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1

Law Vendor Coupon Co2 Blasting Tests  

SciTech Connect

The objectives identified in the test specification for the vendor CO2 blasting tests are to determine the ability of CO2 blasting to remove a measurable amount of surface material from Type 304L stainless steel and to identify the approximate blasting parameters for future testing on radioactively contaminated coupons.

May, C.G.

2003-07-25

2

Post-test blast response analyses of DICE THROW vehicles. Final report, 26 July 1977-1 March 1978  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a blast response study of select truck configurations fielded in the DICE THROW test. Using the TRUCK computer code, the response time-histories of four different Army wheeled vehicle systems exposed to both blast overpressure and dynamic pressure loadings were obtained. Important motions of the total systems subsequent to blast wave interception, particularly vehicle overturning, are plotted.

Wetmore, K.R.

1980-01-01

3

Div-BLAST: Diversification of Sequence Search Results  

PubMed Central

Sequence similarity tools, such as BLAST, seek sequences most similar to a query from a database of sequences. They return results significantly similar to the query sequence and that are typically highly similar to each other. Most sequence analysis tasks in bioinformatics require an exploratory approach, where the initial results guide the user to new searches. However, diversity has not yet been considered an integral component of sequence search tools for this discipline. Some redundancy can be avoided by introducing non-redundancy during database construction, but it is not feasible to dynamically set a level of non-redundancy tailored to a query sequence. We introduce the problem of diverse search and browsing in sequence databases that produce non-redundant results optimized for any given query. We define diversity measures for sequences and propose methods to obtain diverse results extracted from current sequence similarity search tools. We also propose a new measure to evaluate the diversity of a set of sequences that is returned as a result of a sequence similarity query. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methods in post-processing BLAST and PSI-BLAST results. We also assess the functional diversity of the returned results based on available Gene Ontology annotations. Additionally, we include a comparison with a current redundancy elimination tool, CD-HIT. Our experiments show that the proposed methods are able to achieve more diverse yet significant result sets compared to static non-redundancy approaches. In both sequence-based and functional diversity evaluation, the proposed diversification methods significantly outperform original BLAST results and other baselines. A web based tool implementing the proposed methods, Div-BLAST, can be accessed at cedar.cs.bilkent.edu.tr/Div-BLAST PMID:25531115

Eser, Elif; Can, Tolga; Ferhatosmano?lu, Hakan

2014-01-01

4

Laboratory-scale blast testing of materials using air-shock loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deformation of materials due to near-field explosions is a complex topic with many military and anti-terrorism applications. Typical explosive blast testing is conducted on large ballistic ranges using several kilograms of explosives, at a high cost, and with limited instrumentation. We have developed a range of experimental techniques for performing explosive blast research in the laboratory using gram-range explosive charges. Here we present recent measurements of the deformation of aluminum panels subjected to a range of explosive blast impulses. Through an explosive characterization procedure the blast impulse produced by a charge is known a priori. Our approach then couples the known explosion energy to the aluminum panels via shock wave propagation through the air. Time-resolved three-dimensional motion of the panel surface response is directly measured via stereoscopic high-speed digital image correlation. The data are used to compare material deformation characteristics to explosive loading parameters. These laboratory techniques can be used for validation of computational simulations and to develop high-strain rate material strength models. Ultimately results from these gram-range tests can be scaled to predict full-scale blast response characteristics.

Svingala, Forrest; Biss, Matthew; Hargather, Michael; Settles, Gary

2009-11-01

5

Thermal mass: A comparison of measurements and blast predictions for six test cells in two climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains the results of the comparison of BLAST (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics) predictions and measured data from three experimental test cells at each of two field sites operated by the New Mexico Research and Development Institute and the US National Bureau of Standards, respectively. For each cell, comparisons were made for three simulation time periods representing

W. L. Carroll; A. Mertol; R. Sullivan

1987-01-01

6

Test of Some Hybrid Combinations to Rice Blast  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. Blast resistant cultivars are recognized as the most efficacious and economical way to control this disease. Genetic resistance to rice blast is generally governed by a few major genes, often in c...

7

Small-scale tunnel test for blast performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data reported here provide a validation of a small-scale tunnel test as a tool to guide the optimization of new explosives for blast performance in tunnels. The small-scale arrangement consisted of a 2-g booster and 10-g sample mounted at the closed end of a 127mm diameter by 4.6-m long steel tube with pressure transducers along its length. The three performance characteristics considered were peak pressure, initial energy release, and impulse. The relative performance from five explosives was compared to that from a 1.16-m diameter by 30-m long tunnel that used 2.27-kg samples. The peak pressure values didn't correlate between the tunnels. Partial impulse for the explosives did rank similarly. The initial energy release was determined from a one-dimensional point-source analysis, which nearly tracked with impulse suggesting additional energy released further down the tunnel for some explosives. This test is a viable tool for optimizing compositional variations for blast performance in target scenarios of similar geometry.

Felts, J. E.; Lee, R. J.

2014-05-01

8

Testing and modeling the dynamic response of foam materials for blast protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressure wave released from an explosion can cause injury to the lungs. A personal armor system concept for blast lung injury protection consists of a polymer foam layer behind a rigid armor plate to be worn over the chest. This research develops a method for testing and modeling the dynamic response of foam materials to be used for down-selection of materials for this application. Constitutive equations for foam materials are incorporated into a lumped parameter model of the combined armor plate and foam system. Impact testing and shock tube testing are used to measure the foam model parameters and validate the model response to a pressure wave load. The plate and foam armor model is then coupled to a model of the human thorax. With a blast pressure wave input, the armor model is evaluated based on how it affects the injury-causing mechanism of chest wall motion. Results show that to reduce chest wall motion, the foam must compress at a relatively constant stress level, which requires a sufficient foam thickness.

Fitek, John H.

9

Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) resulting from Chelyabinsk Meteor Blast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global network of GPS receivers continuously make line-of-sight (LOS) measurements of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere. This TEC measurement data can be analyzed to 'persistently monitor' natural and man-made activity in the atmosphere (such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, rocket launches, etc) which propagate into the ionosphere to produce TIDs (Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances). As an example we have analyzed in detail the TIDs resulting from the 15 Feb 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor blast as observed by the Artu GPS receiver site in Arti, Russia close to the event. Seven of the GPS satellite measurements with LOS pierce points within 1000 km of the blast show disturbances. Four of these clearly show VTEC oscillations with ~12 minute periods. The other three show much weaker responses, but their LOS pierce points are far from the blast and their aspects between the geomagnetic field & blast propagation vector are unfavorable (near broadside). By fitting all seven measurements we estimate a propagation speed of ~380 m/s for these medium-scale TIDs. As future 'persistent surveillance' efforts we intend to investigate the observability of man-made activities such as static rocket engine firings in TEC measurements. Analysis of MSTIDs resulting from the Chelyabinsk meteor blast

Sheeks, B. J.; Warren, N.; Coster, A. J.

2013-12-01

10

Cholesterol testing and results  

MedlinePLUS

... test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia-results; Lipid disorder test results ... in your blood. You may also have a lipid (or coronary risk) profile, which includes: Total cholesterol ...

11

Characterisation of underground blast-induced ground motions from large-scale field tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-situ large-scale underground blast test program was conducted to investigate stress wave characteristics inside the medium, at the soil-rock interface and on the soil ground surface. The stress wave measurements were made through a vertical borehole and a horizontal borehole inside the rock mass, and along several horizontal lines arranged at the rock-soil interface and on the soil surface.

C. Wu; Y. Lu; H. Hao; W. K. Lim; Y. Zhou; C. C. Seah

2003-01-01

12

June 7 Ballistic Blast Results in Solar Tsunami - Duration: 0:08.  

NASA Video Gallery

In addition to the magnificent blast, SDO detected a shadowy shock wave issuing from the blast site on the June 7, 2011 event. The 'solar tsunami' propagated more than halfway across the sun, visib...

13

COâ pellet blasting literature search and decontamination scoping tests report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using current decontamination techniques. Chemical decontamination flushes have provided a satisfactory level

1993-01-01

14

Realistic warhead and blast shield testing of chemical energy tandem warhead systems for advanced antitank missiles  

SciTech Connect

The results of dynamic sled track performance testing of advanced tandem configuration shaped-charge warheads against multiple-reactive-element tank armors are presented. Tandem configurations utilizing both currently fielded and experimental shaped-charge warheads were tested. Sled velocities used were between 400 and 1100 ft/s (Mach number 0.35 to 0.95), typical of the terminal approach velocity of TOW-type antitank missiles. High-speed motion pictures (5000 frames/s) of the sled in operation and a typical mock missile'' warhead package approaching the target are shown. Details of the sled design and fabrication and of the warhead package design and fabrication are presented. Sled track instrumentation is discussed. This instrumentation includes foil make/break switches and associated time interval meters (TIM) and digital delay units (DDU), magnetic Hall-effect transistors for measuring sled trajectory, and flash x-rays (FXR). Methods for timing the x-rays are presented. Schematic functional diagrams of the experimental setups are also given. Evidence of the ability to accurately time the delay between precursor and main warheads for even very long time delays are presented. FXR pictures illustrate the dynamics of the interaction of the jets with various target elements. The interaction dynamics of the jets is discussed in relation to the overall penetration performance of the tandem warhead. The use of x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to help diagnose interaction dynamics is illustrated. The results of a test utilizing the missile propulsion rocket motor as a blast shield is presented in this paper. 2 refs., 22 figs.

Fradkin, D.B.; Hull, L.M.; Laabs, G.W.

1990-01-01

15

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

Crelling, J.C.

1995-12-31

16

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1994-12-31

17

CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies  

SciTech Connect

Initial tests with CO{sub 2} pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO{sub 2} blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report.

Archibald, K.E.

1997-01-01

18

Full-scale testing and numerical modeling of a multistory masonry structure subjected to internal blast loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As military and diplomatic representatives of the United States are deployed throughout the world, they must frequently make use of local, existing facilities; it is inevitable that some of these will be load bearing unreinforced masonry (URM) structures. Although generally suitable for conventional design loads, load bearing URM presents a unique hazard, with respect to collapse, when exposed to blast loading. There is therefore a need to study the blast resistance of load bearing URM construction in order to better protect US citizens assigned to dangerous locales. To address this, the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte conducted three blast tests inside a decommissioned, coal-fired, power plant prior to its scheduled demolition. The power plant's walls were constructed of URM and provided an excellent opportunity to study the response of URM walls in-situ. Post-test analytical studies investigated the ability of existing blast load prediction methodologies to model the case of a cylindrical charge with a low height of burst. It was found that even for the relatively simple blast chamber geometries of these tests, simplified analysis methods predicted blast impulses with an average net error of 22%. The study suggested that existing simplified analysis methods would benefit from additional development to better predict blast loads from cylinders detonated near the ground's surface. A hydrocode, CTH, was also used to perform two and three-dimensional simulations of the blast events. In order to use the hydrocode, Jones Wilkins Lee (JWL) equation of state (EOS) coefficients were developed for the experiment's Unimax dynamite charges; a novel energy-scaling technique was developed which permits the derivation of new JWL coefficients from an existing coefficient set. The hydrocode simulations were able to simulate blast impulses with an average absolute error of 34.5%. Moreover, the hydrocode simulations provided highly resolved spatio-temporal blast loading data for subsequent structural simulations. Equivalent single-degree-of-freedom (ESDOF) structural response models were then used to predict the out-of-plane deflections of blast chamber walls. A new resistance function was developed which permits a URM wall to crack at any height; numerical methodologies were also developed to compute transformation factors required for use in the ESDOF method. When combined with the CTH derived blast loading predictions, the ESDOF models were able to predict out-of-plane deflections with reasonable accuracy. Further investigations were performed using finite element models constructed in LS-DYNA; the models used elastic elements combined with contacts possessing a tension/shear cutoff and the ability to simulate fracture energy release. Using the CTH predicted blast loads and carefully selected constitutive parameters, the LS-DYNA models were able to both qualitatively and quantitatively predict blast chamber wall deflections and damage patterns. Moreover, the finite element models suggested several modes of response which cannot be modeled by current ESDOF methods; the effect of these response modes on the accuracy of ESDOF predictions warrants further study.

Zapata, Brian Jarvis

19

Lithium cell test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

Bragg, B. J.

1977-01-01

20

Results of patch tests  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this work were to construct, install, and operate a patch testing unit on a hot gas stream at a coal-fired fluidized-bed boiler. A 2,000-hour patch test was conducted on ceramic disks of materials used in the fabrication of ceramic candles and ceramic cross-flow filters. The primary issues addressed in these tests were the long-term physical, thermal, and chemical stability of the ceramic materials; long-term pressure drop and filtration characteristics of the ceramic filters; potential for irreversible blinding of filter elements; and long-term performance and reliability of auxiliary hardware, such as the tube sheet and pulse-cleaning systems. Results on three samples, or patches, 10 cm in diameter are given.

Pontius, D.H.

1994-10-01

21

Climax granite test results  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program, is carrying out in situ rock mechanics testing in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This summary addresses only those field data taken to date that address thermomechanical modeling for a hard-rock repository. The results to be discussed include thermal measurements in a heater test that was conducted from October 1977 through July 1978, and stress and displacement measurements made during and after excavation of the canister storage drift for the Spent Fuel Test (SFT) in the Climax granite. Associated laboratory and field measurements are summarized. The rock temperature for a given applied heat load at a point in time and space can be adequately modeled with simple analytic calculations involving superposition and integration of numerous point source solutions. The input, for locations beyond about a meter from the source, can be a constant thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The value of thermal conductivity required to match the field data is as much as 25% different from laboratory-measured values. Therefore, unless we come to understand the mechanisms for this difference, a simple in situ test will be required to obtain a value for final repository design. Some sensitivity calculations have shown that the temperature field is about ten times more sensitive to conductivity than to diffusivity under the test conditions. The orthogonal array was designed to detect anisotropy. After considering all error sources, anisotropic efforts in the thermal field were less than 5 to 10%.

Ramspott, L.D.

1980-01-15

22

Characterization of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Nuclear Blast Cavities of the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This exploratory research project is designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the possible existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations in Nevada Test Site (NTS) subsurface nuclear blast cavities. Although subsurface microbiological studies have been performed at the NTS in the past, radioactive zones have yet to be addressed. Nuclear blast zone microbiology is a completely new field and our team is well-positioned to collect and analyze samples that have never before been available to microbiologists. Relevant samples are now being obtained by incorporating microbiological collections into an ongoing annual hot well sampling program being conducted by other agencies. A combination of cultivation-based and molecular microbial detection protocols is being utilized at multiple locations to survey for uncultivable microorganisms and to develop a culture collection which will be characterized for radionuclide- and metal-reduction capabilities. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, a positive outcome from this work would have significant implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites. A primary objective of the project has been the establishment of the regulatory and technical framework necessary to enable our acquisition of samples. Thus, much of our activity in the first phase of this work has involved the development an approved Field Area Work Plan (FAWP), Radiological Work Permit (RWP), and other documentation required for radiological work at the NTS. We have also invested significant time into ensuring that all personnel possess the required training (e.g. Radworker II and 40 hr. HAZWOPER) for access to the hot well sampling sites. Laboratory facilities, required for field processing of radioactive samples as well as DNA extraction and other manipulations, have been secured both the NTS (Mercury, NV) and UNLV. Although our year-1 field work was delayed due to non-availability of samples, an aggressive sampling campaign is now underway and our first hot well samples were collected on Feb 5th, 2008. The unique nature of this site, coupled with the combined expertise of the collaborating laboratories (DRI, LLNL, PNNL, and the Harry Reid Center) makes the likelihood of our achieving discoveries of value to DOE, the individual researchers, and society high. As the selective pressures at atomic blast sites are probably different from those of production and disposal sites, these habitats may contain novel organisms of utility for bioremediation. Such organisms will have had to develop physiological mechanisms to survive high doses of ionizing radiation over the variety of rock types and hydrologic environments present at the NTS.

Duane Moser; Chuck Russell; Matthew Marshall; Ken Czerwinski; Michael J. Daly; Mavrik Zavarin

2008-02-08

23

LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report  

SciTech Connect

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31

24

Evaluation of blast effects on reinforced concrete buildings considering Operational Modal Analysis results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic protection of buildings under risk can be achieved by increasing the knowledge about the behaviour of existing structures. Operational Modal Analysis is a powerful tool used for this purpose all over the world. It provides the dynamic characteristics of structures under operational conditions or some particular environmental issues such as blasts and earthquakes. The main objective of this study

Alemdar Bayraktar; Temel Türker; Ahmet Can Altuni?ik; Bar?? Sevim

2010-01-01

25

Your Kidney Test Results  

MedlinePLUS

... the acid level in your blood. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Normal: Less than 20 Your Result: BUN ... PTH) Normal: Less than 65 Your Result: PTH controls the calcium and phosphorus levels in your blood. ...

26

Single round blasting of 10-foot diameter X 65-foot depth emplacement collar holes at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Since 1961 REECo has drilled and mined emplacement holes for testing nuclear devices underground. An oversize drill pattern was the primary method used. The application of drilling the final size configuration hole to a 65-foot depth and mucking with the Auger Rig was then investigated. Numerous drilling patterns, loading and time schemes and methods were tried. Some were successful. Most were expensive. All concerned looked for a better and less costly method for this collar casing installation. Poor fragmentation in the collar holes prior to Atlas Powder becoming involved resulted in slow hole cleanout and excessive rig maintenance with associated excessive costs. One of the more successful shots was a 120-inch diameter {times} 60-foot deep hole that was drilled using 3 1/2-inch holes and then casing them to a 2-inch diameter using PVC pipe. A 30-inch burn hole was drilled to total depth. Twenty-seven 3 1/2-inch holes were drilled and then loaded with 1 1/2-inch powder boosted with Detaprimes and wired using all 0 delay caps. This shot smooth walled and the blast holes were visible all the way from top to bottom. Fragmentation was excellent and the Auger Rig mucked out quickly. The 28-inch bit used for the burn hole was a high cost item in this test and other methods continued to be investigated.

Not Available

1991-01-01

27

On the Interaction and Coalescence if Spherical Blast Waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scaling and similarity laws concerning the propagation of isolated spherical blast waves are briefly reviewed. Both point source explosions and high pressure gas explosions are considered. Test data on blast overpressure from the interaction and coalescence of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives in the form of shaped charges of different strength placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure. The results point out the possibility of detecting source explosions from far-field pressure measurements.

Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert J.

2005-01-01

28

Blast injury research models  

PubMed Central

Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. Blast casualties also commonly suffer secondary and tertiary blast injuries resulting in significant blood loss. The presence of hypoxaemia owing to blast lung complicates the process of fluid resuscitation. Consequently, prolonged hypotensive resuscitation was found to be incompatible with survival after combined blast lung and haemorrhage. This article describes studies addressing new forward resuscitation strategies involving a hybrid blood pressure profile (initially hypotensive followed later by normotensive resuscitation) and the use of supplemental oxygen to increase survival and reduce physiological deterioration during prolonged resuscitation. Surprisingly, hypertonic saline dextran was found to be inferior to normal saline after combined blast injury and haemorrhage. New strategies have therefore been developed to address the needs of blast-injured casualties and are likely to be particularly useful under circumstances of enforced delayed evacuation to surgical care. PMID:21149352

Kirkman, E.; Watts, S.; Cooper, G.

2011-01-01

29

Organic Separation Test Results  

SciTech Connect

Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

2014-09-22

30

Evaluation of copper slag blast media for railcar maintenance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Copper slag was tested as a blasting substitute for zirconium silicate which is used to remove paint from railroad cars. The copper slag tested is less costly, strips paint faster, is produced near the point of need, provides a good bonding surface for paint, and permits the operator to work in a more comfortable position, i.e., standing nearly erect instead of having to crouch. Outdoor blasting with the tested Blackhawk (20 to 40 mesh) copper slag is also environmentally acceptable to the State of Utah. Results of tests for the surface erosion rate with copper slag blasting are included.

Sagers, N. W.; Finlayson, Mack H.

1989-01-01

31

Porcine Head Response to Blast  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740?kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9?ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30?s and the remaining two recovered within 8?min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390?kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830?kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2?=?0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for computer model validation. PMID:22586417

Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

2012-01-01

32

An introductory characterization of a combat-casualty-care relevant swine model of closed head injury resulting from exposure to explosive blast.  

PubMed

Explosive blast has been extensively used as a tactical weapon in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and more recently in Operation Enduring Freedom(OEF). The polytraumatic nature of blast injuries is evidence of their effectiveness,and brain injury is a frequent and debilitating form of this trauma. In-theater clinical observations of brain-injured casualties have shown that edema, intracranial hemorrhage, and vasospasm are the most salient pathophysiological characteristics of blast injury to the brain. Unfortunately, little is known about exactly how an explosion produces these sequelae as well as others that are less well documented. Consequently, the principal objective of the current report is to present a swine model of explosive blast injury to the brain. This model was developed during Phase I of the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) PREVENT (Preventing Violent Explosive Neurotrauma) blast research program. A second objective is to present data that illustrate the capabilities of this model to study the proximal biomechanical causes and the resulting pathophysiological, biochemical,neuropathological, and neurological consequences of explosive blast injury to the swine brain. In the concluding section of this article, the advantages and limitations of the model are considered, explosive and air-overpressure models are compared, and the physical properties of an explosion are identified that potentially contributed to the in-theater closed head injuries resulting from explosions of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). PMID:19215189

Bauman, Richard A; Ling, Geoffrey; Tong, Lawrence; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Agoston, Dennis; Delanerolle, Nihal; Kim, Young; Ritzel, Dave; Bell, Randy; Ecklund, James; Armonda, Rocco; Bandak, Faris; Parks, Steven

2009-06-01

33

Evolution of blast wave profiles in simulated air blasts: experiment and computational modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock tubes have been extensively used in the study of blast traumatic brain injury due to increased incidence of blast-induced neurotrauma in Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. One of the important aspects in these studies is how to best replicate the field conditions in the laboratory which relies on reproducing blast wave profiles. Evolution of the blast wave profiles along the length of the compression-driven air shock tube is studied using experiments and numerical simulations with emphasis on the shape and magnitude of pressure time profiles. In order to measure dynamic pressures of the blast, a series of sensors are mounted on a cylindrical specimen normal to the flow direction. Our results indicate that the blast wave loading is significantly different for locations inside and outside of the shock tube. Pressure profiles inside the shock tube follow the Friedlander waveform fairly well. Upon approaching exit of the shock tube, an expansion wave released from the shock tube edges significantly degrades the pressure profiles. For tests outside the shock tube, peak pressure and total impulse reduce drastically as we move away from the exit and majority of loading is in the form of subsonic jet wind. In addition, the planarity of the blast wave degrades as blast wave evolves three dimensionally. Numerical results visually and quantitatively confirm the presence of vortices, jet wind and three-dimensional expansion of the planar blast wave near the exit. Pressure profiles at 90° orientation show flow separation. When cylinder is placed inside, this flow separation is not sustained, but when placed outside the shock tube this flow separation is sustained which causes tensile loading on the sides of the cylinder. Friedlander waves formed due to field explosives in the intermediate-to far-field ranges are replicated in a narrow test region located deep inside the shock tube.

Chandra, N.; Ganpule, S.; Kleinschmit, N. N.; Feng, R.; Holmberg, A. D.; Sundaramurthy, A.; Selvan, V.; Alai, A.

2012-09-01

34

Blast Loading Experiments of Surrogate Models for Tbi Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical models. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical PMMA shells housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory test cell setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head near material interfaces due to impedance mismatches. In addition, significant relative displacement was observed between the interacting materials suggesting large strain values of nearly 5%. Further quantitative results were obtained through shadowgraph imaging of the blasts confirming a separation of time scales between blast interaction and bulk movement. These results lead to the conclusion that primary blast effects could cause TBI occurrences.

Alley, M. D.; Son, S. F.

2009-12-01

35

ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

E.F. fitch

1995-03-13

36

Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools  

SciTech Connect

In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing; evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.

Cameron, A.R. [Golder Associates Ltd., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); Kleine, T.H. [Golder Associates Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Forsyth, W.W. [Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

1995-12-31

37

Variability of aflatoxin test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 12 lb samples, 280 g subsamples, the Waltking method of analysis, and densitometric procedures, the sampling, subsampling,\\u000a and analytical variances associated with aflatoxin test procedures were estimated. Regression analysis indicated that each\\u000a of the above variance components is a function of the concentration of aflatoxin in the population being tested. Results,\\u000a for the test procedures given above, showed that

T. B. Whitaker; J. W. Dickens; R. J. Monroe

1974-01-01

38

Large blast and thermal simulator advanced concept driver design by computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of a large test facility is proposed for simulating the blast and thermal environment resulting from nuclear explosions. This facility would be used to test the survivability and vulnerability of military equipment such as trucks, tanks and helicopters in a simulated thermal and blast environment, and to perform research into nuclear blast phenomenology. The proposed advanced design concepts, heating of driver gas and fast-acting throat valves for wave shaping, are described and the results of CFD studies to advance these new technical concepts for simulating decaying blast waves are reported.

Opalka, Klaus O.

1989-08-01

39

Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). II. In vivo canine results of blast path treatment of human gallstones.  

PubMed

To evaluate the role of ESWL in vivo for the treatment of human gallstones positioned on the blast path, a canine model was developed to determine the efficacy of stone fragmentation and the subsequent histopathological injury that occurs as a result of this therapeutic technique. Twenty-four 16- to 20-kg mongrel dogs were divided into five groups: I: ESWL without stone, autopsy at 48 hr (N = 6); II: ESWL with stone (mean diameter 16.8 mm, range = 14-19 mm), autopsy at 48 hr (N = 10); III: ESWL without stone, autopsy at 41-46 days (N = 6); IV: ESWL without stone, autopsy immediately after ESWL (N = 1); V: No ESWL or stone, autopsy 2 hr after anesthesia induction (N = 1). A human gallstone (96% cholesterol) was inserted by cholecystotomy (N = 10) in Group II only. All groups (N = 24) had operative placement of a 6.5 Fr accordion catheter into the gallbladder for radiographic visualization. For each blast path treatment, 2000 discharges were delivered at 18-24 kV. Histopathologically, the Group V gallbladder served as a control. Groups I, II, and IV revealed mild subacute injury; dog gallbladders in Group III showed regression of these changes. Total surface area (TSA) of Group II stones increased from a pre-ESWL mean of 6.60 +/- 0.0.84 cm2 to 53.84 +/- 26.8 cm2 post-ESWL (P less than 0.001). Cumulative post-ESWL fragment sizes for particles in less than or equal to 2-, less than or equal to 3-, less than or equal to 5-, less than 10- and greater than or equal to 10-mm categories represented 32.9, 41.6, 49.4, 74.3, and 100% of pretreatment stone weight, respectively. These data indicate that human gallstones can be fractured to a variable degree when treated on the ESWL blast path and that TSA increased significantly. Gallbladder histopathologic changes appear to be reversible by 41-46 days post-ESWL. PMID:3374122

Newman, R C; Bland, K I; Gravenstein, N; Hackett, R L; Paulus, D A; Finlayson, B; Hawkins, I F; Copeland, E M

1988-05-01

40

SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

2005-05-01

41

A Multiscale Approach to Blast Neurotrauma Modeling: Part I – Development of Novel Test Devices for in vivo and in vitro Blast Injury Models  

PubMed Central

The loading conditions used in some current in vivo and in vitro blast-induced neurotrauma models may not be representative of real-world blast conditions. To address these limitations, we developed a compressed-gas driven shock tube with different driven lengths that can generate Friedlander-type blasts. The shock tube can generate overpressures up to 650?kPa with durations between 0.3 and 1.1?ms using compressed helium driver gas, and peak overpressures up to 450?kPa with durations between 0.6 and 3?ms using compressed nitrogen. This device is used for short-duration blast overpressure loading for small animal in vivo injury models, and contrasts the more frequently used long duration/high impulse blast overpressures in the literature. We also developed a new apparatus that is used with the shock tube to recreate the in vivo intracranial overpressure response for loading in vitro culture preparations. The receiver device surrounds the culture with materials of similar impedance to facilitate the propagation of a single overpressure pulse through the tissue. This method prevents pressure waves reflecting off the tissue that can cause unrealistic deformation and injury. The receiver performance was characterized using the longest helium-driven shock tube, and produced in-fluid overpressures up to 1500?kPa at the location where a culture would be placed. This response was well correlated with the overpressure conditions from the shock tube (R2?=?0.97). Finite element models of the shock tube and receiver were developed and validated to better elucidate the mechanics of this methodology. A demonstration exposing a culture to the loading conditions created by this system suggest tissue strains less than 5% for all pressure levels simulated, which was well below functional deficit thresholds for strain rates less than 50?s?1. This novel system is not limited to a specific type of culture model and can be modified to reproduce more complex pressure pulses. PMID:22470367

Panzer, Matthew B.; Matthews, Kyle A.; Yu, Allen W.; Morrison, Barclay; Meaney, David F.; Bass, Cameron R.

2012-01-01

42

LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)  

SciTech Connect

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31

43

COLD TEST LOOP INTEGRATED TEST LOOP RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

A testing facility (Cold Test Loop) was constructed and operated to demonstrate the efficacy of the Accelerated Waste Retrieval (AWR) Project's planned sluicing approach to the remediation of Silos 1 and 2 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, Ohio. The two silos contain almost 10,000 tons of radium-bearing low-level waste, which consists primarily of solids of raffinates from processing performed on ores from the Democratic Republic of Congo (commonly referred to as ''Belgium Congo ores'') for the recovery of uranium. These silos are 80 ft in diameter, 36 ft high to the center of the dome, and 26.75 ft to the top of the vertical side walls. The test facility contained two test systems, each designed for a specific purpose. The first system, the Integrated Test Loop (ITL), a near-full-scale plant including the actual equipment to be installed at the Fernald Site, was designed to demonstrate the sluicing operation and confirm the selection of a slurry pump, the optimal sluicing nozzle operation, and the preliminary design material balance. The second system, the Component Test Loop (CTL), was designed to evaluate many of the key individual components of the waste retrieval system over an extended run. The major results of the initial testing performed during July and August 2002 confirmed that the AWR approach to sluicing was feasible. The ITL testing confirmed the following: (1) The selected slurry pump (Hazleton 3-20 type SHW) performed well and is suitable for AWR application. However, the pump's motor should be upgraded to a 200-hp model and be driven by a 150-hp variable-frequency drive (VFD). A 200-hp VFD is not much more expensive and would allow the pump to operate at full speed. (2) The best nozzle performance was achieved by using 15/16-in. nozzles operated alternately. This configuration appeared to most effectively mine the surrogate. (3) The Solartron densitometer, which was tested as an alternative mass flow measurement device, did not operate effectively. Consequently, it is not suitable for application to the AWR process. (4) Initially, the spray ring (operated at approximately 2300 psi) and the nozzles provided by the pump vendor did not perform acceptably. The nozzles were replaced with a more robust model, and the performance was then acceptable. (5) The average solids concentration achieved in the slurry before Bentogrout addition was approximately 16% by weight. The solids concentration of the slurry after Bentogrout addition ranged from 26% to approximately 40%. The slurry pump and ITL system performed well at every concentration. No line plugging or other problems were noted. The results of the CTL runs and later ITL testing are summarized in an appendix to this report.

Abraham, TJ

2003-10-22

44

Biology of grit-blasted titanium alloy implants.  

PubMed

This study describes the biologic integration of grit-blasted titanium alloy (Ti-6A1-4V) implants that were press fit into the distal femoral canal of young adult rabbits and evaluated by histologic, histomorphometric, and biomechanical methods. Polished and aluminum oxide grit-blasted (4.2 +/- 0.7 microns surface roughness) solid implants were compared with titanium fibermetal implants. Nondecalcified cross sections were studied by histology, histomorphometry, and electron microscopy in the backscatter mode at 3, 6, and 12 weeks after implantation. Pullout strength was measured at 12 weeks. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls and Scheffe's tests. The blasted implants had significantly more bone intimately in contact with the implant surface (31%) than the fibermetal (17%), or solid polished implants (15%). By 3 weeks, woven bone had formed directly on the surface of the blasted implants, whereas there was a discrete space between woven bone and the other implants. Active remodeling of bone was shown by fluorochrome uptake at the surface of the blasted implants at 12 weeks after implantation. The strength of fixation of blasted and fiber-metal implants was significantly greater than polished implants at 12 weeks after implantation. Direct attachment of newly formed bone onto the blasted implant surface was confirmed by backscatter electron microscopy. The results of this study indicate that grit-blasted titanium surfaces provide an excellent surface for bone implant integration. PMID:7554621

Goldberg, V M; Stevenson, S; Feighan, J; Davy, D

1995-10-01

45

NCV Flow Diagnostic Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There were two objectives for this test. First, was to assess the reasons why there is approximately 1.5 drag counts (cts) discrepancy between measured and computed drag improvement of the Non-linear Cruise Validation (NCV) over the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) wing body (WB) configurations. The Navier-Stokes (N-S) pre-test predictions from Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (BCAG) show 4.5 drag cts of improvement for NCV over TCA at a lift coefficient (CL) of 0. I at Mach 2.4. The pre-test predictions from Boeing Phantom Works - Long Beach, BPW-LB, show 3.75 drag cts of improvement. BCAG used OVERFLOW and BPW-LB used CFL3D. The first test entry to validate the improvement was held at the NASA Langley Research Center (LARC) UPV;T, test number 1687. The experimental results showed that the drag improvement was only 2.6 cts, not accounting for laminar run and trip drag. This is approximately 1.5 cts less than predicted computationally. In addition to the low Reynolds Number (RN) test, there was a high RN test in the Boeing Supersonic Wind Tunnel (BSWT) of NCV and TCA. BSV@T test 647 showed that the drag improvement of NCV over TCA was also 2.6 cts, but this did account for laminar run and trip drag. Every effort needed to be done to assess if the improvement measured in LaRC UPWT and BSWT was correct. The second objective, once the first objective was met, was to assess the performance increment of NCV over TCA accounting for the associated laminar run and trip drag corrections in LaRC UPWT. We know that the configurations tested have laminar flow on portions of the wing and have trip drag due to the mechanisms used to force the flow to go from laminar to turbulent aft of the transition location.

Cappuccio, Mina

1999-01-01

46

Mobile evaporator corrosion test results  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80{degrees}C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either {open_quotes}satisfactory{close_quotes} (2-20 mpy) or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} (<2 mpy) corrosion resistance as defined by National Association of Corrosion Engineers. However, many of the alloys experienced intergranular corrosion in the nitric acid test solution, which could indicate a susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in this environment.

Rozeveld, A.; Chamberlain, D.B.

1997-05-01

47

The cellphone antenna test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of experimental testing near reactive zone of the different kinds the cellphone antennas are presented. Dielectric coating parameters influence on cellphone antenna near reactive zone pattern is studied. The specific absorption rate (SAR) is also measured, presented and discussed in this paper. The properties of electrically small antennas as a function their total length, geometry and effective volume

A. I. Karpov; V. A. Katrych; E. A. Antonenko; S. A. Yarmolchuc

2009-01-01

48

Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

49

Therapeutic effect of sildenafil on blast-induced tinnitus and auditory impairment.  

PubMed

Blast-induced tinnitus, along with associated auditory impairment and traumatic brain injury, is a primary concern facing military service members. To search for treatment, we investigated the therapeutic effects of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, given its vasodilatory effects and evidence suggesting its beneficial effects on noise-induced hearing loss. Rats were subjected to three consecutive blast exposures at 22 psi and were monitored for tinnitus using a gap-detection acoustic startle reflex paradigm. Hearing thresholds and detection were tested using auditory brainstem responses and prepulse inhibition, respectively. Blasted rats were either treated with sildenafil or tap water following blast exposure, while age-matched sham control rats were treated with sildenafil and no blast exposure. Our results showed that sildenafil did not effectively prevent acute tinnitus onset and hearing impairment. Instead, sildenafil significantly suppressed high-frequency tinnitus from 3 to 6 weeks after blast exposure and reduced hearing impairment during the first week after blast exposure. Complex results were observed in the startle force data, where sildenafil-treated rats displayed significantly reduced startle force compared to the untreated blasted group, suggesting possible mitigation of traumatic brain injury and suppression of hyperacusis-like percepts. Taken together, sildenafil showed a therapeutic effect on blast-induced tinnitus and audiological impairment in a time-dependent manner. Other regimens such as higher dosage prior to blast exposure and combination with other treatments deserve further investigation to optimize the therapeutic effects. PMID:24662845

Mahmood, G; Mei, Z; Hojjat, H; Pace, E; Kallakuri, S; Zhang, J S

2014-06-01

50

Rib butterfly fractures as a possible indicator of blast trauma.  

PubMed

Forensic anthropologists have become increasingly involved in the interpretation of skeletal trauma caused by exploding ordnance. This study examines the cause and significance of butterfly fractures observed in a recent study investigating skeletal blast trauma by Christensen et al. Fractured ribs resulting from blast events carried out in the original study were re-examined revealing that rib butterfly fractures with the tensile indicator on the visceral surface were present in 100% of viable pig specimens. Additionally, manual fracture testing was performed on 46 pig ribs to simulate the bending force believed to have been sustained in the original blast events. Fracture testing resulted in 93% of specimens presenting butterfly fractures with the tensile indicator on the visceral surface. This fracture pattern differs significantly from that normally observed in association with other types of trauma events and may aid forensic anthropologists and other investigators in the identification and interpretation of blast events. PMID:23126284

Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Victoria A

2013-01-01

51

Characterization of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Nuclear Blast Cavities of the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this program’s Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H2 and SO42- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

Duane P. Moser, Jim Bruckner, Jen Fisher, Ken Czerwinski, Charles E. Russell, and Mavrik Zavarin

2010-09-01

52

Characterization of microbial communities in subsurface nuclear blast cavities of the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this programâ??s Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H2 and SO42- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

Duane P. Moser; Ken Czerwinski; Charles E. Russell; Mavrik Zavarin

2010-07-13

53

Blast response of a hardened Army ISO shelter  

SciTech Connect

A prototype shelter was designed to withstand a blast loading corresponding to a 10.0 psi (68.9 kPa) incident overpressure. The hardened shelter was then constructed, instrumented and subjected to a simulated nuclear blast loading. Test results demonstrated that a design featuring shear stiffened sandwich panels with aluminum face materials could withstand a nominal 10.0 psi incident shock loading.

Milligan, R.W.; Lush, A.; Crenshaw, W.L.

1982-09-01

54

Cryogenic Brush Seal Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brush seals are compliant, contact seals that have long-life, low-leakage characteristics desirable for use in rocket engine turbopumps. 50.8-mm (2.0 inch) diameter brush seals with a nominal initial radial interference of 0.127-mm (0.005 inch) were tested in liquid nitrogen at shaft speeds up to 35,000 rpm and differential pressure loads up to 1.21 MPa (175 psi) per brush. The measured leakage rate of a single brush was 2-3 times less than that measured for a 12-tooth, 0.127-mm (0.005 inch) radial clearance labyrinth seal used as a baseline. Stage effects were studied and it was found that two brush seals with a large separation distance leaked less than two brushes tightly packed together. The maximum measured groove depth on the Inconel 718 rotor was 25.4 (mu)m (0.001 inch) after 4.31 hours of shaft rotation. The Haynes-25 bristles wore approximately 25.4-76.2 (mu)m (0.001-0.003 inch) under the same conditions. Three seal runner coatings, chromium carbide, Teflon impregnated chromium, and zirconium oxide, were tested in liquid hydrogen at 35,000 and 65,000 rpm with separate 50.8 mm diameter brush seals made of Haynes-25 bristles and having a nominal initial radial interference of 129 rpm. Two bare Inconel-718 rotors were also tested as a baseline. The test results revealed significant differences between the wear characteristics of the uncoated and coated seal runners. At both speeds the brush seal with the bare Inconel-718 seal runner exhibited significant bristle wear with excessive material transferring to the runner surface. In contrast, the coated seal runners inhibited the transfer and deposit of bristle material. The chromium carbide coating showed only small quantities of bristle material transferring to its surface. The Teflon impregnated chromium coating also inhibited material transfer and provided some lubrication. This coating, however, is self-sacrificing. The Teflon remained present on the low speed runner, but it was completely removed from the high speed brush seal, which was tested considerably longer. The tests of the Teflon coating revealed the importance of using a lubricating and low friction coating for brush seals to reduce bristle and seal runner wear. The zirconium oxide coating exhibited the greatest amount of coating wear, while the brushes incurred only slight wear. Further testing of ceramics is recommended before making a final judgement on the viability of ceramic coatings for brush seals because of the contrast between the results reported by Carlile and the results presented herein. Strictly based on the results presented hereinabove, the chromium carbide and Teflon impregnated chromium coatings were considered preferable to the uncoated Inconel-718 and zirconium oxide coatings because of their good wear resistance and characteristics to inhibit bristle material wear and transfer to the seal runner.

Proctor, Margaret P.; Walker, James F.

1996-01-01

55

RSG Deployment Case Testing Results  

SciTech Connect

The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

2005-09-01

56

SERIES-X test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SERIES-X project which demonstrates the feasibility of a method involving measurements of the distance from the TOPEX earth satellite and various points on the ground to Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites is described. The features of SERIES-X are compared with three better-known geodetic-quality GPS systems (Geostar, Macrometer, and SERIES). It is shown that the system is capable of measuring the positions of isolated stations, but its accuracy is improved when it measures baselines. Test results of some measurements of baselines ranging in length from 15 to 171,000 m are presented and discussed.

Crow, R. B.; Bletzacker, F. R.; Najarian, R. J.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Statman, J. I.; Thomas, J. B.

57

Summary of Blast Shield and Material Testing for Development of Solid Debris Collection at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)  

SciTech Connect

The ability to collect solid debris from the target chamber following a NIF shot has application for both capsule diagnostics, particularly for fuel-ablator mix, and measuring cross sections relevant to the Stockpile Stewardship program and nuclear astrophysics. Simulations have shown that doping the capsule with up to 10{sup 15} atoms of an impurity not otherwise found in the capsule does not affect its performance. The dopant is an element that will undergo nuclear activations during the NIF implosion, forming radioactive species that can be collected and measured after extraction from the target chamber. For diagnostics, deuteron or alpha induced reactions can be used to probe the fuel-ablator mix. For measuring neutron cross sections, the dopant should be something that is sensitive to the 14 MeV neutrons produced through the fusion of deuterium and tritium. Developing the collector is a challenge due to the extreme environment of the NIF chamber. The collector surface is exposed to a large photon flux from x-rays and unconverted laser light before it is exposed to a debris wind that is formed from vaporized material from the target chamber center. The photons will ablate the collector surface to some extent, possibly impeding the debris from reaching the collector and sticking. In addition, the collector itself must be mechanically strong enough to withstand the large amount of energy it will be exposed to, and it should be something that will be easy to count and chemically process. In order to select the best material for the collector, a variety of different metals have been tested in the NIF chamber. They were exposed to high-energy laser shots in order to evaluate their postshot surface characterization, morphology, degree of melt, and their ability to retain debris from the chamber center. The first set of samples consisted of 1 mm thick pieces of aluminum that had been fielded in the chamber as blast shields protecting the neutron activation diagnostic. Ten of these pieces were fielded at the equator and one was fielded on the pole. The shields were analyzed using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and chemical leaching followed by mass spectrometry. On each shield, gold debris originating from the gold hohlraum was observed, as well as large quantities of debris that were present in the center of the target chamber at the time of the shot (i.e., stainless steel, indium, copper, etc.) Debris was visible in the SEM as large blobs or splats of material that had encountered the surface of the aluminum and stuck. The aluminum itself had obviously melted and condensed, and some of the large debris splats arrived after the surface had already hardened. Melt depth was determined by cross sectioning the pieces and measuring the melted surface layers via SEM. After the SEM analysis was completed, the pieces were sent for NAA at the USGS reactor and were analyzed by U. Greife at the Colorado School of Mines. The NAA showed that the majority of gold mass present on the shields was not in the form of large blobs and splats, but was present as small particulates that had most likely formed as condensed vapor. Further analysis showed that the gold was entrained in the melted aluminum surface layers and did not extend down into the bulk of the aluminum. Once the gold mass was accounted for from the NAA, it was determined that the aluminum fielded at the equator was collecting a fraction of the total gold hohlraum mass equivalent to 120% {+-} 10% of the solid angle subtended by the shield. The attached presentation has more information on the results of the aluminum blast shield analysis. In addition to the information given in the presentation, the surfaces of the shields have been chemically leached and submitted for mass spectrometric analysis. The results from that analysis are expected to arrive after the due date of this report and will be written up at a later time. Based on the results of the aluminum b

Shaughnessy, D A; Gostic, J M; Moody, K J; Grant, P M; Lewis, L A; Hutcheon, I D

2011-11-21

58

Diagnostic Tests and Examination Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the usefulness of several diagnostic tests for selecting students to enter a civil engineering program found that the tests were not appropriate and that tests should be developed specifically for civil engineering. (MSE)

Barker, Dennis

1988-01-01

59

Results of PRIM gyroscope testing  

SciTech Connect

The tests were designed so that motions of the gyroscope and the Partially Restrained Internal Member (PRIM) could be measured at different conditions of spin and PRIM clearance gaps. Two types of PRIM drive were tested. A round shaft configuration was used to test theory. An octagon drive was used to simulate the XM785 design.

Cornell, R.

1985-03-01

60

Simulation of Blast Waves with Headwind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The blast wave resulting from an explosion was simulated to provide guidance for models estimating risks for human spacecraft flight. Simulations included effects of headwind on blast propagation, Blasts were modelled as an initial value problem with a uniform high energy sphere expanding into an ambient field. Both still air and cases with headwind were calculated.

Olsen, Michael E.; Lawrence, Scott W.; Klopfer, Goetz H.; Mathias, Dovan; Onufer, Jeff T.

2005-01-01

61

Blast injury.  

PubMed

The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C A

1967-01-28

62

Blast Injury  

PubMed Central

The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C. A.

1967-01-01

63

LTC 1073 vacuum blasting (concrete) human factors assessment -- Baseline (summary)  

SciTech Connect

The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high capacity, direct pressure blasting system incorporating a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast head. A vacuum system removes dust and debris from the surfaces as it is blasted. After cleaning the surface, the abrasive, together with the rust or coating that was removed from the surface, is vacuumed into the machine through the suction hose. The dust separator contains angled steel collision pads, working with the force of gravity, to allow any reusable abrasive to fall back into the pressure vessel. The filters are manually back flushed to prevent clogging. After back flushing, dust is dumped from the dust chamber into the dust collection bag or drum by operation of the bellows valve. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on dust and noise exposure. Dust exposure was found to be minimal, but noise exposure was potentially significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may cause the results to be inapplicable to indoor settings. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31

64

Results of Deposition Scoping Tests  

SciTech Connect

The processes of crystallization and solid deposit formation that led to the shutdown of the 2H evaporator operation at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and that could possibly cause similar problems in the future or in other evaporators need to be better understood. Through experimentation, thermodynamic modeling, and correlation of scaling to historical tank farm operations, progress has been made in developing guidelines as to the concentrations of silicon and aluminum that can be processed by evaporators while avoiding unacceptable levels of scale formation. However, because of limitations of the thermodynamic model and an insufficient amount of operational data at slightly supersaturated concentration levels, uncertainty still exists regarding acceptable feed concentrations. The objective of this effort is to provide information that can be used in defining acceptable levels of silicon and aluminum in evaporator feed solutions. Data collected previously showed that particle formation reactions can be rapid at evaporator temperatures for elevated silicon and aluminum concentrations. However, insufficient data exists to estimate the silicon and aluminum concentrations above which solids will form in the time frame of evaporator processing. The work described in this report was designed to determine the induction period for solutions of decreasing aluminum and silicon concentration such that the supersaturation level corresponding to a 4-h induction time for particle nucleation/growth in bulk solution can be estimated. In addition, experiments were conducted to explore the supersaturation levels that can result in deposition of solids on metal surfaces at varying aluminum-to-silicon concentration ratios. Laboratory studies of particle growth in solution were conducted at relatively low supersaturation levels. Dynamic-light-scattering (DLS) studies and deposition tests, similar to those performed in FY 2001, were conducted with solutions at relatively low supersaturation levels and at elevated temperatures to explore the formation of solids under conditions similar to those encountered in evaporator processing. The deposition of solids on stainless steel samples placed in the solutions during the experiments was simultaneously investigated. In addition, the deposition of solids on stainless steel surfaces was investigated in laboratory-scale batch evaporation experiments. Completion of this effort will aid the development of operating strategies to mitigate or avoid solid scale formation on surfaces in evaporator systems. The results are expected to benefit plant operations by helping to determine acceptable silicon and aluminum feed concentrations.

Hu, M.Z.

2003-03-04

65

On the Propagation and Interaction of Spherical Blast Waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics and the scaling laws of isolated spherical blast waves have been briefly reviewed. Both self-similar solutions and numerical solutions of isolated blast waves are discussed. Blast profiles in the near-field (strong shock region) and the far-field (weak shock region) are examined. Particular attention is directed at the blast overpressure and shock propagating speed. Consideration is also given to the interaction of spherical blast waves. Test data for the propagation and interaction of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure.

Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert

2007-01-01

66

Photographs of Blast Effects on Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This photograph collection shows a wood-frame house located 1,100 meters from ground zero, exposed to a nuclear blast at the Nevada Test Site. The test was Upshot-Knothole Annie, a 16 Kt tower shot, on March 17, 1953. Exposure to thermal radiation was 25 cal/cm2, about one-quarter of that experienced at ground zero in Hiroshima. The blast over pressure was 5 psi, and the blast wave created surface winds of 160 mph.

Christopher Griffith

67

Monitoring and Testing the Parts Cleaning Stations, Abrasive Blasting Cabinets, and Paint Booths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I have the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) this summer. One of the EMO's tasks is to make sure the Environmental Management System is implemented to the entire Glenn Research Center (GRC). The Environmental Management System (EMS) is a policy or plan that is oriented toward minimizing an organization's impact to the environment. Our EMS includes the reduction of solid waste regeneration and the reduction of hazardous material use, waste, and pollution. With the Waste Management Team's (WMT) help, the EMS can be implemented throughout the NASA Glenn Research Center. The WMT is responsible for the disposal and managing of waste throughout the GRC. They are also responsible for the management of all chemical waste in the facility. My responsibility is to support the waste management team by performing an inventory on parts cleaning stations, abrasive cabinets, and paint booths through out the entire facility. These booths/stations are used throughout the center and they need to be monitored and tested for hazardous waste and material. My job is to visit each of these booths/stations, take samples of the waste, and analyze the samples.

Jordan, Tracee M.

2004-01-01

68

Inconclusive TSC Genetic Test Results  

MedlinePLUS

... Plan Results Reporting Staff Directory Board of Directors Endowment Fund Corporate Advisory Board Corporate Relations Policy Frequently ... a Donation Research Directed Donations Tributes Planned Giving/Endowments Partner Offers Workplace Giving/Matching Program Personal Online ...

69

Test 6, Test 7, and Gas Standard Analysis Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation shows results of analyses on odor, toxic off gassing and gas standards. The topics include: 1) Statistical Analysis Definitions; 2) Odor Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 6; 3) Toxic Off gassing Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7; and 4) Gas Standard Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7;

Perez, Horacio, III

2007-01-01

70

Development of a finite element model for blast brain injury and the effects of CSF cavitation.  

PubMed

Blast-related traumatic brain injury is the most prevalent injury for combat personnel seen in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, yet as a research community,we still do not fully understand the detailed etiology and pathology of this injury. Finite element (FE) modeling is well suited for studying the mechanical response of the head and brain to blast loading. This paper details the development of a FE head and brain model for blast simulation by examining both the dilatational and deviatoric response of the brain as potential injury mechanisms. The levels of blast exposure simulated ranged from 50 to 1000 kPa peak incident overpressure and 1–8 ms in positive-phase duration, and were comparable to real-world blast events. The frontal portion of the brain had the highest pressures corresponding to the location of initial impact, and peak pressure attenuated by 40–60% as the wave propagated from the frontal to the occipital lobe. Predicted brain pressures were primarily dependent on the peak overpressure of the impinging blast wave, and the highest predicted brain pressures were 30%less than the reflected pressure at the surface of blast impact. Predicted shear strain was highest at the interface between the brain and the CSF. Strain magnitude was largely dependent on the impulse of the blast, and primarily caused by the radial coupling between the brain and deforming skull.The largest predicted strains were generally less than 10%,and occurred after the shock wave passed through the head.For blasts with high impulses, CSF cavitation had a large role in increasing strain levels in the cerebral cortex and periventricular tissues by decoupling the brain from the skull. Relating the results of this study with recent experimental blast testing suggest that a rate-dependent strain-based tissue injury mechanism is the source primary blast TBI. PMID:22298329

Panzer, Matthew B; Myers, Barry S; Capehart, Bruce P; Bass, Cameron R

2012-07-01

71

Gram-range explosive blast scaling and associated materials response  

E-print Network

Gram-range explosive blast scaling and associated materials response M. J. Hargather1 , G. S. Laboratory-scale gram-range explosive blast testing of materials is shown to be feasible. Blast loading from directions is included. The promise of gram-range testing is to take on at least some of the burden now

Settles, Gary S.

72

Evaluating high-temperature intumescent insulation materials under fire and blast conditions  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes recent testing conducted to evaluate the performance of high-temperature intumescent materials under adverse fire and blast conditions. Results from fire performance evaluations currently protecting offshore oil platforms are presented. Extensive fire and blast qualification testing of epoxy-based intumescent materials has been conducted utilizing specially designed blast chambers, jet fire facilities, and laboratory furnaces. Blast chambers are capable of loading up to a 3 x 3-m insulated bulkhead assembly to a 2 bar over pressure and having a duration of approximately 250 millisecond generated by a controlled flammable vapor cloud explosion. The jet fire test exposes an insulated test specimen to a fire environment characterized by temperatures of approximately 1100 C, sonic gas velocities, and peak heat flux levels in excess of 300 kW/m{sup 2}.

Parker, A.J. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1997-11-01

73

Phenotypic screening and molecular analysis of blast resistance in fragrant rice for marker assisted selection.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to identify blast-resistant fragrant genotypes for the development of a durable blast-resistant rice variety during years 2012-2013. The results indicate that out of 140 test materials including 114 fragrant germplasms, 25 differential varieties (DVs) harbouring 23 blast-resistant genes, only 16 fragrant rice germplasms showed comparatively better performance against a virulent isolate of blast disease. The reaction pattern of single-spore isolate of Magnaporthe oryzae to differential varieties showed that Pish, Pi9, Pita-2 and Pita are the effective blast-resistant genes against the tested blast isolates in Bangladesh. The DNA markers profiles of selected 16 rice germplasms indicated that genotype Chinigura contained Pish, Pi9 and Pita genes; on the other hand, both BRRI dhan50 and Bawaibhog contained Pish and Pita genes in their genetic background. Genotypes Jirakatari, BR5, and Gopalbhog possessed Pish gene, while Uknimodhu, Deshikatari, Radhunipagol, Kalijira (3), Chinikanai each contained the Pita gene only. There are some materials that did not contain any target gene(s) in their genetic background, but proved resistant in pathogenicity tests. This information provided valuable genetic information for breeders to develop durable blast-resistant fragrant or aromatic rice varieties in Bangladesh. PMID:24841958

Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Sen, Partha Pratim; Bhuiyan, Rejwan; Kabir, Enamul; Chowdhury, Abul Kashem; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Ali, Ansar; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

2014-05-01

74

Earthquake Engineering Mitigation of Blast Loading  

E-print Network

Earthquake Engineering Mitigation of Blast Loading Health Monitoring & Condition Assessment-structural building components, and visual sensing for dy- namic testing. Associate Professor Hyonny Kim comes to UC-fluidics and protective/energy absorbing materials provides synergy with the Department's ongoing work in blast mitigation

Wang, Deli

75

Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

2011-06-01

76

Intent to Fail: Significance Testing of Forced Choice Test Results.  

PubMed

A score that is significantly below the level of chance on a forced choice (FC) performance validity test results from the deliberate production of wrong answers. In order to increase the power of significance testing of a below chance result on standardized FC tests with empirically derived cutoff scores, we recommend using one-tailed tests of significance and selecting probability levels greater than .05 (.20 for most standardized FC tests with empirically derived cutoff scores). Under certain circumstances, we also recommend combining scores from different sections of the same FC test and combining scores across different FC tests. These recommendations require modifications when applied to non-standardized FC tests that lack empirically derived cutoff scores or to FC tests with a non-random topographical distribution of correct and incorrect answers. PMID:25386898

Binder, Laurence M; Larrabee, Glenn J; Millis, Scott R

2014-11-11

77

Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast

MANUEL G

2001-01-01

78

Structural blast design  

E-print Network

Blast design is a necessary part of design for more buildings in the United States. Blast design is no longer limited to underground shelters and sensitive military sites, buildings used by the general public daily must ...

Kieval, Tamar S. (Tamar Shoshana), 1980-

2004-01-01

79

Salmonella mutagenicity test results for 250 chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication is a presentation of Salmonella testing results on 250 coded chemicals, encompassing 370 tests. The majority of these results were previously summarized in issues of the National Toxicology Program Technical Bulletin. However, some interpretations were changed since publication in the NTP Bulletin, based upon a reevaluation of the data. The presentation here is designed both to summarize the

Steve Haworth; Timothy Lawlor; Kristien Mortelmans; William Speck; Errol Zeiger

1983-01-01

80

A Mouse Model of Blast-Induced mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are one of the main causes for casualties among civilians and military personnel in the present war against terror. Mild traumatic brain injury from IEDs induces various degrees of cognitive, emotional and behavioral disturbances but knowledge of the exact brain pathophysiology following exposure to blast is poorly understood. The study was aimed at establishing a murine model for a mild BI-TBI that isolates low-level blast pressure effects to the brain without systemic injuries. An open-field explosives detonation was used to replicate, as closely as possible, low-level blast trauma in the battlefield or at a terror-attack site. No alterations in basic neurological assessment or brain gross pathology were found acutely in the blast-exposed mice. At 7 days post blast, cognitive and behavioral tests revealed significantly decreased performance at both 4 and 7 meters distance from the blast (5.5 and 2.5 PSI, respectively). At 30 days post-blast, clear differences were found in animals at both distances in the object recognition test, and in the 7 m group in the Y maze test. Using MRI, T1 weighted images showed an increased BBB permeability one month post-blast. DTI analysis showed an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) and a decrease in radial diffusivity. These changes correlated with sites of up-regulation of manganese superoxide dismutase 2 in neurons and CXC-motif chemokine receptor 3 around blood vessels in fiber tracts. These results may represent brain axonal and myelin abnormalities. Cellular and biochemical studies are underway in order to further correlate the blast-induced cognitive and behavioral changes and to identify possible underlying mechanisms that may help develop treatment- and neuroprotective modalities. PMID:21946269

Rubovitch, Vardit; Ten-Bosch, Meital; Zohar, Ofer; Harrison, Catherine R.; Tempel-Brami, Catherine; Stein, Elliot; Hoffer, Barry J.; Balaban, Carey D.; Schreiber, Shaul; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Pick, Chaim G.

2011-01-01

81

Air blast loading of a cylindrical body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure measurements were performed on the surface of a cylinder in shock tube experiments and in free field tests. In shock tube measurements, pressure waves with a rather sharp profile were observed, with overpressures ranging from 0.2 to 2 bar. Unsteady gain coefficients were obtained for weak and moderately strong incident shocks. In free field tests, blast waves at the point of contact with the body produced a reflected pressure of 4.3 bar, corresponding to an overpressure of 1.4 bar or a shock Mach number of 1.5. The results are presented in graphical form.

Heilig, W.

82

Review of Fenton Hill HDR test results  

SciTech Connect

Results of recent flow testing at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, have been examined in light of their applicability to the development of commercial-scale hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs at other sites. These test results, obtained during the cumulative 11 months of reservoir flow testing between 1992 and 1995, show that there was no significant production temperature drawdown during this time and that the reservoir flow became more dispersed as flow testing proceeded. Based on these test results together with previous HDR research at Fenton Hill and elsewhere, it is concluded that a three-well geometry, with one centrally located injection well and two production wells-one at each end of the pressure-stimulated reservoir region-would provide a much more productive system for future HDR development than the two-well system tested at Fenton Hill.

Brown, D.

1997-01-01

83

Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic Energy Redirection and Release Technology  

PubMed Central

A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

2012-01-01

84

Blast overpressure relief using air vacated buffer medium  

E-print Network

Blast waves generated by intense explosions cause damage to structures and human injury. In this thesis, a strategy is investigated for relief of blast overpressure resulting from explosions in air. The strategy is based ...

Avasarala, Srikanti Rupa

2009-01-01

85

Antioxidant treatment reduces blast-induced cochlear damage and hearing loss.  

PubMed

Exposure to blast overpressure has become one of the hazards of both military and civilian life in many parts of the world due to war and terrorist activity. Auditory damage is one of the primary sequela of blast trauma, affecting immediate situational awareness and causing permanent hearing loss. Protecting against blast exposure is limited by the inability to anticipate the timing of these exposures, particularly those caused by terrorists. Therefore a therapeutic regimen is desirable that is able to ameliorate auditory damage when administered after a blast exposure has occurred. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of a combination of antioxidants 2,4-disulfonyl ?-phenyl tertiary butyl nitrone (HPN-07) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) beginning 1 h after blast exposure could reduce both temporary and permanent hearing loss. To this end, a blast simulator was developed and the operational conditions established for exposing rats to blast overpressures comparable to those encountered in an open-field blast of 14 pounds per square inch (psi). This blast model produced reproducible blast overpressures that resulted in physiological and physical damage to the auditory system that was proportional to the number and amplitude of the blasts. After exposure to 3 consecutive 14 psi blasts 100% of anesthetized rats had permanent hearing loss as determined at 21 days post exposure by auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) testing. Animals treated with HPN-07 and NAC after blast exposure showed a significant reduction in ABR threshold shifts and DPOAE level shifts at 2-16 kHz with significant reduction in inner hair cell (IHC) and outer hair cell (OHC) loss across the 5-36 kHz region of the cochlea compared with control animals. The time course of changes in the auditory system was documented at 3 h, 24 h, 7 day and 21 day after blast exposure. At 3 h after blast exposure the auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts were elevated by 60 dB in both treated and control groups. A partial recovery of to 35 dB was observed at 24 h in the controls, indicative of a temporary threshold shift (TTS) and there was essentially no further recovery by 21 days representing a permanent threshold shift (PTS) of about 30 dB. Antioxidant treatment increased the amount of both TTS and PTS recovery relative to controls by 10 and 20 dB respectively. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) reached a maximum level shift of 25-30 dB measured in both control and treated groups at 3 h after blast exposure. These levels did not change by day 21 in the control group but in the treatment group the level shifts began to decline at 24 h until by day 21 they were 10-20 dB below that of the controls. Loss of cochlear hair cells measured at 21 day after blast exposure was mostly in the outer hair cells (OHC) and broadly distributed across the basilar membrane, consistent with the distribution of loss of frequency responses as measured by ABR and DPOAE analysis and typical of blast-induced damage. OHC loss progressively increased after blast exposure reaching an average loss of 32% in the control group and 10% in the treated group at 21 days. These findings provide the first evidence that a combination of antioxidants, HPN-07 and NAC, can both enhance TTS recovery and prevent PTS by reducing damage to the mechanical and neural components of the auditory system when administered shortly after blast exposure. PMID:22326291

Ewert, Donald L; Lu, Jianzhong; Li, Wei; Du, Xiaoping; Floyd, Robert; Kopke, Richard

2012-03-01

86

Test Results Untrustworthy. Point of View Essay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

America's public schools are making harmful, irreversible decisions based on test results that--in an increasing number of cases--can't be trusted, Arizona State University's Education Policy Research Laboratory has found. The pressure of high-stakes tests is forcing school districts and state Departments of Education to take inappropriate and at…

Berliner, David C.; Nichols, Sharon L.

2005-01-01

87

DARPA February 1992 ATIS benchmark test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the third in a series of Benchmark Tests for the DARPA Air Travel Information System (ATIS) common task domain. The first results in this series were reported at the June 1990 Speech and Natural Language Workshop [1], and the second at the February 1991 Speech and Natural Language Workshop [2]. The February 1992 Benchmark Tests include: (1)

David S. Pallett; Nancy L. Dahlgren; Jonathan G. Fiscus; William M. Fisher; John S. Garofolo; Brett C. Tjaden

1992-01-01

88

Back yard blasting on the quiet  

SciTech Connect

When R and F Coal Company of Ohio ''sweeps out the corners'' of many of its old sites, it often blasts ''literally in some family's back yard.'' Sequential blasting patterns allow for such work without unduly disturbing the residents. Four basic delay patterns are detailed in this article. Sequential timers, EB caps, HDP blast boosts, and bulk ANFO are used in the sequences. Electric blasting caps can be tested by means of a galvanometer for continuity and resistance whenever possible. The flexibility of programming firing times, in the four patterns, allows operators to fine tune the blasting techniques. End or back break are reduced, fragmentation is optimized, and vibration is held to a minimum.

Chironis, N.P.

1983-06-01

89

Cone Penetrometer N Factor Determination Testing Results  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the results of testing activities to determine the empirical 'N Factor' for the cone penetrometer in kaolin clay simulant. The N Factor is used to releate resistance measurements taken with the cone penetrometer to shear strength.

Follett, Jordan R.

2014-03-05

90

Experimental results for absolute cylindrical wavefront testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications for Cylindrical and near-cylindrical surfaces are ever-increasing. However, fabrication of high quality cylindrical surfaces is limited by the difficulty of accurate and affordable metrology. Absolute testing of such surfaces represents a challenge to the optical testing community as cylindrical reference wavefronts are difficult to produce. In this paper, preliminary results for a new method of absolute testing of cylindrical wavefronts are presented. The method is based on the merging of the random ball test method with the fiber optic reference test. The random ball test assumes a large number of interferograms of a good quality sphere with errors that are statistically distributed such that the average of the errors goes to zero. The fiber optic reference test utilizes a specially processed optical fiber to provide a clean high quality reference wave from an incident line focus from the cylindrical wave under test. By taking measurements at different rotation and translations of the fiber, an analogous procedure can be employed to determine the quality of the converging cylindrical wavefront with high accuracy. This paper presents and discusses the results of recent tests of this method using a null optic formed by a COTS cylindrical lens and a free-form polished corrector element.

Reardon, Patrick J.; Alatawi, Ayshah

2014-09-01

91

Adaptive structures - Test hardware and experimental results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The facilities and procedures used at JPL to test adaptive structures such as the large deployable reflector (LDR) are described and preliminary results are reported. The applications of adaptive structures in future NASA missions are outlined, and the techniques which are employed to modify damping, stiffness, and isolation characteristics, as well as geometric changes, are listed. The development of adaptive structures is shown to be effective as a result of new actuators and sensors, and examples are listed for categories such as fiber optics, shape-memory materials, piezoelectrics, and electrorheological fluids. Some ground test results are described for laboratory truss structures and truss test beds, which are shown to be efficient and easy to assemble in space. Adaptive structures are shown to be important for precision space structures such as the LDR, and can alleviate ground test requirements.

Wada, Ben K.; Fanson, James L.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Kuo, Chin-Po

1990-01-01

92

Uprated OMS engine status: Altitude testing results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increased operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities on this engine system began at Aerojet in 1984. More recently, a complete engine, designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at simulated altitude conditions at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). A description of the test hardware, and results of the altitude test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities and recommendations for further engine development are also discussed.

Schoenberg, Richard J.

1992-02-01

93

Effect of Metal Particle Size on Blast Performance of RDX-Based Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the role that aluminum particle size has on explosives blast performance. Tests were performed using a small sealed chamber and an open-ended shock tube. Three explosives were tested and the results presented. The Al particle size examined was 20 microns and 150 nanometers in a pressed PBXN-109 analog composition. (PBXN-109 was also tested.) A noticeable difference in

Jeffery J. Davis; Philip J. Miller

2002-01-01

94

Estimate of blast wave properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlation and TNT-equivalent models for UVCE blast wave properties are reviewed, and a model which estimates blast parameters from information on the cloud and its location and uses these parameters to evaluate damage is presented. The prediction model is based on calculations for an ideal, homogeneous, hemispherical, centrally ignited vapor cloud. In case of a deflagration an energy release rate function, equivalent to a certain flame path, is assumed. The results of these calculations (peak pressures as a function of distance) are used together with data for a detonating cloud. The positive phase duration is derived from separate calculations. The method estimates maximum effect, and it is not possible to predict when little or no blast will be generated.

Zeeuwen, J. P.

95

NEXT Single String Integration Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a critical part of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) test validation process, a single string integration test was performed on the NEXT ion propulsion system. The objectives of this test were to verify that an integrated system of major NEXT ion propulsion system elements meets project requirements, to demonstrate that the integrated system is functional across the entire power processor and xenon propellant management system input ranges, and to demonstrate to potential users that the NEXT propulsion system is ready for transition to flight. Propulsion system elements included in this system integration test were an engineering model ion thruster, an engineering model propellant management system, an engineering model power processor unit, and a digital control interface unit simulator that acted as a test console. Project requirements that were verified during this system integration test included individual element requirements ; integrated system requirements, and fault handling. This paper will present the results of these tests, which include: integrated ion propulsion system demonstrations of performance, functionality and fault handling; a thruster re-performance acceptance test to establish baseline performance: a risk-reduction PMS-thruster integration test: and propellant management system calibration checks.

Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pinero, Luis; Herman, Daniel A.; Snyder, Steven John

2010-01-01

96

Cryogenic Test Results of Hextek Mirror  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 250 mm diameter lightweight borosilicate mirror has been interferometrically tested from room-temperature down to 30 K at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The minor blank was manufactured by Hextek Corporation using a high-temperature gas fusion process and was then polished at MSFC. It is a sandwich-type mirror consisting of a thin face-sheet (approx.1.5 mm thick), a core structure (20 mm thick, approx.43 mm diameter cells, & 0.5-1.2 mm thick walls), and a thin back-sheet (3 mm thick). The mirror has a 2500 mm spherical radius-of- curvature @/lo). The areal density is 14 kg/sq m. The mirror was tested in the 1 m x 2 m chamber using an Instantaneous Phase Interferometer (PI) from ADE Phase Shift Technologies. The mirror was tested twice. The first test measured the change in surface figure from ambient to 30 K and the repeatability of the change. An attempt was then made by QED Technologies to cryo-figure the mirror using magnetorheological finishing. The second test measured the effectiveness of the cryo- figuring. This paper will describe the test goals, the test instrumentation, and the test results for these cryogenic tests.

Hadaway, James; Stahl, H. Philip; Eng, Ron; Hogue, William

2004-01-01

97

Sequential Circuit Test Generator (STG) benchmark results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on the results of running a version of the Sequential Circuit Test Generator (STG3) on the ISCAS-89 sequential circuit benchmarks. First, they present a brief history of STG and briefly describe the algorithms used. They then describe the conditions under which the experiments were run and give the benchmark results. No particular problems were encountered when running

W.-T. Cheng; S. Davidson

1989-01-01

98

Results from the DESY TESLA Test Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TESLA Test Facility (TTF), under construction at DESY by an international collaboration, is an R&D test bed for the superconducting option for linear e+/e- colliders. It consists of an infrastructure to process and test the cavities and of a 390 MeV linac. The linac is composed of three cryomodules, each containing eight nine-cell cavities operated at 1.3 GHz. The designed accelerating gradient is 15 MV/m, with a Q of 3.10^9. The injector delivers a 10-15 MeV beam, it is composed of a 250 kV gun followed by a superconducting cavity. It has been installed and commissioned. More than 20 cavities have been tested in vertical and horizontal cryostats. A 140 MeV beam is expected in June 97 with the first cryomodule. An overview of the facility and results of the tests are given in this paper.

Aune, B.

1997-05-01

99

LTC American`s, Inc. vacuum blasting machine: Baseline report  

SciTech Connect

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise.

NONE

1997-07-31

100

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-12-31

101

Rockwell-Rocketdyne flywheel test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented of the spin test evaluation of the Rockwell-Rocketdyne RPE-10 design flywheel at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory. Details of the static evaluation, including measures of weight, inertia, natural frequencies, and radiography, are also presented. The flywheel was subjected to seven spin cycles with a maximum of 383 rps, 105% of design speed. At that speed, the energy stored was 1.94 kWhr at 36.1 Whr/kg. The maximum speed was limited by the inability of the test facility to accommodate the increasing eccentric shift of both hub disks with increasing speed. No material degradation was observed during the testing.

Steele, R. S., Jr.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Sutton, B. J.

1981-01-01

102

Color changing photonic crystals detect blast exposure  

PubMed Central

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the “signature wound” of the current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, with no objective information of relative blast exposure, warfighters with bTBI may not receive appropriate medical care and are at risk of being returned to the battlefield. Accordingly, we have created a colorimetric blast injury dosimeter (BID) that exploits material failure of photonic crystals to detect blast exposure. Appearing like a colored sticker, the BID is fabricated in photosensitive polymers via multi-beam interference lithography. Although very stable in the presence of heat, cold or physical impact, sculpted micro- and nano-structures of the BID are physically altered in a precise manner by blast exposure, resulting in color changes that correspond with blast intensity. This approach offers a lightweight, power-free sensor that can be readily interpreted by the naked eye. Importantly, with future refinement this technology may be deployed to identify soldiers exposed to blast at levels suggested to be supra-threshold for non-impact blast-induced mild TBI. PMID:21040795

Cullen, D. Kacy; Xu, Yongan; Reneer, Dexter V.; Browne, Kevin D.; Geddes, James W.; Yang, Shu; Smith, Douglas H.

2010-01-01

103

Effect of Metal Particle Size on Blast Performance of RDX-Based Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the role that aluminum particle size has on explosives blast performance. Tests were performed using a small sealed chamber and an open-ended shock tube. Three explosives were tested and the results presented. The Al particle size examined was 20 microns and 150 nanometers in a pressed PBXN-109 analog composition. (PBXN-109 was also tested.) A noticeable difference in the internal blast pressure was observed between the 20 ?m and 150 nm Al in the sealed chamber but not in the shock tube. The chamber results compare favorably with modeling work performed.

Davis, Jeffery J.; Miller, Philip J.

2002-07-01

104

Dry ice blasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

1992-04-01

105

13. BUILDING NO. 621, INTERIOR, TOP OF BLASTING TUB UNDERNEATH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. BUILDING NO. 621, INTERIOR, TOP OF BLASTING TUB UNDERNEATH SAWDUST HOPPER. BLASTING TUB HAS DOUBLE WALLS OF 3/4' THICK STEEL ARMOR PLATE. CHARGE TO BE TESTED IS BURIED IN SAWDUST WITH FLAME RESISTANT CHEMICALS. ELEVATOR BEHIND TUB CARRIES SAWDUST BACK TO TOP OF SAWDUST HOPPER AFTER TEST IS COMPLETED AND SAWDUST IN BLASTING TUB HAS BEEN SIFTED FOR SHELL FRAGMENTS. LOUVERS IN WALLS ARE HINGED FREELY SO THEY OPEN TO RELIEVE BLAST PRESSURE DURING A TEST. - Picatinny Arsenal, 600 Area, Test Areas District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

106

Testing of an inertial-reference system concept to measure blast-induced displacements of vehicles. Final contract report, 23 March23 July 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is the first phase of a project to develop an inertial-reference system to measure the displacement of military vehicles exposed to a blast wave in large shock tubes or high-explosive simulations of nuclear weapons. Experimental data describing the movement of military vehicles by blast is required for survivability assessments of such vehicles and for validation of computer models

N. H. Ethridge; L. A. Dixon; W. F. Jackson

1987-01-01

107

Centrifugal shot blast system  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

NONE

1998-02-01

108

First results from MIRI verification model testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) is one of the three scientific instruments to fly on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which is due for launch in 2013. MIRI contains two sub-instruments, an imager, which has low resolution spectroscopy and coronagraphic capabilities in addition to imaging, and a medium resolution IFU spectrometer. A verification model of MIRI was assembled in 2007 and a cold test campaign was conducted between November 2007 and February 2008. This model was the first scientifically representative model, allowing a first assessment to be made of the performance. This paper describes the test facility and testing done. It also reports on the first results from this test campaign.

Lim, Tanya; Alvarez, Jose L.; Bauwens, Eva; Garcia Bedregal, Alejandro; Blommaert, Joris; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Eccleston, Paul; Ferlet, Marc; Fischer, Sebastian; Garcia-Marin, Macarena; Glasse, Alistair; Glauser, Adrian Michael; Gordon, Karl; Greene, Tom; Grundy, Tim; Hennemann, Martin; Klaas, Ulrich; Labiano, Alvaro; Lahuis, Fred; Martínez-Galarza, Juan Rafael; Martin, Bruno Merin; Morrison, Jane; Nakos, Theodoros; O'Sullivan, Brian; Pindor, Bart; Ressler, Michael; Shaughnessy, Bryan; Vandenbussche, Bart; Wells, Martyn; Wright, Gillian; Zuther, Jens

2008-07-01

109

Blast furnace stove control  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

110

Effect of Blast-Induced Vibration from New Railway Tunnel on Existing Adjacent Railway Tunnel in Xinjiang, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibrations of existing service tunnels induced by blast-excavation of adjacent tunnels have attracted much attention from both academics and engineers during recent decades in China. The blasting vibration velocity (BVV) is the most widely used controlling index for in situ monitoring and safety assessment of existing lining structures. Although numerous in situ tests and simulations had been carried out to investigate blast-induced vibrations of existing tunnels due to excavation of new tunnels (mostly by bench excavation method), research on the overall dynamical response of existing service tunnels in terms of not only BVV but also stress/strain seemed limited for new tunnels excavated by the full-section blasting method. In this paper, the impacts of blast-induced vibrations from a new tunnel on an existing railway tunnel in Xinjiang, China were comprehensively investigated by using laboratory tests, in situ monitoring and numerical simulations. The measured data from laboratory tests and in situ monitoring were used to determine the parameters needed for numerical simulations, and were compared with the calculated results. Based on the results from in situ monitoring and numerical simulations, which were consistent with each other, the original blasting design and corresponding parameters were adjusted to reduce the maximum BVV, which proved to be effective and safe. The effect of both the static stress before blasting vibrations and the dynamic stress induced by blasting on the total stresses in the existing tunnel lining is also discussed. The methods and related results presented could be applied in projects with similar ground and distance between old and new tunnels if the new tunnel is to be excavated by the full-section blasting method.

Liang, Qingguo; Li, Jie; Li, Dewu; Ou, Erfeng

2013-01-01

111

J series thruster thermal test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test experience with J series ion thrusters have indicated that the present thruster design may result in excessive temperatures in areas which utilize organic materials such as wire insulation, with the resultant outgassing and potential contamination of insulating materials. Further, it appears that thermal data obtained with earlier thruster designs, such as the 700 series thruster, may not be directly applicable to the J series design. Two J series thrusters were fitted with thermocouples and critical temperatures measured for a variety of configurations and operating parameters. Completely enclosing the thruster to reduce facility contamination significantly increased temperatures prompting the selection of a compromise geometry for life testing. The operating parameter having the largest effect on temperatures was discharge power, while beam power affected little else than extraction system temperatures. Several off-normal operating modes were also investigated. Data believed to be sufficient to effectively modify existing thermal models were obtained from the tests.

Bechtel, R. T.; Dulgeroff, C. R.

1982-01-01

112

Experimental and Theoretical Assessment of a Device Used for Evaluation of Blast and Fragmentation Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative to traditional momentum pendulum and pressure gages is sought to resolve an improved temporal response to blast and fragmentation and protect the evaluation device from damage when positioned closely to the source of blast. Evaluation concepts based on the use of strain gages have been used for some time in the scientific community. However, those devices either produce extensive parasitic oscillations or are restricted for use in close proximity to the source of the blast and during a short time only. An alternative design is suggested and analysed that can extend the analysis time to several milliseconds and can be used both in close proximity and at relatively large stand-off distances from the source of the blast. The device employs conventional strain gauges that are heavily protected from the blast and fragmentation. Numerical analysis demonstrates ways to minimise the system oscillations and these ways were partly implemented in the present system. A gas gun fitted with a diverging nozzle has been used to validate a version of the system, which was tested in the range of pressures representative of those occurring several meters from a moderate size explosive charge. The test results and simulation demonstrate the potential for using this type of devices in the field trial settings that involve the blast and fragmentation effects.

Resnyansky, Anatoly; Weckert, Samuel

2007-06-01

113

A new non-uniform blast load model for SDOF method of one-way reinforced concrete slab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new effective model for calculation of the equivalent uniform blast load for non-uniform blast load such as close-in explosion of a one-way square and rectangle reinforced concrete slab is proposed in this paper. The model is then validated using single degree of freedom (SDOF) system with the experiments and blast tests for square slabs and rectangle slabs. Test results showed that the model is accurate in predicting the explosive charge weight and stand-off distance to impose a given damage level on the tested RC slabs especially for close-in blast load. It is shown that the new model is more accurate than the conventional SDOF analysis and is running faster than the FE analysis.

Wang, W.; Zhang, D.; Lu, F.; Wang, S.-C.; Tang, F.

2012-08-01

114

Porcine head response to blast  

E-print Network

Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational ...

Nyein, Michelle K.

115

A computational model of blast loading on the human eye.  

PubMed

Ocular injuries from blast have increased in recent wars, but the injury mechanism associated with the primary blast wave is unknown. We employ a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computational model to understand the stresses and deformations incurred by the globe due to blast overpressure. Our numerical results demonstrate that the blast wave reflections off the facial features around the eye increase the pressure loading on and around the eye. The blast wave produces asymmetric loading on the eye, which causes globe distortion. The deformation response of the globe under blast loading was evaluated, and regions of high stresses and strains inside the globe were identified. Our numerical results show that the blast loading results in globe distortion and large deviatoric stresses in the sclera. These large deviatoric stresses may be indicator for the risk of interfacial failure between the tissues of the sclera and the orbit. PMID:23591604

Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Ziegler, Kimberly; Seo, Jung Hee; Ramesh, K T; Nguyen, Thao D

2014-01-01

116

Experimental studies on intake headloss of a blasted lake tap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In existing reservoirs, construction of an intake is sometimes achieved by so-called lake tapping, a submerged tunnel piercing by blasting out the rock plug at the intake. The blasting process involves phases of rock, water, air and gas released from the explosive charge; the resulting entrance profile often differs from design assumptions. The intake headloss is a factor of concern for power generation. For a vertical intake formed by lake tapping, experiments have been carried out in a 1:30 physical model to examine the effect of entrance shapes on intake headlosses. The purpose is that, if there is potential to reduce the headlosses, the originally blasted intake shape would be modified. In the model, five alternative shapes are evaluated. The test results show that to enlarge the vertical shaft area is the most effective way to reduce the intake headloss; to further blast out a narrow channel upstream does not give much effect. Bearing in mind the risk of free-surface vortex at the intake, the influence of the intake modifications on vortex is also checked.

Yang, James; Billstein, Mats; Engström, Fredrik; Strand, Rikard

2014-12-01

117

Blast-Tube Cooling for Aircraft Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Established principles of hydraulics are used to develop and explain fundamentals of blast-tube cooling. It is shown that the pressure-volume curves of a blast tube can be determined by flight tests, and that the pressure-volume curve of a generator can be determined in the laboratory. From the two pressure-volume curves, the air-flow through the generator in flight can be predicted,

Cyril G. Veinott

1944-01-01

118

An assessment of environmental impacts of quarry-blasting operation: a case study in Istanbul, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the impacts resulting from quarry-blasting operation on nearby buildings and structures as it generates ground vibration, air blast, and fly rocks. In this paper, first blasting operation and its possible environmental effects are defined. Then the methods of blast-vibration prediction and commonly accepted criteria to prevent damage were introduced. A field experimental work was conducted to minimize

Cengiz Kuzu; Hasan Ergin

2005-01-01

119

Polyurethane Barrier Surface Tracking Test Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the testing results of the ZR prototype 600-kV mini-Marx trigger generator (MTG) and polyurethane barrier samples from four suppliers. Our goal was to qualify alternative suppliers as future sources of the dielectric interface barriers. The approach was to raise the electric fields on the polyurethane\\/water interface until surface tracks, or flashovers, occurred and compare the hold-off performance

D. L. Smith; J. M. Garde; R. L. Starbird; G. R. Ziska

2005-01-01

120

Blast Resistance and Damage Modelling of Fibre Metal Laminates to Blast Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust and efficient computational model has been developed which is capable of modelling the dynamic non-linear behaviour of GLARE panels subjected to blast loadings. Numerical model validation have been performed considering case studies of GLARE panels subjected to a blast-type pressure pulse for which experimental data on the back-face deflection and post-damage observations were available. Excellent agreement of mid-point deflections and evidence of severe yield line deformation were shown and discussed against the performed blast tests. A further parametric study identified GLARE as a potential blast attenuating structure, exhibiting superior blast potential against monolithic aluminium plates. It was concluded that further work needed to be carried out to take into account the influence of geometry (cylindrical structures), pre-pressurisation effects and boundary conditions

Mohamed, Galal F. A.; Soutis, Costas; Hodzic, Alma

2012-06-01

121

Test Results From a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This report describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

2010-01-01

122

Test Results from a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This presentation describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

2010-01-01

123

Lightweight blast shield  

DOEpatents

A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

1991-01-01

124

49 CFR 234.273 - Results of inspections and tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Results of inspections and tests. 234.273 Section...Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.273 Results of inspections and tests. (a) Results of inspections and tests made in...

2010-10-01

125

Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

2008-01-01

126

Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results  

SciTech Connect

Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Nuclear Systems Branch/ER24, MSFC, AL 35812 (United States)

2008-01-21

127

Implementation of the exploding wire technique to study blast-wave-structure interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effort invested in improving our understanding of the physics of high-energy explosion events has been steadily increasing since the latter part of the twentieth century. Moreover, the dramatic increase in computer power over the last two decades has made the numerical simulation approach the dominant tool for investigating blast phenomena and their effects. However, field tests, on both large and small scales, are still in use. In the current paper, we present an experimental tool to better resolve and study the blast-structure interaction phenomenon and to help validate the numerical simulations of the same. The experimental tool uses an exploding wire technique to generate small-scale cylindrical and spherical blast waves. This approach permits safe operation, high repeatability, and the use of advanced diagnostic systems. The system was calibrated using an analytical model, an empirical model, and numerical simulation. To insure that spherical blast geometry was achieved, a set of free air blast experiments was done in which high-speed photography was used to monitor the blast structure. A scenario in which an explosion occurred in the vicinity of a structure demonstrated the system's capabilities. Using this simple but not trivial configuration showed unequivocally the effectiveness of this tool. From this comparison, it was found that at early times of blast-structure interaction, the agreement between the two sets of results was very good, but at later times incongruences appeared. Effort has been made to interpret this observation. Furthermore, by using similitude analysis, the results obtained from the small-scale experiments can be applied to the full-scale problem. We have shown that an exploding wire system offers an inexpensive, safe, easy to operate, and effective tool for studying phenomena related to blast-wave-structure interactions.

Ram, O.; Sadot, O.

2012-11-01

128

Construction of Customized Sub-Databases from NCBI-nr Database for Rapid Annotation of Huge Metagenomic Datasets Using a Combined BLAST and MEGAN Approach  

PubMed Central

We developed a fast method to construct local sub-databases from the NCBI-nr database for the quick similarity search and annotation of huge metagenomic datasets based on BLAST-MEGAN approach. A three-step sub-database annotation pipeline (SAP) was further proposed to conduct the annotation in a much more time-efficient way which required far less computational capacity than the direct NCBI-nr database BLAST-MEGAN approach. The 1st BLAST of SAP was conducted using the original metagenomic dataset against the constructed sub-database for a quick screening of candidate target sequences. Then, the candidate target sequences identified in the 1st BLAST were subjected to the 2nd BLAST against the whole NCBI-nr database. The BLAST results were finally annotated using MEGAN to filter out those mistakenly selected sequences in the 1st BLAST to guarantee the accuracy of the results. Based on the tests conducted in this study, SAP achieved a speedup of ?150–385 times at the BLAST e-value of 1e–5, compared to the direct BLAST against NCBI-nr database. The annotation results of SAP are exactly in agreement with those of the direct NCBI-nr database BLAST-MEGAN approach, which is very time-consuming and computationally intensive. Selecting rigorous thresholds (e.g. e-value of 1e–10) would further accelerate SAP process. The SAP pipeline may also be coupled with novel similarity search tools (e.g. RAPsearch) other than BLAST to achieve even faster annotation of huge metagenomic datasets. Above all, this sub-database construction method and SAP pipeline provides a new time-efficient and convenient annotation similarity search strategy for laboratories without access to high performance computing facilities. SAP also offers a solution to high performance computing facilities for the processing of more similarity search tasks. PMID:23573212

Yu, Ke; Zhang, Tong

2013-01-01

129

A miniature pressure sensor for blast event evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a great potential threat to people who deal with explosive devices. Protection from TBI has attracted more and more interest. Great efforts have been taken to the studies on the understanding of the propagation of the blast events and its effect on TBI. However, one of the biggest challenges is that the current available pressure sensors are not fast enough to capture the blast wave especially the transient period. This paper reports an ultrafast pressure sensor that could be very useful for analysis of the fast changing blast signal. The sensor is based on Fabry-Perot (FP) principle. It uses a 45º angle polished fiber sitting in a V-groove on a silicon chip. The endface of the angle polished fiber and the diaphragm which is lifted off on the side wall of the V-groove form the FP cavity. The sensor is very small and can be mounted on different locations of a helmet to measure blast pressure simultaneously. The tests were conducted at Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center (NSRDEC) in Natick, MA. The sensors were mounted in a shock tube, side by side with the reference sensors, to measure a rapidly increased pressure. The results demonstrated that our sensors' responses agreed well with those from the electrical reference sensors and their response time is comparable.

Wu, Nan; Wang, Wenhui; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

2011-06-01

130

PHASE I SINGLE CELL ELECTROLYZER TEST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of Phase I Single Cell testing of an SO{sub 2}-Depolarized Water Electrolyzer. Testing was performed primarily during the first quarter of FY 2008 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using an electrolyzer cell designed and built at SRNL. Other facility hardware were also designed and built at SRNL. This test further advances this technology for which work began at SRNL in 2005. This research is valuable in achieving the ultimate goal of an economical hydrogen production process based on the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle. The focus of this work was to conduct single cell electrolyzer tests to further develop the technology of SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis as part of the HyS Cycle. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by water-splitting. Like all other sulfur-based cycles, HyS utilizes the high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both thermodynamic efficiency and hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. The anode and cathode are formed by spraying platinum containing catalyst on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). In most testing the material of the PEM was NafionR. The electrolyzer cell active area can be as large as 54.8 cm{sup 2}. Feed to the anode of the electrolyzer is a sulfuric acid solution containing sulfur dioxide. The partial pressure of sulfur dioxide could be varied in the range of 1 to 6 atm (15 to 90 psia). Temperatures could be controlled in the range from ambient to 80 C. Hydrogen generated at the cathode of the cell was collected for the purpose of flow measurement and composition analysis. The test facility proved to be easy to operate, versatile, and reliable.

Steimke, J; Timothy Steeper, T

2008-08-05

131

Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 4. 2. Measurement of surface-air movements associated with atomic blasts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to record continuous measurements of the surface winds in the vicinity of an atomic blast immediately prior to the blast, during passage of the shock wave, and immediately after the blast with special regard to the blast-induced afterwind following local dissipation of the shock wave. From the data obtained, it was concluded that following an atomic explosion there are two specific causes of air-mass movement. One is related to the shock phenomenon and the other to the rising fireball. It can also be concluded that the heated-thermopile-type and strain-gage-type anemometers could be developed to yield more complete data on the air-mass movement at ground level following an atomic explosion.

Rados, R.M.; Bogert, J.C.; Haig, T.O.

1985-09-01

132

Macro-mechanical modelling of blast wave mitigation in foams. Part I: review of available experiments and models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphase flows, which involve compressible or incompressible fluids with linear or nonlinear dynamics, are found in all areas of technology at all length scales and flow regimes. In this contribution, we discuss application of aqueous-foam barriers against blast wave impact. The first experiments demonstrating this behaviour were conducted in the early 1980s in free-field tests. Based on structural requirements, various foams with different blast energy contents were tested with the aim of characterizing the time history of the blast pressure reduction. A number of consistent methodologies for calculating this pressure reduction in foam are based on the effective gas flow model. For estimating the uncertainties of these methodologies, we briefly demonstrate their comparison with existing experimental data. Thereafter, we present various modifications of modelling approaches and their comparison with new results of blast wave experiments.

Britan, A.; Shapiro, H.; Liverts, M.; Ben-Dor, G.; Chinnayya, A.; Hadjadj, A.

2013-02-01

133

Nondestructive thermoelectric evaluation of the grit blasting induced effects in metallic biomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grit blasting is a surface treatment process widely used to enhance mechanical fixation of the implants through increasing their roughness. Test samples of two metallic biomaterial alloys such 316LVM and Ti6Al4V were blasted by projecting Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles which yield a coarse and a fine rough surface. Then, the blasted samples were thermally treated before and after partial stress relaxation and measured by non-destructive thermoelectric techniques (NDTT), the non-contacting and contacting thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements respectively. It has been found that the TEP measurements are associated directly with the subtle material variations such as cold work and compressive residual stresses due to plastic deformation produced by grit blasting. The TEP measurements clearly demonstrate that the non-contact NDTT technique is very sensitive to the reverse transformation of the ?'-martensite (blasted 316LVM) and the expected relaxation of compressive residual stresses with increasing the severity of the thermal treatment (blasted 316LVM and Ti-6Al-4V), while the contact NDTT results are closely related to grain size refinement and work hardening.

Carreon, H.; Ruiz, A.; Barriuso, S.; González-Carrasco, J. L.; Caballero, F. G.; Lieblich, M.

2013-01-01

134

Study of blast event propagation in different media using a novel ultrafast miniature optical pressure sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI, also called intracranial injury) is a high potential threat to our soldiers. A helmet structural health monitoring system can be effectively used to study the effects of ballistic/blast events on the helmet and human skull to prevent soldiers from TBI. However, one of the biggest challenges lies in that the pressure sensor installed inside the helmet system must be fast enough to capture the blast wave during the transient period. In this paper, an ultrafast optical fiber sensor is presented to measure the blast signal. The sensor is based on a Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometeric principle. An FP cavity is built between the endface of an etched optical fiber tip and the silica thin diaphragm attached on the end of a multimode optical fiber. The sensor is small enough to be installed in different locations of a helmet to measure blast pressure simultaneously. Several groups of tests regarding multi-layer blast events were conducted to evaluate the sensors' performance. The sensors were mounted in different segments of a shock tube side by side with the reference sensors, to measure a rapidly increasing pressure. The segments of the shock tube were filled with different media. The results demonstrated that our sensors' responses agreed well with those from the electrical reference sensors. In addition, the home-made shock tube could provide a good resource to study the propagation of blast event in different media.

Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Hongtao; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

2011-06-01

135

Oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes for studying blast wave effects  

E-print Network

Instrumentation is needed to produce realistic blast waves in a laboratory setting. This paper describes the development and characterization of oxy-acetylene driven, laboratory scale shock tubes for use in studying blast injury, candidate armor materials, and material properties at blast loading rates. The pressure-time profiles show a true shock front and exponential decay characteristic of blast waves and have relevant durations. The modular design includes shock tube diameters of 27 mm and 41 mm, and a selection of peak pressures from 204 kPa to 920 kPa can be produced by selection of the driver section diameter and placement of the test sample. Characterization studies of several driver/driven section combinations showed consistent results, with peak pressures having 0.8 - 6.9 percent uncertainty in the mean. This shock tube design provides a more realistic blast profile than current air-driven shock tubes. In addition, operation does not require specialized personnel or facilities like most blast-driven...

Courtney, Michael

2011-01-01

136

Suppression of blast pressure and noise from implosive-type connectors  

SciTech Connect

Implosive-type electrical/mechanical connectors such as XECONEX have been used extensively for joining electrical transmission lines. This implosive action of explosives has also been applied to other forms of high energy metal working with excellent results. However, as with many other products, the inherent blast energy of these units has caused some environmental concerns especially when used in proximity to inhabited areas. This paper identifies the problem associated with the use of this type of connector in inhabited areas and details the efforts directed toward its solution. A test program was designed in which various materials and configurations were evaluated as potential candidates for reducing the blast pressure. The explosive charges were in two configurations; linear charges assembled with detonating cord and steel pipes wrapped with detonating cord. Various materials of varying densities and sizes were then used as a wrap around the explosive charge. The effectiveness of these wraps as blast suppressing mediums was established by monitoring the blast pressure and sound levels. Although, a complete solution was not found within the performance requirements, materials such as vermiculite and cardboard were found to be particularly useful in suppressing blast overpressures. Plotted against scaled distance on a TNT output curve, the data indicates the effectiveness of these materials. Also practical are the plots showing the mitigation of blast pressure as the suppressant material thickness is varied.

Contestabile, E. [CANMET, Ottawa (Canada); Thomas, C. [Thomas Engineering and Construction Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); [Implo-Tec Research Canada Inc., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

137

JWST near infrared detectors: latest test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The James Webb Space Telescope, an infrared-optimized space telescope being developed by NASA for launch in 2014, will utilize cutting-edge detector technology in its investigation of fundamental questions in astrophysics. JWST's near infrared spectrograph, NIRSpec utilizes two 2048 × 2048 HdCdTe arrays with Sidecar ASIC readout electronics developed by Teledyne to provide spectral coverage from 0.6 microns to 5 microns. We present recent test and calibration results for the "pathfinder NIRSpec detector subsystem" as well as data processing routines for noise reduction and cosmic ray rejection.

Smith, Erin C.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Alexander, David; Clemons, Brian L.; Engler, Chuck; Garrison, Matthew B.; Hill, Robert J.; Johnson, Thomas; Lindler, Don J.; Manthripragada, Sridhar s.; Marshall, Cheryl; Mott, Brent; Parr, Thomas M.; Roher, Wayne D.; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin B.; Schnurr, Richard; Waczynski, Augustyn; Wen, Yiting; Wilson, Donna; Loose, Markus; Bagnasco, Giorgio; Böker, Torsten; De Marchi, Guido; Ferruit, Pierre; Jakobsen, Peter; Strada, Paolo

2009-08-01

138

The NASA B-757 HIRF Test Series: Flight Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1995, the NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of aircraft tests aimed at characterizing the electromagnetic environment (EME) in and around a Boeing 757 airliner. Measurements were made of the electromagnetic energy coupled into the aircraft and the signals induced on select structures as the aircraft was flown past known RF transmitters. These measurements were conducted to provide data for the validation of computational techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transport aircraft. This paper reports on the results of flight tests using RF radiators in the HF, VHF, and UHF ranges and on efforts to use computational and analytical techniques to predict RF field levels inside the airliner at these frequencies.

Moeller, Karl J.; Dudley, Kenneth L.

1997-01-01

139

Passive blast pressure sensor  

SciTech Connect

A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

2013-03-19

140

Computation of viscous blast wave flowfields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method to determine unsteady solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations was developed and applied. The structural finite-volume, approximately factored implicit scheme uses Newton subiterations to obtain the spatially and temporally second-order accurate time history of the interaction of blast-waves with stationary targets. The inviscid flux is evaluated using MacCormack's modified Steger-Warming flux or Roe flux difference splittings with total variation diminishing limiters, while the viscous flux is computed using central differences. The use of implicit boundary conditions in conjunction with a telescoping in time and space method permitted solutions to this strongly unsteady class of problems. Comparisons of numerical, analytical, and experimental results were made in two and three dimensions. These comparisons revealed accurate wave speed resolution with nonoscillatory discontinuity capturing. The purpose of this effort was to address the three-dimensional, viscous blast-wave problem. Test cases were undertaken to reveal these methods' weaknesses in three regimes: (1) viscous-dominated flow; (2) complex unsteady flow; and (3) three-dimensional flow. Comparisons of these computations to analytic and experimental results provided initial validation of the resultant code. Addition details on the numerical method and on the validation can be found in the appendix. Presently, the code is capable of single zone computations with selection of any permutation of solid wall or flow-through boundaries.

Atwood, Christopher A.

1991-01-01

141

Comparative Study on Calculation Methods of Blasting Vibration Velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the extreme complexities in rock blasting and difficulties in theoretical or numerical analysis, and the enormous consumption of explosives in mining and construction operations, empirical or semi-empirical formulae for blasting vibration velocity (BVV) were obtained from observations and measurements in field blast tests and are still widely used all over the world. This paper investigates the fitting degree and characteristics of several calculation methods for BVV based on 34 sets of data samples from 27 projects belonging to 4 types. The results indicate that both the cube-root scaling formula and the square-root scaling formula have relatively good fitting degree, while the multiple regression analysis can give the best fitting outcome if the sample space satisfies certain requirements. Whether the cube-root scaling formula or the square-root scaling formula is chosen to analyze the relationship between BVV and scaled distance depends on the average scaled distance under cubic-root scaling. If the average scaled distance is over 0.1, the cube-root scaling formula should be used; otherwise, the square-root scaling formula should be used. Bigger samples integrated from data samples of different projects but in the same type were then analyzed to get the empirical relations for different types of projects. The correlation coefficients of these relations are quite good, thus these relations can be used for reference in other similar projects. This paper then discusses the physical meanings of parameters in different formulae, sample selection and parameter choice for BVV. It suggests that the current calculation methods for explosive charge, blasting-to-monitoring distance and scaled distance need to be improved. It also concludes that the integrated BVV from velocity components in three-dimensions is more reasonable on a theoretical basis. It can yield good results in predicting the blasting vibration, and should be used as widely as possible.

Liang, Qingguo; An, Yafang; Zhao, Lei; Li, Dewu; Yan, Liping

2011-01-01

142

A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

2000-05-01

143

Boeing's High Voltage Solar Tile Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Real concerns of spacecraft charging and experience with solar array augmented electrostatic discharge arcs on spacecraft have minimized the use of high voltages on large solar arrays despite numerous vehicle system mass and efficiency advantages. Boeing's solar tile (patent pending) allows high voltage to be generated at the array without the mass and efficiency losses of electronic conversion. Direct drive electric propulsion and higher power payloads (lower spacecraft weight) will benefit from this design. As future power demand grows, spacecraft designers must use higher voltage to minimize transmission loss and power cable mass for very large area arrays. This paper will describe the design and discuss the successful test of Boeing's 500-Volt Solar Tile in NASA Glenn's Tenney chamber in the Space Plasma Interaction Facility. The work was sponsored by NASA's Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Program and will result in updated high voltage solar array design guidelines being published.

Reed, Brian J.; Harden, David E.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.

2002-01-01

144

Boeing's High Voltage Solar Tile Test Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real concerns of spacecraft charging and experience with solar array augmented electrostatic discharge arcs on spacecraft have minimized the use of high voltages on large solar arrays despite numerous vehicle system mass and efficiency advantages. Boeing's solar tile (patent pending) allows high voltage to be generated at the array without the mass and efficiency losses of electronic conversion. Direct drive electric propulsion and higher power payloads (lower spacecraft weight) will benefit from this design. As future power demand grows, spacecraft designers must use higher voltage to minimize transmission loss and power cable mass for very large area arrays. This paper will describe the design and discuss the successful test of Boeing's 500-Volt Solar Tile in NASA Glenn's Tenney chamber in the Space Plasma Interaction Facility. The work was sponsored by NASA's Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Program and will result in updated high voltage solar array design guidelines being published.

Reed, Brian J.; Harden, David E.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.

2002-10-01

145

Single decoupled blasthole tests and the significance of the results to presplitting and boulder busting  

SciTech Connect

The position of a major joint in relation to a blasthole has a significant effect in presplitting. Broad research into the combined effects of firing two decoupled blastholes has been performed in the past. The effects of joints simulated between two blastholes has also been evaluated. However, no attempt has been made to investigate the splitting effects produced by firing a single decoupled blasthole. This paper presents the results of such an investigation. A series of model tests was carried out in specially prepared 12 x 9 x 6 inches concrete blocks each with a 3/8 inch blasthole, loaded with 15-grain detonating cord. To simulate a semi-infinite burden similar to field presplit conditions, the blocks were lightly constrained. Before tightening the blocks, wooden spacers approximately three inches thick were placed on one end of the block to provide a free face. Additional experiments were conducted without constraints to ascertain the resulting fracture pattern in boulder blasting mode. It was found, if the blasthole is relatively near to the free face the angle of crater is greater. It was also observed that, at a distance approximately five times the diameter of the blasthole, the cratering ceases. During these tests a recurring split appeared all the way back to the abutted end of the blocks far in excess of what is expected in presplitting. This was not anticipated. An extensive investigation was undertaken to find an application in presplitting and boulder busting for this new phenomenon. It was found that when the blasthole is placed close to the abutted end of the block, it can produce a significantly longer split than when it is placed near the middle of the block. This was also verified in tests without constraints, which illustrates its potential for application in boulder blasting.

Tariq, S.M.; Worsey, P.N.; Wilson, J.W. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1996-12-01

146

Code Verification Results of an LLNL ASC Code on Some Tri-Lab Verification Test Suite Problems  

SciTech Connect

As scientific codes become more complex and involve larger numbers of developers and algorithms, chances for algorithmic implementation mistakes increase. In this environment, code verification becomes essential to building confidence in the code implementation. This paper will present first results of a new code verification effort within LLNL's B Division. In particular, we will show results of code verification of the LLNL ASC ARES code on the test problems: Su Olson non-equilibrium radiation diffusion, Sod shock tube, Sedov point blast modeled with shock hydrodynamics, and Noh implosion.

Anderson, S R; Bihari, B L; Salari, K; Woodward, C S

2006-12-29

147

Critical distance for blast-resistant design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast loads have, in the recent past, become important service loads for certain categories of structures. An important task in blast-resistant design is to make a realistic prediction of the blast pressures. The distance of explosion from the structure is an important datum, governing the magnitude and duration of the blast loads. The current practice is to choose some arbitrary distance for design purposes. This paper presents some results of analytical studies to show that such a notion is likely to be erroneous, particularly for tall and slender structures. The elements of the blast phenomenon are reviewed, before going into the formulations leading to the 'critical blast distance' at which the transient dynamic response rises to a maximum. Based on the principle of Mach stem growth and consequent transformation of the spherical shock front into cylindrical or plane shock front, an expression for the distance at which the structure is fully engulfed by the Mach region is derived. This is the distance at which the cumulative blast effect reaches a maximum, and hence can be identified as critical distance. To verify this theory, certain numerical experiments are conducted on structures of different heights and diameters, such as cylindrical towers, a chimney and a cooling tower. The results of these studies have convincingly proved the existence of the critical ground-zero distance at which the cumulative blast effect reaches a maximum. It is concluded that this critical distance should be used as the design distance particularly for tall structures. It is also advisable to use a realistic type of shock front and shock reflection coefficient, consistent with the height of Mach stem, incidence angle and pressure magnitude.

Dharaneepathy, M. V.; Rao, M. N. Keshava; Santhakumar, A. R.

1995-02-01

148

Blast Effects of Twin Variable-Cant Rocket Nozzles on Visibility During Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blast Effects of Twin Variable-Cant Rocket Nozzles on Visibility During Landing on a Particle-Covered Surface. A limited investigation has been conducted to determine the jet-blast effect of twin variable-cant supersonic nozzles. These tests were made to examine the result of using canted main rocket engines to sweep the blast debris outward from the proposed landing area of a rocket-powered vehicle making a vertical approach to a touchdown. Cant angles from 0 degrees to 75 degrees, at intervals of 15 degrees, were tested at low ambient pressure and at atmospheric ambient pressure. Nozzle chamber pressures used were 400 psi and 2000 psi. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030964. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1964-01-01

149

Extragalactic Submillimetric Surveys with BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently conducted an extragalactic submillimetric survey of the Chandra Deep Field South region of unprecedented size, depth, and angular resolution in three wavebands centered at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. BLAST wavelengths are chosen to study the Cosmic Infrared Background near its peak at 200 ?m. We find that most of the CIB at these wavelengths is contributed by galaxies detected at 24 ?m by the MIPS instrument on Spitzer, and that the source counts distribution shows a population with strongly evolving density and luminosity. These results anticipate what can be expected from the surveys that will be conducted with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel space observatory.

Pascale, E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Devlin, M. J.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Moncelsi, L.; Netterfield, C. B.; Ngo, H.; Olmi, L.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N.; Truch, M. D. P.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

150

Imatinib induces hematologic and cytogenetic responses in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in myeloid blast crisis: results of a phase II study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast crisis is the most advanced stage of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and is highly refractory to therapy. CML is caused by expression of the chimeric BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase oncogene, the product of the t(9;22) Philadelphia translo- cation. Imatinib (Glivec, formerly STI571) is a rationally developed, orally adminis- tered inhibitor of the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. A total of 260 patients

Charles L. Sawyers; Andreas Hochhaus; Eric Feldman; John M. Goldman; Carole B. Miller; Oliver G. Ottmann; Charles A. Schiffer; Moshe Talpaz; Francois Guilhot; Michael W. N. Deininger; Thomas Fischer; Steve G. O'Brien; Richard M. Stone; Carlo B. Gambacorti-Passerini; Nigel H. Russell; Jose J. Reiffers; Thomas C. Shea; Bernard Chapuis; Steven Coutre; Sante Tura; Enrica Morra; Richard A. Larson; Alan Saven; Christian Peschel; Alois Gratwohl; Franco Mandelli; Monique Ben-Am; Insa Gathmann; Renaud Capdeville; Ronald L. Paquette; Brian J. Druker

151

Air blast loading of a cylindrical body  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure measurements were performed on the surface of a cylinder in shock tube experiments and in free field tests. In shock tube measurements, pressure waves with a rather sharp profile were observed, with overpressures ranging from 0.2 to 2 bar. Unsteady gain coefficients were obtained for weak and moderately strong incident shocks. In free field tests, blast waves at the

W. Heilig

1981-01-01

152

Rice blast evaluation of newly introduced germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic resistance to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia grisea oryzae) was identified in newly introduced rice germplasm through quarantine when tested in artificially inoculated greenhouse and field nursery tests during the 2007 growing season. Of 229 accessions, 31 we...

153

Building BLAST for Coprocessor Accelerators Using Macah  

E-print Network

The problem of detecting similarities between different genetic sequences is fundamental to many research pursuits in biology and genetics. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment and Search Tool) is the most commonly used tool for identifying and assessing the significance of such similarities. With the quantity of available genetic sequence data rapidly increasing, improving the performance of the BLAST algorithm is a problem of great interest. BLAST compares a single query sequence against a database of known sequences, employing a heuristic algorithm that consists of three stages arranged in a pipeline, such that the output of one stage feeds into the input of the next stage. Several recent studies have successfully investigated the use of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to accelerate the execution of the BLAST algorithm, focusing on the first and second stages, which account for the vast majority of the algorithms execution time. While these results are encouraging, translating algorithms like BLAST that contain somewhat complex and unpredictable control flow and data access patterns into versions suitable for implementation on coprocessor accelerators like FPGAs turns out to be quite difficult using currently available tools. Such architectures are usually programmed using Hardware Description Languages (HDLs), which are significantly more difficult to learn and use than standard programming languages. In this paper, an accelerated version of the BLAST algorithm is presented, written in a new language called Macah, which is designed to make the task of programming coprocessor accelerators easier for programmers familiar with the widely-known C language.

Ben Weintraub

2008-01-01

154

Honeycomb spacer crush stength test results  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses aluminum honeycomb spacers, which are used as an energy absorbent material in shipping packages for off site shipment of radioactive materials and which were ordered in two crush strengths, 1,000 psi and 2,000 psi for use in drop tests requested by the Packaging and Transportation group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the vendor and the SRTC Materials Laboratory performed crush strength measurements on test samples made from the material used to fabricate the actual spacers. The measurements of crush strength made in the SRTC Materials Laboratory are within 100 psi of the measurements made by the manufacturer for all samples tested and all test measurements are within 10% of the specified crush strength, which is acceptable to the P&T group for the planned tests.

Leader, D.R.

1993-09-15

155

42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281 Section 493.1281 ...1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs...and defines the relationship between test results using the different methodologies,...

2010-10-01

156

42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281 Section 493.1281 ...1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs...and defines the relationship between test results using the different methodologies,...

2011-10-01

157

Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

2013-07-01

158

Flash Lidar Performance Testing: Configuration and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lidar-based hazard detection and avoidance will enable safe landing in scientifically interesting terrain with higher hazard abundance. ASC GoldenEye flash lidar was tested at JPL as part of EDL technology development for Mars 2018

Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Johnson, Andrew; Chang, Daniel; Ek, Eric; Natzic, David; Spiers, Gary; Penniman, Steve; Short, Brad

2012-01-01

159

Exposure of the thorax to a sublethal blast wave causes a hydrodynamic pulse that leads to perivenular inflammation in the brain.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by an explosive blast (blast-TBI) is postulated to result, in part, from transvascular transmission to the brain of a hydrodynamic pulse (a.k.a., volumetric blood surge, ballistic pressure wave, hydrostatic shock, or hydraulic shock) induced in major intrathoracic blood vessels. This mechanism of blast-TBI has not been demonstrated directly. We tested the hypothesis that a blast wave impacting the thorax would induce a hydrodynamic pulse that would cause pathological changes in the brain. We constructed a Thorax-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (TOBIA) and a Jugular-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (JOBIA). TOBIA delivered a collimated blast wave to the right lateral thorax of a rat, precluding direct impact on the cranium. JOBIA delivered a blast wave to the fluid-filled port of an extracorporeal intravenous infusion device whose catheter was inserted retrograde into the jugular vein, precluding lung injury. Long Evans rats were subjected to sublethal injury by TOBIA or JOBIA. Blast injury induced by TOBIA was characterized by apnea and diffuse bilateral hemorrhagic injury to the lungs associated with a transient reduction in pulse oximetry signals. Immunolabeling 24 h after injury by TOBIA showed up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha, ED-1, sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein in veins or perivenular tissues and microvessels throughout the brain. The perivenular inflammatory effects induced by TOBIA were prevented by ligating the jugular vein and were reproduced using JOBIA. We conclude that blast injury to the thorax leads to perivenular inflammation, Sur1 up-regulation, and reactive astrocytosis resulting from the induction of a hydrodynamic pulse in the vasculature. PMID:24673157

Simard, J Marc; Pampori, Adam; Keledjian, Kaspar; Tosun, Cigdem; Schwartzbauer, Gary; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

2014-07-15

160

X-48B Preliminary Flight Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the preliminary Flight tests of the X-48B development program. The X-48B is a blended wing body aircraft that is being used to test various features of the BWB concept. The research concerns the following: (1) Turbofan Development, (2) Intelligent Flight Control and Optimization, (3) Airdata Calibration (4) Parameter Identification (i.e., Determination of the parameters of a mathematical model of a system based on observation of the system inputs and response.)

Taylor, Brian R.

2009-01-01

161

30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires...

2012-07-01

162

30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires...

2013-07-01

163

30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires...

2011-07-01

164

30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires...

2014-07-01

165

CLIC test beam facilities status and results  

E-print Network

CERN is studying the feasibility of building a 1 TeV c.m. e+e- linear collider (CLIC) based on 30 GHz accelerating structures and RF power production from a low energy, high intensity drive linac. Two major challenges of the CLIC two-beam scheme are the generation of the high intensity drive beam and the extraction of 30 GHz RF power using transfer structures. Two test facilities are currently being used to study these specific problems. The CLIC Test Facility (CTF) is a purpose-built CERN facility to study the generation of the drive beam by photo-injectors, the generation of 30 GHz RF power, and the testing of components. This facility has produced single bunch charges of 35 nC with a bunch length of 14 ps (FWHH) and up to 76 MW of 30 GHz RF power. It is at present being updated to a 10 m long two-beam test accelerator producing 480 MW of 30 GHz RF peak power and accelerating electron bunches with gradients of 80 MV/m. The FEL Test Facility at CESTA (Bordeaux) is being used to study the generation of the CL...

Wilson, Ian H

1996-01-01

166

Results from Grimethorpe PFBC turbine cascade tests  

SciTech Connect

The test program at the Grimethorpe Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) facility included an assessment of the potential for deposition, corrosion, and erosion of gas turbine blade materials when exposed to PFBC off gases. Flue gas from the combustor was fed through three stages of cyclones before entering the cascade. The impulse foils were approximately the size and shape of the first stage blades in the GE MS-1002 gas turbine. The cascade operated through three test series, accumulating a total of 649 hours. The conditions experienced are summarized. The paper lists the alloys tested, and discusses the efficiency of the cyclones, the particle size distribution of the dusts not removed by the cyclones, and corrosion of the turbine blades. 4 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Not Available

1986-12-01

167

Avco Lycoming emission and flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Avco Lycoming flight test program for reduced emissions was conducted to determine and document the lean fuel schedule limits for current production aircraft based on flight safety. Based on analysis of the emissions profile, Avco Lycoming proposed to evaluate the effect of leaner schedules in the idle/taxi, climb, and approach modes. These modes were selected as areas where it was felt that possible improvements could be made with the greatest improvement in cyclic emissions reduction. The fuel systems to produce these leaner stepped fuel schedules were tailored specifically for the flight test.

Duke, L. C.

1976-01-01

168

Prediction of ground vibrations resulting from the blasting operations in an open-pit mine by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to predict the peak particle velocity (PPV) values from both presently constructed simple regression model and fuzzy-based model. For this purpose, vibrations induced by bench blasting operations were measured in an open-pit mine operated by the most important magnesite producing company (MAS) in Turkey. After gathering the ordered pairs of distance and PPV values, the site-specific parameters were determined using traditional regression method. Also, an attempt has been made to investigate the applicability of a relatively new soft computing method called as the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict PPV. To achieve this objective, data obtained from the blasting measurements were evaluated by constructing an ANFIS-based prediction model. The distance from the blasting site to the monitoring stations and the charge weight per delay were selected as the input parameters of the constructed model, the output parameter being the PPV. Valid for the site, the PPV prediction capability of the constructed ANFIS-based model has proved to be successful in terms of statistical performance indices such as variance account for (VAF), root mean square error (RMSE), standard error of estimation, and correlation between predicted and measured PPV values. Also, using these statistical performance indices, a prediction performance comparison has been made between the presently constructed ANFIS-based model and the classical regression-based prediction method, which has been widely used in the literature. Although the prediction performance of the regression-based model was high, the comparison has indicated that the proposed ANFIS-based model exhibited better prediction performance than the classical regression-based model.

Iphar, Melih; Yavuz, Mahmut; Ak, Hakan

2008-11-01

169

Gifted Adolescents: A Handbook of Test Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Governor's School of North Carolina is a residential summer program for talented and gifted juniors and seniors from all over the state. It is designed to provide a distinctive educational experience and to serve as an experimental laboratory for innovative instruction. This handbook reports on an extensive testing program carried out at the…

Welsh, George S.

170

Karhula hot gas cleanup test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to develop a practical hot gas filter design that meets the performance and operational requirements of pressurized fluidized bed combustion--bubbling bed, circulating bed and second generation--applications. The Westinghouse hot gas candle filter system is currently installed in the Ahlstrom Pyropower 10 MW (thermal) pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustor (PCFB) test facility located in Karhula,

T. E. Lippert; G. J. Bruck; J. Isaksson

1994-01-01

171

Liquid Motion Experiment Flight Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Liquid Motion Experiment (LME), designed to study the effects of liquid motion in rotating tanks, was flown on STS 84. LME was essentially a spin table that created a realistic nutation motion of scale-model tanks containing liquid. TWo spherical and two cylindrical transparent tanks were tested simultaneously, and three sets of such tanks were employed to vary liquid viscosity, fill level, and propellant management device (PMD) design. All the tanks were approximately 4.5 inches diameter. The primary test measurements were the radial and tangential torques exerted on the tanks by the liquid. Resonant frequencies and damping of the liquid oscillations were determined by sine sweep tests. For a given tank shape, the resonant frequency depended on fill level. For the cylindrical tanks, the resonances had somewhat different frequencies for the tangential axis (0.55 to 0.75 times spin rate) and the radial axis (0.73 to 0.78 times spin rate), and the tangential axis resonance agreed more closely with available analytical models. For the spherical tanks, the resonant frequencies were between 0.74 to 0.77 times the spin rate and were the same for the tangential and radial axes. The damping coefficients varied from about I% to 3% of critical, depending on tank shape, fill level, and liquid viscosity. 'Me viscous energy dissipation rates of the liquid oscillations were determined from sine dwell tests. The LME energy dissipation rates varied from 0.3 to 0.5 times the estimates obtained from scaling previous ground tests and spacecraft flight data. The PNDs sometimes enhanced the resonances and energy dissipation rates and sometimes decreased them, which points out the need to understand better the effects of PMD on liquid motion as a function of PMD and tank design.

Chato David J.; Dalton, Penni J.; Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steve

1998-01-01

172

A Novel Closed-Head Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Primary Overpressure Blast to the Cranium Produces Sustained Emotional Deficits in Mice  

PubMed Central

Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month-old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25–40?psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50–60?psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2–8?weeks after blast, 50–60?psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, but did observe scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50 to 60?psi mice 3–8?weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50–60?psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to “diffuse” axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI. PMID:24478749

Heldt, Scott A.; Elberger, Andrea J.; Deng, Yunping; Guley, Natalie H.; Del Mar, Nobel; Rogers, Joshua; Choi, Gy Won; Ferrell, Jessica; Rex, Tonia S.; Honig, Marcia G.; Reiner, Anton

2014-01-01

173

Blast transport of debris from scale model buildings. Volumes II, Appendices A-J  

Microsoft Academic Search

These tests were conducted to simulate in small scale, 1\\/140 to 1\\/8, the flight and ground distributions of debris ripped from masonry and wooden buildings by nuclear blasts. Those simulated in these tests had peak overpressures of 10 to 35 psi from detonations of 0.1 to 12 megatons. Scaled up test results are that wood debris can be carried over

Witt

1979-01-01

174

Blast transport of debris from scale model buildings. Volume I, Chapters 1 through 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

These tests were conducted to simulate in small scale, 1\\/140 to 1\\/8, the flight and ground distributions of debris ripped from masonry and wooden buildings by nuclear blasts. Those simulated in these tests had peak overpressures of 10 to 35 psi from detonations of 0.1 to 12 megatons. Scaled up test results are that wood debris can be carried over

Witt

1979-01-01

175

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

Crelling, J.C.

1993-12-31

176

The 757 NLF glove flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major concern in the application of a laminar flow wing design to commercial transports is whether laminar flow can be sustained in the presence of the noise environment due to wing mounted turbofan engines. To investigate this issue, a flight test program was conducted using the Boeing 757 flight research airplane with a portion of the wing modified to obtain natural laminar flow. The flight test had two primary objectives. The first was to measure the noise levels on the upper and lower surface of the wing for a range of flight conditions. The second was to investigate the effect of engine noise on laminar boundary layer transition. The noise field on the wing and transition location on the glove were then measured as a function of the engine power setting at a given flight condition. The transition and noise measurement on the glove show that there is no apparent effect of engine noise on the upper surface transition location. On the lower surface, the transition location moved forward 2 to 3 percent chord. A boundary layer stability analysis to the flight data showed that cross flow disturbances were the dominant cause of transition at most flight conditions.

Runyan, L. Jim; Bielak, G. W.; Behbehani, R. A.; Chen, A. W.; Rozendaal, Roger A.

1987-01-01

177

A critical review of anaesthetised animal models and alternatives for military research, testing and training, with a focus on blast damage, haemorrhage and resuscitation.  

PubMed

Military research, testing, and surgical and resuscitation training, are aimed at mitigating the consequences of warfare and terrorism to armed forces and civilians. Traumatisation and tissue damage due to explosions, and acute loss of blood due to haemorrhage, remain crucial, potentially preventable, causes of battlefield casualties and mortalities. There is also the additional threat from inhalation of chemical and aerosolised biological weapons. The use of anaesthetised animal models, and their respective replacement alternatives, for military purposes -- particularly for blast injury, haemorrhaging and resuscitation training -- is critically reviewed. Scientific problems with the animal models include the use of crude, uncontrolled and non-standardised methods for traumatisation, an inability to model all key trauma mechanisms, and complex modulating effects of general anaesthesia on target organ physiology. Such effects depend on the anaesthetic and influence the cardiovascular system, respiration, breathing, cerebral haemodynamics, neuroprotection, and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Some anaesthetics also bind to the NMDA brain receptor with possible differential consequences in control and anaesthetised animals. There is also some evidence for gender-specific effects. Despite the fact that these issues are widely known, there is little published information on their potential, at best, to complicate data interpretation and, at worst, to invalidate animal models. There is also a paucity of detail on the anaesthesiology used in studies, and this can hinder correct data evaluation. Welfare issues relate mainly to the possibility of acute pain as a side-effect of traumatisation in recovered animals. Moreover, there is the increased potential for animals to suffer when anaesthesia is temporary, and the procedures invasive. These dilemmas can be addressed, however, as a diverse range of replacement approaches exist, including computer and mathematical dynamic modelling of the human body, cadavers, interactive human patient simulators for training, in vitro techniques involving organotypic cultures of target organs, and epidemiological and clinical studies. While the first four of these have long proven useful for developing protective measures and predicting the consequences of trauma, and although many phenomena and their sequelae arising from different forms of trauma in vivo can be induced and reproduced in vitro, non-animal approaches require further development, and their validation and use need to be coordinated and harmonised. Recommendations to these ends are proposed, and the scientific and welfare problems associated with animal models are addressed, with the future focus being on the use of batteries of complementary replacement methods deployed in integrated strategies, and on greater transparency and scientific cooperation. PMID:24329746

Combes, Robert D

2013-11-01

178

Mechanisms of hearing loss after blast injury to the ear.  

PubMed

Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body's most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T; Raphael, Patrick D; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N; Oghalai, John S

2013-01-01

179

CRCHD E-blast  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD E-blast CRCHD Web Site Updates The Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities (CRCHD) has recently updated some of its Web pages! Please take the time to browse through these updates. Site updates include: 2013 Annual Report to the Nation on

180

LOFT lead rod test results evaluation. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

The purpose for evaluating the LOFT Lead Rod Test (simulations of large break, loss-of-coolant accidents) data was to determine; (a) if the centerline thermocouple and fuel rod elongation sensor data show indications of the collapsed fuel rod cladding, (b) the capability of the FRAP-T5 computer code to accurately predict cladding collapse, and (c) if cladding surface thermocouples enhance fuel rod cooling. With consideration to unresolved questions on data integrity, it was concluded that: the fuel rod centerline thermocouple and elongation sensor data do show indications of the fuel rod cladding collapse; the FRAP-T5 code conservatively predicts cladding collapse; and there is an indication that cladding surface thermocouples are enhancing fuel rod cooling.

Driskell, W.B.; Tolman, E.L.

1980-07-30

181

Nanoenhanced polyurea as a blast resistant coating for concrete masonry walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast impact is a major concern in the world today. The leading cause of death due to blast impacts is rapidly moving debris. To prevent this many researchers are looking for methods of improved blast resistance for concrete masonry walls. However, many available protective coatings are not flame retardant. This thesis focuses on nanoenhanced polyurea for applications in improving blast resistance, while possessing improved flame retardancy, of concrete masonry walls. The polyurea that is being researched is enhanced with nanoadditives in an effort improve both blast and fire resistance. These materials are dynamically tested and those showing marked improvement are chosen for experimental and computational testing.

Rivera, Heather Kathryn Daniell

182

49 CFR 236.110 - Results of tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Results of tests. 236.110 Section 236.110 Transportation...Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.110 Results of tests. (a) Results of tests made in compliance with §§...

2011-10-01

183

49 CFR 236.110 - Results of tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Results of tests. 236.110 Section 236.110 Transportation...Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.110 Results of tests. (a) Results of tests made in compliance with §§...

2010-10-01

184

REVIEW OF FENTON HILL HDR TEST RESULTS Donald BROWN  

E-print Network

REVIEW OF FENTON HILL HDR TEST RESULTS Donald BROWN Los Alamos National Laboratory ABSTRACT Results of recent flow testing at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, have been examined in light of their applicability as flow testing proceeded. Based on these test results together with previous HDR research at Fenton Hill

185

30 CFR 56.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6407 Circuit testing. ...testing blasting circuits shall be used...Continuity of each electric detonator in...connection of electric detonator series...Total blasting circuit resistance...

2013-07-01

186

30 CFR 56.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6407 Circuit testing. ...testing blasting circuits shall be used...Continuity of each electric detonator in...connection of electric detonator series...Total blasting circuit resistance...

2014-07-01

187

30 CFR 56.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6407 Circuit testing. ...testing blasting circuits shall be used...Continuity of each electric detonator in...connection of electric detonator series...Total blasting circuit resistance...

2012-07-01

188

30 CFR 57.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface... § 57.6407 Circuit testing. A...testing blasting circuits shall be used to...Continuity of each electric detonator in the...the connection of electric detonator series...Total blasting circuit resistance...

2014-07-01

189

30 CFR 57.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface... § 57.6407 Circuit testing. A...testing blasting circuits shall be used to...Continuity of each electric detonator in the...the connection of electric detonator series...Total blasting circuit resistance...

2010-07-01

190

30 CFR 57.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface... § 57.6407 Circuit testing. A...testing blasting circuits shall be used to...Continuity of each electric detonator in the...the connection of electric detonator series...Total blasting circuit resistance...

2012-07-01

191

30 CFR 57.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface... § 57.6407 Circuit testing. A...testing blasting circuits shall be used to...Continuity of each electric detonator in the...the connection of electric detonator series...Total blasting circuit resistance...

2013-07-01

192

30 CFR 57.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface... § 57.6407 Circuit testing. A...testing blasting circuits shall be used to...Continuity of each electric detonator in the...the connection of electric detonator series...Total blasting circuit resistance...

2011-07-01

193

30 CFR 56.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6407 Circuit testing. ...testing blasting circuits shall be used...Continuity of each electric detonator in...connection of electric detonator series...Total blasting circuit resistance...

2011-07-01

194

30 CFR 56.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6407 Circuit testing. ...testing blasting circuits shall be used...Continuity of each electric detonator in...connection of electric detonator series...Total blasting circuit resistance...

2010-07-01

195

Recent results of the GAINS test flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A demonstration flight of the Global Atmosphere-ocean IN-situ System (GAINS) Prototype III balloon is scheduled to occur in early summer 2002. The 18-m diameter PIII superpressure balloon, built by GSSL, Inc., will float a 135-kg payload at 16 km. Performance of the SpectraTM envelope will be assessed over two day-night cycles. The payload consists of line-of-sight communications for transmitting GPS position, and monitored parameters on balloon and payload state and the internal and external thermal environments. Primary termination is by radio command with several independent backup termination systems. Safe operation of the balloon is ensured by an onboard transponder that keeps the balloon under active air traffic control. The balloon is tracked by an aircraft that will record communications from the balloon and instigate termination of the flight. Mobile ground stations positioned at the launch and recovery locations will also be capable of recording and terminating the flight. A suite of trajectory forecast tools has been developed based on radiosondes and winds from numerical weather models. A GPS surface reflection experiment for determining ocean surface winds will be tested on this platform. Physical and electronic integration of the radio and mechanical systems was completed over the last two years. Data and videos from the June flight will be presented.

Girz, C.

196

Test results of a prototype dielectric microcalorimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial development work on a dielectric microcalorimeter is presented. It focuses on the dielectric properties of the ferroelectric material KTa(1-x)Nb(x)O3 (KTN). Measurements of the temperature dependent dielectric constant are given together with the first alpha particle detection results from a prototype composite microcalorimeter operating at 1.3 K. A nonthermal mechanism for detecting 6 MeV alpha particles in a monolithic KTN sample is also reported.

Pfafman, T. E.; Silver, E.; Labov, S.; Beeman, J.; Goulding, F.; Hansen, W.; Landis, D.; Madden, N.

1990-01-01

197

Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

Courtney, Michael W.; Courtney, Amy C.

2010-12-01

198

A Table-top Blast Driven Shock Tube  

E-print Network

The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer which explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

Courtney, Michael; 10.1063/1.3518970

2011-01-01

199

Test results of a prototype dielectric microcalorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The initial development work on a dielectric microcalorimeter is presented. It focuses on the dielectric properties of the ferroelectric material KTa{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} (KTN). Measurements of the temperature dependent dielectric constant are given together with the first alpha particle detection results from a prototype composite microcalorimeter operating at 1.3 K. a non-thermal mechanism for detecting 6 MeV alpha particles in a monolithic KTN sample is also reported. 7 refs, 16 figs., 1 tab.

Pfafman, T.E.; Silver, E.; Labov, S. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Beeman, J.; Goulding, F.; Hansen, W.; Landis, D.; Madden, N. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-08-13

200

Current advances on genetic resistance to rice blast disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most threatening fungal diseases resulting in significant annual crop losses worldwide. Blast disease has been effectively managed by a combination of resistant (R) gene deployment, application of fungicides, and suita...

201

Computational studies of polyurea coated steel plate under blast loads  

E-print Network

structural dynamics analysis #12;Blast simulation · PUMA2, a computational fluid dynamics computer code. Validation of PUMA2 - Over-Pressure #12;Pressure Loading at the Center of the Plate · Results obtained using-Blast 2.2, Applied Research Associates, Inc.] #12;Comparison between PUMA2 and TM5- 1300 · TM5

202

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-09-01

203

Initial test results using the GEOS-3 engineering model altimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from a series of experimental tests run on the engineering model of the GEOS 3 radar altimeter using the Test and Measurement System (TAMS) designed for preflight testing of the radar altimeter are presented. These tests were conducted as a means of preparing and checking out a detailed test procedure to be used in running similar tests on the GEOS 3 protoflight model altimeter systems. The test procedures and results are also included.

Hayne, G. S.; Clary, J. B.

1977-01-01

204

Blast Effects of Twin Variable-Cant Rocket Nozzles on Visibility During Landing on a Particle-Covered Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A limited investigation has been conducted to determine the jet-blast effect of twin variable-cant supersonic nozzles. These tests were made to examine the result of using canted main rocket engines to sweep the blast debris outward from the proposed landing area of a rocket-powered vehicle making a vertical approach to a touchdown. Cant angles from 0 degrees to 75 degrees, at intervals of 15 degrees, were tested at low ambient pressure and at atmospheric ambient pressure. Nozzle chamber pressures used were 400 psi and 2000 psi.

Hurt, G. J.; Lina, L. J.

1964-01-01

205

Stirling convertor performance mapping test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected Free-Piston Stirling Convertors as a technology for future advanced radioisotope space power systems. In August 2000, DOE awarded competitive Phase I, Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) power system integration contracts to three major aerospace contractors, resulting in SRG conceptual designs in February 2001. All three contractors based their designs on the Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for DOE. The contract award to a single system integration contractor for Phases II and III of the SRG program is anticipated in late 2001. The first potential SRG mission is targeted for a Mars rover. Recent TDC performance data are provided in this paper, together with predictions from Stirling simulation models. .

Qiu, Songgang; Peterson, Allen A.; White, Maurice A.; Faultersack, Franklyn; Redinger, Darin L.; Petersen, Stephen L.

2002-01-01

206

Quantification and aging of the post-blast residue of TNT landmines.  

PubMed

Post-blast residues are potential interferents to chemical detection of landmines. To assess the potential problem related to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), its post-blast residue was identified and quantified. In the first part of this study laboratory-scale samples of TNT (2 g) were detonated in a small-scale explosivity device (SSED) to evaluate the explosive power and collect post-blast residue for chemical analysis. Initiator size was large relative to the TNT charge; thus, issues arose regarding choice of initiator, residue from the initiator, and afterburning of TNT. The second part of this study detonated 75 to 150 g of military-grade TNT (typical of antipersonnel mines) in 55-gal barrels containing various witness materials (metal plates, sand, barrel walls, the atmosphere). The witness materials were analyzed for explosive residue. In a third set of tests, 75-g samples of TNT were detonated over soil (from Fort Leonard Wood or Sandia National Laboratory) in an indoor firing chamber (100 by 4.6 by 2.7 m high). Targeted in these studies were TNT and four explosive-related compounds (ERC): 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB), 2- and 4-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT and 4-ADNT). The latter two are microbial degradation products of TNT. Post-blast residue was allowed to age in the soils as a function of moisture contents (5 and 10%) in order to quantify the rate of degradation of the principal residues (TNT, DNT, and DNB) and formation of the TNT microbial degradation products (2-ADNT and 4-ADNT). The major distinction between landmine leakage and post-blast residue was not the identity of the species but relative ratios of amounts. In landmine leakage the DNT/TNT ratio was usually greater than 1. In post-blast residue it was on the order of 1 to 1/100th of a percent, and the total amount of pre-blast residue (landmine leakage) was a factor of 1/100 to 1/1000 less than post-blast. In addition, landmine leakage resulted in low DNT/ADNT ratios, usually less than 1, whereas pre-blast residues started with ratios above 20. Because with time DNT decreased and ADNT increased, over a month the ratio decreased by a factor of 2. The rate of TNT degradation in soil observed in this study was much slower than that reported when initial concentrations of TNT were lower. Degradation rates yielded half-lives of 40 and 100 days for 2,4-DNT and TNT, respectively. PMID:12877289

Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Resende, Elmo; Pearce, Evan

2003-07-01

207

30 CFR 57.22607 - Blasting on shift (III mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives... When blasting on shift, tests for methane shall be made in the mine atmosphere...not be done when 1.0 percent or more methane is...

2010-07-01

208

30 CFR 57.22607 - Blasting on shift (III mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives... When blasting on shift, tests for methane shall be made in the mine atmosphere...not be done when 1.0 percent or more methane is...

2011-07-01

209

2. DETAIL, EAST ENTRANCE, SHOWING OUTER BLAST DOOR AND INNER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. DETAIL, EAST ENTRANCE, SHOWING OUTER BLAST DOOR AND INNER DOORS. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

210

7. DETAIL SHOWING BLAST SHIELDED WINDOWS, WEST SIDE. Edwards ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL SHOWING BLAST SHIELDED WINDOWS, WEST SIDE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

211

40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.57-5 Reporting of test results...ii) Year, make, assembly date, and model of compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by...

2010-07-01

212

Planar blast scaling with condensed-phase explosives in a shock tube  

SciTech Connect

Blast waves are strong shock waves that result from large power density deposition into a fluid. The rapid energy release of high-explosive (HE) detonation provides sufficiently high power density for blast wave generation. Often it is desirable to quantify the energy released by such an event and to determine that energy relative to other reference explosives to derive an explosive-equivalence value. In this study, we use condensed-phase explosives to drive a blast wave in a shock tube. The explosive material and quantity were varied to produce blast waves of differing strengths. Pressure transducers at varying lengths measured the post-shock pressure, shock-wave arrival time and sidewall impulse associated with each test. Blast-scaling concepts in a one-dimensional geometry were then used to both determine the energy release associated with each test and to verify the scaling of the shock position versus time, overpressure versus distance, and impulse. Most blast scaling measurements to-date have been performed in a three-dimensional geometry such as a blast arena. Testing in a three-dimensional geometry can be challenging, however, as spherical shock-wave symmetry is required for good measurements. Additionally, the spherical wave strength decays rapidly with distance and it can be necessary to utilize larger (several kg) quantities of explosive to prevent significant decay from occurring before an idealized blast wave has formed. Such a mode of testing can be expensive, require large quantities of explosive, and be limited by both atmospheric conditions (such as rain) and by noise complaints from the population density near the test arena. Testing is possible in more compact geometries, however. Non-planar blast waves can be formed into a quasi-planar shape by confining the shock diffraction with the walls of a shock tube. Regardless of the initial form, the wave shape will begin to approximate a planar front after successive wave reflections from the tube walls. Such a technique has previously been used to obtain blast scaling measurements in the planar geometry with gaseous explosives and the condensed-phase explosive nitroguanidine. Recently, there has been much interest in the blast characterization of various non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) materials. With non-ideals, the detonation reaction zone is significantly larger (up to several cm for ANFO) than more ideal explosives. Wave curvature, induced by charge-geometry, can significantly affect the energy release associated with NIHEs. To measure maximum NIHE energy release accurately, it is desirable to minimize any such curvature and, if possible, to overdrive the detonation shock to ensure completion of chemical reactions ahead of the sonic locus associated with the reaction zone. This is achieved in the current study through use of a powerful booster HE and a charge geometry consisting of short cylindrical lengths of NIHE initiated along the charge centerline.

Jackson, Scott L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-25

213

Evaluation of ground vibration effect of blasting operations in a magnesite mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground vibrations induced by blasting are one of the fundamental problems in the mining industry and may cause severe damage to structures and plants nearby. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in mines. This paper presents the results of ground vibration measurement induced by bench blasting at Magnesite Incorporated

Hakan Ak; Melih Iphar; Mahmut Yavuz; Adnan Konuk

2009-01-01

214

Micro shot blasting of machine tools for improving surface finish and reducing cutting forces in manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro blasting of cutting tips and tools is a very effective and reliable method of advancing the life of tools under the action of turning, milling, drilling, punching and cutting. This paper outlines the ways in which micro blasted tools, both coated and uncoated have benefited from shot blasting and resulted in greater productivity, lower cutting forces, improved surface finish

D. M. Kennedy; J. Vahey; D. Hanney

2005-01-01

215

40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Reporting of test results. 204.57-5 Section 204.57-5...Compressors § 204.57-5 Reporting of test results. (a)(1) The manufacturer shall...Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by serial numbers (3) The...

2011-07-01

216

Mathematics Placement Test: Typical Results with Unexpected Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the results of a prior case-study analysis of mathematics placement at one university, the mathematics department developed and piloted a mathematics placement test. This article describes the implementation process for a mathematics placement test and further analyzes the test results for the pilot group. As an unexpected result, the…

Ingalls, Victoria

2011-01-01

217

Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury  

SciTech Connect

In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies that the headform locally experiences a nearly planar blast wave. Also, the positive phase durations and blast impulses are much larger than those of (1). Consequently, the blast model used in (1) is spatially and temporally very different from a military blast. It would be useful to repeat the calculations using military blast parameters. Finally, (1) overlooks a significant part of (5). On page 1 and on page 3, (1) states that (5) did not consider helmet pads. But pages pages 3 and 4 of (5) present simulations of blast wave propagation across an ACH helmeted head form with and without pads. (5) states that when the pads are present, the 'underwash' of air under the helmet is blocked when compared to the case without. (1) reaches this same conclusion, but reports it as a new result rather than a confirmation of that already found in (5).

Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

2011-01-21

218

A mouse model of ocular blast injury that induces closed globe anterior and posterior pole damage  

PubMed Central

We developed and characterized a mouse model of primary ocular blast injury. The device consists of: a pressurized air tank attached to a regulated paintball gun with a machined barrel; a chamber that protects the mouse from direct injury and recoil, while exposing the eye; and a secure platform that enables fine, controlled movement of the chamber in relation to the barrel. Expected pressures were calculated and the optimal pressure transducer, based on the predicted pressures, was positioned to measure output pressures at the location where the mouse eye would be placed. Mice were exposed to one of three blast pressures (23.6, 26.4, or 30.4psi). Gross pathology, intraocular pressure, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity were assessed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after exposure. Contralateral eyes and non-blast exposed mice were used as controls. We detected increased damage with increased pressures and a shift in the damage profile over time. Gross pathology included corneal edema, corneal abrasions, and optic nerve avulsion. Retinal damage was detected by optical coherence tomography and a deficit in visual acuity was detected by optokinetics. Our findings are comparable to those identified in Veterans of the recent wars with closed eye injuries as a result of blast exposure. In summary, this is a relatively simple system that creates injuries with features similar to those seen in patients with ocular blast trauma. This is an important new model for testing the short-term and long-term spectrum of closed globe blast injuries and potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:22504073

Hines-Beard, Jessica; Marchetta, Jeffrey; Gordon, Sarah; Chaum, Edward; Geisert, Eldon E.; Rex, Tonia S.

2012-01-01

219

Impact of complex blast waves on the human head: a computational study.  

PubMed

Head injuries due to complex blasts are not well examined because of limited published articles on the subject. Previous studies have analyzed head injuries due to impact from a single planar blast wave. Complex or concomitant blasts refer to impacts usually caused by more than a single blast source, whereby the blast waves may impact the head simultaneously or consecutively, depending on the locations and distances of the blast sources from the subject, their blast intensities, the sequence of detonations, as well as the effect of blast wave reflections from rigid walls. It is expected that such scenarios will result in more serious head injuries as compared to impact from a single blast wave due to the larger effective duration of the blast. In this paper, the utilization of a head-helmet model for blast impact analyses in Abaqus(TM) (Dassault Systemes, Singapore) is demonstrated. The model is validated against studies published in the literature. Results show that the skull is capable of transmitting the blast impact to cause high intracranial pressures (ICPs). In addition, the pressure wave from a frontal blast may enter through the sides of the helmet and wrap around the head to result in a second impact at the rear. This study recommended better protection at the sides and rear of the helmet through the use of foam pads so as to reduce wave entry into the helmet. The consecutive frontal blasts scenario resulted in higher ICPs compared with impact from a single frontal blast. This implied that blast impingement from an immediate subsequent pressure wave would increase severity of brain injury. For the unhelmeted head case, a peak ICP of 330?kPa is registered at the parietal lobe which exceeds the 235?kPa threshold for serious head injuries. The concurrent front and side blasts scenario yielded lower ICPs and skull stresses than the consecutive frontal blasts case. It is also revealed that the additional side blast would only significantly affect ICPs at the temporal and parietal lobes when compared with results from the single frontal blast case. By analyzing the pressure wave flow surrounding the head and correlating them with the consequential evolution of ICP and skull stress, the paper provides insights into the interaction mechanics between the concomitant blast waves and the biological head model. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25132676

Tan, Long Bin; Chew, Fatt Siong; Tse, Kwong Ming; Chye Tan, Vincent Beng; Lee, Heow Pueh

2014-12-01

220

The effect of abrasive blasting on the strength of a joint between dental porcelain and metal base.  

PubMed

This paper presents the effect of selected parameters of abrasive blasting on the strength of a joint between dental porcelain and metal base. Experiments were conducted for different grain sizes of abrasive material and different blasting angles, with a constant blasting pressure. InLine dental porcelain was fused on samples of cobalt-chromium alloy following abrasive blasting; they were subsequently subjected to shearing forces on a testing machine. The fractures were observed under an electron scanning microscope in order to determine the character and course of fracturing. Strength tests showed that the grain size of abrasive material was a parameter with the greatest effect on the strength. The best effects were achieved for samples subjected to abrasive blasting with material with grain size of 110 ?m. No statistically significant differences were found for the strength of samples worked at different angles. The results of the fractographic examinations have shown that in all the samples, fracturing occurred mainly along the porcelain-metal boundary, with few cases of fracturing through porcelain. PMID:24708248

Pietnicki, Krzysztof; Wo?owiec, Emilia; Klimek, Leszek

2014-01-01

221

Inverter Performance Certification: Results from the Sandia Test Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses results of the work to develop a test protocol for evaluating PV inverter performance, results obtained by testing to the protocol as required by the California Energy Commission (CEC), and the use of those results to develop and evaluate inverter performance models. This paper presents preliminary results of the modeling effort, comparing the models derived from CEC

Chuck Whitaker; Jeff Newmiller; Ward Bower

2006-01-01

222

Test results of the DOE/Sandia 17 meter VAWT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is given of the test program of a 17 meter Vertical Axis Wind Turbine VAWT. Performance test results are discussed including difficulties encountered during the VAWT operation along with ways of solving these problems.

Nellums, R. O.; Worstell, M. H.

1979-01-01

223

49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229 Section 199.229...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229...

2012-10-01

224

49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229 Section 199.229...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229...

2013-10-01

225

Blast wave mitigation by dry aqueous foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results of experiments and numerical modeling on the mitigation of blast waves using dry aqueous foams. The multiphase formalism is used to model the dry aqueous foam as a dense non-equilibrium two-phase medium as well as its interaction with the high explosion detonation products. New experiments have been performed to study the mass scaling effects. The experimental as well as the numerical results, which are in good agreement, show that more than an order of magnitude reduction in the peak overpressure ratio can be achieved. The positive impulse reduction is less marked than the overpressures. The Hopkinson scaling is also found to hold particularly at larger scales for these two blast parameters. Furthermore, momentum and heat transfers, which have the main dominant role in the mitigation process, are shown to modify significantly the classical blast wave profile and thereafter to disperse the energy from the peak overpressure due to the induced relaxation zone. In addition, the velocity of the fireball, which acts as a piston on its environment, is smaller than in air. Moreover, the greater inertia of the liquid phase tends to project the aqueous foam far from the fireball. The created gap tempers the amplitude of the transmitted shock wave to the aqueous foam. As a consequence, this results in a lowering of blast wave parameters of the two-phase spherical decaying shock wave.

Del Prete, E.; Chinnayya, A.; Domergue, L.; Hadjadj, A.; Haas, J.-F.

2013-02-01

226

Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 2. Free-air peak-pressure measurements. Section 2. Telemetering from moored balloons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the free-air peak-pressure as a function of distance from an atomic explosion. In this report, free-air peak-pressure is defined as the pressure at the head of the blast wave in regions where it has not been reinforced by a reflected wave. Operation in the test area was more difficult than anticipated. Heavy winds made balloon handling very difficult. On the whole, the radio link performed satisfactorily on all occasions and appears to be a reliable method. For some unknown reason, blast switches closer than 1,500 feet failed to give satisfactory signals. Pressures were computed using the Rankine-Hugoniot relation, which is based on the shock wave being a definite discontinuity in pressure. Since the pressures measured on the ground showed relatively long times, there has been some speculation that a true shock wave may not exist in free air. If a true shock wave does not exist in the free-air region, pressures as computed are not correct, and the method of this experiment cannot be used.

Frolich, A.J.

1985-09-01

227

Effects of testing conditions on conceptual survey results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pre-testing and post-testing is a commonly used method in Physics Education Research to assess student learning gains. It is well recognized in the community that timings and incentives in delivering conceptual tests can impact test results. However, it is difficult to control these variables across different studies. As a common practice, a pre-test is often administered either at or near the beginning of a course, while a post-test can be given either at or near the end of a course. Also, in conducting such tests there often is no norm as to whether incentives should be offered to students. Because these variations can significantly affect test results, it is important to study and document their impact. We analyzed five years of data that were collected at The Ohio State University from over 2100 students, who took both the pre-test and post-test of the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism under various timings and incentives. We observed that the actual time frame for giving a test has a marked effect on the test results and that incentive granting also has a significant influence on test outcomes. These results suggest that one should carefully monitor and document the conditions under which tests are administered.

Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

2008-09-22

228

Ground standoff mine detection system (GSTAMIDS) block 0 contractor test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under contact to the United States Army, EG&G Technical Services currently is conducting field tests of the Ground Standoff Mine Detection System (GSTAMIDS) Block 0 Engineering, Manufacturing and Development (EMD) systems. GSTAMIDS is a spiral development effort designed to provide the war fighter an incremental, near-term capability to execute on-road countermine missions. GSTAMIDS is being developed in three distinct blocks. The primary mission for GSTAMIDS Block 0 is route clearance, automatically detecting and marking all metallic and non-metallic Anti-Tank (AT) mines. It consists of a Mine Detection and marking System (MDS) mounted on a teleoperated Mine Detection Vehicle (MDV) and a Main Computer System (MCS) mounted in a Mine Protected Clearance Vehicle (MPCV). Both vehicles have overpass capability for AT mines, as well as armor anti-mine blast protection. The MPCV mounted MCS receives sensor data, along with inertial navigation data, from the MDS via an RF PCM telemetry link, automatically processes and fuses the data for mine detection and sends mine marking commands back to the MDV. The MDS sensors provide a three-meter detection swath and include nine (9) Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR), nine (9) Pulsed Magnetic Induction (PMI) metal detectors, and (as an option) two (2) long-wave infrared (LWIR) cameras. Contractor testing includes raw sensor data collection and sensor evaluation, performance (Pd and FAR), operating and storage environment, and EMI/EMC radiated emissions and susceptibility, as well as maintenance demonstrations. Testing has been conducted at a number of test mine lanes in different climates under a wide range of weather conditions over the past year and a half. This paper will present contractor test results to date.

Pressley, J. R. R.; Page, Lochlin; Green, Brian; Schweitzer, Timothy W.; Howard, Peter

2003-09-01

229

Decontamination of DWPF canisters by glass frit blasting  

SciTech Connect

High-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant will be incorporated in borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The waste glass will be encapsulated in a 304L stainless steel canister. During the filling operation the outside of the canister will become contaminated. This contamination must be reduced to an accepable level before the canister leaves the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Tests with contaminated coupons have demonstrated that this decontamination can be accomplished by blasting the surface with glass frit. The contaminated glass frit byproduct of this operation is used as a feedstock for the waste glass process, so no secondary waste is created. Three blasting techniques, using glass frit as the blasting medium, were evaluated. Air-injected slurry blasting was the most promising and was chosen for further development. The optimum parametric values for this process were determined in tests using coupon weight loss as the output parameter. 1 reference, 13 figures, 3 tables.

Ward, C R; Rankin, W N

1984-01-01

230

7 CFR 91.24 - Reports of test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of test results. 91.24 Section 91.24 Agriculture Regulations...INFORMATION Reporting § 91.24 Reports of test results. (a) Results of analyses are provided, in writing, by...

2011-01-01

231

7 CFR 91.24 - Reports of test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of test results. 91.24 Section 91.24 Agriculture Regulations...INFORMATION Reporting § 91.24 Reports of test results. (a) Results of analyses are provided, in writing, by...

2010-01-01

232

The effect of metal particle size on blast performance of RDX and TATB based explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the role that particle size of aluminum has on the internal blast performance of explosives. Tests were performed using a small sealed chamber and a larger open-ended shock tube. Two sets of explosive formulations were tested. One is TATB based and the other RDX. The TATB was an aluminized LX-17 formulation while the RDX was based on PBXN-109. The Al particle size examined was 20 micron and 150 nanometer in pressed compositions. PBXN-109 and LX-17 were also tested. A noticeable difference in the internal blast pressure was observed between the 20 micron and 150 nm Al. The experimental results compare favorably with modeling work performed

Davis, Jeffery; Miller, Phillip

2001-06-01

233

A reliability test system for educational purposes-basic results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of basic reliability indices at the generation and composite generation and transmission levels for a small reliability test system are presented. The test system and the results presented have evolved from reliability research and teaching programs. The indices presented are for fundamental reliability applications which should be covered in a power system reliability teaching program. The RBTS test

R. Billinton; S. Kumar; N. Chowdhury; K. Chu; L. Goel; E. Khan; P. Kos; G. Nourbakhsh; J. Oteng-Adjei

1990-01-01

234

Test results of the highly instrumented Space Shuttle Main Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test results of a highly instrumented Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are presented. The instrumented engine, when combined with instrumented high pressure turbopumps, contains over 750 special measurements, including flowrates, pressures, temperatures, and strains. To date, two different test series, accounting for a total of sixteen tests and 1,667 seconds, have been conducted with this engine. The first series, which

H. V. McConnaughey; J. L. Leopard; R. M. Lightfoot

1992-01-01

235

Space Power Demonstration Engine linear alternator dynamometer test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify the alternator bench test and finite element code results, it was decided to test the Space Power Demonstration Engine (SPDE) alternator on a linear dynamometer. The dynamometer tests confirmed that the primary source of losses in the SPDE alternator assembly was the adjacent magnetic structure and not the alternator proper. Alternator efficiency above 90% was demonstrated by substitution

M. Dhar; J. Rauch; S. Huang; R. Bolton

1989-01-01

236

Flight Test Results for a Turbulence Detection Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of flight tests conducted on an aircraft turbulence detection radar system. Topics covered include: flight operations summary, radar data collection, baseline algorithm methodology, radar hazard tables and proposed alert criteria. Flight tests results are presented and summarized. Data analysis from these flight tests are also included.

Schaffner, Phil

2003-01-01

237

TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL-CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Test results from a demonstration of fuel-cell (FC) energy recovery and control of landfill gas emissions are presented. The project addressed two major issues: (i) the design, construction, and testing of a landfill-gas cleanup system; and (ii) a field test of a commercial phos...

238

Recycling ferrous-nickel slag in blast cleaning.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is the development of a procedure for the recycling of the ferrous-nickel slag that is widely used in open dry blast cleaning operations in Greek shipyards thus annually generating thousands of tons of blast cleaning waste. Laboratory tests were carried out, based on the reclamation of the material fraction with size a distribution within the range -1,400 + 150 microm, in order to determine the number of the effective uses (life cycles) of the abrasive material. It is demonstrated that the reclamation yield in the first three life cycles is more than 80%. Laboratory tests also proved that the recycled ferrous-nickel slag has properties comparable to the fresh material's ones in terms of particle size distribution, consumption and other physical-chemical properties. A semi-industrial recycling unit of used ferrous-nickel slag was also designed and installed in a Greek shipyard (Neorion New SA of Syros Shipyards). The operation of the semi-industrial recycling unit verified the conclusions resulting from the laboratory tests, and most important, it was proved profitable for the ship- PMID:12152895

Katsikaris, K; Voutsas, E; Magoulas, K; Andronikos, G; Stamataki, S

2002-06-01

239

Large mining blasts from the Kursk Mining Region, Russia  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at magnitude levels where industrial explosions (primarily, mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number of events recorded, and may for some countries dominate the seismicity. Thus, data on blasting practice have both political significance for the negotiation of treaties involving seismic monitoring of nuclear tests, and operational applications in terms of establishing monitoring and inspection needs on a mine-by-mine basis. While it is generally accepted that mining explosions contribute to seismicity at lower seismic magnitudes (less than about magnitude 3.5), the rate of mining seismicity as a function of seismic magnitude is unknown for most countries outside the U.S. This results in a large uncertainty when estimating the task of discriminating nuclear explosions from chemical explosions and earthquakes, by seismic means, under a comprehensive nuclear test ban. This uncertainty directly affects estimates of seismic network enhancements required to achieve treaty verification requirements at magnitudes less than about 3.5. 24 refs., 64 figs., 11 tabs.

Leith, W. Adushkin, V.; Spivak, A.

1997-01-01

240

Blast resistance of prismatic sandwich structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic sandwich panels have emerged as candidate blast resistant structures that can be tailored to contain damage from impulsive loads of the type typically generated by explosives. When such panels are impulsively loaded, the stresses imposed by the core on the front face, as well as those transmitted through the core, govern the response metrics: especially the center displacement, the resistance to tearing and the loads transmitted to the supports. Prismatic cores such as I-, X-, Y- and Z- cores differ from other cores, such as foams and trusses, in that they do not exhibit constant dynamic crush strength, enabling collapse to occur in a controlled manner. Establishing relationships between core topology crushing response and panel performance is one of the major goals of this research. For this purpose a gas gun instrumented with high speed photography and direct impact Hopkinson pressure bar was built and used to perform laboratory scale high-speed impact tests. Samples of representative prismatic core unit cells were manufactured and tested in compression at axial velocities ranging from quasi-static to 200m/s. The dynamic strength and deformation (buckling) were measured and used to calibrate the imperfections in a finite element model. The model was then used to validate a constitutive model that can be used to predict the blast resistance of prismatic sandwich structures. This research identifies a simple dual level dynamic strength as a common response in metallic prismatic cores. This is due to the dominant effect of plastic shock generated by dynamic loading. Furthermore, it justifies the use of a simple dynamic axial compression test for calibration of the dynamic strength of the core. An analytical model that accounts for the shock effects in a homogenized core and embodies the dual-level dynamic strength is presented. It is shown to capture the experimental observations and simulated results with acceptable fidelity. This model provides the basis for a constitutive model that can be used to understand the response of sandwich plates subject to impulsive loads.

Ferri, Enrico

241

Saugus Iron Works Blast Furnace  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of the Saugus Iron Works blast furnace, which smelted the iron from limonite, an iron ore. The limonite formed in nearby bogs, and was heated in the blast furnace until the iron melted and ran out the bottom of the furnace....

242

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

Dr. M.A. Ebadian

2000-01-13

243

EDD-7 Electric Charge Point Meter test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of tests evaluating the electric switching portion of the EDD-7 Electric Charge Point Meter (ECPM) are presented. The ECPM is a modified parking meter that allows the purchase of 120 or 240 volt electric power. The ECPM is designed to make electricity available at any vehicle parking location. The test results indicate that the ECPM operated without failure through a series of over current and ground fault tests at three different test temperatures. The magnitude of current required to trip the over current protection circuitry varied with temperature while the performance of the ground fault interruption circuitry did not change significantly with the test temperature.

Mersman, C. R.

1993-09-01

244

EDD-7 Electric Charge Point Meter test results  

SciTech Connect

The results of tests evaluating the electric switching portion of the EDD-7 Electric Charge Point Meter (ECPM) are presented. The ECPM is a modified parking meter that allows the purchase of 120 or 240 volt electric power. The ECPM is designed to make electricity available at any vehicle parking location. The test results indicate that the ECPM operated without failure thru a series of over current and ground fault tests at three different test temperatures. The magnitude of current required to trip the over current protection circuitry varied with temperature while the performance of the ground fault interruption circuitry did not change significantly with the test temperature.

Mersman, C.R.

1993-09-01

245

Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials.  

PubMed

Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3?m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson-Cranz scaled distance of 3.02?m?kg(-1/3), 100?kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14?m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411-413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast. PMID:24711494

Arora, H; Kelly, M; Worley, A; Del Linz, P; Fergusson, A; Hooper, P A; Dear, J P

2014-05-13

246

2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

247

2006 Toyota Highlander-6395 Hyrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A160006395). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

248

2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K773007129). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

249

The Dornier 328 Acoustic Test Cell (ATC) for interior noise tests and selected test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To perform acoustic studies for achieving low noise levels for the Dornier 328, an acoustic test cell (ATC) of the Dornier 328 has been built. The ATC consists of a fuselage section, a realistic fuselage suspension system, and three exterior noise simulation rings. A complex digital 60 channel computer/amplifier noise generation system as well as multichannel digital data acquisition and evaluation system have been used. The noise control tests started with vibration measurements for supporting acoustic data interpretation. In addition, experiments have been carried out on dynamic vibration absorbers, the most important passive noise reduction measure for low frequency propeller noise. The design and arrangement of the current ATC are presented. Furthermore, exterior noise simulation as well as data acquisition are explained. The most promising results show noise reduction due to synchrophasing and dynamic vibration absorbers.

Hackstein, H. Josef; Borchers, Ingo U.; Renger, Klaus; Vogt, Konrad

1992-01-01

250

Correlating Flammability of Materials with FTIR Analysis Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this experiment was to correlate flammability data with FTIR test results. Kydex 100 is a blend of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and polymethylmethacrylate, with some filler materials. Samples supplied were 0.125 in. thick. 10 samples were taken from a sheet of Kydex and analyzed for flammability and by FTIR spectroscopy. This material was utilized as a round robin sample for flammability testing. The flammability test results were found to vary across the same sheet.

Moore, Robin; Whitfield, Steve

2003-01-01

251

Altered gene expression in cultured microglia in response to simulated blast overpressure: possible role of pulse duration.  

PubMed

Blast overpressure has long been known to cause barotrauma to air-filled organs such as lung and middle ear. However, experience in Iraq and Afghanistan is revealing that individuals exposed to explosive munitions can also suffer traumatic brain injury (TBI) even in the absence of obvious external injury. The interaction of a blast shock wave with the brain in the intact cranial vault is extremely complex making it difficult to conclude that a blast wave interacts in a direct manner with the brain to cause injury. In an attempt to "isolate" the shock wave and test its primary effects on cells, we exposed cultured microglia to simulated blast overpressure in a barochamber. Overpressures ranging from 15 to 45 psi did not change microglial Cox-2 levels or TNF-? secretion nor did they cause cell damage. Microarray analysis revealed increases in expression of a number of microglial genes relating to immune function and inflammatory responses to include Saa3, Irg1, Fas and CxCl10. All changes in gene expression were dependent on pulse duration and were independent of pressure. These results indicate that microglia are mildly activated by blast overpressure and uncover a heretofore undocumented role for pulse duration in this process. PMID:22698585

Kane, Michael J; Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Francescutti, Dina M; Sykes, Catherine E; Briggs, Denise I; Leung, Lai Yee; VandeVord, Pamela J; Kuhn, Donald M

2012-07-26

252

China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room  

E-print Network

LBNL-3502E China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners Nan Zhou Round Robin Testing Results and Analysis by China National Institute of Standardization..................................................................................................................... 1 I.1.1 China's Energy Constraint Problem and the Need to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Energy

253

Physics of IED Blast Shock Tube Simulations for mTBI Research.  

PubMed

Shock tube experiments and simulations are conducted with a spherical gelatin filled skull-brain surrogate, in order to study the mechanisms leading to blast induced mild traumatic brain injury. A shock tube including sensor system is optimized to simulate realistic improvised explosive device blast profiles obtained from full scale field tests. The response of the skull-brain surrogate is monitored using pressure and strain measurements. Fluid-structure interaction is modeled using a combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the air blast, and a finite element model for the structural response. The results help to understand the physics of wave propagation, from air blast into the skull-brain. The presence of openings on the skull and its orientation does have a strong effect on the internal pressure. A parameter study reveals that when there is an opening in the skull, the skull gives little protection and the internal pressure is fairly independent on the skull stiffness; the gelatin shear stiffness has little effect on the internal pressure. Simulations show that the presence of pressure sensors in the gelatin hardly disturbs the pressure field. PMID:21960984

Mediavilla Varas, Jesus; Philippens, M; Meijer, S R; van den Berg, A C; Sibma, P C; van Bree, J L M J; de Vries, D V W M

2011-01-01

254

Physics of IED Blast Shock Tube Simulations for mTBI Research  

PubMed Central

Shock tube experiments and simulations are conducted with a spherical gelatin filled skull–brain surrogate, in order to study the mechanisms leading to blast induced mild traumatic brain injury. A shock tube including sensor system is optimized to simulate realistic improvised explosive device blast profiles obtained from full scale field tests. The response of the skull–brain surrogate is monitored using pressure and strain measurements. Fluid–structure interaction is modeled using a combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the air blast, and a finite element model for the structural response. The results help to understand the physics of wave propagation, from air blast into the skull–brain. The presence of openings on the skull and its orientation does have a strong effect on the internal pressure. A parameter study reveals that when there is an opening in the skull, the skull gives little protection and the internal pressure is fairly independent on the skull stiffness; the gelatin shear stiffness has little effect on the internal pressure. Simulations show that the presence of pressure sensors in the gelatin hardly disturbs the pressure field. PMID:21960984

Mediavilla Varas, Jesus; Philippens, M.; Meijer, S. R.; van den Berg, A. C.; Sibma, P. C.; van Bree, J. L. M. J.; de Vries, D. V. W. M.

2011-01-01

255

Measurement of Blast Waves from Bursting Pressureized Frangible Spheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small-scale experiments were conducted to obtain data on incident overpressure at various distances from bursting pressurized spheres. Complete time histories of blast overpressure generated by rupturing glass spheres under high internal pressure were obtained using eight side-on pressure transducers. A scaling law is presented, and its nondimensional parameters are used to compare peak overpressures, arrival times, impulses, and durations for different initial conditions and sizes of blast source. The nondimensional data are also compared, whenever possible, with results of theoretical calculations and compiled data for Pentolite high explosive. The scaled data are repeatable and show significant differences from blast waves generated by condensed high-explosives.

Esparza, E. D.; Baker, W. E.

1977-01-01

256

Pediatric blast lung injury from a fireworks-related explosion.  

PubMed

Blast injuries related to explosions have been described in the literature but are uncommon in children. We describe a multisystem blast injury in a child resulting from a commercial firework-related explosion in her home. She presented with respiratory failure, shock, altered level of consciousness, and multiple orthopedic injuries. The patient required immediate stabilization and resuscitation in the emergency department and a prolonged hospitalization. This report reviews the spectrum of injuries that are seen in blast-related trauma and the emergency measures needed for rapid stabilization of these critical patients. PMID:22668665

Ratto, Jessica; Johnson, Bernadette K; Condra, Cole S; Knapp, Jane F

2012-06-01

257

Early results of gate valve flow interruption blowdown tests  

SciTech Connect

The preliminary results of the USNRC/INEL high-energy BWR line break flow interruption testing are presented. Two representative nuclear valve assemblies were cycled under design basis Reactor Water Cleanup pipe break conditions to provide input for the technical basis for resolving the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Issue 87. The effects of the blowdown hydraulic loadings on valve operability, especially valve closure stem forces, were studied. The blowdown tests showed that, given enough thrust, typical gate valves will close against the high flow resulting from a line break. The tests also showed that proper operator sizing depends on the correct identification of values for the sizing equation. Evidence exists that values used in the past may not be conservative for all valve applications. The tests showed that improper operator lock ring installation following test or maintenance can invalidate in-situ test results and prevent the valve from performing its design function. 2 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

DeWall, K.G.

1988-01-01

258

The mitigation negative effect of tunnel-blasting-induced vibrations on constructed tunnel and buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provided the results of a research conducted to investigate the relationships between the empirical vibration attenuation\\u000a equation of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and the Scaled Charge (SC) through testing the blasting-induced vibrations on the\\u000a spot of Wanshishan tunnel based on 96 vibration recordings. It is found that the maximum charge amount per delay in Wanshishan\\u000a tunnel excavating is determined by

Da-neng Lin

2011-01-01

259

Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.  

PubMed

A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep. PMID:25411822

Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon

2015-04-01

260

Hybrid S2/Carbon Epoxy Composite Armours Under Blast Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Civil and military structures, such as helicopters, aircrafts, naval ships, tanks or buildings are susceptible to blast loads as terroristic attacks increases, therefore there is the need to design blast resistant structures. During an explosion the peak pressure produced by shock wave is much greater than the static collapse pressure. Metallic structures usually undergo large plastic deformations absorbing blast energy before reaching equilibrium. Due to their high specific properties, fibre-reinforced polymers are being considered for energy absorption applications in blast resistant armours. A deep insight into the relationship between explosion loads, composite architecture and deformation/fracture behaviour will offer the possibility to design structures with significantly enhanced energy absorption and blast resistance performance. This study presents the results of a numerical investigation aimed at understanding the performance of a hybrid composite (glass/carbon fibre) plate subjected to blast loads using commercial LS-DYNA software. In particular, the paper deals with numerical 3D simulations of damages caused by air blast waves generated by C4 charges on two fully clamped rectangular plates made of steel and hybrid (S2/Carbon) composite, respectively. A Multi Materials Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (MMALE) formulation was used to simulate the shock phenomenon. For the steel plates, the Johnson-Cook material model was employed. For the composite plates both in-plane and out-of-plane failure criteria were employed. In particular, a contact tiebreak formulation with a mixed mode failure criteria was employed to simulate delamination failure. As for the steel plates the results showed that excellent correlation with the experimental data for the two blast load conditions in terms of dynamic and residual deflection for two different C4 charges. For the composite plates the numerical results showed that, as expected, a wider delamination damage was observed for the higher blast loads case. Widespread tensile matrix damage was experienced for both blast load cases, while only for 875 g blast load fiber failure damage was observed. This agrees well with the experimental data showing that the composite panel was not able to resist to the 875 g blast load.

Dolce, F.; Meo, Michele; Wright, A.; French, M.; Bernabei, M.

2012-06-01

261

A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting  

SciTech Connect

A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

2006-07-01

262

Preliminary Results from the QuietSpike Flight Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the QuietSpike flight test results. It shows the previous tests from Nearfield probes. The presentation then reviews the approach to test the QuietSpike, and shows graphics of the positions of the test vehicles. It also shows the components of the Sonic Boom Probing Noseboom. A graph of the Pressure Over- Under-shoot (Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD)Data) is presented. It reviews the Shock Probing Orientations, explaining that the probing plane is always behind the tail of the QuietSpike jet. Graphs of the Shock Position Geometry (SSBD Data) and the QuietSpike signature as of the test on 12/13/06, Near-Field Probing Directly Under the QuietSpike jet, and Near-Field Probing to Side, Near-Field Probing Above and to Side. Several slides review the Computational Fluid Dynamic models, and results compared to the probe tests.

Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Cliatt, Larry J., II; Howe, Don; Waithe, Kenrick

2007-01-01

263

2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

264

FERET (Face Recognition Technology) Recognition Algorithm Development and Test Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Face Recognition Technology (FERET) program, the U.S. ArmyResearch Laboratory (ARL) conducted supervised government tests and evaluationsof automatic face recognition algorithms. The goal of the tests was toprovide an independent method of evaluating algorithms and assessing thestate of the art in automatic face recognition. This report describes the designand presents the results of the August1994andMarch1995FERET tests. Resultsfor

P. Jonathon Phillips; Patrick J. Rauss; Sandor Z. Der

1996-01-01

265

Blast investigation by fast multispectral radiometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge regarding the processes involved in blasts and detonations is required in various applications, e.g. missile interception, blasts of high-explosive materials, final ballistics and IED identification. Blasts release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some part of this energy is released as intense radiation in the optical spectral bands. This paper proposes to measure the blast radiation by

A. D. Devir; Y. Bushlin; I. Mendelewicz; A. B. Lessin; M. Engel

2011-01-01

266

Building BLAST for Coprocessor Accelerators Using Macah  

E-print Network

Building BLAST for Coprocessor Accelerators Using Macah by Ben Weintraub A senior thesis submitted sequences is fun- damental to many research pursuits in biology and genetics. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment the performance of the BLAST algorithm is a problem of great interest. BLAST compares a single query sequence

Hauck, Scott

267

Cold vacuum drying proof of performance (first article testing) test results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and details the test results of the first of a kind process referred to as Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD). The test results are compiled from several months of testing of the first process equipment skid and ancillary components to de-water and dry Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCO) filled with Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The tests results provide design verifications, equipment validations, model validation data, and establish process parameters.

MCCRACKEN, K.J.

1999-06-23

268

RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results  

SciTech Connect

Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M. [Lockheed Martin Corporation P.O. Box 8555, 29B41-KB, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania19101 (United States)

1997-01-01

269

RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results  

SciTech Connect

Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted.

Kelly, C. Edward; Klee, Paul M. [Lockheed Martin Corporation P.O. Box 8555, 29B41-KB, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 (United States)

1997-01-10

270

EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF INDUSTRIAL FLARES: TEST RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of Phases 3 and 4 of a four-phase research program to quantify emissions from, and efficiencies of, industrial flares. Phase 1 consisted of the experimental design; Phase 2, the design of the test facilities; Phase 3, development of the test facilities; a...

271

PROJECT PLUTO CONTROL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENTS AND TEST RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tory Il-A, the first experimental reactor in the Pluto nuclear ramjet ; missile program, was successfully tested. The methods of control which are ; employed on Tory II-A are summarized and unclassified test results pertaining to ; the major control systems are presented. Recent control system developments for ; Tory II-C, a flight-type ramjet reactor, are also described. The Tory

R. E. Finnigan; G. G. Nelson

1961-01-01

272

Space Shuttle Main Engine instrumented High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump technology test bed testing results summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the test results from the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) instrumented High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP). The turbopump was tested on Engine 3001, a highly instrumented engine, in an effort to characterize the turbopump and the engine system. Seven tests, for a total duration of 766 seconds, were performed over a five month time period. The testing

Mary E. Koelbl

1993-01-01

273

A Comparison Between The NORCAT Rover Test Results and the ISRU Excavation System Model Predictions Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Excavation System Model has been written to simulate the collection and transportation of regolith on the moon. The calculations in this model include an estimation of the forces on the digging tool as a result of excavation into the regolith. Verification testing has been performed and the forces recorded from this testing were compared to the calculated theoretical data. The Northern Centre for Advanced Technology Inc. rovers were tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center Simulated Lunar Operations facility. This testing was in support of the In-Situ Resource Utilization program Innovative Partnership Program. Testing occurred in soils developed at the Glenn Research Center which are a mixture of different types of sands and whose soil properties have been well characterized. This testing is part of an ongoing correlation of actual field test data to the blade forces calculated by the Excavation System Model. The results from this series of tests compared reasonably with the predicted values from the code.

Gallo, Christopher A.; Agui, Juan H.; Creager, Colin M.; Oravec, Heather A.

2012-01-01

274

Myeloma Patient's Guide to Understanding Your Test Results  

MedlinePLUS

... test results. (continues on other side) n Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPEP) Assesses the amount of abnormal (monoclonal) protein. n Urine Protein Electrophoresis (UPEP) Shows the amount of monoclonal protein ...

275

Fragmentation, Cost and Environmental Effects of Plaster Stemming Method for Blasting at A Basalt Quarry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the plaster stemming application for blasting at a basalt quarry is studied. Drill cuttings are generally used in open pits and quarries as the most common stemming material since these are most readily available at blast sites. However, dry drill cuttings eject very easily from blastholes without offering much resistance to blast energy. The plaster stemming method has been found to be better than the drill cuttings stemming method due to increased confinement inside the hole and better utilization of blast explosive energy in the rock. The main advantage of the new stemming method is the reduction in the cost of blasting. At a basalt quarry, blasting costs per unit volume of rock were reduced to 15% by increasing burden and spacing distances. In addition, better fragmentation was obtained by using the plaster stemming method. Blast trials showed that plaster stemming produced finer material. In the same blast tests, +30 cm size fragments were reduced to 47.3% of the total, compared to 32.6% in the conventional method of drill cuttings stemming. With this method of stemming, vibration and air shock values increased slightly due to more blast energy being available for rock breakage but generally these increased values were small and stayed under the permitted limit for blast damage criteria unless measuring distance is too close.

Cevizci, Halim

2014-10-01

276

Test results on reuse of reclaimed shower water - A summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from tests to evaluate a microgravity whole body shower and waste water recovery system design for possible use on the Space Station. Several water recovery methods were tested, including phase change distillation, a thermoelectric hollow fiber membrane evaporation subsystem, and a reverse osmosis dynamic membrane system. Consideration is given to the test hardware, the types of soaps evaluated, the human response to showering with reclaimed water, chemical treatment for microbial control, the procedures for providing hygienic water, and the quality of water produced by the systems. All three of the waste water recovery systems tested successfully produced reclaimed water for reuse.

Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Sauer, Richard; Reysa, Richard P.; Linton, Arthur T.

1989-01-01

277

Apollo experience report: Electronic systems test program accomplishments and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A chronological record is presented of the Electronic Systems Test Program from its conception in May 1963 to December 1969. The original concept of the program, which was primarily a spacecraft/Manned Space Flight Network communications system compatibility and performance evaluation, is described. The evolution of these concepts to include various levels of test detail, as well as systems level design verification testing, is discussed. Actual implementation of these concepts is presented, and the facility to support the program is described. Test results are given, and significant contributions to the lunar landing mission are underlined. Plans for modifying the facility and the concepts, based on Apollo experience, are proposed.

Ohnesorge, T. E.

1972-01-01

278

Statistical analysis of Salmonella test data and comparison to results of animal cancer tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A quantitative framework for the analysis of results of the Salmonella (Ames) test is presented, and the relationship between mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is examined. Color graphics are used for the Salmonella data to describe variability, and trends across multiple chemicals and test conditions. Positivity in the Salmonella test, using statistical criteria to classify results, is compared to positivity in

Joyce McCann; L SWIRSKYGOLD; Laura Horn; R. McGill; T. E. Graedel; John Kaldor

1988-01-01

279

Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition  

SciTech Connect

The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

1995-12-01

280

Structural fatigue test results for large wind turbine blade sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to provide quantitative information on the operating life capabilities of wind turbine rotor blade concepts for root-end load transfer, a series of cantilever beam fatigue tests was conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted on a laminated wood blade with bonded steel studs, a low cost steel spar (utility pole) with a welded flange, a utility pole with additional root-end thickness provided by a swaged collar, fiberglass spars with both bonded and nonbonded fittings, and, finally, an aluminum blade with a bolted steel fitting (Lockheed Mod-0 blade). Photographs, data, and conclusions for each of these tests are presented. In addition, the aluminum blade test results are compared to field failure information; these results provide evidence that the cantilever beam type of fatigue test is a satisfactory method for obtaining qualitative data on blade life expectancy and for identifying structurally underdesigned areas (hot spots).

Faddoul, J. R.; Sullivan, T. L.

1982-01-01

281

Social context of disclosing HIV test results in Tanzania.  

PubMed

This study sought to understand how individuals reveal their HIV test results to others and the ways in which social relations affect the disclosure process. The data were collected through open-ended interviews administered in Swahili to informants who had just been tested for HIV and to those who were living with HIV in Dar es Salaam and Iringa regions. Analysis shows that social relations influence the decisions individuals make about disclosure. Most people preferred to reveal their HIV status to close family members. Most also mentioned the fear of being rejected and discriminated against as major reasons for not disclosing their test results to others. PMID:21936654

Lugalla, Joe; Yoder, Stanley; Sigalla, Huruma; Madihi, Charles

2012-01-01

282

Microgravity two-phase flow experiment and test results  

SciTech Connect

A two-phase flow system was tested in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity test facility. Its innovative flow configuration results in an unusual ease of control and significantly reduced power and heat rejection requirements, while permitting flow regimes, pressure drops, and boiling and condensing heat transfer to be examined. Numerous design features were incorporated that minimize the impact of the KC-135 environment on system condition. Among other results, flight testing indicates no significant effect of gravity on pressure drop for the conditions examined, and that many conditions can be examined definitively only in the long-term reduced gravity afforded by a space experiment. 12 refs.

Hill, W.S.; Best, F.R. (Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States) Texas A and M University, College Station (United States))

1991-07-01

283

Low Emissions RQL Flametube Combustor Component Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes and summarizes elements of the High Speed Research (HSR) Low Emissions Rich burn/Quick mix/Lean burn (RQL) flame tube combustor test program. This test program was performed at NASA Glenn Research Center circa 1992. The overall objective of this test program was to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of the RQL combustor concept for High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) applications with the goal of achieving NOx emission index levels of 5 g/kg-fuel at representative HSCT supersonic cruise conditions. The specific objectives of the tests reported herein were to investigate component performance of the RQL combustor concept for use in the evolution of ultra-low NOx combustor design tools. Test results indicated that the RQL combustor emissions and performance at simulated supersonic cruise conditions were predominantly sensitive to the quick mixer subcomponent performance and not sensitive to fuel injector performance. Test results also indicated the mixing section configuration employing a single row of circular holes was the lowest NOx mixer tested probably due to the initial fast mixing characteristics of this mixing section. However, other quick mix orifice configurations such as the slanted slot mixer produced substantially lower levels of carbon monoxide emissions most likely due to the enhanced circumferential dispersion of the air addition. Test results also suggested that an optimum momentum-flux ratio exists for a given quick mix configuration. This would cause undesirable jet under- or over-penetration for test conditions with momentum-flux ratios below or above the optimum value. Tests conducted to assess the effect of quick mix flow area indicated that reduction in the quick mix flow area produced lower NOx emissions at reduced residence time, but this had no effect on NOx emissions measured at similar residence time for the configurations tested.

Holdeman, James D.; Chang, Clarence T.

2001-01-01

284

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-15

285

Blasting casting to raise productivity  

SciTech Connect

Normally, surface mines employ draglines or truck and shovel systems to remove overburden. Blasting merely fragments and displaces the overburden enough to allow for easy digging. But during the past two decades, the effect of inflation and increased labor costs have encouraged unconventional methods of overburden removal. All of us are aware of the tremendous inflationary effects on costs of equipment, fuel, labor, interest, insurance, environmental compliance, etc. This has allowed the authors to take a new look at the use of explosives as an effective alternate method of overburden removal. This technique is known by several names, but basically blast casting or just casting best describes it. Other terms in vogue are explosive casting, controlled trajectory blasting, trajectory control blasting, and whatever terminology comes to mind.

Pilshaw, S.R.

1987-07-01

286

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

SciTech Connect

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2010-10-26

287

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-22

288

An application of regression model for evaluation of blast vibration in an opencast coal mine: a case analysis  

SciTech Connect

Different models of vibration studies are examined. A case analysis to determine the parameters governing the prediction of blast vibration in an opencast coal mine is described. A regression model was developed to evaluate peak particle velocity (PPV) of the blast. The results are applicable to forecasting ground vibration before blasting and to the design of various parameters in controlled blasting. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Brahma, K.C.; Pal, B.K.; Das, C. [CMPDI, Bhubaneswar (India)

2005-07-01

289

Oscillating flow loss test results in Stirling engine heat exchangers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented for a test program designed to generate a database of oscillating flow loss information that is applicable to Stirling engine heat exchangers. The tests were performed on heater/cooler tubes of various lengths and entrance/exit configurations, on stacked and sintered screen regenerators of various wire diameters and on Brunswick and Metex random fiber regenerators. The test results were performed over a range of oscillating flow parameters consistent with Stirling engine heat exchanger experience. The tests were performed on the Sunpower oscillating flow loss rig which is based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. In general, the results are presented by comparing the measured oscillating flow losses to the calculated flow losses. The calculated losses are based on the cycle integration of steady flow friction factors and entrance/exit loss coefficients.

Koester, G.; Howell, S.; Wood, G.; Miller, E.; Gedeon, D.

1990-01-01

290

Update on results of SPRE testing at NASA Lewis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), a free-piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, is being tested at NASA Lewis Research Center as part of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) as a candidate for high capacity space power. Results are presented from recent SPRE tests designed to investigate the effects of variation in the displacer seal clearance and piston centering port area on engine performance and dynamics. The effects of these variations on PV power and efficiency are presented. Comparisons of the displacer seal clearance test results with HFAST code predictions show good agreement for PV power but poor agreement for PV efficiency. Correlations are presented relating the piston mid-stroke position to the dynamic Delta P across the piston and the centering port area. Test results indicate that a modest improvement in PV power and efficiency may be realized with a reduction in piston centering port area.

Cairelli, James E.; Swec, Diane M.; Wong, Wayne A.; Doeberling, Thomas J.; Madi, Frank J.

291

Investigation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Objective Many troops deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan have sustained blast-related, closed-head injuries from being within non-lethal distance of detonated explosive devices. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms associated with blast exposure that give rise to traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study attempts to identify the precise conditions of focused stress wave energy within the brain, resulting from blast exposure, which will correlate with a threshold for persistent brain injury. Methods This study developed and validated a set of modelling tools to simulate blast loading to the human head. Using these tools, the blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave motions that lead to focal brain damage were simulated. Results The simulations predict the deposition of three distinct wave energy components, two of which can be related to injury-inducing mechanisms, namely cavitation and shear. Furthermore, the results suggest that the spatial distributions of these damaging energy components are independent of blast direction. Conclusions The predictions reported herein will simplify efforts to correlate simulation predictions with clinical measures of TBI and aid in the development of protective headwear. PMID:24766453

Ludwigsen, John S.; Ford, Corey C.

2014-01-01

292

Blast TBI Models, Neuropathology, and Implications for Seizure Risk.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies. PMID:24782820

Kovacs, S Krisztian; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S F

2014-01-01

293

Characterising the acceleration phase of blast wave formation  

SciTech Connect

Intensely heated, localised regions in uniform fluids will rapidly expand and generate an outwardly propagating blast wave. The Sedov-Taylor self-similar solution for such blast waves has long been studied and applied to a variety of scenarios. A characteristic time for their formation has also long been identified using dimensional analysis, which by its very nature, can offer several interpretations. We propose that, rather than simply being a characteristic time, it may be interpreted as the definitive time taken for a blast wave resulting from an intense explosion in a uniform media to contain its maximum kinetic energy. A scaling relation for this measure of the acceleration phase, preceding the establishment of the blast wave, is presented and confirmed using a 1D planar hydrodynamic model.

Fox, T. E., E-mail: tef503@york.ac.uk; Pasley, J. [York Plasma Institute, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2014-10-15

294

Blast TBI Models, Neuropathology, and Implications for Seizure Risk  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies. PMID:24782820

Kovacs, S. Krisztian; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.

2014-01-01

295

Uprated OMS Engine Status-Sea Level Testing Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increase operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities for this engine system have been on-going since 1984. More recently, a complete engine designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at sea level conditions by Aerojet. A description of the test hardware and results of the sea level test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope and projected performance at altitude conditions, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities, including ICTB tests at simulated altitude conditions, and recommendations for further engine development, are also discussed.

Bertolino, J. D.; Boyd, W. C.

1990-01-01

296

Flight Test Results of a Thermoelectric Energy Harvester for Aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of thermoelectric energy harvesting for low-power wireless sensor systems in aircraft and its practical implementation was recently published. The concept of using a thermoelectric generator (TEG) attached to the aircraft inner hull and a thermal storage device to create an artificial temperature gradient at the TEG during take-off and landing from the temperature changes of the fuselage has passed initial tests and is now subject to flight testing. This work presents preflight test results, e.g., vibration and temperature testing of the harvesters, the practical installation of two harvesting devices inside a test plane, and the first test flight results. Several flight cycles with different flight profiles, flight lengths, and outside temperatures have been performed. Although the influence of different flight profiles on the energy output of the harvester can be clearly observed, the results are in good agreement with expectations from numerical simulations with boundary conditions evaluated from initial climate chamber experiments. In addition, the flight test demonstrates that reliable operation of thermoelectric energy harvesting in harsh aircraft environments seems to be feasible, therefore paving the way for realization of energy-autonomous, wireless sensor networks.

Samson, D.; Kluge, M.; Fuss, T.; Schmid, U.; Becker, Th.

2012-06-01

297

An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment.  

PubMed

Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans. PMID:25267617

Jean, Aurélie; Nyein, Michelle K; Zheng, James Q; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, John D; Radovitzky, Raúl

2014-10-28

298

An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans. PMID:25267617

Jean, Aurélie; Nyein, Michelle K.; Zheng, James Q.; Moore, David F.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Radovitzky, Raúl

2014-01-01

299

Blast trauma: the fourth weapon of mass destruction.  

PubMed

Injury from blast is becoming more common in the non-military population. This is primarily a result of an increase in politically motivated bombings within the civilian sector. Explosions unrelated to terrorism may also occur in the industrial setting. Civilian physicians and surgeons need to have an understanding of the pathomechanics and physiology of blast injury and to recognize the hallmarks of severity in order to increase survivorship. Because victims may be transported rapidly to the hospital, occult injury to gas and fluid containing organs (particularly the ears, bowel and lungs) may go unrecognized. Information surrounding the physical environment of the explosion (whether inside or outside, underwater, associated building collapse, etc) will prove useful. Most of the immediate deaths are caused by primary blast injury from the primary blast wave, but secondary blast injury from flying debris can also be lethal and involve a much wider radius. Liberal use of X-ray examination in areas of skin punctures will help to identify a need for exploration and/or foreign body removal. Biologic serum markers may have a role in identifying victims of primary blast injury and assist in monitoring their clinical progress. Tertiary blast injury results from the airborne propulsion of the victim by the shockwave and is a source of additional blunt head and torso trauma as well as fractures. Miscellaneous (quaternary) blast injury include thermal or dust inhalation exposure as well as crush and compartment syndromes from building collapse. Any explosion has the potential to be associated with nuclear, biologic or chemical contaminants, and this should remain a consideration for healthcare givers until proven otherwise. PMID:16425623

Born, C T

2005-01-01

300

Proposed Interventions to Decrease the Frequency of Missed Test Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have identified that delays in diagnosis related to the mishandling of abnormal test results are an import contributor to diagnostic errors. Factors contributing to missed results included organizational factors, provider factors and patient-related factors. At the diagnosis error conference continuing medical education conference…

Wahls, Terry L.; Cram, Peter

2009-01-01

301

GenomeBlast: a web tool for small genome comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative genomics has become an essential approach for identifying homologous gene candidates and their functions, and for studying genome evolution. There are many tools available for genome comparisons. Unfortunately, most of them are not applicable for the identification of unique genes and the inference of phylogenetic relationships in a given set of genomes. Results GenomeBlast is a Web tool developed for comparative analysis of multiple small genomes. A new parameter called "coverage" was introduced and used along with sequence identity to evaluate global similarity between genes. With GenomeBlast, the following results can be obtained: (1) unique genes in each genome; (2) homologous gene candidates among compared genomes; (3) 2D plots of homologous gene candidates along the all pairwise genome comparisons; and (4) a table of gene presence/absence information and a genome phylogeny. We demonstrated the functions in GenomeBlast with an example of multiple herpesviral genome analysis and illustrated how GenomeBlast is useful for small genome comparison. Conclusion We developed a Web tool for comparative analysis of small genomes, which allows the user not only to identify unique genes and homologous gene candidates among multiple genomes, but also to view their graphical distributions on genomes, and to reconstruct genome phylogeny. GenomeBlast runs on a Linux server with 4 CPUs and 4 GB memory. The online version of GenomeBlast is available to public by using a Web browser with the URL . PMID:17217510

Lu, Guoqing; Jiang, Liying; Helikar, Resa MK; Rowley, Thaine W; Zhang, Luwen; Chen, Xianfeng; Moriyama, Etsuko N

2006-01-01

302

Designs and test results for three new rotational sensors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We discuss the designs and testing of three rotational seismometer prototypes developed at the Institute of Geophysics, Academy of Sciences (Prague, Czech Republic). Two of these designs consist of a liquid-filled toroidal tube with the liquid as the proof mass and providing damping; we tested the piezoelectric and pressure transduction versions of this torus. The third design is a wheel-shaped solid metal inertial sensor with capacitive sensing and magnetic damping. Our results from testing in Prague and at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory of the US Geological Survey of transfer function and cross-axis sensitivities are good enough to justify the refinement and subsequent testing of advanced prototypes. These refinements and new testing are well along.

Jedlicka, P.; Kozak, J.T.; Evans, J.R.; Hutt, C.R.

2012-01-01

303

Test results of the highly instrumented Space Shuttle Main Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Test results of a highly instrumented Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are presented. The instrumented engine, when combined with instrumented high pressure turbopumps, contains over 750 special measurements, including flowrates, pressures, temperatures, and strains. To date, two different test series, accounting for a total of sixteen tests and 1,667 seconds, have been conducted with this engine. The first series, which utilized instrumented turbopumps, characterized the internal operating environment of the SSME for a variety of operating conditions. The second series provided system-level validation of a high pressure liquid oxygen turbopump that had been retrofitted with a fluid-film bearing in place of the usual pump-end ball bearings. Major findings from these two test series are highlighted in this paper. In addition, comparisons are made between model predictions and measured test data.

McConnaughey, H. V.; Leopard, J. L.; Lightfoot, R. M.

1992-07-01

304

NEXT Ion Engine 2000 Hour Wear Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the NEXT 2000 h wear test are presented. This test was conducted with a 40 cm engineering model ion engine, designated EM1, at a 3.52 A beam current and 1800 V beam power supply voltage. Performance tests, which were conducted over a throttling range of 1.1 to 6.9 kW throughout the wear test, demonstrated that EM1 satisfied all thruster performance requirements. The ion engine accumulated 2038 h of operation at a thruster input power of 6.9 kW, processing 43 kg of xenon. Overall ion engine performance, which includes thrust, thruster input power, specific impulse, and thrust efficiency, was steady with no indications of performance degradation. The ion engine was also inspected following the test. This paper presents these findings.

Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani; Patterson, Michael J.; Britton, Melissa A.; Frandina, Michael M.

2004-01-01

305

COMPARISON OF RESPONSE OF 9977 TEST PACKAGES TO ANALYTICAL RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

Each of the hypothetical accident test cases for the 9977 prototypes was included in the battery of finite element structural analyses performed for the package. Comparison of the experimental and analytical results provides a means of confirming that the analytical model correctly represents the physical behavior of the package. The ability of the analytical model to correctly predict the performance of the foam overpack material for the crush test is of particular interest. The dissipation of energy in the crushing process determines the deceleration of the package upon impact and the duration of the impact. In addition, if the analytical model correctly models the foam behavior, the predicted deformation of the package will match that measured on the test articles. This study compares the deformations of the test packages with the analytical predictions. In addition, the impact acceleration and impact duration for the test articles are compared with those predicted by the analyses.

Smith, A; Tsu-Te Wu, T

2007-12-05

306

Modeling of aqueous foam blast wave attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of aqueous foams enables the mitigation of blast waves induced by the explosion of energetic materials. The two-phase confinement gives rise to interphase interactions between the gaseous and liquid phases, which role have been emphasized in shock-tube studies with solid foams [1, 2]. Multifluid formalism enables the thermo-mechanical disequilibria between phases to be taken into account. The flow model ensures the correct estimation of the acoustic impedance of the two-phase media. As for the numerical scheme, Riemann solvers are used to describe the microscopic fluid interactions, the summation of which provides the multiphase flux. The role of the different transfer mechanisms is evaluated in the case where the liquid ligaments of the foam matrix have been shattered into droplets by the shock impingement. Characteristics of blast waves in heterogeneous media leads to a decrease of overpressure. The numerical results have been compared favorably to experimental data [3, 4].

Del Prete, E.; Chinnayya, A.; Hadjadj, A.; Domergue, L.; Haas, J.-F.; Imbert, B.

307

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2010-07-01

308

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2012-07-01

309

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2014-07-01

310

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2011-07-01

311

30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior...Circular 8179, “Safety Recommendations for Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent...

2013-07-01

312

Preliminary results of the partial array LCT coil tests  

SciTech Connect

The Large Coil Task (LCT) is a collaboration between the US, Euratom, Japan, and Switzerland for the production and testing of 2.5 x 3.5-m bore, superconducting 8-T magnets. The definitive tests in the design configuration, the six coils arrayed in a compact torus, will begin in 1985. Partial-array tests are being done in 1984. In January the initial cooldown of two coils was aborted because of helium-to-vacuum leaks that developed in certain seal welds when the coil temperatures were 170 to 180 K. In July three adjacent coils (designated JA, GD, CH) were cooled and in August two were energized to the limits of the test facility. An overview of the results are presented, including facility, cooldown (warmup has not yet begun), energization, dump, recovery from intentional normal zones, strain, and displacement, for operation up to 100% of design current but below full field and stress. These initial results are highly encouraging.

Luton, J.N.; Cogswell, F.D.; Dresner, L.; Friesinger, G.M.; Gray, W.H.; Iwasa, Y.; Koizumi, K.; Lubell, M.S.; Lue, J.W.; Nishi, M.F.

1984-09-10

313

Blasting Rocks and Blasting Cars Applied Engineering  

SciTech Connect

June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated ... June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated a program at Berkeley Lab funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, a collaboration between the federal government and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research. Nondestructive evaluation techniques to test a car's structural integrity are being developed for auto assembly lines.

LBNL

2008-07-02

314

Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Pogo testing and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To effectively assess the Pogo stability of the space shuttle vehicle, it was necessary to characterize the structural, propellant, and propulsion dynamics subsystems. Extensive analyses and comprehensive testing programs were established early in the project as an implementation of management philosophy of Pogo prevention for space shuttle. The role of the space shuttle main engine (SSMF) in the Pogo prevention plans, the results obtained from engine ground testing with analysis, and measured data from STS-1 flight are discussed.

Fenwick, J. R.; Jones, J. H.; Jewell, R. E.

1982-01-01

315

Global Astrophysical Telescope System -- test results from telescope nr 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present first results of observational examination of our new 0.7m spectroscopic telescope before and after its transportation to Winer Observatory in Arizona, USA. Spectrograph stability tests show that we should be able to achieve a precision of 20 m/s. Photometric tests using our diffraction technique, dedicated for very bright stars, prove that a precision of at least 0.005 mag is achievable.

Kami?ski, Krzysztof; Dimitrow, Wojciech; Fagas, Monika; Poli?ska, Magdalena

2014-12-01

316

Reducing variability in inclined-plane tracking test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors which cause variability in the results of inclined-plane tracking tests have been investigated. The effects of introducing shunt or stray capacitance across the test specimen, or of varying the contaminant flow rate, are measured. The discharge energy to the time of observation of initial damage shows less variability than the time-to-track criterion, and may be a more appropriate criterion

A. S. G. Alghamdi; D. W. Auckland; A. J. Risino; B. R. Varlow

1996-01-01

317

SP100 Fuel Pin Performance: Results from Irradiation Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pins are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and

Bruce J. Makenas; Dean M. Paxton; Swaminathan Vaidyanathan; Martin Marietta; Carl W. Hoth

1994-01-01

318

Test results of Ya-21u thermionic space power system  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet-made TOPAZ-II space nuclear power system unit designated Ya-21u underwent a total of 15 tests both in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) (1989--1990) and in the US (August 1993 to March 1995) for a cumulative test/operation time of 7681 h at conditions far exceeding design limits. These tests included steady-state operation at different power levels, fast start-ups and power optimizations, and shock and vibration tests. Test results are presented and analyzed. Results indicate a gradual change in the performance parameters such as the optimum cesium pressure and optimum load voltage. The electric power and conversion efficiency of the unit at an input thermal power of 105 kW decreased from 3.7 kW (electric) and 4% in the test in the USSR to 2.13 kW (electric) and 2.3% in the last test in the US. A discussion and qualitative assessment of potential causes of the performance changes of the Ya-21u unit are given.

Paramonov, D.V.; El-Genk, M.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-01-01

319

DSN advanced receiver: Breadboard description and test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A breadboard Advanced Receiver for use in the Deep Space Network was designed, built, and tested in the laboratory. Field testing was also performed during Voyager Uranus encounter at DSS-13. The development of the breadboard is intended to lead towards implementation of the new receiver throughout the network. The receiver is described on a functional level and then in terms of more specific hardware and software architecture. The results of performance tests in the laboratory and in the field are given. Finally, there is a discussion of suggested improvements for the next phase of development.

Brown, D. H.; Hurd, W. J.

1987-01-01

320

Wellbore inertial navigation system (WINS) software development and test results  

SciTech Connect

The structure and operation of the real-time software developed for the Wellbore Inertial Navigation System (WINS) application are described. The procedure and results of a field test held in a 7000-ft well in the Nevada Test Site are discussed. Calibration and instrumentation error compensation are outlined, as are design improvement areas requiring further test and development. Notes on Kalman filtering and complete program listings of the real-time software are included in the Appendices. Reference is made to a companion document which describes the downhole instrumentation package.

Wardlaw, R. Jr.

1982-09-01

321

Argon Spill Duct Bellows Leak Test Procedures and Results  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note describes the testing of the argoll spill duct bellows. It includes a detailed explanation of the procedures, along with a summary of the results of the testing done on 2/18/91 and 2/19/91 by Gary Trotter. The original bellows were purchased from Expansion Joint Systems (see Appendix 2). The general conclusion from the testing was that the leaks that were found were small enough so that they would not show up at the design pressure of 0.1 psig. Therefore, the leaks were acceptable, and the conclusion was that the bellows were fit for use.

Trotter, G.R.; Wu, J.; /Fermilab

1991-03-11

322

3. EAST SIDE FROM ATOP TUNNEL, SHOWING BLAST SHIELDED WINDOWS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EAST SIDE FROM ATOP TUNNEL, SHOWING BLAST SHIELDED WINDOWS AND PERISCOPE FACING TO TEST STAND 1-3. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

323

Advanced Stirling Convertor Durability Testing: Plans and Interim Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. In support of this program, NASA?s Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in testing Stirling convertors, including the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), for use in the ASRG. This testing includes electromagnetic interference/compatibility (EMI/EMC), structural dynamics, advanced materials, organics, and unattended extended operation. The purpose of the durability tests is to experimentally demonstrate the margins in the ASC design. Due to the high value of the hardware, previous ASC tests focused on establishing baseline performance of the convertors within the nominal operating conditions. The durability tests present the first planned extension of the operating conditions into regions beyond those intended to meet the product spec, where the possibility exists of lateral contact, overstroke, or over-temperature events. These tests are not intended to cause damage that would shorten the life of the convertors, so they can transition into extended operation at the conclusion of the tests. This paper describes the four tests included in the durability test sequence: 1) start/stop cycling, 2) exposure to constant acceleration in the lateral and axial directions, 3) random vibration at increased piston amplitude to induce contact events, and 4) overstroke testing to simulate potential failures during processing or during the mission life where contact events could occur. The paper also summarizes the analysis and simulation used to predict the results of each of these tests.

Meer, Dave; Oriti, Sal

2012-01-01

324

ART-XC/SRG: results of thermo-vacuum tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ART-XC - a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument for SRG project is being developed in Russia. Space Research institute (IKI) and Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF) has developed and tested the STM (Structural and Thermal Model) of ART-XC/SRG Instrument. The STM was tested in a 40 m3 vacuum chamber, equipped with black cryogenic screens, cooled by liquid nitrogen. During the tests various thermal telescope modes were simulated. In particular we have simulated emergency mode, when mirrors heaters were switched-off. During the tests temperature of instrument's structure was controlled by 64 independent sensors. Stability of optical axis of mirror systems was also measured. STM test has shown that temperature of mirror system was lower than required, temperature of detectors met the requirements. The test also confirmed geometrical stability of the carbon fiber housing despite of significant temperature gradients. Additional experiments with two mirror systems, each containing a full set of simple nickel shells, were performed. In these experiments we have measured longitudinal and transverse temperature gradients of mirror systems. Next thermovacuum tests of the qualification model of the ART-XC instrument are being prepared. Results of STM tests are presented in this paper.

Semena, N.; Pavlinsky, M.; Buntov, M.; Serbinov, D.; Gurova, E.; Tambov, V.; Roiz, I.; Garin, M.; Lazarchuk, V.; Zaytcev, A.; Martunov, V.; Shabarchin, A.; Sokolov, A.

2014-07-01

325

Thermal Analysis of Low Layer Density Multilayer Insulation Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of the thermal performance of low layer density multilayer insulations is important for designing long-duration space exploration missions involving the storage of cryogenic propellants. Theoretical calculations show an analytical optimal layer density, as widely reported in the literature. However, the appropriate test data by which to evaluate these calculations have been only recently obtained. As part of a recent research project, NASA procured several multilayer insulation test coupons for calorimeter testing. These coupons were configured to allow for the layer density to be varied from 0.5 to 2.6 layer/mm. The coupon testing was completed using the cylindrical Cryostat-l00 apparatus by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center. The results show the properties of the insulation as a function of layer density for multiple points. Overlaying these new results with data from the literature reveals a minimum layer density; however, the value is higher than predicted. Additionally, the data show that the transition region between high vacuum and no vacuum is dependent on the spacing of the reflective layers. Historically this spacing has not been taken into account as thermal performance was calculated as a function of pressure and temperature only; however the recent testing shows that the data is dependent on the Knudsen number which takes into account pressure, temperature, and layer spacing. These results aid in the understanding of the performance parameters of MLI and help to complete the body of literature on the topic.

Johnson, Wesley L.

2011-01-01

326

Salmonella mutagenicity tests. IV. Results from the testing of 300 chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Three hundred chemicals were tested for mutagenicity, under code, in Salmonella typhimurium, using a preincubation protocol. All tests were performed in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation, and in the presence of liver S-9 from Aroclor-induced male Sprague-Dawley rats and Syrian hamsters. The results and data from these tests are presented.

Zeiger, E.; Anderson, B.; Haworth, S.; Lawlor, T.; Mortelmans, K.

1988-01-01

327

Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility (MSSTF) project test results: Phase 4A MSSTF system operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of testing the Department of Energy's Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility (MSSTF) at Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico are summarized. The system is a dispersed power system that collects solar energy and supplies both the electrical and thermal energy demands of a representative load. Testing was done between July 1976 and March 1978. The Phase IVA MSSTF studied

T. D. Harrison; W. H. McCulloch

1978-01-01

328

Blast injuries--and the pivotal role of trauma surgeons.  

PubMed

An explosion is the sudden release of energy and its radial propagation through air, solid structures and living tissue. Treatment of blast injuries is complex and combines the principles of penetrating and blunt trauma, chemical or thermal burns and disaster and mass casualty management. Primary blast injuries are a direct result of the explosion itself. The sudden release of energy is translated into a shock wave that travels at supersonic speed (5000 metres/second). There is a sudden and short-lived rise in pressure, followed by a prolonged negative pressure, or vacuum, responsible for additional injury. The organs most at risk for primary blast injuries are the lungs, the ears and the gastrointestinal tract. The explosion also sets solid objects in motion; these act as projectiles, and can travel over far greater distances (secondary blast injuries), and their management is no different from penetrating or blunt trauma from other causes. The explosion may cause not only "projectiles," but the body itself to be displaced: These tertiary blast injuries include traumatic amputations and crush injuries following land mine explosions. Finally, quaternary blast injuries comprise other forms of associated trauma, such as burns, asphyxia or poisoning from release of noxious substances by the blast. These injuries can be particularly taxing for rescue teams because of their tendency to affect large amounts of patients and the risk they pose to the rescuers themselves. Individual management of the blast injury victim requires a multidisciplinary team; terrorist or wartime bombings also require expertise in disaster management and triage. PMID:21158326

Luks, F I

2010-01-01

329

A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; May, M. J.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Shingleton, N.; Kane, J. O.; Holtmeier, G.; Loey, H.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Dunlop, W. H.; Guyton, R. L.; Huffman, E.

2014-09-01

330

Military Personnel with Chronic Symptoms Following Blast Traumatic Brain Injury Have Differential Expression of Neuronal Recovery and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Genes  

PubMed Central

Objective: Approximately one-quarter of military personnel who deployed to combat stations sustained one or more blast-related, closed-head injuries. Blast injuries result from the detonation of an explosive device. The mechanisms associated with blast exposure that give rise to traumatic brain injury (TBI), and place military personnel at high risk for chronic symptoms of post-concussive disorder (PCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression are not elucidated. Methods: To investigate the mechanisms of persistent blast-related symptoms, we examined expression profiles of transcripts across the genome to determine the role of gene activity in chronic symptoms following blast-TBI. Active duty military personnel with (1) a medical record of a blast-TBI that occurred during deployment (n?=?19) were compared to control participants without TBI (n?=?17). Controls were matched to cases on demographic factors including age, gender, and race, and also in diagnoses of sleep disturbance, and symptoms of PTSD and depression. Due to the high number of PCD symptoms in the TBI+ group, we did not match on this variable. Using expression profiles of transcripts in microarray platform in peripheral samples of whole blood, significantly differentially expressed gene lists were generated. Statistical threshold is based on criteria of 1.5 magnitude fold-change (up or down) and p-values with multiple test correction (false discovery rate <0.05). Results: There were 34 transcripts in 29 genes that were differentially regulated in blast-TBI participants compared to controls. Up-regulated genes included epithelial cell transforming sequence and zinc finger proteins, which are necessary for astrocyte differentiation following injury. Tensin-1, which has been implicated in neuronal recovery in pre-clinical TBI models, was down-regulated in blast-TBI participants. Protein ubiquitination genes, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, were also down-regulated and identified as the central regulators in the gene network determined by interaction pathway analysis. Conclusion: In this study, we identified a gene-expression pathway of delayed neuronal recovery in military personnel a blast-TBI and chronic symptoms. Future work is needed to determine if therapeutic agents that regulate these pathways may provide novel treatments for chronic blast-TBI-related symptoms. PMID:25346719

Heinzelmann, Morgan; Reddy, Swarnalatha Y.; French, Louis M.; Wang, Dan; Lee, Hyunhwa; Barr, Taura; Baxter, Tristin; Mysliwiec, Vincent; Gill, Jessica

2014-01-01

331

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter a sample of the feed coal that is being used for injection into the No. 7 Blast Furnace of Inland Steel has been analyzed petrographically and compared to both the Herrin No. 6 coal and Armco feed coal. Additional characterization is underway and an advanced program of pyrolysis and reactivity testing has been initiated.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1994-06-01

332

NASA Fastrac Engine Gas Generator Component Test Program and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low cost access to space has been a long-time goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Fastrac engine program was begun at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a 60,000-pound (60K) thrust, liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon (LOX/RP), gas generator-cycle booster engine for a fraction of the cost of similar engines in existence. To achieve this goal, off-the-shelf components and readily available materials and processes would have to be used. This paper will present the Fastrac gas generator (GG) design and the component level hot-fire test program and results. The Fastrac GG is a simple, 4-piece design that uses well-defined materials and processes for fabrication. Thirty-seven component level hot-fire tests were conducted at MSFC's component test stand #116 (TS116) during 1997 and 1998. The GG was operated at all expected operating ranges of the Fastrac engine. Some minor design changes were required to successfully complete the test program as development issues arose during the testing. The test program data results and conclusions determined that the Fastrac GG design was well on the way to meeting the requirements of NASA's X-34 Pathfinder Program that chose the Fastrac engine as its main propulsion system.

Dennis, Henry J., Jr.; Sanders, T.

2000-01-01

333

Laboratory-scale techniques for the measurement of a material response to an explosive blast  

E-print Network

Laboratory-scale techniques for the measurement of a material response to an explosive blast M Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 9 June 2008: 81.70.Bt Keywords: Explosive Blast testing Laboratory-scale Plate deformation a b s t r a c

Settles, Gary S.

334

EFFECT OF POSITIVE PHASE LENGTH OF BLAST ON DRAG AND SEMIDRAG INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS, PART I  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the effect of positive phase length of blast on drag-; type and semidrag-type structures. Also, a further study was made of the general ; problem of drag loading and response of structures to blast forces. Four steel ; structures of single-story industrial type were tested. The drag-type structures ; with frangible sidings were exposed at

G. K. Sinnamon; J. D. Haltiwanger; F. Matsuda; N. M. Newmark

1958-01-01

335

Blast furnace key to earth's birth P11 Balancing the body clock P14  

E-print Network

Building a Hydrodynamics Code with Kinetic Theory This article has been downloaded from IOPscience to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience #12;Building simulations and focus here on the Sedov blast wave test. The blast wave problem describes the evolution

Liley, David

336

Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this coarse Single Event Effect (SEE) test is to determine the suitability of the commercial Virtex-II Pro family for use in spaceflight applications. To this end, this test is primarily intended to determine any Singe Event Latchup (SEL) susceptibilities for these devices. Secondly, this test is intended to measure the level of Single Event Upset (SEU) susceptibilities and in a general sense where they occur. The coarse SEE test was performed on a commercial XC2VP7 device, a relatively small single processor version of the Virtex-II Pro. As the XC2VP7 shares the same functional block design and fabrication process with the larger Virtex-II Pro devices, the results of this test should also be applicable to the larger devices. The XC2VP7 device was tested on a commercial Virtex-II Pro development board. The testing was performed at the Cyclotron laboratories at Texas A&M and Michigan State Universities using ions of varying energy levels and fluences.

Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James W., Jr.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

2004-01-01

337

Large coil task and results of testing US coils  

SciTech Connect

The United States, EURATOM, Japan, and Switzerland have collaborated since 1978 in development of superconducting toroidal field coils for fusion reactor applications. The United States provided a test facility nd three coils; the other participants, one coil each. All coils have the same interface dimensions and performance requirements (stable at 8 T), but internal design was decided by each team. Two US coil teams chose bath-cooled NbTi, 10-kA conductors. One developed a Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor, cooled by internal flow, rated at 18 kA. All US coils have diagnostic instrumentation and imbedded heaters that enable stability tests and simulated nuclear heating experiments. In single-coil tests, each coil operated at full current in self-field (6.4 T). In six-coil tests that began in July 1986, one US coil and the Japanese coil hve been successfully operated at full current at 8 T. The other coils have operated as background coils while awaiting their turn as test coil. Coil tests have been informative and results gratifying. The facility has capably supported coil testing and its operation has provided information that will be useful in designing future fusion systems. Coil capabilities beyond nominal design points will be determined.

Haubenreich, P.N.

1986-01-01

338

Investigation of blast-induced fracture in rock mass using reversed vertical seismic profiling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rock mass on quarry and pit wall surfaces is usually fractured during production blasting. Quantitative investigations of the fractured zones are needed for stabilization of the rock walls. In this study, the principle of reversed vertical seismic profiling (RVSP) was applied. A set of seismic geophones were arranged on the horizontal bench surface and seismic signals were generated along the vertical rock wall using a free-swinging hammer. The travel times of seismic rays were recorded and the P-wave velocities of the rock mass were analyzed using the Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). A series of site tests have been carried out on the rock walls at a granite quarry that are characterized by fractures. The fracture depth at various locations on the wall surface is thereby determined. The results indicate that RVSP provides an easy and reliable method to quantitatively evaluate the blasting-induced fractures in the rock mass.

Zou, D. H.; Wu, Y. K.

2001-10-01

339

The advanced receiver 2: Telemetry test results in CTA 21  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telemetry tests with the Advanced Receiver II (ARX II) in Compatibility Test Area 21 are described. The ARX II was operated in parallel with a Block-III Receiver/baseband processor assembly combination (BLK-III/BPA) and a Block III Receiver/subcarrier demodulation assembly/symbol synchronization assembly combination (BLK-III/SDA/SSA). The telemetry simulator assembly provided the test signal for all three configurations, and the symbol signal to noise ratio as well as the symbol error rates were measured and compared. Furthermore, bit error rates were also measured by the system performance test computer for all three systems. Results indicate that the ARX-II telemetry performance is comparable and sometimes superior to the BLK-III/BPA and BLK-III/SDA/SSA combinations.

Hinedi, S.; Bevan, R.; Marina, M.

1991-01-01

340

CSI computer system/remote interface unit acceptance test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The validation tests conducted on the Control/Structures Interaction (CSI) Computer System (CCS)/Remote Interface Unit (RIU) is discussed. The CCS/RIU consists of a commercially available, Langley Research Center (LaRC) programmed, space flight qualified computer and a flight data acquisition and filtering computer, developed at LaRC. The tests were performed in the Space Structures Research Laboratory (SSRL) and included open loop excitation, closed loop control, safing, RIU digital filtering, and RIU stand alone testing with the CSI Evolutionary Model (CEM) Phase-0 testbed. The test results indicated that the CCS/RIU system is comparable to ground based systems in performing real-time control-structure experiments.

Sparks, Dean W., Jr.

1992-01-01

341

Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup 2008 Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the LER is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G LER mockup and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the aft bulkhead mockup test results from Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. Refer to 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) for test results of the EU. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the LER cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the LER cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles S.; Litaker, Harry L.

2009-01-01

342

30 CFR 57.22604 - Blasting from the surface (II-B mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives...designated by the mine operator to make methane tests shall not enter the mine until all blast areas have been tested for...

2011-07-01

343

30 CFR 57.22604 - Blasting from the surface (II-B mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives...designated by the mine operator to make methane tests shall not enter the mine until all blast areas have been tested for...

2010-07-01

344

Experimental analysis of blast mitigation associated with water sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An explosion yielding a blast wave can cause catastrophic damage to a building and its personnel. This threat defines an immediate importance for understanding blast mitigation techniques via readily available materials. An unconfined mass of water in the form of a free flowing sheet has been experimentally tested and analyzed as a readily available mitigant. A single water sheet, with an approximate sheet thickness of 3 mm, was experimentally tested with an explosively driven shock tube at three different standoff distances. At the strongest shock strength considered, the water sheet decreased the peak overpressure of the blast wave by 80% and the impulse by 60%. Additionally, the peak overpressure transmitted through the water sheet was roughly constant regardless of standoff distance and explosive strength.

Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Miklaszewski, Eric J.; Guildenbecher, Daniel R.; Son, Steven F.

2012-03-01

345

Predictions of Experimentally Observed Stochastic Ground Vibrations Induced by Blasting  

PubMed Central

In the present paper, we investigate the blast induced ground motion recorded at the limestone quarry “Suva Vrela” near Kosjeri?, which is located in the western part of Serbia. We examine the recorded signals by means of surrogate data methods and a determinism test, in order to determine whether the recorded ground velocity is stochastic or deterministic in nature. Longitudinal, transversal and the vertical ground motion component are analyzed at three monitoring points that are located at different distances from the blasting source. The analysis reveals that the recordings belong to a class of stationary linear stochastic processes with Gaussian inputs, which could be distorted by a monotonic, instantaneous, time-independent nonlinear function. Low determinism factors obtained with the determinism test further confirm the stochastic nature of the recordings. Guided by the outcome of time series analysis, we propose an improved prediction model for the peak particle velocity based on a neural network. We show that, while conventional predictors fail to provide acceptable prediction accuracy, the neural network model with four main blast parameters as input, namely total charge, maximum charge per delay, distance from the blasting source to the measuring point, and hole depth, delivers significantly more accurate predictions that may be applicable on site. We also perform a sensitivity analysis, which reveals that the distance from the blasting source has the strongest influence on the final value of the peak particle velocity. This is in full agreement with previous observations and theory, thus additionally validating our methodology and main conclusions. PMID:24358140

Kosti?, Sr?an; Perc, Matjaž; Vasovi?, Nebojša; Trajkovi?, Slobodan

2013-01-01

346

Model NbTi Helical Solenoid Fabrication and Test Results  

SciTech Connect

A program to develop model magnets for a helical cooling channel is under way at Fermilab. In the first steps of a planned sequence of magnets, two four-coil helical solenoid models with 300 mm aperture have been fabricated and tested. These two models, HSM01 and HSM02, used insulated NbTi Rutherford cable wound onto stainless steel rings with spliceless transitions between coils. Strip heaters were included for quench protection of each coil, and the coils were epoxy-impregnated after winding inside the support structures. Based on the results of the first model the second model was made using a cable with optimized cross-section, improved winding and epoxy-impregnation procedures, enhanced ground insulation, and included heat exchange tubing for a test of conduction cooling. We report on the results and lessons learned from fabrication and tests of these two models.

Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Evbota, D.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Makarov, A.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.F.; Tartaglia, M.A.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

347

GICHD mine dog testing project : soil sample results #5.  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fifth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in June 2003.

Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

2004-01-01

348

GICHD mine dog testing project - soil sample results #4.  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fourth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in April 2003 and Sarajevo, Bosnia collected in May 2003.

Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Wood, Tyson B.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

2003-08-01

349

GICHD Mine Dog Testing Project - Soil Sample Results No.3  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the third batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in October 2002.

PHELAN, JAMES M.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; ARCHULETA, LUISA M.

2003-03-01

350

An effect of base hole size on dynamic test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the dynamic test results of a flat-base sharp cone model hole diameters. The test Mach number is M = 5.047; cone semiangle is 10 deg; and the free-flow Reynolds number based on the model length is (2.2-13.3) x 10 to the 6th. The results show that the effect of the base hole diameter on test data really exists. In general, when the boundary-layer transition occurs on the aft surface of the model, the effect is obvious; with increasing hole diameter the static stability decreases and the dynamic stability increases. When the transition moves forward, the effect becomes unimportant. The mechanism of the effect is discussed briefly.

Lou, H.

1986-06-01

351

Development of simulated contamination (SIMCON) and miscellaneous decontamination scoping tests  

SciTech Connect

This report details the development of a method of simulating ICPP type contamination (SIMCON) with surrogate, nonradioactive materials and some miscellaneous testing and results that were completed using SIMCON. An analysis of historical ICPP decontamination samples is given, along with the justification relating SIMCON to this historical data. Some SIMCON testing of the following methods are given as miscellaneous examples: water rinse, water ultrasonic, cerric nitrate, CO{sub 2} snowflake blasting, nitrogen ``Cryogenic`` blasting and strippable coating removal.

Demmer, R.L.

1994-01-01

352

Shot-blasting as a means of preparing surfaces for plasma deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A study was made of the response of three key constructional materials (steel, copper, and an aluminum alloy) to shot-blasting as a function of compressed-air pressure, blasting range, and process time.2.It was established that the surface roughness of shot-blasted parts is affected by these parameters, the resultant microasperity height varying in the range 10–30 µ.3.It is shown that parts made

D. M. Karpinos; V. G. Zil'berberg; A. M. Vyal'tsev

1978-01-01

353

Understanding Your Soil Test Results Education Center and Info Line  

E-print Network

. Glossary ofTerms on the Report Form pH - Indicates whether the soil is acid or alkaline. 7.0 is a neutral level; less than 7.0 is acidic and greater than 7.0 is alkaline. Although NH soils are naturally veryUnderstanding Your Soil Test Results Education Center and Info Line practical solutions to everyday

New Hampshire, University of

354

SSPS results of test and operation, 1981-1984  

SciTech Connect

The results of three years of testing and operation of the two dissimilar solar thermal power plants of the SSPS project are summarized. The project includes: (1) a Distributed Collector System, and (2) a Central Receiver System. Environmental conditions are presented and an economical assessment of the project is provided. (BCS)

none,

1985-05-01

355

Early results of gate valve flow interruption blowdown tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary results of the USNRC\\/INEL high-energy BWR line break flow interruption testing are presented. Two representative nuclear valve assemblies were cycled under design basis Reactor Water Cleanup pipe break conditions to provide input for the technical basis for resolving the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Issue 87. The effects of the blowdown hydraulic loadings on valve operability, especially valve closure

DeWall

1988-01-01

356

First Test Results of the New LANSCE Wire Scanner  

SciTech Connect

The Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation Team (BDIT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE facility is presently developing a new and improved wire scanner diagnostics system controlled by National Instrument's cRIO platform. This paper describes the current state of development of the control system along with the results gathered from the latest actuator motion performance and accelerator-beam data acquisition tests.

Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

357

ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker test-beam results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several prototypes of the Transition Radiation Tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC have been built and tested at the CERN SPS accelerator. Results from detailed studies of the straw-tube hit registration efficiency and drift-time measurements and of the pion and electron spectra without and with radiators are presented.

T. Akesson; E. Arik; K. Baker; S. Baron; D. Benjamin; H. Bertelsen; V. Bondarenko; V. Bytchkov; J. Callahan; M. Capeans; L. Cardiel-Sas; A. Catinaccio; S. A. Cetin; P. Cwetanski; M. Dam; H. Danielsson; F. Dittus; B. Dolgoshein; N. Dressnandt; C. Driouichi; W. L. Ebenstein; P. Eerola; P. Farthouat; O. Fedin; D. Froidevaux; P. Gagnon; Y. Grichkevitch; N. Grigalashvili; Z. Hajduk; P. Hansen; F. Kayumov; P. T. Keener; G. Kekelidze; A. Khristatchev; S. Konovalov; L. Koudine; S. Kovalenko; T. Kowalski; V. A. Kramarenko; K. Kruger; A. Laritchev; P. Lichard; F. Luehring; B. Lundberg; V. Maleev; I. Markina; K. McFarlane; V. Mialkovski; V. A. Mitsou; B. Mindur; S. Morozov; A. Munar; S. Muraviev; A. Nadtochy; F. M. Newcomer; H. Ogren; S. H. Oh; S. Oleshko; J. Olszowska; S. Passmore; S. Patritchev; V. Peshekhonov; R. Petti; M. Price; C. Rembser; O. Rohne; A. Romaniouk; D. R. Rust; Yu. Ryabov; V. Schegelsky; D. Seliverstov; T. Shin; A. Shmeleva; S. Smirnov; V. Sosnovtsev; V. Soutchkov; E. Spiridenkov; V. Tikhomirov; R. Van Berg; V. Vassilakopoulos; L. Vassilieva; C. Wang; H. H. Williams; A. Zalite

2004-01-01

358

RESEARCH RESULTS OF LARGE-SCALE EMBANKMENT OVERTOPPING BREACH TESTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dam and embankment breaching from overtopping is important to both engineers and planners. The processes observed during overtopping and breach tests conducted on large-scale models as well as preliminary analysis of the results are described in this paper. Three large-scale embankments, two at 2....

359

Comparison of road load simulator test results with track tests on electric vehicle propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A special-purpose dynamometer, the road load simulator (RLS), is being used at NASA's Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the RLS and track tests, similar tests were conducted on the same propulsion system on the RLS and on a test track. These tests are compared in this report. Battery current to maintain a constant vehicle speed with a fixed throttle was used for the comparison. Scatter in the data was greater in the track test results. This is attributable to variations in tire rolling resistance and wind effects in the track data. It also appeared that the RLS road load, determined by coastdown tests on the track, was lower than that of the vehicle on the track. These differences may be due to differences in tire temperature.

Dustin, M. O.

1983-01-01

360

Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of this report is to present the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the large-scale test stand. The report includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodology, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging of small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. 2012a. The results of the aerosol measurements in the small-scale test stand are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012b).

Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

2012-12-01

361

Graphite electrode arc melter demonstration Phase 2 test results  

SciTech Connect

Several U.S. Department of Energy organizations and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been collaboratively conducting mixed waste treatment process demonstration testing on the near full-scale graphite electrode submerged arc melter system at the Bureau`s Albany (Oregon) Research Center. An initial test series successfully demonstrated arc melter capability for treating surrogate incinerator ash of buried mixed wastes with soil. The conceptual treatment process for that test series assumed that buried waste would be retrieved and incinerated, and that the incinerator ash would be vitrified in an arc melter. This report presents results from a recently completed second series of tests, undertaken to determine the ability of the arc melter system to stably process a wide range of {open_quotes}as-received{close_quotes} heterogeneous solid mixed wastes containing high levels of organics, representative of the wastes buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Phase 2 demonstration test results indicate that an arc melter system is capable of directly processing these wastes and could enable elimination of an up-front incineration step in the conceptual treatment process.

Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Oden, L.L.; Turner, P.C.

1996-06-01

362

In-orbit test results of the first SILEX terminal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Semi conductor Inter satellite Link EXperiment, SILEX, consists of two terminals, one terminal embarked on the French LEO observation satellite SPOT4 and one terminal embarked on the ESA GEO telecommunication satellite ARTEMIS. The objective of SILEX is first to perform optical communication experiments in orbit and then on an operational basis transmit SPOT4 earth observation data to ARTEMIS, which will relay the data to ground via its Ka band feeder link. SPOT4 with the SILEX terminal was successfully launched on 22nd March 1998. While waiting for the counter terminal on ARTEMIS, a test program has been undertaken to characterize the performances without a counter terminal. The test program involves CCD calibrations, laser diode calibrations, emit/transmit co- alignment calibrations, measurement of point ahead mechanism accuracy, star acquisitions and tracking, sensitivity to sunlight, and characterization of platform/terminal dynamic interaction. The paper reports on test results of the in orbit testing, with comparison to similar ground testing and predictions. The conclusion of the test program is that the first optical communication terminal in orbit is in very good health and that the demonstrated performances are stable and considerably better than the expected.

Tolker-Nielsen, Toni; Demelenne, Benoit; Desplats, Eric

1999-04-01

363

Ultra fast all-optical fiber pressure sensor for blast event evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a great potential threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions or athletes who receive cranial impacts. Protecting people from TBI has recently attracted a significant amount of attention due to recent military operations in the Middle East. Recording pressure transient data in a blast event is very critical to the understanding of the effects of blast events on TBI. However, due to the fast change of the pressure during blast events, very few sensors have the capability to effectively track the dynamic pressure transients. This paper reports an ultra fast, miniature and all-optical fiber pressure sensor which could be mounted at different locations of a helmet to measure the fast changing pressure simultaneously. The sensor is based on Fabry-Perot (FP) principle. The end face of the fiber is wet etched. A well controlled thickness silicon dioxide diaphragm is thermal bonded on the end face to form an FP cavity. A shock tube test was conducted at Natick Soldier Research Development and Engineering Center, where the sensors were mounted in a shock tube side by side with a reference sensor to measure the rapidly changing pressure. The results of the test demonstrated that the sensor developed had an improved rise time (shorter than 0.4 ?s) when compared to a commercially available reference sensor.

Wu, Nan; Wang, Wenhui; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

2011-05-01

364

Ground surface effect on the blast wave propagation in two dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsteady flow fields created by a cylindrical blast wave are computationally simulated with a discretization method for the purpose of investigating the ground surface effect on the strength of the blast wave. Since the propagating blast wave becomes weakened as time goes on, solution accuracy is an important factor when discussing the strength of the shock wave. An overset zonal method that enhances the local resolution near the shock wave is also applied. The results indicate that the overpressure, which defines the strength of the blast wave, depends on the ground surface geometry as well as the distance from the point of explosion. Local ground geometry turns out to be important for the accurate estimation of the blast wave strength. The present approach using a new computational fluid dynamics technique may improve the existing theory for the estimation of unsteady motion and decay of the propagating blast wave, leading to a better estimation of the safety distance from accidental explosions.

Shimizu, Fumio; Fujii, Kozo; Higashino, Fumio

1993-05-01

365

Long Term Corrosion/Degradation Test Six Year Results  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains neutron-activated metals from non-fuel, nuclear reactor core components. The Long-Term Corrosion/Degradation (LTCD) Test is designed to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements to the environment. The test is using two proven, industry-standard methods—direct corrosion testing using metal coupons, and monitored corrosion testing using electrical/resistance probes—to determine corrosion rates for various metal alloys generally representing the metals of interest buried at the SDA, including Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, Beryllium S200F, Aluminum 6061, Zircaloy-4, low-carbon steel, and Ferralium 255. In the direct testing, metal coupons are retrieved for corrosion evaluation after having been buried in SDA backfill soil and exposed to natural SDA environmental conditions for times ranging from one year to as many as 32 years, depending on research needs and funding availability. In the monitored testing, electrical/resistance probes buried in SDA backfill soil will provide corrosion data for the duration of the test or until the probes fail. This report provides an update describing the current status of the test and documents results to date. Data from the one-year and three-year results are also included, for comparison and evaluation of trends. In the six-year results, most metals being tested showed extremely low measurable rates of general corrosion. For Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, and Ferralium 255, corrosion rates fell in the range of “no reportable” to 0.0002 mils per year (MPY). Corrosion rates for Zircaloy-4 ranged from no measurable corrosion to 0.0001 MPY. These rates are two orders of magnitude lower than those specified in the performance assessment for the SDA. The corrosion on the carbon steel, beryllium, and aluminum were more evident with a clear difference in corrosion performance between the 4-ft and 10-ft levels. Notable surface corrosion products were evident as well as numerous pit initiation sites. Since the corrosion of the beryllium and aluminum is characterized by pitting, the geometrical character of the corrosion becomes more significant than the general corrosion rate. Both pitting factor and weight loss data should be used together. For six-year exposure, the maximum carbon steel corrosion rate was 0.3643 MPY while the maximum beryllium corrosion rate was 0.3282 MPY and the maximum aluminum corrosion rate was 0.0030 MPY.

M. K. Adler Flitton; C. W. Bishop; M. E. Delwiche; T. S. Yoder

2004-09-01

366

Free-piston stirling component test power converter test results of the initial test phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)—Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has the responsibility to develop power technologies that have the potential of satisfying anticipated future space mission power requirements. The Free-Piston Stirling Power Converter (FPSC) is one of the many power technologies being evaluated and developed by NASA. FPSPCs have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, efficient operation; and they can be coupled with all potential heat sources, nuclear, radioisotope and solar, various heat input, heat rejection systems, and various power management and distribution systems. FPSPCs can complete favorably with alternative power conversion systems over a range of hundreds of watts to hundreds of kilowatts and to megawatts. Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) is developed FPSPC technology under contract to NASA-LeRC and will demonstrate this technology in two full-scale power converters. The first of these, the Component Test Power Converter (CTPC), initiated testing in Spring 1991 to evaluate mechanical operation at space operating temperatures. This paper reviews the testing of the CTPC at MTI and the companion testing of the earlier technology engine, the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE) at NASA-LeRC.

Dochat, George R.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

1992-01-01

367

Neutral buoyancy test results of a deployable space beam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large erectable and deployable space structures have been studied extensively in the past few years with a view toward usage in the near future for space platforms. The paper covers in particular the operational testing of a double-cell, double-folding cubic aluminum module at the Marshall Space Flight Center Neutral Buoyancy Simulator. Joining methods, deployment kinematics, configurations and operation time lines were analyzed using the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) and EVA crewmen. Results of the test were considered successful, with crew tasks accomplished and the structural design adequate for flight design.

Stokes, J. W.; Engler, E. E.; Agan, W. E.

1981-01-01

368

The Results of Tests of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) spectrometer solenoid magnets will be the first magnets to be installed within the MICE cooling channel. The spectrometer magnets are the largest magnets in both mass and surface area within the MICE ooling channel. Like all of the other magnets in MICE, the spectrometer solenoids are kept cold using 1.5 W (at 4.2 K) pulse tube coolers. The MICE spectrometer solenoid is quite possibly the largest magnet that has been cooled using small coolers. Two pectrometer magnets have been built and tested. This report discusses the results of current and cooler tests of both magnets.

Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

2009-10-19

369

Performance results of a digital test signal generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance results of a digital test signal-generator hardware-demonstration unit are reported. Capabilities available include baseband and intermediate frequency (IF) spectrum generation, for which test results are provided. Repeatability in the setting of a given signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when a baseband or an IF spectrum is being generated ranges from 0.01 dB at high SNR's or high data rates to 0.3 dB at low data rates or low SNR's. Baseband symbol SNR and carrier SNR (Pc/No) accuracies of 0.1 dB were verified with the built-in statistics circuitry. At low SNR's that accuracy remains to be fully verified. These results were confirmed with measurements from a demodulator synchronizer assembly for the baseband spectrum generation, and with a digital receiver (Pioneer 10 receiver) for the IF spectrum generation.

Gutierrez-Luaces, B. O.; Marina, M.; Parham, B.

1993-01-01

370

Experimental test results of a generalized parameter fuel control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Considerable interest has been generated recently in low cost jet propulsion systems. One of the more complicated components of jet engines is the fuel control. Results of an effort to develop a simpler hydromechanical fuel control are presented. This prototype fuel control was installed on a J85-GE-13 jet engine. Results show that the fuel control provided satisfactory engine performance at sea level static conditions over its normal nonafterburning operating range, including startup. Results of both bench and engine tests are presented; the difficulties encountered are described.

Batterton, P. G.; Gold, H.

1973-01-01

371

High-Speed, High-Temperature Finger Seal Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finger seals have significantly lower leakage rates than conventional labyrinth seals used in gas turbine engines and are expected to decrease specific fuel consumption by over 1 percent and to decrease direct operating cost by over 0.5 percent. Their compliant design accommodates shaft growth and motion due to thermal and dynamic loads with minimal wear. The cost to fabricate these finger seals is estimated to be about half the cost to fabricate brush seals. A finger seal has been tested in NASA's High Temperature, High Speed Turbine Seal Test Rig at operating conditions up to 1200 F, 1200 ft/s, and 75 psid. Static, performance and endurance test results are presented. While seal leakage and wear performance are acceptable, further design improvements are needed to reduce the seal power loss.

Proctor, Margaret P.; Kumar, Arun; Delgado, Irebert R.

2002-01-01

372

SP-100 fuel pin performance: Results from irradiation testing  

SciTech Connect

A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pin are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the reactor fuel system. This paper provides a brief description of the in-reactor fuel pin tests and presents the most recent irradiation data on the performance of wrought rhenium (Re) liner material and high density UN fuel at goal burnup of 6 atom percent (at. %). It also provides an overview of the significant variety of other fuel/liner/cladding combinations which were irradiated as part of this program and which may be of interest to more advanced efforts.

Makenas, B.J.; Paxton, D.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Vaidyanathan, S. [Martin Marietta, San Jose, CA (United States); Hoth, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-09-01

373

DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected VOC soil gas concentrations during ASVE. Five (5) SVE wells that were located closest to the air injection wells were used as monitoring points during the air sparging tests. The air sparging tests lasted 48 hours. Soil gas sample results indicate that sparging did not affect VOC concentrations in four of the five sparging wells, while results from one test did show an increase in soil gas concentrations.

Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

2012-09-20

374

Accelerated aging test results for aerospace wire insulation constructions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several wire insulation constructions were evaluated with and without continuous glow discharges at low pressure and high temperature to determine the aging characteristics of acceptable wire insulation constructions. It was known at the beginning of the test program that insulation aging takes several years when operated at normal ambient temperature and pressure of 20 C and 760 torr. Likewise, it was known that the accelerated aging process decreases insulation life by approximately 50% for each 10 C temperature rise. Therefore, the first phases of the program, not reported in these test results, were to select wire insulation constructions that could operate at high temperature and low pressure for over 10,000 hours with negligible shrinkage and little materials' deterioration.The final phase of the program was to determine accelerated aging characteristics. When an insulation construction is subjected to partial discharges the insulation is locally heated by the bombardment of the discharges, the insulation is also subjected to ozone and other deteriorating gas particles that may significantly increase the aging process. Several insulation systems using either a single material or combinations of teflon, kapton, and glass insulation constructions were tested. All constructions were rated to be partial discharge and/or corona-free at 240 volts, 400 Hz and 260 C (500 F) for 50, 000 hours at altitudes equivalent to the Paschen law. Minimum partial discharge aging tests were preceded by screening tests lasting 20 hours at 260 C. The aging process was accelerated by subjecting the test articles to temperatures up to 370 C (700 F) with and without partial discharges. After one month operation with continuous glow discharges surrounding the test articles, most insulation systems were either destroyed or became brittle, cracked, and unsafe for use. Time with space radiation as with partial discharges is accumulative.

Dunbar, William G.

1995-01-01

375

Accelerated aging test results for aerospace wire insulation constructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several wire insulation constructions were evaluated with and without continuous glow discharges at low pressure and high temperature to determine the aging characteristics of acceptable wire insulation constructions. It was known at the beginning of the test program that insulation aging takes several years when operated at normal ambient temperature and pressure of 20 C and 760 torr. Likewise, it was known that the accelerated aging process decreases insulation life by approximately 50% for each 10 C temperature rise. Therefore, the first phases of the program, not reported in these test results, were to select wire insulation constructions that could operate at high temperature and low pressure for over 10,000 hours with negligible shrinkage and little materials' deterioration.The final phase of the program was to determine accelerated aging characteristics. When an insulation construction is subjected to partial discharges the insulation is locally heated by the bombardment of the discharges, the insulation is also subjected to ozone and other deteriorating gas particles that may significantly increase the aging process. Several insulation systems using either a single material or combinations of teflon, kapton, and glass insulation constructions were tested. All constructions were rated to be partial discharge and/or corona-free at 240 volts, 400 Hz and 260 C (500 F) for 50, 000 hours at altitudes equivalent to the Paschen law. Minimum partial discharge aging tests were preceded by screening tests lasting 20 hours at 260 C. The aging process was accelerated by subjecting the test articles to temperatures up to 370 C (700 F) with and without partial discharges. After one month operation with continuous glow discharges surrounding the test articles, most insulation systems were either destroyed or became brittle, cracked, and unsafe for use. Time with space radiation as with partial discharges is accumulative.

Dunbar, William G.

1995-11-01

376

Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)  

SciTech Connect

The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0.

Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

1998-07-01

377

VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VLT Deformable secondary is planned to be installed on the VLT UT#4 as part of the telescope conversion into the Adaptive Optics test Facility (AOF). The adaptive unit is based on the well proven contactless, voice coil motor technology that has been already successfully implemented in the MMT, LBT and Magellan adaptive secondaries, and is considered a promising technical choice for the forthcoming ELT-generation adaptive correctors, like the E-ELT M4 and the GMT ASM. The VLT adaptive unit has been recently assembled after the completion of the manufacturing and modular test phases. In this paper, we present the most relevant aspects of the system integration and report the preliminary results of the electromechanical tests performed on the unit. This test campaign is a typical major step foreseen in all similar systems built so far: thanks to the metrology embedded in the system, that allows generating time-dependent stimuli and recording in real time the position of the controlled mirror on all actuators, typical dynamic response quality parameters like modal settling time, overshoot and following error can be acquired without employing optical measurements. In this way the system dynamic and some aspect of its thermal and long term stability can be fully characterized before starting the optical tests and calibrations.

Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Mair, C.; Pescoller, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Mantegazza, M.; Gallieni, D.; Vernet, E.; Arsenault, R.; Madec, P.-Y.; Duhoux, P.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Manetti, M.; Morandini, M.

2012-07-01

378

Results of a sub-scale model rotor icing test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heavily instrumented sub-scale model of a helicopter main rotor was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in September and November 1989. The four-bladed main rotor had a diameter of 1.83 m (6.00 ft) and the 0.124 m (4.9 in) chord rotor blades were specially fabricated for this experiment. The instrumented rotor was mounted on a Sikorsky Aircraft Powered Force Model, which enclosed a rotor balance and other measurement systems. The model rotor was exposed to a range of icing conditions that included variations in temperature, liquid water content, and median droplet diameter, and was operated over ranges of advance ratio, shaft angle, tip Mach number (rotor speed) and weight coefficient to determine the effect of these parameters on ice accretion. In addition to strain gage and balance data, the test was documented with still, video, and high speed photography, ice profile tracings, and ice molds. The sensitivity of the model rotor to the test parameters, is given, and the result to theoretical predictions are compared. Test data quality was excellent, and ice accretion prediction methods and rotor performance prediction methods (using published icing lift and drag relationships) reproduced the performance trends observed in the test. Adjustments to the correlation coefficients to improve the level of correlation are suggested.

Flemming, Robert J.; Bond, Thomas H.; Britton, Randall K.

1991-01-01

379

Results of a sub-scale model rotor icing test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heavily instrumented sub-scale model of a helicopter main rotor was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in September and November 1989. The four-bladed main rotor had a diameter of 1.83 m (6.00 ft) and the 0.124 m (4.9 in) chord rotor blades were specially fabricated for this experiment. The instrumented rotor was mounted on a Sikorsky Aircraft Powered Force Model, which enclosed a rotor balance and other measurement systems. The model rotor was exposed to a range of icing conditions that included variations in temperature, liquid water content, and median droplet diameter, and was operated over ranges of advance ratio, shaft angle, tip Mach number (rotor speed) and weight coefficient to determine the effect of these parameters on ice accretion. In addition to strain gage and balance data, the test was documented with still, video, and high speed photography, ice profile tracings, and ice molds. The sensitivity of the model rotor to the test parameters is given, and the result to theoretical predictions are compared. Test data quality was excellent, and ice accretion prediction methods and rotor performance prediction methods (using published icing lift and drag relationships) reproduced the performance trends observed in the test. Adjustments to the correlation coefficients to improve the level of correlation are suggested.

Flemming, Robert J.; Bond, Thomas H.; Britton, Randall K.

1991-01-01

380

Test Results for a High Power Thermal Management System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the identified needs of emerging high power spacecraft applications, a multiple evaporator hybrid loop heat pipe (H-LHP) was developed and tested as part of a Dual Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) program co-sponsored by ATK and AFRL/PRP. During the course of the DUS&T program, a two-kilowatt system with three evaporators was developed and tested to identify viable system architectures and characterize system performance capabilities as a function of heat load profiles and spatial distribution of the evaporators. Following the successful development of the two-kilowatt system, a 10-kilowatt system with six evaporators was fabricated and tested. Tests were performed with the system operating in a totally passive mode, where applying a small amount of power to a sweepage evaporator provides the auxiliary flow through the primary evaporators, and as a self-regulating, capillary-controlled mechanically pumped system. This paper will provide a description of the 10-kilowatt multi-evaporator system and present the results of the passive and mechanically pump test programs.

Wrenn, Kimberly R.; Wolf, David A.

2008-01-01

381

Interpreting “statistical hypothesis testingresults in clinical research  

PubMed Central

Difference between “Clinical Significance and Statistical Significance” should be kept in mind while interpreting “statistical hypothesis testingresults in clinical research. This fact is already known to many but again pointed out here as philosophy of “statistical hypothesis testing” is sometimes unnecessarily criticized mainly due to failure in considering such distinction. Randomized controlled trials are also wrongly criticized similarly. Some scientific method may not be applicable in some peculiar/particular situation does not mean that the method is useless. Also remember that “statistical hypothesis testing” is not for decision making and the field of “decision analysis” is very much an integral part of science of statistics. It is not correct to say that “confidence intervals have nothing to do with confidence” unless one understands meaning of the word “confidence” as used in context of confidence interval. Interpretation of the results of every study should always consider all possible alternative explanations like chance, bias, and confounding. Statistical tests in inferential statistics are, in general, designed to answer the question “How likely is the difference found in random sample(s) is due to chance” and therefore limitation of relying only on statistical significance in making clinical decisions should be avoided. PMID:22707861

Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev B.

2012-01-01

382

Initial test results for the mini-mast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the 20-meter Mini-Mast were: (1) to learn how to efficiently test this type of large truss structure, (2) to relate component testing to the overall behavior of the structure, and (3) to update the associated analytical model based upon the experimental data. The Mini-Mast represents structural characteristics similar to the COFS beam which is planned to be flown on Shuttle to perform on-orbit structures and controls experiments. The information is of interest to LDR because it represents analysis and test information on a truss-type structure which may be similar to the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) backup structure. The structure has a total of 111 titanium joints; the joint in the center of the truss element is a near-center latch joint. The results of this research indicate that linear deployable-type structures can be built, but difficulties do exist in extracting modes with identical frequencies; gravitational loading does affect the ground test results; and prediction of truss-type-structure dynamic characteristics is not trivial.

Horta, L.; Horner, G.

1988-01-01

383

Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Tone Modal Structure Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation is part of a test series that was extremely comprehensive and included aerodynamic and acoustic testing of a fan stage using two different fan rotors and three different stator designs. The test series is known as the Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) and was conducted by NASA Glenn as part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. Tone mode measurements of one of the rotors with three different stators were made. The stator designs involve changes in vane count and sweep at constant solidity. The results of both inlet and exhaust tone mode measurements are presented in terms of mode power for both circumferential and radial mode orders. The results show benefits of vane sweep to be large, up to 13 dB in total tone power. At many conditions, the increase in power due to cutting on the rotor/stator interaction is more than offset by vane sweep. The rotor locked mode is shown as an important contributor to tone power when the blade tip speed is near and above Mach one. This is most evident in the inlet when the direct rotor field starts to cut on.

Heidelberg, Laurence J.

2002-01-01

384

Salmonella mutagenicity tests. II. Results from the testing of 270 chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication includes data of Salmonella mutagenicity results on 270 coded chemicals, encompassing 329 tests performed by three laboratories under contract to the National Toxicology Program (NTP). The preincubation modification of the Salmonella\\/mammalian microsome assay was used to test chemicals in up to five Salmonella strains in the presence and absence of rat and hamster liver S-9. With a few

Kristien Mortelmans; Steve Haworth; Timothy Lawlor; William Speck; Beth Tainer; Errol Zeiger

1986-01-01

385

Dielectric properties of Al2O3 coatings deposited via atmospheric plasma spraying and dry-ice blasting correlated with microstructural characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, atmospheric plasma spraying combined with dry-ice blasting have been used to prepare alumina (Al2O3) coatings designed for insulating applications. The microstructural characteristics and dielectric properties of Al2O3 coatings were presented. The electrical insulating properties, i.e., dielectric strength and breakdown voltage, were investigated by dielectric breakdown test using direct current and alternating current. Relationships between dielectric properties and coating characteristics were discussed. The results showed that dry-ice blasting used during atmospheric plasma spray process allowed the production of coatings with better dielectric properties than those prepared without dry-ice blasting. The dielectric properties were correlated with the microstructural characteristics, not with phase composition.

Dong, Shujuan; Song, Bo; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

2014-08-01

386

Dielectric properties of Al2O3 coatings deposited via atmospheric plasma spraying and dry-ice blasting correlated with microstructural characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, atmospheric plasma spraying combined with dry-ice blasting have been used to prepare alumina (Al2O3) coatings designed for insulating applications. The microstructural characteristics and dielectric properties of Al2O3 coatings were presented. The electrical insulating properties, i.e., dielectric strength and breakdown voltage, were investigated by dielectric breakdown test using direct current and alternating current. Relationships between dielectric properties and coating characteristics were discussed. The results showed that dry-ice blasting used during atmospheric plasma spray process allowed the production of coatings with better dielectric properties than those prepared without dry-ice blasting. The dielectric properties were correlated with the microstructural characteristics, not with phase composition.

Dong, Shujuan; Song, Bo; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

2015-01-01

387

First tritium results of the KATRIN test experiment TRAP  

SciTech Connect

The TRAP experiment (Tritium Argon frost Pump) has been built at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) as a test rig for the Cryogenic Pumping Section (CPS) of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN). TRAP employs a heterogeneous layer of pre-condensed argon to adsorb hydrogen isotopes at {approx} 4.2 K This paper presents results obtained in the first three tritium experiments with TRAP. (authors)

Eichelhardt, F. [Universitaet Karlsruhe TH, P. O. Box 3640, D- 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bornschein, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bornschein, L. [Universitaet Karlsruhe TH, P. O. Box 3640, D- 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kazachenko, O.; Kernert, N. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sturm, M. [Universitaet Karlsruhe TH, P. O. Box 3640, D- 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2008-07-15

388

Initial results from the EUV engineering test stand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is an EUV lithography tool designed to demonstrate full-field EUV imaging and provide data required to accelerate production-tool development. Early lithographic results and progress on continuing functional upgrades are presented and discussed. In the ETS a source of 13.4 nm radiation is provided by a laser plasma source in which a Nd:YAG laser beam is

Daniel A. Tichenor; Avijit K. Ray-Chaudhuri; Sang Hun Lee; Henry N. Chapman; William C. Replogle; Kurt W. Berger; Richard H. Stulen; Glenn D. Kubiak; Leonard E. Klebanoff; John B. Wronosky; Donna J. O'Connell; Alvin H. Leung; Karen J. Jefferson; William P. Ballard; Layton C. Hale; Kenneth L. Blaedel; John S. Taylor; James A. Folta; Eberhard A. Spiller; Regina Soufli; Gary E. Sommargren; Donald W. Sweeney; Patrick P. Naulleau; Kenneth A. Goldberg; Eric M. Gullikson; Jeffrey Bokor; David T. Attwood; Uwe Mickan; Ralph M. Hanzen; Eric M. Panning; Pei-yang Yan; John E. Bjorkholm; Charles W. Gwynf

2001-01-01

389

NASA wind shear flight test in situ results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objectives in developing the NASA in situ windshear detection algorithm were to provide a measurement standard for validation of forward-look sensors under development, and to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to operate with a suitably low nuisance alert rate. It was necessary to know exactly how the algorithm was implemented and what parameters and filtering were used, in order to be able to fully test its effectiveness and correlate in situ results with forward-look sensor data.

Oseguera, Rosa M.

1992-01-01

390

Investigation on Carbon-Deposition Behavior from Heating Cycle Gas in Oxygen Blast Furnace Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the different ways to study carbon deposition in the ironmaking process, not much attention was paid to that of heating the gas mixture, especially cycle gas in an oxygen blast furnace. In this work, the carbon-deposition characteristics of heating 100 pct CO, CO-H2 gas mixture, and cycle gas in the oxygen blast furnace process were, respectively, experimentally and theoretically investigated. First, the thermodynamics on carbon-deposition reactions were calculated. Then, the impacts of discharging operation temperature, the proportion of CO/H2 in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture, and the CO2 concentration in heating the cycle gas of an oxygen blast furnace on the carbon deposition were tested and investigated. Furthermore, the carbon-deposition behaviors in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture were compared with the thermodynamic calculation results for discussing the role of H2. In addition, carbon deposition in heating cycle gas includes CO decomposition and a carbon-deposition reaction by hybrid of CO and H2; the possible roles of each were analyzed by comparing thermodynamic calculation and experimental results. The deposited carbon was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the deposited carbon microstructure.

Liu, Jinzhou; Wang, Jingsong; She, Xuefeng; Zhang, Shiyang; Xue, Qingguo

2015-02-01

391

Working toward exposure thresholds for blast-induced traumatic brain injury: Thoracic and acceleration mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in blast-induced lung injury resulted in exposure thresholds that are useful in understanding and protecting humans from such injury. Because traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure has become a prominent medical and military problem, similar thresholds should be identified that can put available research results in context and guide future research toward protecting war fighters as well

Michael W. Courtney; Amy C. Courtney

2011-01-01

392

Blast casting requires fresh assessment of methods  

SciTech Connect

The article says that because blast casting differs from conventional blasting, our ideas about explosive products, drilling, and initiating methods must change. The author discusses how to select a casting explosive and what factors are important in its selection. He also looks at how to determine the best blasthole diameter and burden blasting pattern.

Pilshaw, S.R.

1987-08-01

393

MOLECULAR CONTROL OF THE RICE BLAST DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea is a major constraint to rice production worldwide. The rice blast system is one of the best-characterized monocot model systems. The goal of this project is to understand molecular mechanisms of disease resistance using rice blast as a model system....

394

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

2013-08-01

395

Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Rotor Alone Aerodynamic Performance Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic performance of an isolated fan or rotor alone model was measured in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel as part of the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test conducted at NASA Glenn. The Source Diagnostic Test was conducted to identify the noise sources within a wind tunnel scale model of a turbofan engine and quantify their contribution to the overall system noise level. The fan was part of a 1/5th scale model representation of the bypass stage of a current technology turbofan engine. For the rotor alone testing, the fan and nacelle, including the inlet, external cowl, and fixed area fan exit nozzle, were modeled in the test hardware; the internal outlet guide vanes located behind the fan were removed. Without the outlet guide vanes, the velocity at the nozzle exit changes significantly, thereby affecting the fan performance. As part of the investigation, variations in the fan nozzle area were tested in order to match as closely as possible the rotor alone performance with the fan performance obtained with the outlet guide vanes installed. The fan operating performance was determined using fixed pressure/temperature combination rakes and the corrected weight flow. The performance results indicate that a suitable nozzle exit was achieved to be able to closely match the rotor alone and fan/outlet guide vane configuration performance on the sea level operating line. A small shift in the slope of the sea level operating line was measured, which resulted in a slightly higher rotor alone fan pressure ratio at take-off conditions, matched fan performance at cutback conditions, and a slightly lower rotor alone fan pressure ratio at approach conditions. However, the small differences in fan performance at all fan conditions were considered too small to affect the fan acoustic performance.

Hughes, Christopher E.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Woodward, Richard P.; Miller, Christopher J.

2005-01-01

396

Qualification test results for blue-red reflecting solar covers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent market forces and design innovations have spurred the development of solar cell covers that significantly reduce the solar absorptance for a cell array. GaAs cells, using Ge as the substrate host material, can have a significantly higher output if the solar absorptance of the cell array is reduced. New optical coating design techniques have allowed the construction of covers that reflect the ultraviolet energy (below 350 nm) and the near infrared energy (above 900 nm) resulting in the beneficial reduction in absorptance. Recent modeling suggests three or more present output increase due to the lowered temperature with such a device. Within the last several months we have completed the testing of production samples of these new covers in a qualification series that included the usual environmental effects associated with the routine testing of solar cell covers and the combined effects of protons, electrons and solar UV as would be encountered in space. For the combined effects testing the samples were exposed to 300 sun days equivalent UV, 5 x 10(exp 14)/sq cm of 0.5 MeV protons and 10(exp 15)/sq cm of 1.0 MeV electrons. Measurements of the reflectance, transmission, emittance and other appropriate parameters were made before and after the testing. As measured by the averaged transmission over the cell operating band, the change in transmission for the samples was less than or about equal to 1 percent. The details of the testing and the results in terms of transmission, reflectance and emittance are discussed in the paper.

Beauchamp, W. T.

1994-09-01

397

Qualification test results for blue-red reflecting solar covers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent market forces and design innovations have spurred the development of solar cell covers that significantly reduce the solar absorptance for a cell array. GaAs cells, using Ge as the substrate host material, can have a significantly higher output if the solar absorptance of the cell array is reduced. New optical coating design techniques have allowed the construction of covers that reflect the ultraviolet energy (below 350 nm) and the near infrared energy (above 900 nm) resulting in the beneficial reduction in absorptance. Recent modeling suggests three or more present output increase due to the lowered temperature with such a device. Within the last several months we have completed the testing of production samples of these new covers in a qualification series that included the usual environmental effects associated with the routine testing of solar cell covers and the combined effects of protons, electrons and solar UV as would be encountered in space. For the combined effects testing the samples were exposed to 300 sun days equivalent UV, 5 x 10(exp 14)/sq cm of 0.5 MeV protons and 10(exp 15)/sq cm of 1.0 MeV electrons. Measurements of the reflectance, transmission, emittance and other appropriate parameters were made before and after the testing. As measured by the averaged transmission over the cell operating band, the change in transmission for the samples was less than or about equal to 1 percent. The details of the testing and the results in terms of transmission, reflectance and emittance are discussed in the paper.

Beauchamp, W. T.

1994-01-01

398

Swirl Coaxial Injector Development. Part I: Test Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sierra Engineering, in conjunction with the Air Force Research Laboratory Propulsion Directorate, has undertaken a program to develop a gas-centered, swirl coaxial injector. This injector design will be used in the multi-element Advanced Fuels Tester (AFT) engine to test a variety of hydrocarbon propellants. As part of this program, a design methodology is being developed which will be applicable to future injector design efforts. The methodology combines cold flow data, acquired in the AFRL High Pressure Injector Flow facility, uni-element hot fire data, collected in AFRL Test Cell EC-1, and a computational effort conducted at University of Alabama-Birmingham, to identify key design features and sensitivities. Results from the computational effort will be presented in the Part II companion paper (9). Three different gas-centered swirl coaxial element concepts were studied: a converging design, a diverging design, and a pre-filming design. The cold flow experiments demonstrated that all three classes of elements produced an extremely dense, solid cone spray, with the highest mass density in the center. The atomization of all of these injectors was excellent, producing mean drop sizes 1/3 to 1/4 of that typically measured for shear coaxial elements operating under similar conditions. Uni-element hot fire testing of these elements has begun, but the elements have not yet been tested at the design operating conditions. Preliminary low chamber pressure test results show the converging design performs better than the pre-filming and diverging design. Uni-element C* efficiencies in excess of 90% have been measured over a wide-range of mixture ratios.

Muss, J. A.; Johnson, C. W.; Cohn, R. K.; Strakey, P. A.; Bates, R. W.

2002-03-01

399

Results of toxicological testing of Jefferson Parish pilot plant samples.  

PubMed Central

Five toxicological tests were performed using concentrated drinking water samples collected at a pilot-scale drinking water treatment plant that had streams treated with different disinfectants (no disinfectant, ozone, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, or chlorine) before treatment with granular activated carbon (GAC). The toxicological tests used in this study were the Ames Salmonella assay, a subchronic in vivo toxicity assay in mice, the SENCAR mouse skin initiation-promotion assay, a rat liver foci assay, and the lung adenoma assay in strain A mice. These tests were conducted to determine the general toxicity and the mutagenic/carcinogenic potential associated with the use of disinfection and/or GAC in the treatment of drinking water. The stability of the mutagenic activity of the samples tested was determined by repeated analysis using the Ames Salmonella assay. Results indicated that the samples remained mutagenic for the duration of the tests. All the drinking water concentrates (4000 X) prepared by the XAD resin adsorption procedure failed to provide statistically significant indication of carcinogenic activity in the SENCAR mouse, rat liver foci, and the lung adenoma assays. However, concentrates of the chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine treated waters gave consistent mutagenic responses in the Ames Salmonella assay. GAC was effective for 6 months in removing both the mutagenicity of chlorine-treated water and the potential of water to become mutagenic when treated with chlorine. In the in vivo, subchronic 30-day toxicity test in mice, some statistically significant differences in organ weights and body weights of animals exposed to different concentrates of some of the samples were observed. However, a consistent pattern of these differences indicating overt toxicity was not detected. PMID:3816718

Miller, R G; Kopfler, F C; Condie, L W; Pereira, M A; Meier, J R; Ringhand, H P; Robinson, M; Casto, B C

1986-01-01

400

SCD1 thermal design and test result analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SCD 01 (Satelite de Coleta de Dados 01) is a spin stabilized low Earth orbit satellite dedicated to the collection and distribution of environmental data. It was completely developed at the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) and is scheduled to be launched in 1992. The SCD 01 passive thermal control design configuration is presented and the thermal analysis results are compared with the temperatures obtained from a Thermal Balance Test. The correlation between the analytical and experimental results is considered very good. Numerical flight simulations show that the thermal control design can keep all the subsystem temperatures within their specified temperature range.

Cardoso, Humberto Pontes; Muraoka, Issamu; Mantelli, Marcia Barbosa Henriques; Leite, Rosangela M. G.

1990-01-01

401

Extramedullary T-lymphoblastic blast crisis in chronic myelogenous leukemia: A case report of successful diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Extramedullary T-lymphoblastic blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is uncommon and the prognosis is poor. It was usually misdiagnosed as the co-existence of T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) and CML. In the present study, we report a patient with CML, who developed extramedullary T-lymphoblastic blast crisis and was successfully treated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched stem cell transplantation. The patient was a 44-year-old man who presented with lymphadenectasis and leucocytosis prior to diagnosis. The bone marrow smear, biopsy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of Breakpoint Cluster Region/ Abelson murine leukaemia (BCR/ABL) supported the diagnosis of CML in the chronic phase, while the immunohistochemistry of lymph nodes supported the diagnosis of T-LBL. The FISH test for BCR/ABL in lymph node blast cells was performed and the result was positive; therefore, the patient was diagnosed with extramedullary T-lymphoblastic blast crisis of CML. After several courses of combined chemotherapy, the patient was treated with HLA-mismatched stem cell transplantation and obtained continuous remission for 51 months until the present (September 2013). PMID:25667640

ZENG, DONG-FENG; CHANG, CHENG; LI, JIE-PING; KONG, PEI-YAN; ZHANG, XI; GAO, LEI

2015-01-01

402

Analysis of Abrasive Blasting of DOP-26 Iridium Alloy  

SciTech Connect

The effects of abrasive blasting on the surface geometry and microstructure of DOP-26 iridium alloy (Ir-0.3% W-0.006% Th 0.005% Al) have been investigated. Abrasive blasting has been used to control emissivity of components operating at elevated temperature. The effects of abrasive blasting conditions on surface morphology were investigated both experimentally and by numerical modeling. The simplified model, based on finite element analysis of a single angular particle impacting on Ir alloy disk, calculates the surface deformation and residual strain distribution. The experimental results and modeling results both indicate that the surface geometry is not sensitive to the abrasive blast process conditions of nozzle pressure and standoff distance considered in this study. On the other hand, the modeling results suggest that the angularity of the abrasive particle has an important role in determining surface geometry, which in turn, affects the emissivity. Abrasive blasting causes localized surface strains and localized recrystallization, but it does not affect grain size following extended exposure at elevated temperature. The dependence of emissivity of the DOP-26 alloy on mean surface slope follows a similar trend to that reported for pure iridium.

Ohriner, Evan Keith [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Ulrich, George B [ORNL

2012-01-01

403

Flight test results of the strapdown hexad inertial reference unit (SIRU). Volume 2: Test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of flight tests of the Strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU) navigation system are presented. The fault tolerant SIRU navigation system features a redundant inertial sensor unit and dual computers. System software provides for detection and isolation of inertial sensor failures and continued operation in the event of failures. Flight test results include assessments of the system's navigational performance and fault tolerance. Performance shortcomings are analyzed.

Hruby, R. J.; Bjorkman, W. S.

1977-01-01

404

Shake Test Results and Dynamic Calibration Efforts for the Large Rotor Test Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to the full-scale wind tunnel test of the UH-60A Airloads rotor, a shake test was completed on the Large Rotor Test Apparatus. The goal of the shake test was to characterize the oscillatory response of the test rig and provide a dynamic calibration of the balance to accurately measure vibratory hub loads. This paper provides a summary of the shake test results, including balance, shaft bending gauge, and accelerometer measurements. Sensitivity to hub mass and angle of attack were investigated during the shake test. Hub mass was found to have an important impact on the vibratory forces and moments measured at the balance, especially near the UH-60A 4/rev frequency. Comparisons were made between the accelerometer data and an existing finite-element model, showing agreement on mode shapes, but not on natural frequencies. Finally, the results of a simple dynamic calibration are presented, showing the effects of changes in hub mass. The results show that the shake test data can be used to correct in-plane loads measurements up to 10 Hz and normal loads up to 30 Hz.

Russell, Carl R.

2014-01-01

405

3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST DOOR. BUILDING 8826 IS IN BACKGROUND. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunker 1-D-3, Test Area 1-125, northwest end of Altair Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

406

Single event test methodology and test results of commercial gigabit per second fiber channel hardware  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a detailed description of the single event test methods used to evaluate two different component sets conforming to the Fiber Channel (FC) commercial high-speed serial bus standard. The devices tested perform the hierarchically low-level functions such as transmission coding and actual electrical or optical linking. Pertinent portions of the FC specification, and details of the test setup and methods are presented prior to description of the observed error types, correlation of error types to source circuitry, and radiation test results. The authors conclude that one of these COTS device sets may be suitable for space use with the use of additional circuit hardening, and that the other (also a COTS device set) is not suitable for space use. The test methods and descriptions of error types should prove useful in preparation for future FC component SEE testing.

Carts, M.A.; Marshall, P.W. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); [SFA, Inc., Largo, MD (United States); Marshall, C.J. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Label, K.A.; Flanegan, M.; Bretthauer, J. [NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1997-12-01

407

Modeling and simulation of explosion effectiveness as a function of blast and crowd characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suicide bombing has become one of the most lethal and favorite modus operandi of terrorist organizations around the world. On average, there is a suicide bombing attack every six days somewhere in the world. While various attempts have been made to assess the impact of explosions on structures and military personnel, little has been done on modeling the impact of a blast wave on a crowd in civilian settings. The assessment of an explosion's effect on a crowd can lead to better management of disasters, triage of patients, locating blast victims under the debris, development of protective gear, and safe distance recommendations to reduce the casualties. The overall goal of this work is to predict the magnitude of injuries and lethality on humans from a blast-wave with various explosive and crowd characteristics, and to compare, contrast, and analyze the performance of explosive and injury models against the real-life data of suicide bombing incidents. This thesis introduces BlastSim---a physics based stationary multi-agent simulation platform to model and simulate a suicide bombing event. The agents are constrained by the physical characteristics and mechanics of the blast wave. The BlastSim is programmed to test, analyze, and validate the results of different model combinations under various conditions with different sets of parameters, such as the crowd and explosive characteristics, blockage and human shields, fragmentation and the bomber's position, in 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional environments. The suicide bombing event can be re-created for forensic analysis. The proposed model combinations show a significant performance---the Harold Brode explosive model with Catherine Lee injury model using the blockage stands out consistently to be the best with an overall cumulative accuracy of 87.6%. When comparing against actual data, overall, prediction accuracy can be increased by 71% using this model combination. The J. Clutter with Reflection explosive model using Charles Stewart injury model with blockage works best for confined-space incidents with an accuracy of 80%. Blockage in a crowd can increase the accuracy by 17% for all models. Line-of-sight with an attacker, rushing towards an exit, announcing the threat of a suicide bombing, sitting inside a vehicle or building, and standing closer to a wall or a rigid surface were found to be the most lethal choices both during and after an attack. The findings can have implications for emergency response and counter terrorism.

Usmani, Zeeshan-Ul-Hassan

408

Chronic cannabis users: Further analysis of objective test results.  

PubMed

Twelve objective tests, generating 16 psychological test variables were administered to 850 chronic cannabis takers and 839 non-takers, all Egyptian males, ranging in age between 15 and 50 years, and representing various positions on continua of literacy-illiteracy and urbanism-ruralism. The tests were intended to assess different modalities of 5 broad psychological functions: speed of psychomotor performance, estimation of moderate distances, estimation of a few minutes time interval, immediate memory for digits and designs and visual-motor co-ordination. Analysis of variance based on 3 x 3 x 2 factorial design was carried out and revealed statistically significant differences between the two groups of subjects on most of the test variables. Detailed analyses showed that controls displayed better performance than drug users on the majority of the variables. Significant second order interaction effects emerged in a big number of cases denoting that, under certain conditions relating to literacy-illiteracy and urbanism-ruralism, the superiority of controls over cannabis users became much more impressive. Our findings were discussed in the light of investigations which were conducted on the psychological correlates and/or effects of long term and short term cannabis consumption. The clinical psychological literature was cited where slowness of psychomotor performance, defective visual-motor co-ordination and impaired memory for designs were reported to be associated with psychiatric disorder. It is suggested that our results point to meaningful associations between chronic cannabis consumption and manifestations of psychopathology. PMID:1044285

Soueif, M I

1975-01-01

409

Results of toxicological testing of Jefferson Paris pilot plant samples  

SciTech Connect

Five toxicological tests were performed using concentrated drinking water samples collected at a pilot-scale drinking water treatment plant that had streams treated with different disinfectants (no disinfectant, ozone, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, or chlorine) before treatment with granular activated carbon (GAC). The toxicological tests used in this study were the Ames Salmonella assay, a subchronic in vivo toxicity assay in mice, the SENCAR mouse skin initiation-promotion assay, a rat liver foci assay, and the lung adenoma assay in strain A mice. These tests were conducted to determine the general toxicity and the mutagenic/carcinogenic potential association with the use of disinfection and/or GAC in the treatment of drinking water. Results indicated that the samples remained mutagenic for the duration of the tests. All the drinking water concentrates (4000 x) prepared by the XAD resin adsorption procedure failed to provide statistically significant indication of carcinogenic activity in the SENCAR mouse, rat liver foci, and the lung adenoma assays. However, concentrates of the chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine treated waters gave consistent mutagenic responses in the Ames Salmonella assay. GAC was effective for 6 months in removing both the mutagenicity of chlorine-treated water and the potential of water to become mutagenic when treated with chlorine. A consistent pattern of these differences indicating overt toxicity was not detected.

Miller, R.G.; Kopfler, F.C.; Condie, L.W.; Pereira, M.A.; Meier, J.R.; Ringhand, H.P.; Robinson, M.; Casto, B.C.

1986-11-01

410

Test results of the advanced translator processing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Translator Processing System was developed to provide a low cost alternative to tracking translated GPS signals. It is backwards compatible with the Translator Processing System (TPS) currently used to track Ballistic Missile Translators (BMT) by the US Ranges. NAVSYS has also developed a BMT compatible Translator. A key element of the ATPS is the Preamplifier/Downconvertor (P/DC) module which was developed by NAVSYS to condition the received Translator signal so it can be tracked with a conventional C/A code receiver. This significantly reduces the cost of the hardware by allowing the ATPS to be constructed mostly from off-the-shelf components. The ATPS and Translator were tested against the RAJPO Ballistic Missile and Translator Processing System Specifications. This paper presents the results of tests demonstrating the performance of the ATPS and Translator under different operating conditions. NAVSYS has also developed a Post Test Processing System (PTPS), incorporating the same components, which records the Translator data during the tests. When this data is played back, high-accuracy Time and Space Position

Brown, Alison K.; Sward, William; Brown, Peter

1992-11-01

411

Test results for the Gemini Planet Imager data reduction pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a new facility instrument for the Gemini Observatory designed to detect and characterize planets and debris disks orbiting nearby stars; its science camera is a near infrared integral field spectrograph. We have developed a data pipeline for this instrument, which will be made publicly available to the community. The GPI data reduction pipeline (DRP) incorporates all necessary image reduction and calibration steps for high contrast imaging in both the spectral and polarimetric modes, including datacube generation, wavelength solution, astrometric and photometric calibrations, and speckle suppression via ADI and SSDI algorithms. It is implemented in IDL as a flexible modular system, and includes both command line and graphical interface tools including a customized viewer for GPI datacubes. This GPI data reduction pipeline is currently working very well, and is in use daily processing data during the instrument’s ongoing integration and test period at UC Santa Cruz. Here we summarize the results from recent pipeline tests, and present reductions of instrument test data taken with GPI. We will continue to refine and improve these tools throughout the rest of GPI’s testing and commissioning, and they will be released to the community, including both IDL source code and compiled versions that can be used without an IDL license.

Maire, Jérôme; Perrin, Marshall D.; Doyon, René; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Larkin, James E.; Weiss, Jason L.; Marois, Christian; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell; Graham, James R.; Dunn, Jennifer; Galicher, Raphael; Marchis, Franck; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Labrie, Kathleen; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Rantakyro, Fredrik T.; Palmer, David W.; Macintosh, Bruce A.

2012-09-01

412

A thoracic mechanism of mild traumatic brain injury due to blast pressure waves.  

PubMed

The mechanisms by which blast pressure waves cause mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are an open question. Possibilities include acceleration of the head, direct passage of the blast wave via the cranium, and propagation of the blast wave to the brain via a thoracic mechanism. The hypothesis that the blast pressure wave reaches the brain via a thoracic mechanism is considered in light of ballistic and blast pressure wave research. Ballistic pressure waves, caused by penetrating ballistic projectiles or ballistic impacts to body armor, can only reach the brain via an internal mechanism and have been shown to cause cerebral effects. Similar effects have been documented when a blast pressure wave has been applied to the whole body or focused on the thorax in animal models. While vagotomy reduces apnea and bradycardia due to ballistic or blast pressure waves, it does not eliminate neural damage in the brain, suggesting that the pressure wave directly affects the brain cells via a thoracic mechanism. An experiment is proposed which isolates the thoracic mechanism from cranial mechanisms of mTBI due to blast wave exposure. Results have implications for evaluating risk of mTBI due to blast exposure and for developing effective protection. PMID:18829180

Courtney, A C; Courtney, M W

2009-01-01

413

Micro-blast waves using detonation transmission tubing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-blast waves emerging from the open end of a detonation transmission tube were experimentally visualized in this study. A commercially available detonation transmission tube was used (Nonel tube, M/s Dyno Nobel, Sweden), which is a small diameter tube coated with a thin layer of explosive mixture (HMX + traces of Al) on its inner side. The typical explosive loading for this tube is of the order of 18 mg/m of tube length. The blast wave was visualized using a high speed digital camera (frame rate 1 MHz) to acquire time-resolved schlieren images of the resulting flow field. The visualization studies were complemented by computational fluid dynamic simulations. An analysis of the schlieren images showed that although the blast wave appears to be spherical, it propagates faster along the tube axis than along a direction perpendicular to the tube axis. Additionally, CFD analysis revealed the presence of a barrel shock and Mach disc, showing structures that are typical of an underexpanded jet. A theory in use for centered large-scale explosions of intermediate strength (10 < ? {p}/{p}_0 ? 0.02) gave good agreement with the blast trajectory along the tube axis. The energy of these micro-blast waves was found to be 1.25 ± 0.94 J and the average TNT equivalent was found to be 0.3. The repeatability in generating these micro-blast waves using the Nonel tube was very good (± 2 %) and this opens up the possibility of using this device for studying some of the phenomena associated with muzzle blasts in the near future.

Samuelraj, I. Obed; Jagadeesh, G.; Kontis, K.

2013-07-01

414

Co-blasting of titanium surfaces with an abrasive and hydroxyapatite to produce bioactive coatings: substrate and coating characterisation.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to assess the influence of two blast media on the deposition of hydroxyapatite onto a titanium substrate using a novel ambient temperature coating technique named CoBlast. CoBlast was developed to address the problems with high temperature coating techniques. The blasting media used in this study were Al2O3 and a sintered apatite powder. The prepared and coated surfaces were compared to plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite on the same substrates using the same hydroxyapatite feedstock powder. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the coating crystallinity was the same as the original hydroxyapatite feedstock powder for the CoBlast samples while evidence of amorphous hydroxyapatite phases and ?-TCP was observed in the plasma sprayed samples. The blast media type significantly influences the adhesive strength of the coating, surface roughness of both the substrate and coating and the microstructure of the substrate. The coating adhesion increased for the CoBlasted samples from 50?MPa to 60?MPa for sintered apatite powder and alumina, respectively, while plasma spray samples were significantly lower (5?MPa) when tested using a modified pull-test. In conclusion, the choice of blast medium is shown to be a key parameter in the CoBlast process. This study indicates that sintered apatite powder is the most suitable candidate for use as a blast medium in the coating of medical devices. PMID:23520359

Dunne, Conor F; Twomey, Barry; O'Neill, Liam; Stanton, Kenneth T

2014-01-01

415

Metal patch test results from 1990-2009.  

PubMed

Although metals are common contact allergens, clinical findings of metal contact dermatitis have varied. Such patients have subsequently become rare in Japan as gold dermatitis caused by ear piercing or baboon syndrome by broken thermometers. To evaluate such clinical findings and to determine the frequency of metal allergy, we analyzed the results of patch testing with 18 metals from 1990-2009. Nine hundred and thirty-one patients (189 men and 742 women, mean age 39.0years [standard deviation±17.8]) were tested. Metals were applied on the back for 2days, and the results read with the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) scoring system 3days after application. Reactions of + to +++ were regarded as positive. Differences of positive rates between men and women, and patients from 1990-1999 and those from 2000-2009 were analyzed with the ?(2) -test. Differences were considered significant at P<0.05. The metal to which the most patients reacted was 5% nickel sulfate (27.2%), irrespective of sex and phase. Significantly more women reacted to nickel sulfate (P<0.01), mercuric chloride (P<0.05) and gold chloride (P<0.01) than men. Significantly more patients in the 1990s reacted to palladium chloride, mercuric chloride and gold chloride (all P<0.01) than from 2000-2009. Nickel has been the most common metal allergen and mercury-sensitivity has decreased over 19years in Japan. PMID:21342229

Nonaka, Hiromitsu; Nakada, Tokio; Iijima, Masafumi; Maibach, Howard I

2011-03-01

416

Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup Test Results and Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Pressurized Rover (SPR) is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the SPR is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G SPR mockup and a functional and pressurizable engineering unit. This paper focuses on the test results and lessons learned on the aft bulkhead mockup. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the SPR cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the SPR cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles

2009-01-01

417

High resolution powder blast micromachining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder blasting, or Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials like glass, silicon and ceramics. By introducing electroplated copper as a new mask material, the feature size of this process was decreased. It

Henk Wensink; J. W. Berenschot; Henri V. Jansen; Miko C. Elwenspoek

2000-01-01

418

Flight test results of the SHARE II monogroove heat pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SHARE II (Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Elements) flight experiment was flow in August 1991 on STS-43 in support of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program. The flight experiment was designed to demonstrate startup and sustained microgravity operation of two 22 ft. long high capacity prototype SSF heat pipe radiator designs. The monogroove heat pipe radiator, one of the two heat pipe radiator designs flown on this experiment, is the subject of this paper. During the flight, the monogroove heat pipe, which contained 40 to 50 ppm of noncondensible gas to simulate end-of-life conditions, was shown to start up, vent bubbles as necessary, reprime under load, and operate successfully under all test conditions. The monogroove heat pipe operated under load for a total of 75 hours and achieved sustained heat transport of 50,000 watt-inches. This paper briefly describes the results of the previous SHARE flight experiment and the improvements made to the monogroove heat pipe as a result of that experiment. The test results of the SHARE II flight are discussed in detail. Based on the results of the SHARE II experiment, the monogroove heat pipe is ready for use in its intended application on SSF.

Brown, Richard F.; Ungar, Eugene; Cornwell, John

1992-01-01

419

Vented Tank Resupply Experiment--Flight Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports the results of the Vented Tank Resupply Experiment (VTRE) which was flown as a payload on STS 77. VTRE looks at the ability of vane Propellant Management Devices (PMD) to separate liquid and gas in low gravity. VTRE used two clear 0.8 cubic foot tanks one spherical and one with a short barrel section and transferred Refrigerant 113 between them as well as venting it to space. Tests included retention of liquid during transfer, liquid free venting, and recovery of liquid into the PMD after thruster firing. Liquid was retained successfully at the highest flow rate tested (2.73 gpm). Liquid free vents were achieved for both tanks, although at a higher flow rate (0.1591 cfm) for the spherical tank than the other (0.0400 cfm). Recovery from a thruster firing which moved the liquid to the opposite end of the tank from the PMD was achieved in 30 seconds.

Chato, David J.; Martin, Timothy A.

1997-01-01

420

False-positive results with amylase testing of citrus fruits.  

PubMed

In a case of robbery in which the criminals passed through the garden adorned with calamondin trees (Citrus madurensis), the investigators found in the grass six calamondin fruits, some undamaged, while others apparently bitten. The fruits were collected and sent to the laboratory for DNA analysis to verify the presence of saliva and robbers' DNA profile. A specific immunochromatographic strip test for saliva confirmed the presence of human salivary ?-amylase, but similar positive results were also observed for intact calamondin and other citrus fruits. Further analysis with a specific automated amylase test confirmed the absence of amylase activity. DNA quantification and typing using a specific forensic kit revealed no human DNA presence in any fruits. This case report demonstrates for the first time the occurrence of false positives when human saliva is sought on citrus fruits. PMID:24502328

Ricci, Ugo; Carboni, Ilaria; Torricelli, Francesca

2014-09-01

421

High school staff characteristics and mathematics test results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates the relationship between measures of mathematics teacher skill and student achievement in California high schools. Test scores are analyzed in relation to teacher experience and education and student demographics. The results are consistent with the hypotheses that there is a shortage of qualified mathematics teachers in California and that this shortage is associated with low student scores in mathematics. After controlling for poverty, teacher experience and preparation significantly predict test scores. Short-term strategies to increase the supply of qualified mathematics teachers could include staff development, and recruitment incentives. A long-term strategy addressing root causes of the shortage requires more emphasis on mathematics in high school and undergraduate programs.

Fetler, Mark

2010-06-22

422

LEDA RF distribution system design and component test results  

SciTech Connect

The 350 MHz and 700 MHz RF distribution systems for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) have been designed and are currently being installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Since 350 MHz is a familiar frequency used at other accelerator facilities, most of the major high-power components were available. The 700 MHz, 1.0 MW, CW RF delivery system designed for LEDA is a new development. Therefore, high-power circulators, waterloads, phase shifters, switches, and harmonic filters had to be designed and built for this applications. The final Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) RF distribution systems design will be based on much of the same technology as the LEDA systems and will have many of the RF components tested for LEDA incorporated into the design. Low power and high-power tests performed on various components of these LEDA systems and their results are presented here.

Roybal, W.T.; Rees, D.E.; Borchert, H.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); McCarthy, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Toole, L. [Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States)

1998-12-31

423

LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results  

SciTech Connect

The metallurgical irradiation experiment at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) was designed as a benchmark to test the accuracy of radiation embrittlement predictions in the pressure vessel wall of light water reactors on the basis of results from surveillance capsules. The PSF metallurgical Blind Test is concerned with the simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) and the simulated pressure vessel capsule (SPVC). The data from the ORR-PSF benchmark experiment are the basis for comparison with the predictions made by participants of the metallurgical ''Blind Test''. The Blind Test required the participants to predict the embrittlement of the irradiated specimen based only on dosimetry and metallurgical data from the SSC1 capsule. This exercise included both the prediction of damage fluence and the prediction of embrittlement based on the predicted fluence. A variety of prediction methodologies was used by the participants. No glaring biases or other deficiencies were found, but neither were any of the methods clearly superior to the others. Closer analysis shows a rather complex and poorly understood relation between fluence and material damage. Many prediction formulas can give an adequate approximation, but further improvement of the prediction methodology is unlikely at this time given the many unknown factors. Instead, attention should be focused on determining realistic uncertainties for the predicted material changes. The Blind Test comparisons provide some clues for the size of these uncertainties. In particular, higher uncertainties must be assigned to materials whose chemical composition lies outside the data set for which the prediction formula was obtained. 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

Kam, F.B.K.; Maerker, R.E.; Stallmann, F.W.

1984-01-01

424

Dynamic test results for the CASES ground experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Controls, Astrophysics, and Structures Experiment in Space (CASES) Ground Test Facility (GTF) has been developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to provide a facility for the investigation of Controls/Structures Interaction (CSI) phenomena, to support ground testing of a potential shuttle-based CASES flight experiment, and to perform limited boom deployment and retraction dynamics studies. The primary objectives of the ground experiment are to investigate CSI on a test article representative of a Large Space Structure (LSS); provide a platform for Guest Investigators (GI's) to conduct CSI studies; to test and evaluate LSS control methodologies, system identification (ID) techniques, failure mode analysis; and to compare ground test predictions and flight results. The proposed CASES flight experiment consists of a 32 meter deployable/retractable boom at the end of which is an occulting plate. The control objective of the experiment is to maintain alignment of the tip plate (occulter) with a detector located at the base of the boom in the orbiter bay. The tip plate is pointed towards a star, the sun, or the galactic center to collect high-energy X-rays emitted by these sources. The tip plate, boom, and detector comprise a Fourier telescope. The occulting holes in the tip plate are approximately one millimeter in diameter making the alignment requirements quite stringent. Control authority is provided by bidirectional linear thrusters located at the boom tip and Angular Momentum Exchange Devices (AMED's) located at mid-boom and at the tip. The experiment embodies a number of CSI control problems including vibration suppression, pointing a long flexible structure, and disturbance rejection. The CASES GTF is representative of the proposed flight experiment with identical control objectives.

Bukley, Angelia P.; Patterson, Alan F.; Jones, Victoria L.

1993-01-01

425

Dark Ages Radio Explorer Instrument Verification Program: Antenna Test Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the HI 21 cm transition line promises to be an important probe into the cosmic Dark Ages and Epoch of Reionization. The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) is designed to measure the sky-averaged 21-cm signal from this cosmic age using a single radiometer operating between 40-120 MHz (redshifts z=11-35). DARE will orbit the Moon for a mission lifetime of ? 3 years and take data above the lunar far side, where it is shielded from the Earth's intense interference. The science objectives of DARE include formation of first stars, first accreting black holes, beginning of reionization and end of the Dark Ages. The science instrument is composed of a three-element radiometer, including electrically-short, tapered, bi-conical dipole antennas, a receiver, and a digital spectrometer. Although the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) of the individual components of DARE instrument is high, the overall instrument TRL is low. One of the main aim of the entire DARE team is to advance the instrument TRL. In this work we mainly focus on the development work for DARE Antenna. We will present the initial test results of a prototype DARE antenna, fabricated in NRAO. Some CST simulations using the actual DARE experiment set up have also been performed. In future, we plan to perform extensive tests to characterize the beam pattern and spectral response of the prototype DARE instrument design. In order to utilize the anechoic chamber available at NRAO, we will use a half-scale version of the DARE antenna (120-200 MHz). The full-scale version of the DARE antenna (40-120 MHz) along with the final version of the DARE receiver will be used for outdoor tests in the low-RFI environment of Western Australia. We will also present the initial software development for analyzing the test results from the prototype DARE antenna and receiver.

Datta, Abhirup; Bradley, R.; Burns, J. O.; Lazio, J.; Bauman, J.

2012-01-01

426

Biomechanical model of the thorax under blast loading: a three dimensional numerical study.  

PubMed

Injury mechanisms due to high speed dynamic loads, such as blasts, are not well understood. These research fields are widely investigated in the literature, both at the experimental and numerical levels, and try to answer questions about the safety and efficiency of protection devices or biomechanical traumas. At a numerical level, the development of powerful mathematical models tends to study tolerance limits and injury mechanisms in order to avoid experimental tests which cannot be easily conducted. In a military framework, developing a fighter/soldier numerical model can help to the understanding of many traumas which are specific to soldier injuries, like mines, ballistic impacts or blast traumas. The aim of this study is to investigate the consequences of violent loads in terms of human body response, submitting a developed and validated three-dimensional thorax finite element (FE) model to blast loadings. Specific formulations of FE methods are used to simulate this loading, and its consequence on the biomechanical model. Mechanical parameters such as pressure in the air field and also in internal organs are observed, and these values are compared to the experimental data in the literature. This study gives encouraging results and allows going further in soldier trauma investigations. PMID:25363243

Goumtcha, Aristide Awoukeng; Thoral-Pierre, Karine; Roth, Sébastien

2014-12-01

427

ROC curve estimation under test-result-dependent sampling  

PubMed Central

The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is often used to evaluate the performance of a biomarker measured on continuous scale to predict the disease status or a clinical condition. Motivated by the need for novel study designs with better estimation efficiency and reduced study cost, we consider a biased sampling scheme that consists of a SRC and a supplemental TDC. Using this approach, investigators can oversample or undersample subjects falling into certain regions of the biomarker measure, yielding improved precision for the estimation of the ROC curve with a fixed sample size. Test-result-dependent sampling will introduce bias in estimating the predictive accuracy of the biomarker if standard ROC estimation methods are used. In this article, we discuss three approaches for analyzing data of a test-result-dependent structure with a special focus on the empirical likelihood method. We establish asymptotic properties of the empirical likelihood estimators for covariate-specific ROC curves and covariate-independent ROC curves and give their corresponding variance estimators. Simulation studies show that the empirical likelihood method yields good properties and is more efficient than alternative methods. Recommendations on number of regions, cutoff points, and subject allocation is made based on the simulation results. The proposed methods are illustrated with a data example based on an ongoing lung cancer clinical trial. PMID:22723502

Wang, Xiaofei; Ma, Junling; George, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

428

Operational Test Results of the Final Approach Spacing Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype decision support tool for terminal area air traffic controllers, referred to as the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST), was recently evaluated in operation with live air traffic at the Dallas/Fort Worth Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) facility in the United States. Controllers utilized the FAST system's runway assignment and sequence advisories to manage and control arrival traffic during more than twenty five peak rush traffic periods. The system performed well resulting in capacity increases at the airport of 10-20% depending on weather and airport conditions. As a result of these tests, the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is proceeding with plans to further develop the prototype FAST system for national deployment at five to ten TRACONs within the United States during the next five years. This paper will present the results of these tests including data on the FAST system impact on airport capacity, aircraft flight times in the terminal area, delay reduction, tower operations including ground movement, and human factors data including workload assessments.

Davis, Thomas J.; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Robinson, John E., III; Lee, Katharine K.; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

429

Current test results for the Athena radar responsive tag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with General Atomics and Sierra Monolithics to develop the Athena tag for the Army's Radar Tag Engagement (RaTE) program. The radar-responsive Athena tag can be used for Blue Force tracking and Combat Identification (CID) as well as data collection, identification, and geolocation applications. The Athena tag is small (~4.5" x 2.4" x 4.2"), battery-powered, and has an integral antenna. Once remotely activated by a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar, the tag transponds modulated pulses to the radar at a low transmit power. The Athena tag can operate Ku-band and X-band airborne SAR and MTI radars. This paper presents results from current tag development testing activities. Topics covered include recent field tests results from the AN/APY-8 Lynx, F16/APG-66, and F15E/APG-63 V(1) radars and other Fire Control radars. Results show that the Athena tag successfully works with multiple radar platforms, in multiple radar modes, and for multiple applications. Radar-responsive tags such as Athena have numerous applications in military and government arenas. Military applications include battlefield situational awareness, combat identification, targeting, personnel recovery, and unattended ground sensors. Government applications exist in nonproliferation, counter-drug, search-and-rescue, and land-mapping activities.

Ormesher, Richard C.; Martinez, Ana; Plummer, Kenneth W.; Erlandson, David; Delaware, Sheri; Clark, David R.

2006-05-01

430

Deimos Methane-Oxygen Rocket Engine Test Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of the first DEIMOS Liquid Methane/Oxygen rocket engine test campaign. DEIMOS is an acronym for `Delft Experimental Methane Oxygen propulsion System'. It is a project performed by students under the auspices of DARE (Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering). The engine provides a theoretical design thrust of 1800 N and specific impulse of 287 s at a chamber pressure of 40 bar with a total mass flow of 637 g/s. It has links to sustainable development, as the propellants used are one of the most promising so-called `green propellants'-combinations, currently under scrutiny by the industry, and the engine is designed to be reusable. This paper reports results from the provisional tests, which had the aim of verifying the engine's ability to fire, and confirming some of the design assumptions to give confidence for further engine designs. Measurements before and after the tests are used to determine first estimates on feed pressures, propellant mass flows and achieved thrust. These results were rather disappointing from a performance point of view, with an average thrust of a mere 3.8% of the design thrust, but nonetheless were very helpful. The reliability of ignition and stability of combustion are discussed as well. An initial assessment as to the reusability, the flexibility and the adaptability of the engine was made. The data provides insight into (methane/oxygen) engine designs, leading to new ideas for a subsequent design. The ultimate goal of this project is to have an operational rocket and to attempt to set an amateur altitude record.

Engelen, S.; Souverein, L. J.; Twigt, D. J.

431

Preliminary operational results of the industrial process heat field tests  

SciTech Connect

There are currently six DOE-funded solar industrial process heat (IPH) field tests which have been operational for one year or longer. These are all low temperature first generation projects which supply heat at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C - three hot water and three hot air. During the 1979 calendar year, personnel from the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) visited all of these sites; the performance and cost results obtained for each project and the operational problems encountered at each site are discussed.