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1

Blast furnace stove control  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

2

47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork askew after collapse of support posts. Note pattern of checkerwork refractories. looking west - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

3

Hot blast stove process model and model-based controller  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed and verified using plant data. This model is used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The model is also used to predict maximum and minimum temperature constraint violations within the stove so that the controller can take corrective actions while still achieving the required stove performance.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computational Science Methods Group; Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

4

Partnering and the WCI blast furnace reline  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, WCI Steel entered into a partnership agreement to perform a blast furnace reline. The reline included a complete rebrick from the tuyere breast to the furnace top including the tapholes. Also included was the replacement of the Paul Wurth top equipment from the receiving hoppers through the gearbox and distribution chute, a skip incline replacement, and installation of tilting runners and a casthouse roof. The bustle pipe and hot blast main were repaired. One stove was also replaced. The reline was accomplished in 36 days, wind to wind, which allowed for 29 days of construction inside the blast furnace proper.

Musolf, D.W. [WCI Steel, Inc., Warren, OH (United States)

1997-11-01

5

Blast furnace reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast a dvances h ave b een m ade in blast-furnace t echnology d uring t he p ast two decades through p lant t rials and plant d evelopments a ssisted by research to provide b etter u nderstanding of physical and chemical w orkings of the blast f urnace. T he f ields of research have i ncluded

E. T. Turkdogan

1978-01-01

6

Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-12-31

7

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

8

Rebuilding and modernization of blast furnace B'' at Cockerill-Sambre Ougree  

SciTech Connect

Blown in for the first time in 1962, the B blast furnace of Cockerill-Sambre was relined for the fourth time in 1989. The furnace produced 8,649,000 tons during the last campaign (1980 - 1989). Gunning repairs were carried out in 1985 and 1987. The blast furnace was blow down on June 30 and the burden level was lowered to the tuyere level. Afterwards a salamander of 350 tons was cast in open ladles. The relining of the blast furnace was performed on schedule and the furnace was blown in on the 4th of December 1989. The paper describes the relining goals and the main modifications. The specifications of the blast furnace are listed. Then the paper describes the modifications to the following systems: the charging computer system; the cooling system; the refractory materials; the hot stoves; blast furnace gas system; instrumentation and regulation; the blast furnace computer system; the pollution control equipment; and the cast floor.

Neuville, J.; Lecomte, P.; Massin, J.P.; Drimmer, D. (Cockerill-Sambre, Liege (Belgium))

1993-01-01

9

Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States). Ironmaking Dept.)

1993-01-01

10

Low Cost Oxygen for Blast Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low cost process is examined which provides oxygen enrichment of blast air for blast furnaces to increase steel production without increasing the steelmaking or final finishing facilities. The proposed process is designed to separate the oxygen from nit...

R. Jablin

1980-01-01

11

Refractories for lining blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The authors develop and introduce a technology for the production of chamotte kaolin refractories with a porosity of not more than 12% and a mass proportion of not less than 42% A1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ on the basis of chamotte from high-grade Polozhe kaolin, and also additions to the batch of finely milled mullite-corundum chamotte. Using the new technology, a batch of goods designated ShPD-42 was produced for lining the shafts, bosh, and upper parts of blast furnaces of large capacity.

Fedoruk, R.M.; Baksheeva, V.S.; Karyakina, E.L.; Khmelenko, T.P.; Pitak, N.V.

1986-01-01

12

Blast furnace coal injection in China  

SciTech Connect

The development of blast furnace coal injection in China will be summarized. The improvements in the technical process for pneumatic conveying, injection feed control, distribution and combustion of pulverized coal will be covered. Ideas are also described concerning the use of oxy-coal technology in a blast furnace.

Zhou, J.G. (Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, Beijing (China). Central Iron and Steel Research Inst.)

1994-09-01

13

Blast Furnace Operation with Oxygen-Enriched Unheated Blast Air.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three trials with oxygen-enriched unheated blast air are described. The trials were conducted in the Bureau of Mines experimental blast furnace located in Bruceton, PA. For the first trial, moisture was added to the oxygenated blast. The second and third ...

P. L. Woolf

1985-01-01

14

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

Unknown

1999-10-01

15

Materials Evaluations in an Experimental Blast Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven evaluation tests with blast furnace iron-bearing burden materials are described. The effects of pellet strength, fines in the burden, decreasing slag volume, pellet size, eliminating stone with superfluxed sinter, and eliminating stone by prefluxing...

P. L. Woolf

1984-01-01

16

Creating successful blast furnace refractory systems  

SciTech Connect

Successful lifetimes of the refractories utilized in the blast furnace are dependent on a variety of external factors such as operation, geometry, cooling capability, configuration and arrangement, as well as refractory properties. These external factors, as well as the properties required to withstand the main mechanisms of wear, combine to create the successful refractory system. These significant factors and properties are reviewed with the intention of providing guidelines required for successful refractory performance in the blast furnace.

Dzermejko, A.J. [UCAR Carbon Co., Inc., Columbia, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

17

Shougang No. 2 blast furnace enlargement  

SciTech Connect

Shougang is expanding to become a 10 million ton/year steel plant in 1995. In 1990, the capacity of Shougang No. 2 blast furnace was enlarged from 1,327 to 1,726 cu meters. The project consisted of building a new furnace on the old site while maintaining the operation of the old furnace. The project was completed in 188 calendar days, 3 days ahead of schedule. Shougang has a large, comprehensive technical force that includes design, construction and production. Most of the equipment and instrumentation, both mechanical and electrical, were fabricated by Shougang personnel. The future increase in capacity of No. 1, 3 and 4 blast furnaces will exceed that of No. 2 furnace.

Wang, Z.Z. (Shougang Iron and Steel Corp., Beijing (China))

1994-09-01

18

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection  

SciTech Connect

Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

NONE

1998-09-30

19

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPENHEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPEN-HEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 AND CAST HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

20

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSEUP, IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSE-UP, IRON NOTCH IN CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

21

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

22

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

23

Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

2013-04-01

24

Assessment of Atmospheric Emissions from Quenching of Blast Furnace Slag with Blast Furnace Blowdown Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of 15 emission measurements made on a laboratory scale facility simulating typical plant slag quenching practice. The measurements were made to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of blast furnace ...

G. Annamraju W. Kemner P. J. Schworer

1984-01-01

25

Use of Waste Oil in Blast Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project dealt with investigating the conditions under which waste oil could be used instead of heavy fuel oil to fire blast furnaces so as to permit cost savings. When using waste oil, the pumps in the feed line that were used to build up the supply p...

K. Goebel

1983-01-01

26

Expanding Blast Furnace Slag Without Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion of blast furnace slag causes emissions of hydrogen sulfide, creating an air pollution problem common throughout the steel industry. This paper describes a new process, called pelletizing which eliminates the air pollution problem while at the same time producing a superior slag product.

Richard Jablin

1972-01-01

27

Unique Stove Process for Obtaining High Blast Temperature with Low Caloric Value BF Top Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High blast temperature is one of the necessary conditions for reducing the fuel consumption of blast furnace operation. Especially in case of using blast not enriched with oxygen, the specific injected fuel amount for tHM will much directly depends upon h...

J. Dai L. Lu X. Zhang

1987-01-01

28

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

29

Blast-furnace performance with coal-dust injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the blast-furnace shop at OAO Alchevskii Met- allurgicheskii Kombinat (AMK), the injection of coal- dust fuel is promising. Preliminary steps toward its introduction are underway, including analytical research. In this context, we calculate blast-furnace per- formance when using coal-dust fuel in the present work. As in any combined blast, the consumption of coal- dust fuel in unit blast and

G. G. Vasyura

2007-01-01

30

Stable operation for No. 1 blast furnace at Baosteel  

SciTech Connect

Until Sept. 1994, No. 1 blast furnace in Baoshan Steel (Group) Co. had been operating successfully with high productivity. At present, it still keeps its strong potential for production capacity. The philosophy and methodology of the efficient blast furnace operation will be described. The most important aspect for stable operation and long campaign life of a blast furnace is reasonable gas flow distribution in the furnace. The topics to be discussed include: introduction to ironmaking in Baosteel; operational results; experience of stable operation, philosophy, gas distribution control, stabilization raw material property, furnace maintenance and supervision system.

Cai, X.; Lu, S. [Baoshan Steel Corp., Shanghai (China)

1995-07-01

31

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building to the right is the crucible steel building - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

32

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

Ensar Oguz

2004-01-01

33

Study of a ceramic burner for shaftless stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-burner-port annular flameless ceramic burner (MAFCB) of the shaftless stove for blast furnaces was designed. The characteristics of pressure drop, homogeneousness of the flows at burner ports, and distribution of the flows in the chambers and joint were studied by cold model experiments. This type of ceramic burner was successfully applied in 6# blast furnace at Liuzhou Iron &

Fang-qin Dai; Su-yi Huang; Shao-hua Li; Ke Liu

2009-01-01

34

25. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE UNDER RENOVATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE UNDER RENOVATION, 1901. (From the Asahel Curtis collection, Washington State Historical Societty, Tacoma, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

35

15-Year blast furnace campaign concept for the reline of blast furnace C at Iscor  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1970`s, when blast furnace campaigns of 3 to 5 years were experienced at the Vanderbijlpark Works, consequent improvements of cooling and refractory concepts as well as the development of a hot guniting practice for belly and lower shaft resulted in campaigns of 10 years and more. Having mastered the problems in belly and lower shaft, the furnace hearth became the ultimate limit and two hearth breakouts were experienced in the last 5 years in South Africa. After analyzing the causes for these breakouts, the requirements for a hearth refractory design, aimed at a 15-year plus campaign life, were formulated. A refractory design concept, which satisfies these requirements were developed based on European, American and Japanese philosophies.

Noska, T.G.L. [Iscor Ltd., Gauteng (South Africa)

1995-07-01

36

Model for blast furnace on-line simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blast furnace simulation model developed primarily for on-line application is presented. The model, which describes the steady-state operation of the furnace in one spatial dimension, is adapted to data from the real process by adjusting a set of parameters. A thermodynamic process interface provides the boundary conditions. The model, which is shown to act as an intelligent measurement device

H. Saxén; H. Uusi-Honko; A. Kilpinen

37

Carbon-Based Refractories for the Lining of Blast Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

General requirements placed on the operating properties of advanced carbon-based refractory materials intended for the lining of blast furnaces are formulated and technological routes for their achievement are outlined. Performance characteristics of refractory furnace blocks available from the ChEP JSC are given, their operational stability is characterized, and recommendations for use are proposed.

S. A. Podkopaev

2004-01-01

38

Improvements in blast furnace operation at AHMSA Monclova  

SciTech Connect

Following the privatization of Altos Hornos de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (AHMSA) in Nov. 1991, four areas were chosen to improve blast furnace performance and hot metal costs. These areas included improvement of pellet quality, start of oil-gas co-injection, improved control of gas flow in the blast furnace and start of monitoring program to predict the remaining life of the hearth of No. 5 blast furnace. These efforts resulted in the following improvements in the first half of 1992: Production level increased to 2.4 tonnes/cu metre/24 hr with a 1992 annual production record from No. 5 furnace of 1.639 million tonnes; Coke rates decreased by 60 kg/tonne, half of which was due to process improvements and the other half to injection of oil; Silicon standard deviations decreased from 0.22% in 1991 to 0.20% in 1992; Hot metal costs decreased by 10.6%; and The major reline of No. 5 furnace postponed by at least 1.5 years. The improvement of the blast furnace process was not limited to the larger No. 5 furnace. Similar tends can be observed with No. 4 furnace which will also be equipped with oil injection. For the future, programs have been prepared to increase injection rates, improve casthouse operation and increase process stability.

Morales, J.M.; Dominguez, H. (Altos Hornos de Mexico S.A. de C.V., Monclova (Mexico). Monclova Works); Geerdes, M. (Hoogovens Technical Services B.V., Monclova (Mexico))

1994-10-01

39

Computer systems for controlling blast furnace operations at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Energy accounts for a significant portion of the total blast furnace production costs and, to minimize energy consumption, both technical and economical aspects have to be considered. Thus, considerable attention has been paid to blast furnace energy consumption and productivity. The most recent furnace relines were in 1985 and 1986. At that time, the furnaces were modernized and instrumentation was increased. After the relines, operation control and monitoring of the process is done by a basic automation systems (DCS`s and PLC`s) and a supervision system (process computer). The supervision system is the core of the control system combining reports, special displays, trends and mathematical models describing in-furnace phenomena. Low energy consumption together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation have been achieved due to an improvement in raw materials quality and implementation of automation and computer systems to control blast furnace operation. Currently, the fuel rate is low and productivity is in excess of 3.0 tonnes/cu meter/day, which is one of the highest values achieved anywhere for long-term operation.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. [Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland); Seppanen, M. [Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland)

1995-08-01

40

Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals

Shan-Wen Du; Wei-Hsin Chen; John A. Lucas

2010-01-01

41

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD TO THE CENTER, HEYL & PATTERSON CAR DUMPER TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

42

13. Blast furnace plant embraces the east bank of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Blast furnace plant embraces the east bank of the Cuyahoga River. Plant was established in 1881 by the Cleveland Rolling Mill Co. It was absorbed by the American Steel and Wire Co. in 1899 and, two years later, by the U.S. Steel Corp., which closed it in 1978. View looking north. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

43

The new technology and the partial thermotechnical computation for air-cooled blast furnace tuyere  

Microsoft Academic Search

To change the cooling method for the water-cooled blast furnace tuyere used during iron-making progress, according to the jet principle of fluid mechanics and heat convection principle, the technology of jet-flow air-cooled blast furnace tuyere was put forward. Based on the hypotheses about blast furnace, tuyere and the mix-up transparent gas medium in a hearth of blast furnace, the mathematical

Shen Yuan-Sheng; Liu Zong-Ming; Zhu Tao; Yan Fu-Sheng; Xin Hong-Ni; Sun Rui-Lian

2009-01-01

44

Technical Effects of Air Cooled Blast Furnace Slag on Asphalt Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air cooled blast furnace slag is a by product made of gradually air cooled molten blast furnace slag and is often stored in stockpiles near the iron mills and usually occupy a wide area around the iron mills. From this perspective the further use of these materials can have its own merits. Air cooled blast furnace slag can be used

A. Esmaeili; S. M. Marandi; P. Safapour

45

A predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon content in pig iron has long been used as one of the most important indices to represent the thermal state of a blast furnace. In this paper, a predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis is presented. The qualitative trend of the process in blast furnace is predicted through causal analysis and qualitative

Jian Chen

2001-01-01

46

Operating a blast furnace using dried top gas  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of operating a blast furnace, comprising: introducing into the top of the furnace a charge containing metal oxide, coke and flux, collecting a top gas CO, H[sub 2], carbon dioxide and water from the furnace, increasing the reducing potential of said collected top gas by removing water but without removing carbon dioxide from at least a portion of said collected top gas thereby forming a dried top gas, heating said dried top gas to form a heated dried top gas, introducing said heated dried top gas into the lower half of the stack of the furnace at a position above which said coke is not reactive and introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrogenaceous fuel into the bosh of the furnace whereby said metal oxide is reduced to a molten metal using said heated dried top gas.

Kundrat, D.M.

1993-08-10

47

Environmental Modeling of Blast Furnace Slag Aggregate Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented in this paper has mainly consisted of developing an environmental model of the aggregate production process. An environmental assessment of blast furnace slag aggregates was performed at a given quarry site, for two typical production scenarios, with each yielding several gradings. The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of each grading was then determined for both scenarios. A considerable

Sylvie Nouvion; Agnès Jullien; Maud Sommier; Vincent Basuyau

2009-01-01

48

Process computerization of No. 13 blast furnace at Gary works  

Microsoft Academic Search

No. 13 blast furnace underwent extensive modifications to the process control system during the second reline. This represents a major shift in control philosophy from hardwired relays and analog controllers to a totally integrated computer control system. The new system created the opportunity for comprehensive diagnostic analysis and increased flexibility for control strategy modifications. The goal of achieving maximum production

G. J. Sherman; M. L. Zmierski; F. W. Hyle

1993-01-01

49

Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be

Bruno Kostura; Hana Kulveitová; Juraj Leško

2005-01-01

50

Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous

Daphne Mirabile; Maria Ilaria Pistelli; Marina Marchesini; Roberta Falciani; Lisa Chiappelli

2002-01-01

51

Phosphate removal using blast furnace slags and opoka-mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abiotic sorption efficiency of on-site wastewater treatment systems can be improved by using a strongly sorbing filter material that, if it retains phosphorus (P) in a plant available way, can be used as fertiliser when P saturation is achieved. Two materials, blast furnace slag and the siliceous sedimentary rock opoka, have shown a high P sorption capacity and were

Lena Johansson; Jon Petter Gustafsson

2000-01-01

52

Coal Injection in an Experimental Blast Furnace: A Comprehensive Reort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blast furnace coal injection tests conducted by the Bureau of Mines in cooperation with a consortium of 22 steel companies in 1963-64 are described. These tests were part of a program of extensive investigation of auxiliary fuel injection in the Bureau's ...

P. L. Woolf

1985-01-01

53

CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED CAST HOUSE LIES IN BETWEEN TWO SKIP INCLINES. HIP ROOF AT RIGHT COVERS BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

54

Fire-resistant geopolymer produced by granulated blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research into the use of granulated blast furnace slag as an active filler in the making of geopolymers. During this work it was found that geopolymer setting time correlates well with temperature, potassium hydroxide concentration, metakaolinite and sodium silicate addition. The physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymer also correlated well with the concentration of alkaline solution

T. W. Cheng; J. P. Chiu

2003-01-01

55

Coke Oven and Blast Furnace Gas Control and Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work fuel distribution in the Raahe Steel Works is discussed, the main target being the processes in which the by-product fuels, coke oven and blast furnace gas can be used. From this study a system for optimization and priority of fuel distributi...

P. Ruha J. Koskela

1989-01-01

56

Experiences with computer systems in blast furnace operation control at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Low energy consumption, together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation, has been achieved at Rautaruukki's Raahe Steel Works as a result of the efficient use of computer technology in process control and improvements in raw materials quality. The blast furnace supervision system is designed to support the decision-making in medium and long-term process control. The information presenting the blast furnace operation phenomena is grouped so that little time is needed to obtain the current state of the process. Due to the complexity of the blast furnace process, an expert system to guide and diagnose the short and medium-term blast furnace operation has been developed.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. (Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland). Raahe Steel Works); Seppanen, M. (Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland))

1994-09-01

57

Energy Conservation for Granular Coal Injection into a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the combustion of granular coal injected into a blast furnace, injection characteristics of granular coal were first studied through proximate analysis, element analysis, and research of explosivity, ignition point, meltability of ash, grindability, calorific value, etc. Using a sampling device in the raceway combined with petrographic analysis, during the combustion process of granular coal with high crystal water and volatile in raceway, cracks and bursts were found, leading to a reduction of particle size. Based on a model of mass control and dynamic theory of particle combustion, the transition dynamic model for cracking in combustion of granular coal was found, and the critical value of cracking ratio (?P) for granular coal combustion in the raceway was calculated. Finally, the utilization ratio and energy efficiency of granular coal used in the blast furnace were discussed, offering theoretical foundation and technical support for intensifying granular coal combustion and promoting granular coal injection.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Zhang, Jianliang; Shao, Jiugang; Zuo, Haibin; Ren, Shan

2012-08-01

58

A blended cement containing blast furnace slag and phosphorous slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blended cement containing blast furnace slag (BFS) and phosphorous slag (PS) is a new kind of cement. The total content of\\u000a blended materials could increase if two additives were used. Using the same admixtures, the properties of the blended cement\\u000a with 70% additives could reach the standard of 525-grade slag cement according to GB. The strength of cement with 80%

Li Dong-xu; Chen Lin; Xu Zhong-zi; Luo Zhi-min

2002-01-01

59

Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents was carried out. Gases produced in the blast furnace were washed and led towards a Dorr thickener where the sludge was obtained as a suspension. The sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on

A. López-Delgado; C. Pérez; F. A. López

1998-01-01

60

Autogenous shrinkage of concrete containing granulated blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental results and prediction model for the autogenous shrinkage of concrete made with various water-to-cementitious materials ratios (w\\/cm) ranging from 0.27 to 0.42 and granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS) in the range of 0% to 50% by mass of the total cementitious materials. Test results showed that BFS concrete exhibited greater autogenous shrinkage than ordinary concrete with

K. M. Lee; H. K. Lee; S. H. Lee; G. Y. Kim

2006-01-01

61

Crystallization mechanism and properties of a blast furnace slag glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex crystallization process of a Brazilian blast-furnace slag glass was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction (SAD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Three crystalline phases (merwinite, melilite and larnite) were identified after heat treatment between Tg (742°C) and the DSC crystallization peak (T=1000°C). Merwinite was identified

C. Fredericci; E. D. Zanotto; E. C. Ziemath

2000-01-01

62

Blast furnace slag as phosphorus sorbents — column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filter substrates that efficiently remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater can be used to optimise the nutrient removal by on-site wastewater treatment systems. A number of filter substrates have been investigated and the industrial by-product blast furnace slag has attracted attention as a promising substrate. To further evaluate the sorption and attenuation of PO43?, a column experiment was carried out under

Lena Johansson

1999-01-01

63

Stress fields of solid flow in a model blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational fluid dynamics–discrete element method approach, supported by an averaging technique, has been employed\\u000a to quantitatively investigate the stress distributions of solid flow in a model blast furnace (BF). The results indicate that\\u000a large normal stresses are mainly observed in the lower central part of the BF, whilst small normal stresses in the vicinity\\u000a of the raceway. In the

H. P. Zhu; Z. Y. Zhou; A. B. Yu; P. Zulli

2009-01-01

64

Simulation of natural-gas combustion in a blast-furnace tuyere  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method of reducing blast-furnace coke consumption is to inject gaseous, liquid, or solid fuel in the blast-furnace tuyeres. It is important ensure the maximum possible fuel combustion in the tuyere, since incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons from the fuel results in their pyrolysis, with the formation of soot, which is entrained wastefully from the furnace with the gas or

T. B. Ibadullaev; V. A. Arutyunov; I. A. Levitskii; V. N. Loginov; I. F. Kurunov; S. A. Feshchenko

2007-01-01

65

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

66

OXYFUEL COMBUSTION OF LOW CALORIFIC BLAST FURNACE GAS FOR STEEL REHEATING FURNACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot trials at MEFOS have proven that a new S3 blast furnace gas (BFG)-oxyfuel burner can give high performance, low NOx, low cost reheating for the steel industry. The S3 burner has been developed by AGA-Linde based on REBOX® flameless combustion technology with the optional use of a booster fuel. This burner was tested in a series of trials in

John Niska; Anders Rensgard

67

Data-Driven Modeling Based on Volterra Series for Multidimensional Blast Furnace System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multidimensional blast furnace system is one of the most complex industrial systems and, as such, there are still many unsolved theoretical and experimental difficulties, such as silicon prediction and blast furnace automation. For this reason, this paper is concerned with developing data-driven models based on the Volterra series for this complex system. Three kinds of different low-order Volterra filters

Chuanhou Gao; Ling Jian; Xueyi Liu; Jiming Chen; Youxian Sun

2011-01-01

68

Neural networks for the identification and control of blast furnace hot metal quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and control of blast furnaces poses a great challenge because of the difficult measurement and control problems associated with the unit. The measurement of hot metal composition with respect to silica and sulfur are critical to the economic operation of blast furnaces. The measurement of the compositions require spectrographic techniques which can be performed only off line. An

V. R Radhakrishnan; A. R Mohamed

2000-01-01

69

SSSStudy on Combustion Characteristics of the Blast Furnace Gas in the Constant Volume Combustion Bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace gas is the byproduct of smelting steel production process, and is the important secondary energy source. It is can be used as fuel for engines to generate electricity for most middle and small steel enterprises. In order to understand the combustion mechanism and provide the basis for the design of blast furnace gas engine,premixed laminar combustion experiments of

LIU YONGQI; WANG HAIFENG; LI PING

70

BLAST FURNACE SLIPS AND ACCOMPANYING EMISSIONS AS AN AIR POLLUTION SOURCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to ascertain the severity of blast-furnace slips and their accompanying bleeder-valve emissions as a source of air pollution. It describes factors contributing to the occurrence of hangs and slips in the blast furnace. It discusses the mechanic...

71

Modeling of Blast Furnace with Layered Cohesive Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a moving bed reactor involving counter-, co-, and cross-current flows of gas, powder, liquids, and solids, coupled with heat exchange and chemical reactions. The behavior of multiple phases directly affects the stability and productivity of the furnace. In the present study, a mathematical model is proposed to describe the behavior of fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, as well as chemical reactions in a BF, in which gas, solid, and liquid phases affect each other through interaction forces, and their flows are competing for the space available. Process variables that characterize the internal furnace state, such as reduction degree, reducing gas and burden concentrations, as well as gas and condensed phase temperatures, have been described quantitatively. In particular, different treatments of the cohesive zone (CZ), i.e., layered, isotropic, and anisotropic nonlayered, are discussed, and their influence on simulation results is compared. The results show that predicted fluid flow and thermochemical phenomena within and around the CZ and in the lower part of the BF are different for different treatments. The layered CZ treatment corresponds to the layered charging of burden and naturally can predict the CZ as a gas distributor and liquid generator.

Dong, X. F.; Yu, A. B.; Chew, S. J.; Zulli, P.

2010-04-01

72

Opportunities for natural gas in the dehumidification of blast furnace wind. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

An economic evaluation is presented of a technology aimed to remove moisture from the blast in blast furnaces in order to decrease coke consumption and provide savings in the amount of steam and oxygen injected. Operators can obtain savings from $0.5 to more than $2.5 per ton simply by reducing blast moisture to seasonal average maxima.

Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Loreth, M.J.; Stevens, G.S.

1996-06-01

73

Nuclear techniques for the inspection of blast furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon hearth wall failures in blast furnaces create safety risks and require a large expense to repair. To avoid failures they are replaced early, incurring costs in wasted hearth wall use. Two non-invasive measurements provide realtime analysis of wall integrity. The two major failure modes are erosion of carbon thickness and iron-filled cracks in the bricks. Measurements of backscattered gamma-ray spectra and thermal neutron decay rate can identify both phenomena. Gamma-ray spectra from a compact Linac beam primarily respond to average carbon thickness. Neutron decay time, using a pulsed neutron source, is sensitive to iron in the carbon volume. Each measurement is sensitive to the other failure made, but the combination permits each phenomenon to be resolved. These techniques can detect a high atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section material behind one of low atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section.

Schweitzer, J. S.; Lanza, R. C.

1999-06-01

74

Nuclear techniques for the inspection of blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Carbon hearth wall failures in blast furnaces create safety risks and require a large expense to repair. To avoid failures they are replaced early, incurring costs in wasted hearth wall use. Two non-invasive measurements provide realtime analysis of wall integrity. The two major failure modes are erosion of carbon thickness and iron-filled cracks in the bricks. Measurements of backscattered gamma-ray spectra and thermal neutron decay rate can identify both phenomena. Gamma-ray spectra from a compact Linac beam primarily respond to average carbon thickness. Neutron decay time, using a pulsed neutron source, is sensitive to iron in the carbon volume. Each measurement is sensitive to the other failure made, but the combination permits each phenomenon to be resolved. These techniques can detect a high atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section material behind one of low atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section.

Schweitzer, J. S.; Lanza, R. C. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3046 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

1999-06-10

75

Blast furnace slag use reduces well completion cost  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to reduce South Texas Stratton-field remedial-squeeze operations, Union Pacific Resources Co. (UPRC), in conjunction with The Western Co. of North America and Zarsky Oilfield Services, applied unique and emerging technology to its mud systems and cementing practices. Quick Quenched Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) was added to the drilling fluid (producing universal fluid) and to cement slurries to improve annular isolation, thus reducing and/or eliminating need for remedial squeeze work. By improving primary cement jobs, UPRC reduced remedial operations by 100% and overall well cost y an average $80,000 per well. This article discusses the following topics involved in BFS mud-system and cementing applications: Stratton field background including completion practices and main operational field problems; drilling fluid field characteristics; field cementing procedures and problems; universal fluid/BFS cement applications including compressive strength and annular isolation; field application case histories, and discussion of results.

McCarthy, S.M.; Daulton, D.J. [Western Co. of North America, Dallas, TX (United States); Bosworth, S.J. [Union Pacific Resources Co., Fort Worth, TX (United States)

1995-04-01

76

Cold blast furnace syndrome: a new source of toxic inhalation by nitrogen oxides  

PubMed Central

Methods: Fourteen workers developed acute respiratory symptoms shortly after exposure to "air blast" from blast furnace tuyeres. These included chest tightness, dyspnoea, rigors, and diaphoresis. Chest radiographs showed pulmonary infiltrates, and lung function a restrictive abnormality. This report includes a description of clinical features of the affected workers and elucidation of the probable cause of the outbreak. Results: Clinical features and occupational hygiene measurements suggested the most likely cause was inhalation of nitrogen oxides at high pressure and temperature. While the task could not be eliminated, engineering controls were implemented to control the hazard. No further cases have occurred. Conclusions: "Cold blast furnace syndrome" represents a previously undescribed hazard of blast furnace work, probably due to inhalation of nitrogen oxides. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute toxic inhalational injuries in blast furnace workers.

Tague, I; Llewellin, P; Burton, K; Buchan, R; Yates, D

2004-01-01

77

Thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of PO 3? 4 adsorption on blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of adsorption of PO3?4 by blast furnace slag were found to be fast, reaching equilibrium in 20 min and following a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The adsorption behavior of PO3?4 on blast furnace slag has been studied as a function of the solution agitation speed, pH, and temperature. Results have been analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, BET, and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R)

Ensar Oguz

2005-01-01

78

The transfer of silicon from the gas phase to molten iron in the blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of silicon transfer in a blast furnace has been studied. It is concluded that the contribution of slag-metal\\u000a reaction to silicon increase in the metal will not be very important because of the slow rate of the reaction and high oxygen\\u000a potential of slag in a blast furnace. By making use of kinetic and thermodynamic data, it is

Nobuo Tsuchiya; Masanori Tokuda; Masayasu Ohtani

1976-01-01

79

Development of novel absorbents for CO 2 capture from blast furnace gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to establish energy-saving technology for CO2 capture from blast furnace gas, novel absorbents were developed in the laboratory and evaluated at a 1tCO2\\/d test plant. At first, CO2 absorption and desorption behaviors of single-component amine solvents for simulated blast furnace gas (CO2\\/N2=20%\\/80%) were investigated through a screening test using a small scrubbing bottle. These amine solvents were additionally

Kazuya Goto; Hiromichi Okabe; Firoz Alam Chowdhury; Shinkichi Shimizu; Yuichi Fujioka; Masami Onoda

2011-01-01

80

Solidification of arsenic and heavy metal containing tailings using cement and blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to examine the solidification of toxic elements in tailings by the use of cement and blast\\u000a furnace slag. Tailings samples were taken at an Au–Ag mine in Korea. To examine the best mixing ratio of tailings and the\\u000a mixture of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and blast furnace slag (SG) of 5:5, 6:6, 7:3, and

Jung-Wook KimMyung; Myung Chae Jung

2011-01-01

81

Kinetics of the leaching of TiO 2 from Ti-bearing blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ti-bearing blast furnace slag is a valuable secondary resource containing about 24 percent of TiO2. In this paper a process of leaching Ti-bearing blast furnace slag with sulfuric acid to recover TiO2, and the kinetics of that reaction, are described. Under laboratory conditions the rate is controlled by a chemical reaction. The leaching reaction is in accord with a shrinking

Xiao-hua LIU; Guo-sheng GAI; Yu-fen YANG; Zhi-tong SUI; Li LI; Jian-xia FU

2008-01-01

82

Preparation of calcium silicate absorbent from iron blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) solids were prepared from hydrated lime and iron blast furnace slag in an aqueous agitated slurry at 92 degrees C. While it was hoped a minimal lime/slag ratio could be used to create near-amorphous CSH, the surface area of the product improved by increasing the lime/slag weight ratio to 2. The addition of gypsum to the lime/slag system dramatically improved the formation of surface area, creating solids with 139 m2/g after 30 hr of reaction when only a minimal amount of lime was present. The SO2 reactivity of solids prepared with gypsum greatly exceeded that of hydrated lime, achieving greater than 70-80% conversion of the alkalinity after 1 hr of reaction with SO2. The use of CaCl2 as an additive to the lime/slag system, in lieu of gypsum, also produced high-surface-area solids, 115 m2/g after 21 hr of reaction. However, the SO2 reactivity of these sorbents was relatively low given the high surface area. This emphasized that the correlation between surface area and SO2 reactivity was highly dependent on the solid phase, which was subsequently dependent on slurry composition. PMID:11055162

Brodnax, L F; Rochelle, G T

2000-09-01

83

[Study on quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag].  

PubMed

Quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline and crystalline contents in blast furnace slag was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The process of quantificational analysis method includes standard samples preparation, samples preparation, X-ray diffraction measurement and data treatment. The data treatment includes integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks in certain diffraction angle range, linear fitting and quantificational coefficient determination. The preparation methods of standard samples for X-ray diffraction of blast furnace slag were proposed, including 100% crystalline sample and 100% non-crystalline sample. The 100% crystalline sample can be obtained by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1 000-1 200 degrees C, and the 100% non-crystalline sample can be obtained by quenching the molten slag with enough water. The X-ray diffraction method of quantificational analysis of non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag was proposed with the 100% non-crystalline and 100% crystalline standard samples, and the quantificational coefficient can be obtained by linear regression on the integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks of X-ray diffraction in the 2-theta range 20 degrees-40 degrees. This method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 80%. The non-crystalline and crystalline contents of original blast furnace slag are obtained by combining the X-ray diffraction results and mathematical treatment, and this method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 90%, whose process includes preparing the 100% crystalline standard sample by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1000-1200 degrees C, samples preparation with the 0.02 interval in the 0-0.1 mass ratio range of 100% crystalline to original slag, X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples prepared and data treatment using iterative linear regression. The quantificational analysis method for blast furnace slag can be applied to various kinds of blast furnace slag from different steel plants. PMID:18479048

Yan, Ding-Liu; Guo, Pei-Min; Qi, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Hai-Feng; Dai, Xiao-Tian

2008-02-01

84

Use of Coal Injection and Oxygen in a Blast Furnace to Produce Fuel Gas. Final Report, November 26, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of operating a blast furnace with coal injection and oxygen to produce fuel gas has been evaluated. Probable operating conditions were based on United States Steel Corporation's experience with coal injection on an experimental blast furna...

1980-01-01

85

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

Crelling, J.C.

1993-12-31

86

Multiscale dynamic analysis of blast furnace system based on intensive signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Hilbert-Huang transform method and time delay embedding method are applied to multiscale dynamic analysis on the time series of silicon content in hot metal collected from a medium-sized blast furnace with the inner volume of 2500 m3. The results provide clear evidence of multiscale features in blast furnace ironmaking process. Ten intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are decomposed from the silicon content time series; the presence of noninteger fractal dimension, positive finite Kolmogorov entropy, and positive finite maximum Lyapunov exponent are found in some IMF components. In addition, the coupling of subscale structures of blast furnace system is studied using the dimension of interaction dynamics and a robust algorithm for detecting interdependence. It is found that IMF(3) is the main driver in the coupling system IMF(2) and IMF(3) while for the coupling system IMF(3) and IMF(4) neither subsystem can act as the driver. All these provide a guideline for studying blast furnace ironmaking process with multiscale theory and methods, and may open way for more candidate tools to model and control blast furnace system in the future.

Chu, Yanxu; Gao, Chuanhou; Liu, Xiangguan

2010-09-01

87

Recent improvements in blast furnace operation within the AHMSA/GAN, Monclova Mexico works  

SciTech Connect

Following the privatization of Altos Hornos de Mexico in November 1991 four areas were chosen to improve blast furnace performance and hot metal costs. These areas included improvement of pellet quality, start of oil-gas co-injection in the blast furnace, improved control of gas flow in the blast furnace and start of monitoring program to predict the remaining life of the hearth of the major blast furnace at AHMSA. The efforts resulted in the following improvements in the first half of 1992: production level increased to 2.4 ton/m[sup 3]/24 hrs; moreover, the annual production record of blast furnace 5 (hearth diameter 11.2 m, 37 ft) set in 1992, was 1.639 mln tonnes; coke rates decreased by 60 kg/tonne, half of which was due to process improvements and the other half to injection of oil; silicon standard deviations decreased from 0.22% in 1991 to 0.20% in 1992; hot metal costs decreased with 10.6%; and the major reline of BF 5 can be postponed by at least 1.5 year.

Morales, J.M.; Dominguez, H.; Geerdes, M.

1993-01-01

88

Recent improvements in blast furnace operation at the Ahmsa Monclova Works  

SciTech Connect

Following the privatization of Altos Hornos de Mexico in Nov. 1991, four areas were selected to improve blast furnace performance and hot metal costs. These areas included: improvements of pellet quality; start of oil-gas coinjection; improved control of gas flow in the blast furnace; and start of monitoring program to predict the remaining life of the hearth of the major blast furnace. The efforts resulted in the following improvements in the first half of 1992: (1) Production level increased to 2.4 tonnes/cu meter/24 hr. Annual production record of blast furnace No. 5 (hearth diameter 11.2 meter), set in 1992, was 1,639 million tonnes. (2) Coke rates decreased by 60 kg/tonne, half of which was due to process improvements and the other half to injection of oil. (3) Silicon standard deviations decreased from 0.22% in 1991 to 0.20% in 1992. (4) Hot metal costs decreased by 10.6%. (5) The major reline of blast furnace No. 5 can be postponed by at least 1.5 years.

Morales-Yanez, J.M.; Dominguez-Lara, H.; Geerdes, M. (Ahmsa/Hoogovens Technical Services, Monclova (Mexico))

1993-07-01

89

Multiscale dynamic analysis of blast furnace system based on intensive signal processing.  

PubMed

In this paper, the Hilbert-Huang transform method and time delay embedding method are applied to multiscale dynamic analysis on the time series of silicon content in hot metal collected from a medium-sized blast furnace with the inner volume of 2500?m3. The results provide clear evidence of multiscale features in blast furnace ironmaking process. Ten intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) are decomposed from the silicon content time series; the presence of noninteger fractal dimension, positive finite Kolmogorov entropy, and positive finite maximum Lyapunov exponent are found in some IMF components. In addition, the coupling of subscale structures of blast furnace system is studied using the dimension of interaction dynamics and a robust algorithm for detecting interdependence. It is found that IMF(3) is the main driver in the coupling system IMF(2) and IMF(3) while for the coupling system IMF(3) and IMF(4) neither subsystem can act as the driver. All these provide a guideline for studying blast furnace ironmaking process with multiscale theory and methods, and may open way for more candidate tools to model and control blast furnace system in the future. PMID:20887042

Chu, Yanxu; Gao, Chuanhou; Liu, Xiangguan

2010-09-01

90

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21

91

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

Not Available

1994-06-01

92

Blast furnace slag slurries may have limits for oil field use  

SciTech Connect

Thorough testing, economic evaluations, and environmental evaluations of blast furnace slag slurries revealed that replacing Portland cement with slag slurries may compromise essential properties in a cementing operation. The use of blast furnace slag (BFS) slurries should be analyzed on a per case basis for oil well cementing operations. BFS slurry technology may be a viable mud solidification process, but the slurries are not cement and should not be considered as such. Several slurries using field and laboratory prepared drilling fluids solidified with blast furnace slag were investigated to determine thickening time, compressive strength, free water, and other pertinent properties. The tests included an evaluation of the expansion of the set material and shear bond, as well as rheological compatibility studies of the finished slurries with the base muds. These additional tests are critical in the potential application of this process under field conditions.

Benge, O.G.; Webster, W.W. (Mobil Exploration Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States))

1994-07-18

93

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

94

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

95

Detection and Quantification of the Dead Man Floating State in the Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lower part, the hearth, is a crucial region of the ironmaking blast furnace. The life length of it often determines the campaign length of the furnace and the thermal state and permeability of the hearth exert strong influence on liquids drainage and hot metal chemistry. In order to operate the furnace efficiently, the hearth state should be controlled, but the conditions in the hearth are extremely hostile with little possibility to carry out direct measurements. This article presents a set of methods and models through which the floating of the hearth coke bed, the dead man, can be assessed. Data from three industrial blast furnaces illustrate how a systematic analysis of available measurements, in combination with results of mathematical models of the phenomena in the hearth, can successfully detect and quantify the dead man floating state.

Brännbacka, Johnny; Saxén, Henrik; Pomeroy, Dave

2007-06-01

96

An evaluation of hydrogen production from the perspective of using blast furnace gas and coke oven gas as feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace (BF) is a large-scale reactor for producing hot metal where coke and coal are consumed as reducing agent and fuel, respectively. As a result, a large amount of CO2 is liberated into the atmosphere. The blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) from the ironmaking process can be used for H2 production in association with carbon

Wei-Hsin Chen; Mu-Rong Lin; Tzong-Shyng Leu; Shan-Wen Du

2011-01-01

97

Influence of the reactivity of coke on blast-furnace performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cold strength M\\u000a 25(40) and M\\u000a 10 of the coke determines the gas permeability of the batch bed in the blast furnace down to the viscoplastic zone of the ore\\u000a and the coke windows in that zone. The hot characteristics CRI and CSR determine the mechanical strength of the coke in the lower part of the furnace batch, in

V. P. Lyalyuk; A. K. Tarakanov; D. A. Kassim

2011-01-01

98

Approach for Minimizing Operating Blast Furnace Carbon Rate Using Carbon-Direct Reduction (C-DRR) Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach for reducing input carbon rate of a blast furnace using carbon-direct reduction (C-DRR) diagram has been developed. The role of shaft efficiency, blast input conditions, and heat loss rate in reducing the carbon rate has been brought out. A two-zone thermochemical model has been used to develop C-DRR diagrams for analyzing operating data of a furnace as well as predicting conditions for reducing its carbon rate. The model can be integrated with the control system of a blast furnace for driving an operating furnace to reduce carbon rates.

Paul, Soumavo; Roy, S. K.; Sen, P. K.

2013-02-01

99

Combinations of Pozzolans and Ground, Granulated, Blast-Furnace Slag for Durable Hydraulic Cement Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydraulic cement concretes were produced using pozzolans and ground, granulated, blast-furnace slag (slag) to investigate the effect of these materials on durability. The pozzolans used were an ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash with a low lime content and a dry,...

S. D. Lane C. Ozyildirim

1999-01-01

100

Rapid Wet Chemical Methods for the Analysis of Blast Furnace Slags.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a series of rapid, wet chemical methods for the analysis of blast furnace slags. A 'complete' analysis for total iron, manganese, silica, lime (calcium oxide), magnesia (magnesium oxide), sulfur and mixed oxides (R2O3) can be routine...

D. J. Kusler E. A. Hattman R. H. Jefferson

1974-01-01

101

Retention of heavy metals from blast-furnace dedusting sludges by a clayey subsoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of a clay (Upper Liassic) as barrier for a heavy metal disposal site had been investigated by analysing the subsoil of an approximately 40 yr old blast-furnace dust dump on this clay. Concentration profiles show that the heavy metals (mainly Zn and Pb) have been retained by sorption processes in the upper 5 to 10 cm below the

Jean-Frank Wagner

1991-01-01

102

Environmental Benefit from Blast Furnace Gas Recycling in the Integrated Steelworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) is an important kind of by-products in the integrated steelworks. Its recycling option considerably relates to the environmental performance of the integrated steelworks. In this study, a specific integrated steelworks in China is selected as the research object. The system expansion method and Weidema's procedure are referenced to resolve the allocation problem. In spite of that,

Xiao Ding; Hongyuan Li

2011-01-01

103

AIR POLLUTION IMPACTS WHEN QUENCHING BLAST FURNACE SLAG WITH CONTAMINATED WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an effort to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of coke plant wastewater will result in a significant increase in emissions to the atmosphere. The alternative is using the wastewater, untreated, to quench blast furnace...

104

Data-driven modeling based on volterra series for multidimensional blast furnace system.  

PubMed

The multidimensional blast furnace system is one of the most complex industrial systems and, as such, there are still many unsolved theoretical and experimental difficulties, such as silicon prediction and blast furnace automation. For this reason, this paper is concerned with developing data-driven models based on the Volterra series for this complex system. Three kinds of different low-order Volterra filters are designed to predict the hot metal silicon content collected from a pint-sized blast furnace, in which a sliding window technique is used to update the filter kernels timely. The predictive results indicate that the linear Volterra predictor can describe the evolvement of the studied silicon sequence effectively with the high percentage of hitting the target, very low root mean square error and satisfactory confidence level about the reliability of the future prediction. These advantages and the low computational complexity reveal that the sliding-window linear Volterra filter is full of potential for multidimensional blast furnace system. Also, the lack of the constructed Volterra models is analyzed and the possible direction of future investigation is pointed out. PMID:22128000

Gao, Chuanhou; Jian, Ling; Liu, Xueyi; Chen, Jiming; Sun, Youxian

2011-11-23

105

Analysis of stress and buoyancy for solids flow in the lower part of a blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quasi-stagnant coke bed formed in the lower part of blast furnace, called ‘deadman’, is replaced by new coke over a long renewal interval. The repetition motion, floating of the hearth coke bed due to buoyancy during storage of the molten material and refilling the bottom space due to descending motion of the coke bed during the discharge, is considered

H. Takahashi; H. Kawai; Y. Suzuki

2002-01-01

106

A genetic algorithms based multi-objective neural net applied to noisy blast furnace data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic algorithms based multi-objective optimization technique was utilized in the training process of a feed forward neural network, using noisy data from an industrial iron blast furnace. The number of nodes in the hidden layer, the architecture of the lower part of the network, as well as the weights used in them were kept as variables, and a Pareto

Frank Pettersson; N. Chakraborti; Henrik Saxén

2007-01-01

107

Fixation of CO 2 by carbonating calcium derived from blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial waste materials, such as steelmaking slags, appear to be potential raw materials for reducing CO2 emissions by carbonation. The suitability of applying a carbonation route based on acetic acid leaching to produce carbonates from blast furnace slag is presented in this study. The effect of solution pH, temperature, and CO2 pressure on the precipitation of carbonates was experimentally studied.

Sanni Eloneva; Sebastian Teir; Justin Salminen; Carl-Johan Fogelholm; Ron Zevenhoven

2008-01-01

108

Investigation of hydraulic activity of ground granulated blast furnace slag in concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry, being used as an effective partial cement replacement material, has already been proven to improve several performance characteristics of concrete. The reactivity of GGBFS has been found to depend on the properties of slag, which vary with the source of slag, type of raw material used, method

S. C Pal; A Mukherjee; S. R Pathak

2003-01-01

109

Strength and pore structure of ternary blended cement mortars containing blast furnace slag and silica fume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blended cement mortars with fixed workability and incorporating blast furnace slag and silica fume, were tested for compressive strength and mercury intrusion, with a view to comparing their performance with that of plain Portland cement mortar and\\/or slag-cement mortar. The obtained results showed that with high portions of slag and silica fume in the binding system, the mortars reached relatively

L. Bágel

1998-01-01

110

Enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in forest soils near a blast furnace plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different layers of soil were sampled at ten sites at increasing distances from a blast furnace plant. PAH 7 concentrations decreased exponentially from moderately contaminated to background values. For each compound it was possible to distinguish between the source-related part, decreasing with increasing distance from the plant, and the background contribution. The relative contribution of PAHs differed between the

T. C. Van Brummelen; R. A. Verweij; S. A. Wedzinga; C. A. M. Van Gestel

1996-01-01

111

Multidimensional transient mathematical simulator of blast furnace process based on multi-fluid and kinetic theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ironmaking blast furnace is regarded as one of the biggest and most complex industrial reactors, because it includes various materials like gas, lump granular materials, liquids and powders and more than 30 major reactions and phase changes in a single reaction vessel. The mathematical simulator of this process developed in this study used the multi-fluid treatment as its framework,

Hiroshi Nogami; Mansheng Chu; Jun-ichiro Yagi

2005-01-01

112

Strengthening effects of finely ground fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag, and their combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of finely ground fly ash (FGFA), finely ground granulated blast furnace slag (FGGBS), and their combination on the compressive strength of concrete was studied. Test results showed that incorporating 20% FGFA or FGGBS can significantly increase the compressive strength of concrete after 3 days. The compressive strength of concrete incorporating the combination of FGFA and FGGBS is higher

Kefeng Tan; Xincheng Pu

1998-01-01

113

A model for estimating the viscosity of blast furnace slags with optical basicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscosity is an important physical property of blast furnace slags and has a great influence on blast furnace operations. Because of time consumption and difficulties encountered during high temperature experimental measurement, viscosity data are also limited, so a reasonable and accurate estimation model is required to provide the data for controlling and optimizing the blast furnace process. In the present study a viscosity model was proposed for blast furnace slags. In the model the activation energy was calculated by the optical basicity corrected for cations required for the charge compensation of AlO{4/5-}, and the temperature dependence was described by the Weymann-Frenkel equation. The estimated viscosity values of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO, and CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-TiO2 systems fit well with experiment data, with the mean deviation less than 25%.

Hu, Xiao-jun; Ren, Zhong-shan; Zhang, Guo-hua; Wang, Li-jun; Chou, Kuo-chih

2012-12-01

114

General hydration model for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focusses on the evolution of the heat of hydration of hardening concrete or cement based materials. Based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests a new general hydration model is developed, valid both for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement. This hydration model enables the calculation of the heat production rate as a function of the actual temperature

L. Taerwe

1995-01-01

115

Apparatus for determining the thermal conductance of carbon-containing blocks for blast furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions Apparatus was developed for determining the thermal conductance of graphitized and carbon-containing blast furnace blocks up to 1500°C. The thermal conductance values obtained on this apparatus for a reference material (steel grade 1Kh18N9T) and for graphitized blocks agree satisfactorily with published data.

D. M. Shakhtin; I. S. Bogatyrev; V. I. Pechenezhskii

1976-01-01

116

Phosphate removal by column packed blast furnace slag ? II. Practical application of secondary effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phosphate removal by the blast furnace slag was applied to a practical secondary effluent. An automatic calcium ion controller was supplied using the process described in the previous paper(1), and the necessary calcium ion for phosphate removal was supplied by using a calcium feeder column packed with converter slag. The concentration of calcium ion and pH were adjusted at

Wei Min Xie; Xiao Chun Zhang; Tetsuo Kitaide; Hiroshi Sunahara

1987-01-01

117

The influence of blast-furnace slag hydration products on microcracking of concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

New hydration products of ground granulated blast-furnace slag are formed during the hydration process of Portland slag cement concrete. Spatial distribution of microcracks in concrete is related also to newly formed slag hydrates. The chemical composition of hydration products is variable and unstable. The Si\\/Ca ratios rise in hydration products near the unhydrated slag core significantly. There is also a

Martin Bohá?; Miroslava Gregerová

2009-01-01

118

New concepts and designs for blast furnace linings and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

In the 1960`s, concurrent with major technological developments in blast furnace operation, cooling became increasingly important in extending furnace campaign life. Cooling systems developed from simple shower spray and jacket types, to intensive plate and stave systems. Each system has advantages and disadvantages. The principal furnace cooling areas are: underhearth (which has ceased to be a cause of premature end of a furnace campaign); and shell cooling using plates, staves and refractories. Plate coolers, a traditional method of furnace cooling, have developed through the years. Current designs for critical locations in the furnace include double chamber and 6-pass, single chamber copper castings. Their disadvantage is the requirement for large apertures in the furnace shell for installation that complicates the design of the shell. Stave coolers, designed to give protection to the furnace shell, even if the refractory is lost, provide more uniform cooling compared with plate coolers and extract less heat from the furnace. Although damaged stave coolers are difficult to replace, an increasing number of plants are adopting this method of cooling. There are four main types of cooling water circuits: once-through; open recirculating; evaporative; and closed loop. Greatest control of fouling, micro biological and scaling conditions is provided by a closed-loop system. The lining of a blast furnace requires a wider range of refractories than any other process in iron and steelmaking. A recent example includes the application of the following materials: micropore carbon in the hearth wall; silicon carbide in the bosh, belly and lower stack; 65% alumina in the mid-stack; and staves in the upper stack.

Carmichael, I.F. [Davy International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-08-01

119

Simplified simulation of the transient behavior of temperatures in the upper shaft of the blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

The blast furnace is the principal process in the world for production of iron for primary steelmaking. The furnace acts as a huge countercurrent heat exchange and chemical reactor with complicated heat and mass transfer phenomena and chemical reactions. The flows of burden and gas in the blast furnace shaft strongly affect the fuel economy of the process. An optimal gas flow distribution, which is obtained by controlling the burden distribution, leads to a high utilization degree of the reducing gas, smooth burden descent, and little wear of the furnace lining. Here, a one-dimensional dynamic model of the upper part of the blast furnace shaft is applied to study the evolution of gas and burden temperatures, mainly in order to shed light on the transient phenomena after charging dumps of burden. The effects of irregularities in the burden descent and charging are also studied briefly. The simulations demonstrate that the temperatures of the burden layers in the lower part of the simulated region assume a quasi-steady state, indicating that the changes in the top gas temperature experienced immediately after a dump of burden arise primarily because of heat transfer between the gas and the dump. These results support the idea that such temporary changes can be interpreted in terms of distribution of the dumps on the burden surface.

Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland)

1998-06-01

120

Ultra-high injection of natural gas to increase blast furnace production: A white paper. Topical report, November 1994  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the possibility and the economic justification of improvements in blast furnace productivity through the use of natural gas injection at high rates are presented. The paper describes the effects of blast enrichment accompanied by natural gas fuel injection on the thermal profile and hydrodynamic parameters in a blast furnace. This technique promises significant increases in productivity with no loss of flexibility or operational stability. The hydrogen content of the supplemental fuel plays a key role in determining both the coke replacement rate and the extent to which the furnace thermal profile is altered. Obtaining the maximum benefits from blast enrichment and supplemental fuel injection will require the development of new techniques to set aim values. For a given production rate, efficient utilization of hydrogen in the blast furnace stack is more cost-effective than the reduction of iron ore by an external process to produce reduced iron feeds.

Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.K.

1994-11-01

121

The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the furnace from a chemical thermodynamics perspective. Examines the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy change for each reaction of importance. These properties are interpreted on the molecular level then used to deduce the conditions necessary for each reaction to occur in its intended direction. Chemical kinetics is also discussed.…

Treptow, Richard S.; Jean, Luckner

1998-01-01

122

The Use of Neural-Network-Based Technologies to Analyze the Effect of a Combination Blast on Blast-Furnace Performance Indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of mathematical modeling ? not only classical methods [1, 2], but also those based on the use of artificial intelligence [3, 4] ? are widely used to analyze and control blast-furnace smelting. It is interesting to examine the feasibili ty of using neural networks to calculate the effect of the parameters of a combination blast (the consumption of natural

A. N. Dmitriev; V. B. Shcherbatskii

2004-01-01

123

Intensive pulverized coal injection operation with low strength coke at Kokura No. 2 blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Pulverized coal injection (PCI) was introduced to Kokura No. 2 blast furnace in 1986. PC injection rate started with 25 kg/THM was increased by stages to 75 kg/THM in February, 1989. Furthermore, PC injection operation of 150 kg/THM was tried under the condition of using low strength coke and of low oxygen enrichment after doubling the capacity of the PCI plant in November, 1990. The stable furnace condition was attained through improvement of coke strength, repair of upper shaft profile and optimization of ore layer thickness, although problems of tapping difficulties and breakage of tuyeres occurred due to formation of solidified layer in the hearth in the beginning of rating-up of PC rate. This paper describes the transitions of the furnace operation and the internal furnace state.

Komatsu, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Shimoda, Y.; Murai, T.; Nagami, S.

1993-01-01

124

A Differential Scanning Calorimetry Method for Construction of Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram of Blast Furnace Slag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous cooling crystallization of a blast furnace slag was studied by the application of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. A kinetic model describing the correlation between the evolution of the degree of crystallization with time was obtained. Bulk cooling experiments of the molten slag coupled with numerical simulation of heat transfer were conducted to validate the results of the DSC methods. The degrees of crystallization of the samples from the bulk cooling experiments were estimated by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the DSC method. It was found that the results from the DSC cooling and bulk cooling experiments are in good agreement. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram of the blast furnace slag was constructed according to crystallization kinetic model and experimental data. The obtained CCT diagram characterizes with two crystallization noses at different temperature ranges.

Gan, Lei; Zhang, Chunxia; Shangguan, Fangqin; Li, Xiuping

2012-06-01

125

Coal injection in an experimental blast furnace: a comprehensive reort. Open File report  

SciTech Connect

Blast-furnace coal injection tests conducted by the Bureau of Mines in cooperation with a consortium of 22 steel companies in 1963-64 are described. These tests were part of a program of extensive investigation of auxiliary-fuel injection in the Bureau's experimental blast furnace located at Bruceton, PA. Seventeen coal tests are described on various coals ranging from anthracite to subbituminous. Factors affecting maximum rates of the injection were studied. These included coal size, coal type, and oxygen enrichment. The effect of high-sulfur-content coal and the means to control metal sulfur were investigated. An epilogue briefly describing the commercial experience with coal injection from 1960 to the present is included.

Woolf, P.L.

1985-08-01

126

Extracting the core indicators of pulverized coal for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An updated approach to refining the core indicators of pulverized coal used for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis is proposed in view of the disadvantages of the existing performance indicator system of pulverized coal used in blast furnaces. This presented method takes into account all the performance indicators of pulverized coal injection, including calorific value, igniting point, combustibility, reactivity, flowability, grindability, etc. Four core indicators of pulverized coal injection are selected and studied by using principal component analysis, namely, comprehensive combustibility, comprehensive reactivity, comprehensive flowability, and comprehensive grindability. The newly established core index system is not only beneficial to narrowing down current evaluation indices but also effective to avoid previous overlapping problems among indicators by mutually independent index design. Furthermore, a comprehensive property indicator is introduced on the basis of the four core indicators, and the injection properties of pulverized coal can be overall evaluated.

Guo, Hong-wei; Su, Bu-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Zhu, Meng-yi; Chang, Jian

2013-03-01

127

Carbothermal formation and microstrutural evolution of ??-Sialon–AlN–BN powders from boron-rich blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron-rich blast furnace slag of low activity is one of the major products created during the separation of iron and boron from ludwigite in a blast furnace process, and the high-efficiency utilisation of its is of great importance to the Chinese boron industry. This paper proposes one new application process to synthesize ??-Sialon–AlN–BN powders by a carbothermal reduction–nitridation method using

Tao Jiang; Junbin Wu; Xiangxin Xue; Peining Duan; Mansheng Chu

128

Carbon and carbon-containing refractory materials for blast-furnaces at the Chelyabinsk Electrode Plant Joint-Stock Co  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of SiC additives and the granular composition on porosity, abrasive resistance, and endurance of carbon refractory blocks used in the blast-furnace steel-making technology. The use of microporous refractory blocks makes it possible to extend the blast-furnace production campaign by several years. The high efficiency of low heat-conducting cold-rammed mixes and a carbon-containing concentrate (available from ChEP JSC) is

S. A. Podkopaev; L. N. Ruzhevskaya; I. V. Rybyanets

2004-01-01

129

Articulation and codification of collective know-how in the steel industry: evidence from blast furnace control in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we use the implementation of an expert system to improve blast furnace control in the French steel industry to illustrate the problem of knowledge articulation\\/codification. Blast furnace related knowledge still largely takes the form of empirical know-how in general and expert know-how tied to specific individuals in particular. Therefore, the articulation\\/codification of knowledge in this field is

Nathalie Lazaric; Pierre-André Mangolte; Marie-Laure Massué

2003-01-01

130

Numerical prediction on the variation of temperature in the eroded blast furnace hearth with titanium dioxide in hot metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper numerically predicts the decrease in temperature of the eroded hearth of the blast furnace with floating deadman (coke zone) case for Port Kembla no. 5 blast furnace (PKBF5) by solving the Navier–Stokes equation, the thermal-energy-balance equation with conjugated heat transfer, and the mass transfer equation with the effect of chemical reaction during tapping process at steady state. The

C. H. Lin; W. T. Cheng; S. W. Du

2009-01-01

131

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

Michael F. Riley

2002-10-21

132

Effect of Carbon Aggregates on the Properties of Carbon Refractories for a Blast Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of carbon aggregates on the carbon refractory properties for a blast furnace was studied with X-ray diffraction\\u000a (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), an energy-dispersive X-ray, mercury porosimetry, a resistivity instrument, and\\u000a a laser thermal conductivity meter. The results showed that the microporous structure of a sample was determined by the amount\\u000a of ?-SiC whiskers. The thermal conductivity was

Xilai Chen; Yawei Li; Yuanbing Li; Shaobai Sang; Lei Zhao; Shujing Li; Shengli Jin; Shan Ge

2010-01-01

133

Localized Competition and the Aggregation of Plant-Level Increasing Returns: Blast Furnaces, 1929-1935  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent empirical literature has shaken economists' confidence in the value of aggregate (industry-level) data to illuminate production relationships. But the statistical finding 'you can't aggregate,' however well documented, is not an economic explanation. Plant-level relationships do aggregate in Depression-era blast furnace operations despite the presence of very substantial interplant heterogeneity, the most common economic cause of nonaggregability. The economic

Amy L. Bertin; Timothy F. Bresnahan; Daniel M. G. Raff

1996-01-01

134

An experimental study on corrosion resistance of concrete with ground granulate blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental test results on corrosion resistance of concrete containing ground granulate blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and ASTM Type I or ASTM Type V cement. To investigate the problem, a series of tests were performed. First, rapid chloride permeability tests were executed in accordance with ASTM C 1202 to determine the qualitative terms of chloride-ion penetrability. Second, accelerated chloride-ion

Kyong Yun Yeau; Eun Kyum Kim

2005-01-01

135

Properties of concrete incorporating fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a laboratory study on the influence of combination of fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) on the properties of high-strength concrete. A contrast study was carried out for the concrete (GGFAC) incorporating FA and GGBS, control Portland cement concrete and high-volume FA high-strength concrete (HFAC). Assessments of the concrete mixes were based on short-

Gengying Li; Xiaohua Zhao

2003-01-01

136

Lead removal from aqueous solutions by granulated blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of lead by sorption on granulated blast-furnace slag has been investigated as a function of pH, the metal ion concentration, the particle size and the amount of sorbent. It has been established that the process occurs with increasing pH. It was found that the dependence of the process on pH is similar to the dependence of the formation

S. V. Dimitrova; D. R. Mehandgiev

1998-01-01

137

Removal of lead and chromium by activated slag -- A blast-furnace waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blast-furnace waste generated in steel plants has been converted into a low-cost adsorbent. The resulting activated slag has been characterized and used for the removal of lead and chromium. The effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentrations, presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time on the sorption of lead and chromium were studied in batch experiments. Kinetic

S. K. Srivastava; V. K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan

1997-01-01

138

Microstructure and microanalysis of hardened cement pastes involving ground granulated blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and composition of hardened cement pastes of a wide range of blends of ground granulated blast-furnace slag with ordinary Portland cement have been studied, using techniques of transmission electron microscopy with microanalysis combined with electron microprobe analysis. Throughout the range, a calcium silicate hydrate gel (C-S-H) is the dominant cementing phase, present in the “inner product” within the

I. G. Richardson; G. W. Groves

1992-01-01

139

Predicting the compressive strength of ground granulated blast furnace slag concrete using artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an artificial neural networks study was carried out to predict the compressive strength of ground granulated blast furnace slag concrete. A data set of a laboratory work, in which a total of 45 concretes were produced, was utilized in the ANNs study. The concrete mixture parameters were three different water–cement ratios (0.3, 0.4, and 0.5), three different

Cahit Bilim; Cengiz D. Atis; Harun Tanyildizi; Okan Karahan

2009-01-01

140

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I -- design; Phase II -- construction; and Phase III -- operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. A 100% construction review meeting was held in December and attended by representatives of DOE, Fluor Daniel and Bethlehem Steel. The coal preparation mills were started up in December, 1994, and the first coal was injected into ``D`` blast furnace on December 19, 1994. Near the end of the year, the grinding mills and injection facility were being prepared for performance testing during the first quarter of 1995. The demonstration test program (phase III) will start in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-07-01

141

Enhanced phosphorus removal in a waste stabilization pond system with blast furnace slag filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a tertiary horizontal-flow blast furnace slag (BFS) filter was tested for phosphorus removal under laboratory and field conditions. Laboratory experiments were conducted in a benchscale BFS filter for phosphorus adsorption capacity at equilibrium conditions using P-spiked water. On-site, the performance of a pilot-scale BFS filter was monitored for phosphorus removal from the final effluent of a pilot-scale

M. A. Camargo Valero; M. Johnson; T. Mather; D. D. Mara

2009-01-01

142

Solid-particle erosion of a geopolymer containing fly ash and blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-particle erosion studies were conducted on a geopolymer derived from fly ash and granulated blast-furnace slag. The erodent particles, 390?m angular Al2O3, impacted at 30, 60, or 90° at a velocity of 50, 70, or 100m\\/s. Steady-state erosion rates (ER) were obtained and the material-loss mechanisms were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The geopolymer responded to normal impact as

K. C. Goretta; Nan Chen; F. Gutierrez-Mora; J. L. Routbort; G. C. Lukey; J. S. J. van Deventer

2004-01-01

143

Experience in operating blast furnaces with a predicted coke ash content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies made it possible to determi:le the factors affecting ti~e metallurgical properties of the sinter of plants i and 2 and to evaluate the effect Of the ease of dLsi:~tegration and reducibility on smelting indices. This was used as a basis to determine ti~e optimum sintering regime and to develop specifications for sinter which meet the requirements of blast-furnace

V. A. Mirko; V. D. Muzychuk; G. L. Tsymbal; A. I. Onishchenko

1985-01-01

144

Precipitation selectivity of perovskite phase from Ti-bearing blast furnace slag under dynamic oxidation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dynamic oxidations on the crystal morphology and the precipitation behavior of the perovskite phase from Ti-bearing blast furnace slag were investigated. Air was blown into the molten slag as an oxygen source through a lance during the dynamic oxidation process. It was found that the dispersed Ti components were selectively taken into the perovskite phase (CaTiO3), and

L. Zhang; M. Y. Wang; G. Q. Li; Z. T. Sui

2007-01-01

145

Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of sulfuric acid-modified titanium-bearing blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of reducing Cr(VI) from the aqueous solution by sulfuric acid-modified titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (SATBBFS) as a photocatalyst was investigated. The photocatalysts were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The photocatalytic activities of the different catalysts were evaluated by the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under UV-vis

Xue-fei LEI; Xiang-xin XUE

2010-01-01

146

A Model to Simulate Titanium Behavior in the Iron Blast Furnace Hearth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The erosion of hearth refractory is a major limitation to the campaign life of a blast furnace. Titanium from titania addition\\u000a in the burden or tuyere injection can react with carbon and nitrogen in molten pig iron to form titanium carbonitride, giving\\u000a the so-called titanium-rich scaffold or buildup on the hearth surface, to protect the hearth from subsequent erosion. In

Bao-Yu Guo; Paul Zulli; Daniel Maldonado; Ai-Bing Yu

2010-01-01

147

An intergrown perovskite-wollastonite phase in some ferrous blast-furnace slags  

Microsoft Academic Search

During crystallization of silicate liquids, TiO2 tends to form its own mineral. Ferrous blast-furnace slags generally have perovskite as the titanium-rich phase. However, a rounded and fibrous phase, crystallizing instead of perovskite, has been observed in some slag samples: it has an apparently late position in the order of crystallization. Detailed electron microprobe analysis and X-ray diffraction have indicated that

E. Wearing

1983-01-01

148

Development of an analytical equation for calculation of the blast furnace fuel rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical expressions are developed for calculating the specific fuel rate and the direct reduction rate for the iron blast furnace process as a function of blast conditions as well as other control parameters for the process. These are relevant for carbonaceous as well as hydrogenaceous gases in the system. The equations are based on an oxygen balance and a heat balance for the bottom half of the furnace, separated from the upper half at the location where equilibrium of the gas phase with wustite and iron is assumed to occur and where the temperatures of the gas and solid streams are approximately equal. The mass and heat balances employed are those which are the basis for the classical Rist diagram. Equations were also derived for the constraints of the Carbon-Direct Reduction (C-DRR) diagram, showing that this diagram and the Rist diagram emphasize different variables of the same model. An interpretation of the constraints operating in the diagrams is also given from the point of view of blast furnace operating practice.

Kundrat, David M.

1986-12-01

149

Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Projection. Annual Report, Jan 1 - Dec 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This 1997 annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at the Burns Harbor Plant of Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to use British Steel technology1*2 that uses granular coal to provide a portion of the fuel requirements of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical and economic issues associated with the use of coal for injection into blast furnaces. To achieve the progmm objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at the Burns Harbor Plant (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

None

1998-04-01

150

Aspects of blast-furnace hearth maintenance in the smelting of a titanomagnetite charge under unstable operating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of the blast-furnace smelting of titanomagnetite charges that appreciably complicates the operation of the furnace is the formation of unfused masses based composed of carbonitrides of titanium and vanadium. These masses are formed as a result of the limited solubility of titanium in pig iron and the formation of heterogeneous systems in which up to 50% of the

G. G. Gavrilyuk; Yu. A. Lekontsev; S. D. Abramov; V. A. Zavidonskii

1998-01-01

151

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

Crelling, J.C.

1995-12-31

152

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 March 1993--31 May 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. The basic program is designed to determine the reactivity of both coal and its derived char under blast furnace conditions and to compare the results to similar properties of blast furnace coke. The results of the first two experiments in which coal char pyrolyzed in nitrogen at 1000{degrees}C in an EPR were reacted isothermally in air at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. The reactivity values of the same char in these two experiments were different by an order of magnitude. The char reactivity at 1000{degrees}C was 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} grams per minute while the reactivity. of the char at 1200{degrees}C was 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} grams per minute. These results suggest that the temperature of the blast air in the tuyere may be critical in achieving complete carbon burnout.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-09-01

153

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposed study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. The Amanda furnace of Armco is the only one in North America currently using coal injection and is, therefore, the only full scale testing facility available. During this quarter complete petrographic analyses of all of the samples so far collected were completed.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-05-01

154

Thermodynamics of TiO x in blast furnace-type slags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium studies between CaO-SiO2-10 pct MgO-Al2O3-TiO1.5-TiO2 slags, carbon-saturated iron, and a carbon monoxide atmosphere were performed at 1773 K to determine the activities of TiO1.5 and TiO2 in the slag. These thermodynamic parameters are required to predict the formation of titanium carbonitride in the blast furnace.\\u000a In order to calculate the activity of titanium oxide, the activity coefficient of titanium

Y. Morizane; B. Ozturk; R. J. Fruehan

1999-01-01

155

Direct injection of natural gas in blast furnaces at high rates: Preliminary statistical analysis of blast furnace carbon balance at Armco-Middletown. Topical report, January 1990-September 1992  

SciTech Connect

The economic benefits of supplemental fuel injections depend, in part, on the coke replacement ratio. An assessment of the accuracy with which blast furnace coke rate may be measured and a determination of the key drivers of coke rate uncertainty are offered, to provide guidance for experiments in high-rate gas injection. Using statistical analysis tools, an expression for the measurement error associated with the various terms of blast furnace carbon balance is developed. Coke rate calculations based on the material balance are most sensitive to coke carbon content and to proper tracking of hot metal tapping schedule.

Neels, J.K.; Brown, F.C.

1992-09-01

156

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-05-01

157

Nonfibrous mineralogical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from blast-furnace workers.  

PubMed

Steelworkers are exposed to many pollutants, and they are at risk for developing lung cancer. We demonstrated previously that steelworkers may be subject to an occult exposure to amphiboles in the plant environment. In the current study, we further analyzed bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of steelworkers by measuring intramacrophagic trace-metal content and nonfibrous mineral particles, using the particle-induced x-ray emission method and electron microscopy, respectively. Forty-seven blast-furnace workers and 45 healthy white-collar workers volunteered for this study. Significantly increased levels of iron, titanium, zinc, and bromine were found in the steelworkers, and levels of lead, chromium, arsenic, and strontium tended to increase in the macrophages and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the steelworkers. Nonfibrous particles, including illite, kaolinite, talc, chlorite, amorphous silica, quartz, iron (compounds), and titanium hydroxide, were found in both groups, but the particle number per ml bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (particularly iron hydroxides and silicates) was more pronounced in blast-furnace workers. These elements and particles may act synergistically with other occupational carcinogens and cigarette smoke, the result of which may be an increased incidence of lung cancer in the ironsteel industry. PMID:7677432

Corhay, J L; Bury, T; Delavignette, J P; Baharloo, F; Radermecker, M; Hereng, P; Fransolet, A M; Weber, G; Roelandts, I

158

A Model to Simulate Titanium Behavior in the Iron Blast Furnace Hearth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erosion of hearth refractory is a major limitation to the campaign life of a blast furnace. Titanium from titania addition in the burden or tuyere injection can react with carbon and nitrogen in molten pig iron to form titanium carbonitride, giving the so-called titanium-rich scaffold or buildup on the hearth surface, to protect the hearth from subsequent erosion. In the current article, a mathematical model based on computational fluid dynamics is proposed to simulate the behavior of solid particles in the liquid iron. The model considers the fluid/solid particle flow through a packed bed, conjugated heat transfer, species transport, and thermodynamic of key chemical reactions. A region of high solid concentration is predicted at the hearth bottom surface. Regions of solid formation and dissolution can be identified, which depend on the local temperature and chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity to the key model parameters for the solid phase is analyzed. The model provides an insight into the fundamental mechanism of solid particle formation, and it may form a basic model for subsequent development to study the formation of titanium scaffold in the blast furnace hearth.

Guo, Bao-Yu; Zulli, Paul; Maldonado, Daniel; Yu, Ai-Bing

2010-08-01

159

The role of SiO 2 nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO2 nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete

Ali Nazari; Shadi Riahi

2011-01-01

160

The effects of TiO 2 nanoparticles on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace slag as binder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, flexural strength, pore structure, thermal behavior and microstructure characteristics of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and TiO2 nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the properties of concrete at early

Ali Nazari; Shadi Riahi

2011-01-01

161

Prospects for the Use of Non-Agglomerated IronBearing Materials in the Blast Furnace (Survey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One characteristic feature of blast-furnace smelting is the presence of two zones (upper and lower) differing in temperature conditions and the character of the mass and heat transfer that takes place between oppositely directed flows, one of whic h (the hearth gas) transports thermal and chemical energy and the other of which (the charge materials) consumes that energy. Thanks to

I. F. Kurunov

2003-01-01

162

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

Crelling, J.C.

1995-12-31

163

Studies on the corrosion resistance of reinforced steel in concrete with ground granulated blast-furnace slag—An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial replacement of clinker, the main constituent of ordinary Portland cement by pozzolanic or latent hydraulic industrial by-products such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), effectively lowers the cost of cement by saving energy in the production process. It also reduces CO2 emissions from the cement plant and offers a low priced solution to the environmental problem of

Ha-Won Song; Velu Saraswathy

2006-01-01

164

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal i...

J. C. Crelling E. R. Case

1993-01-01

165

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced b...

J. C. Crelling E. R. Case

1993-01-01

166

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced b...

J. C. Crelling

1995-01-01

167

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to da...

J. C. Crelling

1994-01-01

168

Process Development for the Removal of Zinc and Cadmium from Wastewater Using Slag—A Blast Furnace Waste Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag, a waste generated in steel plants in India, has been converted into a low cost potential adsorbent. The resulting product has been characterized and used for the removal of zinc and cadmium. The effect of particle size, contact time, and surface loading of zinc and cadmium on the adsorbent for their removal have been studied at the

V. K. Gupta; Arshi Rastogi; M. K. Dwivedi; Dinesh Mohan

1997-01-01

169

Effect of perovskite phase precipitation on viscosity of Ti-bearing blast furnace slag under the dynamic oxidation condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the dynamic oxidation on the viscosity of Ti-bearing blast furnace slag, on a selective enrichment, a precipitation and a growth of the Ti component were studied. The oxygen source was the air that was blown into the molten slag through a lance during the dynamic oxidation process. It was found that the oxidation of TiC, metallic Fe,

L. Zhang; M. Y. Wang; T. P. Lou; Z. T. Sui; J. S. Jang

2006-01-01

170

Microstructure and Properties of Zircon-Added Carbon Refractories for Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructure and properties of zircon-added carbon refractory specimens for blast furnace (BF) were investigated with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray, mercury porosimetry, and a laser thermal conductivity (TC) meter. Additives could influence the matrix structures and improve the properties of specimens. With the increase of zircon powder content, the amount of SiC whiskers formed increased and their aspect ratio became larger, and the SiC whiskers tended to be distributed homogeneously. Zircon powder additions decreased the mean pore diameter and increased <1- ?m pore volume by filling in pores via SiC, improved the TC and the cold crushing strength (CCS) due to the in-situ formation of the more well-developed SiC whiskers with high TC, and significantly reduced the molten iron attack to carbon specimens.

Zhu, Tianbin; Li, Yawei; Sang, Shaobai; Chen, Xilai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuanbing; Li, Shujing

2012-11-01

171

Efficiency of a blast furnace slag cement for immobilizing simulated borate radioactive liquid waste.  

PubMed

The efficiency of a blast furnace slag cement (Spanish CEM III/B) for immobilizing simulated radioactive borate liquid waste [containing H3BO3, NaCl, Na2SO4 and Na(OH)] has been evaluated by means of a leaching attack in de-mineralized water at the temperature of 40 degrees C over 180 days. The leaching was carried out according to the ANSI/ANS-16.1-1986 test. Moreover, changes of the matrix microstructure were characterized through porosity and pore-size distribution analysis carried out by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TG). The results were compared with those obtained from a calcium aluminate cement matrix, previously published. PMID:12365786

Guerrero, A; Goñi, S

2002-01-01

172

Performance testing of blast furnace slag for immobilization of technetium in grout  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary results of a grout development effort to identify grout formulas that can satisfactorily sequester /sup 99/Tc contained in an existing Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant waste. Technetium is of particular concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of its mobility and biological activity. The mobility of technetium results in large part from the movement of the pertechnate anion (prevalent in low-level radioactive waste (LLW)) through soil and geologic strata with little or no interaction with the surrounding matrix. Ground blast furnace slag has been shown to improve the leach resistance of cement-based waste forms, particularly in regard to technetium. This improved performance has been attributed to fewer and smaller pores in the solidified slags (versus a neat cement paste) and to the reduction of the pertechnate ion to a less soluble form. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.; Evans-Brown, B.S.; Morgan, I.L.; Shoemaker, J.L.; Bostick, W.D.

1988-01-01

173

Solidification of arsenic and heavy metal containing tailings using cement and blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to examine the solidification of toxic elements in tailings by the use of cement and blast furnace slag. Tailings samples were taken at an Au-Ag mine in Korea. To examine the best mixing ratio of tailings and the mixture of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and blast furnace slag (SG) of 5:5, 6:6, 7:3, and 8:2, the 7:3 ratio of tailings and OPC+SG was adapted. In addition, the mixing ratios of water and OPC + SG were applied to 10, 20, and 30 wt%. After 7, 14, and 28 days' curing, the UCS test was undertaken. A relatively high strength of solidified material (137.2 kg cm?² in average of 3 samples) at 28 days' curing was found in 20 wt% of water content (WC). This study also examined the leachability of arsenic and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) under the Korean Standard Leaching Test, and it showed that the reductions in leachabilities of As and heavy metals of solidified samples were ranged from 76 to 99%. Thus, all the solidified samples were within the guidelines for special and hazardous waste materials by the Waste Management Act in Korea. In addition, the result of freeze-thaw cycle test of the materials indicated that the durability of the materials was sufficient. In conclusion, solidification using a 7:3 mixing ratio of tailings and a 1:1 mixture of OPC + SG with 20% of WC is one of the best methods for the remediation of arsenic and heavy metals in tailings and other contaminated materials. PMID:21063751

Kim, Jung-Wook; Jung, Myung Chae

2010-11-10

174

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing ir...

1990-01-01

175

Thermodynamics of TiO{sub x} in blast furnace-type slags  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium studies between CaO-SiO{sub 2}-10 pct MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 1.5}-TiO{sub 2} slags, carbon-saturated iron, and a carbon monoxide atmosphere were performed at 1773 K to determine the activities of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} in the slag. These thermodynamic parameters are required to predict the formation of titanium carbonitride in the blast furnace. In order to calculate the activity of titanium oxide, the activity coefficient of titanium in carbon-saturated iron-carbon-titanium alloys was determined by measuring the solubility of titanium in carbon-saturated iron in equilibrium with titanium carbide. The solubility and the activity coefficient of titanium obtained were 1.3 pct and 0.023 relative to 1 wt pct titanium in liquid iron or 0.0013 relative to pure solid titanium at 1773 K, respectively. Over the concentration range studied, the effect of the TiO{sub x} content on its activity coefficient is small. In the slag system studied containing 35 to 50 pct CaO, 25 to 45 pct SiO{sub 2}, 7 to 22 pct Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 10 pct MgO, the activity coefficients of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} relative to pure solid standard states range from 2.3 to 8.8 and from 0.1 to 0.3, respectively. Using thermodynamic data obtained, the prediction of the formation of titanium carbonitride was made. Assuming hypothetical TiO{sub 2}, i.e., total titanium in the slag expressed as TiO{sub 2}, and using the values of the activity coefficients of TiO{sub 1.5} and TiO{sub 2} determined, the equilibrium distribution of titanium between blast furnace-type slags and carbon-saturated iron was computed. The value of [pct Ti]/(pct TiO{sub 2}) ranges from 0.1 to 0.2.

Morizane, Y.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1999-02-01

176

Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used. PMID:17462882

Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

2007-04-25

177

A CONTINUOUSLY RECORDING ATMOSPHERIC CARBON MONOXIDE MONITORING SYSTEM WITH FULLY AUTOMATIC ALARMS IN A BLAST FURNACE AREA  

PubMed Central

A continuously recording carbon monoxide monitoring system with fully automatic alarms is described for use in blast furnace areas. The equipment comprised the Mines Safety Appliances Model 200 infra-red analyser, pumping system, recorder, extension meter, and alarm unit. Use of the apparatus showed that concentrations of carbon monoxide in the blast furnace area studied were mostly in the range of 0 to 49 p.p.m. Readings of 200 p.p.m. and over generally indicated that some abnormal and potentially dangerous incident had occurred. Examples of such incidents are given. A visual alarm was set at 200 p.p.m., a level at which work could safely continue for a limited period, and an auditory alarm at 500 p.p.m., at which level immediate action was necessary. The theoretical reasons for selecting these levels are discussed, and practical results are quoted to confirm their suitability. Images

Davies, G. M.; Jones, J. Graham; Warner, C. G.

1965-01-01

178

The characterization of hardened alkali-activated blast-furnace slag pastes and the nature of the calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel is the principal binding phase in hardened OPC pastes and concretes, and also when the OPC has been partially replaced by pozzolanic by-products such as ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) and pulverized fuel ash. The C-S-H gels present in commercial blast-furnace slag and synthetic-slag glass pastes produced by hydrating with 5M KOH solution have been

I. G. Richardson; A. R. Brough; G. W. Groves; C. M. Dobson

1994-01-01

179

Preparation of perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag photocatalyst doped with sulphate and investigation on reduction Cr(VI) using UV–vis light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (TBBFS) and sulphate-modified titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (SO42?\\/TBBFS) photocatalysts were prepared by the high-energy ball milling method at different calcination temperature. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra and SEM measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the different catalysts were evaluated by the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under UV–vis light irradiation.

X. F. Lei; X. X. Xue

2008-01-01

180

A new kind of eco-cement made of cement kiln dust and granular blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research project was conducted to manufacture eco-cement for sustainable development using cement kiln dust (CKD) and granular\\u000a blast furnace slag(GBFS). In the project, the burning process and mineral compositions of CKD clinker were investigated. Different\\u000a mineralizers such as CaSO4 and CaF2 sulfur and alkali content were considered. The strength of CKD and GBFS eco-cement were evaluated. The results indicate

Shen Weiguo; Zhou Mingkai; Zhao Qinglin

2006-01-01

181

Properties of concrete incorporating bed ash from circulating fluidized bed combustion and ground granulates blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of concrete incorporating circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) bed ash and ground granulates blast-furnace\\u000a slag (GGBS) were studied. Compressive strength, drying shrinkage, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), scanning electronic\\u000a microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of concrete samples containing CFBC bed ash and GGBS were used. This work used\\u000a initial surface absorption test (ISAT) and rapid chloride penetration test

An Cheng; Hui-Mi Hsu; Sao-Jeng Chao

2011-01-01

182

Simulation of blast-furnace tuyere and raceway conditions in a wire mesh reactor: extents of combustion and gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire mesh reactor has been modified to investigate reactions of coal particles in the tuyeres and raceways of blast furnaces. At temperatures above 1000{sup o}C, pyrolysis reactions are completed within 1 s. The release of organic volatiles is probably completed by 1500{sup o}C, but the volatile yield shows a small increase up to 2000{sup o}C. The additional weight loss

Long Wu; N. Paterson; D. R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti

2007-01-01

183

Removal of Arsenic(III) from Groundwater using Low-Cost Industrial By-products—Blast Furnace Slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag (BFS), a steel industrial by-product, was tested for the removal of As(III), which is a highly toxic, mobile and predominant species in anoxic groundwater. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to determine the feasibility of BFS as an adsorbent for removing As(III) from groundwater as As(III) concentration and the pH of water were varied. The maximum As(III) adsorption

Sushil Raj Kanel; Heechul Choi; Ju-Yong Kim; Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran; Wang Geun Shim

2006-01-01

184

Kinetics of non-isothermal precipitation process of perovskite phase in oxidized Ti-bearing blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of non-isothermal precipitation process and crystal growth of perovskite phase in oxidized Ti-bearing slag were investigated. The oxidized slag was obtained by blowing the air into the molten Ti-bearing blast furnace slag through a lance. The experimental results show that the cooling rate has important effect on precipitation and growth of perovskite phase in oxidized slag; the lower cooling

WANG Ming-yu; WANG Xue-wen; LOU Tai-ping

185

Recovery of titanium compounds from molten Ti-bearing blast furnace slag under the dynamic oxidation condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique to recover Titanium compounds from Ti-bearing blast furnace slag under the dynamic oxidation condition was developed and tested. Air was blown into the molten slag as oxygen resource through a lance during the dynamic oxidation process, in which six important results were found: (1) The TiC, (Ti2O3), Fe and (FeO) in the slag were oxidized; (2) The

L. Zhang; M. Y. Wang; G. Q. Li; Z. T. Sui

2007-01-01

186

Technical and economic aspects of coal injection at blast furnace tuyeres  

SciTech Connect

The basic factors in selection of an auxiliary fuel have been mentioned. These include availability and cost of the auxiliary fuel, cost of injection facilities, and coke availability. Operating factors such as coal particle size, hot blast temperature, lance location, and flame temperature were discussed as they relate to the efficiency of coal combustion, therefore the economics of a system. Safety is a must when preparing and storing pulverized coal. An unsafe system will never be economical. Based on years of experience at Bellefonte a safe system has been installed at Amanda with no problems in seven years of operation. Coal quality must be considered primarily as regards ash content. A significant penalty is paid for injected ash. Both coking and non-coking coals with the same ash content have been injected with equally successful results. A simplified economic analysis gives an indication of the possible justification of a coal injection system. Replacing 130 lbs oil per net ton of hot metal with an equivalent amount of coal will result in an annual savings of 12.3 million dollars for a 5000 TPD furnace, and a cost payback of three (3) years after start-up. 3 figures, 1 table.

Fletcher, L.N.

1981-01-01

187

Ultrasonic-Assisted Acid Leaching of Indium from Blast Furnace Sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic-assisted acid leaching was used to improve extraction of indium from blast furnace sludge. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time on extraction of indium were investigated and three leaching methods of high temperature acid leaching (HL), ultrasonic acid leaching (UL), and high temperature-ultrasonic acid leaching (HUL) were compared. The results show that extraction of indium increases with leaching time for all the methods. UL exhibits the lowest indium extraction. For HL, extraction of indium reaches 32.6 pct when the leaching time is 4 hours, and after 4 hours, the extraction increases slowly. Leaching temperature has a more positive effect on extraction of indium than ultrasonic. HUL can lead to a higher extraction of indium than high temperature acid leaching and UL, and extraction of indium reaches 40.4 pct when the leaching time is 2 hours. After 2 hours, no obvious increase occurs. HUL not only increases extraction of indium but also reduces the leaching time which can improve production efficiency.

Shen, Xingmei; Li, Liaosha; Wu, Zhaojin; Lü, Huihong; Lü, Jia

2013-09-01

188

Durability of traditional plasters with respect to blast furnace slag-based plaster  

SciTech Connect

Blast furnace slag is a residue of steel production. It is a latent hydraulic binder and is normally used to improve the durability of concrete and mortars. Slag could be also used as rendering mortar for masonry and old buildings. Today, cement and hydraulic lime are the most popular hydraulic binders used to make plasters. They are characterised by a low durability when exposed to the action of chemical and physical agents. The aim of this study was to provide a comparison between the physical-mechanical properties of some renders made with ordinary Portland cement, hydraulic lime, or slag. Furthermore, an investigation was carried out to analyse mortar resistance to several aggressive conditions like acid attack, freezing and thawing cycles, abrasion, sulphate aggression, cycles in ultraviolet screening device, and salt diffusion. The specimens, after chemical attack, have been characterised from the chemical-physical [specific surface according to the BET (Brunauer-Emmet-Teller) method], crystal-chemical (X-ray diffraction, XRD), and morphological (scanning electron microscopy, SEM) points of view.

Cerulli, T.; Pistolesi, C.; Maltese, C.; Salvioni, D

2003-09-01

189

Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays.The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 ± 0.011 and 0.038 ± 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

Naqvi, A. A.; Maslehuddin, M.; Garwan, M. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Al-Amoudi, O. S. B.; Khateeb-Ur-Rehman; Raashid, M.

2011-01-01

190

Chloride leaching from air pollution control residues solidified using ground granulated blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs) has been used to solidify air pollution control (APC) residues obtained from a major UK energy-from-waste plant. Samples were prepared with ggbs additions between 10 and 50 wt% of total dry mass and water/solids ratios between 0.35 and 0.80. Consistence, setting time, compressive strength and leaching characteristics have been investigated. Results indicated that the highly alkaline nature of APC residues due to the presence of free lime can be used to activate ggbs hydration reactions. Increasing ggbs additions and reducing the water content resulted in increased compressive strengths, with 50 wt% ggbs samples having average 28 d strengths of 20.6 MPa. Leaching tests indicate low physical encapsulation and minimal chemical fixation of chloride in ggbs solidified APC residues. The results suggest that more than 50 wt% ggbs additions would be required to treat APC residues to meet the current waste acceptance criteria limits for chloride. PMID:18805564

Lampris, Christos; Stegemann, Julia A; Cheeseman, Christopher R

2008-09-20

191

Preparation of nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment by recycling of blast furnace flue dust.  

PubMed

Blast furnace (BF) flue dust is one of pollutants emitted by iron and steel plants. The recycling of BF flue dust can not only reduce pollution but also bring social and environmental benefits. In this study, leaching technique was employed to the treatment of BF flue dust at first. A mixed solution of ferrous and ferric sulfate was obtained and used as raw material to prepare nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment (Fe(3)O(4), magnetite) with NaOH as precipitant. The optimal technological conditions including total iron ion concentration, Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) mole ratio, precipitant concentration and reaction temperature were studied and discussed carefully. The spectral reflectance and oil absorption were used as major parameters to evaluate performance of pigment. Furthermore, Fe(3)O(4) particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under optimized conditions obtained pigment has low average spectral reflectance (<4%), good oil absorption ( approximately 23%), high black intensity, and narrow size distribution 60-70 nm. PMID:20064689

Shen, Lazhen; Qiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Yong; Tan, Junru

2009-12-21

192

Effect of Carbon Aggregates on the Properties of Carbon Refractories for a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of carbon aggregates on the carbon refractory properties for a blast furnace was studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), an energy-dispersive X-ray, mercury porosimetry, a resistivity instrument, and a laser thermal conductivity meter. The results showed that the microporous structure of a sample was determined by the amount of ?-SiC whiskers. The thermal conductivity was controlled by the thermal conductivity of the corresponding carbon aggregate, and the alkali and molten-iron attack was decided mainly by the pore and the graphitization degree of aggregate, respectively. For samples using calcined anthracites as aggregates, the microporous structure became worse, the thermal conductivity increased, and the molten-iron as well as the alkali attack became more severe with an increase in the anthracite calcining temperature. For all samples, microcrystalline graphite possessed the best microporous structure and the least alkali and molten-iron attack, whereas the graphite electrode scraps had the highest thermal conductivity and the most severe alkali and molten-iron attack.

Chen, Xilai; Li, Yawei; Li, Yuanbing; Sang, Shaobai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Shujing; Jin, Shengli; Ge, Shan

2010-04-01

193

Blast furnace slag can effectively remediate coastal marine sediments affected by organic enrichment.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need to control nutrient release fluxes from organically-enriched sediments into overlying waters to alleviate the effects of eutrophication. This study aims to characterize blast furnace slag (BFS) and evaluate its remediation performance on organically-enriched sediments in terms of suppressing nutrient fluxes and reducing acid volatile sulfide. BFS was mainly composed of inorganic substances such as CaO, SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and MgO in amorphous crystal phase. Container experiments showed that the phosphate concentration in the overlying water, its releasing flux from sediment and AVS of the sediment decreased by 17-23%, 39% and 16% compared to the control without BFS, respectively. The loss on ignition was significantly decreased by 3.6-11% compared to the control. Thus, the application of BFS to organically-enriched sediment has a suppressive role on organic matter, AVS concentration and phosphate releasing flux from sediments and therefore, is a good candidate as an effective environmental remediation agent. PMID:20003992

Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji

2009-12-08

194

Effect of Temperature on the Properties and Microstructures of Carbon Refractories for Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of temperature on phase composition, microstructure, and properties of silicon-containing blast furnace (BF) carbon refractories after firing in coke breeze packing at 1000 °C to 1600 °C were studied with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray, mercury porosimetry, and a laser thermal conductivity meter. The results showed that silicon played a dominant role in the evolution of phase, microstructure, and properties. The amount of SiC whiskers increased with temperature. The phase in the outer part of the specimen was cristobalite balls, and its content decreased and ?-SiC whisker increased in the inner part of the specimen. The phase and microstructure development with firing temperature influenced the properties. The bulk density, strength, and <1- ?m micropore volume of open pores were highest, whereas the apparent and total porosity, mean pore size, and thermal conductivity were lowest for specimens fired at 1400 °C. Moreover, the thermal conductivity was affected by pore structure and phases formed after firing.

Chen, Xilai; Li, Yawei; Li, Yuanbing; Jin, Shengli; Zhao, Lei; Ge, Shan

2009-07-01

195

Drilling fluid conversion: Selection and use of Portland or blast-furnace-slag cement  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of drilling mud to oilwell cement has advanced from an unpredictable laboratory curiosity to a practical reality. Recent field introduction of polymer dispersants, organic accelerators, and an alternative cementitious material have provided two refined and practical conversion methods. Each method claims universal applicability plus performance superior to that of conventionally mixed and pumped Portland cement. Both blast-furnace-slag (BFS) and Portland cement are used for drilling-mud conversion. Portland and BFS mud conversions can use the same recently developed polymer dispersants, filtration-control materials, defoamers, and other additives that are typically used to treat high-temperature, highly-salt-contaminated drilling muds. Experience in the field and laboratory has demonstrated that conversion with BFS or Portland cement is essentially one technology from a pilot-test and application standpoint. While use of these two materials reflects essentially one technology, distinct performance and cost differences exist. These differences define the specific economic application advantages and must be considered when a decision to use BFS or Portland cement is made. Rational selection of mud-to-cement conversion depends on a detailed economic comparison of basic materials, logistics, and equipment availability.

Schlemmer, R.P.; Branam, N.E.; Edwards, T.M.; Valenziano, R.C.

1994-12-01

196

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1). PMID:22826355

U?ur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Ye?ingil, Z

2012-07-22

197

Crystallization characteristics of iron-rich glass ceramics prepared from nickel slag and blast furnace slag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallization process of iron-rich glass-ceramics prepared from the mixture of nickel slag (NS) and blast furnace slag (BFS) with a small amount of quartz sand was investigated. A modified melting method which was more energy-saving than the traditional methods was used to control the crystallization process. The results show that the iron-rich system has much lower melting temperature, glass transition temperature ( T g), and glass crystallization temperature ( T c), which can result in a further energy-saving process. The results also show that the system has a quick but controllable crystallization process with its peak crystallization temperature at 918°C. The crystallization of augite crystals begins from the edge of the sample and invades into the whole sample. The crystallization process can be completed in a few minutes. A distinct boundary between the crystallized part and the non-crystallized part exists during the process. In the non-crystallized part showing a black colour, some sphere-shaped augite crystals already exist in the glass matrix before samples are heated to T c. In the crystallized part showing a khaki colour, a compact structure is formed by augite crystals.

Wang, Zhong-Jie; Ni, Wen; Li, Ke-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Li-Ping

2011-08-01

198

Evaluation of blast furnace slag as basal media for eelgrass bed.  

PubMed

Two types of blast furnace slag (BFS), granulated (GS) and air-cooled slag (ACS), were evaluated as basal media for eelgrass bed. Evaluation was done by comparing BFS samples with natural eelgrass sediment (NES) in terms of some physico-chemical characteristics and then, investigating growth of eelgrass both in BFS and NES. In terms of particle size, both BFS samples were within the range acceptable for growing eelgrass. However, compared with NES, low silt-clay content for ACS and lack of organic matter content for both BFS samples were found. Growth experiment showed that eelgrass can grow in both types of BFS, although growth rates in BFS samples shown by leaf elongation were slower than that in NES. The possible reasons for stunted growth in BFS were assumed to be lack of organic matter and release of some possible toxins from BFS. Reduction of sulfide content of BFS samples did not result to enhanced growth; though sulfide release was eliminated, release of Zn was greater than before treatment and concentration of that reached to alarming amounts. PMID:19150584

Hizon-Fradejas, Amelia B; Nakano, Yoichi; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

2008-12-11

199

Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.  

PubMed

Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas. PMID:15382877

Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

2004-08-15

200

Use of blast furnace granulated slag as a substrate in vertical flow reed beds: field application.  

PubMed

Research was conducted at Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey in 2000 to determine whether a reed bed filled with an economical Turkish fill media that has high phosphorus (P) sorption capacity, could be implemented and operated successfully under field conditions. In batch-scale P-sorption experiments, the P-sorption capacity of the blast furnace granulated slag (BFGS) of KARDEMIR Iron and Steel Ltd., Co., Turkey, was found to be higher compared to other candidate filter materials due to its higher Ca content and porous structure. In this regard, a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) (30 m(2)), planted with Phragmites australis was implemented at METU to treat primarily treated domestic wastewater, at a hydraulic rate of 100 mm d(-1), intermittently. The layers of the filtration media constituted of sand, BFGS, and gravel. According to the first year monitoring study, average influent and effluent total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were 6.61+/-1.78 mg L(-1) and 3.18+/-1.82 mg L(-1); respectively. After 12 months, slag samples were taken from the reed bed and P-extraction experiments were performed to elucidate the dominant P-retention mechanisms. Main pools for P-retention were the loosely-bounded and Ca-bounded P due to the material's basic conditions (average pH>7.7) and higher Ca content. This study indicated the potential use of the slag reed bed with higher P-removal capacity for secondary and tertiary treatment under the field conditions. However, the P-sorption isotherms obtained under the laboratory conditions could not be used favorably to determine the longevity of the reed bed in terms of P-retention. PMID:17070037

Asuman Korkusuz, E; Beklio?lu, Meryem; Demirer, Göksel N

2006-10-25

201

Performance studies of mud converted to cement (blast furnace slag cement), DEA-87. Final report, December 1994  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results of a Joint Industry Project investigating the performance of mud converted to cement using Blast Furnace Slag (BFS). This paper compares BFS/muds to conventional Portland cements in various simulated cementing applications. The poject covers the test results from converting dispersed and PHPA drilling fluids to cement, in comparison to conventional low fluid loss Portland cements. The tests simulated a geopressured gas well by use of a large scale physical model. In addition, the dimensional stability of the BFS/mud is presented.

Pavlich, J.P.; Benton, W.; Bodenhamer, W.; Choi, H.J.; Edwards, T.

1994-12-01

202

Producing non-blast furnace coke from brown coals of the Kansk-Achinsk coalfield  

SciTech Connect

The production of any form of coke is determined mainly by the raw material costs. Consequently for the production of special coke, of which the demand is satisfied at the present time by small size fractions of beehive coke or even blast furnace coke, it is necessary to use not only the plentiful coals but also the brown coals of the Kansk-Achinsk coalfield where mining is being expanded. The large reserves of the Kansk-Achinsk brown coals and the favorable geological conditions for recovery by the open-cast method make it possible to increase coal extraction from 31.6.10/sup 6/ tons in 1978 to 350.10/sup 6/ tons/yr in the next 15 to 20 years. In order to explain the high reactivity of heat treated brown coals we shall compare their properties with bituminous coal coke. During the heating of bituminous coals (with a high voltatile matter content) they are able to be weakly fused, to form a structure of coke whose pores are smooth because the coal is partially transformed into a plastic state, which led to a closing up of the finest pores with a very large fraction of large pores. A considerably different microstruture is formed when brown coals are heated. There is no fusion in this case, i.e., the coal does not pass into a plastic state and no swelling is observed (this is characteristic for bituminous and to a certain degree even for the weakly coking coals). As a result of volatile products separation the initial fine pores are preserved and there is an absence of the effect which in bituminous coals leads to the formation of large pores. Therefore in heating brown coals solid residues are formed with a highly developed internal surface, which is one of the factors causing high reactivity. The significance of the final temperature of the fuel should also be noted. It is known that high temperature coke differs in having reduced reactivity.

Andreeva, I.A. (Moscow Mining Inst., USSR); Antonova, L.I.; Migunov, D.M.; Taits, E.M.; Leonov, A.S.

1981-01-01

203

An approach for phosphate removal with quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag as seed crystal.  

PubMed

The phosphate removal abilities and crystallization performance of quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag were investigated. The residual phosphate concentrations in the reaction solutions were not changed by addition of the ceramsite, quartz sand and blast furnace slag. The steel slag could provide alkalinity and Ca(2+) to the reaction solution due to its hydration activity, and performed a better phosphate removal performance than the other three. Under the conditions of Ca/P 2.0, pH 8.5 and 10 mg P/L, the phosphate crystallization occurred during 12 h. The quartz sand and ceramsite did not improve the phosphate crystallization, but steel slag was an effective seed crystal. The phosphate concentration decreased drastically after 12 h after addition of steel slag, and near complete removal was achieved after 48 h. The XRD analysis showed that the main crystallization products were hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the crystallinity increased with the reaction time. Phosphate was successfully recovered from low phosphate concentration wastewater using steel slag as seed material. PMID:22378001

Qiu, Liping; Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Shoubin; Yang, Zhongxi; Li, Yanbo

2012-01-01

204

Determination of Lime and Magnesia in Acid-Soluble Basic Steelmaking and Blast Furnace Slags by a Basic Acetate Separation Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An account is given of the investigational work leading to the development of a method for the determination of calcium and magnesium in basic slags and blast furnace slags. The method is based on a preliminary basic acetate separation followed by titrati...

P. B. Dunnill P. H. Scholes

1970-01-01

205

Kinetic sorption modelling of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr ions to pine bark and blast furnace slag by using batch experiments.  

PubMed

Storm water and landfill leachate can both contain significant amounts of toxic metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni. Pine bark and blast furnace slag are both residual waste products that have shown a large potential for metal removal from contaminated water. There are however many variables that must be optimized in order to achieve efficient metal retention. One of these variables is the time of which the solution is in contact with each unit of filter material. Metal sorption was studied in two laboratory experiments to improve the knowledge of the effects of contact time. The results showed that pine bark was generally more efficient than blast furnace slag when the metal concentrations were relatively small, whereas blast furnace slag sorbed most metals to a larger extent at increased metal loads. In addition, sorption to blast furnace slag was found to be faster than metal binding to pine bark. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model was able to describe the data well within 1000 s of reaction time. PMID:17532623

Nehrenheim, E; Gustafsson, J P

2007-05-29

206

Effects of partial substitution of lime with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) on the strength properties of lime-stabilised sulphate-bearing clay soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing global awareness of environmental pollution as well as increasing waste material disposal legislation is providing impetus for material upgrading by stabilisation of in situ soil as an alternative to its export to land-fill and replacement by imported granular fill. The use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), an industrial by-product, is well established as a binder in many

S Wild; J. M Kinuthia; G. I Jones; D. D Higgins

1998-01-01

207

Strength development of mortars containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag: Effect of curing temperature and determination of apparent activation energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength development of mortars containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag (ggbs) and portland cement was investigated. Variables were the level of ggbs in the binder, water–binder ratio and curing temperature. All mortars gain strength more rapidly at higher temperatures and have a lower calculated ultimate strength. The early age strength is much more sensitive to temperature for higher levels of

S. J. Barnett; M. N. Soutsos; S. G. Millard; J. H. Bungey

2006-01-01

208

TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates  

SciTech Connect

Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

2005-04-15

209

Development of an Operation Support System for the Blast Furnace in the Ironmaking Process: Large-scale Database-based Online Modeling and Integrated Simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the pig-ironmaking process, factors that cause operation malfunctions have increased with both the enlargement of the blast furnace and the increasing use of low quality ore. Therefore, an operation support system that predicts blast furnace performance is demanded. This paper reports the development of a blast furnace operation support system with an integrated simulator and “Large-scale database-based Online Modeling (LOM).” To develop the integrated simulator, a sophisticated burden distribution model is integrated with a two-dimensional total internal phenomenon model for the stationary state by using Java technology. Moreover, an integrated simulator for the partial non-stationary state is developed by modifying the two-dimensional total internal phenomenon model for the stationary state. To incorporate the LOM system into the operation support system, a cross-platform LOM system with general versatility is rebuilt by an existing LOM system. The operation support system is realized by the simulator of the physical modeling method and the LOM of the local modeling method. As a result, the operation support system predicts a dynamic molten pig-iron temperature in the blast furnace. The operation support system is expected to provide staff with useful information.

Ogai, Harutoshi; Ogawa, Masatoshi; Uchida, Kenko; Matsuzaki, Shinroku; Ito, Masahiro

210

SOLIDIFICATION ACCELE RATION AND SOLIDIFIED SHEAR STRENGTH EVALUATION OF GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the results of site observations, granulated bl ast furnace slug (GBFS) is solidifying w ith time. It takes a long time to solidify the whole of GBFS, b ecause GBFS observed was no t fully solidified in 18 months. It means if GBFS is used with relied on its solidification, a treatment for acceleratin g the solidification of GBFS is needed. For discus sing this point, the condition for solidifying GB FS is checked in series of laboratory experiments. It was clarified that adding micro powder of furnace slag to GBFS is effective for accelerating the solidification of GBFS unde r sea water. Failure crite ria of solidified GBFS are explained with internal friction a ngle and cohesion intercept. Failure criteria for residual condition of GBFS are explained by internal friction angle only. These parameters can be estimated from a single triaxial experiment.

Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Nakashima, Kenji; Kimura, Junji; Mizutani, Taka-Aki

211

Injection of natural gas in the blast furnace at high rates: Field experiments at Armco Steel Company. Topical technical report, January 1990-September 1992  

SciTech Connect

A study of the benefits of the injection of natural gas as a supplemental fuel for commercial blast furnaces is presented. Tests were carried out for sustained periods at natural gas injection levels of 150 and 200 pounds per therm (lb/thm). Average coke replacement ratios of 1.30 pounds of coke per pound of natural gas injected and productivity increases of about 10% were achieved at a gas injection rate of 200 lb/thm. The results were obtained without adverse effects on hot metal chemistry or furnace operability. The ability of natural gas to effectively replace an appreciable amount of coke should enable a decrease in coke production levels.

Agarwall, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Frydenlund, A.R.

1993-04-01

212

An experimental study on the properties of resistance to diffusion of chloride ions of fly ash and blast furnace slag concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the Nernst–Einstein equation to calculate the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions of high-performance concrete (HPC), analyzing and discussing the property of resistance to chloride ion of HPC with fly ash or blast furnace slag. The experimental results show that the diffusion coefficient of chloride ion increases with the rise of the water–binder ratio and decreases with the

Faguang Leng; Naiqian Feng; Xinying Lu

2000-01-01

213

29Si and 27Al high-resolution NMR characterization of calcium silicate hydrate phases in activated blast-furnace slag pastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of improving mechanical properties of activated blast-furnace slag cements, a set of hardened pastes of 28 days age were analyzed by 29Si and 27Al high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at 9.4 T. Structural and compositional differences among C-S-H phases obtained with different activation and curing conditions were characterized by NMR. Activation of the slag was done with

J Schneider; M. A Cincotto; H Panepucci

2001-01-01

214

Simulation of blast-furnace raceway conditions in a wire-mesh reactor: interference by the reactions of molybdenum mesh and initial results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel trapped air injection system has been built for a wire-mesh reactor to enable tests with short exposure times to air that are intended to simulate typical residence times in blast-furnace raceways. Initial tests have shown that the molybdenum wire-mesh sample-holder reacts with Oâ under conditions intended for this work. By varying the proportions of solid MoOâ (weight gain),

Long Wu; N. Paterson; D. R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti

2006-01-01

215

Effect of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the Thermal Conductivity and Porosity Characteristics of Blast Furnace Carbon Refractories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different amounts of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (0-5 mass pct) containing carbon refractory specimens for a blast furnace were prepared and coked for 3 hours at 1473 K (1200 °C) and 1673 K (1400 °C). The thermal conductivity and porosity characteristics of the coked specimens were evaluated using the flash diffusivity technique and mercury porosimetry, respectively. It was found that CNTs acted as carbon source, and most of them were consumed during coking. With the increase of CNT content, the aggregation of CNTs became more severe, the amount of SiC whiskers formed increased and their aspect ratio became larger, and the SiC whiskers tended to be distributed nonhomogeneously. The thermal conductivity of a 4 mass pct CNT containing a carbon specimen was highest because of the contributions of SiC and residual CNTs. The porosity characteristics of a 0.5 mass pct CNT containing a carbon specimen was best because of the uniform filling of SiC whiskers. The excessive addition of CNTs degraded the porosity characteristics because of the severe aggregation of CNTs.

Li, Yawei; Chen, Xilai; Li, Yuanbing; Sang, Shaobai; Zhao, Lei

2010-09-01

216

Microstructures and Properties of Carbon Refractories for Blast Furnaces with SiO2 and Al Additions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructures and properties of carbon refractories specimens for blast furnaces with SiO2 and Al additions were investigated after coking for 3 hours at 1400 °C with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray, mercury porosimetry, and a thermal properties analyzer. Additives can influence the matrix structures and improve the properties of specimens. SiO2 additions decreased the mean pore diameter and tremendously increased <1- ?m pore volume by filling in the pores and matrix, resulting in an increased particle packing density. Addition of Al improved the thermal conductivity by the in-situ formation of well-developed Al4C3, AlN, and SiC whiskers. With double addition of SiO2 + Al, not only the mean pore diameter decreased but also the thermal conductivity; <1- ?m pore volume and cold crushing strength increased by combining the above mentioned superiority of single additive; and more SiC formed, providing greater assistance to improve such material properties.

Li, Yawei; Chen, Xilai; Sang, Shaobai; Li, Yuanbing; Jin, Shengli; Zhao, Lei; Ge, Shan

2010-08-01

217

Recycling ground granulated blast furnace slag as cold bonded artificial aggregate partially used in self-compacting concrete.  

PubMed

Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product from iron industry, was recycled as artificial coarse aggregate through cold bonding pelletization process. The artificial slag aggregates (ASA) replaced partially the natural coarse aggregates in production of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Moreover, as being one of the most widely used mineral admixtures in concrete industry, fly ash (FA) was incorporated as a part of total binder content to impart desired fluidity to SCCs. A total of six concrete mixtures having various ASA replacement levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) were designed with a water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.32. Fresh properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) were observed through slump flow time, flow diameter, V-funnel flow time, and L-box filling height ratio. Compressive strength of hardened SCCs was also determined at 28 days of curing. It was observed that increasing the replacement level of ASA resulted in decrease in the amount of superplasticizer to achieve a constant slump flow diameter. Moreover, passing ability and viscosity of SCC's enhanced with increasing the amount of ASA in the concrete. The maximum compressive strength was achieved for the SCC having 60% ASA replacement. PMID:22951223

Geso?lu, Mehmet; Güneyisi, Erhan; Mahmood, Swara Fuad; Öz, Hatice Öznur; Mermerda?, Kas?m

2012-08-10

218

Investigative monitoring within the European Water Framework Directive: a coastal blast furnace slag disposal, as an example.  

PubMed

The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection of estuarine and coastal waters, with the most important objective being to achieve 'good ecological status' for all waters, by 2015. Hence, Member States are establishing programmes for the monitoring of water quality status, through the assessment of ecological and chemical elements. These monitoring programmes can be of three types: surveillance monitoring; operational monitoring (both undertaken on a routine basis); and investigative monitoring (carried out where the reason of any exceedance for ecological and chemical status is unknown). Until now, nothing has been developed in relation to investigative monitoring and no clear guidance exists for this type of monitoring, as it must be tackled on a 'case-by-case' basis. Consequently, the present study uses slag disposal from a blast furnace, into a coastal area, as a case-study in the implementation of investigative monitoring, according to the WFD. In order to investigate the potential threat of such slags, this contribution includes: a geophysical study, to determine the extent of the disposal area; sediment analysis; a chemical metal analysis; and an ecotoxicological study (including a Microtox test and an amphipod bioassay). The results show that metal concentrations are several times above the background concentration. However, only one of the stations showed toxicity after acute toxicological tests, with the benthic communities being in a good status. The approaches used here show that contaminants are not bioavailable and that no management actions are required with the slags. PMID:18385866

Borja, Angel; Tueros, Itziar; Belzunce, Ma Jesús; Galparsoro, Ibon; Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Revilla, Marta; Solaun, Oihana; Valencia, Victoriano

2008-02-29

219

Preparation of a new sorbent with hydrated lime and blast furnace slag for phosphorus removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The removal of dissolvable inorganic phosphate (H(2)PO(4)(-)) by sorbents prepared from hydrated lime (HL) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was fundamentally studied by an orthogonal experiment design. Based on statistic analysis, it is revealed that the weight ratio of BFS/HL is the most significant variable, and an optimized preparation condition is figured out. With the increase of HL content, the adsorption capacity increases, suggesting that the HL plays the important role in the removal process in the gross. However, in the lower HL content, it is interesting that the adsorption capacity of as-prepared sorbents exceed the sum of the capacities of the same ratio of BFS and HL. The further analysis indicate the excess capacities linearly depend on the specific surface area of sorbents, suggesting that the removal of H(2)PO(4)(-) is closely related with the microstructure of sorbents in the lower HL content, according to the characterization with SEM, XRD and pore analysis. Additionally, an adsorption model and kinetic are discussed in this paper. PMID:19124194

Gong, Guozhuo; Ye, Shufeng; Tian, Yajun; Wang, Qi; Ni, Jiandi; Chen, Yunfa

2008-11-30

220

Combination stove and fireplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specification describes a stove which is convertible to a fireplace. The stove has a swingable mounted front door which closes the combustion chamber. The door has a primary and secondary pre-heating air passages both of which introduce a stream of pre-heated air to the appropriate regions of the combustion chamber. A slidable baffle system located in the chamber provides

Depencier

1981-01-01

221

Simulation of primary-slag melting behavior in the cohesive zone of a blast furnace, considering the effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub t}O, and basicity in the sinter ore  

SciTech Connect

The alumina content in the iron ore imported to Japan is increasing year by year, and some problems in blast furnace operation, due to the use of the high-alumina-containing sinter, have already been reported. In order to clarify the mechanism of the harmful effect of alumina on the blast furnace operation, the behavior of the primary melt, which is formed in the sinter at the cohesive zone of the blast furnace, has been simulated by dripping slag through an iron or oxide funnel. The effects of basicity, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub t}O contents in the five slag systems on the dripping temperature and weight of slag remaining on the funnel have been discussed. It was found that the eutectic melt formed in the sinter would play an important role in the dripping behavior of the slag in the blast furnace through the fine porosity of the reduced iron and ore particles. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} increased the weight of the slag remaining on the funnel, and its effect became very significant in the acidic and low-Fe{sub t}O-containing slag. It was estimated that the increase of the weight of the slag remaining on the funnel by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the ore could result in a harmful effect on the permeability resistance and an indirect reduction rate of the sinter in the blast furnace.

Hino, Mitsutaka; Nagasaka, Tetsuya; Katsumata, Akitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Metallurgy; Higuchi, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Kon-No, Norimitsu [Nippon Steel Corp., Futts (Japan). Process Technology Research Labs.

1999-08-01

222

Phase relations associated with the aluminum blast furnace: Aluminum oxycarbide melts and Al-C-X (X=Fe, Si) liquid alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic properties and the phase relations were evaluated and estimated for the Al-O-C, Al-Si-C, and Al-Fe-C systems\\u000a which are important to understand the chemical behavior in an aluminum blast furnace. The mixing properties of binary liquid\\u000a alloys, including metal-carbon systems, were represented by the Redlich-Kister equation. The properties of liquid Al?C and\\u000a Si?C alloys were estimated so as to

Harumi Yokokawa; Masao Fujishige; Seiichi Ujiie; Masayuki Dokiya

1987-01-01

223

The structure of the calcium silicate hydrate phases present in hardened pastes of white Portland cement\\/blast-furnace slag blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The C-S-H gels present in both water- and alkali-activated hardened pastes of white Portland cement\\/blast-furnace slag blends\\u000a have been studied by solid-state 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM).\\u000a Structural data are obtained by NMR for the semi-crystalline C-S-H gels in the alkali-activated systems and extended to the\\u000a nearly amorphous gels in

I. G Richardson; G. W Groves

1997-01-01

224

Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum has suitable workability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strength of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is higher than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dry shrinkage of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is lower than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The leaching of sulfate ion of mortar is studied. - Abstract: A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg{center_dot}m{sup -2}, which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum.

Zhong Shiyun, E-mail: tjzhongshiyun@163.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ni Kun; Li Jinmei [Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2012-07-15

225

Blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in aswan governorate, Upper Egypt, as an adsorbent for the removal of merocyanine dye from its aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The adsorption potential of the blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in Aswan Governorate, Egypt, to decolorize aqueous solutions of 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one 4[2] merocyanine dye (1) was investigated at room temperature. The influence of the solution pH, the quantity of adsorbent, the initial concentration of 1, and the applied contact time were studied with the batch technique. The maximum percentage of removal of 1 was observed at pH 4. The adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich than by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, confirming the formation of monolayers of 1 on the adsorbent surface. Kinetic rate constants and the transient behavior at different initial concentrations of 1 were determined with both the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and the Ho and McKay pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The calculated kinetic parameters revealed that the adsorption of 1 on blast furnace slag followed a second-order chemisorption process. PMID:20397223

Taha, Gharib Mahmoud; Mosaed, Taghreed Mahmoud

2010-04-01

226

Stove with multiple chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stove is described for burning a solid fuel such as wood. The wall means defines a main air inlet, a combustion gas outlet, and four chambers through which gas passes sequentially from the main air inlet to the combustion gas outlet. The chambers comprises a pre-heat plenum chamber into which the main air inlet opens. A main combustion chamber

1987-01-01

227

High Efficiency Stoves in Northern Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project researched high efficiency wood stoves used in the internally displaced peoples? camps in Northern Uganda. The focus of this research was to design the most efficient and effective stove possible given the limited resources available in the area, and to compare the stove?s performance against a traditional open fire. To produce an efficient stove I tried to obtain

David Fong

2008-01-01

228

The balance of TiTanium and vanadium in The blasT furnace wiTh The use of sinTer conTaining a TiTanium-vanadium-magneTiTe concenTraTe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation concerned the use of sinter containing a titanium-vanadium-magnetite concentrate for the production of pig iron. Sinter containing 0,46 to 0,51 % TiO 2 and 0,056 to 0,060 % vanadium was used for pig iron production in the blast furnace. Introducing 200 kg of this concentrate to the1 Mg sinter mix did not cause any deterioration of sinter quality.

R. Budzik

2007-01-01

229

Stove with multiple chambers  

SciTech Connect

A stove is described for burning a solid fuel such as wood. The wall means defines a main air inlet, a combustion gas outlet, and four chambers through which gas passes sequentially from the main air inlet to the combustion gas outlet. The chambers comprises a pre-heat plenum chamber into which the main air inlet opens. A main combustion chamber contains solid fuel to be burned into which gas passes from the pre-heat plenum chamber, a second combustion chamber which is downstream of the main combustion chamber with respect to the flow of gas from the main air inlet to the combustion gas outlet, and a third combustion chamber from which the combustion gas outlet opens. The stove also comprises a plate having a restricted opening for providing communication between the second and third combustion chambers. And a catalytic converter comprises a body of solid material formed with passageways, the body of solid material being fitted in the restricted opening so that gas passes from the second combustion chamber to the third combustion chamber by way of the passageways in the body.

Black, A.

1987-04-21

230

Improvement of ground granulated blast furnace slag on stabilization/solidification of simulated mercury-doped wastes in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics.  

PubMed

This paper investigated the effectiveness of (ground granulated blast furnace slag) GGBFS-added chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) matrix on the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of mercury chloride and simulated mercury-bearing light bulbs (SMLB). The results showed that the maximal compressive strength was achieved when 15% and 10% ground GGBFS was added for HgCl(2)-doped and SMLB-doped CBPC matrices, respectively. The S/S performances of GGBFS-added matrices were significantly better than non-additive matrices. As pore size was reduced, the leaching concentration of Hg(2+) from GGBFS-added CBPC matrix could be reduced from 697 microg/L to about 3 microg/L when treating HgCl(2). Meanwhile, the main hydrating product of GGBFS-added matrices was still MgKPO(4).6H(2)O. The improvement of S/S effectiveness was mainly due to physical filling of fine GGBFS particles and microencapsulation of chemical cementing gel. PMID:18289781

Liu, Zhongzhe; Qian, Guangren; Zhou, Jizhi; Li, Chuanhua; Xu, Yunfeng; Qin, Zhe

2008-01-12

231

Old stoves: Making a comeback  

SciTech Connect

If you`ve been heating with a wood stove for as long as I have, your faithful Blaze King or Upland Elk may be getting long enough in the tooth that it needs refurbishing or maybe even a replacement. Since some of the best designed stoves ever made were operating before I was, it would be a crime to consign them to the rubbish heap in the backyard just because they lack a little polish and care. It is discussed how to restore and operate the good old free-breathing stoves yourself.

Vivian, J.

1994-01-01

232

50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

233

Solid-Fuel Stove Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stove testing is important and necessary. Lab tests provide valuable information, but are inadequate for predicting field performance. Field tests are needed, including controlled cooking test protocols and kitchen performance test protocols. The objectiv...

J. Jetter

2009-01-01

234

Speciation of Zn in blast furnace sludge from former sedimentation ponds using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Blast furnace sludge (BFS), an industrial waste generated in pig iron production, typically contains high contents of iron and various trace metals of environmental concern, including Zn, Pb, and Cd. The chemical speciation of these metals in BFS is largely unknown. Here, we used a combination of synchrotron X-ray diffraction, micro-X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Zn K-edge for solid-phase Zn speciation in 12 BFS samples collected on a former BFS sedimentation pond site. Additionally, one fresh BFS was analyzed for comparison. We identified five major types of Zn species in the BFS, which occurred in variable amounts: (1) Zn in the octahedral sheets of phyllosilicates, (2) Zn sulfide minerals (ZnS, sphalerite, or wurtzite), (3) Zn in a KZn-ferrocyanide phase (K(2)Zn(3)[Fe(CN)(6)](2)·9H(2)O), (4) hydrozincite (Zn(5)(OH)(6)(CO(3))(2)), and (5) tetrahedrally coordinated adsorbed Zn. The minerals franklinite (ZnFe(2)O(4)) and smithsonite (ZnCO(3)) were not detected, and zincite (ZnO) was detected only in traces. The contents of ZnS were positively correlated with the total S contents of the BFS. Similarly, the abundance of the KZn-ferrocyanide phase was closely correlated with the total CN contents, with the stoichiometry suggesting this as the main cyanide phase. This study provides the first quantitative Zn speciation in BFS deposits, which is of great relevance for environmental risk assessment, the development of new methods for recovering Zn and Fe from BFS, and potential applications of BFS as sorbent materials in wastewater treatment. PMID:23035937

Kretzschmar, Ruben; Mansfeldt, Tim; Mandaliev, Petar N; Barmettler, Kurt; Marcus, Matthew A; Voegelin, Andreas

2012-10-30

235

Performance of polish home stoves  

SciTech Connect

Most of the city of Krakow, Poland is heated by either the central district heating system or single-building boilers, gas or coal-fired. In addition, concentrated in the older, central part of the city, there are many traditional, coal-fired tile stoves. It is currently estimated that there are 100,000 such stoves in Krakow with an annual coal consumption of 130,000 metric tons. These are felt to be important contributors to Krakow`s air quality problems. It his been estimated that there are about 7 million of these stoves throughout the country of Poland.These are very large masonry stoves with ornate file exterior. They are built in place by specialized craftsmen and often two or more stoves will be used to heat a single flat. During the heating season these stoves are fired once or twice each day. For each firing the owner will carry a bucket of coal up from a basement storage area. light a new fire, and then tend it occasionally for about one hour. During this time the masonry is heated and this stored heat keeps the flat warm for the next 12 hours. A testing effort on these tile stoves has been conducted as part of the Krakow lean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program, sponsored by the US Government through the Agency for International Development (AID) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). One of the objectives of this testing program was to provide baseline thermal efficiency and emissions data as input to evaluations of costs and benefits of alternative options for heating these flats. The second Primary objective was to provide at least a preliminary assessment of the possibility of reducing emissions by using improved fuels in these stoves.

Jaszczur, T.; Lewandowski, M.; Szewczyk, W. [Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow, (Poland); Zaczkowski, A. [Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa, Krakow, (Poland); Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-06-01

236

Wood stove having catalytic converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal spaced apart by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox floor supported in heat conducting relationship with the inner

Willson

1982-01-01

237

Self feeding wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is described which consists of: an upright housing, the bottom portion of which defines a sump, the opposite side walls of which are symmetrically arrayed about a generally horizontal axis, substantially in parallel therewith, and slope downwardly toward the bottom line of the sump disposed in the vertical plane of the axis: means in the housing

Steindal

1986-01-01

238

Wood burning stove and fireplace  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove, a free standing fireplace or fireplace insert is constructed to receive one of three possible types of inserts to make the unit adaptable to a convection, hot air or hot water heating system. The wood or like fuel combustion rate is automatically controlled by a temperature sensor and draft control system. The insert may be a baffle structure, an air to air heat exchanger or an air to water heat exchanger.

Kolb, R.C.

1980-04-29

239

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

240

Solid fuel cooking stoves: International directory  

SciTech Connect

Optimal design and promotion of the use of fuel efficient cooking stoves demand continued interaction and exchange of information between researchers, extension workers, policy makers and others concerned with stove projects. The directory is aimed at listing all the known organisations in this area.

Not Available

1981-02-01

241

Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-Making Plantation. Teaching with Historic Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The rhythmic noises of the turning water wheel and the roar of the furnace blast never stopped at Hopewell Furnace (Pennsylvania) during its years of operation (1771-1883). As long as the furnace was in blast, the ironworkers' jobs were safe. In case of trouble, they could escape to the woods, fields, and creeks of rural Pennsylvania. Now a…

Koman, Rita G.

242

Self-priming alcohol stove  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an alcohol stove consisting of a burner cup having a base and side walls for storage of liquid alcohol; a main burner assembly attached to the burner cup at a location where the main burner assembly will consume alcohol evaporating from within the burner cup when the main burner assembly is ignited, a top plate having upper and lower surfaces, wherein the main burner assembly is defined on the upper surface of the top plate and the burner cup is attached to the lower surface of to place, wherein the main burner assembly comprises a perimetrical surface, defined by an inner edge and an outer edge, and openings between the inner and outer edges from which alcohol escapes; an outer wall extending downwardly from the lower surface of the top plate in alignment with the outer edge; and an inner wall extending downwardly from the lower surface of the top plate in alignment with the inner edge, at least one screen located in the outer chimney which extends outwardly from the inner wall; and a metallic disc positioned within and near the base of the burner cup and in contact with the base or side walls of the burner cup which are also metallic for cooling the liquid alcohol in the burner cup the base and sidewalls being metallic, thereby preventing excessive alcohol evaporation and consequent uncontrolled combustion of alcohol at the main burner assembly.

Rafford, C.R.; Hoehn, W.

1988-12-27

243

Blast Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... blast over-pressurization wave travels at a high velocity and is affected by the environment; for example, ... injuries are similar to those observed following high-speed motor vehicle accidents. Quaternary blast injury can occur ...

244

6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES ARE THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

245

CONTROL OF WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS USING IMPROVED SECONDARY COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the operation of two wood stoves in the laboratory with simultaneous on-line chemical analysis of the gases entering the secondary combustion zone and those leaving the stove. (NOTE: Self-initiating secondary combustion in wood stoves is encouraged by ...

246

Sheet metal fireplace stove with improved draft  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved fireplace stove for heating a building or the like comprising: a sheet metal fire box, said fire box comprising laterally spaced, vertically extending sheet metal end walls, said end walls being of polygonal shape, and vertically spaced top and bottom walls extending horizontally between said end walls, a vertical rear wall extending between said end walls, front and

1980-01-01

247

A wood-gas stove for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the millennia wood stoves for cooking have been notoriously inefficient and slow. Electricity, gas or liquid fuels are preferred for cooking - when they can be obtained. In the last few decades a number of improvements have been made in woodstoves, but still the improved wood stoves are difficult to control and manufacture and are often not accepted by

T. B. Reed; Ronal Larson

1996-01-01

248

Fuel efficient stoves for the poorest two billion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 2 billion people cook their daily meals on generally inefficient, polluting, biomass cookstoves. The fuels include twigs and leaves, agricultural waste, animal dung, firewood, and charcoal. Exposure to resulting smoke leads to acute respiratory illness, and cancers, particularly among women cooks, and their infant children near them. Resulting annual mortality estimate is almost 2 million deaths, higher than that from malaria or tuberculosis. There is a large diversity of cooking methods (baking, boiling, long simmers, brazing and roasting), and a diversity of pot shapes and sizes in which the cooking is undertaken. Fuel-efficiency and emissions depend on the tending of the fire (and thermal power), type of fuel, stove characteristics, and fit of the pot to the stove. Thus, no one perfect fuel-efficient low-emitting stove can suit all users. Affordability imposes a further severe constraint on the stove design. For various economic strata within the users, a variety of stove designs may be appropriate and affordable. In some regions, biomass is harvested non-renewably for cooking fuel. There is also increasing evidence that black carbon emitted from stoves is a significant contributor to atmospheric forcing. Thus improved biomass stoves can also help mitigate global climate change. The speaker will describe specific work undertaken to design, develop, test, and disseminate affordable fuel-efficient stoves for internally displaced persons (IDPs) of Darfur, Sudan, where the IDPs face hardship, humiliation, hunger, and risk of sexual assault owing to their dependence on local biomass for cooking their meals.

Gadgil, Ashok

2012-03-01

249

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

250

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

1990-12-31

251

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

1990-01-01

252

Blast injury.  

PubMed

The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C A

1967-01-28

253

Blast Injury  

PubMed Central

The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude.

de Candole, C. A.

1967-01-01

254

A recuperative gas fired forge furnace  

SciTech Connect

To overcome the heat deficit and oxidizing atmosphere problems and to reduce fuel consumption, a small gas forge furnace has been developed which incorporates recuperative heating; as the combustion air is drawn into the furnace it is preheated by passing it through a simple heat exchanger which is heated by the exhaust gases from the furnace. This recuperative heating principle is the same used by blast and open hearth furnaces but they typically employ complex heat exchangers, and extensive blowers and valving to direct the flow of the intake and exhaust gases. In the furnace described in this article a chimney is provided at the rear of the furnace and the air intake ducts pass through the chimney before reaching the venturi where the fuel gas is injected. Thermocouples were place in the air intake ducts and the temperature of the recuperated air was 1000 F. Based on data in the Mechanical Engineers Handbook (Industrial Heating Furnaces) fuel savings are directly related to the temperature of the preheated air. The theoretical saving in fuel with 800 F. combustion air is about 19%. The furnace is very quiet, since no blowers are used and the venturi is located in the center of a long tube. To control the furnace atmosphere and to help reduce heat loss, a close fitting swing away door has been incorporated, and the entire furnace is insulated with lightweight high performance ceramic insulation. The resulting furnace easily achieves forge welding temperatures, has an oxygen depleted atmosphere and has proven to be very effective and capable for small machine and hand forging operations. 6 figs.

Gunter, R.; Schuler, K.W.; Ward, R.L.

1989-01-01

255

12. VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE OF STOVE, ENGINE LATHE, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE OF STOVE, ENGINE LATHE, AND GRINDER (L TO R) IN FOREGROUND, SHAFTING ABOVE LOOKING SOUTH. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

256

20. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD IN GALLEY, SHOWING GALLEY STOVE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD IN GALLEY, SHOWING GALLEY STOVE AND DECK BEAM OVERHEAD BEARING CARVED INSCRIPTION '35 TONS NO. 226177.' - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

257

INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE DEPRESSIONS, WHICH WERE COVERED WITH IRON GRATES TO SUSPEND POTS OVER THE HEAT SOURCE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

258

108. Cylindrical chamber where gas exits stove to below ground ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

108. Cylindrical chamber where gas exits stove to below ground flue that leads to stack. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

259

Coal-fired tile stoves: Efficiency and emissions  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired tile stoves are widely used in Poland for domestic heating. These massive stoves,are fired for short periods once or twice each day, and the stored heat is slowly released into the room by natural convection Low-quality coal is typically used, and these stoves are therefore a major source of air pollution. A facility has been constructed to study the efficiency and emissions characteristics of these stoves. Stove exhaust gas is directed into a dilution tunnel in which pollutant concentrations and emission rates are measured. Efficiency is determined using a heat loss method. In baseline tests, stove efficiencies were found to be higher than expected -- 60% to 65%. Emission factors are high for particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), and organics. Low-volatility ``smokeless fuels`` were tested as an alternative to the normal fuels. Using the normal operating procedure, these were found to yield a factor of 10 reduction in particulate emissions but a 50% increase in CO emissions. A new operating procedure was developed with these fuels in which CO levels were lower than with the normal fuel and efficiency increased to 70%. These smokeless fuels are seen as attractive options for improving regional air quality, partly because their use does not require capital investment by residents.

Jaszczur, T.; Zaczkowski, A.; Lewandowski, M.; Butcher, T.; Szewczyk, W.

1995-08-01

260

Analysis of emissions from residential natural gas furnaces. Report for June-September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The report includes emissions data from residential natural-gas furnaces and compares selected data to emissions data from residential oil furnaces and wood-stoves. Natural-gas furnace emissions data are given for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (including mono- and polyaromatic hydrocarbons), total particulate, and total extractable organics. Natural-gas furnace combustion emissions were collected in a laboratory setting under simulated residential conditions and usage. The study was part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project, a multidisciplinary, cross-EPA laboratory effort to apportion sources of mutagenicity in ambient emissions. Both high and low efficiency gas furnaces were tested. The results indicate that significant levels of CO, unburned hydrocarbons, aromatic volatile organic compounds, and aldehydes can be emitted. Based on emission factors relative to thermal input, residential natural-gas emissions are at least a factor of 10 to 100 less than comparable emissions from residential oil furnaces and woodstoves.

Ryan, J.V.; McCrillis, R.C.

1994-06-01

261

Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.  

PubMed

Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5 ) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m(3) , EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM10-2.5 concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) ?g/m(3) , while PM2.5 concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) ?g/m(3) . Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM10-2.5 filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m(3) and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM10-2.5 but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

2013-03-29

262

Utilization of weathered basic oxygen furnace slag in the production of hydraulic road binders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the use of a weathered basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag as a main constituent in hydraulic road binder. The original idea of this study was to associate the BOF slag with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). The free lime contained in BOF slag activated the GGBFS. Small amounts of catalyst were added to the mixtures

P.-Y. Mahieux; J.-E. Aubert; G. Escadeillas

2009-01-01

263

Waste stabilization\\/solidification of an electric arc furnace dust using fly ash-based geopolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilization\\/solidification (S\\/S) of a carbon steel electric arc furnace (EAF) dust containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr or Zn using geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolinite, metakaolinite and blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of EAF waste with these geopolymeric materials and

C. Fernández Pereira; Y. Luna; X. Querol; D. Antenucci; J. Vale

2009-01-01

264

Cooking method and apparatus for use with wood-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A solid fuel burning heating apparatus, used as a parlor stove, is also used for cooking. The stove is provided with a self-clearing top smoke chamber having a top cover over an aperture. A cooking tray is supported in the aperture when the stove is operating. The tray has a surface for holding coals and an opening communicating between the aperture and the interior of the stove. A perforate cooking surface is supported above the tray.

Syme, D.C.

1984-08-21

265

Brain injuries from blast.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are the primary blast brain injury mechanisms in humans? (4) If TBI can present with clinical symptoms similar to those of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), how do we clinically differentiate blast TBI from PTSD and other psychiatric conditions? (5) How do we scale experimental animal models to human response? The preponderance of the evidence from a combination of clinical practice and experimental models suggests that blast TBI from direct blast exposure occurs on the modern battlefield. Progress has been made in establishing injury risk functions in terms of blast overpressure time histories, and there is strong experimental evidence in animal models that mild brain injuries occur at blast intensities that are similar to the pulmonary injury threshold. Enhanced thoracic protection from ballistic protective body armor likely plays a role in the occurrence of blast TBI by preventing lung injuries at blast intensities that could cause TBI. Principal areas of uncertainty include the need for a more comprehensive injury assessment for mild blast injuries in humans, an improved understanding of blast TBI pathophysiology of blast TBI in animal models and humans, the relationship between clinical manifestations of PTSD and mild TBI from blunt or blast trauma including possible synergistic effects, and scaling between animals models and human exposure to blasts in wartime and terrorist attacks. Experimental methodologies, including location of the animal model relative to the shock or blast source, should be carefully designed to provide a realistic blast experiment with conditions comparable to blasts on humans. If traditional blast scaling is appropriate between species, many reported rodent blast TBI experiments using air shock tubes have blast overpressure conditions that are similar to human long-duration nuclear blasts, not high explosive blasts. PMID:22012085

Bass, Cameron R; Panzer, Matthew B; Rafaels, Karen A; Wood, Garrett; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce

2011-10-20

266

Use of vegetable oil as fuel to improve the efficiency of cooking stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an attempt has been made to use waste vegetable oil as a fuel for a cooking stove. Suitable modifications have been made in the kerosene stove for use with vegetable oil as fuel. The efficiency of the stove using vegetable oil as fuel is observed to be as high as 48.9% as compared to 34.9% with that

R. Natarajan; N. S. Karthikeyan; Avinash Agarwaal; K. Sathiyanarayanan

2008-01-01

267

Development and optimization of a stove-powered thermoelectric generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost a third of the world's population still lacks access to electricity. Most of these people use biomass stoves for cooking which produce significant amounts of wasted thermal energy, but no electricity. Less than 1% of this energy in the form of electricity would be adequate for basic tasks such as lighting and communications. However, an affordable and reliable means of accomplishing this is currently nonexistent. The goal of this work is to develop a thermoelectric generator to convert a small amount of wasted heat into electricity. Although this concept has been around for decades, previous attempts have failed due to insufficient analysis of the system as a whole, leading to ineffective and costly designs. In this work, a complete design process is undertaken including concept generation, prototype testing, field testing, and redesign/optimization. Detailed component models are constructed and integrated to create a full system model. The model encompasses the stove operation, thermoelectric module, heat sinks, charging system and battery. A 3000 cycle endurance test was also conducted to evaluate the effects of operating temperature, module quality, and thermal interface quality on the generator's reliability, lifetime and cost effectiveness. The results from this testing are integrated into the system model to determine the lowest system cost in $/Watt over a five year period. Through this work the concept of a stove-based thermoelectric generator is shown to be technologically and economically feasible. In addition, a methodology is developed for optimizing the system for specific regional stove usage habits.

Mastbergen, Dan

268

TEST METHOD EVALUATIONS AND EMISSIONS TESTING FOR RATING WOOD STOVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a comparison of three sampling methods for wood burning stoves: the EPA Modified Method 5 (MM5), the Oregon Method 7 (OM7), and the ASTM proposed Method P180. It also addresses the effect that emission format (grams per hour, grams per kilogram wood bu...

269

Blast injury research models  

PubMed Central

Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. Blast casualties also commonly suffer secondary and tertiary blast injuries resulting in significant blood loss. The presence of hypoxaemia owing to blast lung complicates the process of fluid resuscitation. Consequently, prolonged hypotensive resuscitation was found to be incompatible with survival after combined blast lung and haemorrhage. This article describes studies addressing new forward resuscitation strategies involving a hybrid blood pressure profile (initially hypotensive followed later by normotensive resuscitation) and the use of supplemental oxygen to increase survival and reduce physiological deterioration during prolonged resuscitation. Surprisingly, hypertonic saline dextran was found to be inferior to normal saline after combined blast injury and haemorrhage. New strategies have therefore been developed to address the needs of blast-injured casualties and are likely to be particularly useful under circumstances of enforced delayed evacuation to surgical care.

Kirkman, E.; Watts, S.; Cooper, G.

2011-01-01

270

Increasing Six-Bricks Rocket Stove Brick Maker and User Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aid Africa?s Six-Bricks Rocket Stoves facilitates to the many needs of its users in the Internally Displaced Persons camps of Northern Uganda. When properly manufactured and operated, the Six-Bricks Rocket Stove is advertised to be fifty percent more efficient, emit one-quarter the amount of smoke, and cook two times faster than the traditional Ugandan open-flamed wood stove. Not only does

Richard Kerr

2008-01-01

271

Blast wave energy diagnostic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distance radiation waves that supersonically propagate in optically thick, diffusive media are energy sensitive. A blast wave can form in a material when the initially diffusive, supersonic radiation wave becomes transonic. Under specific conditions, the blast wave is visible with radiography as a density perturbation. [Peterson et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056901 (2006)] showed that the time-integrated drive energy can be measured using blast wave positions with uncertainties less than 10% at the Z Facility. In some cases, direct measurements of energy loss through diagnostic holes are not possible with bolometric and x-ray radiometric diagnostics. Thus, radiography of high compression blast waves can serve as a complementary technique that provides time-integrated energy loss through apertures. In this paper, we use blast waves to characterize the energy emerging through a 2.4 mm aperture and show experimental results in comparison to simulations.

Tierney, Thomas E.; Tierney, Heidi E.; Idzorek, George C.; Watt, Robert G.; Peterson, Robert R.; Peterson, Darrell L.; Fryer, Christopher L.; Lopez, Mike R.; Jones, Michael C.; Sinars, Daniel; Rochau, Gregory A.; Bailey, James E.

2008-10-01

272

Electromelt furnace evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electromelt furnace was designed, built and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

Reimann, G. A.; Welch, J. M.

1981-09-01

273

Electromelt furnace evaluation  

SciTech Connect

An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

1981-09-01

274

Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and...

K. Tervola J. Haerkki

1996-01-01

275

Future potential for biomass use in blast furnace ironmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron- and steelmaking is an energy intensive industrial sector using mainly coal as the heat source and reduction agent. The industry gives rise to about 7 % of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the world. In the absence of economically feasible and efficient methods of capturing and storing such enormous quantities of CO2, means for suppressing the emissions must be

Jarmo Söderman; Henrik Saxén; Frank Pettersson

2009-01-01

276

Development of the blast furnace integrated Java-based simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controlled object is complicated, and the improvement in performance enhancement (high precision and speedup) and safety of the control system is required, and the demand which simulates the whole system heightens. In this research, the method of unifying two or more partial simulators for one simulator was proposed. By applying this method to the partial simulators for Rabit model

Masanobu KOGA; Harutoshi OGAI; Masatoshi OGAWA; Masahiro ITO; Kenko UCHIDA; Shinroku MATSUZAKI

2004-01-01

277

BLAST+: architecture and applications  

PubMed Central

Background Sequence similarity searching is a very important bioinformatics task. While Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) outperforms exact methods through its use of heuristics, the speed of the current BLAST software is suboptimal for very long queries or database sequences. There are also some shortcomings in the user-interface of the current command-line applications. Results We describe features and improvements of rewritten BLAST software and introduce new command-line applications. Long query sequences are broken into chunks for processing, in some cases leading to dramatically shorter run times. For long database sequences, it is possible to retrieve only the relevant parts of the sequence, reducing CPU time and memory usage for searches of short queries against databases of contigs or chromosomes. The program can now retrieve masking information for database sequences from the BLAST databases. A new modular software library can now access subject sequence data from arbitrary data sources. We introduce several new features, including strategy files that allow a user to save and reuse their favorite set of options. The strategy files can be uploaded to and downloaded from the NCBI BLAST web site. Conclusion The new BLAST command-line applications, compared to the current BLAST tools, demonstrate substantial speed improvements for long queries as well as chromosome length database sequences. We have also improved the user interface of the command-line applications.

2009-01-01

278

Passive blast pressure sensor  

DOEpatents

A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

2013-03-19

279

Design considerations for field studies of changes in indoor air pollution due to improved stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring the actual improvements in indoor air quality as a result of installation of improved stoves is critical in assessment of the effectiveness of improved stove interventions. Households are complicated places, however - many things that affect air pollution are the same in households within a geographically distinct locality, but there are many factors that are different. Thus, to be

Rufus Edwards; Alan Hubbard; Asheena Khalakdina; David Pennise; Kirk R. Smith

2007-01-01

280

FIELD PERFORMANCE OF WOODBURNING STOVES IN CRESTED BUTTE DURING THE 1991-92 HEATING SEASON  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the 1991-92 field performance of 11 woodburning stoves in and around Crested Butte, CO. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide, total unburned hydrocarbons, and weekly average burn rates. The monitored stoves in...

281

Self-cleaning, high heat exchange wood or coal stove  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of burning wood or coal fuel in a home-heating stove comprising the steps of: providing a rotatable,squirrel-cage grate of spaced parallel rigid tubes arranged in a continuous circular cylindrical squirrel-cage configuration, rotatably mounting the grate for rotation about a generally horizontal axis within a stove housing having a flue for exit of combustion gases, providing an accessible fuel-loading opening at one axial end of the cylindrical squirrel-cage grate, loading fuel into the rotatable grate through the fuel-loading opening at the axial end of the grate, burning the fuel in the grate with the gaseous products of combustion passing out of the housing through the flue, blowing room air through all of the air tubes for heating the room air and for cooling all of the tubes and for condensing creosote on the cooled tubes which happen to be near the top of the grate, and periodically rotating the grate through a portion of a full revolution during combustion of the fuel for moving the creosote-coated tubes down toward the bottom of the grate where combustion is occurring for burning the creosote off from the tubes for obtaining the heat value of the burned creosote and also for reducing the accumulation of creosote in the flue.

Chelminski, S.V.

1986-06-24

282

Field performance of woodburning stoves in Colorado during the 1995-1996 heating season. Final report, December 1995April 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of evaluations of the field performance of 13 EPA-certified woodburning stoves in Crested Butte and Curecanti National Park, CO, during the winter of 1995-96. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and weekly average burn rates. Six non-catalytic Phase II stoves, six catalytic Phase II stoves, and one catalytic Phase I stove were monitored. The

R. Correll; D. R. Jaasma; Y. Mukkamala

1997-01-01

283

A Furnace Temperature Regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis.-By making the heating coil of an electric furnace one arm of a wheatstone bridge, and combining this with a galvanometer regulator, thus keeping constant the resistance of the coil, we can, regardless of variations in the current supply, and with no attention, maintain constant the temperature of furnaces not too directly influenced by the temperature of the room, or

Walter P. White; Leason H. Adams

1919-01-01

284

Salt Bath Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A salt bath furnace is basically a ceramic or metal container filled with molten salt into which work is immersed for either heating or cooling. The furnace contains salt such as nitrates, nitrites, caustic soda, chlorides, carbonates, and cyanide. Mixtures of salt are selected to give a specific temperature range and a desired treatment (or lack of treatment) to the

Gordon W. Anderson

1974-01-01

285

Advanced steel reheat furnace  

SciTech Connect

Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1997-10-01

286

ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

E.F. fitch

1995-03-13

287

Computer cast blast modelling  

SciTech Connect

Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

Chung, S. [ICI Explosives Canada, North York, ON (Canada); McGill, M. [ICI Explosives USA, Dallas, TX (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-07-01

288

Field performance of woodburning stoves in Colorado during the 1995-1996 heating season. Final report, December 1995-April 1996  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of evaluations of the field performance of 13 EPA-certified woodburning stoves in Crested Butte and Curecanti National Park, CO, during the winter of 1995-96. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and weekly average burn rates. Six non-catalytic Phase II stoves, six catalytic Phase II stoves, and one catalytic Phase I stove were monitored. The study adds to the existing database on the field emissions of newer and older certified stoves. The report compares values with results from previous studies and suggests reasons that field performance is poor relative to what might be expected from certification test results.

Correll, R.; Jaasma, D.R.; Mukkamala, Y.

1997-10-01

289

Blast lung: experience at CIMS.  

PubMed

Blast lung is a clinical condition which is characterised by respiratory difficulty and hypoxia without obvious external injury to the chest in bomb blast cases. Two patients of the bomb blast episode were brought at emergency department at Chhattisgarh Institute of Medical Sciences, Bilaspur in a state of shock. After proper wound care, resuscitation and investigation both the cases proved to be that of blast lung. In bomb blast cases although there might not be any external injury over chest wall, it will be sensible to rule out blast lung in all cases with the help of computerised tomography. PMID:23029850

Singh, Archana; Deshkar, A M; Kashyap, B K; Choudhary, K N; Naik, S K; Tembhurnikar, P S; Singh, B P

2012-02-01

290

Exothermic Furnace Module.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exothermic furnace module is disclosed for processing materials in space which includes an insulated casing and a sample support, carried within the casing which supports a sample container. An exothermic heat source includes a plurality of segments of...

R. M. Poorman

1982-01-01

291

Franklin Furnace Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

292

High temperature furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

Borkowski, Casimer J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-08-03

293

Blast Noise Standards and Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of noise from quarry production blasting was conducted at seven crushed-stone quarries, providing information on close-in noise generation, comparative instrumentation, and evaluation of the sound levels as related to blasting parameters and exis...

D. E. Siskind C. R. Summers

1974-01-01

294

Management of primary blast injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast waves are produced following the detonation of munitions, the firing of large caliber guns, or from any type of explosion. These blast waves can be powerful enough to injure the individuals exposed to them. This type of injury is called primary blast injury (PBI) and the organs most vulnerable to PBI are the gas-filled organs, namely the ear, the

Gregory J. Argyros

1997-01-01

295

Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC( )BLAST, including buffer blasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discrete element computer program named DMC( )BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented a...

D. S. Preece J. P. Tidman S. H. Chung

1996-01-01

296

Wood burning stoves: Material selection and thermal shock testing of fired ceramic bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall design philosophy of wood-fired stoves is reviewed. The factors affecting the choice of materials are discussed\\u000a and the relative merits of various alternatives considered. Detailed consideration is given to the development of an appropriate\\u000a method for evaluating thermal shock resistance of ceramics for stove applications. The method proposed requires the measurement\\u000a of impact strength subsequent to repeated shocks

C. R. Chaplin

1983-01-01

297

Jet Blast Hazards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report encompasses a broad review of hazards directly related to inadvertent use of jet thrust power and its adverse effects on other aircraft, airport-ramp personnel, passengers and airport equipment. These jet-blast hazards are illustrated by a repr...

1972-01-01

298

Factors Affecting Internal Blast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal blast refers to explosion effects in confined spaces, which are dominated by the heat output of the explosive. Theoretical temperatures and pressures may not be reached due to heat losses and incomplete gas mixing. Gas mixing can have the largest effect, potentially reducing peak quasi-static pressure by a factor of two due to lack of thermal equilibrium between products

R. H. Granholm; H. W. Sandusky; J. E. Felts

2007-01-01

299

FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNAL BLAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal blast refers to explosion effects in confined spaces, which are dominated by the heat output of the explosive. Theoretical temperatures and pressures may not be reached due to heat losses and incomplete gas mixing. Gas mixing can have the largest effect, potentially reducing peak quasi-static pressure by a factor of two due to lack of thermal equilibrium between products

R. H. Granholm; H. W. Sandusky; J. E. Felts

2007-01-01

300

Explosions and blast injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powerful explosions have the potential to inflict many different types of injuries on victims, some of which may be initially occult. Flying debris and high winds commonly cause conventional blunt and penetrating trauma. Injuries caused by blast pressures alone result from complex interactions on living tissues. Interfaces between tissues of different densities or those between tissues and trapped air result

John M. Wightman; Sheri L. Gladish

2001-01-01

301

In-Home Performance of Exempt Pellet Stoves in Medford, Oregon.  

SciTech Connect

Pellet stoves that are considered exempt'' operate at an air-to-fuel ratio in excess of 35:1. They therefore qualify for exemption from the emissions certification process. A primary goal of this project was to determine how a sample of such stoves, operated in homes, would perform compared to their certified cousins,'' which were evaluated the previous year. In-home performance data documenting emissions from exempt stoves and net delivered efficiencies was particularly desired. This project evaluated six pellet stoves representing three major brands in Medford, Oregon. There were three Breckwell model P24FS, one Horizon Eclipse, one Horizon Destiny, and one Earth Stove TP40. The stoves were monitored for four week-long intervals in January and February 1991, for a total of 24 tests. Evaluations were conducted for particulate, CO (carbon monoxide) and PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) emissions and net efficiency. Monitoring was conducted using the AWES (automated woodstove emissions sampler) sampling system. A new data logger, developed for this project, was used to control the AWES and record real time data. 22 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Barnett, Stockton G.; Fields, Paula G.

1991-07-05

302

Cooking in India: The impact of improved stoves on indoor air quality  

SciTech Connect

Cooking period kitchen concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and exposure rates to total suspended particulates (TSP) experienced by household cooks were monitored in nearly 200 households in 13 villages in three regions of India. Roughly half used traditional open-combustion stoves and the other half used one of seven different kinds of improved stoves disseminated in these areas. In all cases except one, CO concentrations were significantly lower in kitchens using improved stoves, whether fitted with flues or not. Because of high sample variability, no conclusions could be drawn about the degree of TSP exposure rate improvement, if any, represented by three improved stoves. In the case of three other improved stoves with larger sample sizes, no significant differences were found. Only in one case, the combination of traditional stove with fireplace-like hood, were TSP exposure rates significantly lower. There are a number of important lessons from this work to be considered in designing and conducting these kinds of field measurements in the future.

Ramakrishna, J.; Smith, K.R. (Environment and Policy Institute, Honolulu, HI (USA)); Durgaprasad, M.B. (Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Institute, Gujarat (India))

1989-01-01

303

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

304

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace operator on platform measures temperature inside bottle car. Looking southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

305

The physics of a stove-top espresso machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operation of a common type of stove-top espresso machine is analyzed to determine the initial fill conditions required to have the coffee extracted in the optimum temperature range of 90 °C-95 °C. By using the gas laws and some benchtop experiments, it is shown that the pressure in the vessel increases much more slowly than does the saturated vapor pressure of water at the temperature of the vessel. For any given final temperature, the volume of coffee that can be extracted is linearly proportional to the initial volume of air in the pressure vessel; that is, the higher the fill level, the smaller the volume of coffee that can be extracted. It is also shown that for typical operating conditions for which the water is initially at room temperature, half of the coffee is extracted when the water temperature is below 70 °C, which is much less than the desirable temperature, and that hotter coffee extraction temperatures will result if the water is preheated to about 70 °C before the pressure vessel is sealed and at least 100 ml of air space is left in the vessel. Experiments confirming the analysis use easily obtained equipment and are appropriate for undergraduate laboratory work, with the added attraction that students can enjoy consuming the results of the experiments.

King, Warren D.

2008-06-01

306

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

DOEpatents

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18

307

Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST, including buffer blasting  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program named DMC{_}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in 2-D. DMC{_}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts. The blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST have been expanded to include independently dipping geologic layers, top surface, bottom surface and pit floor. The pit can also now be defined using coordinates based on the toe of the bench. A method for modeling decked explosives has been developed which allows accurate treatment of the inert materials (stemming) in the explosive column and approximate treatment of different explosives in the same blasthole. A DMC{_}BLAST user can specify decking through a specific geologic layer with either inert material or a different explosive. Another new feature of DMC{_}BLAST is specification of an uplift angle which is the angle between the normal to the blasthole and a vector defining the direction of explosive loading on particles adjacent to the blasthole. A buffer (choke) blast capability has been added for situations where previously blasted material is adjacent to the free face of the bench preventing any significant lateral motion during the blast.

Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidman, J.P.; Chung, S.H. [ICI Explosives (Canada)

1996-12-31

308

Electrical performance analysis and economic evaluation of combined biomass cook stove thermoelectric (BITE) generator.  

PubMed

The use of biomass cook stoves is widespread in the domestic sector of developing countries, but the stoves are not efficient. To advance the versatility of the cook stove, we investigated the feasibility of adding a commercial thermoelectric (TE) module made of bismuth-telluride based materials to the stove's side wall, thereby creating a thermoelectric generator system that utilizes a proportion of the stove's waste heat. The system, a biomass cook stove thermoelectric generator (BITE), consists of a commercial TE module (Taihuaxing model TEP1-1264-3.4), a metal sheet wall which acts as one side of the stove's structure and serves as the hot side of the TE module, and a rectangular fin heat sink at the cold side of the TE module. An experimental set-up was built to evaluate the conversion efficiency at various temperature ranges. The experimental set-up revealed that the electrical power output and the conversion efficiency depended on the temperature difference between the cold and hot sides of the TE module. At a temperature difference of approximately 150 degrees C, the unit achieved a power output of 2.4W. The conversion efficiency of 3.2% was enough to drive a low power incandescent light bulb or a small portable radio. A theoretical model approximated the power output at low temperature ranges. An economic analysis indicated that the payback period tends to be very short when compared with the cost of the same power supplied by batteries. Therefore, the generator design formulated here could be used in the domestic sector. The system is not intended to compete with primary power sources but serves adequately as an emergency or backup source of power. PMID:16904888

Lertsatitthanakorn, C

2006-08-14

309

BLAST BIOLOGY. Technical Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data regarding the biologic consequences of exposure to ;\\u000a several environmental variations associated with actual and simulated explosive ;\\u000a detonations were reviewed. Blast biology is discussed relative to primary, ;\\u000a secondary, tentiary, and miscellaneous blast effects as those attributable, ;\\u000a respectively, to variations in environmental pressure, trauma from blast-produced ;\\u000a missiles (both penetrating and nonpenetrating), the consequences of physical

C. S. White; D. R. Richmond

1959-01-01

310

Microstructural changes on the reduction of imperial smelting furnace sinters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction reactions of Imperial Smelting Furnace (ISF) sinter microstructure were investigated in simulated zinc blast furnace conditions. Initial and partially reduced samples were examined using optical, electron-probe microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the struc-tural and compositional changes occurring during the reduction reaction. The reaction mecha-nisms and reduction sequences for the various oxide phases within the sinter structure during reduction of ISF sinters under the system studied are discussed. The reduction of sinters resulted in the structural modification of zincite, franklinite, slag phases, and the formation of new oxide and metallic phases. The rate and sequence of these complex phase transformations were found to be dependent upon reduction time, temperature, and the reacting gas composition.

Lee, F. T.; Hayes, P. C.

1993-02-01

311

Tritium extraction furnace  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of apparatus for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having, negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible`s internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle`s volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of, the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused.

Heung, L.K.

1992-12-31

312

Masugnsslagg som Vaegmaterial i Sverige (Blast-Furnance Slag as a Road-Building Material in Sweden).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An increasing shortage of gravel in Sweden and certain interesting characteristics of blast-furnace slag have made its use as a stabilizing material in road-building possible. Asphalt and cement are considerably more expensive than slag, so it can now be ...

B. Jansson O. Hjelm

1980-01-01

313

Numerical investigation of the flow inside the combustion chamber of a plant oil stove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently a low cost cooking device for developing and emerging countries was developed at KIT in cooperation with the company Bosch und Siemens Hausgeräte GmbH. After constructing an innovative basic design further development was required. Numerical investigations were conducted in order to investigate the flow inside the combustion chamber of the stove under variation of different geometrical parameters. Beyond the performance improvement a further reason of the investigations was to rate the effects of manufacturing tolerance problems. In this paper the numerical investigation of a plant oil stove by means of RANS simulation will be presented. In order to reduce the computational costs different model reduction steps were necessary. The simulation results of the basic configuration compare very well with experimental measurements and problematic behaviors of the actual stove design could be explained by the investigation.

Pritz, B.; Werler, M.; Wirbser, H.; Gabi, M.

2013-10-01

314

Feasibility study of enhanced combustion via improved wood stove firebox design. Final report Nov 84Jul 85  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of an examination of materials that might be used to line the firebox of a wood-burning stove to produce more uniform and complete combustion. (Emissions from incomplete combustion in wood-burning stoves are becoming an increasing environmental problem.) Although many materials were considered initially, refractory materials appear to possess the qualities desired relative to heat transfer, resistance

K. T. Fuentes; L. J. Hodas

1985-01-01

315

Blast load assessment using hydrocodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of pressures and impulses produced by blast loads with the aid of hydrocodes is studied in this paper. Numerical results are compared with those obtained with existing analytical expressions for different scaled distances and boundary conditions. In particular, the capacity of both methods to capture multiple reflections of the blast load is analyzed. The effects of mesh size

B. Luccioni; D. Ambrosini; R. Danesi

2006-01-01

316

Centrifugal shot blast system  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

NONE

1998-02-01

317

75 FR 62144 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China and Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From Korea AGENCY: United States International Trade...top-of-the-stove stainless steel cooking ware from Korea...top-of-the-stove stainless steel cooking ware from Korea would be likely to lead to...

2010-10-07

318

HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE  

DOEpatents

A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

Olson, D.M.

1961-01-31

319

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

William S. McPhee

1999-05-31

320

The BLAST experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems. As such the data will provide improved measurements for neutron, proton, and deuteron form factors. The data will also allow details of the reaction mechanism, such as the role of final state interactions, pion production, and resonances to be studied. The experiment used: a longitudinally polarized electron beam stored in the South Hall Storage Ring; a highly polarized, isotopically pure, internal gas target of hydrogen or deuterium provided by an atomic beam source; and a symmetric, general purpose detector based on a toroidal spectrometer with tracking, time-of-flight, Cherenkov, and neutron detectors. Details of the experiment and operation are presented.

Hasell, D.; Akdogan, T.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Booth, E.; Botto, T.; Calarco, J. R.; Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; Degrush, A.; Dow, K.; Dutta, D.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R.; Filoti, O.; Franklin, W.; Gao, H.; Geis, E.; Gilad, S.; Hersman, W.; Holtrop, M.; Ihloff, E.; Karpius, P.; Kelsey, J.; Kohl, M.; Kolster, H.; Krause, S.; Lee, T.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; McIlhany, K.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Rapaport, J.; Redwine, R.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Sindile, A.; Širca, S.; Smith, T.; Sobczynski, S.; Tanguay, M.; Tonguc, B.; Tschalaer, C.; Tsentalovich, E.; Turchinetz, W.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van der Laan, J.; Wang, F.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, W.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, Z.; Ziskin, V.; Zwart, T.

2009-05-01

321

Development of thermoacoustic engine operating by waste heat from cooking stove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are about 1.5 billion people worldwide use biomass as their primary form of energy in household cooking[1]. They do not have access to electricity, and are too remote to benefit from grid electrical supply. In many rural communities, stoves are made without technical advancements, mostly using open fires cooking stoves which have been proven to be extremely low efficiency, and about 93% of the energy generated is lost during cooking. The cooking is done inside a dwelling and creates significant health hazard to the family members and pollution to environment. SCORE (www.score.uk.com) is an international collaboration research project to design and build a low-cost, high efficiency woodstove that uses about half amount of the wood of an open wood fire, and uses the waste heat of the stove to power a thermoacoustic engine (TAE) to produce electricity for applications such as LED lighting, charging mobile phones or charging a 12V battery. This paper reviews on the development of two types of the thermoacoustic engine powered by waste heat from cooking stove which is either using Propane gas or burning of wood as a cooking energy to produce an acceptable amount of electricity for the use of rural communities.

Chen, B. M.; Abakr, Y. A.; Riley, P. H.; Hann, D. B.

2012-06-01

322

FIELD PERFORMANCE OF WOODBURNING STOVES IN COLORADO DURING THE 1995-96 HEATING SEASON  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of evaluations of the field performance of 13 EPA-certified woodburning stoves in Crested Butte and Curecanti National Park, CO, during the winter of 1995-96. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and weekly average burn rat...

323

Experience with improved charcoal and wood stoves for households and institutions in Kenya  

SciTech Connect

Efforts at promoting more fuel-efficient charcoal stoves to replace traditional charcoal stoves in Kenya offer some lessons for the dissemination of appropriate technologies. This paper looks at the market-based approach which has made the Kenyan charcoal stoves project a success. Trends in woodfuels (wood and charcoal) consumption in Kenya are identified; the traditional technology for charcoal combustion and the upgraded traditional technologies are described; production achievement and the dissemination and promotion strategy used are examined; and a financial and economic analysis is performed with social, health and environmental effects assessed. Other ways to achieve a more favourable balance between woodfuels consumption and supply are then discussed looking at more efficient charcoal kilns and household woodstoves, improved institutional stoves and increased wood production. The replication potential of the Kenya experiment in other countries is also explored. The lessons learnt from the the Kenya experience concern the relationship between technology, choice and delivery systems as they interact with, economic, institutional, and policy factors. In this case, the design work accepted the traditional technology as a starting point which helped ensure widespread acceptance by households. The potential desirability of relying on local artisans to manufacture consumer durables using existing private sector channels to market these goods is also shown. It also highlights the importance of going beyond a laissez-faire approach and supporting training, demonstration, and publicity to faciliate the workings of the private sector. In the Kenyan case, technology choice was relatively unsubsidized and left ot the preferences of consumers.

Hyman, E.L.

1985-01-01

324

FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ENHANCED COMBUSTION VIA IMPROVED WOOD STOVE FIREBOX DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an examination of materials that might be used within the firebox of a wood-burning stove to produce more uniform and complete combustion. Although many materials were initially considered, refractory materials appear to possess the qualities desired re...

325

Deployment of coal briquettes and improved stoves: possibly an option for both environment and climate.  

PubMed

The use of coal briquettes and improved stoves by Chinese households has been encouraged by the government as a means of reducing air pollution and health impacts. In this study we have shown that these two improvements also relate to climate change. Our experimental measurements indicate that if all coal were burned as briquettes in improved stoves, particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) could be annually reduced by 63 +/- 12%, 61 +/- 10%, and 98 +/- 1.7%, respectively. Also, the ratio of BC to OC (BC/OC) could be reduced by about 97%, from 0.49 to 0.016, which would make the primary emissions of household coal combustion more optically scattering. Therefore, it is suggested that the government consider the possibility of: (i) phasing out direct burning of bituminous raw-coal-chunks in households; (ii) phasing out simple stoves in households; and, (iii) financially supporting the research, production, and popularization of improved stoves and efficient coal briquettes. These actions may have considerable environmental benefits by reducing emissions and mitigating some of the impacts of household coal burning on the climate. International cooperation is required both technologically and financially to accelerate the emission reduction in the world. PMID:19731648

Zhi, Guorui; Peng, Conghu; Chen, Yingjun; Liu, Dongyan; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

2009-08-01

326

Greenhouse gases from biomass and fossil fuel stoves in developing countries: A Manila pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were also taken. All samples were analyzed for CO 2, CO, CH 4, NzO, and total non-methane organic

K. R. Smith; M. A. K. KhaliP; R. A. Rasmussen; S. A. Thorneloe; F. Manegdeg; M. Apte

1993-01-01

327

Revisiting the Need of Improved Stoves: Estimating Health, Time and Carbon Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor air pollution (IAP), especially through the smoke released when burning solid biomass fuel for cooking, is a major environmental health problem in Nepal. About 85 percent of Nepalese households are dependent on solid biomass fuels for cooking energy. Among households using such fuels, most cook in poorly ventilated kitchens using inefficient stoves, leading to indoor air pollution and consequently

Min Bikram Malla Thakuri

328

Personal exposures of preschool children to carbon monoxide: Roles of ambient air quality and gas stoves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal 1 h mean CO exposures of preschool children in two day care centers (Töölö and Vallila) in Helsinki were measured with continuously recording personal exposure monitors. In Vallila, the median CO exposure of children from homes with gas stoves was 2.0 mg m -3, and with electric stoves, 0.9 mg m -3. In Töölö, the corresponding values were 1.9 and 1.0 mg m -3, respectively. The national ambient air quality guidelines for CO in Finland were exceeded in a few percent of the exposure measurements. The results were compared to fixed-site ambient air monitoring data and related to the presence of town-gas fired stoves in the children's homes. The results show that fixed-site ambient air monitors are of little value in predicting personal exposures of children or even their relative differences between areas. They also show that town-gas fired stoves may have a profound effect on the CO exposures of the children.

Alm, S.; Reponen, A.; Mukala, K.; Pasanen, P.; Tuomisto, J.; Jantunen, M. J.

329

Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model  

SciTech Connect

The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

Seymour Katz

2004-12-31

330

Particulate, carbon monoxide, and acid emission factors for residential wood burn stoves  

SciTech Connect

Emissions from residential wood burning stoves are of increasing concern in many areas. This concern is due to the magnitude of the emissions and the toxic and chemical characteristics of the pollutants. Recent testing of standard and new technology woodstoves has provided data for developing a family of particulate and carbon monoxide emission factor curves. This testing has also provided data illustrating the acidity of woodstove emissions. The particulate and carbon monoxide curves relate the actual stove emissions to the stove size and operating parameters of burn rate, fuel loading, and fuel moisture. Curves relating stove types to the acidity of emissions have also been constructed. Test data show actual emissions vary from 3 to 50 grams per kilogram for particles and from 50 to 300 grams per kilogram for carbon monoxide. Since woodstove emissions are the largest single category of particulate emissions in many area, it is essential that these emissions be quantified specifically for geographic regions, allowing meaningful impact analysis modeling to be accomplished. Emission factors for particles and carbon monoxide are presented from several stove sizes and burn rates. The acidic nature of woodstove emissions has been clearly demonstrated. Tests indicate woodstove flue gas condensate solutions to be predominantly in the 2.8 to 4.2 pH range. Condensate solutions from conventional woodstoves exhibited the characteristic buffering capacity of carboxylic acids when titrations were performed with a strong base. The environmental impact of buffered acidic woodstove emissions is not currently well understood; however, it is possible with the data presented here to make semi-quantitative estimates of acid emission from particulate and carbon monoxide emission factors and wood use inventories.

Burnet, P.G.; Edmisten, N.G.; Tiegs, P.E.; Houck, J.E.; Yoder, R.A.

1986-09-01

331

Glass: Rotary Electric Glass Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Compared to conventional gas-fired furnaces, the new rotary electric furnace will increase energy efficiency while significantly reducing air emissions, product turnaround time, and labor costs. As this informative new fact sheet explains, the thousand different types of glass optical blanks produced for the photonics industry are used for lasers, telescopes, cameras, lights, and many other products.

Recca, L.

1999-01-29

332

Blast-Induced Translational Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mathematical model was developed to predict the time displacement histories of objects translated by the blast winds from conventional or nuclear explosions; these predictions were then compared to actual experiments. The objects studied varied in size ...

E. R. Fletcher I. G. Bowen

1966-01-01

333

Global primary blast injury: a rat model.  

PubMed

Blast wave injury from bombs cause a unique but poorly understood spectrum of injuries. Previous blast wave models involved high energy explosives detonated in an open field without the sophisticated monitoring of laboratory equipment. We characterized a rodent model that produces a global blast injury in a safe laboratory environment. Male rats, prospectively randomized to four groups of ten, were anesthetized and subjected to a blast at 2.0 cm, 2.5 cm, or 3.5 cm from the blast nozzle. The control group received no blast. Intensity of the blast (80-120 psi peak pressure, 1-2 msec duration) was controlled by varying the distance of the blast wave generator to the rat. The rats were monitored for three hours following the blast and then euthanized. Bradycardia was an immediate but transient response to blast injury. Mean arterial pressure was bimodal with severe hypotension occurring immediately after the blast and, again, two to three hours later. The characteristic injuries from a blast wave, such as pulmonary hemorrhage with increased lung weight, intestinal serosal hemorrhage, and hemoperitoneum, were found in the rats subjected to the blast pressure wave. In conclusion, our rodent model accurately reproduces the clinical spectrum of injuries seen in blast victims and will provide a powerful tool for studying the pathophysiology and potential treatments of bomb blast victims. PMID:9793276

Irwin, R J; Lerner, M R; Bealer, J F; Lightfoot, S A; Brackett, D J; Tuggle, D W

1998-10-01

334

STUDY OF ANOMALOUS MINE BLASTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai-Sayan mining region located east of Novosibirsk, Russia, comprises over 72 mines which are located between 7 and 559 km from the International Monitoring System (IMS) primary 3-component station ZAL. We have origin time and location estimates of 853 blasts that have occurred in this trend between 1\\/1\\/1995 and 6\\/30\\/2000. The mines are known to use millisecond delay-fire blasting

Michael A. H. Hedlin; Vitaly I. Khalturin

335

Water blasting paint removal methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water blasting is a paint removal technique that has been used for cleaning and paint removal for many years. The major disadvantages until recently were the slow rate of paint removal and the possibility of damage to the substrate from the high pressures used. With the improvement in nozzle design that allows for higher operating pressures and the use of environmentally compliant paint softeners or strippers, water blasting is becoming a recognized technique for paint removal in the aircraft industry.

Foster, Terry

1995-04-01

336

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01

337

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01

338

High temperature furnace  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in combination, a high temperature furnace having an outer shell and adapted for being mounted in an upright position, a temperature resistant lining, comprising a dome constructed of refractory bricks and located at the upper end of the lining, a first layer of firebricks having sufficient strength to support the dome and having the dome resting thereon, a layer of insulating cement inside of and adjacent to the shell, layers of firebricks between the cement and the first layer of firebricks, a second layer of freestanding refractory bricks located inside of the first layer of firebricks for withstanding the high temperature, the second layer comprising replaceable bricks and extending vertically above the bottom of the dome to permit expansion without any upward thrust to the dome, and castable insulation filling spaces between the layer of insulating cement and the dome and the other layers of bricks.

Dach, M.M.

1987-01-20

339

Tyre-blast injuries.  

PubMed

A teenager college student was fatally injured by burst tyre air pressure while waiting on a public bus stand to catch a bus to reach her college at Kuala Lumpur. She accidentally came near the wheel while boarding when tube and tyre got burst .The air pressure had blown the girl in the air and she subsequently fell on a rough surface. The iron-locking rim of the wheel acted as a missile and hit the girl. She died on her way to the hospital. A medico-legal autopsy was performed which showed extensive injuries in the cranial and chest cavity. Head had large scalp laceration with diffuse separation and gaping from in the vault region; skull bones were fractured. Chest cavity had extensive rib fractures, lacerated lungs and haemo-thorax while externally there was no obvious injury. It requires intensive care management and screening of the victims. Tyre-blast injuries are not so common. This case exposes the hazard due to burst tyre. PMID:19329081

Murty, O P

2009-01-29

340

Experimental investigation of steam pressure coffee extraction in a stove-top coffee maker  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common household coffee-brewing method in Italy makes use of a stove-top coffee maker known as moka. This device uses the steam pressure, produced by the water contained in an autoclave-type aluminum kettle heated by an external source, to force upwards water itself through a roasted and ground coffee bed contained in a funnel-shaped filter. Despite its well-established usage,

L. Navarini; E. Nobile; F. Pinto; A. Scheri; F. Suggi-Liverani

2009-01-01

341

Self-powered automatic secondary air controllers for woodstoves and small furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a controller for automatically regulating the supply of secondary combustion air to wood stoves and small furnaces. The controller includes a movable air valve for controlling the amount of secondary air admitted into the chamber. A self powered means monitors the concentration of combustible gases and vapors and actuates the movable air valve to increase the supply of secondary air in response to increasing concentrations of the combustible gases and vapors. The self-powered means can be two fluid filled sensor bulbs, one of which has a coating of a combustion catalyst. Alternatively, the self powered means can be two metallic stripes laminated together, one of which is coated with a combustion catalyst, and when heated causes the air valve to actuate.

Siemer, D.D.

1991-05-14

342

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14

343

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

344

Mask materials for powder blasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder blasting, or abrasive jet machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials such as glass, silicon and ceramics. The particle jet (which expands to about 1 cm in diameter) can be optimized for etching, while the mask defines the small and complex structures. The quality of the mask influences the performance of powder blasting. In this study we tested and compared several mask types and added a new one: electroplated copper. The latter combines a highly resistant mask material for powder blasting with the high-resolution capabilities of lithography, which makes it possible to obtain an accurate pattern transfer and small feature sizes (<50 µm).

Wensink, Henk; Jansen, Henri V.; Berenschot, J. W.; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

2000-06-01

345

Blasting, graphical interfaces and Unix  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed to simulate blast-induced rock motion. To simplify the complex task of entering material and explosive design parameters as well as bench configuration, a full-featured graphical interface has been developed. DMC is currently executed on both Sun SPARCstation 2 and Sun SPARCstation 10 platforms and routinely used to model bench and crater blasting problems. This paper will document the design and development of the full-featured interface to DMC. The development of the interface will be tracked through the various stages, highlighting the adjustments made to allow the necessary parameters to be entered in terms and units that field blasters understand. The paper also discusses a novel way of entering non-integer numbers and the techniques necessary to display blasting parameters in an understandable visual manner. A video presentation will demonstrate the graphics interface and explains its use.

Knudsen, S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-11-01

346

Surface Mining and the Natural Environment: Blasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blasting is the process commonly used to fracture the rock strata overlying a mineral seam. It is an important component of many surface mining operations. The technical guide will discuss several aspects of blasting, including a description of the method...

M. L. Clar J. M. Ward

1980-01-01

347

Evaluation of Plastic Media Blasting Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report evaluates the design of plastic media blasting (PMB) equipment currently used in the military and private industry. Five PMB functional equipment groups were established: blasting, floor recovery, media recycling, ventilation, and dense partic...

E. Radonich M. Wells

1987-01-01

348

Brain Injury Risk from Primary Blast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives: Increased use of explosive devices in recent military conflicts have resulted in, blast overpressure is the primary cause of traumatic brain injury among combat veterans (Owens, 2008). Primary blast injury has been studied extensively in air-c...

C. R. Bass K. A. Rafaels M. B. Panzer R. S. Salzar W. A. Woods

2012-01-01

349

30 CFR Blasting - Surface and Underground  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Surface and Underground Blasting Electric Blasting Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric BlastingâSurface and...

2010-07-01

350

Blast Pendulum Testing of Milliken Tegris Panels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Milliken contracted Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct blast pendulum tests on various panels. The blast pendulum allows one to investigate a material's capability of mitigating sample deformation and bulk structural loading that result from '...

D. J. Grosch E. J. Sagebiel H. Eleazer

2008-01-01

351

Explosive blasting method and means  

SciTech Connect

An explosive blasting method and apparatus are claimed for producing rock fragmentation and reducing the amplitude of seismic effects (ground vibration) in the vicinity of the blast. It utilizes an air gap method and apparatus for superheating the air surrounding the charge in a borehole. This raises the pressure therein coupled with the use of multiple detonation points along the borehole for the reduction of burn time. This reduces the quantity of explosives used along with a marked reduction of seismic shock, sound, and dust effects to the surrounding area.

Bowling, D.S.; Moore, R.N.

1983-05-10

352

Nucleon Form Factors from BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) experiment has been carried out at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center to study spin-dependent electron scattering from protons and deuterons with small systematic uncertainties. The experiment used a longitudinally polarized, intense electron beam stored in the Bates South Hall Ring in combination with isotopically pure, highly-polarized internal targets of polarized hydrogen and vector- and tensor-polarized deuterium from an atomic beam source. The BLAST data have been used to extract precise results for the elastic form factor ratios GE/GM of the proton and the neutron at low momentum transfer.

Kohl, Michael

2009-08-01

353

Gun muzzle blast and flash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A repository of fundamental experimental and analytical data concerning the complex phenomena associated with gun-muzzle blast and flash effects is presented, proceeding from gun muzzle signatures to modern gun-propulsion concepts, interior and transitional ballistics, and characterizations of blast-wave research and muzzle flash. Data are presented in support of a novel hypothesis which explains the ignition of secondary flash and elucidates the means for its suppression. Both chemical and mechanical (often competing) methods of flash suppression are treated. The historical work of Kesslau and Ladenburg is noted, together with French, British, Japanese and American research efforts and current techniques of experimental characterization for gun muzzle phenomena.

Klingenberg, Guenter; Heimerl, Joseph M.

354

Blast wave investigated using a high enthalpy blast simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study to examine the behavior of blast propagation is described. Its decay characteristics are analyzed to establish an empirical relationship for peak pressure distribution. A scaled length parameter is used in the development of a peak pressure prediction scheme. An assessment is also made to improve the data correlation using the axial Mach disc distance in scaling the

K. C. Phan; C. V. Hurdle

1990-01-01

355

Blast wave investigation using a high enthalpy blast simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study to examine the behavior of blast propagation is described. Its decay characteristics are analyzed to establish an empirical relationship for peak pressure distribution which employs scaled length parameter. An assessment is also made to improve the data correlation using the axial Mach disk distance in scaling the radial distance from the tube exit.

K. C. Phan; C. V. Hurdle

1990-01-01

356

System for supplying blasting media to a media blasting system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pressure pot system for supplying blasting media under pressure to a pressurized blasting conduit for feeding blasting media to one or more blasting guns, the system including a media storage means and a first and second pressure chambers with means for pressurizing and exhausting the first and second chambers, the media storage means being stacked above the pressure chambers with the first pressure chamber stacked above the second pressure chamber; first and second media valve means for providing communication between the storage means and the first pressure chamber and between the pressure chambers, respectively; air valve means for controlling the air pressurizing and exhausting of the first and second pressure chambers, the improvement comprising: means for opening and closing the first and second media valve means and the air valve means, the first, second and air valve means being offset from each other in both vertical and horizontal dimensions; push rods extending vertically upward from the valve means and spaced one from the other for actuating the valve means to open and close the same; an overhead cam shaft means mounted above the push rods and having a plurality of spaced cams, each of the cams being aligned and operatively associated with one of the push rods for actuating the push rods and thereby the valve means to control the opening and closing of the first and second media valve means and the air valve means; and actuating means for actuating the cam shaft means.

Van Kuiken, L.L. Jr.

1988-10-25

357

An equivalent method for blasting vibration simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the complicated blasting load, the diversified medium models and various constitutive relations of the rock mass, and a huge job for simulating blasting of multiple holes, it is very difficult and costly to simulate the blasting vibration accurately in numerical computation. This paper presents an equivalent simulation method so as to transform this complex dynamic problem into an

Wenbo Lu; Jianhua Yang; Ming Chen; Chuangbing Zhou

2011-01-01

358

7 CFR 3201.78 - Blast media.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blast media. 3201.78 Section 3201.78 Agriculture... Designated Items § 3201.78 Blast media. (a) Definition. Abrasive particles...preference for qualifying biobased blast media. By that date, Federal agencies...

2013-01-01

359

The pathology of primary blast overpressure injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary blast injury occurs in civilian and military detonations and from the firing of weapon systems. The pathology of primary blast injury has been reported for the last 70 years and has primarily been limited to descriptions of gross pathology and histology. Commonly accepted tenets have not been confirmed as blast overpressure experiments in enclosures and with multiple detonations have

Maria A. Mayorga

1997-01-01

360

Physical Mechanisms of Quarry Blast Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Models of quarry blasts may serve to develop efficient and robust methods for discriminating quarry blasts from other sources. In this report, we present progress on modeling quarry blasts at the Chemline quarry in central Texas and the Black Thunder mine...

T. G. Barker K. L. mcLaughlin J. Bonner

1997-01-01

361

29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...moored or anchored within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any swimming or diving operations are in progress in the vicinity of the blasting area. If such operations are in progress, signals...

2013-07-01

362

Apparatus for cooling a vacuum furnace  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for cooling a vacuum furnace, comprising: (a) first means for injecting a first cooling gas into the furnace, (b) second means for injecting a second cooling gas into the furnace, (c) means for cooling the first and second cooling gases before injection into the furnace, (d) means for sensing the rate of change of temperature in the furnace, the sensing means being connected to a control means, the control means being operatively connected to the first and second injecting means, the control means being adapted to select the first or second cooling gas for injection into the furnace, and (e) means for venting the first or second cooling gases out of the furnace, wherein both of the first and second cooling gases are directed through the cooling means, into the furnace, and out of the furnace, in a non-recirculating path.

Obman, H.J.; Brodbeck, H.D.

1987-02-17

363

High resolution powder blast micromachining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder blasting, or Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials like glass, silicon and ceramics. By introducing electroplated copper as a new mask material, the feature size of this process was decreased. It

Henk Wensink; J. W. Berenschot; Henri V. Jansen; Miko C. Elwenspoek

2000-01-01

364

Blast waves in frozen soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of experimental studies of spherical blast waves in seasonally frozen soils with different physical and mechanical properties at different temperatures. A comparison with results in [i, 2] shows that the wave parameters depend strongly on the characteristics of the soil in the initial unfrozen state and on the temperature. When the temperature falls, the maximum stresses and

G. M. Lyakhov; G. B. Frash

1983-01-01

365

Gun Blast from Naval Guns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The available data on gun blasts from naval guns are complied utilizing computer curve fitting techniques. Curves of peak free-air pressure are presented for all naval guns, ranging in size from 20 mm to 16in./50. In addition, curves of arrival time, dura...

M. F. Walther

1972-01-01

366

Mixing Effect in Internal Blast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detonation product gases are usually assumed to be completely mixed with an existing atmosphere by the time a peak quasi-static pressure (Pqs) is reached within an enclosed internal blast environment. With incomplete mixing, however, comes a loss in pressure from unburned fuel as well as a previously unrecognized source of error: heat capacity of the gas increases substantially with temperature, providing an energy sink in regions of unmixed hot gas. Our objective was to look at the extent of mixing by measuring gas temperature at several locations within a blast chamber at the time of peak Pqs. We recorded ranges of up to 400° C depending on charge location within the chamber, which is presumed to affect turbulence and mixing. Losses in peak Pqs of up to 13% may be attributed to this mixing effect for 1-kg Pentolite charges in a 62-m3 chamber in the simple geometries tested. A reasonably accurate Pqs may be extracted from blast wave reverberations in a chamber, allowing a closer look at effects such as gas mixing and consistency among multiple gages. These results point to an explanation for missing energy and a better understanding of heat flow in internal blast.

Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.

2009-12-01

367

Impact of Reduced Maternal Exposures to Wood Smoke from an Introduced Chimney Stove on Newborn Birth Weight in Rural Guatemala  

PubMed Central

Background: A growing body of evidence indicates a relationship between household indoor air pollution from cooking fires and adverse neonatal outcomes, such as low birth weight (LBW), in resource-poor countries. Objective: We examined the effect of reduced wood smoke exposure in pregnancy on LBW of Guatemalan infants in RESPIRE (Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects). Methods: Pregnant women (n = 266) either received a chimney stove (intervention) or continued to cook over an open fire (control). Between October 2002 and December 2004 we weighed 174 eligible infants (69 to mothers who used a chimney stove and 105 to mothers who used an open fire during pregnancy) within 48 hr of birth. Multivariate linear regression and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were used to estimate differences in birth weight and LBW (< 2,500 g) associated with chimney-stove versus open-fire use during pregnancy. Results: Pregnant women using chimney stoves had a 39% reduction in mean exposure to carbon monoxide compared with those using open fires. LBW prevalence was high at 22.4%. On average, infants born to mothers who used a stove weighed 89 g more [95% confidence interval (CI), –27 to 204 g] than infants whose mothers used open fires after adjusting for maternal height, diastolic blood pressure, gravidity, and season of birth. The adjusted OR for LBW was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.33–1.66) among infants of stove users compared with open-fire users. Average birth weight was 296 g higher (95% CI, 109–482 g) in infants born during the cold season (after harvest) than in other infants; this unanticipated finding may reflect the role of maternal nutrition on birth weight in an impoverished region. Conclusions: A chimney stove reduced wood smoke exposures and was associated with reduced LBW occurrence. Although not statistically significant, the estimated effect was consistent with previous studies.

Bruce, Nigel; Eskenazi, Brenda; Diaz, Anaite; Pope, Daniel; Smith, Kirk R.

2011-01-01

368

8.EE Fixing the Furnace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Ivan�s furnace has quit working during the coldest part of the year, and he is eager to get it fixed. He decides to call some mechanics and furnace spe...

369

An analytical furnace model for optimizing aluminum melting furnaces  

SciTech Connect

An analytical furnace model, originally established by Essenhigh and Tsai, is developed and modified in this paper. The practical application of this modified model is to predict optimum furnace operating conditions, and has been verified by experimental tests conducted in the Experimental Research Furnace (ERF) at the Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy. The development of the modified Essenhigh/Tsai model is based on melting and holding tests with two main assumptions: thermal conduction loss in aluminum melting process is the same as that in holding processes, and the heat loss through flue gases is lineally proportional to the melting rate. The former is reasonable because thermal conduction loss is small as compared with firing rate, while the latter is quite accurate as shown in the test results. Tests of aluminum melting were conducted in the ERF furnace where the combustion space volume was changed by varying the roof height. The relations between firing rate, heat absorption rate, melting rate, and energy efficiency were developed from the tests, and the optimum operating conditions under which maximum energy efficiency can be achieved were predicted. In addition, the effect of roof height on the energy efficiency was determined. This model could be a valuable tool in diagnostic analysis of day-to-day operations in aluminum melting.

Li, Tianxiang (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); King, Paul E.; Hassan, Mohamed (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); Kuwana, Kazunori (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); Saito, Kozo (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY)

2005-02-01

370

SCC of Stainless Steel Furnace Tubes in a Heating Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some furnace tubes made of the austenitic stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti for heating crude oil exhibited leakage and were on fire in a refinery. Corrosion failure analysis was conducted to explore the cause of failure. Macro- and microexamination indicated th...

Z. Y. Zhu X. Zhou J. Gu W. Ke

1994-01-01

371

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

William S. McPhee

2001-08-31

372

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to

V. Dosaj; M. D. Brumels; C. M. Haines; J. B. May

1991-01-01

373

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use

Emanual M. Sachs; Brian H. Mackintosh

1982-01-01

374

Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Commercial Portable Air Purifier in Homes with Wood Burning Stoves: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Wood burning for residential heating is prevalent in the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Studies have shown that wood stoves can be a significant source of PM2.5 within homes. In this study, the effectiveness of an electrostatic filter portable air purifier was evaluated (1) in a home where a wood stove was the sole heat source and (2) in a home where a wood stove was used as a supplemental heat source. Particle count concentrations in six particle sizes and particle mass concentrations in two particle sizes were measured for ten 12-hour purifier on and ten purifier off trials in each home. Particle count concentrations were reduced by 61–85 percent. Similar reductions were observed in particle mass concentrations. These findings, although limited to one season, suggest that a portable air purifier may effectively reduce indoor particulate matter concentrations associated with wood combustion during home heating.

Hart, Julie F.; Ward, Tony J.; Spear, Terry M.; Rossi, Richard J.; Holland, Nicholas N.; Loushin, Brodie G.

2011-01-01

375

Biomass fuel use, burning technique and reasons for the denial of improved cooking stoves by Forest User Groups of Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of biomass fuel in traditional cooking stoves (TCS) is a long-established practice that has incomplete combustion and generates substances with global warming potential (GWP). Improved cooking stoves (ICS) have been developed worldwide as an alternative household fuel burning device, as well as a climate change mitigation. A study was conducted among female Forest User Groups (FUGs) of Rema-Kalenga Wildlife

Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Masao Koike; Shalina Akther; Danesh Miah

2011-01-01

376

Safe drinking water and clean air: An experimental study evaluating the concept of combining household water treatment and indoor air improvement using the Water Disinfection Stove (WADIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor air pollution and unsafe water remain two of the most important environmental risk factors for the global burden of infectious diseases. Improved stoves and household water treatment (HWT) methods represent two of the most effective interventions to fight respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses at household level. Since new improved stoves are highly accepted and HWT methods have their drawbacks regarding

Andri Christen; Carlos Morante Navarro; Daniel Mäusezahl

2009-01-01

377

Primary and secondary skeletal blast trauma.  

PubMed

This study examines primary (resulting from blast wave) and secondary (resulting from disintegrated, penetrating fragments) blast trauma to the skeleton. Eleven pigs were exposed to semi-controlled blast events of varying explosive type, charge size, and distance, including some cases with shrapnel. Skeletal trauma was found to be extensive, presenting as complex, comminuted fractures with numerous small, displaced bone splinters and fragments. Traumatic amputation of the limbs and cranium was also observed. Fractures were concentrated in areas nearer the blast, but there was generally no identifiable point of impact. Fractures were more random in appearance and widespread than those typically associated with gunshot or blunt force injury events. These patterns appear to be uniquely associated with blast trauma and may therefore assist forensic anthropologists and other forensic examiners in the interpretation of skeletal trauma by enabling them to differentiate between blast trauma and trauma resulting from some other cause. PMID:21981586

Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Victoria A; Ramos, Vanessa; Shegogue, Candie; Whitworth, Mark

2011-10-07

378

Personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide from indoor heaters and cooking stoves  

SciTech Connect

The personal exposure to NO2 generated from various heaters and cooking stoves were studied, using 85 university students. The students attached NO2 filter badges to their chests or collars and wrote down the period of time for heating and cooking for 1 week. Types of heaters and smoking habits were described through a questionnaire. The urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (HOP/C) was examined as a biomarker for health effects. The outdoor NO2 concentration during the study period was 13.5-13.7 micrograms/m3. Smoking and the usage of electric heaters did not affect the exposure to NO2. Exposure increased according to the length of time kerosene heaters or oil fan heaters were used. The NO2 concentration during the heating by a kerosene heater and an oil fan heater was calculated to be 219 and 474 micrograms/m3, respectively. The correlation between the period of cooking and personal exposure was also observed. The NO2 levels during cooking were calculated to be 290 micrograms/m3. Using these calculated values of NO2 concentration, it is possible to presume the personal exposure levels from the length of time heaters and cooking stoves are used even if the subjects do not attach the filter badges. Neither smoking nor exposure to NO2 were associated with the increase of urinary HOP/C.

Kawamoto, T.; Matsuno, K.; Arashidani, K.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kayama, F.; Kodama, Y. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan))

1993-11-01

379

Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study  

SciTech Connect

In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all farmers born 1917 through 1951 and living in Xuanwei as of 1 January 1976. The analysis included a total of 42,422 cohort members. Follow-up identified all deaths in the cohort from 1976 through 1996. Ages at entry into and at exit from follow-up ranged from 24 to 59 years and from 25 to 80 years, respectively. The record search detected 225 deaths from pneumonia, and 32,332 (76%) were alive as of 31 December 1996. We constructed multivariable Cox models (time variable = age) to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Use of coal, especially smokeless coal, was positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Annual tonnage and lifetime duration of smoky and smokeless coal use were positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Stove improvement was associated with a 50% reduction in pneumonia deaths (smoky coal users: HR, 0.521; 95% CI, 0.340-0.798; smokeless coal users: HR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.215-0.937). Our analysis is the first to suggest that indoor air pollution from unvented coal burning is an important risk factor for pneumonia death in adults and that improving ventilation by installing a chimney is an effective measure to decrease it.

Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Vermeulen, R.; Tian, L.W.; Zheng, T.Z.; Chen, B.E.; Engels, E.A.; He, X.Z.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (USA)

2009-02-15

380

Characterization and problems of indoor pollution due to cooking stove smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Findings from the five groups of matched houses, each using either cattle dung, wood, coal, kerosene or liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuels are presented with emphasis on cross comparison of indoor pollution levels during the cooking period. The houses using LPG were considered as controls. The characterization of pollution was made by measurements of total suspended particulates (TSP), carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide and particle sizing of TSP, which were further analysed for the evaluation of levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A correlation between the pollutants as a function of fuel type has also been looked for. The study revealed that 50-80% of the TSP emissions from biomass and coal-burning cooking stoves were in a respirable fraction of ?2 ?m size and that a large amount of the PAHs (> 75%) belonged to this fraction only. Air quality biomass-using houses was the worst among the users of the five aforementioned fuels and levels were relatively high. The findings stress that a conserted effort towards a solution should be made as a large fraction of the world's population regularly uses biomass as a prime domestic fuel. The problems associated with cooking stoves in India and immediate research needs are outlined.

Raiyani, C. V.; Shah, S. H.; Desai, N. M.; Venkaiah, K.; Patel, J. S.; Parikh, D. J.; Kashyap, S. K.

381

Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an industrial furnace for heating work which emits volatiles during heating. It comprises a generally cylindrical, closed end furnace section defining a sealable heat transfer chamber for heating work disposed therein; fan means for directing furnace atmosphere as a swirling wind mass about the interior of the furnace section over a portion thereof; heat means for heating the wind mass within the fan chamber; and an incineration track formed as a circumferentially extending groove about the exterior of the furnace section and in heat transfer relationship with and situated at least to extend about a portion of the fan chamber.

Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

1992-07-07

382

Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam chilling refers to the shattering of a significant portion of the coal leaving unusable fines. It is also refereed to as coal damage. Chilling is caused during a blast by a combination of explosive shock energy and movement of the adjacent rock. Chilling can be minimized by leaving a buffer zone between the bottom of the blastholes and the coal seam or by changing the blast design to decrease the powder factor or by a combination of both. Blast design in coal mine cast blasting is usually a compromise between coal damage and rock fragmentation and movement (heave). In this paper the damage to coal seams from rock movement is examined using the discrete element computer code DMC_BLAST. A rock material strength option has been incorporated into DMC_BLAST by placing bonds/links between the spherical particles used to model the rock. These bonds tie the particles together but can be broken when the tensile, compressive or shear stress in the bond exceeds the defined strength. This capability has been applied to predict coal seam damage, particularly at the toe of a cast blast where drag forces exerted by movement of the overlying rock can adversely effect the top of the coal at the bench face. A simulation of coal mine cast blasting has been performed with special attention being paid to the strength of the coal and its behavior at t he bench face during movement of the overlying material.

Chung, S.H.; Preece, D.S.

1998-11-23

383

Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology  

SciTech Connect

The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

Dosaj, V.D. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Freeland, MI (United States); Arvidson, A.N. [Meadow Materials, Manitoba (Canada)

1994-05-01

384

Head injury and blast exposure: vestibular consequences.  

PubMed

Young adults are more likely to suffer blast injury and traumatic brain injury (TBI) than other age groups. This article reviews the literature on the vestibular consequences of blast exposure and TBI and concussion. In addition, the vestibular test findings obtained from 31 veterans with a history of blast exposure and/or mild TBI are presented. The authors discuss loss of horizontal semicircular canal function and postural instability related to head injury. Preliminary data suggest the novel theory that otolith organs are uniquely vulnerable to head injury and blast exposure. PMID:21474007

Akin, Faith W; Murnane, Owen D

2011-04-01

385

Health Hazard Assessment for Blast Overpressure Exposures Subtitle - Blast Overpressure Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advent of nuclear blast caused a renewed interest in blast research in the United States. Thus, was the beginning of the Blast Overpressure Program at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. From the early 1950's through 1997, research on the biomedical,...

B. S. Martinez J. H. Stuhmiller

1999-01-01

386

Factors in Selecting and Applying Commercial Explosives and Blasting Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report commercial blasting compounds are classified according to their nitroglycerin (or equivalent explosive oil) and ammonium nitrate content as dynamites, gelatins, blasting agents, military explosives, and blasting accessories. The ingredients ...

R. A. Dick

1968-01-01

387

Closure assembly for a furnace  

SciTech Connect

A closure assembly for an access opening in a furnace wall is described; the assembly comprising: a door shell; means for pivoting the door shell to the furnace wall; at least one shoulder formed on the shell; a clip angle having one leg portion extending over a face of the shoulder; bolt means extending through the one leg portion and the shoulder for securing the clip angle to the shoulder; an anchor member secured to another leg portion of the clip angle; a plug member having a portion extending in the shell, a recessed portion for receiving the shoulder, and a portion adapted to extend in the access opening when the door is closed; at least one opening extending through the plug member for receiving the anchor member; a cup extending in the opening and adapted to receive a corresponding anchor member; and a castable material extending in the cup and over the anchor member to secure the plug member to the shell.

Barkley, J.D.

1989-01-10

388

Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and microhardness testing respectively.

Bernier, Evan Thomas

389

Rodent model of direct cranial blast injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosive blast is one of the most serious wounds suffered by warfighters, yet the effects of explosive blast overpressure directly impacting the head are poorly understood. We developed a rodent model of direct cranial blast injury (dcBI), in which a blast overpressure could be delivered exclusively to the head, precluding indirect brain injury via thoracic transmission of the blast wave. We constructed and validated a Cranium Only Blast Injury Apparatus (COBIA) to deliver blast overpressures generated by detonating .22 caliber cartridges of smokeless powder. Blast waveforms generated by COBIA replicated those recorded within armored vehicles penetrated by munitions. Lethal dcBI (LD(50) ? 515?kPa) was associated with: (1) apparent brainstem failure, characterized by immediate opisthotonus and apnea leading to cardiac arrest that could not be overcome by cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (2) widespread subarachnoid hemorrhages without cortical contusions or intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhages; and (3) no pulmonary abnormalities. Sub-lethal dcBI was associated with: (1) apnea lasting up to 15?sec, with transient abnormalities in oxygen saturation; (2) very few delayed deaths; (3) subarachnoid hemorrhages, especially in the path of the blast wave; (4) abnormal immunolabeling for IgG, cleaved caspase-3, and ?-amyloid precursor protein (?-APP), and staining for Fluoro-Jade C, all in deep brain regions away from the subarachnoid hemorrhages, but in the path of the blast wave; and (5) abnormalities on the accelerating Rotarod that persisted for the 1 week period of observation. We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction. PMID:21639724

Kuehn, Reed; Simard, Philippe F; Driscoll, Ian; Keledjian, Kaspar; Ivanova, Svetlana; Tosun, Cigdem; Williams, Alicia; Bochicchio, Grant; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

2011-08-08

390

BLAST autonomous daytime star cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed two redundant daytime star cameras to provide the fine pointing solution for the balloon-borne submillimeter telescope, BLAST. The cameras are capable of providing a reconstructed pointing solution with an absolute accuracy < 5". They are sensitive to stars down to magnitudes ~ 9 in daytime float conditions. Each camera combines a 1 megapixel CCD with a 200mm f/2 lens to image a 2° × 2.5° field of the sky. The instruments are autonomous. An internal computer controls the temperature, adjusts the focus, and determines a real-time pointing solution at 1 Hz. The mechanical details and flight performance of these instruments are presented.

Rex, Marie; Chapin, Edward; Devlin, Mark J.; Gundersen, Joshua; Klein, Jeff; Pascale, Enzo; Wiebe, Donald

2006-07-01

391

75 FR 81966 - Top of the Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Sunset...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Sunset Reviews and Revocation of Antidumping...stainless steel cooking ware (cookware) from the Republic of Korea (Korea) pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of...

2010-12-29

392

Impact of improved stoves, house construction and child location on levels of indoor air pollution exposure in young Guatemalan children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to assess the impact of improved stoves, house ventilation, and child location on levels of indoor air pollution and child exposure in a rural Guatemalan population reliant on wood fuel. The study was a random sample of 204 households with children less than 18 months in a rural village in the western highlands of

Nigel Bruce; John McCracken; Rachel Albalak; Morten Scheid; Kirk R Smith; Victorina Lopez; Chris West

2004-01-01

393

A laboratory fuel efficiency and emissions comparison between Tanzanian traditional and improved biomass cooking stoves and alternative fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large amounts of aerosols are emitted from domestic biomass burning globally every day. Nearly three billion people cook in their homes using traditional fires and stoves. Biomass is the primary fuel source which results in detrimental levels of indoor air pollution as well as having a strong impact on climate change. Variations in emissions occur depending on the combustion process

B. R. Mitchell; J. C. Maggio; K. Paterson

2010-01-01

394

Sustainable energy development strategies in the rural Thailand: The case of the improved cooking stove and the small biogas digester  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the strategies to overcome barriers to the adoption of improved cooking stove (ICS) and small biogas digester (SBD) technologies in Thailand. Firstly, to obtain the appropriate strategies to implement the ICS and the SBD, a pattern of energy consumption in the residential sector is investigated. Then the potential of reduction of energy consumption and corresponding emissions by

Bundit Limmeechokchai; Saichit Chawana

2007-01-01

395

Sustainable energy development strategies in the rural Thailand: The case of the improved cooking stove and the small biogas digester  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the strategies to overcome barriers to the adoption of improved cooking stove (ICS) and small biogas digester (SBD) technologies in Thailand. Firstly, to obtain the appropriate strategies to implement the ICS and the SBD, a pattern of energy consumption in the residential sector is investigated. Then the potential of reduction of energy consumption and corresponding emissions by

Bundit Limmeechokchaia

396

27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or...donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium nitrate Blasting agent Minimum thickness...

2010-04-01

397

27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or...donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium nitrate Blasting agent Minimum thickness...

2009-04-01

398

Blast-related traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

A bomb blast may cause the full severity range of traumatic brain injury (TBI), from mild concussion to severe, penetrating injury. The pathophysiology of blast-related TBI is distinctive, with injury magnitude dependent on several factors, including blast energy and distance from the blast epicentre. The prevalence of blast-related mild TBI in modern war zones has varied widely, but detection is optimised by battlefield assessment of concussion and follow-up screening of all personnel with potential concussive events. There is substantial overlap between post-concussive syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder, and blast-related mild TBI seems to increase the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-concussive syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, and chronic pain are a clinical triad in this patient group. Persistent impairment after blast-related mild TBI might be largely attributable to psychological factors, although a causative link between repeated mild TBIs caused by blasts and chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been established. The application of advanced neuroimaging and the identification of specific molecular biomarkers in serum for diagnosis and prognosis are rapidly advancing, and might help to further categorise these injuries. PMID:23884075

Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; McFarlane, Alexander C; Bragge, Peter; Armonda, Rocco A; Grimes, Jamie B; Ling, Geoffrey S

2013-07-22

399

Facilities Used for Plastic Media Blasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The equipment used for plastic media blasting (PMB) is generally independent of the media and is similar to equipment used in traditional abrasive blasting. PMB equipment is usually modified to enable the close control of the media flow and the operation ...

T. Foster

1995-01-01

400

Paint removal using wheat starch blast media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of

Terry Foster; John Oestreich

1993-01-01

401

Simulation of blast waves with shock tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that quasi-one-dimensional computational techniques can be successfully used to model the flow in large, geometrically complicated shock tubes. Such shock tubes, or blast simulators, can be used to simulate nuclear or conventional explosions by shaping the pressure history. Results from computations show favorable agreement when compared with data taken in a blast simulator facility in Gramat, France.

Andrew Mark

1990-01-01

402

The biology of CML blast crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

of BCR\\/ABL with genes dysregulated dur- ing disease progression. Most genetic abnormalities of CML blast crisis have a direct or indirect effect on p53 or Rb (or both) gene activity, which are primarily required for cell proliferation and sur- vival, but not differentiation. Thus, the differentiation arrest of CML blast crisis cells is a secondary consequence of these abnormalities or

Bruno Calabretta; Danilo Perrotti

2004-01-01

403

The Biological Effects Of Repeated Blasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of investigations on the biological effects of repeated blasts were reviewed. In the present study, sheep and swine were subjected to multiple blasts at a rate of one per minute in a high-explosive-driven shocktube. Three 1% lethal doses (LD1)...

D. R. Richmond E. R. Fletcher J. T. Yelverton

1981-01-01

404

Severe tyre blast injuries during servicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe destructive potential of the tyre explosions has received little attention in the medical literature. Fatal and severely deforming injuries have been reported. These blasts mainly affect the personnel servicing big vehicle tyres such as trucks and buses. We aimed to review the relevant literature on tyre blast injuries so as to define the mechanism of injury, outcome, and its

Ashraf F. Hefny; Hani O. Eid; Fikri M. Abu-Zidan

2009-01-01

405

PROTECTIVE DESIGNS FOR BLAST AND IMPACT THREATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes methods for designing and implementing protective technologies for improving the blast and impact resistance of buildings. A protection plan for buildings may include designing blast-resistant columns, walls, and windows; other elements of security may also play a major part, including physical security measures such as: anti-ram barriers and fencing to demarcate a protective perimeter; features such as

J. E. Crawford

406

Fragmentation Monitoring of Production Blasts at Mrica,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the project was to collect field data regarding blasting, bench geometry and rock structures and to study the influence of these properties on the size distribution of the blasted rock. A conceptual model called SweFrag, for predicting the size...

S. Abrahamsson B. Niklasson F. Ouchterlony

1987-01-01

407

Dynamic fragmentation of blast mitigants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental evidence from a wide range of sources shows that the expanding cloud of explosively disseminated material comprises “particles” or fragments which have different dimensions from those associated with the original material. Powders and liquids have often been used to surround explosives to act as blast mitigants, and this is the main driver for our research. There are also many other areas of interest where an initially intact material surrounding an explosive charge is dynamically fragmented into a distribution of fragment sizes. Examples of such areas include fuel air explosives and enhanced blast explosives as well as quasi-static pressure mitigation systems, and our studies are thus also relevant to these applications. In this paper, we consider the processes occurring as an explosive interacts with a surrounding layer of liquid or powder and identify why it is important to model these processes as a multiphase material problem as opposed to a single phase, single material velocity problem. We shall present results from this class of numerical modelling. In this paper we shall explore what determines the particle or fragment size distribution resulting from explosive dissemination of a layer of material and discuss reasons why clouds from disseminated liquids and powders look similar. We shall support our analysis with results from recent explosives trials and introduce early results from some ongoing small scale explosive mitigation experiments.

Milne, A. M.; Parrish, C.; Worland, I.

2010-02-01

408

Measurement and modeling of indoor air pollution in rural households with multiple stove interventions in Yunnan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the developing world, indoor air pollution (IAP) created from solid fuel used in traditional biomass cook stoves is a leading contributor of poor respiratory health, global burden of disease, and greenhouse pollutant emissions. In the present study, we piloted an experimental cross-sectional monitoring and evaluation design with 30 households in rural Lijiang and Deqin counties in northwest Yunnan province, China. This approach offers the ability to examine the effectiveness of improved cook stove (ICS) programs with a much smaller sample size than the typical population based pre- and post-intervention study that requires a large sample representative of the population. Continuous PM2.5 was measured with the UCB (currently known as UCB-PATS) and the TSI DustTrak and continuous CO was measured with the HOBO CO logger. Using the traditional method of cooking and heating, mean 24-h PM2.5 and CO concentrations in the kitchen were measured in the range of 0.15-0.71 mg m-3 for PM2.5 and 3.0-11 ppm for CO. These concentrations were compared to using a combination of improved stoves in the kitchen where PM2.5 and CO concentrations were measured in the range of 0.08-0.18 mg m-3 for PM2.5 and 0.7-5.5 ppm for CO. These concentrations yielded statistically significant reduction in IAP when replacing the traditional fireplace or traditional stove with an improved stove combination. Finally, we show a strong correlation between CO and PM2.5 (R2 = 0.72-0.76). The combination of this experimental design along with the monitoring and evaluation protocol presented here may provide a robust framework to rapidly assess the effectiveness of ICS interventions in progress.

Chowdhury, Zohir; Campanella, Luke; Gray, Christen; Al Masud, Abdullah; Marter-Kenyon, Jessica; Pennise, David; Charron, Dana; Zuzhang, Xia

2013-03-01

409

30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. 816.66 Section 816.66...Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting...the blasting schedule. (c) Access control. Access within the...

2013-07-01

410

Aspects of blast resistant masonry design  

SciTech Connect

Blast resistant design should be examined for building code incorporation, due to the potential of explosions occurring in an industrial society. Specifically, public and commercial structures of concrete masonry construction need additional building code criteria, since these buildings have high density populations to protect. Presently, blast resistant design is accomplished by using government published manuals, but these do not address industry standard construction. A design air blast load of 4.54 kg (10 lbs) of TNT, located 0.91 m (3 ft) above ground surface and 30.48 m (100 ft) from a structure should be considered standard criteria. This loading would be sufficient to protect against blast, resist progressive failure, and yet not be an economic impediment. Design details and adequate inspection must be observed to ensure blast resistant integrity. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Volkman, D.E.

1989-01-01

411

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

1992-12-29

412

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

DOEpatents

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Lexington, MA)

1982-06-15

413

Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces  

SciTech Connect

In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

2004-01-24

414

Curing and the durability of OPC, fly ash and blast-furnace slag concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents preliminary results of a research project into the influence of moist curing on the potential durability\\u000a of concrete. Durability is characterized by measuring the oxygen permeability and water absorption at various depths in the\\u000a covercrete. Concretes containing plain OPC, an OPC-FA blend and an OPC-GGBS blend were used. A range of strength grades was\\u000a tested for each

Y. Ballim

1993-01-01

415

Evolving Nonlinear Time-Series Models of the Hot Metal Silicon Content in the Blast Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks are versatile tools for nonlinear modeling, but in time-series modeling of complex industrial processes the choice of relevant inputs and time lags can be a major problem. A novel method for the simultaneous detection of relevant inputs and an appropriate structure of the lower part of the networks has been developed by evolving neural networks by a genetic

Henrik Saxén; Frank Pettersson; Kiran Gunturu

2007-01-01

416

Conversion of blast furnace slag into new glass-ceramic material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devitrification behavior of different sizes of slag-derived glass was investigated using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to determine the possibility of preparing glass-ceramic materials. The crystalline phases were identified as gehlenite, diopside pyroxene and barium aluminium silicate. The degree of crystallization was determined by evaluation the changes of density at different temperatures where a maximum

A. A. Francis

2004-01-01

417

Reactivity of blast-furnace slag in Portland cement blends hydrated under different conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pastes of blended cements, with 30% and 50% slag and water:solids ratios (w\\/s) of 0.50 and 0.35, were hydrated at 10°C, 30°C and 50°C for up to 6 months. The reactivity of the slag fraction increased with the hydration temperature, w\\/s ratio and with a reduction of the replacement level of the slag. The more reactive of two slags used

J. I Escalante; L. Y Gómez; K. K Johal; G Mendoza; H Mancha; J Méndez

2001-01-01

418

Potential for the Use of the Explosive Parts of Ammunition in Blast-Furnace Smelting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial use of standard types of ammunition ? which is being carried out as part of a nationwide program organized by the Russian Federation ? is being dictated by the need to fulfill international agreements on reductions in armaments and military hardware and eliminate excess stocks of ammunition. The storage of ammunition which is destined for recycling requires considerable

Yu. S. Karabasov; D. V. Oleinikov; I. F. Kurunov; A. I. Isteev

2001-01-01

419

USE OF SYNTHETIC TITANIUM PRODUCTS FOR PROTECTION OF THE HEARTH OF ROGESA BLAST FURNACES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The company Roheisengesellschaft Saar (ROGESA) is a joint venture of the AG of Dillinger Huettenwerke, the major European heavy plate producer, and Saarstahl AG, one of the most important manufacturer of long products in the world. In order to cope with increasing demand of the hot metal from both steel shops on one hand, and simultaneously increasing pressure on hot

Walter Hartig

420

Mitigation of Leachates in Blast Furnace Slag Aggregates by Application of Nanoporous Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reutilization of slag materials as aggregates is seriously limited by the production of contaminant leachates rich in heavy metals and sulfur when these materials are contacted by water. A unique type of thin-film nanotechnology was used to ameliorate this problem. The surface of the slag was altered by depositing a thin-film comprised of nanoporous oxides. The deposition was performed by coating the aggregates with a suspension containing nanoparticles. Once the water evaporated, a nanoporous thin-film (<0.5 ?m) remained firmly attached to the surface of the slag. Different leachate experiments under semi-anoxic conditions were performed using three different nanoparticles oxides films including silica, and titanium. These films were compared against a control. The preliminary results demonstrated that samples coated with one layer of these oxides can decrease the amount of sulfur and calcium in the leachate by 70 and 80%, respectively.

Muñoz, J. F.; Sanfilippo, J. M.; Tejedor, M. I.; Anderson, M. A.; Cramer, S. M.

421

Kaolin refractories for the lining of the iron notch of a 5000-m 3 blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions The formation of the black core in large kaolin bricks during the firing process is caused mainly by the reducing medium which develops in the central part of these high-density refractories, graphitizes the carbon, and converts some of the high-valence iron and titanium oxides to low-valence oxides. The principal sources of the reducing medium inside the brick are the

N. V. Pitak; R. M. Fedoruk; B. N. Starshinov; R. S. Shulyak; T. P. Khmelenko; V. Ka. Zima; I. P. Davydov; R. E. Shcherbina; G. A. Belokrys

1976-01-01

422

Nonfibrous Mineralogical Analysis of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Blast-Furnace Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steelworkers are exposed to many pollutants, and they are at risk for developing lung cancer. We demonstrated previously that steelworkers may be subject to an occult exposure to amphiboles in the plant environment. In the current study, we further analyzed bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of steelworkers by measuring intramacrophagic trace-metal content and nonfibrous mineral particles, using the particle-induced x-ray emission method

Jean-Louis Corhay; Thierry Bury; Jean-Paul Delavignette; Farhad Baharloo; Maurice Radermecker; Pierre Hereng; André-Mathieu Fransolet; Georges Weber; Ivan Roelandts

1995-01-01

423

Mitigation of Leachates in Blast Furnace Slag Aggregates by Application of Nanoporous Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reutilization of slag materials as aggregates is seriously limited by the production of contaminant leachates rich in\\u000a heavy metals and sulfur when these materials are contacted by water. A unique type of thin-film nanotechnology was used to\\u000a ameliorate this problem. The surface of the slag was altered by depositing a thin-film comprised of nanoporous oxides. The\\u000a deposition was performed

J. F. Muñoz; J. M. Sanfilippo; M. I. Tejedor; M. A. Anderson; S. M. Cramer

424

Mitigation of Leachates in Blast Furnace Slag Aggregates by Application of Nanoporous Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reutilization of slag materials as aggregates is seriously limited by the production of contaminant leachates rich in heavy metals and sulfur when these materials are contacted by water. A unique type of thin-film nanotechnology was used to ameliorate this problem. The surface of the slag was altered by depositing a thin-film comprised of nanoporous oxides. The deposition was performed

J. F. Muñoz; J. M. Sanfilippo; M. I. Tejedor; M. A. Anderson; S. M. Cramer

2009-01-01

425

VAPOR SHIELD FOR INDUCTION FURNACE  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to a water-cooled vapor shield for an inductlon furnace that will condense metallic vapors arising from the crucible and thus prevent their condensation on or near the induction coils, thereby eliminating possible corrosion or shorting out of the coils. This is accomplished by placing, about the top, of the crucible a disk, apron, and cooling jacket that separates the area of the coils from the interior of the cruclbIe and provides a cooled surface upon whlch the vapors may condense.

Reese, S.L.; Samoriga, S.A.

1958-03-11

426

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model.  

PubMed

Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

Goldstein, Lee E; Fisher, Andrew M; Tagge, Chad A; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W; Goletiani, Cezar J; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A; Cantu, Robert C; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K; Wolozin, Benjamin L; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D; Budson, Andrew E; Kowall, Neil W; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F; Moss, William C; Cleveland, Robin O; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Stanton, Patric K; McKee, Ann C

2012-05-16

427

Blast investigation by fast multispectral radiometric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge regarding the processes involved in blasts and detonations is required in various applications, e.g. missile interception, blasts of high-explosive materials, final ballistics and IED identification. Blasts release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some part of this energy is released as intense radiation in the optical spectral bands. This paper proposes to measure the blast radiation by a fast multispectral radiometer. The measurement is made, simultaneously, in appropriately chosen spectral bands. These spectral bands provide extensive information on the physical and chemical processes that govern the blast through the time-dependence of the molecular and aerosol contributions to the detonation products. Multi-spectral blast measurements are performed in the visible, SWIR and MWIR spectral bands. Analysis of the cross-correlation between the measured multi-spectral signals gives the time dependence of the temperature, aerosol and gas composition of the blast. Farther analysis of the development of these quantities in time may indicate on the order of the detonation and amount and type of explosive materials. Examples of analysis of measured explosions are presented to demonstrate the power of the suggested fast multispectral radiometric analysis approach.

Devir, A. D.; Bushlin, Y.; Mendelewicz, I.; Lessin, A. B.; Engel, M.

2011-05-01

428

Acceleration of Ungapped Extension in Mercury BLAST  

PubMed Central

The amount of biosequence data being produced each year is growing exponentially. Extracting useful information from this massive amount of data efficiently is becoming an increasingly difficult task. There are many available software tools that molecular biologists use for comparing genomic data. This paper focuses on accelerating the most widely used such tool, BLAST. Mercury BLAST takes a streaming approach to the BLAST computation by off loading the performance-critical sections to specialized hardware. This hardware is then used in combination with the processor of the host system to deliver BLAST results in a fraction of the time of the general-purpose processor alone. This paper presents the design of the ungapped extension stage of Mercury BLAST. The architecture of the ungapped extension stage is described along with the context of this stage within the Mercury BLAST system. The design is compact and runs at 100 MHz on available FPGAs, making it an effective and powerful component for accelerating biosequence comparisons. The performance of this stage is 25× that of the standard software distribution, yielding close to 50× performance improvement on the complete BLAST application. The sensitivity is essentially equivalent to that of the standard distribution.

Buhler, Jeremy; Chamberlain, Roger D.

2007-01-01

429

LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report  

SciTech Connect

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31

430

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B. (Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States))

1991-01-01

431

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States)

1991-12-31

432

30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320...and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting. (a) No more than 20 boreholes...blasting cut coalâ (i) The first shot or shots fired in a round shall be...

2009-07-01

433

30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320...and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting. (a) No more than 20 boreholes...blasting cut coalâ (i) The first shot or shots fired in a round shall be...

2010-07-01

434

Blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Blast exposure has been the most common cause of TBI, occurring through multiple mechanisms. What is less clear is whether the primary blast wave causes brain damage through mechanisms that are distinct from those common in civilian TBI and whether multiple exposures to low-level blast can lead to long-term sequelae. Complicating TBI in soldiers is the high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder. At present, the relationship is unclear. Resolution of these issues will affect both treatment strategies and strategies for the protection of troops in the field. PMID:21093677

Elder, Gregory A; Mitsis, Effie M; Ahlers, Stephen T; Cristian, Adrian

2010-10-15

435

CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies  

SciTech Connect

Initial tests with CO{sub 2} pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO{sub 2} blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report.

Archibald, K.E.

1997-01-01

436

ELECTRODE EROSION IN SUBMERGED ARC FURNACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the electric arc in the consumption of electrodes in submerged arc furnaces has long been debated. The hostile environment in the furnace does not make direct measurement feasible, so simulation has been used to evaluate the arcs contribution to the erosion. Magnetofluiddynamic (MFD) electric arc simulations and a cathode \\/ anode sub-model developed in order to provide

G. Sævarsdóttir; H. Pálsson; M. Þ. Jónsson; J. A. Bakken

437

Combustion analysis of a vortex biomass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vortex type biomass furnace was tested for converting corn cobs into thermal energy. The performance of the furnace was determined by a series of 13 tests. Two independent variables were studied: corn cob feeding rate, and air damper opening. Response surface method of analysis was used to statistically analyze the results of the test. The results showed that three

Wahby; M. F. I

1982-01-01

438

Glass Furnace Project: April-September 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Glass Furnace Project is to evaluate the use of joule-heated glass furnace, fitted with a Mound-developed offgas system, to reduce the volume of contaminated waste typical of that from nuclear power plants. As part of the project, sever...

K. Armstrong L. M. Klingler

1981-01-01

439

High temperature corrosion in aluminum reclamation furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Turbines Incorporated, under contract to Gas Research Institute, has performed extensive materials testing in the stack of an aluminum furnace. A wide variety of stainless steels, superalloys, and advanced ceramics were tested under controlled conditions in the stack gases of an aluminum reclamation furnace and analyzed for resistance to those conditions. The materials selected for testing were chosen based

A. D. Russell; C. E. Smeltzer; M. E. Ward; C. J. Dobos; W. W. Liang

2008-01-01

440

Quartz Liner Tube Inside Tube Furnace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the American Physical Society, gives a brief description of a furnace at Kansas State University that is used in semiconductor research. An image shows heat radiation from the quartz liner in this furnace, which is used in silicon-doping experiments.

2008-09-10

441

Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors  

SciTech Connect

The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

2003-02-28

442

Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed an apparatus and method of recovering a portion of the waste heat produced in a high temperature industrial process, such as a glass melting furnace, where the furnace has at least a pair of regenerators which are alternately used to preheat the combustion air and serve as hot exhaust heat storage means. The hot exhaust gases from

Sturgill

1985-01-01

443

Radiation characteristics of electric furnace arcs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric arc furnace uses the energy radiated from high-power electric arcs to melt steel. A disadvantage of the process is that the intense radiation can erode the refractory lining of the furnace. Empirical work has shown that refractory erosion depends on arc power and voltage and their product has been used as an index of this erosion. However, no

Munroe

1982-01-01

444

An intelligent ladle furnace control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an intelligent ladle furnace control system is presented. The main functions and system structure is introduced. The system applied combined artificial intelligent technology for ladle furnace heat balance calculation and steel temperature prediction, dynamic energy input optimization and intelligent electrode control. The application results achieved are given to demonstrate the capability or this intelligent control system

Sun Yanguang; Wang Daixian; Tao Baisheng; Yan Tao; Shi Yang; Fang Shubiao; Wang Yuanhou

2000-01-01

445

Metallurgical Evaluation of Grit Blasted Versus Non-Grit Blasted Iridium Alloy Clad Vent Set Cup Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallurgical evaluations were conducted to determine what, if any, grain size differences exist between grit blasted and non-grit blasted DOP-26 iridium alloy cup surfaces and if grit blasting imparts sufficient compressive cold work to induce abnormal grain growth during subsequent temperature exposures. Metallographic measurements indicated that grit blasting cold worked the outside cup surface to a depth of approximately 19

George B Ulrich; Hu Foster Longmire

2010-01-01

446

The d-c shaft furnace  

SciTech Connect

A recent projection of world steel production by process through the year 2000 illustrates a general consensus that electric arc furnace production will continue to increase and represent a greater proportion of total steel produced. State of the art technology is being applied to meet the increasing volume and quality demands with the continuing objectives being the production of high-quality product at the lowest possible cost. In this article, the integration of two state-of-the-art technologies into the d-c shaft furnace process is discussed: the direct current arc furnace; and scrap preheating. The d-c shaft furnace, with scrap preheating capability, provides the potential for not only major increases in production rate but also significant reductions in energy and electrode consumption in comparison with a conventional d-c furnace of similar physical and electrical characteristics.

Haissig, M. (Fuchs Systems Inc., Salisbury, NC (United States))

1994-05-01

447

Effect of the Blasting Angle on Blast Processing of a Cylindrical Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast processing is a substrate processing technique during which spherical or granular materials are jetted against the substrate surface using compressed air. Blasting techniques is widely used for various mechanical parts as a surface reforming technique. When performing blast processing to a complicated-shaped substrate for the purpose of thermal spraying method, it is difficult to set blasting angle to a constant value and it is necessary to clarify the effect of state of substrate on blast processing. In present paper, the effect of blasting angle to removal processing effect and the modification state of substrate is investigated. Results from this investigation are summarized as follows: When blasting angle ? was 30º, the removal quantity ? showed the maximum. The removal quantity became large as cylindrical diameter D was larger. Removal quantity of particle diameter a =100 ?m is bigger than that of a =700 ?m. As a nozzle movement rate v increased, removal quantity ? became small. As blasting angle ? became small, removal quantity ? became large even though nozzle movement rate v was changed. As blasting pressure P increases, removal quantity ? became big.

Kubohori, Toshifumi; Binti Khalil, Nur Zalikha; Tojo, Yuichi; Takahashi, Shigetaka

448

WEST (FRONT) OF FURNACE COMPLEX, INCLUDING STACKS, WITH CHARGING BRIDGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST (FRONT) OF FURNACE COMPLEX, INCLUDING STACKS, WITH CHARGING BRIDGE AND TRESSLE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

449

Primary blast injuries--an updated concise review.  

PubMed

Blast injuries have been increasing in the civilian setting and clinicians need to understand the spectrum of injury and management strategies. Multisystem trauma associated with combined blunt and penetrating injuries is the rule. Explosions in closed spaces increase the likelihood of primary blast injury. Rupture of tympanic membranes is an inaccurate marker for severe primary blast injury. Blast lung injury manifests early and should be managed with lung-protective ventilation. Blast brain injury is more common than previously appreciated. PMID:22411082

Yeh, Daniel Dante; Schecter, William P

2012-05-01

450

Plastic Media Blasting Recycling Equipment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) is a new technology introduced as a candidate to replace wet chemical paint stripping of airframes and component parts. This report documents the physical testing, observations, and laboratory analyses used to evaluate the eff...

1988-01-01

451

Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) waste treatment technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental and occupational hazard regulations have motivated consideration of several new developments in paint removal technology. Plastic Media Blasting (PMB)/paint wastes consist predominantly of degraded plastic media plus the stripped paint. They...

H. Jermyn R. P. Wichner

1991-01-01

452

Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation  

SciTech Connect

Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

2010-10-01

453

Nucleon and Deuteron Form Factors from BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BLAST experiment was designed to study in a systematic manner the spin-dependent, electromagnetic interaction on hydrogen and deuterium. Measuring only asymmetries in electron scattering with respect to the beam helicity, target spin, or both; the BLAST experiment was able to extract information on nucleon and deuteron form factors independent of beam intensity or target density. By further forming ``super-ratios'' of asymmetries, measurements were possible independent of beam and target polarization thus reducing uncertainties due to these quantities as well. Some of the form factor results from BLAST will be briefly presented here. Also, in response to observed discrepancies between polarization measurements and those obtained using traditional Rosenbluth separation techniques a proposed experiment, OLYMPUS, which will use the BLAST detector to measure the two photon contribution to elastic electron scattering will also be presented.

Hasell, D. K.

2009-12-01

454

Blast Trauma: The Effects on Hearing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project will determine what effects impulse noise (blast trauma) has on hearing performance, the response patterns of auditory nerve fibers and the morphology of cochlea. Initially, audiograms and psychophysical tuning curves of the normal chinchilla...

R. P. Hamernik D. Henderson R. Salvi

1981-01-01

455

Improvement of Blasting Techniques in Opencast Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experience to date indicates that the most important factors affecting the degree of blasting required are the homogeneity of the hard rocks and their overall thickness, taken together with the amount of regional jointing, stratification fractures and ind...

1987-01-01

456

Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections in Women and Children in Western Sierra Leone due to Smoke from Wood and Charcoal Stoves  

PubMed Central

Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal) for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI). This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused by smoke from wood and charcoal stoves in Western Sierra Leone, as these two fuels are the predominant fuel types used for cooking. A cross sectional study was conducted for 520 women age 15–45 years; and 520 children under 5 years of age in homes that burn wood and charcoal. A questionnaire assessing demographic, household and exposure characteristics and ARI was administered to every woman who further gave information for the child. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was continuously monitored in fifteen homes. ARI prevalence revealed 32% and 24% for women, 64% and 44% for children in homes with wood and charcoal stoves, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders for each group, the odds ratio of having suffered from ARI was similar for women, but remained large for children in homes with wood stoves relative to charcoal stoves (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.71–1.82) and (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.31–3.13), respectively. ARI prevalence was higher for children in homes with wood stoves compared with homes with charcoal stoves, but ARI prevalence for both types of fuels is higher compared with reported prevalence elsewhere. To achieve a reduction in ARI would require switching from wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels.

Taylor, Eldred Tunde; Nakai, Satoshi

2012-01-01

457

Fabrication of microstructures by powder blasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis deals with the use of powder blasting as a micromachining\\u000atechnique to create micro systems. Powder blasting is a technology in\\u000awhich small particles, accelerated by an air jet, are directed towards a\\u000abrittle target for mechanical material removal. It is especially useful for\\u000aglass machining due to the limitations of other glass micromachining\\u000atechniques.\\u000aParticle jets have

Hendrik Wensink

2002-01-01

458

Pion Electroproduction from Deuterium at BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest pion electroproduction results from the BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) experiment at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center are presented. The experiment used the BLAST detector, a longitudinally polarized electron beam at 850 MeV, and internal targets of polarized hydrogen and vector and tensor polarized deuterium. Event selection and particle identification will be discussed. The measured asymmetries for exclusive pion electroproduction from deuterium will be presented and compared with results obtained from hydrogen and available theoretical predictions.

Shinozaki, Aki

2007-04-01

459

Blast injuries: mechanics and wounding patterns.  

PubMed

Blast and fragment injuries are the most frequently encountered wounds in modern warfare. Explosive devices have become the preferred weapon of domestic and foreign terrorists because they are relatively inexpensive to manufacture and can cause substantial casualties. Although blast injuries have traditionally been associated with the battlefield, this type of trauma is being seen more commonly today among noncombatants due to increasing worldwide terrorism. PMID:20371000

Covey, Dana C; Born, Christopher T

2010-01-01

460

Rice Blast Genomics: K12 Outreach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outreach component of the Rice Blast Project provides online genomics activities for high-school students. A lab manual is also offered free of charge to teachers of high-school biology in North Carolina, Texas, Kentucky, Arizona, Virginia, and Indiana. The Rice Blast Project is a collaboration of scientists from North Carolina State University, Texas A&M University, University of Kentucky, University of Arizona, Purdue University, Ohio State University, and Virginia Bioinformatics Institute.

461

National Dioxin Study Tier 4 - combustion sources: final test report - Site 13, residential wood stove WS-A  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a dioxin/furan emission test of a residential woodstove conducted by Radian Corporation. The stove is a freestanding noncatalytic model manufactured by Atlanta Stove Works and offered for sale in the Sear's Catalog. During testing, oak and pine were burned at low burn rates, which is representative of normal residential use. The test was the 13th in a series of dioxin/furan emissions tests conducted under Tier 4 of the National Dioxin Study. The primary objective is to determine if various combustion sources are sources of dioxin and/or furan emissions. If any of the combustion sources are found to emit dioxin or furan, the secondary objective of Tier 4 is to quantify these emissions. Residential woodstoves are among 8 combustion-source categories that have been tested in the Tier 4 program. The tested woodstove, hereafter referred to as Woodstove WS-A, is a test unit located at an EPA contractor facility. This stove was selected for inclusion in the Tier 4 program due to its location in the RTP area and because simultaneous testing of the stove was already being conducted for another EPA program (Integrated Air Cancer Project). The woodstove tested is considered representative of woodstoves built in the last 5 to 10 years. No dioxin/furan stack data were obtained from the source. Labelled internal standards used to determine analytical recovery efficiency were not detected because of the very high levels of hydrocarbons present in the stack gas. Dioxin/furan ash data are presented.

Hartman, M.W.; Benson, D.J.; Keller, L.E.

1987-04-01

462

Title: Design of a continuous — Type rice husk gasifier stove and power generation device for Bangladesh household  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describe of household-size continuous-flow Bio-mass (rice husk) gasifier design and performance of cooking stove and Electricity generation aimed to provide rural & Semi-Urban families with an alternative device for improve cooking and Electricity generation. The small size of Gasifier basically, biomass fuel reactor where rice husks are burned and subsequently converted into combustible gases at high temperature with

Alexis T. Belonio

2012-01-01

463

Neuropathology of explosive blast traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

During the conflicts of the Global War on Terror, which are Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), there have been over a quarter of a million diagnosed cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The vast majority are due to explosive blast. Although explosive blast TBI (bTBI) shares many clinical features with closed head TBI (cTBI) and penetrating TBI (pTBI), it has unique features, such as early cerebral edema and prolonged cerebral vasospasm. Evolving work suggests that diffuse axonal injury (DAI) seen following explosive blast exposure is different than DAI from focal impact injury. These unique features support the notion that bTBI is a separate and distinct form of TBI. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge pertaining to bTBI. Areas of discussion are: the physics of explosive blast generation, blast wave interaction with the bony calvarium and brain tissue, gross tissue pathophysiology, regional brain injury, and cellular and molecular mechanisms of explosive blast neurotrauma. PMID:22836523

Magnuson, John; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S F

2012-10-01

464

Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System  

SciTech Connect

The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

Hart, M M

2009-07-27

465

Effects of mine blasting on residential structures  

SciTech Connect

Blasting is common in the coal industry to remove rock overburden so that the exposed coal can be mechanically excavated. The ground vibrations and air blast produced by blasting are often felt by residents surrounding the mines. There has been a trend for regulatory authorities, especially those concerned with the environment, to impose low limits on blast vibration levels in response to community pressure, based on human perception and response to vibration. This paper reports the findings of an extensive study on a house which was located adjacent to a coal mine. The house was monitored for over 1 year and was subjected to ground peak particle velocity (PPV) ranging from 1.5 to 222 mm/s. The house was instrumented with accelerometers to measure its dynamic response due to blasting and it was also monitored for cracks before and after each blast. Based on this study, ground motion amplifications along the height of the structure have been established. A simplified methodology presented in this paper has been used to estimate the ground PPV at which cracking is likely.

Gad, E.F.; Wilson, J.L.; Moore, A.J.; Richards, A.B. [Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Vic. (Australia). Faculty of Engineering & Industrial Science

2005-08-01

466

Neuro-glial and systemic mechanisms of pathological responses in rat models of primary blast overpressure compared to "composite" blast.  

PubMed

A number of experimental models of blast brain injury have been implemented in rodents and larger animals. However, the variety of blast sources and the complexity of blast wave biophysics have made data on injury mechanisms and biomarkers difficult to analyze and compare. Recently, we showed the importance of rat position toward blast generated by an external shock tube. In this study, we further characterized blast producing moderate traumatic brain injury and defined "composite" blast and primary blast exposure set-ups. Schlieren optics visualized interaction between the head and a shock wave generated by external shock tube, revealing strong head acceleration upon positioning the rat on-axis with the shock tube (composite blast), but negligible skull movement upon peak overpressure exposure off-axis (primary blast). Brain injury signatures of a primary blast hitting the frontal head were assessed and compared to damage produced by composite blast. Low to negligible levels of neurodegeneration were found following primary blast compared to composite blast by silver staining. However, persistent gliosis in hippocampus and accumulation of GFAP/CNPase in circulation was detected after both primary and composite blast. Also, markers of vascular/endothelial inflammation integrin alpha/beta, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and L-selectin along with neurotrophic factor nerve growth factor-beta were increased in serum within 6?h post-blasts and persisted for 7?days thereafter. In contrast, systemic IL-1, IL-10, fractalkine, neuroendocrine peptide Orexin A, and VEGF receptor Neuropilin-2 (NRP-2) were raised predominantly after primary blast exposure. In conclusion, biomarkers of major pathological pathways were elevated at all blast set-ups. The most significant and persistent changes in neuro-glial markers were found after composite blast, while primary blast instigated prominent systemic cytokine/chemokine, Orexin A, and Neuropilin-2 release, particularly when primary blast impacted rats with unprotected body. PMID:22403567

Svetlov, Stanislav I; Prima, Victor; Glushakova, Olena; Svetlov, Artem; Kirk, Daniel R; Gutierrez, Hector; Serebruany, Victor L; Curley, Kenneth C; Wang, Kevin K W; Hayes, Ronald L

2012-02-09

467

Combustion space modeling of an aluminum furnace  

SciTech Connect

Secondary aluminum production (melting from aluminum ingots, scraps, etc.) offers significant energy savings and environmental benefits over primary aluminum production since the former consumes only five percent of the energy used in the latter process. The industry, however, faces technical challenges of further improving furnace melting efficiency and has been lacking tools that can help understand combustion process in detail and that will facilitate furnace design. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has played increasingly important roles in evaluating industrial processes. As part of a larger program run by SECAT, a CFD model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to simulate fuel combustion, heat transfer (including thermal radiation), gaseous product flow (mainly CO2 and H2O), and production/transport of pollutant species/greenhouse gases in an aluminum furnace. Using this code, the surface heat fluxes are calculated and then transferred to a melt code. In order to have a high level of confidence in the computed results, the output from the code will be compared and validated against in-furnace measurements made in the Albany furnace. Once validated, the combustion code may be used to perform inexpensive parametric studies to investigate methods to optimize furnace performance. This paper will present results from the combustion modeling of an aluminum furnace as well as results from several parametric studies.

Golchert, Brian M. (ANL); Zhou, C.Q. (Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, IN); Quenette, Antoine (ANL).; Han, Quinyou (ORNL).; King, Paul E.

2005-02-01

468

Reduction of sidewall inclination and blast lag of powder blasted channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder blasting (abrasive jet machining) is a fast directional machining technique for brittle materials like silicon and glass. The cross-section of a powder blasted channel has a rounded V-shape. These inclined sidewalls are caused by the typical impact angle dependent removal rate for brittle materials. It has a negative influence on the channel depth and aspect ratio, and results in

Henk Wensink; Miko C. Elwenspoek

2002-01-01

469

Blasting injuries in surface mining with emphasis on flyrock and blast area security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Blasting is a hazardous component of surface mining. Serious injuries and fatalities result from improper judgment or practice during rock blasting. This paper describes several fatal injury case studies, analyzes causative factors, and emphasizes preventive measures. Method: This study examines publications by MSHA, USGS, and other authors. The primary source of information was MSHA's injury-related publications. Results: During the

T. S. Bajpayee; T. R. Rehak; G. L. Mowrey; D. K. Ingram

2004-01-01

470

Blast traumatic brain injury in the rat using a blast overpressure model.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health concern for civilians and military populations, and blast-induced TBI (bTBI) has become an increasing problem for military personnel over the past 10 years. To understand the biological and psychological effects of blast-induced injuries and to examine potential interventions that may help to prevent, attenuate, and treat effects of bTBI, it is valuable to conduct controlled animal experiments. This unit discusses available paradigms to model traumatic brain injury in animals, with an emphasis on the relevance of these various models to study blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). This paper describes the detailed methods of a blast overpressure (BOP) paradigm that has been used to conduct experiments with rats to model blast exposure. This particular paradigm models the pressure wave created by explosions, including improvised explosive devices (IEDs). PMID:23315947

Yarnell, Angela M; Shaughness, Michael C; Barry, Erin S; Ahlers, Stephen T; McCarron, Richard M; Grunberg, Neil E

2013-01-01

471

Blast-wave characteristics near Site 300  

SciTech Connect

The blast-wave overpressures propagating in the atmosphere near the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 have been measured at selected locations to determine whether the Site 300 blast operations will be hindered by the proposed construction of a residential development adjacent to its border.We tested high-explosives (HE) weights ranging from 14 to 545 lb under various weather conditions. Although more tests should be conducted before a definitive statement can be made on the blast propagation near Site 300, we offer the following preliminary interpretation of the results obtained to date. The readings at the closest locations show that the blast-wave overpressures exceed the 126-decibel (dB) level established by LLNL at about 250 lb of HE detonation. The weather conditions do not materially affect the pressure levels at these locations. Insufficient test data exist along the Corral Hollow Road perimeter, making it difficult to reasonably predict HE blast effects along the southern border. Therefore, we recommend that additional measurements be made along this and other boundaries in future tests, to provide more comprehensive data to help determine the blast-wave propagation characteristics in the proposed development areas. Blast-wave focusing may occur in the proposed residential development area under certain weather conditions. We recommend that this possibility should be addressed for its potentially adverse impact on the proposed residential area. Because the testing ground controlled by Physics International, Inc. (PI) is adjacent to Site 300, it is important to be aware of PI`s detonation activities. Peak overpressure measurements near PI`s Corral Hollow Road entrance reveal that PI shots over 25 lb HE have exceeded 126 dB, the limit established by LLNL for safe operations.

Kang, Sang-Wook; Kleiber, J.C. Jr.

1993-08-01

472

Standard operating procedure: Gas atmosphere MELCO brazing furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible with the larger furnaces. Accelerator- and experimental-related components best assembled by atmosphere brazing techniques are routinely processed by this facility

Waller

1988-01-01

473

Protection of arc furnace supply systems from switching surges  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arc furnace supply system consists of one or several furnace transformers connected to a larger supply transformer through cables and overhead lines. In a conventional arc furnace, controlled arc between three phase electrodes heats a scrap material to the melting temperature. Due to the nature of the metallurgical processes involved, arc furnace transformers are very frequently energized and de-energized

Oguz A. Soysal

1999-01-01

474

20. Detail, Furnace A, shows the drill used to tap ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Detail, Furnace A, shows the drill used to tap the furnace (at center left) and the 'mud gun' used to close it up with a clay plug (at lower right). Metal chute at center (next to drill) was used to clean out furnace prior to its abandonment. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

475

Alkahest NuclearBLAST : a user-friendly BLAST management and analysis system  

PubMed Central

Background - Sequencing of EST and BAC end datasets is no longer limited to large research groups. Drops in per-base pricing have made high throughput sequencing accessible to individual investigators. However, there are few options available which provide a free and user-friendly solution to the BLAST result storage and data mining needs of biologists. Results - Here we describe NuclearBLAST, a batch BLAST analysis, storage and management system designed for the biologist. It is a wrapper for NCBI BLAST which provides a user-friendly web interface which includes a request wizard and the ability to view and mine the results. All BLAST results are stored in a MySQL database which allows for more advanced data-mining through supplied command-line utilities or direct database access. NuclearBLAST can be installed on a single machine or clustered amongst a number of machines to improve analysis throughput. NuclearBLAST provides a platform which eases data-mining of multiple BLAST results. With the supplied scripts, the program can export data into a spreadsheet-friendly format, automatically assign Gene Ontology terms to sequences and provide bi-directional best hits between two datasets. Users with SQL experience can use the database to ask even more complex questions and extract any subset of data they require. Conclusion - This tool provides a user-friendly interface for requesting, viewing and mining of BLAST results which makes the management and data-mining of large sets of BLAST analyses tractable to biologists.

Diener, Stephen E; Houfek, Thomas D; Kalat, Sam E; Windham, DE; Burke, Mark; Opperman, Charles; Dean, Ralph A

2005-01-01

476

Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide  

SciTech Connect

A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

2012-03-13

477

Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of fur...

R. F. Lind

1992-01-01

478

Temperature measurement in fire test furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of errors associated with temperature measurement in fire endurance test furnaces has shown that conventionally used thermocouples are subject to large time constant errors in the first 20 minutes of a standard test.

Vytenis Babrauskas; Robert Brady Williamson

1978-01-01

479

A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

1999-04-20

480

Radiation characteristics of electric furnace arcs  

SciTech Connect

The electric arc furnace uses the energy radiated from high-power electric arcs to melt steel. A disadvantage of the process is that the intense radiation can erode the refractory lining of the furnace. Empirical work has shown that refractory erosion depends on arc power and voltage and their product has been used as an index of this erosion. However, no theoretical basis has hitherto been presented for the refractory erosion index. This paper considers the electric arc as an ideal cylindrical radiator and proposes a theoretical basis for the observed empirical relationship. A similar index of arc energy into the furnace hearth is also derived. Computer simulation results are presented for a typical 80-ton electric arc furnace.

Munroe, M.M.

1982-08-01

481

Blasting to the Substrate of Various Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blasting is a substrate processing technique during which spherical or granular materials made of metal or ceramics are jetted against the substrate surface using compressed air. The high speed colliding of blasting materials against the surface produces a peening effect. The purpose of blasting is to create a clean substrate surface. However, there are almost no investigations that consider the influence of the substrate temperature. The object of this investigation is to clarify the influence of substrate temperature on blasting. Results of this investigation are summarized as follows: in spite of the substrate material, the removal rate was the smallest at 260~270 K. Influence of substrate temperature on the removal rate of an Al substrate is larger than that of other substrates. Influence of substrate temperature on arc height is large when higher than the room temperature. Influence of substrate temperature on arc height of an Al substrate is larger than that of other substrates. As hardness HV value increases, arc height becomes large. Even if the substrate temperature changes, an Am substrate can be used as a standard substrate for the blasting process.

Kubohori, Toshifumi; Tojo, Yuichi; Inui, Yasuyuki

2010-10-01

482

Densification of pond ash by blasting  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash from thermal power plants is disposed, in huge quantities in ash ponds, which occupy large land areas otherwise useful for agriculture, housing, or other development. For effective rehabilitation of ash ponds, densification of the slurry deposit is essential to increase the bearing capacity and to improve its resistance to liquefaction. Extensive field trials were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of deep blasting for densification of deposited fly ash. Ninety explosions comprising 15 single blasts, with varying depths and quantities of charges, and 3 group blasts, each having 25 charges placed at various spacings, were carried out. The compaction achieved in terms of an increase in relative density was evaluated from surface settlement measurements. Extensive field monitoring was undertaken through pore-water pressure measurements, vibration measurements, penetration tests, and block vibration tests. For the average charge of 2--4 g of explosive per cubic meter of untreated deposit, the average relative density was found to improve from 50% to 56--58%. Analysis of the test results indicates that deep blasting may be an effective technique for modest compaction of loose fly ash deposits. The field testing program presented in this paper provides valuable information that can be used for planning blast densification of fly ash deposits.

Gandhi, S.R.; Dey, A.K.; Selvam, S. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India)

1999-10-01

483

Bayesian detection of acoustic muzzle blasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic detection of gunshots has many security and military applications. Most gunfire produces both an acoustic muzzle-blast signal as well as a high-frequency shockwave. However some guns do not propel bullets with the speed required to cause shockwaves, and the use of a silencer can significantly reduce the energy of muzzle blasts; thus, although most existing commercial and military gunshot detection systems are based on shockwave detection, reliable detection across a wide range of applications requires the development of techniques which incorporate both muzzle-blast and shockwave phenomenologies. The detection of muzzle blasts is often difficult due to the presence of non-stationary background signals. Previous approaches to muzzle blast detection have applied pattern recognition techniques without specifically considering the non-stationary nature of the background signals and thus these techniques may perform poorly under realistic operating conditions. This research focuses on time domain modeling of the non-stationary background using Bayesian auto-regressive models. Bayesian parameter estimation can provide a principled approach to non-stationary modeling while also eliminating the stability concerns associated with standard adaptive procedures. Our proposed approach is tested on a synthetic dataset derived from recordings of actual background signals and a database of isolated gunfire. Detection results are compared to a standard adaptive approach, the least-mean squares (LMS) algorithm, across several signal to background ratios in both indoor and outdoor conditions.

Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Collins, Leslie

2009-05-01

484

Characterization of blasted austenitic stainless steel and its corrosion resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the corrosion resistance of stainless steel is deteriorated by blasting, but the reason for this deterioration is not clear. A blasted austenitic stainless steel plate (JIS-SUS304) has been characterized with comparison to the scraped and non-blasted specimens. The surface roughness of the blasted specimen is larger than that of materials finished with #180 paper. A martensite phase is formed in the surface layer of both blasted and scraped specimens. Compressive residual stress is generated in the blasted specimen and the maximum residual stress is formed at 50 100 µm from the surface. The corrosion potentials of the blasted specimen and subsequently solution treated specimen are lower than that of the non-blasted specimen. The passivation current densities of