supplementary material, and is also used in alkali-activated binders (geopolymers) and in supersulfated cements, which are potential replacements for Portland cement with significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The rheology of a cementitious material is important in terms of its influence on workability, especially in self leveling concretes. The current research investigates the effects of different particle size distributions of slag particles on paste rheology. Rheological measurements results show a direct relationship between the modal particle size and the yield stress of the paste. An empirical model is introduced to calculate the yield stress value of each paste based on the particle size distribution, and applied to a range of systems at single water to solids ratio. The model gives a very good match with the experimental data.

  16. Blast furnace residues for arsenic removal from mining-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Pedroza, Fco Raúl; Soria-Aguilar, Ma de Jesús; Martínez-Luevanos, Antonia; Narvaez-García, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    In this work, blast furnace (BF) residues were well characterized and then evaluated as an adsorbent material for arsenic removal from a mining-contaminated groundwater. The adsorption process was analysed using the theories of Freundlich and Langmuir. BF residues were found to be an effective sorbent for As (V) ions. The modelling of adsorption isotherms by empirical models shows that arsenate adsorption is fitted by the Langmuir model, suggesting a monolayer adsorption of arsenic onto adsorbents. Arsenate adsorption onto BF residue is explained by the charge density surface affinity and by the formation of Fe (II) and Fe (III) corrosion products onto BF residue particles. The results indicate that BF residues represent an attractive low-cost absorbent option for the removal of arsenic in wastewater treatment. PMID:25189836

  17. Solidification of arsenic and heavy metal containing tailings using cement and blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Wook; Jung, Myung Chae

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the solidification of toxic elements in tailings by the use of cement and blast furnace slag. Tailings samples were taken at an Au-Ag mine in Korea. To examine the best mixing ratio of tailings and the mixture of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and blast furnace slag (SG) of 5:5, 6:6, 7:3, and 8:2, the 7:3 ratio of tailings and OPC+SG was adapted. In addition, the mixing ratios of water and OPC + SG were applied to 10, 20, and 30 wt%. After 7, 14, and 28 days' curing, the UCS test was undertaken. A relatively high strength of solidified material (137.2 kg cm?² in average of 3 samples) at 28 days' curing was found in 20 wt% of water content (WC). This study also examined the leachability of arsenic and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) under the Korean Standard Leaching Test, and it showed that the reductions in leachabilities of As and heavy metals of solidified samples were ranged from 76 to 99%. Thus, all the solidified samples were within the guidelines for special and hazardous waste materials by the Waste Management Act in Korea. In addition, the result of freeze-thaw cycle test of the materials indicated that the durability of the materials was sufficient. In conclusion, solidification using a 7:3 mixing ratio of tailings and a 1:1 mixture of OPC + SG with 20% of WC is one of the best methods for the remediation of arsenic and heavy metals in tailings and other contaminated materials. PMID:21063751

  18. Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

    2008-03-01

    Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used. PMID:17462882

  19. Mechanism of physical transformations of mineral matter in the blast furnace coke with reference to its reactivity and strength

    SciTech Connect

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

    2006-12-15

    Examinations of polished and dry cut sections of feed and tuyere coke revealed some possible mechanisms for the physical influence of mineral compounds on the reactivity and strength of coke. It was observed that rounded particles of mineral phases that are exposed to the pore walls and surface of coke at high temperature create an inorganic cover, thus reducing the surface available for gas-solid reactions. The particles of mineral matter that have a low melting point and viscosity can affect the coke at earlier stages in the blast furnace process, acting in the upper parts of the blast furnace (BF). The temperature-driven redistribution of mineral phases within the coke matrix probably leads to the creation of weak spots and in general to anisotropy in its properties, thus reducing its strength. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Recovery of titanium compounds from molten Ti-bearing blast furnace slag under the dynamic oxidation condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zhang; M. Y. Wang; G. Q. Li; Z. T. Sui

    2007-01-01

    A novel technique to recover Titanium compounds from Ti-bearing blast furnace slag under the dynamic oxidation condition was developed and tested. Air was blown into the molten slag as oxygen resource through a lance during the dynamic oxidation process, in which six important results were found: (1) The TiC, (Ti2O3), Fe and (FeO) in the slag were oxidized; (2) The

  1. Mechanical activation of granulated blast furnace slag and its effect on the properties and structure of portland slag cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kumar; Rakesh Kumar; A. Bandopadhyay; T. C. Alex; B. Ravi Kumar; S. K. Das; S. P. Mehrotra

    2008-01-01

    Mechanically activated granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) was used in the range of 50–95% to replace clinker in portland slag cement (PSC). The slag and clinker were activated separately using an attrition mill and mixed to prepare cement formulations. Use of activated slag resulted in a remarkable increase in strength vis-à-vis commercial slag cement. Both 1-day and 28-day strength were

  2. Study of the hydration of Portland cement blended with blast-furnace slag by calorimetry and thermogravimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gruyaert; N. Robeyst; N. De Belie

    2010-01-01

    The hydration of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) blended with blast-furnace slag (BFS) is a complex process since both materials\\u000a have their own reactions which are, however, influenced by each other. Moreover, the effect of the slag on the hydration process\\u000a is still not entirely known and little research concerning the separation of both reactions can be found in the literature.

  3. Synergistic effect of fly ash and blast furnace slag on the mechanical strength of traditional porcelain tiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kausik Dana; Jayanta Dey; Swapan Kumar Das

    2005-01-01

    Fly ash and blast furnace slag, the by-products of Indian thermal power plant and steel plant, were gradually added to a traditional kaolin—quartz—feldspar based porcelain tile compositions singly and in combination by replacing a part of quartz and feldspar, respectively. The effects of such additions were studied by measuring the linear shrinkage, bulk density, water absorption and flexural strength of

  4. Calculation of radiation attenuation coefficients in Portland cements mixed with silica fume, blast furnace slag and natural zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?brahim Türkmen; Yüksel Özdemir; Murat Kurudirek; Faruk Demir; Önder Simsek; Ramazan Demirbo?a

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the radiation attenuation coefficients expressed as mass attenuation coefficients for Portland cement, zeolite, blast furnace slag, silica fume and their mixed types in function of the Photon energy over the energy range of 1keV to 2MeV. It was observed that different percentages of constituents in cement and cement mixed with different additives such as zeolite, silica fume

  5. Removal of Arsenic(III) from Groundwater using Low-Cost Industrial By-products—Blast Furnace Slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushil Raj Kanel; Heechul Choi; Ju-Yong Kim; Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran; Wang Geun Shim

    2006-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS), a steel industrial by-product, was tested for the removal of As(III), which is a highly toxic, mobile and predominant species in anoxic groundwater. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to determine the feasibility of BFS as an adsorbent for removing As(III) from groundwater as As(III) concentration and the pH of water were varied. The maximum As(III) adsorption

  6. A New Approach for Studying Softening and Melting Behavior of Particles in a Blast Furnace Cohesive Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenjing; Zhou, Zongyan; Pinson, David; Yu, Aibing

    2015-04-01

    The cohesive zone where ferrous burden materials soften and melt plays a critical role in determining the performance and stability of a blast furnace. The softening and melting behavior of ore particles significantly affects the layer permeability and structure, and subsequently changes the gas/liquid distribution and heat transfer in the cohesive zone. Wax balls are often used in physical experiments to study the ore softening and melting behavior because of their low melting temperature. In this work, a new approach on the basis of discrete element method is established. The relationship between Young's modulus ( E) and temperature ( T) of wax balls is first proposed based on the experimental data, and then implemented into a DEM model. The particle deformation, temperature, coordination number, and gas pressure drop under conditions relevant to blast furnace operations are then examined. The results show that the proposed approach can capture the main features of softening and melting behavior of particles. On this basis, the effects of a few variables are investigated. The approach and results should be useful to the establishment of a comprehensive picture about softening and melting behavior, and its effect on blast furnace operations.

  7. Thermodynamics of TiO{sub x} in blast furnace-type slags

    SciTech Connect

    Morizane, Y.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1999-02-01

    Equilibrium studies between CaO-SiO{sub 2}-10 pct MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 1.5}-TiO{sub 2} slags, carbon-saturated iron, and a carbon monoxide atmosphere were performed at 1773 K to determine the activities of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} in the slag. These thermodynamic parameters are required to predict the formation of titanium carbonitride in the blast furnace. In order to calculate the activity of titanium oxide, the activity coefficient of titanium in carbon-saturated iron-carbon-titanium alloys was determined by measuring the solubility of titanium in carbon-saturated iron in equilibrium with titanium carbide. The solubility and the activity coefficient of titanium obtained were 1.3 pct and 0.023 relative to 1 wt pct titanium in liquid iron or 0.0013 relative to pure solid titanium at 1773 K, respectively. Over the concentration range studied, the effect of the TiO{sub x} content on its activity coefficient is small. In the slag system studied containing 35 to 50 pct CaO, 25 to 45 pct SiO{sub 2}, 7 to 22 pct Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 10 pct MgO, the activity coefficients of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} relative to pure solid standard states range from 2.3 to 8.8 and from 0.1 to 0.3, respectively. Using thermodynamic data obtained, the prediction of the formation of titanium carbonitride was made. Assuming hypothetical TiO{sub 2}, i.e., total titanium in the slag expressed as TiO{sub 2}, and using the values of the activity coefficients of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} determined, the equilibrium distribution of titanium between blast furnace-type slags and carbon-saturated iron was computed. The value of [pct Ti]/(pct TiO{sub 2}) ranges from 0.1 to 0.2.

  8. An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

    2007-09-15

    Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Ultrasonic-Assisted Acid Leaching of Indium from Blast Furnace Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xingmei; Li, Liaosha; Wu, Zhaojin; Lü, Huihong; Lü, Jia

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted acid leaching was used to improve extraction of indium from blast furnace sludge. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time on extraction of indium were investigated and three leaching methods of high temperature acid leaching (HL), ultrasonic acid leaching (UL), and high temperature-ultrasonic acid leaching (HUL) were compared. The results show that extraction of indium increases with leaching time for all the methods. UL exhibits the lowest indium extraction. For HL, extraction of indium reaches 32.6 pct when the leaching time is 4 hours, and after 4 hours, the extraction increases slowly. Leaching temperature has a more positive effect on extraction of indium than ultrasonic. HUL can lead to a higher extraction of indium than high temperature acid leaching and UL, and extraction of indium reaches 40.4 pct when the leaching time is 2 hours. After 2 hours, no obvious increase occurs. HUL not only increases extraction of indium but also reduces the leaching time which can improve production efficiency.

  10. Effect of Carbon Aggregates on the Properties of Carbon Refractories for a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xilai; Li, Yawei; Li, Yuanbing; Sang, Shaobai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Shujing; Jin, Shengli; Ge, Shan

    2010-04-01

    The effect of carbon aggregates on the carbon refractory properties for a blast furnace was studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), an energy-dispersive X-ray, mercury porosimetry, a resistivity instrument, and a laser thermal conductivity meter. The results showed that the microporous structure of a sample was determined by the amount of ?-SiC whiskers. The thermal conductivity was controlled by the thermal conductivity of the corresponding carbon aggregate, and the alkali and molten-iron attack was decided mainly by the pore and the graphitization degree of aggregate, respectively. For samples using calcined anthracites as aggregates, the microporous structure became worse, the thermal conductivity increased, and the molten-iron as well as the alkali attack became more severe with an increase in the anthracite calcining temperature. For all samples, microcrystalline graphite possessed the best microporous structure and the least alkali and molten-iron attack, whereas the graphite electrode scraps had the highest thermal conductivity and the most severe alkali and molten-iron attack.

  11. Evaluation of blast furnace slag as basal media for eelgrass bed.

    PubMed

    Hizon-Fradejas, Amelia B; Nakano, Yoichi; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2009-07-30

    Two types of blast furnace slag (BFS), granulated (GS) and air-cooled slag (ACS), were evaluated as basal media for eelgrass bed. Evaluation was done by comparing BFS samples with natural eelgrass sediment (NES) in terms of some physico-chemical characteristics and then, investigating growth of eelgrass both in BFS and NES. In terms of particle size, both BFS samples were within the range acceptable for growing eelgrass. However, compared with NES, low silt-clay content for ACS and lack of organic matter content for both BFS samples were found. Growth experiment showed that eelgrass can grow in both types of BFS, although growth rates in BFS samples shown by leaf elongation were slower than that in NES. The possible reasons for stunted growth in BFS were assumed to be lack of organic matter and release of some possible toxins from BFS. Reduction of sulfide content of BFS samples did not result to enhanced growth; though sulfide release was eliminated, release of Zn was greater than before treatment and concentration of that reached to alarming amounts. PMID:19150584

  12. Blast furnace slag-modified grouts for in situ stabilization of chromium-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Blast furnace slag-modified grouts were used to stabilize soils contaminated with trivalent and hexavalent chromium. Slag content, grout/soil ratio and water/cementitious material ratio were varied to determine the effects on leachability of chromium, permeability and compressive strength. Slag-modified grouts successfully stabilized Cr(VI)-contaminated soil to give low leachability, thereby allowing omission of the pretreatment stage to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) necessary with lime and ordinary Portland cement stabilization procedures. Leachability of both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) decreased with increasing slag content. The permanence of leach resistance is enhanced by higher slag levels in grout. Compressive strength of grout-treated soil ranges from 6 to 36 MPa and permeability is of the order of 10{sup {minus}11} to 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s, depending on mix proportions. Slag-modified grouts have potential for in situ stabilization of Cr(III)- or Cr(VI)-contaminated landfills.

  13. Phase Development of NaOH Activated Blast Furnace Slag Geopolymers Cured at 90 deg. C

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Bo; Bigley, C.; Ryan, M. J. [Industrial Research Limited, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); MacKenzie, K. J. D. [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Brown, I. W. M. [Industrial Research Limited, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)

    2009-07-23

    Geopolymers were synthesized from blast furnace slag activated with different levels of NaOH and cured at 90 deg. C. The crystalline and amorphous phases of the resulting geopolymers were characterized by XRD quantitative analysis, and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR. Amorphous species are predominant in materials at all NaOH levels. In the amorphous phase, aluminium substituted silicate species (Q{sup 2}(1Al)) dominated among the species of Q{sup 0}, Q{sup 1}, Q{sup 2}(1Al) and Q{sup 2}(where Q{sup n}(mAl) denotes a silicate tetrahedron [SiO{sub 4}] with n bridging oxygen atoms and m adjacent tetrahedra substituted with an aluminate tetrahedron [AlO{sub 4}]). In addition, it was also found that 4-fold coordination aluminium [AlO{sub 4}] species ({sup 27}Al chemical shift 66.1 ppm) in low NaOH containing materials differs from the species ({sup 27}Al chemical shift 74.3 ppm) in high NaOH containing materials.

  14. Chloride leaching from air pollution control residues solidified using ground granulated blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Lampris, Christos; Stegemann, Julia A; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2008-11-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs) has been used to solidify air pollution control (APC) residues obtained from a major UK energy-from-waste plant. Samples were prepared with ggbs additions between 10 and 50 wt% of total dry mass and water/solids ratios between 0.35 and 0.80. Consistence, setting time, compressive strength and leaching characteristics have been investigated. Results indicated that the highly alkaline nature of APC residues due to the presence of free lime can be used to activate ggbs hydration reactions. Increasing ggbs additions and reducing the water content resulted in increased compressive strengths, with 50 wt% ggbs samples having average 28 d strengths of 20.6 MPa. Leaching tests indicate low physical encapsulation and minimal chemical fixation of chloride in ggbs solidified APC residues. The results suggest that more than 50 wt% ggbs additions would be required to treat APC residues to meet the current waste acceptance criteria limits for chloride. PMID:18805564

  15. Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    U?ur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Ye?ingil, Z

    2013-01-01

    The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1). PMID:22826355

  16. Preparation of glass-forming materials from granulated blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, M.; Sainz, E.; Lopez, F.A. [National Center of Metallurgical Research, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Materials Recycling

    1996-10-01

    Glass precursor materials to be used for the vitrification of hazardous wastes, have been prepared from blast furnace slag powder through a sol-gel route. The slag is initially reacted with a mixture of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) and mineral acid (HNO{sub 3} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to give a sol principally consisting of Si, Ca, Al, and Mg alkoxides. Gelation is carried out with variable amounts of either ammonia or water. The gelation rate can be made as fast as desired by adding excess hydrolyzing agent or else by distilling the excess alcohol out of the alkoxide solution. The resulting gel is first dried at low temperature and ground. The powder thus obtained is then heat treated at several temperatures. The intermediate and final materials are characterized by thermal analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. From the results, the operating conditions yielding a variety of glass precursors differing in their composition are established. The method, in comparison with direct vitrification of slag, presents a number of advantages: (1) the glass precursor obtained devitrifies at higher temperatures; (2) it enables the adjustment, to a certain extent, of the chemical composition of the glass precursor; and (3) it permits recovering marketable materials at different stages of the process.

  17. Strength properties of concrete incorporating coal bottom ash and granulated blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Omer; Yüksel, Isa; Murato?lu, Ozgür

    2007-01-01

    Coal bottom ash (CBA) and fly ash (FA) are by-products of thermal power plants. Granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) is developed during iron production in iron and steel plants. This research was conducted to evaluate the compressive strength property and some durability characteristics of concrete incorporating FA, CBA, and GBFS. FA is used as an effective partial cement replacement; CBA and GBFS are used as partial replacement for fine aggregate without grinding. Water absorption capacity, unit weight and compressive strengths in 7, 28, and 90-day ages were assessed experimentally. For these experiments, concrete specimens were produced in the laboratory in appropriate shapes. The samples are divided into two main categories: M1, which incorporated CBA and GBFS; and M2, which incorporated FA, CBA, and GBFS. Remarkable decreases are observed in compressive strength and water absorption capacity of the concrete; bulk density of the concrete is also decreased. It can be concluded that if the content of CBA and GBFS is limited to a reasonable amount, the small decreases in strength can be accepted for low strength concrete works. PMID:16580833

  18. Blast furnace slag can effectively remediate coastal marine sediments affected by organic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji

    2010-04-01

    There is an urgent need to control nutrient release fluxes from organically-enriched sediments into overlying waters to alleviate the effects of eutrophication. This study aims to characterize blast furnace slag (BFS) and evaluate its remediation performance on organically-enriched sediments in terms of suppressing nutrient fluxes and reducing acid volatile sulfide. BFS was mainly composed of inorganic substances such as CaO, SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and MgO in amorphous crystal phase. Container experiments showed that the phosphate concentration in the overlying water, its releasing flux from sediment and AVS of the sediment decreased by 17-23%, 39% and 16% compared to the control without BFS, respectively. The loss on ignition was significantly decreased by 3.6-11% compared to the control. Thus, the application of BFS to organically-enriched sediment has a suppressive role on organic matter, AVS concentration and phosphate releasing flux from sediments and therefore, is a good candidate as an effective environmental remediation agent. PMID:20003992

  19. Durability of traditional plasters with respect to blast furnace slag-based plaster

    SciTech Connect

    Cerulli, T.; Pistolesi, C.; Maltese, C.; Salvioni, D

    2003-09-01

    Blast furnace slag is a residue of steel production. It is a latent hydraulic binder and is normally used to improve the durability of concrete and mortars. Slag could be also used as rendering mortar for masonry and old buildings. Today, cement and hydraulic lime are the most popular hydraulic binders used to make plasters. They are characterised by a low durability when exposed to the action of chemical and physical agents. The aim of this study was to provide a comparison between the physical-mechanical properties of some renders made with ordinary Portland cement, hydraulic lime, or slag. Furthermore, an investigation was carried out to analyse mortar resistance to several aggressive conditions like acid attack, freezing and thawing cycles, abrasion, sulphate aggression, cycles in ultraviolet screening device, and salt diffusion. The specimens, after chemical attack, have been characterised from the chemical-physical [specific surface according to the BET (Brunauer-Emmet-Teller) method], crystal-chemical (X-ray diffraction, XRD), and morphological (scanning electron microscopy, SEM) points of view.

  20. Removal of lead and chromium by activated slag -- A blast-furnace waste

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Mohan, D. [Univ. of Roorkee (India). Chemistry Dept.

    1997-05-01

    The blast-furnace waste generated in steel plants has been converted into a low-cost adsorbent. The resulting activated slag has been characterized and used for the removal of lead and chromium. The effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentrations, presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time on the sorption of lead and chromium were studied in batch experiments. Kinetic studies were undertaken to have an idea of the mechanistic aspects of the process. The uptake of lead is found to be greater than that of chromium. Adsorption on activated slag follows both Freundlich and Langmuir models. In addition, a series of fixed-bed experiments were performed in an attempt to simulate industrial conditions. The bed-depth-service-time (BDST) model proposed by Hutchins was successfully applied to the sorptive removal of lead. Some experiments were also performed with a view to recover Pb{sup 2+} and chemically regenerate the spent slag columns in situ.

  1. Phosphorus retention capacity of iron-ore and blast furnace slag in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Grüneberg, B; Kern, J

    2001-01-01

    The suitability of iron-ore and blast furnace slag for subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands was studied over a period of four months. Dairy farm wastewater (TP 45 mg l(-1)) was percolated through buckets planted with reed (volume 9.1 l; hydraulic load 151 m(-2) d(-1)). One group of buckets was kept under aerobic conditions and the other group under anaerobic conditions, monitored by continuous redox potential measurements. Even at high mass loading rates of 0.65 g P m(-1) d(-1) the slag provided 98% removal efficiency and showed no decrease in performance with time. However, phosphorus fractionation data indicate that the high phosphorus retention capacity under aerobic conditions is to a great extent attributable to unstable sorption onto calcium compounds (NH4Cl-P). Phosphorus sorption of both the slag (200 microg P g(-1)) and the iron-ore (140 microg P g(-1)) was promoted by predominantly anaerobic conditions due to continuous formation of amorphous ferrous hydroxides. None of the substrates had adverse affects on reed growth. PMID:11804160

  2. on the Crystallization Behaviors of Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slags Using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Li, Jing; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2014-08-01

    The present paper investigates how the P2O5 addition influences the crystallization behaviors of Ti-bearing blast furnace (Ti-BF) slags with different basicity using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique. It was found that the basicity showed a significant effect on the crystallization behaviors of the Ti-BF slags, and the trend of formation of the rod-shape crystal decreased while the trend of formation of dendrite crystal increased with increasing basicity. The addition of P2O5 was found to promote the formation of rod-shape crystal. The basicity and crystallization temperature that the rod-shape crystal could be formed increased, while the incubation time of formation of the rod-shape crystal decreased with increasing P2O5 content. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to observe the morphology and determine the crystalline phase of the Ti-enriched crystals. The results indicated that the rod-shape crystal was rutile. The kinetics of the formation of rutile was studied, and the mechanism of crystallization and growth was further discussed. The results indicated that the crystallization of rutile was one-dimensional interface-controlled growth, and the nucleation rate varied with the holding time.

  3. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas. PMID:15382877

  4. on the Structure and Viscous Behavior of Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Liao, Junlin; Zheng, Kai; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2014-10-01

    This study provided a fundamental analysis of the viscous behavior and structure of Ti-bearing blast furnace slags modified by different B2O3 additions with a basicity (CaO/SiO2) range of 0.5-0.9. The viscosity of slag melts was measured by rotating cylinder method, and the results showed that both slag viscosity and apparent activation energy for viscous flow remarkably decreased with B2O3 addition. To connect the viscosity variation of slags to the melt structure, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy analysis was performed. The results indicated that B2O3 acted as a typical network forming oxide, which was introduced into the network and existed dominantly as a two-dimensional structure, BO3 triangular. With the increase of B2O3 content, the stretching vibration of BO3 triangular gradually became more pronounced, which resulted in a simpler and less complex structure and caused the decrease of slag viscosity.

  5. Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, A. A.; Maslehuddin, M.; Garwan, M. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Al-Amoudi, O. S. B.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Raashid, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 ± 0.011 and 0.038 ± 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

  6. Preparation of glass-forming materials from granulated blast furnace slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, M.; Sáinz, E.; Lopez, F. A.

    1996-10-01

    Glass precursor materials, to be used for the vitrification of hazardous wastes, have been prepared from blast furnace slag powder through a sol-gel route. The slag is initially reacted with a mixture of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) and mineral acid (HNO3 or H2SO4) to give a sol principally consisting of Si, Ca, Al, and Mg alkoxides. Gelation is carried out with variable amounts of either ammonia or water. The gelation rate can be made as fast as desired by adding excess hydrolizing agent or else by distilling the excess alcohol out of the alkoxide solution. The resulting gel is first dried at low temperature and ground. The powder thus obtained is then heat treated at several temperatures. The intermediate and final materials are characterized by thermal analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. From the results, the operating conditions yielding a variety of glass precursors differing in their composition are established. The method, in comparison with direct vitrification of slag, presents a number of advantages: (1) the glass precursor obtained devitrifies at higher temperatures; (2) it enables the adjustment, to a certain extent, of the chemical composition of the glass precursor; and (3) it permits recovering marketable materials at different stages of the process.

  7. Crystallization characteristics of iron-rich glass ceramics prepared from nickel slag and blast furnace slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong-Jie; Ni, Wen; Li, Ke-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Li-Ping

    2011-08-01

    The crystallization process of iron-rich glass-ceramics prepared from the mixture of nickel slag (NS) and blast furnace slag (BFS) with a small amount of quartz sand was investigated. A modified melting method which was more energy-saving than the traditional methods was used to control the crystallization process. The results show that the iron-rich system has much lower melting temperature, glass transition temperature ( T g), and glass crystallization temperature ( T c), which can result in a further energy-saving process. The results also show that the system has a quick but controllable crystallization process with its peak crystallization temperature at 918°C. The crystallization of augite crystals begins from the edge of the sample and invades into the whole sample. The crystallization process can be completed in a few minutes. A distinct boundary between the crystallized part and the non-crystallized part exists during the process. In the non-crystallized part showing a black colour, some sphere-shaped augite crystals already exist in the glass matrix before samples are heated to T c. In the crystallized part showing a khaki colour, a compact structure is formed by augite crystals.

  8. Phase Development of NaOH Activated Blast Furnace Slag Geopolymers Cured at 90° C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; MacKenzie, K. J. D.; Bigley, C.; Ryan, M. J.; Brown, I. W. M.

    2009-07-01

    Geopolymers were synthesized from blast furnace slag activated with different levels of NaOH and cured at 90° C. The crystalline and amorphous phases of the resulting geopolymers were characterized by XRD quantitative analysis, and 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR. Amorphous species are predominant in materials at all NaOH levels. In the amorphous phase, aluminium substituted silicate species (Q2(1Al)) dominated among the species of Q0, Q1, Q2(1Al) and Q2 (where Qn(mAl) denotes a silicate tetrahedron [SiO4] with n bridging oxygen atoms and m adjacent tetrahedra substituted with an aluminate tetrahedron [AlO4]). In addition, it was also found that 4-fold coordination aluminium [AlO4] species (27Al chemical shift 66.1 ppm) in low NaOH containing materials differs from the species (27Al chemical shift 74.3 ppm) in high NaOH containing materials.

  9. Drilling fluid conversion: Selection and use of Portland or blast-furnace-slag cement

    SciTech Connect

    Schlemmer, R.P.; Branam, N.E.; Edwards, T.M.; Valenziano, R.C.

    1994-12-01

    Conversion of drilling mud to oilwell cement has advanced from an unpredictable laboratory curiosity to a practical reality. Recent field introduction of polymer dispersants, organic accelerators, and an alternative cementitious material have provided two refined and practical conversion methods. Each method claims universal applicability plus performance superior to that of conventionally mixed and pumped Portland cement. Both blast-furnace-slag (BFS) and Portland cement are used for drilling-mud conversion. Portland and BFS mud conversions can use the same recently developed polymer dispersants, filtration-control materials, defoamers, and other additives that are typically used to treat high-temperature, highly-salt-contaminated drilling muds. Experience in the field and laboratory has demonstrated that conversion with BFS or Portland cement is essentially one technology from a pilot-test and application standpoint. While use of these two materials reflects essentially one technology, distinct performance and cost differences exist. These differences define the specific economic application advantages and must be considered when a decision to use BFS or Portland cement is made. Rational selection of mud-to-cement conversion depends on a detailed economic comparison of basic materials, logistics, and equipment availability.

  10. Use of blast furnace granulated slag as a substrate in vertical flow reed beds: field application.

    PubMed

    Asuman Korkusuz, E; Beklio?lu, Meryem; Demirer, Göksel N

    2007-08-01

    Research was conducted at Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey in 2000 to determine whether a reed bed filled with an economical Turkish fill media that has high phosphorus (P) sorption capacity, could be implemented and operated successfully under field conditions. In batch-scale P-sorption experiments, the P-sorption capacity of the blast furnace granulated slag (BFGS) of KARDEMIR Iron and Steel Ltd., Co., Turkey, was found to be higher compared to other candidate filter materials due to its higher Ca content and porous structure. In this regard, a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) (30 m(2)), planted with Phragmites australis was implemented at METU to treat primarily treated domestic wastewater, at a hydraulic rate of 100 mm d(-1), intermittently. The layers of the filtration media constituted of sand, BFGS, and gravel. According to the first year monitoring study, average influent and effluent total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were 6.61+/-1.78 mg L(-1) and 3.18+/-1.82 mg L(-1); respectively. After 12 months, slag samples were taken from the reed bed and P-extraction experiments were performed to elucidate the dominant P-retention mechanisms. Main pools for P-retention were the loosely-bounded and Ca-bounded P due to the material's basic conditions (average pH>7.7) and higher Ca content. This study indicated the potential use of the slag reed bed with higher P-removal capacity for secondary and tertiary treatment under the field conditions. However, the P-sorption isotherms obtained under the laboratory conditions could not be used favorably to determine the longevity of the reed bed in terms of P-retention. PMID:17070037

  11. Structure, Growth Process, and Growth Mechanism of Perovskite in High-Titanium-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Hu, Meilong; Xu, Yuzhou; Bai, Chenguang; Gan, Yunhua

    2015-05-01

    The isothermal crystallization of perovskite in TiO2-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO high-titanium-bearing blast furnace slag was observed in situ at 1698 K (1425 °C) using a confocal scanning laser microscope. The dendrite structure of perovskite (CaTiO3) thus obtained showed vividly the primary dendrite trunks and secondary dendrite arms. Furthermore, the dendritic growth of perovskite in liquid slag was clearly observed on line. The results showed that the dendrite arrays in which the primary dendrite trunks observed on slag surface were parallel with each other grew toward the same direction. The secondary dendrite arms grew in the perpendicular direction with the primary trucks and stopped growing when they encounter. The perovskite dendrites showed a linear growth at two stages. The dendrites grew faster at early stage at about 5 to 7 ?m/s and grew with a lower growth rate at about 1 to 2 ?m/s in later stage. Finally, the growth mechanism of perovskite in melt was analyzed with the solidification theory. Based on the theoretical calculation of equilibrium phases in slag, the initial slag could be considered as a binary component system. One component was perovskite and the other component was the sum of all the other species that did not attend the crystallization of perovskite (included SiO2, Al2O3, and MgO, as well as CaO and TiO2 that were not involved in the solid formation). The formation of perovskite required the diffusion of CaO and TiO2 to the solid/liquid interface and the rejection of the other species from the interface. The solid/liquid equilibrium schematic diagram was made based on the calculation.

  12. A Novel Conversion of Ti-Bearing Blast-Furnace Slag into Water Splitting Photocatalyst with Visible-Light-Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Huihong; Li, Ning; Wu, Xingrong; Li, Liaosha; Gao, Zhifang; Shen, Xingmei

    2013-12-01

    A novel visible-light-response photocatalyst was prepared through the heat treatment of Ti-bearing blast-furnace slag with sodium nitrate and subsequently leaching processes in which most of the SiO2, Al2O3, and MgO in Ti-slag (TS) have been separated. The photocatalytic activity of the TTS was studied by observing the evolution of H2 under the UV-Vis and visible light. Compared with the TS and commercial perovskite CaTiO3, the sample prepared exhibited an exclusive visible-light-response activity and enhanced H2 evolution.

  13. Performance studies of mud converted to cement (blast furnace slag cement), DEA-87. Final report, December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlich, J.P.; Benton, W.; Bodenhamer, W.; Choi, H.J.; Edwards, T.

    1994-12-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a Joint Industry Project investigating the performance of mud converted to cement using Blast Furnace Slag (BFS). This paper compares BFS/muds to conventional Portland cements in various simulated cementing applications. The poject covers the test results from converting dispersed and PHPA drilling fluids to cement, in comparison to conventional low fluid loss Portland cements. The tests simulated a geopressured gas well by use of a large scale physical model. In addition, the dimensional stability of the BFS/mud is presented.

  14. An approach for phosphate removal with quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag as seed crystal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liping; Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Shoubin; Yang, Zhongxi; Li, Yanbo

    2012-01-01

    The phosphate removal abilities and crystallization performance of quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag were investigated. The residual phosphate concentrations in the reaction solutions were not changed by addition of the ceramsite, quartz sand and blast furnace slag. The steel slag could provide alkalinity and Ca(2+) to the reaction solution due to its hydration activity, and performed a better phosphate removal performance than the other three. Under the conditions of Ca/P 2.0, pH 8.5 and 10 mg P/L, the phosphate crystallization occurred during 12 h. The quartz sand and ceramsite did not improve the phosphate crystallization, but steel slag was an effective seed crystal. The phosphate concentration decreased drastically after 12 h after addition of steel slag, and near complete removal was achieved after 48 h. The XRD analysis showed that the main crystallization products were hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the crystallinity increased with the reaction time. Phosphate was successfully recovered from low phosphate concentration wastewater using steel slag as seed material. PMID:22378001

  15. The Evolution of Structural Order as a Measure of Thermal History of Coke in the Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Maria; Khanna, Rita; Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on cokes heat treated in the laboratory and on cokes extracted from the experimental blast furnace (EBF) raceway and hearth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to investigate changes in structural order ( L c), chemical transformations in coke ash along with comparative thermodynamic equilibrium studies and the influence of melt. Three data processing approaches were used to compute L c values as a function of temperature and time and linear correlations were established between L c and heat treatment temperatures during laboratory investigations. These were used to estimate temperatures experienced by coke in various regions of EBF and estimated raceway temperatures were seen to follow the profile of combustion peak. The MgAl2O4 spinel was observed in coke submerged in slag during laboratory studies and in cokes found further into the raceway. Coke in contact with hot metal showed XRD peaks corresponding to presence of Fe3Si. The intensity of SiO2 peak in coke ash was seen to decrease with increasing temperature and disappeared at around 1770 K (1500 °C) due to the formation of SiC. This study has shown that the evolution of structural order and chemical transformations in coke could be used to estimate its thermal history in blast furnaces.

  16. Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, L.; Taylor, T.A.

    1986-04-15

    A furnace is described. An elongate, cylindrical, combustion chamber is disposed horizontally in combination with a blower conduit means for creating a forced draft therein. The furnace is provided with an elongate water jacket surrounding the combustion chamber. The water jacket has a cylindrical outer wall and a heat-conducting, concentric, inner common wall, which forms the outer wall of the combustion chamber. An elongate water compartment is located entirely outside of the water jacket. A first heat transfer means comprises a first set of elongate, parallel fire-tubes axially-disposed in the water jacket in heat exchange relation with the water therein. Second heat transfer means comprising a second set of elongate, parallel fire-tubes axially-disposed in the water compartment in heat exchange relation with the water. Flow of water is directed through the inlet means, the first and second heat transfer means and the outlet means in succession, first into the water compartment in direct heat exchange with the second set of fire-tubes therein and then into the water jacket in direct heat exchange with the first set of fire-tubes therein and in indirect heat exchange with the combustion chamber through the common wall. The flow of combustion gases goes from the combustion chamber through the first and second sets of fire-tubes in succession. Conduit means is in heat exchange relation with the inlet which are air-filled, and from a closed pipe system. The thermally insulating layer rests on the pipes with sides of the thermally insulating layer carrying the lateral reflectors. The thermally insulating layer is provided with a dust lining on a side of the thermally insulating layer facing away from the pipes. Combustion air supplied to the burner is preheated together with a heating medium conveyed in the pipes, the heating medium consisting of the waste gases and the system air.

  17. Strength development of mortars containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag: Effect of curing temperature and determination of apparent activation energies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Barnett; M. N. Soutsos; S. G. Millard; J. H. Bungey

    2006-01-01

    The strength development of mortars containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag (ggbs) and portland cement was investigated. Variables were the level of ggbs in the binder, water–binder ratio and curing temperature. All mortars gain strength more rapidly at higher temperatures and have a lower calculated ultimate strength. The early age strength is much more sensitive to temperature for higher levels of

  18. Kinetic sorption modelling of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr ions to pine bark and blast furnace slag by using batch experiments.

    PubMed

    Nehrenheim, E; Gustafsson, J P

    2008-04-01

    Storm water and landfill leachate can both contain significant amounts of toxic metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni. Pine bark and blast furnace slag are both residual waste products that have shown a large potential for metal removal from contaminated water. There are however many variables that must be optimized in order to achieve efficient metal retention. One of these variables is the time of which the solution is in contact with each unit of filter material. Metal sorption was studied in two laboratory experiments to improve the knowledge of the effects of contact time. The results showed that pine bark was generally more efficient than blast furnace slag when the metal concentrations were relatively small, whereas blast furnace slag sorbed most metals to a larger extent at increased metal loads. In addition, sorption to blast furnace slag was found to be faster than metal binding to pine bark. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model was able to describe the data well within 1000 s of reaction time. PMID:17532623

  19. Effects of partial substitution of lime with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) on the strength properties of lime-stabilised sulphate-bearing clay soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Wild; J. M Kinuthia; G. I Jones; D. D Higgins

    1998-01-01

    Increasing global awareness of environmental pollution as well as increasing waste material disposal legislation is providing impetus for material upgrading by stabilisation of in situ soil as an alternative to its export to land-fill and replacement by imported granular fill. The use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), an industrial by-product, is well established as a binder in many

  20. Determination by the taguchi method of optimum conditions for mechanical properties of high strength concrete with admixtures of silica fume and blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?brahim Türkmen; Rüstem Gül; Cafer Çelik; Ramazan Demirbo?a

    2003-01-01

    The deterioration of concrete structures is a major problem in many countries throughout the world. This has prompted the search for methods of predicting the service life of both existing and new structure. The present work submits results of experiments evaluating the mechanical properties of portland cement (PC), silica fume (SF) and blast furnace slag (BFS) concrete mixes. In this

  1. Kinetic sorption modelling of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr ions to pine bark and blast furnace slag by using batch experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Nehrenheim; J. P. Gustafsson

    2008-01-01

    Storm water and landfill leachate can both contain significant amounts of toxic metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni. Pine bark and blast furnace slag are both residual waste products that have shown a large potential for metal removal from contaminated water. There are however many variables that must be optimized in order to achieve efficient metal retention.

  2. Effect of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and fly ash addition on the strength properties of lightweight mortars containing waste PET aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Semiha Akçaözo?lu; Cengiz Duran Ati?

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effect of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) and fly ash (FA) addition on the strength properties of lightweight mortars containing waste Poly-ethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle aggregates was investigated. Investigation was carried out on three groups of mortar specimens. One made with only Normal Portland cement (NPC) as binder, second made with NPC and GBFS together and,

  3. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  4. Kinetics of the reaction of iron blast furnace slag\\/hydrated lime sorbents with SO at low temperatures: effects of the presence of CO, O, and NOx

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiung-Fang Liu; Shin-Min Shih

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the presence of CO, O, and NOx in the flue gas on the kinetics of the sulfation of blast furnace slag\\/hydrated lime sorbents at low temperatures were studied using a differential fixed-bed reactor. When O and NOx were not present simultaneously, the reaction kinetics was about the same as that under the gas mixtures containing SO, HO,

  5. The Utilization and Recovery of Energy from Blast Furnaces and Converters 

    E-print Network

    Hegemann, K. R.; Niess, T.; Baare, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    payback period. The process incorporates a new concept in blast air compression. Mechanical energy from the turbine is transferred directly to the axial flow compressor so that the prior conversion of energy via the power generating cycle is dispensed...

  6. [Evaluation of the migration of contaminants from building materials produced on the base of blast-furnace slags].

    PubMed

    Pugin, K G; Vaysman, Ya I

    2014-01-01

    There is experimentally established the change of the migratory activity of pollutants from building materials produced from blast furnace slag throughout their life cycle in the form of a nonlinear wave-like nature as there are appeared newly opened surfaces of a contact with aggressive waters in the process of gradual crushing of materials as a result of destructive mechanical effects on him and corrosive waters with varying pH values. There are established regularities of the migration activity ofpollutants (on the example of heavy metals) as directly dependent on the newly opening surface of the contact of the material with water having a various pH value. There is shown an expediency of introduction of alterations in the procedure for sanitary hygienic assessment of building materials with the addition of industrial waste (Methodical Instructions 2.1.674-97), allowing to take into account the migration of contaminants from them throughout the life cycle. PMID:25842493

  7. Air-pollution impacts when quenching blast furnace slag with contaminated water. Final report, December 1983-April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Annamraju, G.; Schworer, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    The report gives results of an effort to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of coke-plant wastewater will result in a significant increase in emissions to the atmosphere. The alternative is using the wastewater, untreated, to quench blast-furnace slag. To develop a preliminary determination, six emission measurements were made on a laboratory-scale facility simulating typical slag-quenching practice. Test parameters encompassed two slag temperatures (594 and 816 C) and two waters, ASTM Type 1 water and coke-plant effluent diluted to 2500 mg/liter TDS. Results indicate that particulate emissions increase with slag temperature and TDS in the water. Minor quantities of organic compounds were emitted, but showed no correlation with test variables. The data also showed no correlation between emissions of sulfur dioxide or fluoride and test variables.

  8. PepTec -- A clay-free ultra-fine coal product for use in blast furnace injection

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, E.H. Sr. [Washington Energy Processing, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States); Wesner, R.F.; Bayer, J.L. [Eavenson, Auchmuty and Greenwald, Coraopolis, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Removal of clay from the surfaces of the minus 15c micron fraction of an as-mined metallurgical or non-metallurgical grade coal using the PepTec Process can produce a pyrite free, highly reactive ultra fine coal suitable for blast furnace injection without further milling. Employing mechanical and chemical techniques, the PepTec{reg_sign} process deagglomerizes clay and clay/coal agglomerates, stripping the clay from the coal surfaces. Thereafter, the clay is dispersed as a colloid in the surrounding aqueous medium. The solution of colloidal clay and liberated fine coal particles can then be treated in state-of-the-art froth flotation equipment to concentrate the fine coal as a clean product and discharge the clay and other impurities as a tailings stream.

  9. Effect of the content of the crystalline and vitreous phases of blast-furnace slags on their properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gindis, Ya.P.

    1987-10-01

    Studies carried out on the hydrochannel granulation plant with a variety of blast-furnace slag from the southern Ukraine determined that, depending on their cooling conditions, it was possible to obtain materials with differing contents of the crystalline and glassy phases which have different porosities. These studies showed that, depending on the changes in these features, ordinary (solid) or porous granulated slag or slag pumice with different properties was obtained. The dependence of the hydraulic activity of the materials obtained (and cements based on them) on the cooling conditions of the melts (specific flow rates of water) has been shown to have an extremum and a maximum. The maximum value of the hydraulic activity has been determined to correspond to granulated slag which has a porous structure and contains 6-26% crystalline phase (mainly melilite), while the remainder consists of amorphous and devitrified glass, the content of the latter being of the order of 20-40%.

  10. Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag--An overview.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha-Won; Saraswathy, Velu

    2006-11-16

    The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of depositing industrial wastes. The utilization of GGBFS as partial replacement of Portland cement takes advantage of economic, technical and environmental benefits of this material. Recently offshore, coastal and marine concrete structures were constructed using GGBFS concrete because high volume of GGBFS can contribute to the reduction of chloride ingress. In this paper, the influence of using GGBFS in reinforced concrete structures from the durability aspects such as chloride ingress and corrosion resistance, long term durability, microstructure and porosity of GGBFS concrete has been reviewed and discussed. PMID:16930831

  11. Trace metals related to historical iron smelting at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). The ore used at Hopewell Furnace was obtained from iron mines within 5 miles of the furnace. The iron-ore deposits were formed about 200 million years ago and contain abundant magnetite, the primary iron mineral, and accessory minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, lead, and other metals. Hopewell Furnace, built by Mark Bird during 1770-71, was one of the last of the charcoal-burning, cold-blast iron furnaces operated in Pennsylvania. The most productive years for Hopewell Furnace were from 1830 to 1837. Castings were the most profitable product, especially the popular Hopewell Stove. More than 80,000 stoves were cast at Hopewell, which produced as many as 23 types and sizes of cooking and heating stoves. Beginning in the 1840s, the iron industry shifted to large-scale, steam-driven coke and anthracite furnaces. Independent rural enterprises like Hopewell could no longer compete when the iron and steel industries consolidated in urban manufacturing centers. The furnace ceased operation in 1883 (Kurjack, 1954). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, completed a study at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS) in Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania, to determine the fate of toxic trace metals, such as arsenic, cobalt, and lead, released into the environment during historical iron-smelting operations. The results of the study, conducted during 2008-10, are presented in this fact sheet.

  12. SOLIDIFICATION ACCELE RATION AND SOLIDIFIED SHEAR STRENGTH EVALUATION OF GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Nakashima, Kenji; Kimura, Junji; Mizutani, Taka-Aki

    From the results of site observations, granulated bl ast furnace slug (GBFS) is solidifying w ith time. It takes a long time to solidify the whole of GBFS, b ecause GBFS observed was no t fully solidified in 18 months. It means if GBFS is used with relied on its solidification, a treatment for acceleratin g the solidification of GBFS is needed. For discus sing this point, the condition for solidifying GB FS is checked in series of laboratory experiments. It was clarified that adding micro powder of furnace slag to GBFS is effective for accelerating the solidification of GBFS unde r sea water. Failure crite ria of solidified GBFS are explained with internal friction a ngle and cohesion intercept. Failure criteria for residual condition of GBFS are explained by internal friction angle only. These parameters can be estimated from a single triaxial experiment.

  13. Study on the flexural fatigue performance and fractal mechanism of concrete with high proportions of ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Ping Guo; Wei Sun; Ke-Ren Zheng; Heng-Jian Chen; Bo Liu

    2007-01-01

    The flexural fatigue performance of concretes with 50% and 80% proportions of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (ab. ggbs) by mass of total cementitious materials in concrete has been investigated. The effect of different proportions of ggbs on concrete fatigue performance was investigated by experiments and was estimated by the fractal theory from five aspects, i.e. the 1D fractal dimensions of

  14. Improvement of ground granulated blast furnace slag on stabilization\\/solidification of simulated mercury-doped wastes in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongzhe Liu; Guangren Qian; Jizhi Zhou; Chuanhua Li; Yunfeng Xu; Zhe Qin

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigated the effectiveness of (ground granulated blast furnace slag) GGBFS-added chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) matrix on the stabilization\\/solidification (S\\/S) of mercury chloride and simulated mercury-bearing light bulbs (SMLB). The results showed that the maximal compressive strength was achieved when 15% and 10% ground GGBFS was added for HgCl2-doped and SMLB-doped CBPC matrices, respectively. The S\\/S performances of

  15. 29Si and 27Al high-resolution NMR characterization of calcium silicate hydrate phases in activated blast-furnace slag pastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Schneider; M. A Cincotto; H Panepucci

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of improving mechanical properties of activated blast-furnace slag cements, a set of hardened pastes of 28 days age were analyzed by 29Si and 27Al high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at 9.4 T. Structural and compositional differences among C-S-H phases obtained with different activation and curing conditions were characterized by NMR. Activation of the slag was done with

  16. An experimental study on the properties of resistance to diffusion of chloride ions of fly ash and blast furnace slag concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faguang Leng; Naiqian Feng; Xinying Lu

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses the Nernst–Einstein equation to calculate the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions of high-performance concrete (HPC), analyzing and discussing the property of resistance to chloride ion of HPC with fly ash or blast furnace slag. The experimental results show that the diffusion coefficient of chloride ion increases with the rise of the water–binder ratio and decreases with the

  17. Characterization of a blast-furnace slag reference material SMP\\/E1-002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. LaBrecque; D. V. Leyt; C. Vazquez

    1995-01-01

    The description, sample preparation and evaluation of the data from an interlaboratory comparison study of a blast-furance slag reference material from Argentine is presented. The evaluation compared the mean, the geometric mean, the median, the Gastwirth median and dominant cluster mode parameters for assigning consensus values. The median values were: SiO2: 37.30%, Al2O3: 11.21%, FeO(T): 0.48%, MnO: 0.91%, MgO: 3.97%,

  18. Preparation of a new sorbent with hydrated lime and blast furnace slag for phosphorus removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Gong, Guozhuo; Ye, Shufeng; Tian, Yajun; Wang, Qi; Ni, Jiandi; Chen, Yunfa

    2009-07-30

    The removal of dissolvable inorganic phosphate (H(2)PO(4)(-)) by sorbents prepared from hydrated lime (HL) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was fundamentally studied by an orthogonal experiment design. Based on statistic analysis, it is revealed that the weight ratio of BFS/HL is the most significant variable, and an optimized preparation condition is figured out. With the increase of HL content, the adsorption capacity increases, suggesting that the HL plays the important role in the removal process in the gross. However, in the lower HL content, it is interesting that the adsorption capacity of as-prepared sorbents exceed the sum of the capacities of the same ratio of BFS and HL. The further analysis indicate the excess capacities linearly depend on the specific surface area of sorbents, suggesting that the removal of H(2)PO(4)(-) is closely related with the microstructure of sorbents in the lower HL content, according to the characterization with SEM, XRD and pore analysis. Additionally, an adsorption model and kinetic are discussed in this paper. PMID:19124194

  19. Investigative monitoring within the European Water Framework Directive: a coastal blast furnace slag disposal, as an example.

    PubMed

    Borja, Angel; Tueros, Itziar; Belzunce, Ma Jesús; Galparsoro, Ibon; Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Revilla, Marta; Solaun, Oihana; Valencia, Victoriano

    2008-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection of estuarine and coastal waters, with the most important objective being to achieve 'good ecological status' for all waters, by 2015. Hence, Member States are establishing programmes for the monitoring of water quality status, through the assessment of ecological and chemical elements. These monitoring programmes can be of three types: surveillance monitoring; operational monitoring (both undertaken on a routine basis); and investigative monitoring (carried out where the reason of any exceedance for ecological and chemical status is unknown). Until now, nothing has been developed in relation to investigative monitoring and no clear guidance exists for this type of monitoring, as it must be tackled on a 'case-by-case' basis. Consequently, the present study uses slag disposal from a blast furnace, into a coastal area, as a case-study in the implementation of investigative monitoring, according to the WFD. In order to investigate the potential threat of such slags, this contribution includes: a geophysical study, to determine the extent of the disposal area; sediment analysis; a chemical metal analysis; and an ecotoxicological study (including a Microtox test and an amphipod bioassay). The results show that metal concentrations are several times above the background concentration. However, only one of the stations showed toxicity after acute toxicological tests, with the benthic communities being in a good status. The approaches used here show that contaminants are not bioavailable and that no management actions are required with the slags. PMID:18385866

  20. Recycling ground granulated blast furnace slag as cold bonded artificial aggregate partially used in self-compacting concrete.

    PubMed

    Geso?lu, Mehmet; Güneyisi, Erhan; Mahmood, Swara Fuad; Öz, Hatice Öznur; Mermerda?, Kas?m

    2012-10-15

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product from iron industry, was recycled as artificial coarse aggregate through cold bonding pelletization process. The artificial slag aggregates (ASA) replaced partially the natural coarse aggregates in production of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Moreover, as being one of the most widely used mineral admixtures in concrete industry, fly ash (FA) was incorporated as a part of total binder content to impart desired fluidity to SCCs. A total of six concrete mixtures having various ASA replacement levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) were designed with a water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.32. Fresh properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) were observed through slump flow time, flow diameter, V-funnel flow time, and L-box filling height ratio. Compressive strength of hardened SCCs was also determined at 28 days of curing. It was observed that increasing the replacement level of ASA resulted in decrease in the amount of superplasticizer to achieve a constant slump flow diameter. Moreover, passing ability and viscosity of SCC's enhanced with increasing the amount of ASA in the concrete. The maximum compressive strength was achieved for the SCC having 60% ASA replacement. PMID:22951223

  1. Effect of cooling rate on the crystallization behavior of perovskite in high titanium-bearing blast furnace slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Hu, Mei-long; Bai, Chen-guang; Lü, Xue-wei; Xu, Yu-zhou; Deng, Qing-yu

    2014-11-01

    The effect of cooling rate on the crystallization of perovskite in high Ti-bearing blast furnace (BF) slag was studied using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Results showed that perovskite was the primary phase formed during the cooling of slag. On the slag surface, the growth of perovskite proceeded via the successive production of quasi-particles along straight lines, which further extended in certain directions. The morphology and structure of perovskite was found to vary as a function of cooling rate. At cooling rates of 10 and 30 K/min, the dendritic arms of perovskite crossed obliquely, while they were orthogonal at a cooling rate of 20 K/min and hexagonal at cooling rates of 40 and 50 K/min. These three crystal morphologies thus obtained at different cooling rates respectively corresponded to the orthorhombic, cubic and hexagonal crystal structures of perovskite. The observed change in the structure of perovskite could probably be attributed to the deficiency of O2-, when Ti2O3 was involved in the formation of perovskite.

  2. Effect of ?-irradiation on the electrical conductivity of some soda lime silicate glass containing blast furnace slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elalaily, N. A.; Khalil, Magda M. I.; Ahmed, L. S.

    2007-03-01

    The effect of electric field strength on conduction in soda lime silicate glass doped with blast furnace slag with different concentration was studied and the value of jump distance was calculated. The structure and the mixed anion effect in the conductivity have been examined by measuring the electrical conductivity of glass samples at temperature ranging between 20 and 250 °C. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the examined glasses are divided into three ranges depending on the temperature range. The first is from room temperature to about 49.5 °C, the second is at a temperature range of 60.3-104 °C where the glass shows a decrease in its conductivity with the increase in temperature. This was followed by another increase in the electrical conductivity with the increase in temperature. The results also showed that the glass becomes more insulating as the slag content increased. The effect of irradiation was also studied by exposing glass samples to two different irradiation doses. It can be noticed that irradiation causes an increase in the electrical conductivity, especially at high temperature. The results were discussed and correlated according to the molecular structure of the prepared glass.

  3. Thermal treatment of simulant plutonium contaminated materials from the Sellafield site by vitrification in a blast-furnace slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyatt, N. C.; Schwarz, R. R.; Bingham, P. A.; Stennett, M. C.; Corkhill, C. L.; Heath, P. G.; Hand, R. J.; James, M.; Pearson, A.; Morgan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Four waste simulants, representative of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (PCMs) at the Sellafield site, were vitrified through additions of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). Ce (as a Pu surrogate) was effectively partitioned into the slag product, enriched in an amorphous CaO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 phase when other crystalline phases were also present. Ce L3 edge XANES data demonstrated Ce to be present as trivalent species in the slag fraction, irrespective of the waste type. Estimated volume reductions of ca. 80-95% were demonstrated, against a baseline of uncompacted 200 L PCM waste drums. The dissolution behaviour of PCM slag wasteforms was investigated at 50 °C in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution under N2 atmosphere, to simulate the hyperalkaline anoxic environment of a cementitious UK Geological Disposal Facility for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). These experiments demonstrated the performance of the slag wasteforms to be comparable to that of other vitrified ILW materials considered potentially suitable for geological disposal.

  4. Simulation of primary-slag melting behavior in the cohesive zone of a blast furnace, considering the effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub t}O, and basicity in the sinter ore

    SciTech Connect

    Hino, Mitsutaka; Nagasaka, Tetsuya; Katsumata, Akitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Metallurgy; Higuchi, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Kon-No, Norimitsu [Nippon Steel Corp., Futts (Japan). Process Technology Research Labs.

    1999-08-01

    The alumina content in the iron ore imported to Japan is increasing year by year, and some problems in blast furnace operation, due to the use of the high-alumina-containing sinter, have already been reported. In order to clarify the mechanism of the harmful effect of alumina on the blast furnace operation, the behavior of the primary melt, which is formed in the sinter at the cohesive zone of the blast furnace, has been simulated by dripping slag through an iron or oxide funnel. The effects of basicity, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub t}O contents in the five slag systems on the dripping temperature and weight of slag remaining on the funnel have been discussed. It was found that the eutectic melt formed in the sinter would play an important role in the dripping behavior of the slag in the blast furnace through the fine porosity of the reduced iron and ore particles. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} increased the weight of the slag remaining on the funnel, and its effect became very significant in the acidic and low-Fe{sub t}O-containing slag. It was estimated that the increase of the weight of the slag remaining on the funnel by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the ore could result in a harmful effect on the permeability resistance and an indirect reduction rate of the sinter in the blast furnace.

  5. Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shiyun; Ni, Kun; Li, Jinmei

    2012-07-01

    A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO(4)(2-) from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO(4)(2-) releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO(4)(2-) from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m(-2), which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum. PMID:22440404

  6. The structure of the calcium silicate hydrate phases present in hardened pastes of white Portland cement\\/blast-furnace slag blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. G Richardson; G. W Groves

    1997-01-01

    The C-S-H gels present in both water- and alkali-activated hardened pastes of white Portland cement\\/blast-furnace slag blends\\u000a have been studied by solid-state 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM).\\u000a Structural data are obtained by NMR for the semi-crystalline C-S-H gels in the alkali-activated systems and extended to the\\u000a nearly amorphous gels in

  7. Blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in aswan governorate, Upper Egypt, as an adsorbent for the removal of merocyanine dye from its aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Taha, Gharib Mahmoud; Mosaed, Taghreed Mahmoud

    2010-04-01

    The adsorption potential of the blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in Aswan Governorate, Egypt, to decolorize aqueous solutions of 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one 4[2] merocyanine dye (1) was investigated at room temperature. The influence of the solution pH, the quantity of adsorbent, the initial concentration of 1, and the applied contact time were studied with the batch technique. The maximum percentage of removal of 1 was observed at pH 4. The adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich than by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, confirming the formation of monolayers of 1 on the adsorbent surface. Kinetic rate constants and the transient behavior at different initial concentrations of 1 were determined with both the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and the Ho and McKay pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The calculated kinetic parameters revealed that the adsorption of 1 on blast furnace slag followed a second-order chemisorption process. PMID:20397223

  8. The characterization of hardened alkali-activated blast-furnace slag pastes and the nature of the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phase

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, I.G.; Brough, A.R.; Groves, G.W.; Dobson, C.M. (Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel is the principal binding phase in hardened OPC pastes and concretes, and also when the OPC has been partially replaced by pozzolanic by-products such as ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) and pulverized fuel ash. The C-S-H gels present in commercial blast-furnace slag and synthetic-slag glass pastes produced by hydrating with 5M KOH solution have been studied by a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and [sup 29]Si and [sup 27]Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. They are related by both composition and morphology to the C-S-H gels present in slag-OPC paste but are more crystalline. The inner product C-S-H is intermixed on a fine scale with a Mg,Al-rich phase with a Mg/Al ratio of [approximately]2.5. The C-S-H in both inner and outer product contains substituted Al in tetrahedral co-ordination sites. The data are analyzed in terms of a model for the structure of C-S-H gel.

  9. Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Shiyun, E-mail: tjzhongshiyun@163.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ni Kun; Li Jinmei [Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum has suitable workability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strength of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is higher than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dry shrinkage of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is lower than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The leaching of sulfate ion of mortar is studied. - Abstract: A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg{center_dot}m{sup -2}, which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum.

  10. Direct measurement of water self-diffusion in hardening blast furnace slag cement pastes by means of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Nestle, N.; Galvosas, P.; Karger, J.

    2001-07-01

    Recently, we have reported the unusual nuclear spin relaxation behavior of water in hardening blast furnace slag mixtures and suggested an explanation for the observed changes in the spin relaxation times based on diffusion effects in inner magnetic field gradients in the paste. Meanwhile, we have succeeded in measuring the self-diffusion coefficient of water in the hardening pastes directly by means of a special pulsed field gradient technique in which the effects of internal magnetic field gradients in a sample can be compensated for. Compared to water self-diffusion in ordinary cement materials, we find a much stronger decrease of the self-diffusion coefficient in the slag based cements. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Strength, leachability and microstructure characterisation of Na2SiO3-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag solidified MSWI fly ash.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dajie; Liu, Wenshi; Hou, Haobo; He, Xinghua

    2007-10-01

    The chemical composition and the leachability of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were measured and analysed. For the leachability of unstabilized MSWI fly ash it was found that the concentrations of Pb and Cr exceeded the leaching toxicity standard. Cementitious solidification of the MSWI fly ash by Na2SiO3-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag (NS) was investigated. Results show that all solidified MSWI fly ash can meet the landfill standards after 28 days of curing. The heavy metals were immobilized within the hydration products such as C-S-H gel and ettringite through physical encapsulation, substitution, precipitation or adsorption mechanisms. PMID:17985665

  12. 50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  13. Quantitative metrics of stove adoption using Stove Use Monitors (SUMs).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Walker, Joan L; Smith, Kirk R

    2013-10-01

    The sustained use of cookstoves that are introduced to reduce fuel use or air pollution needs to be objectively monitored to verify the sustainability of these benefits. Quantifying stove adoption requires affordable tools, scalable methods and validated metrics of usage. We quantified the longitudinal patterns of chimney-stove use of 80 households in rural Guatemala, monitored with Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) during 32 months. We counted daily meals and days in use at each monitoring period and defined metrics like the percent stove-days in use (the fraction of days in use from all stoves and days monitored). Using robust Poisson regressions we detected small seasonal variations in stove usage, with peaks in the warm-dry season at 92% stove-days (95%CI: 87%,97%) and 2.56 average daily meals (95%CI: 2.40,2.74). With respect to these values, the percent stove-days in use decreased by 3% and 4% during the warm-rainy and cold-dry periods respectively, and the daily meals by 5% and 12% respectively. Cookstove age and household size at baseline did not affect usage. Qualitative indicators of use from recall questionnaires were consistent with SUMs measurements, indicating stable sustained use and questionnaire accuracy. These results reflect optimum conditions for cookstove adoption and for monitoring in this project, which may not occur in disseminations undertaken elsewhere. The SUMs measurements suggests that 90% stove-days is a more realistic best-case for sustained use than the 100% often assumed. Half of sample reported continued use of open-cookfires, highlighting the critical need to verify reduction of open-fire practices in stove disseminations. PMID:25258474

  14. Quantitative metrics of stove adoption using Stove Use Monitors (SUMs)

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Walker, Joan L.; Smith, Kirk R.

    2014-01-01

    The sustained use of cookstoves that are introduced to reduce fuel use or air pollution needs to be objectively monitored to verify the sustainability of these benefits. Quantifying stove adoption requires affordable tools, scalable methods and validated metrics of usage. We quantified the longitudinal patterns of chimney-stove use of 80 households in rural Guatemala, monitored with Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) during 32 months. We counted daily meals and days in use at each monitoring period and defined metrics like the percent stove-days in use (the fraction of days in use from all stoves and days monitored). Using robust Poisson regressions we detected small seasonal variations in stove usage, with peaks in the warm-dry season at 92% stove-days (95%CI: 87%,97%) and 2.56 average daily meals (95%CI: 2.40,2.74). With respect to these values, the percent stove-days in use decreased by 3% and 4% during the warm-rainy and cold-dry periods respectively, and the daily meals by 5% and 12% respectively. Cookstove age and household size at baseline did not affect usage. Qualitative indicators of use from recall questionnaires were consistent with SUMs measurements, indicating stable sustained use and questionnaire accuracy. These results reflect optimum conditions for cookstove adoption and for monitoring in this project, which may not occur in disseminations undertaken elsewhere. The SUMs measurements suggests that 90% stove-days is a more realistic best-case for sustained use than the 100% often assumed. Half of sample reported continued use of open-cookfires, highlighting the critical need to verify reduction of open-fire practices in stove disseminations. PMID:25258474

  15. 68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. INTERIOR OF CAST HOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Old stoves: Making a comeback

    SciTech Connect

    Vivian, J.

    1994-01-01

    If you`ve been heating with a wood stove for as long as I have, your faithful Blaze King or Upland Elk may be getting long enough in the tooth that it needs refurbishing or maybe even a replacement. Since some of the best designed stoves ever made were operating before I was, it would be a crime to consign them to the rubbish heap in the backyard just because they lack a little polish and care. It is discussed how to restore and operate the good old free-breathing stoves yourself.

  17. Calculating the parameters of self-oscillations in the vertical combustion chamber of the blast-furnace air heater during unstable combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basok, B. I.; Gotsulenko, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for simplified calculation of the parameters of self-oscillations excited during unstable (vibrating) combustion in the vertical combustion chambers of blast-furnace air heaters is developed. The proposed procedure is based on an independent nonlinear dynamic system similar to the equations from the theory of a blade supercharger stalling and surging mode. The head characteristic considered in the blade supercharger stalling and surging theory determines the part of the supercharger drive rotation energy that is converted into the head developed by the supercharger. In the considered system, the supercharger head characteristic is replaced by the combustion chamber head characteristic. Being a function of flow rate, this characteristic describes the part of heat supplied to flow that is converted to the flow head. Unlike the supercharger head characteristic, which is determined by experiment, the combustion chamber head characteristic is determined by calculation, due to which it becomes much easier to calculate the parameters of self-oscillations according to the proposed procedure. In particular, an analysis of the periodic solutions of the obtained dynamic system made it possible to determine the pattern in which the amplitude of considered self-oscillations depends on the surge impedance of the vertical combustion chamber.

  18. The enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron on the solidification of chromite ore processing residue by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinchunzi; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin; Wang, Binyuan; Fan, Leitao

    2015-09-01

    A bench scale study was performed to assess the effectiveness of the solidification of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide, and investigate the enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron (ZVI) on the solidification treatment. The degree of Cr immobilization was evaluated using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) as well as the solid waste-extraction procedure for leaching toxicity-sulfuric acid & nitric acid method (Chinese standard HJ/T299-2007). Strength tests and semi-dynamic leaching tests were implemented to investigate the potential for reusing the final treatment product as a readily available construction material. The experimental results showed that the performance of pre-reduction/solidification (S/S) was superior to that of solidification alone. After pre-reduction, all of the S/S treated COPR samples met the TCLP limit for total Cr (5mgL(-1)), whereas the samples with a COPR content below 40% met the pollution control limit of bricks and building block products (Chinese standard HJ/T 301-2007) produced with COPR for total Cr (0.3mgL(-1)). At the same time, all of the S/S treated specimens tested were suitable for utilization at certain levels. PMID:25929874

  19. Improvement of ground granulated blast furnace slag on stabilization/solidification of simulated mercury-doped wastes in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongzhe; Qian, Guangren; Zhou, Jizhi; Li, Chuanhua; Xu, Yunfeng; Qin, Zhe

    2008-08-30

    This paper investigated the effectiveness of (ground granulated blast furnace slag) GGBFS-added chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) matrix on the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of mercury chloride and simulated mercury-bearing light bulbs (SMLB). The results showed that the maximal compressive strength was achieved when 15% and 10% ground GGBFS was added for HgCl(2)-doped and SMLB-doped CBPC matrices, respectively. The S/S performances of GGBFS-added matrices were significantly better than non-additive matrices. As pore size was reduced, the leaching concentration of Hg(2+) from GGBFS-added CBPC matrix could be reduced from 697 microg/L to about 3 microg/L when treating HgCl(2). Meanwhile, the main hydrating product of GGBFS-added matrices was still MgKPO(4).6H(2)O. The improvement of S/S effectiveness was mainly due to physical filling of fine GGBFS particles and microencapsulation of chemical cementing gel. PMID:18289781

  20. Experimental and numerical study of PC combustion with oxygen enrichment in a blowpipe model of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Cang Daqiang; Yang Min; Ding Yulong; Yang Tianjun [Univ. of Science and Technology, Beijing (China)

    1994-12-31

    The method of pulverized coal injection (PCI), oxygen enrichment position, and PC size with oxygen enrichment have been studied to improve of the combustion efficiency of PC by using a theoretical model and experiment. The results showed: (1) by using double coal lance instead of single coal lance in a blowpipe, the combustion efficiency of anthracite can be increased significantly; (2) under the experimental conditions, pure oxygen directly mixed with hot blast is suitable for combustion efficiency when oxygen content is lower then 24%, and when oxygen content is higher, oxygen enrichment location at a proper position of blowpipe away from PC lance should be used; and (3) fine anthracite particle with high oxygen content is an effective way to improve the combustion efficiency of anthracite.

  1. Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves and Improved Stove Emission Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    HATFIELD, MICHAEL; Still, Dean

    2013-04-15

    In developing countries, there is an urgent need for access to safe, efficient, and more affordable cooking technologies. Nearly 2.5 billion people currently use an open fire or traditional cookstove to prepare their meals, and recent models predict that use of biomass for cooking will continue to be the dominant energy use in rural, resource-poor households through 2030. For these families, cooking poses serious risks to health, safety, and income. An alarming 4 million people, primarily women and children, die prematurely each year from indoor and outdoor exposure to the harmful emissions released by solid fuel combustion. Use of traditional stoves can also have a significant impact on deforestation and climate change. This dire situation creates a critical need for cookstoves that significantly and verifiably reduce fuel use and emissions in order to reach protective levels for human health and the environment. Additionally, advances in the scientific equipment needed to measure and monitor stove fuel use and emissions have not kept pace with the significant need within the industry. While several testing centers in the developed world may have hundred thousand-dollar emissions testing systems, organizations in the field have had little more than a thermometer, a scale, and subjective observations to quantify the performance of stove designs. There is an urgent need for easy-to-use, inexpensive, accurate, and robust stove testing equipment for use by laboratory and field researchers around the world. ASAT and their research partner, Aprovecho Research Center (ARC), have over thirty years of experience addressing these two needs, improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment, with expertise spanning the full spectrum of development from conceptual design to product manufacturing and dissemination. This includes: 1) research, design, and verification of clean biomass cookstove technology and emissions monitoring equipment; 2) mass production of quality-controlled stove and emissions equipment at levels scalable to meet global demand; and 3) global distribution through a variety of channels and partners. ARC has been instrumental in designing and improving more than 100 stove designs over the past thirty years. In the last four years, ASAT and ARC have played a key role in the production and sales of over 200,000 improved stoves in the developed and developing world. The ARC-designed emissions equipment is currently used by researchers in laboratories and field studies on five continents. During Phase I of the DOE STTR grant, ASAT and ARC worked together to apply their wealth of product development experience towards creating the next generation of improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment. Highlights of Phase I for the biomass cookstove project include 1) the development of several new stove technologies that reached the DOE 50/90 benchmark; 2) fabrication of new stove prototypes by ASAT’s manufacturing partner, Shengzhou Stove Manufacturing (SSM); 3) field testing of prototype stoves with consumers in Puerto Rico and the US; and 4) the selection of three stove prototypes for further development and commercialization during Phase II. Highlights of Phase I for the emissions monitoring equipment project include: 1) creation of a new emissions monitoring equipment product, the Laboratory Emissions Monitoring System (LEMS 2) the addition of gravimetric PM measurements to the stove testing systems to meet International Standards Organization criteria; 3) the addition of a CO{sub 2} sensor and wireless 3G capability to the IAP Meter; and 4) and the improvement of sensors and signal quality on all systems. Twelve Regional Testing and Knowledge Centers purchased this equipment during the Phase I project period.

  2. Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

  3. Wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, V.J.

    1982-08-10

    An air tight wood burning stove (10) for heating a designated space comprises a housing (12) having an access opening (50) in the front wall (14) thereof and at least one glass panel (64) containing door (54, 56) hingedly mounted on the front wall for closing the opening (50). A latching mechanism (60) on the door (54, 56) engages with undercut flange means (52, 53) surrounding opening (50) for positively maintaining the door (54, 56) in the closed position. A firebrick lined combustion chamber (34) within the housing receives logs through opening (50) for burning and the production of hot combustion gases. An air chamber (48) is formed within the housing (12) in air flow communication with the combustion chamber (34) for feeding air thereto through openings (94, 96) in the air chamber walls (46, 90). A damper 92, which may be manually or thermostatically controlled, controls cool air flow from room floor level into the air chamber (48) and then through openings (94, 96) into combustion chamber (34) wherein the air is heated. The hot combustion gases and heated air rise within housing (12) and are discharged through flue means (28, 30) to the outside. In passing upwardly the gases and air fl over the outside surface of and heat the air within a plurality of air carrying tubular heat exchange conduits (98) which are disposed adjacent the top of assembly (12) and extend therethrough upwardly and forwardly from conduit air inlets at the rear wall (24) to conduit air discharge outlets at the front wall (14).

  4. Research on coke-oven heating technology and the properties of coke as a blast-furnace fuel. [UKhIN

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, Yu.S.; Semisalov, L.P.

    1980-01-01

    A fundamentally novel coke-oven system was designed at Giprokoks (underjet, with bottom gas and air regulation) on the basis of data from model experiments. In particular, when batteries of 41.6 m/sup 3/ coke ovens were developed, the results of model tests led to major modifications to the original designs for the regenerator zones, sloping ducts and flues. UKhIN investigations on hot and hydraulic models, using modern mathematical procedures and computers, were used to study the details of heat exchange and gas flow in the regenerator packings under coke ovens. Criterial equations were derived for the coefficients of heat transfer by convection and of hydraulic resistance, covering the specific features of regenerator performance in coke-oven heating systems. Much useful information for the advance of coke-oven technology has been obtained from laboratory, pilot and fullscale plant studies of the thermal properties of coals and blends. Investigations (including blast-furnace trials) in connection with the commercial adoption of dry coke cooling established that during its soaking in the storage chamber the coke undergoes changes in molecular structure, to an extent dependent on the time and temperature. Recommendations based on this research significantly improve the coke strength properties and extended the range of usable coal supplies. Traditionally, the Institute is greatly interested in the problem of coke yields, which has now become very urgent in connection with the use of higher proportions of grade G and other coals with high volatile matters. Detailed studies have been made of the effects of various processing factors on the yields of saleable and metallurgical coke.

  5. Experimental hydration of two synthetic glassy blast furnace slags in water and alkaline solutions (NaOH and KOH 0.1 N) at 40° C: structure, composition and origin of the hydrated layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Rajaokarivony-Andriambololona; J. H. Thomassin; P. Baillif; J. C. Touray

    1990-01-01

    The hydration of blast furnace slags has been modelled using two synthetic (CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MgO) glasses with different Al2O3\\/MgO values. Experiments (duration: 16 h to 150 d) were performed at 40° C in deionized water (pH 6.5) and in NaOH and KOH (0.1 N) solutions (pH=12.9). The hydrated layer was characterized from a combination of several techniques at different

  6. 21. Photocopy of ca. 1951 view (when furnaces were still ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of ca. 1951 view (when furnaces were still in blast) looking north at central furnace complex with railroad cars of furnace charging materials in foreground and No. 2 Furnace at left. Photo marked on back 'David W. Corson from A. Devaney, N.Y.' - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. The prediction of AOD furnace's end point carbon content based on wavelet neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Li; Ran Duan; Dejiang Zhang

    2010-01-01

    AOD furnace smelting low-carbon ferrochrome for the actual situation of the affected end AOD stove carbon content factor, the wavelet neural network prediction model of carbon content in the end, the actual production data using 200-stove model is trained,and the other furnace carbon content of 12 to predict the results, wavelet neural network based on end point carbon content prediction

  8. Monitoring and evaluation of new stoves

    SciTech Connect

    Basnet, K.

    1983-12-01

    Most of the people in Nepal depend on biomass for cooking and heating - be it wood, straw etc. and this is one of the reasons why we have a greater problem of deforestation which is the major component for deteriorating environment. Slowing the rate of deforestation to a limited degree at least can be achieved by improving the efficiency of wood utilization. The idea of improving the stoves in terms of firewood consumption and smokelessness has gained an increasing attention in recent years. The prefabricated household stoves (New Nepali Cooking Stoves) are being distributed and installed to the various regions of the country through the Small Farm Family Program with the support of ADB/Nepal and UNICEF/Nepal. These improved stoves make smokeless kitchens and use less firewood. The distribution of the modified Magan Stoves was first started in Budhanilkantha Village about one year before the survey. Still the stoves are being distributed to the villagers if they form a small group of 6-10 households (Small Farm Family) and the group asks for the stoves. After distribution and installations of improved stoves in various regions of the country a sample survey was conducted in Budhanilkantha to ascertain users acceptance and identify the kinds of problems inhibiting greater use. The survey was carried out in the beginning of 1983, and during the survey there were 51 stoves distributed in two Panchayats and different villages.

  9. Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-Making Plantation. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita G.

    The rhythmic noises of the turning water wheel and the roar of the furnace blast never stopped at Hopewell Furnace (Pennsylvania) during its years of operation (1771-1883). As long as the furnace was in blast, the ironworkers' jobs were safe. In case of trouble, they could escape to the woods, fields, and creeks of rural Pennsylvania. Now a…

  10. Solid fuel cooking stoves: International directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Optimal design and promotion of the use of fuel efficient cooking stoves demand continued interaction and exchange of information between researchers, extension workers, policy makers and others concerned with stove projects. The directory is aimed at listing all the known organisations in this area.

  11. 65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR THE HOT BLAST STOVES OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 57. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES IS THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 56. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES IS THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES ARE THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  15. Self loading wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, E.; Spector, G.

    1987-08-25

    A self loading wood burning stove is described which comprises: (a) a fire box having an air intake vent for supplying a flow of combustible air therin an an exhaust conduit in flow communication with the fire box for exhausting combustion gases therefrom: (b) a storage bin for retaining a plurality of logs, the storage bin having a generally zig-zag vertically arranged compartment for holding a zig-zag row of the logs, the storage bin having a log entry opening at upper portion and a pair of pivotable doors at lower portion for dispensing the logs individually therefrom; and (c) means for delivering the logs from the doors of the storage bin to the fire box of the stove, wherein the delivering means comprises: (d) a conveyor for receiving the logs from the doors of the storage bin and conducting the logs upwardly in a substantially angular fashion; and (e) means for placing the logs from the conveyor into upper portion of the fire box; wherein the conveyor comprises: (f) a plurality of rollers; (g) an endless belt formed around the rollers, the belt having a plurality of push lugs; and (h) a motor to driven one of the rollers to operate the belt so that the push lug will drive the log upwardly; wherein the placing means comprises: (i) a housing having a plurality of legs mounted to the upper portion of the fire box, the housing having a log guide roller in rotatable contact with the belt of the conveyor and a pair of spring loaded trap doors that are opened by weight of the log so that log will far therethrough; and (j) the first box having an inclined top and a pivotable top door that is opened by weight of the log so that the log will roll therein.

  16. Pore solution chemistry of alkali-activated ground granulated blast-furnace slag 1 1 This paper was originally submitted to Advanced Cement Based Materials. The paper was received at the Editorial Office of Cement and Concrete Research on 12 November 1998 and accepted in final form on 16 November 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sujin Song; Hamlin M Jennings

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition and pH of the pore solution extracted from six different ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) pastes were determined. The concentrations of Si, Ca, Al, and Mg are functions of the pH of the aqueous phase, with high pH associated with the higher concentrations of Si and Al and the lower concentrations of Ca and Mg. When GGBFS

  17. Experimental research on the characteristics of softening and melting of iron ores as significant factor of influence on gas permeability of blast furnace charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branescu, E.; Blajan, A. O.; Constantin, N.

    2015-06-01

    It is widely accepted as a cohesive zone is directly influenced by softening and melting properties of iron ores, preparations (crowded, pellets, which represents about 90%, of the loads with metal furnace intake), or uncooked (raw ores ranked). Important results can be obtained through the study of behavior of ferrous materials at temperatures above 1000 ° C. Starting from research methods presented in the literature, this paper presents itself in carrying out their own laboratory experiments, conducted with the aim of analysing the softening and melting properties of sinter iron cores.

  18. Monitoring the Heat Output of a Wood-Burning Stove

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. MODERA

    1986-01-01

    To find a simple means for monitoring the heat output of a wood stove, general engineering models of heat transfer are used to develop a model that predicts the heat output of a stove from measurements of surface temperature. Using the surface area and the measured surface temperature as inputs, the model predicts the heat output of the stove by

  19. CONTROL OF WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS USING IMPROVED SECONDARY COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the operation of two wood stoves in the laboratory with simultaneous on-line chemical analysis of the gases entering the secondary combustion zone and those leaving the stove. (NOTE: Self-initiating secondary combustion in wood stoves is encouraged by ...

  20. ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL COAL STOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation, in cooperation with the State of Vermont's Agency of Environmental Conservation, of emissions generated by anthracite and bituminous coal used for residential heating. A residential coal stove was operated with both coals, while comparin...

  1. Adoption of appropriate technology: smokeless wood stoves in Rajasthan, India

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    A multi-method research design consisting of in-depth interviews with program officials and builders, field-level observation, and field surveys with randomly chosen acceptors was used to provide a unique set of insights into the process of diffusion and acceptance of improved smokeless wood stoves in Rajasthan, India. Over 450 village women were interviewed about their energy use, use of their stove, and cooking practices as well as family characteristics. These women were improved stove acceptors and non-acceptors associated with three improved stove-disseminating organizations in Rajasthan, the Rural Development Department of the Rajasthan state government, the Local Self Government Institute and the Social Work and Research Center. The improved stoves disseminated by these three programs are all largely subsidized by the Government of India. A variable named Levels of Acceptance is used to aid in quantifying differences in stove condition and frequency of stove use.

  2. Kinetics of the reaction of iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents with SO{sub 2} at low temperatures: effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.F.; Shih, S.M. [Industrial Technological Research Institute, Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2009-09-15

    The effects of the presence of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NOx in the flue gas on the kinetics of the sulfation of blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents at low temperatures were studied using a differential fixed-bed reactor. When O{sub 2} and NOx were not present simultaneously, the reaction kinetics was about the same as that under the gas mixtures containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2} only, being affected mainly by the relative humidity. The sulfation of sorbents can be described by the surface coverage model and the model equations derived for the latter case. When both O{sub 2} and NOx, were present, the sulfation of sorbents was greatly enhanced, forming a great amount of sulfate in addition to sulfite. The surface coverage model is still valid in this case, but the model equations obtained show a more marked effect of relative humidity and negligible effects of SO{sub 2} concentration and temperature on the reaction. The effect of sorbent composition on the reaction kinetics was entirely represented by the effects of the initial specific surface area (S{sub g0}) and the Ca molar content (M{sup -1}) of sorbent. The initial conversion rate of sorbent increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}, and the ultimate conversion increased linearly with increasing S{sub g0}M{sup -1}. The model equations obtained in this work are applicable to describe the kinetics of the sulfation of the sorbents in the low-temperature dry and semidry fine gas desulfurization processes either with an upstream NOx, removal unit or without.111

  3. Electrical performance analysis and economic evaluation of combined biomass cook stove thermoelectric (BITE) generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lertsatitthanakorn

    2007-01-01

    The use of biomass cook stoves is widespread in the domestic sector of developing countries, but the stoves are not efficient. To advance the versatility of the cook stove, we investigated the feasibility of adding a commercial thermoelectric (TE) module made of bismuth-telluride based materials to the stove’s side wall, thereby creating a thermoelectric generator system that utilizes a proportion

  4. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  5. Biochar Stoves: an innovation studies perspective Sarah Carter

    E-print Network

    1 Biochar Stoves: an innovation studies perspective Sarah Carter Dr Simon Shackley UK Biochar is biochar?..............................................................................................15............................................................................34 5.2. Biochar production

  6. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  7. Stove's Discovery of the Worst Argument in the World

    E-print Network

    Franklin, James

    Stove ran a Competition to Find the Worst Argument in the World. In his marking scheme, half the marks, `Judge's report on the competition to find the worst argu- ment in the world', in D. C. Stove, Cricket bitterly against our science-based, white-male cultural perspective. She says that it is not only injurious

  8. Viscosity of blast furnace type slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Noritaka; Hori, Naoto; Nakashima, Kunihiko; Mori, Katsumi

    2003-10-01

    The effect of MgO, TiO2, or Fe2O3 on the viscosity of 40CaO-40SiO2-20Al2O3 (mass pct) slags has been measured by the rotating crucible viscometer. Viscosity of these quaternary slags decreased with an increase in the content of additive oxide. At the same content of additive oxide, the viscosity decreases from MgO, TiO2 to Fe2O3. In addition, the effect of SiO2 or Al2O3 on the viscosity of 26.1CaO-73.9Fe2O3 (mass pct) (CF) and 14.9CaO-85.1Fe2O3 (mass pct) (CF2) slags has been measured. Viscosity of calcium ferrite slags increased with increasing SiO2 or Al2O3 content. Al2O3 was found to be more effective for increasing the viscosity at the same content of the additive oxide.

  9. 11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE WHEEL DROVE ONE PAIR OF MILLSTONES DIRECTLY; FOUND ON THE FIRST FLOOR OF THE WINDMILL AT WATERMILL - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  10. 20. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD IN GALLEY, SHOWING GALLEY STOVE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD IN GALLEY, SHOWING GALLEY STOVE AND DECK BEAM OVERHEAD BEARING CARVED INSCRIPTION '35 TONS NO. 226177.' - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  11. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  12. 33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ON HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Quantitative stove use and ventilation guidance for behavior change strategies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael A; Chiang, Ranyee A

    2015-01-01

    Achieving World Health Organization air quality targets and aspirational fuel savings targets through clean cooking solutions will require high usage rates of high-performing products and low usage rates of traditional stoves. Catalyzing this shift is challenging as fuel and stove use practices associated with new technologies generally differ from those used with traditional technologies. Accompanying this shift with ventilation improvements can help further reduce exposure to emissions of health damaging pollutants. Behavior change strategies will be central to these efforts to move users to new technologies and minimize exposure to emissions. In this article, the authors show how behavior change can be linked to quantitative guidance on stove usage, household ventilation rates, and performance. The guidance provided here can help behavior change efforts in the household energy sector set and achieve quantitative goals for usage and ventilation rates. PMID:25839198

  14. An assessment of programs to promote improved household stoves in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan E. Sinton; Kirk R. Smith; John W. Peabody; Liu Yaping; Zhang Xiliang; Rufus Edwards; Gan Quan

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, a team of US and Chinese researchers collaborated on an independent, multidisciplinary review of China's improved rural household stove programs that have been carried out since the 1980s. The objectives were to delineate and evaluate the methods used to promote improved stoves, to as sess the development of commercial stove production and marketing organizations, and to measure the

  15. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME V. ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  16. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME IV. OPEN HEARTH FURNACE, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  17. 63. Cam Shaft Running Egg, Stove and Nut Shakers, date ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Cam Shaft Running Egg, Stove and Nut Shakers, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  18. Stove having auxiliary damper operably connected to access door

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, J.E.

    1981-07-28

    A stove of the wood burning type is provided with a smoke passage having a main opening adjacent the access door of the stove and an auxiliary opening therein which is located further away from the access door and more closely adjacent the rear portion of the smoke passage and the chimney than the main opening. A regulator damper controls the rate of flow of products of combustion from the combustion chamber through the main opening and the smoke passage to the chimney, and an auxiliary damper normally closes the auxiliary opening when the access door is in a normally closed position. Apparatus is operably associated with the auxiliary damper and the stove access door for effecting movement of the auxiliary damper from the normally closed position to the opened position prior to the access door being opened for redirecting the products of combustion through the auxiliary opening and thus further away from the access door so as to thereby prevent the escapement of smoke through the stove access opening when the access door is opened.

  19. Chimney stoves modestly improved indoor air quality measurements compared with traditional open fire stoves: results from a small-scale intervention study in rural Peru.

    PubMed

    Hartinger, S M; Commodore, A A; Hattendorf, J; Lanata, C F; Gil, A I; Verastegui, H; Aguilar-Villalobos, M; Mäusezahl, D; Naeher, L P

    2013-08-01

    Nearly half of the world's population depends on biomass fuels to meet domestic energy needs, producing high levels of pollutants responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. We compare carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and kitchen concentrations in households with study-promoted intervention (OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves) in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. We determined 48-h indoor air concentration levels of CO and PM2.5 in 93 kitchen environments and personal exposure, after OPTIMA-improved stoves had been installed for an average of 7 months. PM2.5 and CO measurements did not differ significantly between OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves. Although not statistically significant, a post hoc stratification of OPTIMA-improved stoves by level of performance revealed mean PM2.5 and CO levels of fully functional OPTIMA-improved stoves were 28% lower (n = 20, PM2.5, 136 ?g/m(3) 95% CI 54-217) and 45% lower (n = 25, CO, 3.2 ppm, 95% CI 1.5-4.9) in the kitchen environment compared with the control stoves (n = 34, PM2.5, 189 ?g/m(3), 95% CI 116-261; n = 44, CO, 5.8 ppm, 95% CI 3.3-8.2). Likewise, although not statistically significant, personal exposures for OPTIMA-improved stoves were 43% and 17% lower for PM2.5 (n = 23) and CO (n = 25), respectively. Stove maintenance and functionality level are factors worthy of consideration for future evaluations of stove interventions. PMID:23311877

  20. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  1. An innovative method for nondestructive analysis of cast iron artifacts at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Martin f. Helmke

    2014-01-01

    Sampling cast iron produced by the furnace posed two problems. First, verification that the iron was actually cast at Hopewell Furnace was necessary, as some iron objects found at Hopewell may not have originated there. This was accomplished by using artifacts on display at the Hopewell visitor center (fig. 2). All artifacts on display have been positively attributed to the furnace, and stoves produced by the furnace are easily recognized by the name “Hopewell” cast into them. The second problem was the analysis of the trace metal content of the cast iron, because it was not possible to break off part of a historically important artifact and send it to a laboratory for analysis. This problem was solved when the USGS collaborated with West Chester University, which owns a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer.

  2. Induced secondary combustion in wood stoves. Report for September 1988-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Spolek, G.A.; Wasser, J.H.; Hall, R.E.; Butts, N.L.

    1989-01-01

    The paper provides information useful for wood-stove designers concerned with reducing emissions. A dual-chamber wood stove was modified to induce secondary combustion by utilizing an ignition source and forced flow of secondary air. The ignition source was an electric flow plug installed in the secondary chamber. Secondary air flow was maintained at a preset flow rate and supply temperature. Wood was burned in the stove in a laboratory following a standard protocol, and the stack emissions were monitored continuously. The modified stove generally emitted less pollution than the same stove did prior to modification. Emission levels generally declined as the flow rate of secondary air and the supply air temperature were increased. Incorporating these modifications into a wood stove, with appropriate controls, represents an effective emission-control technology.

  3. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. General purpose rocket furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A multipurpose furnace for space vehicles used for material processing experiments in an outer space environment is described. The furnace contains three separate cavities designed to process samples of the widest possible range of materials and thermal requirements. Each cavity contains three heating elements capable of independent function under the direction of an automatic and programmable control system. A heat removable mechanism is also provided for each cavity which operates in conjunction with the control system for establishing an isothermally heated cavity or a wide range of thermal gradients and cool down rates. A monitoring system compatible with the rocket telemetry provides furnace performance and sample growth rate data throughout the processing cycle.

  5. Semicoke production and quality at Chinese vertical SJ furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    V.M. Strakhov; I.V. Surovtseva; A.V. D'yachenko; V.M. Men'shenin [Kuznetsk Center, Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    In Russia there has been little interest on the thermal processing of non-sintering coal. However it may be used to obtain many special types of coke and semicoke that are necessary for processes other than blast furnace smelting and employing small metallurgical coke fractions that do not meet the relevant quality requirements. China has recently made great progress in developing the thermal processing of coal (mainly energy coal) to obtain a highly effective product, semicoke, primarily used in metallurgy and adsorption process. The article considers the operation of a Chinese semicoking plant equipped with vertical SJ furnaces. The plant is in the Shenmu district of Shanxi province (Inner Mongolia). The enterprise includes two furnaces of total output of about 100,000 t/yr of semicoke.

  6. Blast injury.

    PubMed

    de Candole, C A

    1967-01-28

    The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  7. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  8. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  9. Franklin Furnace Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

  10. Greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from household stoves in China: a database for emission factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Zhang; K. R. Smith; Y. Ma; S. Ye; F. Jiang; W. Qi; P. Liu; M. A. K. Khalil; R. A. Rasmussen; S. A. Thorneloe

    2000-01-01

    Emissions from household stoves, especially those using solid fuels, can contribute significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories and have adverse health impacts. Few data are available on emissions from the numerous types of cookstoves used in developing countries. We have systematically measured emissions from 56 fuel\\/stove combinations in India and China, a large fraction of the combinations in use world-wide.

  11. Improving stove evaluation using survey data: Who received which intervention matters

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    ), as men spend more time outdoors while children spend time indoors with women, who are cooking. The WorldAnalysis Improving stove evaluation using survey data: Who received which intervention matters for subsidies to reduce emissions. In evaluating improved stoves' relative benefits, little attention has been

  12. High gradient directional solidification furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

  13. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Introduction into Induction and Natural Gas Stoves

    E-print Network

    into Induction and Natural Gas Stoves: A Triple Bottom Line Analysis for the new Student Union Building Jordan Ho of a project/report". #12;APSC 262 An Introduction Into Induction and Natural Gas Stoves A triple-bottom line, 2011 #12;Page 2 of 21 ABSTRACT This report compares the attributes of induction and natural gas stoves

  14. Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  15. 34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace operator on platform measures temperature inside bottle car. Looking southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  16. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOEpatents

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  17. The New BLAST Results Page

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    The New BLAST® Results Page Enhanced graphical presentation and added functionality http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2013 Contact: blast-help@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Scope NCBI has introduced an enhanced report for search BLAST result page Access to NCBI BLAST web services through its homepage (blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

  18. An improved gas extraction furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkin, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Design of glass furnace for analysis of rocks to determine nature and amount of trapped gas is described. Furnace heats specimen in vacuum conditions by radio frequency induction. Diagram of apparatus to show construction and operation is provided.

  19. Comparing Residential Furnace Blowers for

    E-print Network

    LBNL 62344 Comparing Residential Furnace Blowers for Rating and Installed Performance I.S. Walker was to assess the performance of residential furnace blowers for both heating, cooling and air distribution of furnace blowers over a range of static pressure differences that included standard rating points

  20. Furnace with radiant burndown tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Thekdi; K. H. Hemsath; J. G. Conybear; F. J. Vereecke; S. H. Verhoff

    1980-01-01

    Past attempts to capture the heat energy of combustible gases in the furnace chamber involved drastic structural changes in the furnace design; however, the incorporation of a radiant burndown tube that uses the combustible exhaust gas to provide additional heat to the furnace requires neither major structural modifications nor a cumbersome venting system. The tube has three functional ares -

  1. CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  2. Portable stove use is associated with lower lung cancer mortality risk in lifetime smoky coal users

    PubMed Central

    Hosgood, H D; Chapman, R; Shen, M; Blair, A; Chen, E; Zheng, T; Lee, K-M; He, X; Lan, Q

    2008-01-01

    Domestic fuel combustion from cooking and heating, to which about 3 billion people worldwide are exposed, is associated with increased lung cancer risk. Lung cancer incidence in Xuanwei is the highest in China, and the attributable risk of lung cancer from unvented smoky coal burning is greater than 90%. To evaluate any lung cancer mortality reduction after changing from unvented stoves to portable stoves, we used lifetime smoky coal users in a retrospective cohort of all farmers born during 1917–1951 and residing in Xuanwei in 1976. Of the 42?422 enrolled farmers, 4054 lifetime smoky coal users changed to portable stoves, 4364 did not change, and 1074 died of lung cancer. Lung cancer morality associated with stove change was assessed by product-limit survival curves and multivariate Cox regression models. Both men (P<0.0001) and women (P<0.0001) who changed to portable stoves had a significantly increased probability of survival compared with those who did not change. Portable stoves were associated with decreased risk of lung cancer mortality in male participants (hazard ratio (HR)=0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.46–0.82) and female participants (HR=0.41, 95% CI=0.29–0.57). Portable stove use is associated with reduced lung cancer mortality risk, highlighting a cost-effective intervention that could substantially benefit health in developing countries. PMID:19034286

  3. Furnace Black Characterization

    E-print Network

    ;005F3 Furnace Process High Temperature Refractory Feedstock OilAir Natural Gas Reaction Zone Quench #12 - Filler "Bonding" ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 , , , ads ads ads G H T S H Enthalpy of Adsorption Adsorption Isotherm" diameter (TEM) - different Nitrogen adsorption · Special process to increase the amorphous carbon 2 2.5 3 3

  4. Residential Furnace Blower Performance

    E-print Network

    LBNL 61467 Residential Furnace Blower Performance I.S. Walker Environmental Energy Technologies blowers and the potential cost-effectiveness of setting performance standards and changing motor technologies. In this study, a testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  5. Strengthen flame stability during the furnace`s load decrease

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhiguo; Sun Xuexin; Li Fujin; Qiu Jihua; Chen Gang [HuaZhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the result of the study of the coal combustion characteristic and flame stability during the load decrease of PCFF (corner burner arrangement). Considering the relation between flame stability and furnace load during the furnace load change, some method must be used to strengthen the pulverized coal ignition and combustion for the furnace to maintain the flame stability especially for the furnace which fires low rank anthracite. Experimental results show that when the furnace load decreased, the temperature distribution in furnace decreased and the flame stability in furnace had changed because of the load changing. This paper also introduces a new pulverized coal burner: Bluff-body with cavity burner. According to the result of application of this burner, this kind of pulverized coal burner can improve the coal ignition and combustion efficiency. Especially for low load operation of furnace the bluff-body with cavity burner has demonstrated its ability in strengthening coal ignition and improving the flame stability for furnace operation. Experimental results show that using bluff-body with cavity burner, the lowest load for furnace fired bituminous is 40% MCR and 50% MCr for low rank anthracite (V{sup r} < 12%, A{sup f} > 45%). This burner has simple structure and is very easy to set up for furnace.

  6. Structural blast design

    E-print Network

    Kieval, Tamar S. (Tamar Shoshana), 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Blast design is a necessary part of design for more buildings in the United States. Blast design is no longer limited to underground shelters and sensitive military sites, buildings used by the general public daily must ...

  7. CO and NO emissions from pellet stoves: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    This work presents a report on an experimental investigation on pellet stoves aimed to fully understand which parameters influence CO and NO emissions and how it is possible to find and choose the optimal point of working. Tests are performed on three pellet stoves varying heating power, combustion chamber size and burner pot geometry. After a brief review on the factors which influence the production of these pollutants, we present and discuss the results of experimental tests aimed to ascertain how the geometry of the combustion chamber and the distribution of primary and secondary air, can modify the quantity of CO and NO in the flue gas. Experimental tests show that production of CO is strongly affected by the excess air and by its distribution: in particular, it is critical an effective control of air distribution. In these devices a low-level of CO emissions does require a proper setup to operate in the optimal range of excess air that minimizes CO production. In order to simplify the optimization process, we propose the use of instantaneous data of CO and O2 concentration, instead of average values, because they allow a quick identification of the optimal point. It is shown that the optimal range of operation can be enlarged as a consequence of proper burner pot design. Finally, it is shown that NO emissions are not a critical issue, since they are well below threshold enforced by law, are not influenced by the distribution of air in the combustion chamber, and their behavior as a function of air excess is the same for all the geometries investigated here.

  8. Evaluation of Australian coals and cokes for large blast furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Gadsden; R. G. Wilson

    1981-01-01

    Compared with Carboniferous coals, the wide range in type of Australian coals is unique. Variation in rank has less influence than type variation on coking properties. Cokes of maximum strength are derived from coals having less vitrinite than preferred by Northern Hemisphere coke makers. Australian coking practice provides for vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich coals to enhance each other and for the

  9. Topping turbine generator in blast furnace power house

    SciTech Connect

    Mooney, R.E. [REM Engineering, Roswell, GA (United States); Ganga, R.C. [The McBurney Corp., Norcross, GA (United States); Owen, P. [US Steel, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A project to install a 22 megawatt topping turbine for waste heat utilization is described in this paper. Selection criteria, design, installation, startup, and initial operation are described in detail. The facility was initially depressurizing and desuperheating steam sufficient to generator 8 MW(e). Analysis showed that, with the addition of a low pressure feedwater heater, the capacity of the 900 psig boilers could be increased. This allowed a turbine generator capacity increase and a shutdown of the low pressure boilers. Minor startup problems were identified and corrected, and the project is generating significant revenue.

  10. Bethlehem Steel Corporation Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Construction of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on air quality, noise, and land use at the Burns Harbor Plant area. Operation of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on the environment at the Burns Harbor Plant area. An increase of approximately 30 tons/yr for NO{sub x} and approximately 13 tons/yr for particulate matter (from the coal storage area) is expected. These emissions are within the currently permitted levels. Carbon dioxide emissions, which are unregulated, would increase by about 220,000 tons/yr at the Burns Harbor Plant. Water withdrawn and returned to Lake Michigan would increase by 1.3 million gal/d (0.4 percent of existing permitted discharge) for non-contact cooling water. No protected species, floodplains, wetlands, or cultural resources would be affected by operation of the proposed facility. Small economic benefits would occur from the creation of 5 or 6 permanent new jobs during the operation of the proposed demonstration project and subsequent commercial operation. Under the No Action Alternative, the proposed project would not receive cost-shared funding support from DOE.

  11. PbO solubility in lead-blast furnace slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, M. E.; Lynch, D. C.

    1986-12-01

    A series of slags in the PbO-CaO-FeO-Fe2O3-SiO2 system has been equilibrated in contact with molten Pb and Pb-Ag alloys in a closed system at 1473 K. The influences of lead activity and the CaO/SiO2 and ferric/ferrous ion ratios on PbO solubility in slag have been examined. The PbO content is proportional to the lead activity and the ferric/ferrous ratio, but decreases with increasing values of the CaO/SiO2 ratio. The solubility of lead in the slag can also be characterized by the following empirical equation,log X_{PbO} = 1/2log p_{O_2 } - 0.76F^G + 0.10log F + 0.76 + logK_2 , where X PbO is the lead oxide mole fraction, K 2 the equilibrium constant for the formation of liquid PbO at 1473 K, and F and G are the calcia/silica and iron/silica weight ratios, respectively. This equation, developed from data in the literature, has been used with the experimental results of this investigation for comparison with values of p O 2predicted by Hollitt’s structural model. Further comparison with Hollitt’s model has been made with other experimental data in the literature. The values of p O 2predicted with the structural model are an order of magnitude lower than those predicted by the empirical equation and the values of p O 2 used by other investigators. The reason for this discrepancy may lie in part in the use of questionable assumptions about the behavior of FeO in slag systems; reevaluation of the structural model to include more “basic” FeO improves agreement between the values of p O 2obtained with the structural model and those obtained with the empirical equation and the partial pressures of O2 used by other investigators. In addition, the structural model has also been tested with regard to the influence of CaO and FeO additions on the solubility of PbO. The possible effect of interaction between the equilibrating slag melt and the calcia-stabilized zirconia crucible on the system equilibria has also been examined; such an effect may not be as negligible as previous researchers have claimed.

  12. Coal and oil mixture injection into blast furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yabe; I. Kurashige; T. Miyazaki; T. Iba; M. Kojima; Y. Shoji; Y. Kamei

    1981-01-01

    The results of the transportation loop tests indicate that the pressure drop of coal oil mixture (COM) in the pipe can be precisely estimated under the condition that the rheological characteristics of COM are determined by a pseudo-plastic fluid model and the apparent viscosity is measured by the cone and plate viscometer. Through the COM combustion test by LBF it

  13. Microstructural changes on the reduction of imperial smelting furnace sinters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, F. T.; Hayes, P. C.

    1993-02-01

    The reduction reactions of Imperial Smelting Furnace (ISF) sinter microstructure were investigated in simulated zinc blast furnace conditions. Initial and partially reduced samples were examined using optical, electron-probe microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the struc-tural and compositional changes occurring during the reduction reaction. The reaction mecha-nisms and reduction sequences for the various oxide phases within the sinter structure during reduction of ISF sinters under the system studied are discussed. The reduction of sinters resulted in the structural modification of zincite, franklinite, slag phases, and the formation of new oxide and metallic phases. The rate and sequence of these complex phase transformations were found to be dependent upon reduction time, temperature, and the reacting gas composition.

  14. 13. INTERIOR KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA DETAIL SHOWING CEILING VENT ABOVE STOVE/RANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA DETAIL SHOWING CEILING VENT ABOVE STOVE/RANGE POSITION. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  15. Tritium extraction furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of apparatus for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having, negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible`s internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle`s volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of, the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused.

  16. An innovative method for nondestructive analysis of cast iron artifacts at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.; Helmke, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). For this study, we sampled iron ore, cast iron furnace products, slag, soil, groundwater, streamflow, and streambed sediment to determine the fate of trace metals released into the environment during the iron-smelting process. Standard techniques were used to sample and analyze all media except cast iron. We analyzed the trace-metal content of the cast iron using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, which provided rapid, on-site, nondestructive analyses for 23 elements. The artifacts analyzed included eight cast iron stoves, a footed pot, and a kettle in the Hopewell Furnace museum. We measured elevated concentrations of arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc in the cast iron. Lead concentrations as great as 3,150 parts per million were measured in the stoves. Cobalt was detectable but not quantifiable because of interference with iron. Our study found that arsenic, cobalt, and lead were not released to soil or slag, which could pose a significant health risk to visitors and employees. Instead, our study demonstrates these heavy metals remained with the cast iron and were removed from the site.

  17. Temperature dataloggers as stove use monitors (SUMs): Field methods and signal analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Smith, Kirk R

    2012-12-01

    We report the field methodology of a 32-month monitoring study with temperature dataloggers as Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) to quantify usage of biomass cookstoves in 80 households of rural Guatemala. The SUMs were deployed in two stoves types: a well-operating chimney cookstove and the traditional open-cookfire. We recorded a total of 31,112 days from all chimney cookstoves, with a 10% data loss rate. To count meals and determine daily use of the stoves we implemented a peak selection algorithm based on the instantaneous derivatives and the statistical long-term behavior of the stove and ambient temperature signals. Positive peaks with onset and decay slopes exceeding predefined thresholds were identified as "fueling events", the minimum unit of stove use. Adjacent fueling events detected within a fixed-time window were clustered in single "cooking events" or "meals". The observed means of the population usage were: 89.4% days in use from all cookstoves and days monitored, 2.44 meals per day and 2.98 fueling events. We found that at this study site a single temperature threshold from the annual distribution of daily ambient temperatures was sufficient to differentiate days of use with 0.97 sensitivity and 0.95 specificity compared to the peak selection algorithm. With adequate placement, standardized data collection protocols and careful data management the SUMs can provide objective stove-use data with resolution, accuracy and level of detail not possible before. The SUMs enable unobtrusive monitoring of stove-use behavior and its systematic evaluation with stove performance parameters of air pollution, fuel consumption and climate-altering emissions. PMID:25225456

  18. Temperature dataloggers as stove use monitors (SUMs): Field methods and signal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Smith, Kirk R.

    2013-01-01

    We report the field methodology of a 32-month monitoring study with temperature dataloggers as Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) to quantify usage of biomass cookstoves in 80 households of rural Guatemala. The SUMs were deployed in two stoves types: a well-operating chimney cookstove and the traditional open-cookfire. We recorded a total of 31,112 days from all chimney cookstoves, with a 10% data loss rate. To count meals and determine daily use of the stoves we implemented a peak selection algorithm based on the instantaneous derivatives and the statistical long-term behavior of the stove and ambient temperature signals. Positive peaks with onset and decay slopes exceeding predefined thresholds were identified as “fueling events”, the minimum unit of stove use. Adjacent fueling events detected within a fixed-time window were clustered in single “cooking events” or “meals”. The observed means of the population usage were: 89.4% days in use from all cookstoves and days monitored, 2.44 meals per day and 2.98 fueling events. We found that at this study site a single temperature threshold from the annual distribution of daily ambient temperatures was sufficient to differentiate days of use with 0.97 sensitivity and 0.95 specificity compared to the peak selection algorithm. With adequate placement, standardized data collection protocols and careful data management the SUMs can provide objective stove-use data with resolution, accuracy and level of detail not possible before. The SUMs enable unobtrusive monitoring of stove-use behavior and its systematic evaluation with stove performance parameters of air pollution, fuel consumption and climate-altering emissions. PMID:25225456

  19. Low cost stove-top thermoelectric generator for regions with unreliable electricity supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Y. Nuwayhid; D. M. Rowe; G. Min

    2003-01-01

    During the winter months in regions where constant electric power supply cannot be relied upon, power may be derived parasitically from heating stoves. A proportion of heat from these 20–50 kW wood or diesel-heated stoves may be utilized to drive a thermoelectric generator (TEG) consisting of several commercially available low-cost modules. These are Peltier modules operating in a power generating

  20. Greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from household stoves in China: a database for emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Smith, K. R.; Ma, Y.; Ye, S.; Jiang, F.; Qi, W.; Liu, P.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Thorneloe, S. A.

    Emissions from household stoves, especially those using solid fuels, can contribute significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories and have adverse health impacts. Few data are available on emissions from the numerous types of cookstoves used in developing countries. We have systematically measured emissions from 56 fuel/stove combinations in India and China, a large fraction of the combinations in use world-wide. A database was generated containing emission factors of direct and indirect GHGs and other airborne pollutants such as CO 2, CO, CH 4, TNMHC, N 2O, SO 2, NO x, TSP, etc. In this paper, we report on the 28 fuel/stove combinations tested in China. Since fuel and stove parameters were measured simultaneously along with the emissions, the database allows construction of complete carbon balances and analyses of the trade-off of emissions per unit fuel mass and emissions per delivered energy. Results from the analyses show that the total emissions per unit delivered energy were substantially greater from burning the solid fuels than from burning the liquid or gaseous fuels, due to lower thermal and combustion efficiencies for solid-fuel/stove combinations. For a given biomass fuel type, increasing overall stove efficiency tends to increase emissions of products of incomplete combustion. Biomass fuels are typically burned with substantial production of non-CO 2 GHGs with greater radiative forcing, indicating that biomass fuels have the potential to produce net global warming commitments even when grown renewably.

  1. Carbon-free induction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Pfeiler, William A. (Norris, TN)

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  2. Indoor pollution and burning practices in wood stove management.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, M T; Cipolla, M; Stella, A; Ceppi, M; Bruzzone, M; Izzotti, A; Valerio, F

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates effects of good burning practice and correct installation and management of wood heaters on indoor air pollution in an Italian rural area. The same study attests the role of education in mitigating wood smoke pollution. In August 2007 and winters of 2007 and 2008, in a little mountain village of Liguria Apennines (Italy), indoor and outdoor benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) concentrations were measured in nine wood-heated houses. During the first sampling, several mistakes in heating plant installations and management were found in all houses. Indoor BTEX concentrations increased during use of wood burning. Low toluene/benzene ratios were in agreement with wood smoke as main indoor and outdoor pollution source. Other BTEX sources were identified as the indoor use ofsolvents andpaints and incense burning. Results obtained during 2007 were presented and discussed with homeowners. Following this preventive intervention, in the second winter sampling all indoor BTEX concentrations decreased, in spite of the colder outdoor air temperatures. Information provided to families has induced the adoption of effective good practices in stoves and fire management. These results highlight the importance ofeducation, supported by reliable data on air pollution, as an effective method to reduce wood smoke exposures. PMID:25509552

  3. Water gas furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaro, C.

    1985-12-03

    A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

  4. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  5. Comparison of childhood burns associated with use of microwave ovens and conventional stoves.

    PubMed

    Powell, E C; Tanz, R R

    1993-02-01

    To identify the incidence, type, and severity of burns associated with microwave oven (MW) use and to compare MW-associated burns with those associated with use of conventional stoves, we conducted a review of a national data base. Data were obtained from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission Injury Information Clearinghouse for 1986 through 1990 concerning burn injuries to children (0 to 19 years). There were an estimated 5160 burns associated with MW use. The mean age was 7.6 years (median, 6 years); 25% of burns were to children younger than 36 months old. Fifty-eight percent involved females. Most MW burns were scalds (95%); 16% of these scalds were from exploding eggs or other food. No MW burn involved a body surface area greater than 25% and no patient required hospital admission. Microwave oven burns were compared with stove burns. There were an estimated 41198 stove-associated burns to children. The mean age was 5.8 years; the median was 3 years. Forty-five percent of burns were to children younger than 36 months old; 55% were to males. Most stove burns (74%) were thermal; 7% involved a body surface area greater than 25%. Five percent of children with stove burns required hospital admission. We conclude that (1) burns to children associated with MW use are less frequent and less severe than stove burns; (2) MW burns predominantly affect females; and (3) burn prevention efforts should emphasize the hazards of stoves, which vastly exceed those of MWs. PMID:8424008

  6. Pollutant emissions and energy efficiency of Chinese gasifier cooking stoves and implications for future intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison M; Shan, Ming; Yang, Xudong; Li, Jiarong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2014-06-01

    Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is the leading environmental health risk factor globally. In China, almost half of all homes use solid fuel to meet their household energy demands. Gasifier cookstoves offer a potentially affordable, efficient, and low-polluting alternative to current solid fuel combustion technology, but pollutant emissions and energy efficiency performance of this class of stoves are poorly characterized. In this study, four Chinese gasifier cookstoves were evaluated for their pollutant emissions and efficiency using the internationally recognized water boiling test (WBT), version 4.1.2. WBT performance indicators included PM2.5, CO, and CO2 emissions and overall thermal efficiency. Laboratory investigation also included evaluation of pollutant emissions (PM2.5 and CO) under stove operating conditions designed to simulate common Chinese cooking practices. High power average overall thermal efficiencies ranged from 22 to 33%. High power average PM2.5 emissions ranged from 120 to 430 mg/MJ of useful energy, and CO emissions ranged from 1 to 30 g/MJ of useful energy. Compared with several widely disseminated "improved" cookstoves selected from the literature, on average, the four Chinese gasifier cookstoves had lower PM2.5 emissions and higher CO emissions. The recent International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Workshop Agreement on tiered cookstove ranking was developed to help classify stove performance and identify the best-performing stoves. The results from this study highlight potential ways to further improve this approach. Medium power stove operation emitted nearly twice as much PM2.5 as was emitted during high power stove operation, and the lighting phase of a cooking event contributed 45% and 34% of total PM2.5 emissions (combined lighting and cooking). Future approaches to laboratory-based testing of advanced cookstoves could improve to include greater differentiation between different modes of stove operation, beyond those evaluated with the WBT. PMID:24784418

  7. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  8. Furnace with radiant burndown tube

    SciTech Connect

    Thekdi, A.C.; Hemsath, K.H.; Conybear, J.G.; Vereecke, F.J.; Verhoff, S.H.

    1980-07-29

    Past attempts to capture the heat energy of combustible gases in the furnace chamber involved drastic structural changes in the furnace design; however, the incorporation of a radiant burndown tube that uses the combustible exhaust gas to provide additional heat to the furnace requires neither major structural modifications nor a cumbersome venting system. The tube has three functional ares - the burner leg, the exhaust leg, and a tube portion located within the furnace chamber. The combustible gas passes through an inlet into the tube, where it is mixed with air and ignited; the combustion products exit via the exhaust leg. A typcial application for this radiant burndown tube is in a carburizing furnace; the endothermic gas that is normally burned off could supply over 250,000 Btu/hr.

  9. ‘Oorja’ in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Mark C.; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    Replacing traditional stoves with advanced alternatives that burn more cleanly has the potential to ameliorate major health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries. With a few exceptions, large government and charitable programs to distribute advanced stoves have not had the desired impact. Commercially-based distributions that seek cost recovery and even profits might plausibly do better, both because they encourage distributors to supply and promote products that people want and because they are based around properly-incentivized supply chains that could more be scalable, sustainable, and replicable. The sale in India of over 400,000 “Oorja” stoves to households from 2006 onwards represents the largest commercially-based distribution of a gasification-type advanced biomass stove. BP's Emerging Consumer Markets (ECM) division and then successor company First Energy sold this stove and the pelletized biomass fuel on which it operates. We assess the success of this effort and the role its commercial aspect played in outcomes using a survey of 998 households in areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka where the stove was sold as well as detailed interviews with BP and First Energy staff. Statistical models based on this data indicate that Oorja purchase rates were significantly influenced by the intensity of Oorja marketing in a region as well as by pre-existing stove mix among households. The highest rate of adoption came from LPG-using households for which Oorja's pelletized biomass fuel reduced costs. Smoke- and health-related messages from Oorja marketing did not significantly influence the purchase decision, although they did appear to affect household perceptions about smoke. By the time of our survey, only 9% of households that purchased Oorja were still using the stove, the result in large part of difficulties First Energy encountered in developing a viable supply chain around low-cost procurement of “agricultural waste” to make pellets. The business orientation of First Energy allowed the company to pivot rapidly to commercial customers when the household market encountered difficulties. The business background of managers also facilitated the initial marketing and distribution efforts that allowed the stove distribution to reach scale. PMID:25814822

  10. Reductions in indoor black carbon concentrations from improved biomass stoves in rural India.

    PubMed

    Patange, Omkar S; Ramanathan, Nithya; Rehman, I H; Tripathi, Sachi Nand; Misra, Amit; Kar, Abhishek; Graham, Eric; Singh, Lokendra; Bahadur, Ranjit; Ramanathan, V

    2015-04-01

    Deployment of improved biomass burning cookstoves is recognized as a black carbon (BC) mitigation measure that has the potential to achieve health benefits and climate cobenefits. Yet, few field based studies document BC concentration reductions (and resulting human exposure) resulting from improved stove usage. In this paper, data are presented from 277 real-world cooking sessions collected during two field studies to document the impacts on indoor BC concentrations inside village kitchens as a result of switching from traditional stoves to improved forced draft (FD) stoves. Data collection utilized new low-cost cellphone methods to monitor BC, cooking duration, and fuel consumption. A cross sectional study recorded a reduction of 36% in BC during cooking sessions. An independent paired sample study demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of 40% in 24 h BC concentrations when traditional stoves were replaced with FD stoves. Reductions observed in these field studies differ from emission factor reductions (up to 99%) observed under controlled conditions in laboratory studies. Other nonstove sources (e.g., kerosene lamps, ambient concentrations) likely offset the reductions. Health exposure studies should utilize reductions determined by field measurements inside village kitchens, in conjunction with laboratory data, to assess the health impacts of new cooking technologies. PMID:25738526

  11. Indoor particulate matter in rural, wood stove heated homes.

    PubMed

    Semmens, Erin O; Noonan, Curtis W; Allen, Ryan W; Weiler, Emily C; Ward, Tony J

    2015-04-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures have adverse impacts on public health, but research evaluating indoor PM concentrations in rural homes in the United States using wood as fuel for heating is limited. Our objectives were to characterize indoor PM mass and particle number concentrations (PNCs), quantify infiltration of outdoor PM into the indoor environment, and investigate potential predictors of concentrations and infiltration in 96 homes in the northwestern US and Alaska using wood stoves as the primary source of heating. During two forty-eight hour sampling periods during the pre-intervention winter of a randomized trial, we assessed PM mass (<2.5?m) and PNCs (particles/cm(3)) in six size fractions (0.30-0.49, 0.50-0.99, 1.00-2.49, 2.5-5.0, 5.0-10.0, 10.0+?m). Daily mean (sd) PM2.5 concentrations were 28.8 (28.5)?g/m(3) during the first sampling period and 29.1 (30.1)?g/m(3) during the second period. In repeated measures analyses, household income was inversely associated with PM2.5 and smaller size fraction PNCs, in particular. Time of day was a significant predictor of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations, and infiltration efficiency was relatively low (Finf (sd)=0.27 (0.20)). Our findings demonstrate relatively high mean PM concentrations in these wood burning homes and suggest potential targets for interventions for improving indoor air quality and health in rural settings. PMID:25701812

  12. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  13. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  14. Computer cast blast modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chung; M. McGill; D. S. Preece

    1994-01-01

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than

  15. Lightweight blast shield

    DOEpatents

    Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

    1991-01-01

    A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

  16. The intensive margin of technology adoption - Experimental evidence on improved cooking stoves in rural Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bensch, Gunther; Peters, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    Today, almost 3 billion people in developing countries rely on biomass as primary cooking fuel, with profound negative implications for their well-being. Improved biomass cooking stoves are alleged to counteract these adverse effects. This paper evaluates take-up and impacts of low-cost improved stoves through a randomized controlled trial. The randomized stove is primarily designed to curb firewood consumption, but not smoke emissions. Nonetheless, we find considerable effects not only on firewood consumption, but also on smoke exposure and, consequently, smoke-related disease symptoms. The reduced smoke exposure results from behavioural changes in terms of increased outside cooking and a reduction in cooking time. We conclude that in order to assess the effectiveness of a technology-oriented intervention, it is critical to not only account for the incidence of technology adoption - the extensive margin - but also for the way the new technology is used - the intensive margin. PMID:25841214

  17. Numerical investigation of the flow inside the combustion chamber of a plant oil stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritz, B.; Werler, M.; Wirbser, H.; Gabi, M.

    2013-10-01

    Recently a low cost cooking device for developing and emerging countries was developed at KIT in cooperation with the company Bosch und Siemens Hausgeräte GmbH. After constructing an innovative basic design further development was required. Numerical investigations were conducted in order to investigate the flow inside the combustion chamber of the stove under variation of different geometrical parameters. Beyond the performance improvement a further reason of the investigations was to rate the effects of manufacturing tolerance problems. In this paper the numerical investigation of a plant oil stove by means of RANS simulation will be presented. In order to reduce the computational costs different model reduction steps were necessary. The simulation results of the basic configuration compare very well with experimental measurements and problematic behaviors of the actual stove design could be explained by the investigation.

  18. Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, Cynthia

    2014-09-01

    Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

  19. A laboratory fuel efficiency and emissions comparison between Tanzanian traditional and improved biomass cooking stoves and alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B. R.; Maggio, J. C.; Paterson, K.

    2010-12-01

    Large amounts of aerosols are emitted from domestic biomass burning globally every day. Nearly three billion people cook in their homes using traditional fires and stoves. Biomass is the primary fuel source which results in detrimental levels of indoor air pollution as well as having a strong impact on climate change. Variations in emissions occur depending on the combustion process and stove design as well as the condition and type of fuel used. The three most commonly used fuels for domestic biomass burning are wood, charcoal, and crop residue. In addition to these commonly used fuels and because of the increased difficulty of obtaining charcoal and wood due to a combination of deforestation and new governmental restrictions, alternative fuels are becoming more prevalent. In the Republic of Tanzania a field campaign was executed to test previously adopted and available traditional and improved cooking stoves with various traditional and alternative fuels. The tests were conducted over a two month period and included four styles of improved stoves, two styles of traditional cooking methods, and eight fuel types. The stoves tested include a sawdust stove, ceramic and brick insulated metal stoves, and a mud stove. A traditional three-stone fire was also tested as a benchmark by which to compare the other stoves. Fuel types tested include firewood, charcoal (Acacia), sawdust, pressed briquettes, charcoal dust briquettes, and carbonized crop residue. Water boiling tests were conducted on each stove with associated fuel types during which boiling time, water temperature, CO, CO2, and PM2.5?m emissions were recorded. All tests were conducted on-site in Arusha, Tanzania enabling the use of local materials and fuels under local conditions. It was found that both stove design and fuel type play a critical role in the amount of emissions produced. The most influential design aspect affecting emissions was the size of the combustion chamber in combination with air intake. However, it was clear that varying fuel types has the largest influence on emissions and therefore has greater potential for reducing emissions compared to stove design. Most notably, alternative fuels such as carbonized crop residue produced far fewer particulates and lower carbon monoxide levels. With particulates and carbon monoxide emissions having the most damaging effects to human health, alternative fuels offer a cleaner burning option. The testing expanded understanding of current stove design and common cooking practices in and around the Arusha region of Tanzania while laying the foundation for future development of a more efficient stove and a cleaner burning biomass fuel.

  20. Valorization of electric arc furnace primary steelmaking slags for cement applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Kee-Seok; Jung, Sung Suk; Hwang, Jin Ill; Choi, Jae-Seok; Sohn, Il

    2015-07-01

    To produce supplementary cementitious materials from electric arc furnace (EAF) slags, FeO was reduced using a two-stage reduction process that included an Al-dross reduction reaction followed by direct carbon reduction. A decrease in FeO was observed on tapping after the first-stage reduction, and further reduction with a stirred carbon rod in the second-stage reduction resulted in final FeO content below 5wt%, which is compatible with cement clinker applications. The reduced electric arc furnace slags (REAFS) mixed with cement at a unit ratio exhibited physical properties comparable to those of commercialized ground granulated blast furnace slags (GGBFS). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to obtain fundamental information on the cooling characteristics and conditions required to obtain amorphous REAFS. REAFS can be applied in cement mixtures to achieve the hydraulic properties needed for commercial use. PMID:25863765

  1. The operation results with the modified charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.J.; Pi, Y.J.; Kim, J.R.; Lee, J.N. [POSCO, Kwangyang, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    There will be another blast furnace, the production capacity of which is 3.0 million tonnes per year in 1999 and mini mill plant, the production capacity of which is 1.8 million tonnes per year in 1996 at Kwangyang Works. Therefore, the coke oven gas and burnt lime will be deficient and more sinter will be needed. To meet with these situations, the authors modified the charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant in April 1995. After the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace, the consumption of burnt lime and coke oven gas could be decreased and the sinter productivity increased in spite of the reduction of burnt lime consumption. This report describes the operation results with the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace in No. 2 sinter plant Kwangyang works.

  2. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  3. Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements 

    E-print Network

    Gandler, T.

    2010-01-01

    Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements Tim Gandler Energy Coordinator Baytown Olefins Plant, Baytown Tx 2010 Industrial Energy Technology Conference May, 2010 Page 2 ? Baytown Complex ? Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Furnace overview... & challenges in steam cracking ? Energy efficiency improvements Overview Baytown Olefins Plant Page 3 Baytown Complex ?One of world?s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes ?~3,400 acres along Houston Ship...

  4. Evaluating high-temperature intumescent insulation materials under fire and blast conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.J. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes recent testing conducted to evaluate the performance of high-temperature intumescent materials under adverse fire and blast conditions. Results from fire performance evaluations currently protecting offshore oil platforms are presented. Extensive fire and blast qualification testing of epoxy-based intumescent materials has been conducted utilizing specially designed blast chambers, jet fire facilities, and laboratory furnaces. Blast chambers are capable of loading up to a 3 x 3-m insulated bulkhead assembly to a 2 bar over pressure and having a duration of approximately 250 millisecond generated by a controlled flammable vapor cloud explosion. The jet fire test exposes an insulated test specimen to a fire environment characterized by temperatures of approximately 1100 C, sonic gas velocities, and peak heat flux levels in excess of 300 kW/m{sup 2}.

  5. New blast weapons.

    PubMed

    Dearden, P

    2001-02-01

    Over the last decade a large number of weapon systems have appeared that use blast as their primary damage mechanism. This is a notable trend; until recently very few warheads relied on blast as their primary output. Most warheads in service use explosives to drive metal such as fragments and shaped charge jets to engage targets. New technologies are now being integrated into warheads that claim to have enhanced blast performance. Blast weapons could have been designed to fill a gap in capability; they are generally used for the attack of 'soft' targets including personnel, both in the open and within protective structures. With the increased number and range of these weapons, it is likely that UK forces will have to face them in future conflicts. This paper briefly describes fuel-air explosive blast weapons and reviews a range of enhanced blast weapons that have been developed recently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the reasons why enhanced blast technologies may be proliferating and how this could affect the Defence Medical Services. PMID:11307681

  6. High-frequency furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumbrunnen, A. D.

    1985-04-01

    An experimental furnace has been built for the purpose of evaluating a new technique for the high purity melting of certain metals and semiconductors. The melt is contained in a solidified skull of the same material being melted, thus avoiding crucible reactions that are a problem in conventional processing. A number of commercial applications of the invention are discussed, assuming that feasibility can be established. These include the melting and crystal growth of silicon, where the avoidance of crucible contamination would improve the energy conversion efficiency of solar cells; and the consolidation of titanium sponge and scrap, where energy savings and other process advantages would be realized. The production of ferrous and non-ferrous, specialty alloys is also discussed. Heating power is derived from the electrical, proximity effect which is used to concentrate a high-frequency (9.6 kHz) current in the melt zone. The power source is a conventional, 50 kW, solid-state inverter of the type used in induction heating practice. All heats were conducted on a cast iron workpiece in argon at atmospheric pressure. The melt temperature of the casting (2100 F) was not achieved in any test run; however, the ability of proximity effect to generate localized heating was clearly demonstrated.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting...

  8. Personal exposures of preschool children to carbon monoxide: Roles of ambient air quality and gas stoves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alm, S.; Reponen, A.; Mukala, K.; Pasanen, P.; Tuomisto, J.; Jantunen, M. J.

    Personal 1 h mean CO exposures of preschool children in two day care centers (Töölö and Vallila) in Helsinki were measured with continuously recording personal exposure monitors. In Vallila, the median CO exposure of children from homes with gas stoves was 2.0 mg m -3, and with electric stoves, 0.9 mg m -3. In Töölö, the corresponding values were 1.9 and 1.0 mg m -3, respectively. The national ambient air quality guidelines for CO in Finland were exceeded in a few percent of the exposure measurements. The results were compared to fixed-site ambient air monitoring data and related to the presence of town-gas fired stoves in the children's homes. The results show that fixed-site ambient air monitors are of little value in predicting personal exposures of children or even their relative differences between areas. They also show that town-gas fired stoves may have a profound effect on the CO exposures of the children.

  9. Greenhouse gases from biomass and fossil fuel stoves in developing countries: A Manila pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Smith; M. A. K. KhaliP; R. A. Rasmussen; S. A. Thorneloe; F. Manegdeg; M. Apte

    1993-01-01

    Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were also taken. All samples were analyzed for CO 2, CO, CH 4, NzO, and total non-methane organic

  10. Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Spring 2012 Fuel Efficient Stoves to Achieve Fuel Security

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    , and significant smoke production. Objectives Teamzania's goal was to design a fuel efficient stove that meets currently lies in waste piles throughout the region ­ rice hulls. While this byproduct does show promise, cultural, economical, and production constraints found in Tanzania Reduce the fuel consumption rate, high

  11. Supporting online information for: Climate Change Impact of Biochar Cook Stoves in Western Kenyan

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    S1 Supporting online information for: Climate Change Impact of Biochar Cook Stoves in Western of the crop's response to biochar application is based on the age of the farm and the total biochar (1) where YA,BC is crop yield in t dry grain/ha for a farm at a given age (A) and soil biochar

  12. Experience with improved charcoal and wood stoves for households and institutions in Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Efforts at promoting more fuel-efficient charcoal stoves to replace traditional charcoal stoves in Kenya offer some lessons for the dissemination of appropriate technologies. This paper looks at the market-based approach which has made the Kenyan charcoal stoves project a success. Trends in woodfuels (wood and charcoal) consumption in Kenya are identified; the traditional technology for charcoal combustion and the upgraded traditional technologies are described; production achievement and the dissemination and promotion strategy used are examined; and a financial and economic analysis is performed with social, health and environmental effects assessed. Other ways to achieve a more favourable balance between woodfuels consumption and supply are then discussed looking at more efficient charcoal kilns and household woodstoves, improved institutional stoves and increased wood production. The replication potential of the Kenya experiment in other countries is also explored. The lessons learnt from the the Kenya experience concern the relationship between technology, choice and delivery systems as they interact with, economic, institutional, and policy factors. In this case, the design work accepted the traditional technology as a starting point which helped ensure widespread acceptance by households. The potential desirability of relying on local artisans to manufacture consumer durables using existing private sector channels to market these goods is also shown. It also highlights the importance of going beyond a laissez-faire approach and supporting training, demonstration, and publicity to faciliate the workings of the private sector. In the Kenyan case, technology choice was relatively unsubsidized and left ot the preferences of consumers.

  13. IMPACT OF AN INDOOR COOK STOVE INTERVENTION ON MEASURES OF SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Aims: Approximately three billion people use inefficient and poorly-vented indoor cook stoves, which can result in high indoor air pollution concentrations. Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular effects of indoor biomass burning. Methods: In this pilot s...

  14. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

  15. EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH SIDE OF SINGLE FURNACE, SOUTHWEST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  16. Assessing the impact of a wood stove replacement program on air quality and children's health.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J; Navidi, William; Sheppard, Lianne; Bergauff, Megan; Palmer, Chris

    2011-12-01

    Many rural mountain valley communities experience elevated ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM*) in the winter, because of contributions from residential wood-burning appliances and sustained temperature inversion periods during the cold season. A wood stove change-out program was implemented in a community heavily affected by wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of this intervention program on ambient and indoor PM2.5 concentrations and to identify possible corresponding changes in the frequency of childhood respiratory symptoms and infections and illness-related school absences. Over 1100 old wood stoves were replaced with new EPA-certified wood stoves or other heating sources. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 30% lower in the winter after the changeout program, compared with baseline winters, which brought the community's ambient air within the PM2.5 standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The installation of a new wood stove resulted in an overall reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a small sample of wood-burning homes, but the effects were highly variable across homes. Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were associated with decreased reports of childhood wheeze and of other childhood respiratory health conditions. The association was not limited to children living in homes with wood stoves nor does it appear to be limited to susceptible children (e.g., children with asthma). Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were also associated with lower illness-related school absences among older children, but this finding was not consistent across all age-groups. This community-level intervention provided a unique opportunity to prospectively observe exposure and outcome changes resulting from a targeted air pollution reduction strategy. PMID:22852484

  17. 8.EE Fixing the Furnace

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Ivan’s furnace has quit working during the coldest part of the year, and he is eager to get it fixed. He decides to call some mechanics and furnace spe...

  18. An analytical furnace model for optimizing aluminum melting furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianxiang (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); King, Paul E.; Hassan, Mohamed (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); Kuwana, Kazunori (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); Saito, Kozo (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY)

    2005-02-01

    An analytical furnace model, originally established by Essenhigh and Tsai, is developed and modified in this paper. The practical application of this modified model is to predict optimum furnace operating conditions, and has been verified by experimental tests conducted in the Experimental Research Furnace (ERF) at the Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy. The development of the modified Essenhigh/Tsai model is based on melting and holding tests with two main assumptions: thermal conduction loss in aluminum melting process is the same as that in holding processes, and the heat loss through flue gases is lineally proportional to the melting rate. The former is reasonable because thermal conduction loss is small as compared with firing rate, while the latter is quite accurate as shown in the test results. Tests of aluminum melting were conducted in the ERF furnace where the combustion space volume was changed by varying the roof height. The relations between firing rate, heat absorption rate, melting rate, and energy efficiency were developed from the tests, and the optimum operating conditions under which maximum energy efficiency can be achieved were predicted. In addition, the effect of roof height on the energy efficiency was determined. This model could be a valuable tool in diagnostic analysis of day-to-day operations in aluminum melting.

  19. Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF) 

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, T.

    2008-01-01

    Submerged Arc Furnaces are used to produce high temperature alloys. These furnaces typically run at 3000°F using high voltage electricity along with metallurgical carbon to reduce metal oxides to pure elemental form. The process as currently...

  20. Stagewise gasification in a multiple hearth furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of sewage sludge and\\/or the combustible fraction of refuse in a multiple-hearth furnace is discussed. The furnace has a drying zone at the top, a pyrolysis zone in the middle, and a gasification zone at the bottom. The charge is fed into the top of the furnace, air and steam are fed into the bottom, the fuel gas

  1. Arc furnace flicker measurements and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bhargava

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of arc flicker investigations and harmonic measurements taken on a 55 MW arc furnace in Southern California Edison's area. The arc furnace has been in operation since 1976 and has a 65 MVAR Static Var System (SVS) installed to improve the customer's power factor, reduce the voltage fluctuations and arc furnace flicker. Although the SVS

  2. An adaptive arc furnace model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tongxin Zheng; Elham B. Makram

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive arc furnace model. The integrated model is divided into three parts, the supply system model, the nonlinear load model and the controller model. First, the supply system is represented by a set of linear differential equations. Simulation is achieved by a numerical method and the measurements are taken as the control input. Secondly, based on

  3. Temperature uniformity in RTP furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Yates Sorrell; Mark J. Fordham; M. C. Ozturk; Jimmie J. Wortman

    1992-01-01

    The heat transfer to a wafer in a rapid thermal processing (RTP) furnace is simulated by an analytical\\/numerical model. The model includes radiation heat transfer to the wafer from the lamps, heat conduction within the wafer, and emission of radiation from the wafer. Geometric optics are used to predict the radiant heat flux distribution over the wafer. The predicted wafer

  4. Concrete linings of heating furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Zamyatin

    1993-01-01

    The metallurgical and machine-building industries have more than a thousand heating and heat-treatment furnaces lined with refractory parts. The life of the linings is up to 2 years including intermediate repairs of individual elements. The primary reason for the low life of linings is their insufficient structural strength and also failure of refractory parts in periodic sharp heating and cooling.

  5. Indoor air pollution in rural China: Cooking fuels, stoves, and health status

    SciTech Connect

    Peabody, J.W.; Riddell, T.J.; Smith, K.R.; Liu, Y.P.; Zhao, Y.Y.; Gong, J.H.; Milet, M.; Sinton, J.E. [Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)

    2005-03-15

    Solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in less developed countries the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. The authors conducted a large cross-sectional study of rural Chinese households to determine associations between individual health status and domestic cooking as a source of indoor air pollution. The study included measures of health status as well as measures of indoor air-pollution sources, such as solid cooking fuels and cooking stoves. Compared with other fuel types, coal was associated with a lower health status, including negative impacts on exhaled carbon monoxide level, forced vital capacity, lifetime prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and health care utilization. Decreasing household coal use, increasing use of improved stove technology, and increasing kitchen ventilation may decrease the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution.

  6. The wood-burning stove: A metaphor for dietary regulation for persons with eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. Hill

    1993-01-01

    Metaphors offer flexibility and promote unconscious expression that broaden the traditional cognitive\\/behavioral approach. An extensively developed metaphor, The Wood-Burning Stove, is introduced as a cognitive\\/behavioral intervention. The methodology includes telling, not reading, the metaphor as an intervention for dietary regulation during the early stage of treatment. Integrating metaphoric terminology into the remainder of the treatment is thought to contribute toward

  7. Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes an industrial furnace for heating work which emits volatiles during heating. It comprises a generally cylindrical, closed end furnace section defining a sealable heat transfer chamber for heating work disposed therein; fan means for directing furnace atmosphere as a swirling wind mass about the interior of the furnace section over a portion thereof; heat means for heating the wind mass within the fan chamber; and an incineration track formed as a circumferentially extending groove about the exterior of the furnace section and in heat transfer relationship with and situated at least to extend about a portion of the fan chamber.

  8. Pilot study to reduce emissions, improve health, and offset BC emissions through the distribution of improved cook stoves in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banmali Pradhan, B.; Panday, A. K.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    In most developing countries, wood and other biomass fuels are still the primary source of energy for the majority of the people, particularly the poor. It is estimated that cook stoves account for approximately 20% of global black carbon emissions. In Nepal 87% of energy is supplied from traditional biomass and 75% of households still depend on biomass as a cooking fuel. The substitution of traditional cook stoves with improved cook stoves provides an important way to reduce black carbon emissions. In 2013 the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has commenced a pilot study that both examines ways to effectively disseminate improved cookstoves across remote rural mountain regions, and also quantifies the resulting changes in emissions, air quality and health. The selected study area is in Bajrabarahi Village in Makawanpur district, to the southwest of Kathmandu. The study area consists of around 1600 households, which are divided into control groups and groups where the cook stove intervention is taking place. The study complements the ';Clean Cooking energy solution for all by 2017' announced by the Government of Nepal recently, and will provide insights to the government on ways to effectively reduce black carbon emissions from cook stoves. To make the study robust and sustainable, local women's group and a local medical institution are involved in the project right from the conceptualization stage. The study region has been chosen in part because the medical school Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has already started a long term health assessment in the region, and has built up considerable local contacts. The local women's group is working on the modality of cook stove distribution through micro credit programmes in the village. We will distribute the best available manufactured, fan-assisted cook stoves that are expected to reduce BC emissions the most. Health assessments, emissions estimates, as well as measurements of indoor and outdoor air quality will be done before and after the stoves are disseminated. Having obtained funds for the purchase of improved cook stoves from Nepal's diesel automobile sector, we compare the emissions of black carbon from the sponsoring diesel vehicles with the reduction in black carbon emissions from the sponsored improved cook stoves, thereby pioneering methods to offset black carbon emissions.

  9. Impact of Reduced Maternal Exposures to Wood Smoke from an Introduced Chimney Stove on Newborn Birth Weight in Rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Nigel; Eskenazi, Brenda; Diaz, Anaite; Pope, Daniel; Smith, Kirk R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A growing body of evidence indicates a relationship between household indoor air pollution from cooking fires and adverse neonatal outcomes, such as low birth weight (LBW), in resource-poor countries. Objective: We examined the effect of reduced wood smoke exposure in pregnancy on LBW of Guatemalan infants in RESPIRE (Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects). Methods: Pregnant women (n = 266) either received a chimney stove (intervention) or continued to cook over an open fire (control). Between October 2002 and December 2004 we weighed 174 eligible infants (69 to mothers who used a chimney stove and 105 to mothers who used an open fire during pregnancy) within 48 hr of birth. Multivariate linear regression and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were used to estimate differences in birth weight and LBW (< 2,500 g) associated with chimney-stove versus open-fire use during pregnancy. Results: Pregnant women using chimney stoves had a 39% reduction in mean exposure to carbon monoxide compared with those using open fires. LBW prevalence was high at 22.4%. On average, infants born to mothers who used a stove weighed 89 g more [95% confidence interval (CI), –27 to 204 g] than infants whose mothers used open fires after adjusting for maternal height, diastolic blood pressure, gravidity, and season of birth. The adjusted OR for LBW was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.33–1.66) among infants of stove users compared with open-fire users. Average birth weight was 296 g higher (95% CI, 109–482 g) in infants born during the cold season (after harvest) than in other infants; this unanticipated finding may reflect the role of maternal nutrition on birth weight in an impoverished region. Conclusions: A chimney stove reduced wood smoke exposures and was associated with reduced LBW occurrence. Although not statistically significant, the estimated effect was consistent with previous studies. PMID:21652290

  10. Furnace for treating industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T.D.

    1982-08-31

    A furnace for treating sewage sludge, ash from municipal incinerators or other industrial wastes by melting the waste with a high-temperature bed formed from a combustible carbonaceous material for the reuse of the resulting molten product, for example, as aggregate. A gas for combustion is supplied to the bed at an intermediate portion between its upper and lower portions while causing the resulting combustion gas to flow through the bed dividedly upward and downward.

  11. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.912 Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired without his approval. (b) Loading tubes and...

  12. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

  13. Kinetics of the reaction of iron blast furance slag\\/hydrated lime sorbents with SO 2 at low temperatures: effects of sorbent preparation conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiung-Fang Liu; Shih-Min Shih

    2004-01-01

    Sorbents highly reactive towards SO2 have been prepared from iron blast furnace slag and hydrated lime under different hydration conditions. The reaction of the dry sorbents with SO2 has been studied under the conditions similar to those in the bag filters in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization system. The reaction was well described by a modified surface coverage model which

  14. Symptoms of respiratory illness in young children and the use of wood-burning stoves for indoor heating.

    PubMed

    Honicky, R E; Osborne, J S; Akpom, C A

    1985-03-01

    The occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness among preschool children living in homes heated by wood-burning stoves was examined by conducting an historical prospective study (n = 62) with an internal control group (matched for age, sex, and town of residence). Exposures of subjects were not significantly different (P greater than .05) with respect to parental smoking, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and use of humidifiers. The control group made significantly greater use of gas stoves for cooking whereas the study group made greater use of electric stoves for cooking and of air filters (P less than .05). Only one home used a kerosene space heater. During the winter of 1982, moderate and severe symptoms in all categories were significantly greater for the study group compared with the control group (P less than .001). These differences could not be accounted for by medical histories (eg, allergies, asthma), demographic or socioeconomic characteristics, or by exposure to sources of indoor air pollution other than wood-burning stoves. Present findings suggest that indoor heating with wood-burning stoves may be a significant etiologic factor in the occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness in young children. PMID:3975129

  15. Furnace for processing scrap and waste products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. B. Kudzagov

    2006-01-01

    The company METPROMMASh has been developing and introducing metallurgical technologies and equipment for the nonferrous metals\\u000a sector for more than 10 years. A particular focus of the company has been the construction of furnaces for recycling aluminum-and\\u000a copper-bearing scrap and waste products. Furnaces made by METPROMMASh are currently being used by shops and factories that\\u000a recycle nonferrous metals, these furnaces

  16. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  17. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  18. Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

    2004-01-24

    In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

  19. The BLAST experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hasell; T. Akdogan; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. R. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. Crawford; A. Degrush; K. Dow; D. Dutta; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; E. Geis; S. Gilad; W. Hersman; M. Holtrop; E. Ihloff; P. Karpius; J. Kelsey; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; S. Krause; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Sindile; S. Širca; T. Smith; S. Sobczynski; M. Tanguay; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; J. van der Laan; F. Wang; T. Wise; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; V. Ziskin; T. Zwart

    2009-01-01

    The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems. As such the data will provide improved measurements for neutron, proton, and deuteron form factors. The data will also allow

  20. Concepts of blast hole pressure applied to blast design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Cunningham

    2006-01-01

    Blast hole pressure is the starting point for many blast design calculations, but the way in which it is usually derived, from measured detonation velocity, indicates that more thought is needed as to its true meaning and implication. The general impression is given that the energy in the hole is defined by velocity of detonation (VoD), but this is rarely

  1. Identification of blast resistance genes for managing rice blast disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. In the present study, an international set of monogenic differentials carrying 24 major blast resistance (R) genes (Pia, Pib, Pii, Pik, Pik-h, Pik-m, Pik-p, Pik-s, Pish, Pit, Pita, Pita2,...

  2. Scale modeling of aluminum melting furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Penmetsa, S.S. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Kentucky Lexington, KY); Li, T. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Kentucky Lexington, KY); King, Paul E.; Saito, K. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Kentucky Lexington, KY)

    2005-02-01

    Improving energy efficiency in secondary aluminum melting, done in large rectangular or round-top reverberatory furnaces, has been one of the major interests to the aluminum industry. To assist the industries in improving energy efficiency in aluminum melting, an experimental research furnace (ERF) with 907 kg capacity has been built at the Albany Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy as part of this multi-partner research program. To verify that the results from experiments conducted in the ERF furnace is validate for the operations of industrial furnaces, we use scale modeling technology to assist the validation. In this paper we present the results from our experiments in the model furnace, which was scale-down from the ERF furnace (as a prototype), and then compare them to the tests on the ERF furnace. The scaling laws which are applied to the thermal conduction loss through the walls of the model furnace were first developed, and the partial modeling relaxation technique was applied in the development of modeling to derive achievable scaling laws. Temperature distributions across the model furnace walls were measured and found to compare with the prototype favorably. Good agreement between the results obtained from the model experiments and from the ERF tests demonstrate that the scale modeling is expected to be a useful tool because the physical behavior of melting phenomena in the industrial furnaces can be explored by conducting experiments in a small, scaled-down furnace, and can be applied in the study of improving energy efficiency in aluminum melting.

  3. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    E-print Network

    Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

    2008-01-01

    Furnace Air Handlers: A Status Report and Program Recommendations, Washington D.C.Furnace Fans and Motors: A Briefing Paper for CEE. Washington D.C.Furnace and Boiler Notice of Proposed Rule (NOPR). Washington, DC. :

  4. Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace

    E-print Network

    Wolper, Pierre

    Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace Proposition: Combined are sufficient to describe the temperature raise of a furnace, their "simple integration" is often furnace taking into account convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. The model

  5. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  6. Bottom electrodes of DC electric arc furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ya. Kaplun

    2009-01-01

    The design of dc electric arc furnaces (DCEAFs) is similar to that of three-phase arc steel-melting furnaces (ASFs) and differs from it only in the presence of one or more graphite roof electrodes (cathodes) and one or more bottom electrodes (anodes), which convey current to a metal to be melted. As compared to ASFs, DCEAFs have the following main advantages:

  7. Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. D. Dosaj; J. B. May; A. N. Arvidson

    1994-01-01

    The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of

  8. SCALE MODELING OF ALUMINUM MELTING FURNACE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sita rama raju S Penmetsa

    2004-01-01

    Secondary (recycled) aluminum constitutes around 48% of the total aluminum used in the United States. Secondary aluminum melting is accomplished in large reverberatory furnaces, and improving its energy efficiency has been one of the major interests to aluminum industries. To assist the industries in improving energy efficiency in aluminum melting, an experimental research furnace (ERF), with 907 kg (2000 lbs)

  9. Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System

    E-print Network

    Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling...

  10. ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

  11. An intelligent control system for industrial furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lou An; Jia Xueyan; Qiusi Xiong

    1990-01-01

    The principles of intelligent control and the design of an expert intelligent control system (EICS) are discussed. Based on these principles, a novel control system is proposed to deal with the process control of gas carburizing furnaces. Since no critical and accurate mathematical models of the controlled plants are required, this EICS can be directly applied to many industrial furnaces.

  12. AMTEC powered residential furnace and auxiliary power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Sievers

    1996-01-01

    Residential gas furnaces normally rely on utility grid electric power to operate the fans and\\/or the pumps used to circulate conditioned air or water and they are thus vulnerable to interruptions of utility grid service. Experience has shown that such interruptions can occur during the heating season, and can lead to serious consequences. A gas furnace coupled to an AMTEC

  13. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  14. Crystal growth furnace safety system validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowski, D. W.; Hartfield, R.; Bhavnani, S. H.; Belcher, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    The findings are reported regarding the safe operation of the NASA crystal growth furnace (CGF) and potential methods for detecting containment failures of the furnace. The main conclusions are summarized by ampoule leak detection, cartridge leak detection, and detection of hazardous species in the experiment apparatus container (EAC).

  15. Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System 

    E-print Network

    Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling...

  16. Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

  17. Particulate exposure and size distribution from wood burning stoves in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Park, E; Lee, K

    2003-09-01

    Biomass fuel is the most common energy source for cooking and space heating in developing countries. Biomass fuel combustion causes high levels of indoor air pollutants including particulates and other combustion by-products. We measured indoor air quality in 23 houses with a wood burning stove in rural residential areas of Costa Rica. Daily PM2.5, PM10 and CO concentrations, and particle size distribution were simultaneously measured in the kitchen. When a wood burning stove was used during the monitoring period, average daily PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were 44 and 132 microg/m3, respectively. Average CO concentrations were between 0.5 and 3.3 ppm. All houses had a particle size distribution of either one or two peaks at around 0.7 and 2.5 microm aerodynamic diameters. The particulate levels increased rapidly during cooking and decreased quickly after cooking. The maximum peak particulate levels ranged from 310 to 8170 microg/m3 for PM2.5 and from 500 to 18900 microg/m3 for PM10 in all houses. Although the 24-h particulate levels in this study are lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of PM2.5 and PM10, it is important to note that people, especially women and children, are exposed to extremely high levels of particulates during cooking. PMID:12950588

  18. Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Vermeulen, R.; Tian, L.W.; Zheng, T.Z.; Chen, B.E.; Engels, E.A.; He, X.Z.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (USA)

    2009-02-15

    In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all farmers born 1917 through 1951 and living in Xuanwei as of 1 January 1976. The analysis included a total of 42,422 cohort members. Follow-up identified all deaths in the cohort from 1976 through 1996. Ages at entry into and at exit from follow-up ranged from 24 to 59 years and from 25 to 80 years, respectively. The record search detected 225 deaths from pneumonia, and 32,332 (76%) were alive as of 31 December 1996. We constructed multivariable Cox models (time variable = age) to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Use of coal, especially smokeless coal, was positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Annual tonnage and lifetime duration of smoky and smokeless coal use were positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Stove improvement was associated with a 50% reduction in pneumonia deaths (smoky coal users: HR, 0.521; 95% CI, 0.340-0.798; smokeless coal users: HR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.215-0.937). Our analysis is the first to suggest that indoor air pollution from unvented coal burning is an important risk factor for pneumonia death in adults and that improving ventilation by installing a chimney is an effective measure to decrease it.

  19. A multi-zone muffle furnace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Neil D.; Kisel, Martin

    1993-01-01

    A Multi-Zone Muffle-Tube Furnace was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of providing an in-house experience base with tubular furnaces for materials processing in microgravity. As such, it must not only provide the desired temperatures and controlled thermal gradients at several discrete zones along its length but must also be capable of sustaining the rigors of a Space Shuttle launch. The furnace is insulated to minimize radial and axial heat losses. It is contained in a water-cooled enclosure for purposes of dissipating un-wanted residual heat, keeping the outer surfaces of the furnace at a 'touch-safe' temperature, and providing a rugged housing. This report describes the salient features of the furnace, testing procedures and results, and concluding remarks evaluating the overall design.

  20. Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, A.R. [Golder Associates Ltd., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); Kleine, T.H. [Golder Associates Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Forsyth, W.W. [Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing; evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.

  1. 6/2/12 NCBI Blast:sbe vs human 1/770www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/Blast.cgi

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    6/2/12 NCBI Blast:sbe vs human 1/770www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/Blast.cgi Database Name Description Blast:sbe vs human 2/770www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/Blast.cgi Legend for links to other resources: Uni

  2. Distribution of trace metals at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Hopewell Furnace, located approximately 50 miles northwest of Philadelphia, was a cold-blast, charcoal iron furnace that operated for 113 years (1771 to 1883). The purpose of this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was to determine the distribution of trace metals released to the environment from an historical iron smelter at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). Hopewell Furnace used iron ore from local mines that contained abundant magnetite and accessory sulfide minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, and other metals. Ore, slag, cast iron furnace products, soil, groundwater, stream base flow, streambed sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled for this study. Soil samples analyzed in the laboratory had concentrations of trace metals low enough to meet Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection standards for non-residential use. Groundwater samples from the supply well met U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water regulations. Concentrations of metals in surface-water base flow at the five stream sampling sites were below continuous concentration criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediment at the five stream sites were below probable effects level guidelines for protection of aquatic organisms except for copper at site HF-3. Arsenic, copper, lead, zinc, and possibly cobalt were incorporated into the cast iron produced by Hopewell Furnace. Manganese was concentrated in slag along with iron, nickel, and zinc. The soil near the furnace has elevated concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to background soil concentrations. Concentrations of toxic elements were not present at concentrations of concern in water, soil, or stream sediments, despite being elevated in ore, slag, and cast iron furnace products. The base-flow surface-water samples indicated good overall quality. The five sampled sites generally had low concentrations of nutrients and major ions but had elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and strontium when compared to sites sampled in adjacent watersheds. The background site on Baptism Creek generally had the lowest concentrations and yields of constituents. Low concentrations of nutrients and major ions at all five sites indicate that measured concentrations can be attributed to general land use and geology and not to point sources. Streambed-sediment sampling results indicated higher concentrations of all metals except nickel at sites on French Creek compared to the background site on Baptism Creek. Concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, and nickel were highest in sediment from the sampling site upstream from Hopewell Furnace. The highest concentrations of arsenic, boron, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, and zinc were detected at the site just below Hopewell Furnace, which indicates that the source of these metals may be in Hopewell Furnace NHS. The invertebrate community at the background site on Baptism Creek was dominated by pollution sensitive taxa indicating a healthy, diverse benthic-macroinvertebrate community. Benthic-macroinvertebrate communities at sampling sites on French Creek indicated disturbed communities when compared to the background site on Baptism Creek and that the overall stream quality immediately above and below Hopewell Furnace NHS is degraded. The benthic-macroinvertebrate communities were dominated by pollution-tolerant taxa, and taxa were less diverse than at the background site. Habitat conditions at the upstream site on French Creek were good but were degraded at downstream sites on French Creek. The major habitat issues at these sites were related to a lack of stable substrate, erosion, and deposition. Water quality and streambed-sediment quality do not indicate that the degraded benthic-macroinvertebrate communities are the result of poor water quality. Habitat conditions (erosion and sedimentation) and physical alterations (water temperature) from the outfall of Hopewell Lake are the most likely cause

  3. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  4. COMPARISONS BETWEEN MM5 (MODIFIED METHOD 5), OM7 (OREGON METHOD 7), AND DRAFT ASTM MEASUREMENTS OF WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper compares three candidate sampling methods--the EPA Modified Method 5 (MM5), the Oregon Method 7 (OM7), and the ASTM proposed Method P180--preparatory to selecting a wood stove operating procedure and related emission sampling method. (NOTE: The EPA is developing a New S...

  5. Impact of improved stoves, house construction and child location on levels of indoor air pollution exposure in young Guatemalan children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel Bruce; John McCracken; Rachel Albalak; Morten Scheid; Kirk R Smith; Victorina Lopez; Chris West

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of improved stoves, house ventilation, and child location on levels of indoor air pollution and child exposure in a rural Guatemalan population reliant on wood fuel. The study was a random sample of 204 households with children less than 18 months in a rural village in the western highlands of

  6. Combustion space modeling of an aluminum furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, Brian M. (ANL); Zhou, C.Q. (Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, IN); Quenette, Antoine (ANL).; Han, Quinyou (ORNL).; King, Paul E.

    2005-02-01

    Secondary aluminum production (melting from aluminum ingots, scraps, etc.) offers significant energy savings and environmental benefits over primary aluminum production since the former consumes only five percent of the energy used in the latter process. The industry, however, faces technical challenges of further improving furnace melting efficiency and has been lacking tools that can help understand combustion process in detail and that will facilitate furnace design. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has played increasingly important roles in evaluating industrial processes. As part of a larger program run by SECAT, a CFD model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to simulate fuel combustion, heat transfer (including thermal radiation), gaseous product flow (mainly CO2 and H2O), and production/transport of pollutant species/greenhouse gases in an aluminum furnace. Using this code, the surface heat fluxes are calculated and then transferred to a melt code. In order to have a high level of confidence in the computed results, the output from the code will be compared and validated against in-furnace measurements made in the Albany furnace. Once validated, the combustion code may be used to perform inexpensive parametric studies to investigate methods to optimize furnace performance. This paper will present results from the combustion modeling of an aluminum furnace as well as results from several parametric studies.

  7. Centrifugal shot blast system

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

  8. Emission characteristics of carbonaceous particles from various residential coal-stoves in China

    SciTech Connect

    Guorui Zhi; Yingjun Chen; Yanli Feng; Shengchun Xiong; Jun Li; Gan Zhang; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry

    2008-05-01

    China is thought to be the most important contributor to the global burden of carbonaceous aerosols, and residential coal combustion is the greatest emission source of black carbon (BC). In the present study, two high-efficiency household coal-stoves are tested together with honeycomb-coal-briquettes and raw-coal-chunks of nine different coals. Coal-burning emissions are collected onto quartz fiber filters (QFFs) and analyzed by a thermal-optical transmittance (TOT) method. Emission factors (EFs) of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) are systematically measured, and the average EFs are calculated by taking into account our previous data. For bituminous coal-briquette and -chunk, EFs of PM, OC, and EC are 7.33, 4.16, and 0.08 g/kg and 14.8, 5.93, and 3.81 g/kg, respectively; and for anthracite-briquette and -chunk, they are 1.21, 0.06, and 0.004 g/kg and 1.08, 0.10, and 0.007 g/kg, respectively. Annual estimates for PM, OC, and EC emissions in China are calculated for the years of 2000 and 2005 according to the EFs and coal consumptions, and the results are consistent with our previous estimates. Bituminous coal-chunk contributes 68% and 99% of the total OC and EC emissions from household coal burning, respectively. Additionally, a new model of Aethalometer (AE90) is introduced into the sampling system to monitor the real-time BC concentrations. On one hand, AE90 provides a set of EFs for optical BC in parallel to thermal-optical EC, and these two data are generally comparable, although BC/EC ratios vary in different coal/stove combinations. On the other hand, AE90 offers a chance to observe the variation of BC concentrations during whole burning cycles, which demonstrates that almost all BC emits into the flue during the initial period of 15 min after coal addition into household stoves. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Measurement and modeling of indoor air pollution in rural households with multiple stove interventions in Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Zohir; Campanella, Luke; Gray, Christen; Al Masud, Abdullah; Marter-Kenyon, Jessica; Pennise, David; Charron, Dana; Zuzhang, Xia

    2013-03-01

    In the developing world, indoor air pollution (IAP) created from solid fuel used in traditional biomass cook stoves is a leading contributor of poor respiratory health, global burden of disease, and greenhouse pollutant emissions. In the present study, we piloted an experimental cross-sectional monitoring and evaluation design with 30 households in rural Lijiang and Deqin counties in northwest Yunnan province, China. This approach offers the ability to examine the effectiveness of improved cook stove (ICS) programs with a much smaller sample size than the typical population based pre- and post-intervention study that requires a large sample representative of the population. Continuous PM2.5 was measured with the UCB (currently known as UCB-PATS) and the TSI DustTrak and continuous CO was measured with the HOBO CO logger. Using the traditional method of cooking and heating, mean 24-h PM2.5 and CO concentrations in the kitchen were measured in the range of 0.15-0.71 mg m-3 for PM2.5 and 3.0-11 ppm for CO. These concentrations were compared to using a combination of improved stoves in the kitchen where PM2.5 and CO concentrations were measured in the range of 0.08-0.18 mg m-3 for PM2.5 and 0.7-5.5 ppm for CO. These concentrations yielded statistically significant reduction in IAP when replacing the traditional fireplace or traditional stove with an improved stove combination. Finally, we show a strong correlation between CO and PM2.5 (R2 = 0.72-0.76). The combination of this experimental design along with the monitoring and evaluation protocol presented here may provide a robust framework to rapidly assess the effectiveness of ICS interventions in progress.

  10. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  11. Emissions reductions in coal-fired home heating stoves through the use of briquettes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-19

    The purpose of Phase 1 was to optimize the clean burning coal briquette (Clean Fuel) formulation for Polish raw materials and to demonstrate the claimed pollution reducing benefits of its use in residential heating. Subsidiary goals were to test this fuel in larger scale facilities and to support the commercial tasks by producing Clean Fuel for use in the by-product market test. These goals were accomplished. Use of Clean Fuel in residential heating reduced particulate matter and total hydrocarbons emissions from ceramic home heating stoves compared to the combustion of premium chunk coal by 56 and 39%, respectively. It also results in higher thermal efficiency. An optimum formulation using Polish raw materials was determined and used in the production of Clean Fuel for the by-product market test. This fuel was also tested in a hand-stoked fixed grate boiler and 3 travelling grate boilers of varying size.

  12. Coal Use, Stove Improvement, and Adult Pneumonia Mortality in Xuanwei, China: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Min; Chapman, Robert S.; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Linwei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Chen, Bingshu E.; Engels, Eric A.; He, Xingzhou; Blair, Aaron; Lan, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Background In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all farmers born 1917 through 1951 and living in Xuanwei as of 1 January 1976. The analysis included a total of 42,422 cohort members. Follow-up identified all deaths in the cohort from 1976 through 1996. Ages at entry into and at exit from follow-up ranged from 24 to 59 years and from 25 to 80 years, respectively. The record search detected 225 deaths from pneumonia, and 32,332 (76%) were alive as of 31 December 1996. We constructed multivariable Cox models (time variable = age) to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Use of coal, especially smokeless coal, was positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Annual tonnage and lifetime duration of smoky and smokeless coal use were positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Stove improvement was associated with a 50% reduction in pneumonia deaths (smoky coal users: HR, 0.521; 95% CI, 0.340–0.798; smokeless coal users: HR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.215–0.937). Conclusions Our analysis is the first to suggest that indoor air pollution from unvented coal burning is an important risk factor for pneumonia death in adults and that improving ventilation by installing a chimney is an effective measure to decrease it. PMID:19270797

  13. Emission factors from biomass burning in three types of appliances: fireplace, woodstove and pellet stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Márcio; Vicente, Estela; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luis; Alves, Célia

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, the importance of biomass fuels has increased mainly for two reasons. One of them is the effort to control the emissions of greenhouse gases, and on the other hand, the increasing costs associated with fossil fuels. Besides that, biomass burning is now recognised as one of the major sources contributing to high concentrations of particulate matter, especially during winter time. Southern European countries have a lack of information regarding emission profiles from biomass burning. Because of that, in most source apportionment studies, the information used comes from northern and alpine countries, whose combustion appliances, fuels and habits are different from those in Mediterranean countries. Due to this lack of information, series of tests using different types of equipment, as well as fuels, were carried out in order to obtain emission profiles and emission factors that correspond to the reality in southern European countries. Tests involved three types of biomass appliances used in Portugal, a fireplace, a woodstove and a modern pellet stove. Emission factors (mg.kg-1 fuel, dry basis) for CO, THC and PM10 were obtained. CO emission factors ranged from 38, for pine on the woodstove, to 84 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. THC emissions were between 4 and 24, for pine in the woodstove and eucalyptus in the fireplace, respectively. PM10 emission factors were in the range from 3.99, for pine in the woodstove, to 17.3 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. On average, the emission factors obtained for the fireplace are 1.5 (CO) to 4 (THC) times higher than those of the woodstove. The fireplace has emission factors for CO, THC and PM10 10, 35 and 32 times, respectively, higher than the pellet stove.

  14. Enablers and Barriers to Large-Scale Uptake of Improved Solid Fuel Stoves: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Puzzolo, Elisa; Stanistreet, Debbi; Pope, Daniel; Bruce, Nigel G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Globally, 2.8 billion people rely on household solid fuels. Reducing the resulting adverse health, environmental, and development consequences will involve transitioning through a mix of clean fuels and improved solid fuel stoves (IS) of demonstrable effectiveness. To date, achieving uptake of IS has presented significant challenges. Objectives: We performed a systematic review of factors that enable or limit large-scale uptake of IS in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We conducted systematic searches through multidisciplinary databases, specialist websites, and consulting experts. The review drew on qualitative, quantitative, and case studies and used standardized methods for screening, data extraction, critical appraisal, and synthesis. We summarized our findings as “factors” relating to one of seven domains—fuel and technology characteristics; household and setting characteristics; knowledge and perceptions; finance, tax, and subsidy aspects; market development; regulation, legislation, and standards; programmatic and policy mechanisms—and also recorded issues that impacted equity. Results: We identified 31 factors influencing uptake from 57 studies conducted in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. All domains matter. Although factors such as offering technologies that meet household needs and save fuel, user training and support, effective financing, and facilitative government action appear to be critical, none guarantee success: All factors can be influential, depending on context. The nature of available evidence did not permit further prioritization. Conclusions: Achieving adoption and sustained use of IS at a large scale requires that all factors, spanning household/community and program/societal levels, be assessed and supported by policy. We propose a planning tool that would aid this process and suggest further research to incorporate an evaluation of effectiveness. Citation: Rehfuess EA, Puzzolo E, Stanistreet D, Pope D, Bruce NG. 2014. Enablers and barriers to large-scale uptake of improved solid fuel stoves: a systematic review. Environ Health Perspect 122:120–130;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306639 PMID:24300100

  15. Blasting casting to raise productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Pilshaw, S.R.

    1987-07-01

    Normally, surface mines employ draglines or truck and shovel systems to remove overburden. Blasting merely fragments and displaces the overburden enough to allow for easy digging. But during the past two decades, the effect of inflation and increased labor costs have encouraged unconventional methods of overburden removal. All of us are aware of the tremendous inflationary effects on costs of equipment, fuel, labor, interest, insurance, environmental compliance, etc. This has allowed the authors to take a new look at the use of explosives as an effective alternate method of overburden removal. This technique is known by several names, but basically blast casting or just casting best describes it. Other terms in vogue are explosive casting, controlled trajectory blasting, trajectory control blasting, and whatever terminology comes to mind.

  16. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2010-10-26

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  17. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-22

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  18. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  19. Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces 

    E-print Network

    Kenney, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Beginning in 1978, Exxon has started up nine large new steam cracking furnaces with various levels of air preheat, and has seven more under construction. Sources of heat have included process streams, flue gas and gas turbine exhaust. Several...

  20. Optimized Utility Systems and Furnace Integration 

    E-print Network

    McMullan, A. S.; Spriggs, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    in different utility system designs. This paper presents a procedure, using Pinch Technology, for the simultaneous design of process and utility as an optimally integrated system. Also, the implications for furnace integration are discussed....

  1. Laboratory arc furnace features interchangeable hearths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. L.; Kruger, O. L.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory arc furnace using rapidly interchangeable hearths gains considerable versatility in casting so that buttons or special shaped castings can be produced. It features a sight glass for observation.

  2. Blast-wave density measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Ritzel

    1986-01-01

    Applications of a densitometer to obtain time-resolved data on the total density in blast-wave flows are described. A beta-source (promethium-147) is separated by a gap from a scintillator and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Attenuation of the radiation beam by the passing blast wave is due to the total density in the gap volume during the wave passage. Signal conditioning and

  3. Universal energy-efficient refining furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Sborshchikov; S. A. Krupennikov

    2009-01-01

    This article examines new designs of fluidized-bed furnaces that make it possible to solve a number of engineering problems.\\u000a Descriptions are given of the furnaces and their possible applications: recycling of small pieces of scrap and chips without\\u000a their preliminary processing (briquetting and the removal of oil and grinding debris from their surface); the production of\\u000a a synthetic glass-ceramic material

  4. Blast From the Past

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A recently recovered deep-sea core supports theories that an asteroid collided with the earth 65 million years ago, around the time of the extinction of the dinosaurs. The Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History's new site, Blast from the Past, contains details on this cataclysmic event. Colorful graphics provide conceptual illustrations of the asteroid impact and aftermath, accompanied by photographs of the deep-sea core. Text summaries, followed by bibliographic references, describe the asteroid hypothesis, the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary, and the utility of deep-sea cores. With links to other paleobiological sites and related museum exhibits, this site is a useful resource for those wanting to know more about fateful asteroid impacts.

  5. The BLAST experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasell, D.; Akdogan, T.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Booth, E.; Botto, T.; Calarco, J. R.; Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; DeGrush, A.; Dow, K.; Dutta, D.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R.; Filoti, O.; Franklin, W.; Gao, H.; Geis, E.; Gilad, S.; Hersman, W.; Holtrop, M.; Ihloff, E.; Karpius, P.; Kelsey, J.; Kohl, M.; Kolster, H.; Krause, S.; Lee, T.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; McIlhany, K.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Rapaport, J.; Redwine, R.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Sindile, A.; Širca, S.; Smith, T.; Sobczynski, S.; Tanguay, M.; Tonguc, B.; Tschalaer, C.; Tsentalovich, E.; Turchinetz, W.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van der Laan, J.; Wang, F.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, W.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, Z.; Ziskin, V.; Zwart, T.

    2009-05-01

    The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems. As such the data will provide improved measurements for neutron, proton, and deuteron form factors. The data will also allow details of the reaction mechanism, such as the role of final state interactions, pion production, and resonances to be studied. The experiment used: a longitudinally polarized electron beam stored in the South Hall Storage Ring; a highly polarized, isotopically pure, internal gas target of hydrogen or deuterium provided by an atomic beam source; and a symmetric, general purpose detector based on a toroidal spectrometer with tracking, time-of-flight, Cherenkov, and neutron detectors. Details of the experiment and operation are presented.

  6. Modelling of blast loading on aboveground structures - II. Internal blast and ground shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. B. A. Beshara

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies of the nature and structural effects of confined explosions, contact blast and explosion-induced ground shock are presented. High explosive blast is distinguished from that due to a gaseous deflagration. The effects of confinement and venting are considered in the evaluation of dynamic loads. Maxima for the initial internal blast pressure can be estimated from the scaled blast data

  7. Fuel Efficient Stoves for Darfur Camps of Internally DisplacedPersons - Report of Field Trip to North and South Darfur, Nov. 16 -Dec.17, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Gadgil, Ashok; Jacobs, Mark; Lee, Yoo-Mi

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 2.2 million internally displaced persons (''IDPs'') in Darfur are living in dense camps scattered in arid areas with low fuelwood productivity. Unsustainable harvesting of fuelwood by the IDPs has created ever increasing zones of denudation, that now (in November 2005) have reached several kilometers from the camp boundaries. Leaving the safety of the camps to fetch fuelwood from farther and farther away imposes great risk and hardship on the IDP women. Three different metal fuel efficient stove (''FES'') designs were tested in Darfur IDP camps for their suitability to substantially reduce the fuelwood needs of IDPs. The mud-and-dung ''ITDG'' stoves being promoted under the current FES program were also examined and tested. A modified design of the ITDG mud-and-dung stove, ''Avi'', was developed, built and tested. Systematic informal surveys of IDP households were undertaken in North and South Darfur to understand the household parameters related to family size, food, fuel, cooking habits, cooking pots, expenditure on fuel, and preferences related to alternative ways to spend time/money if fuel could be saved. Surveys found that a significant fraction of families are missing meals for lack of fuel (50% in South Darfur, and 90% in the North Darfur camps visited by the mission). About 60% of women in South Darfur, and about 90% of women in North Darfur camps purchase fuelwood. Selling some of the food rations to purchase fuel to cook meals was significant (40%) in South Darfur and has become common (80%) in North Darfur. The LBNL mission found that two of the metal stoves and the mud-and-dung Avi can significantly reduce fuelwood consumption using the same fuel, pot, cooking methods, and food ingredients used by Darfur IDPs. The most suitable design for Darfur conditions would be a modified ''Tara'' stove. With training of the cooks in tending the fire, this stove can save 50% fuel for the IDPs. The stove costs less than $10 (US) to produce in Darfur, and saves fuelwood worth $160 annually at local market prices. For programmatic and administrative reasons, the LBNL mission do not recommend a mud-and-dung stove, for which control of quality and dimensional accuracy is expensive and cumbersome to administer, particularly in a rapid large rollout effort. A light metal stove, on the other hand, can be rapidly produced in large numbers locally in Darfur, with good quality control exercised on the material and dimensions of the stoves right at the workshop where it is produced. LBNL mission also recommends immediate trials of 50 Tara stoves in a pilot technical rollout, 500 Tara stoves in a pilot social rollout, in parallel with a technical effort to modify the Tara design to make it better suited for Darfur camp conditions. The mission also recommends a program for manufacturing, disseminating the metal stoves, and educating the IDPs in fuel-efficient cooking practices. Monitoring of the stove quality, dissemination effort and training should be an integral part of the program, with systematic summaries planned with 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 stoves have been disseminated. In the above pilot rollouts as well as in the final implementation, it is important to continue to pay attention to training of the cooks in tending the cooking fire in the stoves, and offer continued social reinforcement to this training (e.g., through periodic competitions to cook normal meals with the least fuelwood use.)

  8. Community effectiveness of stove and health education interventions for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in four Chinese provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zheng; Jin, Yinlong; Liu, Fan; Cheng, Yibin; Liu, Jiang; Kang, Jiaqi; He, Gongli; Tang, Ning; Chen, Xun; Baris, Enis; Ezzati, Majid

    2006-10-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and coal is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in the developing world. There is limited evidence of the community effectiveness of interventions for reducing IAP exposure. We conducted a community-based intervention study of stove and health education interventions in four low-income Chinese provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Separate townships in one county in each province were assigned to stove plus behavioral interventions, behavioral interventions alone, and control. Data on household fuel and stove use, and on concentrations of respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), were collected in peak and late heating seasons before and after interventions. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated using difference-in-difference analysis. Pollutant concentrations were also measured in controlled tests, in which stoves were operated by expert users. In controlled tests, there was consistent and substantial reduction in concentrations of RPM (>88%) and CO (>66%) in the two coal-using provinces, SO2 concentrations declined more in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. In community implementation, combined stove and behavioral interventions reduced the concentrations of pollutants in rooms where heating was the main purpose of stove use in the peak heating season, with smaller, non-significant, reduction in late heating season. Gansu was the only province where combined stove and behavioral interventions led to pollution reduction where cooking was the primary purpose of stove use. Compared to the control group, no significant IAP reductions were seen in groups with health education alone.

  9. Composite Furnace Modules - Application in DC Furnaces for FeNi alloy production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frik Marx; Mike Shapiro; Isabel Geldenhuys; Nico Fowler; Neil B. Gray

    The arduous operating conditions in high intensity furnaces require specialized equipment incorpo- rated into the containment vessel to ensure viable, long term operation. This is particularly true for high temperature pyrometallurgical processes where the slag constituents are chemically aggressive to the conventional refractory materials utilized in the sidewall lining. Smelting of nickeliferous lateritic ores in an electric furnace is an

  10. NCBI Handout Series | BLAST homepage & search pages | Last Update August 19, 2013 Contact: blast-help@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov BLAST Homepage and Selected Search Pages

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    NCBI Handout Series | BLAST homepage & search pages | Last Update August 19, 2013 Contact: blast-help@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/functions of selected search pages http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov National Center for Biotechnology Information present in a selected tar- get database. The NCBI BLAST homepage (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) provides

  11. MOLECULAR CONTROL OF THE RICE BLAST DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea is a major constraint to rice production worldwide. The rice blast system is one of the best-characterized monocot model systems. The goal of this project is to understand molecular mechanisms of disease resistance using rice blast as a model system....

  12. Differential effects of smoking on lung cancer mortality before and after household stove improvement in Xuanwei, China

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K-M; Chapman, R S; Shen, M; Lubin, J H; Silverman, D T; He, X; Hosgood, H D; Chen, B E; Rajaraman, P; Caporaso, N E; Fraumeni, J F; Blair, A; Lan, Q

    2010-01-01

    Background: In Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, China, lung cancer mortality rates in both males and females are among the highest in China. Methods: We evaluated differential effects of smoking on lung cancer mortality before and after household stove improvement with chimney to reduce exposure to smoky coal emissions in the unique cohort in Xuanwei, China. Effects of independent variables on lung cancer mortality were measured as hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a multivariable Cox regression model that included separate time-dependent variables for smoking duration (years) before and after stove improvement. Results and conclusion: We found that the effect of smoking on lung cancer risk becomes considerably stronger after chimney installation and consequent reduction of indoor coal smoke exposure. PMID:20648014

  13. Blast-wave density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzel, D. V.

    Applications of a densitometer to obtain time-resolved data on the total density in blast-wave flows are described. A beta-source (promethium-147) is separated by a gap from a scintillator and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Attenuation of the radiation beam by the passing blast wave is due to the total density in the gap volume during the wave passage. Signal conditioning and filtering methods permit the system to output linearized data. Results are provided from use of the system to monitor blast waves emitted by detonation of a 10.7 m diameter fiberglass sphere containing 609 tons of ammonium nitrate/fuel oil at a 50.6 m height. Blast wave density data are provided for peak overpressure levels of 245, 172 and 70 kPa and distances of 183, 201 and 314 m from ground zero. Data resolution was of high enough quality to encourage efforts to discriminate dust and gasdynamic phenomena within passing blast waves.

  14. Energy efficient operation of aluminum furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Paul E.; Golchert, B.M. (ANL); Li, T. (University of Kentucky); Hassan, M. (University of Kentucky); Han, Q. (ORNL)

    2005-01-01

    Secondary Aluminium melting offers significant energy savings over the production of Aluminium from raw resources since it takes approximately 5% of the energy to re-melt the Aluminium for product than it does to generate the same amount of Aluminium from raw material. However, the industry faces technical challenges for further improving the efficiency of the secondary Aluminium melting furnaces and lacks tools that can aid in helping to understand the intricate interactions of combustion and heat transfer. The U. S. Dept. of Energy, Albany Research Center (ARC), in cooperation with the Argonne and Oak Ridge National Labs, the University of Kentucky, and with industrial support through Secat, Inc. of Lexington, KY (representing 8 Aluminium re-melt companies) built and operates a test-bed reverberatory furnace to study efficiency issues in Aluminium melting. The experimental reverberatory furnace (ERF) is a one ton nominal capacity research furnace capable of melting 1000 lbs per hour with its twin 0.8 MMBtu/hr burners. Studies in the ERF include melt efficiency as a function of combustion space volume, power input and charge alloy. This paper details the experimental equipment, conditions, procedures, and measurements and includes results and discussions of melt efficiency studies. Specific results reported include an analysis of the efficiency of the furnace as a function of power input and the effect that changing combustion space volume has on melting efficiency. In conjunction with this, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate fuel combustion, heat transfer, gaseous product flow and the production/transport of pollutants and greenhouse gases in an Aluminium furnace. Data from the ERF is utilized for computational model validation in order to have a high degree of confidence in the model results. Once validated, the CFD code can then be used to perform parametric studies and to investigate methods to optimize operation in industrial furnaces. Finally, an analytic analysis of the efficiency of the furnace under varying conditions was conducted to determine overall efficiency characteristics of the furnace.

  15. Computational simulations and experimental validation of a furnace brazing process

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Malizia, L.A.

    1998-12-31

    Modeling of a furnace brazing process is described. The computational tools predict the thermal response of loaded hardware in a hydrogen brazing furnace to programmed furnace profiles. Experiments were conducted to validate the model and resolve computational uncertainties. Critical boundary conditions that affect materials and processing response to the furnace environment were determined. {open_quotes}Global{close_quotes} and local issues (i.e., at the furnace/hardware and joint levels, respectively) are discussed. The ability to accurately simulate and control furnace conditions is examined.

  16. How do people in rural India perceive improved stoves and clean fuel? Evidence from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

    PubMed

    Bhojvaid, Vasundhara; Jeuland, Marc; Kar, Abhishek; Lewis, Jessica J; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Ramanathan, Nithya; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Rehman, Ibrahim H

    2014-02-01

    Improved cook stoves (ICS) have been widely touted for their potential to deliver the triple benefits of improved household health and time savings, reduced deforestation and local environmental degradation, and reduced emissions of black carbon, a significant short-term contributor to global climate change. Yet diffusion of ICS technologies among potential users in many low-income settings, including India, remains slow, despite decades of promotion. This paper explores the variation in perceptions of and preferences for ICS in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, as revealed through a series of semi-structured focus groups and interviews from 11 rural villages or hamlets. We find cautious interest in new ICS technologies, and observe that preferences for ICS are positively related to perceptions of health and time savings. Other respondent and community characteristics, e.g., gender, education, prior experience with clean stoves and institutions promoting similar technologies, and social norms as perceived through the actions of neighbours, also appear important. Though they cannot be considered representative, our results suggest that efforts to increase adoption and use of ICS in rural India will likely require a combination of supply-chain improvements and carefully designed social marketing and promotion campaigns, and possibly incentives, to reduce the up-front cost of stoves. PMID:24473110

  17. Tyre-blast injuries.

    PubMed

    Murty, O P

    2009-05-01

    A teenager college student was fatally injured by burst tyre air pressure while waiting on a public bus stand to catch a bus to reach her college at Kuala Lumpur. She accidentally came near the wheel while boarding when tube and tyre got burst .The air pressure had blown the girl in the air and she subsequently fell on a rough surface. The iron-locking rim of the wheel acted as a missile and hit the girl. She died on her way to the hospital. A medico-legal autopsy was performed which showed extensive injuries in the cranial and chest cavity. Head had large scalp laceration with diffuse separation and gaping from in the vault region; skull bones were fractured. Chest cavity had extensive rib fractures, lacerated lungs and haemo-thorax while externally there was no obvious injury. It requires intensive care management and screening of the victims. Tyre-blast injuries are not so common. This case exposes the hazard due to burst tyre. PMID:19329081

  18. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  19. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  20. Blast-Driven Hydrodynamic Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc T.; Johnsen, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Accurate characterization of mixing from hydrodynamic instabilities, such as Richtmyer-Meshkov, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz, is important to many multi-fluid applications, particularly, inertial confinement fusion, supernova collapse, and scramjet combustion. We investigate the dynamics of a perturbed interface between two fluids subjected to a planar blast wave. An initial point source explosion initiates a blast, which can be described as a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. The interface, therefore, experiences an instantaneous acceleration (a pressure increase) followed by a gradual, time-dependent deceleration (a pressure decrease). The resulting interaction gives rise to Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor growth, depending on the shock strength and blast profile. Using a high-order accurate numerical method that prevents pressure errors at interfaces when simulating variable specific heats ratios, we identify regimes in which one or the other instability dominates. Accurate characterization of mixing from hydrodynamic instabilities, such as Richtmyer-Meshkov, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz, is important to many multi-fluid applications, particularly, inertial confinement fusion, supernova collapse, and scramjet combustion. We investigate the dynamics of a perturbed interface between two fluids subjected to a planar blast wave. An initial point source explosion initiates a blast, which can be described as a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. The interface, therefore, experiences an instantaneous acceleration (a pressure increase) followed by a gradual, time-dependent deceleration (a pressure decrease). The resulting interaction gives rise to Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor growth, depending on the shock strength and blast profile. Using a high-order accurate numerical method that prevents pressure errors at interfaces when simulating variable specific heats ratios, we identify regimes in which one or the other instability dominates. This research was supported by the DOE NNSA/ASC under the predictive Science Academic Alliance Program by Grant No. DEFC52-08NA28616.

  1. Porcine Head Response to Blast

    PubMed Central

    Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740?kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9?ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30?s and the remaining two recovered within 8?min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390?kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830?kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2?=?0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for computer model validation. PMID:22586417

  2. Community response to blast noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykaza, Edward T.; Pater, Larry L.; Fidell, Sanford; Schomer, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Although community response to impulsive noise from military operations is usually discussed for NEPA-related purposes in terms of the prevalence of annoyance, it is managed on a local, daily basis in terms of numbers of recent complaints. Reconciling blast noise complaint rates with the annoyance predicted by dosage-effect analysis would be of considerable benefit to the Army, since it would provide insight into the dynamics of community reaction to this distinctive form of noise exposure, and put its assessment and management on a common footing. This paper describes a systematic approach to the challenges of quantifying community reaction to blast noise. [Work supported by ERDC-CERL.

  3. Nucleon Form Factors from BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) experiment has been carried out at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center to study spin-dependent electron scattering from protons and deuterons with small systematic uncertainties. The experiment used a longitudinally polarized, intense electron beam stored in the Bates South Hall Ring in combination with isotopically pure, highly-polarized internal targets of polarized hydrogen and vector- and tensor-polarized deuterium from an atomic beam source. The BLAST data have been used to extract precise results for the elastic form factor ratios GE/GM of the proton and the neutron at low momentum transfer.

  4. Nucleon Form Factors from BLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, Michael [Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668, USA and Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2009-08-04

    The BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) experiment has been carried out at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center to study spin-dependent electron scattering from protons and deuterons with small systematic uncertainties. The experiment used a longitudinally polarized, intense electron beam stored in the Bates South Hall Ring in combination with isotopically pure, highly-polarized internal targets of polarized hydrogen and vector- and tensor-polarized deuterium from an atomic beam source. The BLAST data have been used to extract precise results for the elastic form factor ratios G{sub E}/G{sub M} of the proton and the neutron at low momentum transfer.

  5. Comparison of carbonaceous particulate matter emission factors among different solid fuels burned in residential stoves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Chen, Yuanchen; Yang, Chunli; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Haisuo; Ding, Aijun; Tao, Shu

    2014-06-01

    Uncertainty in the emission factor (EF) usually contributes largely to the overall uncertainty in the emission inventory. In the present study, the locally measured EFs of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) for solid fuels burned in the residential sector are compiled and compared. These fuels are classified into seven sub-groups of anthracite briquette, anthracite chunk, bituminous briquette, bituminous chunk, crop residue, fuel wood log, and brushwood/branches. The EFs of carbonaceous particles for these fuels vary significantly, generally in the order of anthracite (briquette and chunk) < wood log < brushwood/branches < crop residue < bituminous (briquette and chunk), with an exception that the brushwood/branches have a relatively high EF of EC. The ratio of EC/OC varies significantly among different fuels, and is generally higher for biomass fuel than that for coal because of the intense flaming conditions formed during the biomass burning process in improved stoves. Distinct ratios calls for a future study on the potential health and climate impacts of carbonaceous PM from the residential combustions of different fuels. A narrow classification of these fuels significantly reduces the variations in the EFs of PM, OC, and EC, and the temporal and geographical distributions of the emissions could be better characterized.

  6. Emission characteristics for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from solid fuels burned in domestic stoves in rural China

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, Guofeng; TAO, Shu; Chen, Yuanchen; Zhang, Yanyan; Wei, Siye; Xue, Miao; Wang, Bin; WANG, Rong; LV, Yan; LI, Wei; SHEN, Huizhong; HUANG, Ye; CHEN, Han

    2014-01-01

    Emission characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from residential combustion of crop residues, woody material, coal, and biomass pellets in domestic stoves in rural China are compared in term of emission factors (EFs), influencing factors, composition profiles, isomer ratios and phase distributions. The EFs of PAHs vary by two orders of magnitude among fuel types suggesting that a detailed fuel categorization is useful in the development of an emission inventory and potential in emission abatement of PAHs by replacing dirty fuels with relatively cleaner ones. The influence of fuel moisture in biomass burning is non-linear. Biofuels with very low moisture display relatively high emissions as do fuels with very high moisture. Bituminous coals and brushwood yield relatively large fractions of high molecular PAHs. The emission factor of Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent quantity for raw bituminous coal is as high as 52 mg/kg, which is 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than the other fuels. For source diagnosis, high molecular weight isomers are more informative than low molecular weight ones and multiple ratios could be used together whenever possible. PMID:24245776

  7. Advancing wood-stove secondary combustion state-of-the-art

    SciTech Connect

    McCrillis, R.C.; Butts, N.L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper summarizes work performed by EPA/AEERL at its in-house woodstove test laboratory over the past several years, including investigations into the effects of augmenting the secondary combustion process with electric glowplugs and extensive tests on two EPA 1990 certified stoves, directed at achieving lower emissions by retuning the primary and secondary air controls. Most emission tests have been done while burning split oak cordwood. The work, termed noncatalytic technology, involves maintaining gas temperatures above the ignition point even at low burnrates without using a catalyst, by restricting heat transfer in an insulated secondary combustion chamber, and by providing adequate fresh preheated air to the secondary combustion zone. This represents one of two basic approaches to reducing emissions from residential woodstoves by enhancing the secondary combustion process. All cordwood-burning woodstoves operate in an air-starved mode which promotes the generation of products of incomplete combustion (PICs), including CO and a wide range of organic compounds. The heavier molecular weight organics condense into a fine aerosol upon entering the atmosphere, producing visible smoke. A large percent of these PICs must be oxidized to CO2 and water by enhancing the combustion process outside of the primary combustion zone.

  8. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Andrew H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

  9. Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces

    E-print Network

    Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

    2005-01-01

    of the recommendations arising from use of the protocol are implemented, resulting in cost savings of greater than $200,000 per year. PROJECT OVERVIEW The glass industry is a major energy consumer. Depending on the market sector, a glass furnace heated by oxy...-fuel burners may use from 3.5 to 6 million Btu to melt and refine a ton of glass. The glass industry has generally aimed at achieving energy efficiency through furnace design (e.g., inclusion of heat recovery). However, little attention has been paid...

  10. Expediting issuance of cracking furnace permits

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, M.; Scappatura, G. [Texaco Chemical Co., Port Neches, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The construction of a new cracking furnace or the modification of an existing cracking furnace in an ethylene-producing facility requires a permit from regulatory agencies having jurisdiction in such matters. Seemingly endless amounts of data are required to support permit applications and many times the applications get mired in a bureaucratic maze which can overwhelm even the most persistent application. There are, however, some critical elements which can provide the necessary information to the agency permit engineer to allow issuance of permits in an expeditious manner.

  11. Acoustic Levitator With Furnace And Laser Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Stoneburner, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic-levitation apparatus incorporates electrical-resistance furnace for uniform heating up to temperature of about 1,000 degrees C. Additional local heating by pair of laser beams raise temperature of sample to more than 1,500 degrees C. High temperature single-mode acoustic levitator generates cylindrical-mode accoustic resonance levitating sample. Levitation chamber enclosed in electrical-resistance furnace. Infrared beams from Nd:YAG laser provide additional local heating of sample. Designed for use in containerless processing of materials in microgravity or in normal Earth gravity.

  12. Mullite corundum articles for electric furnace roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarova, T.I.; Sizov, V.I.

    1987-03-01

    Using a method developed by the Institute the authors produced an experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum refractories containing more than 72% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The properties of these refractories exceed similar properties for regularly produced articles close in composition, which enables them to recommend them for use in the roofs of arc electric steel-melting furnaces. The experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum articles is being sent for testing in DSP-100 furnaces at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combine.

  13. Improve alloy selection for ammonia furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, S.B. [Greene and Associates, Dallas, TX (United States); Schillmoller, C.M. [Schillmoller Associates, Belleair, FL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Significant improvements have occurred in the design and operation of ammonia furnaces. To raise production efficiencies, operating companies are running these units under more severe conditions to conserve energy costs. However, these adverse conditions can compromise the integrity of the primary reformer furnace tubes. Such conditions invite failure due to metal dusting. Advancements in alloys enable operators to fully optimize their operation. Improved tubing materials can be used on new facilities, but also incorporated in revamps on existing units to increase unit capacity and raise unit profitability. Tube failure in the waste heat boiler can be overcome by selecting the best-fit material for processing conditions.

  14. 4. CLOSEUP VIEW INTO A REHEATING FURNACE IN THE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLOSE-UP VIEW INTO A REHEATING FURNACE IN THE No. 2 FORGE SHOP. THE FURNACE IS MISSING ITS REFRACTORY BRICK LINING. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  15. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL AND REFRACTORY BRICK SUPPORT SYSTEM. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. Refractory lining of a furnace for pyrolysis of dichlorethane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Fedoruk; N. V. Pitak; V. S. Baksheeva

    1992-01-01

    Conclusions Compositions of thermal-insulation concrete mixtures from which various elements of the lining of a furnace for pyrolysis of dichlorethane were produced have been developed. Burner blocks for the gas burners of the furnace were produced by vibrocasting.

  17. Energy Recovery for Medium- and High-Temperature Industrial Furnaces

    E-print Network

    Krumm, E. D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of metallic heat exchangers on medium- and high-temperature industrial furnaces is examined. A thorough technical understanding of all furnace operating conditions and the duties imposed upon heat exchangers is identified as a key...

  18. 12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  20. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. Nameplate reads: "Heroult Electric Furnace, Capacity 6 tons, Built by American Bridge Company, Pencoyd, PA, No. 33") - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA