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1

Results of tests of MTA-2 TPS on the SRB hold-down bolt blast container  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The four solid rocket booster (SRB) hold-down posts are fastened to the mobile launch platform (MLP) with four large nuts. At liftoff the nuts are split with explosive changes to release the SRB/Shuttle. A blast container is placed over the nuts to protect the vehicle from flying debris. The blast container is a reusable part and has to be protected from aerodynamic heating during flight. The thermal protection system (TPS) used to protect these blast containers is cork. Fitting the flat cork sheet to this hemispherical shaped blast container is both time consuming and expensive. Another problem is removing the charred cork and epoxy glue from the blast containers. Replacements of this cork with another TPS material such as MTA-2 was examined. Heating rates along the centerline of the forward facing areas of the blast container were determined. The feasibility of using 1/2 in. MTA-2 on the SRB blast containers for protection from ascent, plume impingement and reentry heating is demonstrated.

Dean, W. G.

1982-01-01

2

Membrane characteristics for biological blast overpressure testing using blast simulators.  

PubMed

Blast simulators often use passive-rupture membranes to generate shock waves similar to free-field blasts. The purpose of this study was to compare rupture patterns and pressure traces of three distinct membrane materials for biological and biomechanical blast studies. An Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS) located at the Center for Injury Biomechanics at Virginia Tech was used to test membrane characteristics. Acetate, Mylar, and aluminum sheets with different thicknesses were used to obtain pressures between 70?210 kPa. Static pressure was measured inside the tube at the test section using piezoelectric pressure sensors. Peak overpressure, positive duration, and positive impulse were calculated for each test. Rupture patterns and characteristic pressure traces were unique to each membrane type and thickness. Shock wave speed ranged between 1.2-1.8 Mach for static overpressures of 70?210 kPa. Acetate membranes fragmented sending pieces down the tube, but produced ideal (Friedlander) pressure traces. Mylar membranes bulged without fragmenting, but produced less-than-ideal pressure traces. Aluminum membranes did not fragment and produced ideal pressure traces. However, the cost of manufacturing and characterizing aluminum membranes should be considered during membrane selection. This study illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of using Mylar, acetate, and aluminum for passive rupture membranes for blast simulators. PMID:25405432

Alphonse, Vanessa D; Siva Sai Sujith Sajja, Venkata; Kemper, Andrew R; Rizel, Dave V; Duma, Stefan M; VandeVord, Pamela J

2014-01-01

3

Div-BLAST: Diversification of Sequence Search Results  

PubMed Central

Sequence similarity tools, such as BLAST, seek sequences most similar to a query from a database of sequences. They return results significantly similar to the query sequence and that are typically highly similar to each other. Most sequence analysis tasks in bioinformatics require an exploratory approach, where the initial results guide the user to new searches. However, diversity has not yet been considered an integral component of sequence search tools for this discipline. Some redundancy can be avoided by introducing non-redundancy during database construction, but it is not feasible to dynamically set a level of non-redundancy tailored to a query sequence. We introduce the problem of diverse search and browsing in sequence databases that produce non-redundant results optimized for any given query. We define diversity measures for sequences and propose methods to obtain diverse results extracted from current sequence similarity search tools. We also propose a new measure to evaluate the diversity of a set of sequences that is returned as a result of a sequence similarity query. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methods in post-processing BLAST and PSI-BLAST results. We also assess the functional diversity of the returned results based on available Gene Ontology annotations. Additionally, we include a comparison with a current redundancy elimination tool, CD-HIT. Our experiments show that the proposed methods are able to achieve more diverse yet significant result sets compared to static non-redundancy approaches. In both sequence-based and functional diversity evaluation, the proposed diversification methods significantly outperform original BLAST results and other baselines. A web based tool implementing the proposed methods, Div-BLAST, can be accessed at cedar.cs.bilkent.edu.tr/Div-BLAST PMID:25531115

Eser, Elif; Can, Tolga; Ferhatosmano?lu, Hakan

2014-01-01

4

Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.  

SciTech Connect

Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

Glass, Sarah Jill

2003-06-01

5

Test of Some Hybrid Combinations to Rice Blast  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. Blast resistant cultivars are recognized as the most efficacious and economical way to control this disease. Genetic resistance to rice blast is generally governed by a few major genes, often in c...

6

49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for...

2013-10-01

7

49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for...

2011-10-01

8

49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for...

2010-10-01

9

Blast Testing Issues and TBI: Experimental Models That Lead to Wrong Conclusions  

PubMed Central

Over the past several years, we have noticed an increase in the number of blast injury studies published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals that have utilized improperly conceived experiments. Data from these studies will lead to false conclusions and more confusion than advancement in the understanding of blast injury, particularly blast neurotrauma. Computational methods to properly characterize the blast environment have been available for decades. These methods, combined with a basic understanding of blast wave phenomena, enable researchers to extract useful information from well-documented experiments. This basic understanding must include the differences and interrelationships of static pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and total or stagnation pressure in transient shockwave flows, how they relate to loading of objects, and how they are properly measured. However, it is critical that the research community effectively overcomes the confusion that has been compounded by a misunderstanding of the differences between the loading produced by a free field explosive blast and loading produced by a conventional shock tube. The principles of blast scaling have been well established for decades and when properly applied will do much to repair these problems. This paper provides guidance regarding proper experimental methods and offers insights into the implications of improperly designed and executed tests. Through application of computational methods, useful data can be extracted from well-documented historical tests, and future work can be conducted in a way to maximize the effectiveness and use of valuable biological test data.

Needham, Charles E.; Ritzel, David; Rule, Gregory T.; Wiri, Suthee; Young, Leanne

2015-01-01

10

CO{sub 2} pellet blasting literature search and decontamination scoping tests report  

SciTech Connect

Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using current decontamination techniques. Chemical decontamination flushes have provided a satisfactory level of decontamination. However, this method generates large amounts of sodium-bearing secondary waste. Steam jet cleaning has also been used with a great deal of success but cannot be used on concrete or soft materials. With the curtailment of reprocessing at the ICPP, the focus of decontamination is shifting from maintenance for continued operation of the facilities to decommissioning. Treatment of sodium-bearing waste is a particularly difficult problem due to the high content of alkali metals in the sodium-bearing liquid waste. It requires a very large volume of cold chemical additive for calcination. In addition, the sodium content of the sodium-bearing waste exceeds the limit that can be incorporated into vitrified waste without the addition of glass-forming compounds (primarily silicon) to produce an acceptable immobilized waste form. The primary initiatives of the Decontamination Development Program is the development of methods to eliminate/minimize the use of sodium-bearing decontamination chemicals and to minimize all liquid decontamination wastes. One method chosen for cold scoping studies during FY-93 was CO{sub 2} pellet blasting. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting has been used extensively by commercial industries for general cleaning. However, using this method for decontamination of nuclear materials is a fairly new concept. The following report discusses the research and scoping tests completed on CO{sub 2} pellet blasting.

Archibald, K.E.

1993-12-01

11

Material Modeling and Development of a Realistic Dummy Testing Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury  

E-print Network

occurrence rate of traumatic brain injury (TBI) ­ 1.4 million people in US per year ­ 50,000 deaths ­ 235 Brain Injury S. G. M. Hossain1, C. A. Nelson1, T. Boulet2, M. Arnoult2, L. Zhang2, A. Holmberg2, J. HeinMaterial Modeling and Development of a Realistic Dummy Head for Testing Blast Induced Traumatic

Farritor, Shane

12

Test program for assessing vulnerability of industrial equipment to nuclear air blast. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report discusses considerations pertinent to the design of a test program to develop technical data on the vulnerability of industrial equipment to air blast from nuclear weapons (1 megaton weapons size in the overpressure region up to 20 psi). Information is provided on the appropriate use of scale models, full size models, and actual equipment to achieve the experimental

J. V. Zaccor; G. Selvaduray

1983-01-01

13

How to test brain and brain simulant at ballistic and blast strain rates.  

PubMed

Mechanical properties of brain tissue and brain simulant at strain rate in the range of 1000 s-1 are essential for computational simulation of intracranial responses for ballistic and blast traumatic brain injury. Testing these ultra-soft materials at high strain rates is a challenge to most conventional material testing methods. The current study developed a modified split Hopkinson bar techniques using the combination of a few improvements to conventional split Hopkinson bar including: using low impedance aluminum bar, semiconductor strain gauge, pulse shaping technique and annular specimen. Feasibility tests were conducted using a brain stimulant, Sylgard 527. Stress-strain curves of the simulant were successfully obtained at strain rates of 2600 and 2700 s-1 for strain levels up to 60%. This confirmed the applicability of Hopkinson bar for mechanical properties testing of brain tissue in the ballistic and blast domain. PMID:19141904

Zhang, Jiangyue; Song, Bo; Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Chen, Weinong; Gennarelli, Thomas A

2008-01-01

14

Shock Tube Design for High Intensity Blast Waves for Laboratory Testing of Armor and Combat Materiel  

E-print Network

Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from ~1 MPa to ~5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods were investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral priming section which works by increasing the turbulent flow of the deflagration wave, thus increasing its speed and pressure. This approach increased the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (Friedlander waveform). The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increased the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. Using a 1...

Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael

2015-01-01

15

Realistic warhead and blast shield testing of chemical energy tandem warhead systems for advanced antitank missiles  

SciTech Connect

The results of dynamic sled track performance testing of advanced tandem configuration shaped-charge warheads against multiple-reactive-element tank armors are presented. Tandem configurations utilizing both currently fielded and experimental shaped-charge warheads were tested. Sled velocities used were between 400 and 1100 ft/s (Mach number 0.35 to 0.95), typical of the terminal approach velocity of TOW-type antitank missiles. High-speed motion pictures (5000 frames/s) of the sled in operation and a typical mock missile'' warhead package approaching the target are shown. Details of the sled design and fabrication and of the warhead package design and fabrication are presented. Sled track instrumentation is discussed. This instrumentation includes foil make/break switches and associated time interval meters (TIM) and digital delay units (DDU), magnetic Hall-effect transistors for measuring sled trajectory, and flash x-rays (FXR). Methods for timing the x-rays are presented. Schematic functional diagrams of the experimental setups are also given. Evidence of the ability to accurately time the delay between precursor and main warheads for even very long time delays are presented. FXR pictures illustrate the dynamics of the interaction of the jets with various target elements. The interaction dynamics of the jets is discussed in relation to the overall penetration performance of the tandem warhead. The use of x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to help diagnose interaction dynamics is illustrated. The results of a test utilizing the missile propulsion rocket motor as a blast shield is presented in this paper. 2 refs., 22 figs.

Fradkin, D.B.; Hull, L.M.; Laabs, G.W.

1990-01-01

16

GIRAFFE test results summary  

SciTech Connect

A passive system can provide engineered safety features enhancing safety system reliability and plant simplicity. Toshiba has conducted the test Program to demonstrate the feasibility of the SBWR passive safety system using a full-height, integral system test facility GIRAFFE. The test facility GIRAFFE models the SBWR in full height to correctly present the gravity driving head forces with a 1/400 volume scale. The GIRAFFE test Program includes the certification tests of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) to remove the post-accident decay heat and the gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) to replenish the reactor coolant inventory during a LOCA. The test results have confirmed the PCCS and GDCS design and in addition, have demonstrated the operation of the pCCS with the presence of a lighter-than-steam noncondensable as well as with the presence of a heavier-than-steam, noncondensable. The GIRAFFE test Program has also provided the database to qualify a best estimate thermal-hydraulic computer code TRAC. The post test analysis results have shown that TRAC can accurately predict the PCCS heat removal Performance and the containment pressure response to a LOCA. This paper summarizes the GIRAFFE test results to investigate post-LOCA PCCS heat removal performance and post-test analysis using TRAC.

Yokobori, S.; Arai, K.; Oikawa, H. [Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki (Japan)

1996-03-01

17

June 7 Ballistic Blast Results in Solar Tsunami - Duration: 0:08.  

NASA Video Gallery

In addition to the magnificent blast, SDO detected a shadowy shock wave issuing from the blast site on the June 7, 2011 event. The 'solar tsunami' propagated more than halfway across the sun, visib...

18

Nitrogen runoff from tunnel blasted rocks--a large-scale test.  

PubMed

Eight tunnel blasted rock samples were washed five times in 10 m3 containers to calculate the runoff potential of nitrogen from unexploded remains of the ammonium nitrate slurry explosive in rock piles. During the first wash, 65% of total nitrogen was washed off. The average concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in the first wash water were 46 mg N/L and 58 mg N/L, respectively, being reduced to 2.5 and 1.2 mg N/L after the last wash. The average runoff of total nitrogen from the blasted rocks was 24.2 g N/ton, being 14.7% of nitrogen in the loaded explosives. pH was high (range 8.1 to 11.8) resulting from shotcrete spill, pushing the NH4+/NH3 equilibrium toward the toxic NH3. The consequences of runoff from blasted rock piles may be damaging for water quality and biology in small recipients, and abatement measures should be assessed. PMID:25109203

Baekken, Torleif

2014-06-01

19

Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels.

VIGIL,MANUEL G.

2001-07-01

20

Undulator Transportation Test Results  

SciTech Connect

A test was performed to determine whether transporting and handling the undulators makes any changes to their properties. This note documents the test. No significant changes to the test undulator were observed. After the LCLS undulators are tuned and fiducialized in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF), they must be transported to storage buildings and transported to the tunnel. It has been established that the undulators are sensitive to temperature. We wish to know whether the undulators are also sensitive to the vibrations and shocks of transportation. To study this issue, we performed a test in which an undulator was measured in the MMF, transported to the tunnel, brought back to the MMF, and re-measured. This note documents the test and the results.

Wolf, Zachary; Horton, Nick; Kharakh, David; Levashov, Yurii; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Poling, Ben; Reese, Ed; /SLAC; ,

2010-11-17

21

Results of patch tests  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this work were to construct, install, and operate a patch testing unit on a hot gas stream at a coal-fired fluidized-bed boiler. A 2,000-hour patch test was conducted on ceramic disks of materials used in the fabrication of ceramic candles and ceramic cross-flow filters. The primary issues addressed in these tests were the long-term physical, thermal, and chemical stability of the ceramic materials; long-term pressure drop and filtration characteristics of the ceramic filters; potential for irreversible blinding of filter elements; and long-term performance and reliability of auxiliary hardware, such as the tube sheet and pulse-cleaning systems. Results on three samples, or patches, 10 cm in diameter are given.

Pontius, D.H.

1994-10-01

22

Full-scale testing and numerical modeling of a multistory masonry structure subjected to internal blast loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As military and diplomatic representatives of the United States are deployed throughout the world, they must frequently make use of local, existing facilities; it is inevitable that some of these will be load bearing unreinforced masonry (URM) structures. Although generally suitable for conventional design loads, load bearing URM presents a unique hazard, with respect to collapse, when exposed to blast loading. There is therefore a need to study the blast resistance of load bearing URM construction in order to better protect US citizens assigned to dangerous locales. To address this, the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte conducted three blast tests inside a decommissioned, coal-fired, power plant prior to its scheduled demolition. The power plant's walls were constructed of URM and provided an excellent opportunity to study the response of URM walls in-situ. Post-test analytical studies investigated the ability of existing blast load prediction methodologies to model the case of a cylindrical charge with a low height of burst. It was found that even for the relatively simple blast chamber geometries of these tests, simplified analysis methods predicted blast impulses with an average net error of 22%. The study suggested that existing simplified analysis methods would benefit from additional development to better predict blast loads from cylinders detonated near the ground's surface. A hydrocode, CTH, was also used to perform two and three-dimensional simulations of the blast events. In order to use the hydrocode, Jones Wilkins Lee (JWL) equation of state (EOS) coefficients were developed for the experiment's Unimax dynamite charges; a novel energy-scaling technique was developed which permits the derivation of new JWL coefficients from an existing coefficient set. The hydrocode simulations were able to simulate blast impulses with an average absolute error of 34.5%. Moreover, the hydrocode simulations provided highly resolved spatio-temporal blast loading data for subsequent structural simulations. Equivalent single-degree-of-freedom (ESDOF) structural response models were then used to predict the out-of-plane deflections of blast chamber walls. A new resistance function was developed which permits a URM wall to crack at any height; numerical methodologies were also developed to compute transformation factors required for use in the ESDOF method. When combined with the CTH derived blast loading predictions, the ESDOF models were able to predict out-of-plane deflections with reasonable accuracy. Further investigations were performed using finite element models constructed in LS-DYNA; the models used elastic elements combined with contacts possessing a tension/shear cutoff and the ability to simulate fracture energy release. Using the CTH predicted blast loads and carefully selected constitutive parameters, the LS-DYNA models were able to both qualitatively and quantitatively predict blast chamber wall deflections and damage patterns. Moreover, the finite element models suggested several modes of response which cannot be modeled by current ESDOF methods; the effect of these response modes on the accuracy of ESDOF predictions warrants further study.

Zapata, Brian Jarvis

23

Climax granite test results  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program, is carrying out in situ rock mechanics testing in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This summary addresses only those field data taken to date that address thermomechanical modeling for a hard-rock repository. The results to be discussed include thermal measurements in a heater test that was conducted from October 1977 through July 1978, and stress and displacement measurements made during and after excavation of the canister storage drift for the Spent Fuel Test (SFT) in the Climax granite. Associated laboratory and field measurements are summarized. The rock temperature for a given applied heat load at a point in time and space can be adequately modeled with simple analytic calculations involving superposition and integration of numerous point source solutions. The input, for locations beyond about a meter from the source, can be a constant thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The value of thermal conductivity required to match the field data is as much as 25% different from laboratory-measured values. Therefore, unless we come to understand the mechanisms for this difference, a simple in situ test will be required to obtain a value for final repository design. Some sensitivity calculations have shown that the temperature field is about ten times more sensitive to conductivity than to diffusivity under the test conditions. The orthogonal array was designed to detect anisotropy. After considering all error sources, anisotropic efforts in the thermal field were less than 5 to 10%.

Ramspott, L.D.

1980-01-15

24

Out-of-Plane Behavior of URM Arching Walls with Modern Blast Retrofits: Experimental Results and Analytical Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of framed unreinforced masonry URM infill walls were retrofitted with modern materials to evaluate the abilities of these materials to mitigate blast effects. The walls were constructed from traditional and alternative masonry materials to assess the applicability of using a wood-fiber fly ash material for infill construction. The walls were tested in the laboratory under static conditions and

Trevor D. Hrynyk; John J. Myers

2008-01-01

25

Dissociated methanol test results  

SciTech Connect

The design and testing of an automotive fuel system that provides hydrogen-rich gases to an internal combustion engine by catalytically cracking, or dissociating, methanol on board the vehicle is described. The vaporization and dissociation of methanol absorb heat from the engine exhaust and increase the lower heating value of the fuel by approximately 22%. In addition, raising the compression ratio and burning with excess air increase the engine thermal efficiency. Engine dynamometer test results with dissociated methanol demonstrated improvement in brake thermal efficiency compared to gasoline from 30% to 100% depending on engine speed and torque. Lower speeds and torques produce the largest improvements. Maps of exhaust temperature and exhaust heat content are presented. The exhaust temperature is almost always high enough for dissociation to occur, but at lower power outputs, there is only enough exhaust energy for partial dissociation of the methanol.

Finegold, J.G.; McKinnon, J.T.

1982-04-01

26

Characterization of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Nuclear Blast Cavities of the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This exploratory research project is designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the possible existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations in Nevada Test Site (NTS) subsurface nuclear blast cavities. Although subsurface microbiological studies have been performed at the NTS in the past, radioactive zones have yet to be addressed. Nuclear blast zone microbiology is a completely new field and our team is well-positioned to collect and analyze samples that have never before been available to microbiologists. Relevant samples are now being obtained by incorporating microbiological collections into an ongoing annual hot well sampling program being conducted by other agencies. A combination of cultivation-based and molecular microbial detection protocols is being utilized at multiple locations to survey for uncultivable microorganisms and to develop a culture collection which will be characterized for radionuclide- and metal-reduction capabilities. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, a positive outcome from this work would have significant implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites. A primary objective of the project has been the establishment of the regulatory and technical framework necessary to enable our acquisition of samples. Thus, much of our activity in the first phase of this work has involved the development an approved Field Area Work Plan (FAWP), Radiological Work Permit (RWP), and other documentation required for radiological work at the NTS. We have also invested significant time into ensuring that all personnel possess the required training (e.g. Radworker II and 40 hr. HAZWOPER) for access to the hot well sampling sites. Laboratory facilities, required for field processing of radioactive samples as well as DNA extraction and other manipulations, have been secured both the NTS (Mercury, NV) and UNLV. Although our year-1 field work was delayed due to non-availability of samples, an aggressive sampling campaign is now underway and our first hot well samples were collected on Feb 5th, 2008. The unique nature of this site, coupled with the combined expertise of the collaborating laboratories (DRI, LLNL, PNNL, and the Harry Reid Center) makes the likelihood of our achieving discoveries of value to DOE, the individual researchers, and society high. As the selective pressures at atomic blast sites are probably different from those of production and disposal sites, these habitats may contain novel organisms of utility for bioremediation. Such organisms will have had to develop physiological mechanisms to survive high doses of ionizing radiation over the variety of rock types and hydrologic environments present at the NTS.

Moser, Duane; Russell, Chuck; Marshall, Matthew; Czerwinski, Ken; Daly, Michael J; Zavarin, Mavrik

2008-02-08

27

LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report  

SciTech Connect

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31

28

Performance testing of blast furnace slag for immobilization of technetium in grout  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary results of a grout development effort to identify grout formulas that can satisfactorily sequester /sup 99/Tc contained in an existing Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant waste. Technetium is of particular concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of its mobility and biological activity. The mobility of technetium results in large part from the movement of the pertechnate anion (prevalent in low-level radioactive waste (LLW)) through soil and geologic strata with little or no interaction with the surrounding matrix. Ground blast furnace slag has been shown to improve the leach resistance of cement-based waste forms, particularly in regard to technetium. This improved performance has been attributed to fewer and smaller pores in the solidified slags (versus a neat cement paste) and to the reduction of the pertechnate ion to a less soluble form. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.; Evans-Brown, B.S.; Morgan, I.L.; Shoemaker, J.L.; Bostick, W.D.

1988-01-01

29

BLAST: THE REDSHIFT SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed approx =8.7 deg{sup 2} centered on Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South at 250, 350, and 500 mum. In Dye et al., we presented the catalog of sources detected at 5sigma in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 82 of these counterparts. The spectra show that the BLAST counterparts are mostly star-forming galaxies but not extreme ones when compared to those found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Roughly one quarter of the BLAST counterparts contain an active nucleus. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies, showing that the standard methods work well even when a galaxy contains a large amount of dust. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST bands. We find strong evolution out to z = 1, in the sense that there is a large increase in the space density of the most luminous galaxies. We have also investigated the evolution of the dust-mass function, finding similar strong evolution in the space density of the galaxies with the largest dust masses, showing that the luminosity evolution seen in many wavebands is associated with an increase in the reservoir of interstellar matter in galaxies.

Eales, Stephen; Dye, Simon; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Raymond, Gwenifer [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Devlin, Mark J.; Rex, Marie; Semisch, Christopher; Truch, Matthew D. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia PA, 19104 (United States); Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de AstrofIsica Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Netterfield, Calvin B.; Viero, Marco P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Patanchon, Guillaume [Universite Paris Diderot, Laboratoire APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet 75205 Paris (France); Siana, Brian [California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2009-12-20

30

On the Interaction and Coalescence if Spherical Blast Waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scaling and similarity laws concerning the propagation of isolated spherical blast waves are briefly reviewed. Both point source explosions and high pressure gas explosions are considered. Test data on blast overpressure from the interaction and coalescence of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives in the form of shaped charges of different strength placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure. The results point out the possibility of detecting source explosions from far-field pressure measurements.

Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert J.

2005-01-01

31

Performance tests of a fast-acting valve for the driver tubes of a large blast/thermal simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document describes the testing of a fast-acting throat valve element designed by Eaton Consolidated Controls for use in driver tubes, (blast generators) of a Large Blast/Thermal Simulator (LB/TS). An LB/TS is used to simulate decaying blast waves such as are generated by nuclear explosions. The Eaton Throat Valve Element (ETVE) was tested at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to evaluate its performance against the design criteria. The ETVE was mounted at the end of a driver tube and actuated 16 times at 6 different driver pressures ranging from 396 kPa to 12.4 MPa (57.5 psi to 1,800 psi). The valve seals survived successfully all 16 tests with the driver gas at room temperature and maintained an acceptable leak rate throughout the test program. The average valve lag time was determined to vary from 36 to 120 ms; however, the valve was found to chatter, going through several (up to 20) opening/closing cycles after actuation before settling in the open position. An increase in the pneumatic supply pressure driving the valve showed a minor decrease in the number of chattering cycles. When the valve was actuated with no pressure in the driver tube, no chattering was observed. At the conclusion of the test sequence, the valve seals were inspected and were in good condition. The shock waves appeared to agree with code predictions when the chattering effects were disregarded.

Stacey, Marcela R.

1992-05-01

32

Your Kidney Test Results  

MedlinePLUS

... and can damage blood vessels in the kidneys. Serum Albumin Normal: 3.4 to 5.0* Your Result: Albumin is a protein that helps measure how well you are eating. Bicarbonate Normal: More than 22 Your Result: Bicarbonate measures the acid level in your blood. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Normal: ...

33

Inconclusive TSC Genetic Test Results  

MedlinePLUS

... TEST RESULTS Download a PDF of this information. Genetic testing for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) has been routinely ... their or their child’s diagnosis of TSC. However, genetic testing cannot always give you a “yes or no” ...

34

Single round blasting of 10-foot diameter X 65-foot depth emplacement collar holes at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Since 1961 REECo has drilled and mined emplacement holes for testing nuclear devices underground. An oversize drill pattern was the primary method used. The application of drilling the final size configuration hole to a 65-foot depth and mucking with the Auger Rig was then investigated. Numerous drilling patterns, loading and time schemes and methods were tried. Some were successful. Most were expensive. All concerned looked for a better and less costly method for this collar casing installation. Poor fragmentation in the collar holes prior to Atlas Powder becoming involved resulted in slow hole cleanout and excessive rig maintenance with associated excessive costs. One of the more successful shots was a 120-inch diameter {times} 60-foot deep hole that was drilled using 3 1/2-inch holes and then casing them to a 2-inch diameter using PVC pipe. A 30-inch burn hole was drilled to total depth. Twenty-seven 3 1/2-inch holes were drilled and then loaded with 1 1/2-inch powder boosted with Detaprimes and wired using all 0 delay caps. This shot smooth walled and the blast holes were visible all the way from top to bottom. Fragmentation was excellent and the Auger Rig mucked out quickly. The 28-inch bit used for the burn hole was a high cost item in this test and other methods continued to be investigated.

Not Available

1991-01-01

35

Evaluation of copper slag blast media for railcar maintenance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Copper slag was tested as a blasting substitute for zirconium silicate which is used to remove paint from railroad cars. The copper slag tested is less costly, strips paint faster, is produced near the point of need, provides a good bonding surface for paint, and permits the operator to work in a more comfortable position, i.e., standing nearly erect instead of having to crouch. Outdoor blasting with the tested Blackhawk (20 to 40 mesh) copper slag is also environmentally acceptable to the State of Utah. Results of tests for the surface erosion rate with copper slag blasting are included.

Sagers, N. W.; Finlayson, Mack H.

1989-01-01

36

Evolution of blast wave profiles in simulated air blasts: experiment and computational modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock tubes have been extensively used in the study of blast traumatic brain injury due to increased incidence of blast-induced neurotrauma in Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. One of the important aspects in these studies is how to best replicate the field conditions in the laboratory which relies on reproducing blast wave profiles. Evolution of the blast wave profiles along the length of the compression-driven air shock tube is studied using experiments and numerical simulations with emphasis on the shape and magnitude of pressure time profiles. In order to measure dynamic pressures of the blast, a series of sensors are mounted on a cylindrical specimen normal to the flow direction. Our results indicate that the blast wave loading is significantly different for locations inside and outside of the shock tube. Pressure profiles inside the shock tube follow the Friedlander waveform fairly well. Upon approaching exit of the shock tube, an expansion wave released from the shock tube edges significantly degrades the pressure profiles. For tests outside the shock tube, peak pressure and total impulse reduce drastically as we move away from the exit and majority of loading is in the form of subsonic jet wind. In addition, the planarity of the blast wave degrades as blast wave evolves three dimensionally. Numerical results visually and quantitatively confirm the presence of vortices, jet wind and three-dimensional expansion of the planar blast wave near the exit. Pressure profiles at 90° orientation show flow separation. When cylinder is placed inside, this flow separation is not sustained, but when placed outside the shock tube this flow separation is sustained which causes tensile loading on the sides of the cylinder. Friedlander waves formed due to field explosives in the intermediate-to far-field ranges are replicated in a narrow test region located deep inside the shock tube.

Chandra, N.; Ganpule, S.; Kleinschmit, N. N.; Feng, R.; Holmberg, A. D.; Sundaramurthy, A.; Selvan, V.; Alai, A.

2012-09-01

37

Blast Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... DVBIC & TBI Educational Materials Research DVBIC Locations Press Blast Injuries (U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Gustavo Olgiati) ... games. More Information: 04/12/11: Research Examines Blast Impact on Human Brain 04/06/09: Military ...

38

Districtwide Test Results, Spring 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each spring students in fifth, seventh and ninth grades in the San Diego City Schools complete a series of tests as part of the annual Districtwide Testing Program. The Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) are used to measure student knowledge of various broad areas of the curriculum. This bulletin presents results of student achievement in…

San Diego Unified School District, CA.

39

Porcine Head Response to Blast  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740?kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9?ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30?s and the remaining two recovered within 8?min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390?kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830?kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2?=?0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for computer model validation. PMID:22586417

Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

2012-01-01

40

Thermal nuclear blast simulation at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The facility includes a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, and two point-focus parabolic concentrators. All can be used for simulating the thermal portion of nuclear pulses. The heliostat field contains 222 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/cm/sup 2/ over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MW/sub t/. Thermal nuclear blasts have been simulated using a high-speed shutter (opening and closing time of 0.15 sec over a 1-m wide aperture) in combination with heliostat control to produce square or shaped pulses. The shutter can accommodate samples up to 1 /times/ 1 m and it has been used by several US and Canadian agencies. A glass-windowed wind tunnel located behind the shutter can accommodate samples up to 48 /times/ 76 cm with simultaneous exposure to the thermal flux and air flow at velocities up to 120 m/s. Each solar furnace at the facility includes a heliostat, a non-tracking parabolic concentrator, and an attenuator. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/cm/sup 2/ over a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kW/sub t/. A second furnace, currently under construction, will produce flux levels up to 1000 W/cm/sup 2/ over a 4-cm diameter and total power of 65 kW/sub t/. Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11-m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/cm/sup 2/ over a 2.5-cm diameter and total power of 75 kW/sub t/. High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses. 5 figs.

Cameron, C.P.; Ghanbari, C.M.

1989-01-01

41

An introductory characterization of a combat-casualty-care relevant swine model of closed head injury resulting from exposure to explosive blast.  

PubMed

Explosive blast has been extensively used as a tactical weapon in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and more recently in Operation Enduring Freedom(OEF). The polytraumatic nature of blast injuries is evidence of their effectiveness,and brain injury is a frequent and debilitating form of this trauma. In-theater clinical observations of brain-injured casualties have shown that edema, intracranial hemorrhage, and vasospasm are the most salient pathophysiological characteristics of blast injury to the brain. Unfortunately, little is known about exactly how an explosion produces these sequelae as well as others that are less well documented. Consequently, the principal objective of the current report is to present a swine model of explosive blast injury to the brain. This model was developed during Phase I of the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) PREVENT (Preventing Violent Explosive Neurotrauma) blast research program. A second objective is to present data that illustrate the capabilities of this model to study the proximal biomechanical causes and the resulting pathophysiological, biochemical,neuropathological, and neurological consequences of explosive blast injury to the swine brain. In the concluding section of this article, the advantages and limitations of the model are considered, explosive and air-overpressure models are compared, and the physical properties of an explosion are identified that potentially contributed to the in-theater closed head injuries resulting from explosions of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). PMID:19215189

Bauman, Richard A; Ling, Geoffrey; Tong, Lawrence; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Agoston, Dennis; Delanerolle, Nihal; Kim, Young; Ritzel, Dave; Bell, Randy; Ecklund, James; Armonda, Rocco; Bandak, Faris; Parks, Steven

2009-06-01

42

MITG test procedure and results  

SciTech Connect

Elements and modules for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator have been performance tested since the inception of the RTG program. These test articles seldom resembled flight hardware and often lacked adequate diagnostic instrumentation. Because of this, performance problems were not identified in the early stage of program development. The lack of test data in an unexpected area often hampered the development of a problem solution. A procedure for conducting the MITG Test was developed in an effort to obtain data in a systematic, unambiguous manner. This procedure required the development of extensive data acquisition software and test automation. The development of a facility to implement the test procedure, the facility hardware and software requirements, and the results of the MITG testing are the subject of this paper.

Eck, M.B.; Mukunda, M.

1983-01-01

43

Variability of aflatoxin test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 12 lb samples, 280 g subsamples, the Waltking method of analysis, and densitometric procedures, the sampling, subsampling,\\u000a and analytical variances associated with aflatoxin test procedures were estimated. Regression analysis indicated that each\\u000a of the above variance components is a function of the concentration of aflatoxin in the population being tested. Results,\\u000a for the test procedures given above, showed that

T. B. Whitaker; J. W. Dickens; R. J. Monroe

1974-01-01

44

State Test Results Are Predictable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Out-of-school, community demographic and family-level variables have an important influence on student achievement as measured by large-scale standardized tests. Studies described here demonstrated that about half of the test score is accounted for by variables outside the control of teachers and school administrators. The results from these…

Tienken, Christopher H.

2014-01-01

45

LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)  

SciTech Connect

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31

46

ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

E.F. fitch

1995-03-13

47

Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube  

SciTech Connect

Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

48

Modeling coupled blast/structure interaction with Zapotec, benchmark calculations for the Conventional Weapon Effects Backfill (CONWEB) tests.  

SciTech Connect

Modeling the response of buried reinforced concrete structures subjected to close-in detonations of conventional high explosives poses a challenge for a number of reasons. Foremost, there is the potential for coupled interaction between the blast and structure. Coupling enters the problem whenever the structure deformation affects the stress state in the neighboring soil, which in turn, affects the loading on the structure. Additional challenges for numerical modeling include handling disparate degrees of material deformation encountered in the structure and surrounding soil, modeling the structure details (e.g., modeling the concrete with embedded reinforcement, jointed connections, etc.), providing adequate mesh resolution, and characterizing the soil response under blast loading. There are numerous numerical approaches for modeling this class of problem (e.g., coupled finite element/smooth particle hydrodynamics, arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian methods, etc.). The focus of this work will be the use of a coupled Euler-Lagrange (CEL) solution approach. In particular, the development and application of a CEL capability within the Zapotec code is described. Zapotec links two production codes, CTH and Pronto3D. CTH, an Eulerian shock physics code, performs the Eulerian portion of the calculation, while Pronto3D, an explicit finite element code, performs the Lagrangian portion. The two codes are run concurrently with the appropriate portions of a problem solved on their respective computational domains. Zapotec handles the coupling between the two domains. The application of the CEL methodology within Zapotec for modeling coupled blast/structure interaction will be investigated by a series of benchmark calculations. These benchmarks rely on data from the Conventional Weapons Effects Backfill (CONWEB) test series. In these tests, a 15.4-lb pipe-encased C-4 charge was detonated in soil at a 5-foot standoff from a buried test structure. The test structure was composed of a reinforced concrete slab bolted to a reaction structure. Both the slab thickness and soil media were varied in the test series. The wealth of data obtained from these tests along with the variations in experimental setups provide ample opportunity to assess the robustness of the Zapotec CEL methodology.

Bessette, Gregory Carl

2004-09-01

49

Therapeutic effect of sildenafil on blast-induced tinnitus and auditory impairment.  

PubMed

Blast-induced tinnitus, along with associated auditory impairment and traumatic brain injury, is a primary concern facing military service members. To search for treatment, we investigated the therapeutic effects of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, given its vasodilatory effects and evidence suggesting its beneficial effects on noise-induced hearing loss. Rats were subjected to three consecutive blast exposures at 22 psi and were monitored for tinnitus using a gap-detection acoustic startle reflex paradigm. Hearing thresholds and detection were tested using auditory brainstem responses and prepulse inhibition, respectively. Blasted rats were either treated with sildenafil or tap water following blast exposure, while age-matched sham control rats were treated with sildenafil and no blast exposure. Our results showed that sildenafil did not effectively prevent acute tinnitus onset and hearing impairment. Instead, sildenafil significantly suppressed high-frequency tinnitus from 3 to 6 weeks after blast exposure and reduced hearing impairment during the first week after blast exposure. Complex results were observed in the startle force data, where sildenafil-treated rats displayed significantly reduced startle force compared to the untreated blasted group, suggesting possible mitigation of traumatic brain injury and suppression of hyperacusis-like percepts. Taken together, sildenafil showed a therapeutic effect on blast-induced tinnitus and audiological impairment in a time-dependent manner. Other regimens such as higher dosage prior to blast exposure and combination with other treatments deserve further investigation to optimize the therapeutic effects. PMID:24662845

Mahmood, G; Mei, Z; Hojjat, H; Pace, E; Kallakuri, S; Zhang, J S

2014-06-01

50

Primary Blast Traumatic Brain Injury in the Rat: Relating Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Behavior  

PubMed Central

The incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among military personnel is at its highest point in U.S. history. Experimental animal models of blast have provided a wealth of insight into blast injury. The mechanisms of neurotrauma caused by blast, however, are still under debate. Specifically, it is unclear whether the blast shockwave in the absence of head motion is sufficient to induce brain trauma. In this study, the consequences of blast injury were investigated in a rat model of primary blast TBI. Animals were exposed to blast shockwaves with peak reflected overpressures of either 100 or 450?kPa (39 and 110?kPa incident pressure, respectively) and subsequently underwent a battery of behavioral tests. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a promising method to detect blast injury in humans, was performed on fixed brains to detect and visualize the spatial dependence of blast injury. Blast TBI caused significant deficits in memory function as evidenced by the Morris Water Maze, but limited emotional deficits as evidenced by the Open Field Test and Elevated Plus Maze. Fractional anisotropy, a metric derived from DTI, revealed significant brain abnormalities in blast-exposed animals. A significant relationship between memory deficits and brain microstructure was evident in the hippocampus, consistent with its role in memory function. The results provide fundamental insight into the neurological consequences of blast TBI, including the evolution of injury during the sub-acute phase and the spatially dependent pattern of injury. The relationship between memory dysfunction and microstructural brain abnormalities may provide insight into the persistent cognitive difficulties experienced by soldiers exposed to blast neurotrauma and may be important to guide therapeutic and rehabilitative efforts. PMID:24133481

Budde, Matthew D.; Shah, Alok; McCrea, Michael; Cullinan, William E.; Pintar, Frank A.; Stemper, Brian D.

2013-01-01

51

Mobile evaporator corrosion test results  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80{degrees}C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either {open_quotes}satisfactory{close_quotes} (2-20 mpy) or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} (<2 mpy) corrosion resistance as defined by National Association of Corrosion Engineers. However, many of the alloys experienced intergranular corrosion in the nitric acid test solution, which could indicate a susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in this environment.

Rozeveld, A.; Chamberlain, D.B.

1997-05-01

52

Mechanical and histological characterization of trachea tissue subjected to blast-type pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Injuries to the respiratory system can be a component of polytrauma in blast-loading injuries. Tissues located at air-liquid interfaces, including such tissues in the respiratory system, are particularly vulnerable to damage by blast overpressures. There is a lack of information about the mechanical and cellular responses that contribute to the damage of this class of tissues subjected to the high strain rates associated with blast loading. Here, we describe the results of dynamic blast-like pressure loading tests at high strain rates on freshly harvested ex vivo trachea tissue specimens.

Butler, B. J.; Bo, C.; Tucker, A. W.; Jardine, A. P.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

2014-05-01

53

Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

Stewart, Joel B.; Pecora, Collin

2015-03-01

54

Large blast and thermal simulator advanced concept driver design by computational fluid dynamics. Final report, 1987-1989  

SciTech Connect

The construction of a large test facility has been proposed for simulating the blast and thermal environment resulting from nuclear explosions. This facility would be used to test the survivability and vulnerability of military equipment such as trucks, tanks, and helicopters in a simulated thermal and blast environment, and to perform research into nuclear blast phenomenology. The proposed advanced design concepts, heating of driver gas and fast-acting throat valves for wave shaping, are described and the results of CFD studies to advance these new technical concepts fro simulating decaying blast waves are reported.

Opalka, K.O.

1989-08-01

55

Modelling human eye under blast loading.  

PubMed

Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues. PMID:23521031

Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

2015-01-01

56

Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6, blast measurements. Part 3. Pressure near ground level. Section 4. Blast asymmetry from aerial photographs. Section 5. Ball-crusher-gauge measurements of peak pressure  

SciTech Connect

Aerial motion pictures from manned aircraft were taken of the Dog, Easy, and George Shots and from a drone aircraft on Dog Shot to determine whether asymmetries in the blast waves could be detected and measured. Only one film, that taken of Dog Shot from a drone, was considered good enough to warrant detailed analysis, but this failed to yield any positive information on asymmetries. The analysis showed that failure to obtain good arrival-time data arose from a number of cases, but primarily from uncertainities in magnification and timing. Results could only be matched with reliable data from blast-velocity switches by use of large corrections. Asymnetries, if present, were judged to have been too small or to have occurred too early to be detected with the slow-frame speed used. Recommendations for better results include locating the aircraft directly overhead at the time of burst and using a camera having greater frame speed and provided with timing marks.

Not Available

1985-04-01

57

Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O`Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994.

NONE

1995-08-01

58

SuperORRUBA Test Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transfer reactions in inverse kinematics with radioactive ion beams are needed to provide nuclear structure information far from stability to aid in the development of nuclear models and in the understanding of astrophysical processes. Highly granular, low threshold detector arrays are needed to perform such experiments. The SuperORRUBA (Oak Ridge Rutgers University Barrel Array) was created to measure lower threshold reactions with better energy resolution than the original ORRUBA detectors. The new array consists of 18 silicon detectors, each with a 64 non-resistive strip front side and a 4 non-resistive strip back side. To collect the data from these 1224 channels, the ASICs (Application-Specific Integrated Circuits) are used for timing, triggering, shaping, and digitizing the signals, with each chip handling 32 channels. Utilizing the ASICs system and a triple-alpha source, SuperORRUBA detectors were tested to ensure proper function. In addition, all preamps and ASICs elements were tested. The depletion voltage of each detector was found, and the detectors were tested for any shift in gain over time. Finally, issues with crosstalk causing poor resolution on particular channels were investigated. A detailed description of the system and the test results will be presented.

Burkhart, A. J.; Ahn, S.; Bardayan, D. W.; Kozub, R. L.; Pain, S. D.

2012-10-01

59

RSG Deployment Case Testing Results  

SciTech Connect

The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

2005-09-01

60

Nuclear Blast  

MedlinePLUS

... more susceptible to blast effects. Existing meteorological conditions. Wind speed and direction will affect arrival time of ... from a nuclear explosion may be carried by wind currents for hundreds of miles if the right ...

61

Characterization of viscoelastic materials for low-magnitude blast mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research indicates that exposure to low amplitude blast waves, such as IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficiently protecting warfighters from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the blast mitigating behavior of current helmet materials and new materials designed for blast mitigation using a test fixture recently developed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for use with an existing gas gun. The 40-mm-bore gas gun was used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 0.5 to 2 bar) in the test fixture mounted on the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve was used to release helium gas from the breech which formed into a blast wave and impacted instrumented targets in the test fixture. Blast attenuation of selected materials was determined through the measurement of stress data in front of and behind the target. Materials evaluated in this research include polyurethane foam from currently fielded US Army and Marine Corps helmets, polyurea 1000, and three hardnesses of Sorbothane (48, 58, and 70 durometer, Shore 00). Polyurea 1000 and 6061-T6 aluminum were used to calibrate the stress gauges.

Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W.

2014-05-01

62

Summary of Blast Shield and Material Testing for Development of Solid Debris Collection at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)  

SciTech Connect

The ability to collect solid debris from the target chamber following a NIF shot has application for both capsule diagnostics, particularly for fuel-ablator mix, and measuring cross sections relevant to the Stockpile Stewardship program and nuclear astrophysics. Simulations have shown that doping the capsule with up to 10{sup 15} atoms of an impurity not otherwise found in the capsule does not affect its performance. The dopant is an element that will undergo nuclear activations during the NIF implosion, forming radioactive species that can be collected and measured after extraction from the target chamber. For diagnostics, deuteron or alpha induced reactions can be used to probe the fuel-ablator mix. For measuring neutron cross sections, the dopant should be something that is sensitive to the 14 MeV neutrons produced through the fusion of deuterium and tritium. Developing the collector is a challenge due to the extreme environment of the NIF chamber. The collector surface is exposed to a large photon flux from x-rays and unconverted laser light before it is exposed to a debris wind that is formed from vaporized material from the target chamber center. The photons will ablate the collector surface to some extent, possibly impeding the debris from reaching the collector and sticking. In addition, the collector itself must be mechanically strong enough to withstand the large amount of energy it will be exposed to, and it should be something that will be easy to count and chemically process. In order to select the best material for the collector, a variety of different metals have been tested in the NIF chamber. They were exposed to high-energy laser shots in order to evaluate their postshot surface characterization, morphology, degree of melt, and their ability to retain debris from the chamber center. The first set of samples consisted of 1 mm thick pieces of aluminum that had been fielded in the chamber as blast shields protecting the neutron activation diagnostic. Ten of these pieces were fielded at the equator and one was fielded on the pole. The shields were analyzed using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and chemical leaching followed by mass spectrometry. On each shield, gold debris originating from the gold hohlraum was observed, as well as large quantities of debris that were present in the center of the target chamber at the time of the shot (i.e., stainless steel, indium, copper, etc.) Debris was visible in the SEM as large blobs or splats of material that had encountered the surface of the aluminum and stuck. The aluminum itself had obviously melted and condensed, and some of the large debris splats arrived after the surface had already hardened. Melt depth was determined by cross sectioning the pieces and measuring the melted surface layers via SEM. After the SEM analysis was completed, the pieces were sent for NAA at the USGS reactor and were analyzed by U. Greife at the Colorado School of Mines. The NAA showed that the majority of gold mass present on the shields was not in the form of large blobs and splats, but was present as small particulates that had most likely formed as condensed vapor. Further analysis showed that the gold was entrained in the melted aluminum surface layers and did not extend down into the bulk of the aluminum. Once the gold mass was accounted for from the NAA, it was determined that the aluminum fielded at the equator was collecting a fraction of the total gold hohlraum mass equivalent to 120% {+-} 10% of the solid angle subtended by the shield. The attached presentation has more information on the results of the aluminum blast shield analysis. In addition to the information given in the presentation, the surfaces of the shields have been chemically leached and submitted for mass spectrometric analysis. The results from that analysis are expected to arrive after the due date of this report and will be written up at a later time. Based on the results of the aluminum b

Shaughnessy, D A; Gostic, J M; Moody, K J; Grant, P M; Lewis, L A; Hutcheon, I D

2011-11-21

63

Characterization of microbial communities in subsurface nuclear blast cavities of the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this programâ??s Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H2 and SO42- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

Duane P. Moser; Ken Czerwinski; Charles E. Russell; Mavrik Zavarin

2010-07-13

64

Characterization of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Nuclear Blast Cavities of the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this program’s Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H2 and SO42- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

Duane P. Moser, Jim Bruckner, Jen Fisher, Ken Czerwinski, Charles E. Russell, and Mavrik Zavarin

2010-09-01

65

Results of PRIM gyroscope testing  

SciTech Connect

The tests were designed so that motions of the gyroscope and the Partially Restrained Internal Member (PRIM) could be measured at different conditions of spin and PRIM clearance gaps. Two types of PRIM drive were tested. A round shaft configuration was used to test theory. An octagon drive was used to simulate the XM785 design.

Cornell, R.

1985-03-01

66

Simulation of Blast Waves with Headwind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The blast wave resulting from an explosion was simulated to provide guidance for models estimating risks for human spacecraft flight. Simulations included effects of headwind on blast propagation, Blasts were modelled as an initial value problem with a uniform high energy sphere expanding into an ambient field. Both still air and cases with headwind were calculated.

Olsen, Michael E.; Lawrence, Scott W.; Klopfer, Goetz H.; Mathias, Dovan; Onufer, Jeff T.

2005-01-01

67

On the Propagation and Interaction of Spherical Blast Waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics and the scaling laws of isolated spherical blast waves have been briefly reviewed. Both self-similar solutions and numerical solutions of isolated blast waves are discussed. Blast profiles in the near-field (strong shock region) and the far-field (weak shock region) are examined. Particular attention is directed at the blast overpressure and shock propagating speed. Consideration is also given to the interaction of spherical blast waves. Test data for the propagation and interaction of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure.

Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert

2007-01-01

68

Results of Deposition Scoping Tests  

SciTech Connect

The processes of crystallization and solid deposit formation that led to the shutdown of the 2H evaporator operation at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and that could possibly cause similar problems in the future or in other evaporators need to be better understood. Through experimentation, thermodynamic modeling, and correlation of scaling to historical tank farm operations, progress has been made in developing guidelines as to the concentrations of silicon and aluminum that can be processed by evaporators while avoiding unacceptable levels of scale formation. However, because of limitations of the thermodynamic model and an insufficient amount of operational data at slightly supersaturated concentration levels, uncertainty still exists regarding acceptable feed concentrations. The objective of this effort is to provide information that can be used in defining acceptable levels of silicon and aluminum in evaporator feed solutions. Data collected previously showed that particle formation reactions can be rapid at evaporator temperatures for elevated silicon and aluminum concentrations. However, insufficient data exists to estimate the silicon and aluminum concentrations above which solids will form in the time frame of evaporator processing. The work described in this report was designed to determine the induction period for solutions of decreasing aluminum and silicon concentration such that the supersaturation level corresponding to a 4-h induction time for particle nucleation/growth in bulk solution can be estimated. In addition, experiments were conducted to explore the supersaturation levels that can result in deposition of solids on metal surfaces at varying aluminum-to-silicon concentration ratios. Laboratory studies of particle growth in solution were conducted at relatively low supersaturation levels. Dynamic-light-scattering (DLS) studies and deposition tests, similar to those performed in FY 2001, were conducted with solutions at relatively low supersaturation levels and at elevated temperatures to explore the formation of solids under conditions similar to those encountered in evaporator processing. The deposition of solids on stainless steel samples placed in the solutions during the experiments was simultaneously investigated. In addition, the deposition of solids on stainless steel surfaces was investigated in laboratory-scale batch evaporation experiments. Completion of this effort will aid the development of operating strategies to mitigate or avoid solid scale formation on surfaces in evaporator systems. The results are expected to benefit plant operations by helping to determine acceptable silicon and aluminum feed concentrations.

Hu, M.Z.

2003-03-04

69

Chemical compatibility screening test results  

SciTech Connect

A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

1997-12-01

70

Photographs of Blast Effects on Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This photograph collection shows a wood-frame house located 1,100 meters from ground zero, exposed to a nuclear blast at the Nevada Test Site. The test was Upshot-Knothole Annie, a 16 Kt tower shot, on March 17, 1953. Exposure to thermal radiation was 25 cal/cm2, about one-quarter of that experienced at ground zero in Hiroshima. The blast over pressure was 5 psi, and the blast wave created surface winds of 160 mph.

Christopher Griffith

71

Comparison of Blast-Induced Damage Between Presplit and Smooth Blasting of High Rock Slope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the comparison of damage induced by smooth blasting and presplit blasting based on the excavation of high rock slope. The whole damage process of the smooth blasting and presplit blasting excavation method is studied by using a cumulative blasting damage numerical simulation technology based on the secondary development of the dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA. The results demonstrate that, in the case of contour blasting with the method of smooth blasting, the total damage of rock slope is a result of cumulated damage induced by the production hole, buffering hole, and smooth hole. Among the total damage, the blasting of the production hole is the main resource, followed by the smooth and buffering holes. For the presplit blasting, the final damage of rock slope is mainly induced by presplit blasting itself. The spatial distribution characteristics of the final damage zone of two methods are compared. Two classes of damage zone could be found in smooth blasting excavation; one of them is the columnar high-degree damage zone around the slope surface and the other is the low-degree damage zone located in the middle of the slope. But in the case of presplit blasting, there is only the columnar high-degree damage zone around the slope surface. Finally, a damage control suggestion for two blasting excavation methods is proposed and verified based on the excavation of the temporary shiplock slopes of the Three Gorges Project in China.

Hu, Yingguo; Lu, Wenbo; Chen, Ming; Yan, Peng; Yang, Jianhua

2014-07-01

72

Results of Neptunium Disposal Testing  

SciTech Connect

Researchers investigated the neutralization of neptunium solution from H-Canyon Tank 16.4 and the properties of the resulting slurry. This work investigated slurry properties from a single neutralization protocol and limited storage times.

Walker, D.D.

2003-10-07

73

Blast induced subsidence in the craters of nuclear tests over coral  

SciTech Connect

The craters from high-yield nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds are very broad and shallow in comparison with the bowl-shaped craters formed in continental rock at the Nevada Test Site and elsewhere. Attempts to account for the differences quantitatively have been generally unsatisfactory. We have for the first time successfully modeled the Koa Event, a representative coral-atoll test. On the basis of plausible assumptions about the geology and about the constitutive relations for coral, we have shown that the size and shape of the Koa crater can be accounted for by subsidence and liquefaction phenomena. If future studies confirm these assumptions, it will mean that some scaling formulas based on data from the Pacific will have to be revised to avoid overestimating weapons effects in continental geology. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Burton, D.E.; Swift, R.P.; Glenn, H.D.; Bryan, J.B.

1985-02-01

74

Test 6, Test 7, and Gas Standard Analysis Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation shows results of analyses on odor, toxic off gassing and gas standards. The topics include: 1) Statistical Analysis Definitions; 2) Odor Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 6; 3) Toxic Off gassing Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7; and 4) Gas Standard Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7;

Perez, Horacio, III

2007-01-01

75

Thermal nuclear blast simulation at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The facility includes a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, and two point-focus parabolic concentrators. All can be used for simulating the thermal portion of nuclear pulses. The heliostat field contains 222 computer-controlled mirrors,

C. P. Cameron; C. M. Ghanbari

1989-01-01

76

Blast injury.  

PubMed

The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C A

1967-01-28

77

Blast Injury  

PubMed Central

The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C. A.

1967-01-01

78

Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

2011-06-01

79

Modeling coupled blast\\/structure interaction with Zapotec, benchmark calculations for the Conventional Weapon Effects Backfill (CONWEB) tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling the response of buried reinforced concrete structures subjected to close-in detonations of conventional high explosives poses a challenge for a number of reasons. Foremost, there is the potential for coupled interaction between the blast and structure. Coupling enters the problem whenever the structure deformation affects the stress state in the neighboring soil, which in turn, affects the loading on

Bessette; Gregory Carl

2004-01-01

80

The impact of blasting on excavation design -- A geomechanics approach  

SciTech Connect

It is widely accepted that both underground and surface blasting operations can de-stabilize excavations to the point where it can threaten the feasibility of mining through personnel safety or ore dilution. Research has been undertaken to outline a practical method in which the impact of blasting will be accounted for during the early excavation design stage by modelling, and during the following production stages by monitoring rock response to blasting operations. Of the many factors influencing the stability of excavations in rock, a critical one is the natural geological structure. The research work presented in this paper is part of a major effort aimed at integrating blast design with this aspect of rock mechanics excavation design. The chosen approach considers vibrations to be the primary cause for blast-induced rock damage in underground operations, where it is argued that gas effects have a lesser impact due to the usually high stresses confining fractures. Tests were conducted during the Fall of 1992 in an underground experimental drift surrounded by two tunnels designed for observation and instrumentation purposes. A total of five rounds were blasted in the experimental drift: each time the blast design was altered to increase the amount of damage in the test tunnel, which was then observed and quantified from the observation drifts. Analysis of the results focused on establishing a relationship between vibration levels and the extent or degree of fracturing induced. Other practical indirect measurement methods for assessing the extent of fractures in the rock mass, such as high frequency seismic methods, high resolution displacement analysis using a time domain reflectometry (TDR) method, and radar mapping, were also studied by the multi-disciplinary research team.

Andrieux, P.; Drolet, A. [Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe-Claire, Quebec (Canada); McKenzie, C. [Blastronics Australia Pty, Ltd., Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Heilig, J. [BLM Blastronics Canada Ltd., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

1994-12-31

81

Monitoring and Testing the Parts Cleaning Stations, Abrasive Blasting Cabinets, and Paint Booths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I have the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) this summer. One of the EMO's tasks is to make sure the Environmental Management System is implemented to the entire Glenn Research Center (GRC). The Environmental Management System (EMS) is a policy or plan that is oriented toward minimizing an organization's impact to the environment. Our EMS includes the reduction of solid waste regeneration and the reduction of hazardous material use, waste, and pollution. With the Waste Management Team's (WMT) help, the EMS can be implemented throughout the NASA Glenn Research Center. The WMT is responsible for the disposal and managing of waste throughout the GRC. They are also responsible for the management of all chemical waste in the facility. My responsibility is to support the waste management team by performing an inventory on parts cleaning stations, abrasive cabinets, and paint booths through out the entire facility. These booths/stations are used throughout the center and they need to be monitored and tested for hazardous waste and material. My job is to visit each of these booths/stations, take samples of the waste, and analyze the samples.

Jordan, Tracee M.

2004-01-01

82

Test results of ac superconducting cables  

SciTech Connect

All the major components of an ac superconducting power transmission system have been developed. A summary of test results during the developmental stages is given. A Test Facility designed to demonstrate and evaluate cables rated for 138 kV, 1000-MVA 3-phi service is under construction. Most of the equipment has been installed and tested; results are presented.

Forsyth, E.B.

1981-01-01

83

82Craters are a Blast! Have you ever wondered how  

E-print Network

82Craters are a Blast! Have you ever wondered how much energy it takes to create a crater craters created during early hydrogen bomb tests in the 1950's and 1960's. One approximate result is a formula that looks like this: E = 4.0 x 10 15 D 3 Joules. where D is the crater diameter in kilometers

84

A Mouse Model of Blast-Induced mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are one of the main causes for casualties among civilians and military personnel in the present war against terror. Mild traumatic brain injury from IEDs induces various degrees of cognitive, emotional and behavioral disturbances but knowledge of the exact brain pathophysiology following exposure to blast is poorly understood. The study was aimed at establishing a murine model for a mild BI-TBI that isolates low-level blast pressure effects to the brain without systemic injuries. An open-field explosives detonation was used to replicate, as closely as possible, low-level blast trauma in the battlefield or at a terror-attack site. No alterations in basic neurological assessment or brain gross pathology were found acutely in the blast-exposed mice. At 7 days post blast, cognitive and behavioral tests revealed significantly decreased performance at both 4 and 7 meters distance from the blast (5.5 and 2.5 PSI, respectively). At 30 days post-blast, clear differences were found in animals at both distances in the object recognition test, and in the 7 m group in the Y maze test. Using MRI, T1 weighted images showed an increased BBB permeability one month post-blast. DTI analysis showed an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) and a decrease in radial diffusivity. These changes correlated with sites of up-regulation of manganese superoxide dismutase 2 in neurons and CXC-motif chemokine receptor 3 around blood vessels in fiber tracts. These results may represent brain axonal and myelin abnormalities. Cellular and biochemical studies are underway in order to further correlate the blast-induced cognitive and behavioral changes and to identify possible underlying mechanisms that may help develop treatment- and neuroprotective modalities. PMID:21946269

Rubovitch, Vardit; Ten-Bosch, Meital; Zohar, Ofer; Harrison, Catherine R.; Tempel-Brami, Catherine; Stein, Elliot; Hoffer, Barry J.; Balaban, Carey D.; Schreiber, Shaul; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Pick, Chaim G.

2011-01-01

85

Blast shock wave mitigation using the hydraulic energy redirection and release technology.  

PubMed

A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

2012-01-01

86

Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic Energy Redirection and Release Technology  

PubMed Central

A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

2012-01-01

87

CDMA digital cellular: field test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from field tests of the CDMA system developed by Qualcomm, Incorporated. The CDMA system, now EIA\\/TIA digital standard IS-95, has undergone extensive field tests since its early inception. The latest series of technical tests was conducted in San Diego, California by Qualcomm in cooperation with several cellular carriers and equipment manufacturers during the month of August

Roberto Padovani; Brian Butler; Robert Boesel

1994-01-01

88

Mild Blast Events Alter Anxiety, Memory, and Neural Activity Patterns in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex  

PubMed Central

There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:23741416

Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z.

2013-01-01

89

Automated Blast Cleaner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic grit-blasting machine removes melted-layer residue from electrical-discharge-machined surfaces of turbine blades. Automatic control system of machine provides steady flow of grit and maintains blast nozzles at proper distance and in correct orientation perpendicular to surface being blasted, regardless of contour. Eliminates localized excessive blasting and consequent excessive removal of underlying material, blasting of adjacent surfaces, and missed areas.

Pickett, Isaiah R.; Yulfo, Alyce R.

1992-01-01

90

Using Test Results To Support Clinical Judgment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper recommends an evaluation procedure for gifted children which uses test results only to confirm the conclusions resulting from clinical evaluation that involves observation, discussion with the child, an interview with the parents, developmental milestones, and family history. It suggests that traditional test interpretation may lead to…

Silverman, Linda Kreger

91

3D Tomographic imaging of colliding cylindrical blast waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of strong shocks & radiative blast waves is believed to give rise to the turbulent, knotted structures commonly observed in extended astrophysical objects. Modeling these systems is however extremely challenging due to the complex interplay between hydrodynamics, radiation and atomic physics. As a result we have been developing laboratory scale blast wave collision experiments to provide high quality data for code benchmarking, & to improve our physical understanding. We report on experimental & numerical investigations of the collision dynamics of counter propagating strong (>Mach 50) cylindrical thin-shelled blast waves driven by focusing intense laser pulses into an extended medium of atomic clusters. In our test system the blast wave collision creates strongly asymmetric electron density profiles, precluding the use of Abel inversion methods. In consequence we have employed a new tomographic imaging technique, allowing us to recover the full 3D, time framed electron density distribution. Tomography & streaked Schlieren imaging enabled tracking of radial & longitudinal mass flow & the investigation of Mach stem formation as pairs of blast waves collided. We have compared our experimental system to numerical simulations by the 3D magnetoresistive hydrocode GORGON.

Smith, R. A.; Lazarus, J.; Hohenberger, M.; Robinson, J.; Marocchino, A.; Chittenden, J.; Dunne, M.; Moore, A.; Gumbrell, E.

2007-11-01

92

Results of steel containment vessel model test  

SciTech Connect

A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two tests are being conducted: (1) a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) and (2) a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper summarizes the conduct of the high pressure pneumatic test of the SCV model and the results of that test. Results of this test are summarized and are compared with pretest predictions performed by the sponsoring organizations and others who participated in a blind pretest prediction effort. Questions raised by this comparison are identified and plans for posttest analysis are discussed.

Luk, V.K.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; Hessheimer, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Komine, Kuniaki [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomoyuki [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-05-01

93

Review of Fenton Hill HDR test results  

SciTech Connect

Results of recent flow testing at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, have been examined in light of their applicability to the development of commercial-scale hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs at other sites. These test results, obtained during the cumulative 11 months of reservoir flow testing between 1992 and 1995, show that there was no significant production temperature drawdown during this time and that the reservoir flow became more dispersed as flow testing proceeded. Based on these test results together with previous HDR research at Fenton Hill and elsewhere, it is concluded that a three-well geometry, with one centrally located injection well and two production wells-one at each end of the pressure-stimulated reservoir region-would provide a much more productive system for future HDR development than the two-well system tested at Fenton Hill.

Brown, D.

1997-01-01

94

Punch valve development testing: Low and high velocity test results  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on the use of quasi-static tests to predict fundamental parameters for punch valve development. This report summarizes the results from low and high velocity tests performed with 0.63 and 0.38 cm diameter plungers, 5 cm long penetrating aluminium and composite targets. The low velocity tests, 0.025 m/s, were performed to understand the effects and interactions of plunger diameter plunger tip shape, target material, and target support on penetration energy and plunger functionality. High velocity tests, 75 m/s, were compared to low velocity results.

Replogle, W.C.; Brandon, S.L.

1996-09-01

95

DARPA February 1992 ATIS benchmark test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the third in a series of Benchmark Tests for the DARPA Air Travel Information System (ATIS) common task domain. The first results in this series were reported at the June 1990 Speech and Natural Language Workshop [1], and the second at the February 1991 Speech and Natural Language Workshop [2]. The February 1992 Benchmark Tests include: (1)

David S. Pallett; Nancy L. Dahlgren; Jonathan G. Fiscus; William M. Fisher; John S. Garofolo; Brett C. Tjaden

1992-01-01

96

Test Results Untrustworthy. Point of View Essay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

America's public schools are making harmful, irreversible decisions based on test results that--in an increasing number of cases--can't be trusted, Arizona State University's Education Policy Research Laboratory has found. The pressure of high-stakes tests is forcing school districts and state Departments of Education to take inappropriate and at…

Berliner, David C.; Nichols, Sharon L.

2005-01-01

97

Cone Penetrometer N Factor Determination Testing Results  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the results of testing activities to determine the empirical 'N Factor' for the cone penetrometer in kaolin clay simulant. The N Factor is used to releate resistance measurements taken with the cone penetrometer to shear strength.

Follett, Jordan R.

2014-03-05

98

Blast vulnerability detected in novel blast-resistant germplasm.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous research in artificially inoculated greenhouse tests and field nurseries identified new rice germplasm accession as being resistant to the common blast (Pyricularia grisea) races found in Arkansas (IB-1, IB-49, IC-17, IE-1, IE-1k, IG-1, and IH-1) and eliminated those accessions with major b...

99

Effect of Blast-Induced Vibration from New Railway Tunnel on Existing Adjacent Railway Tunnel in Xinjiang, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibrations of existing service tunnels induced by blast-excavation of adjacent tunnels have attracted much attention from both academics and engineers during recent decades in China. The blasting vibration velocity (BVV) is the most widely used controlling index for in situ monitoring and safety assessment of existing lining structures. Although numerous in situ tests and simulations had been carried out to investigate blast-induced vibrations of existing tunnels due to excavation of new tunnels (mostly by bench excavation method), research on the overall dynamical response of existing service tunnels in terms of not only BVV but also stress/strain seemed limited for new tunnels excavated by the full-section blasting method. In this paper, the impacts of blast-induced vibrations from a new tunnel on an existing railway tunnel in Xinjiang, China were comprehensively investigated by using laboratory tests, in situ monitoring and numerical simulations. The measured data from laboratory tests and in situ monitoring were used to determine the parameters needed for numerical simulations, and were compared with the calculated results. Based on the results from in situ monitoring and numerical simulations, which were consistent with each other, the original blasting design and corresponding parameters were adjusted to reduce the maximum BVV, which proved to be effective and safe. The effect of both the static stress before blasting vibrations and the dynamic stress induced by blasting on the total stresses in the existing tunnel lining is also discussed. The methods and related results presented could be applied in projects with similar ground and distance between old and new tunnels if the new tunnel is to be excavated by the full-section blasting method.

Liang, Qingguo; Li, Jie; Li, Dewu; Ou, Erfeng

2013-01-01

100

[The characteristics of blast traumatic brain injury].  

PubMed

With the increase in terrorist activity in recent times, the number of blast injuries has also increased in civilian and military settings. In a recent war, the number of patients who suffered blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) increased, so treatment of bTBI is currently a very important issue. Blast injury is complicated and can be divided into 4 categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Primary blast injury results from exposure to blast waves; secondary blast injury is trauma caused by fragments of explosive devices; tertiary blast injury is the result of collision with objects; and quaternary blast injury is the result of exposure to toxic and other substances. Blast waves mainly injure air-containing organs such as the lung, bowel, and ear. The brain may also be affected by blast waves. From the clinical perspective, hyperemia and severe cerebral edema occur frequently in patients who sustain significant bTBI. Penetrating or closed head injury caused by the explosion may be associated with vasospasm and pseudoaneurysm formation. Mild traumatic brain injury during war can be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. To elucidate the mechanism of bTBI, many research works using animal models and computer analysis are underway. Such studies have so far shown that blast waves can cause damage to the brain tissue and cognitive deficits; however, detailed investigations on this topic are still required. Treatment of bTBI patients may require clinical knowledge and skills related to intensive care, neurology, and neurosurgery. Moreover, further research is required in this field. PMID:20697143

Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Hatano, Ben; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Shima, Katsuji

2010-08-01

101

Uprated OMS engine status: Altitude testing results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increased operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities on this engine system began at Aerojet in 1984. More recently, a complete engine, designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at simulated altitude conditions at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). A description of the test hardware, and results of the altitude test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities and recommendations for further engine development are also discussed.

Schoenberg, Richard J.

1992-02-01

102

Cryogenic Test Results of Hextek Mirror  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 250 mm diameter lightweight borosilicate mirror has been interferometrically tested from room-temperature down to 30 K at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The minor blank was manufactured by Hextek Corporation using a high-temperature gas fusion process and was then polished at MSFC. It is a sandwich-type mirror consisting of a thin face-sheet (approx.1.5 mm thick), a core structure (20 mm thick, approx.43 mm diameter cells, & 0.5-1.2 mm thick walls), and a thin back-sheet (3 mm thick). The mirror has a 2500 mm spherical radius-of- curvature @/lo). The areal density is 14 kg/sq m. The mirror was tested in the 1 m x 2 m chamber using an Instantaneous Phase Interferometer (PI) from ADE Phase Shift Technologies. The mirror was tested twice. The first test measured the change in surface figure from ambient to 30 K and the repeatability of the change. An attempt was then made by QED Technologies to cryo-figure the mirror using magnetorheological finishing. The second test measured the effectiveness of the cryo- figuring. This paper will describe the test goals, the test instrumentation, and the test results for these cryogenic tests.

Hadaway, James; Stahl, H. Philip; Eng, Ron; Hogue, William

2004-01-01

103

LTC American`s, Inc. vacuum blasting machine: Baseline report  

SciTech Connect

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise.

NONE

1997-07-31

104

A new non-uniform blast load model for SDOF method of one-way reinforced concrete slab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new effective model for calculation of the equivalent uniform blast load for non-uniform blast load such as close-in explosion of a one-way square and rectangle reinforced concrete slab is proposed in this paper. The model is then validated using single degree of freedom (SDOF) system with the experiments and blast tests for square slabs and rectangle slabs. Test results showed that the model is accurate in predicting the explosive charge weight and stand-off distance to impose a given damage level on the tested RC slabs especially for close-in blast load. It is shown that the new model is more accurate than the conventional SDOF analysis and is running faster than the FE analysis.

Wang, W.; Zhang, D.; Lu, F.; Wang, S.-C.; Tang, F.

2012-08-01

105

Structural blast design  

E-print Network

Blast design is a necessary part of design for more buildings in the United States. Blast design is no longer limited to underground shelters and sensitive military sites, buildings used by the general public daily must ...

Kieval, Tamar S. (Tamar Shoshana), 1980-

2004-01-01

106

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model.  

PubMed

Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

Goldstein, Lee E; Fisher, Andrew M; Tagge, Chad A; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W; Goletiani, Cezar J; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A; Cantu, Robert C; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K; Wolozin, Benjamin L; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D; Budson, Andrew E; Kowall, Neil W; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F; Moss, William C; Cleveland, Robin O; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Stanton, Patric K; McKee, Ann C

2012-05-16

107

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein–linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

Goldstein, Lee E.; Fisher, Andrew M.; Tagge, Chad A.; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A.; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W.; Goletiani, Cezar J.; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M.; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A.; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F.; Moss, William C.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Stanton, Patric K.; McKee, Ann C.

2013-01-01

108

Results of MEMS gyro mechanical tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results from the tests of an RR-type MEMS gyro developed by Elektropribor, St. Petersburg, Russia.\\u000a The experimental estimates of gyro performance variation during centrifuge, vibration, and shock tests are given. The dependences\\u000a of the gyro parameters on the mechanical effects are obtained, and ways of reducing the vibration and shock influence on the\\u000a gyro performance are

M. I. Evstifeev; D. P. Eliseev; A. S. Kovalev; D. V. Rozentsvein

2011-01-01

109

Concussive brain injury from explosive blast  

PubMed Central

Objective Explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with a variety of symptoms including memory impairment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Explosive shock waves can cause hippocampal injury in a large animal model. We recently reported a method for detecting brain injury in soldiers with explosive blast mTBI using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). This method is applied in the study of veterans exposed to blast. Methods The hippocampus of 25 veterans with explosive blast mTBI, 20 controls, and 12 subjects with PTSD but without exposure to explosive blast were studied using MRSI at 7 Tesla. Psychiatric and cognitive assessments were administered to characterize the neuropsychiatric deficits and compare with findings from MRSI. Results Significant reductions in the ratio of N-acetyl aspartate to choline (NAA/Ch) and N-acetyl aspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) (P < 0.05) were found in the anterior portions of the hippocampus with explosive blast mTBI in comparison to control subjects and were more pronounced in the right hippocampus, which was 15% smaller in volume (P < 0.05). Decreased NAA/Ch and NAA/Cr were not influenced by comorbidities – PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Subjects with PTSD without blast had lesser injury, which tended to be in the posterior hippocampus. Explosive blast mTBI subjects had a reduction in visual memory compared to PTSD without blast. Interpretation The region of the hippocampus injured differentiates explosive blast mTBI from PTSD. MRSI is quite sensitive in detecting and localizing regions of neuronal injury from explosive blast associated with memory impairment. PMID:25493283

de Lanerolle, Nihal C; Hamid, Hamada; Kulas, Joseph; Pan, Jullie W; Czlapinski, Rebecca; Rinaldi, Anthony; Ling, Geoffrey; Bandak, Faris A; Hetherington, Hoby P

2014-01-01

110

13. BUILDING NO. 621, INTERIOR, TOP OF BLASTING TUB UNDERNEATH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. BUILDING NO. 621, INTERIOR, TOP OF BLASTING TUB UNDERNEATH SAWDUST HOPPER. BLASTING TUB HAS DOUBLE WALLS OF 3/4' THICK STEEL ARMOR PLATE. CHARGE TO BE TESTED IS BURIED IN SAWDUST WITH FLAME RESISTANT CHEMICALS. ELEVATOR BEHIND TUB CARRIES SAWDUST BACK TO TOP OF SAWDUST HOPPER AFTER TEST IS COMPLETED AND SAWDUST IN BLASTING TUB HAS BEEN SIFTED FOR SHELL FRAGMENTS. LOUVERS IN WALLS ARE HINGED FREELY SO THEY OPEN TO RELIEVE BLAST PRESSURE DURING A TEST. - Picatinny Arsenal, 600 Area, Test Areas District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

111

Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

2014-01-01

112

Neuraminidase-treated allogeneic blasts for maintenance in acute myelogenous leukemia: results of a prospective randomized trial.  

PubMed

Between July 1, 1981, and July 1, 1985, 167 patients with acute myelogeneous leukemia (AML) were treated with one or, if necessary, two courses of a modified TAD regimen (TAD9) for induction. 96 patients (58%) achieved a complete remission (CR); 62 achieved CR after one and 34 patients after two courses of TAD9. 29 patients (17%) were considered early deaths, and 42 patients (25%) nonresponders. For CR maintenance 64 patients were eligible according to protocol criteria; 33 patients were randomized to chemotherapy, only, (CT) by monthly courses of cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C) alternatingly combined with daunorubicin or thioguanine or cyclophosphamide, while 31 patients were randomized to receive immunotherapy in addition to chemotherapy (CIT) by intradermal injections of 10(10) neuraminidase-treated viable allogeneic blasts per immunization interspersed between the CT courses. Maintenance therapy was given for up to 3 years. The median survival in CT patients is 23 months, while in CIT patients the median has not been reached after 54 months; corresponding median relapse-free survival is 15 months for the CT patients as opposed to 40 months for the CIT group. The differences are not significant. Comparing CT with CIT, the survival data show a persistent trend in favor of CIT; under the conditions of the study, however, a substantial benefit of immunotherapy may be restricted to a certain subset of patients with low risk for early relapse. PMID:3305224

Urbanitz, D; Büchner, T; Pielken, H; Koch, P; Ludwig, W D; Maschmeier, G; Heinecke, A; van de Loo, J

1987-01-01

113

Testing alleged mediumship: Methods and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mediums claim to be able to communicate with the deceased. Such claims attract a considerable amount of public interest and, if valid, have important implications for many areas of psychology. For over 100 years, researchers have tested alleged mediums. This work has obtained mixed results and provoked a considerable amount of methodological debate. This paper reviews the key issues in

Ciarán O'Keeffe; Richard Wiseman

2005-01-01

114

LCP heater thermal performance test results and unique test techniques  

SciTech Connect

The Large Coil Program (LCP) magnet requires integral heaters capable of normalizing conductor half-turns to simulate energy deposition. During a series of tests to determine the cryogenic thermal performance of our LCP conductor, we evaluated the relative thermal performance of two prototype heater installation methods which were tested using a unique heater power control circuit. The prototype heaters were installed in two LCP conductors which were part of a 15-conductor test array used during the conductor thermal performance testing. Results are given comparing the thermal performance of the two heaters, one installed with indium foil and the other soldered with Woods metal. The performance of the Woods metal installation agreed closely to the finite element model predicted conductor thermal response to fast, high-power heater pulses, both in maximum temperature rise and time characteristics of the rise and recovery. The sluggish thermal response of the conductor with the cold-welded indium ribbon-secured heater demonstrated that intimate thermal coupling of the heater elements to the conductor is mandatory. The heater control circuitry is described which was developed in support of this test and provided transient heater power durations down to 5 msec and at power inputs up to 3000 watts. A brief description also is given of the transient and steady-state data acquisition systems used as well as the interface between the heater control circuitry and the remote computer used to control the transient testing.

Bailey, R.E.; Christensen, E.H.

1980-01-01

115

Color changing photonic crystals detect blast exposure  

PubMed Central

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the “signature wound” of the current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, with no objective information of relative blast exposure, warfighters with bTBI may not receive appropriate medical care and are at risk of being returned to the battlefield. Accordingly, we have created a colorimetric blast injury dosimeter (BID) that exploits material failure of photonic crystals to detect blast exposure. Appearing like a colored sticker, the BID is fabricated in photosensitive polymers via multi-beam interference lithography. Although very stable in the presence of heat, cold or physical impact, sculpted micro- and nano-structures of the BID are physically altered in a precise manner by blast exposure, resulting in color changes that correspond with blast intensity. This approach offers a lightweight, power-free sensor that can be readily interpreted by the naked eye. Importantly, with future refinement this technology may be deployed to identify soldiers exposed to blast at levels suggested to be supra-threshold for non-impact blast-induced mild TBI. PMID:21040795

Cullen, D. Kacy; Xu, Yongan; Reneer, Dexter V.; Browne, Kevin D.; Geddes, James W.; Yang, Shu; Smith, Douglas H.

2010-01-01

116

Test Results from a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This presentation describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

2010-01-01

117

Test Results From a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This report describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

2010-01-01

118

Experimental studies on intake headloss of a blasted lake tap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In existing reservoirs, construction of an intake is sometimes achieved by so-called lake tapping, a submerged tunnel piercing by blasting out the rock plug at the intake. The blasting process involves phases of rock, water, air and gas released from the explosive charge; the resulting entrance profile often differs from design assumptions. The intake headloss is a factor of concern for power generation. For a vertical intake formed by lake tapping, experiments have been carried out in a 1:30 physical model to examine the effect of entrance shapes on intake headlosses. The purpose is that, if there is potential to reduce the headlosses, the originally blasted intake shape would be modified. In the model, five alternative shapes are evaluated. The test results show that to enlarge the vertical shaft area is the most effective way to reduce the intake headloss; to further blast out a narrow channel upstream does not give much effect. Bearing in mind the risk of free-surface vortex at the intake, the influence of the intake modifications on vortex is also checked.

Yang, James; Billstein, Mats; Engström, Fredrik; Strand, Rikard

2014-12-01

119

Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

2008-01-01

120

Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results  

SciTech Connect

Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Nuclear Systems Branch/ER24, MSFC, AL 35812 (United States)

2008-01-21

121

Effect of the Blasting Angle on Blast Processing of a Cylindrical Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast processing is a substrate processing technique during which spherical or granular materials are jetted against the substrate surface using compressed air. Blasting techniques is widely used for various mechanical parts as a surface reforming technique. When performing blast processing to a complicated-shaped substrate for the purpose of thermal spraying method, it is difficult to set blasting angle to a constant value and it is necessary to clarify the effect of state of substrate on blast processing. In present paper, the effect of blasting angle to removal processing effect and the modification state of substrate is investigated. Results from this investigation are summarized as follows: When blasting angle ? was 30º, the removal quantity ? showed the maximum. The removal quantity became large as cylindrical diameter D was larger. Removal quantity of particle diameter a =100 ?m is bigger than that of a =700 ?m. As a nozzle movement rate v increased, removal quantity ? became small. As blasting angle ? became small, removal quantity ? became large even though nozzle movement rate v was changed. As blasting pressure P increases, removal quantity ? became big.

Kubohori, Toshifumi; Binti Khalil, Nur Zalikha; Tojo, Yuichi; Takahashi, Shigetaka

122

Evaluation of Liquefaction Susceptibility of Clean Sands after Blast Densification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of earthquakes on infrastructure facilities is an important topic of interest in geotechnical research. A key design issue for such facilities is whether or not liquefaction will occur during an earthquake. The consequences of this type of ground failure are usually severe, resulting in severe damage to a facility and in some cases the loss of human life. One approach to minimize the effect of liquefaction is to improve the ground condition by controlled blasting. The main limitations of the blast densification technique are that the design is mostly empirical and verification studies of densification have resulted in contradictory results in some case studies. In such cases, even though the ground surface settles almost immediately after blasting, common verification tests such as the cone penetration test (CPT), standard penetration test (SPT), and shear wave velocity test (Vs) suggest that the soil mass has not been improved at all. This raises concerns regarding the future performance of the soil and casts doubts on whether or not the improved deposit is still susceptible to liquefaction. In this work, a blast densification program was implemented at the Oakridge Landfill located in Dorchester County, SC, to gain information regarding the condition of a loose sand deposit during and after each blast event. In addition, an extensive laboratory testing program was conducted on reconstituted sand specimens to evaluate the mechanical behavior of saturated and gassy, medium dense sands during monotonic and cyclic loading. The results from the field and laboratory program indicate that gas released during blasting can remain trapped in the soil mass for several years, and this gas greatly affects the mechanical behavior of the sand. Gas greatly increases the liquefaction resistance of the soil. If the gas remains in the sand over the life of a project, then it will maintain this increased resistance to liquefaction, whether or not the penetration resistance increases with time. As part of this work, a methodology based on the critical state concepts was described to quantify the amount of densification needed at a certain project to make the soil more resistant to liquefaction and flow.

Vega Posada, Carlos Alberto

123

Nondestructive thermoelectric evaluation of the grit blasting induced effects in metallic biomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grit blasting is a surface treatment process widely used to enhance mechanical fixation of the implants through increasing their roughness. Test samples of two metallic biomaterial alloys such 316LVM and Ti6Al4V were blasted by projecting Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles which yield a coarse and a fine rough surface. Then, the blasted samples were thermally treated before and after partial stress relaxation and measured by non-destructive thermoelectric techniques (NDTT), the non-contacting and contacting thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements respectively. It has been found that the TEP measurements are associated directly with the subtle material variations such as cold work and compressive residual stresses due to plastic deformation produced by grit blasting. The TEP measurements clearly demonstrate that the non-contact NDTT technique is very sensitive to the reverse transformation of the ?'-martensite (blasted 316LVM) and the expected relaxation of compressive residual stresses with increasing the severity of the thermal treatment (blasted 316LVM and Ti-6Al-4V), while the contact NDTT results are closely related to grain size refinement and work hardening.

Carreon, H.; Ruiz, A.; Barriuso, S.; González-Carrasco, J. L.; Caballero, F. G.; Lieblich, M.

2013-01-01

124

Study of blast event propagation in different media using a novel ultrafast miniature optical pressure sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI, also called intracranial injury) is a high potential threat to our soldiers. A helmet structural health monitoring system can be effectively used to study the effects of ballistic/blast events on the helmet and human skull to prevent soldiers from TBI. However, one of the biggest challenges lies in that the pressure sensor installed inside the helmet system must be fast enough to capture the blast wave during the transient period. In this paper, an ultrafast optical fiber sensor is presented to measure the blast signal. The sensor is based on a Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometeric principle. An FP cavity is built between the endface of an etched optical fiber tip and the silica thin diaphragm attached on the end of a multimode optical fiber. The sensor is small enough to be installed in different locations of a helmet to measure blast pressure simultaneously. Several groups of tests regarding multi-layer blast events were conducted to evaluate the sensors' performance. The sensors were mounted in different segments of a shock tube side by side with the reference sensors, to measure a rapidly increasing pressure. The segments of the shock tube were filled with different media. The results demonstrated that our sensors' responses agreed well with those from the electrical reference sensors. In addition, the home-made shock tube could provide a good resource to study the propagation of blast event in different media.

Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Hongtao; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

2011-06-01

125

Autonomous navigation ability: FIDO test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FIDO platform of the JPL has been used to evaluate the ability of autonomous obstacle avoidance developed by JPL and CNES autonomous long range path planning. The test results show that only a very small amount of energy and computing time is used to implement autonomy and that the capabilities of the rover are fully used, allowing a much longer daily traverse than purely ground-planned strategies.

Baumgartner, E.; Maurette, M.

2000-01-01

126

Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation  

SciTech Connect

Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

2010-10-01

127

Investigation of atmospheric blasts by fast radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blasts and detonations release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some of this energy is released through radiation in the whole optical spectrum. Measurement of this radiation may serve as a base for investigation of the blast phenomena. A fast multispectral radiometer that operates in proper chosen spectral bands provides extensive information on the physical processes that govern the blast. This information includes the time dependence of the temperature, area of the blast as-well-as of the aerosols and gases that are generated. Analysis of this data indicates the order of the detonation and provides good estimation on the masses and types of the high-explosives (HE) materials and their casing. This paper presents the methodology and instrumentation of fast multispectral radiometry in application to the blast measurement and analysis in a Near-ground Explosion Test (NET). In NET, the flash radiation of the blast was measured for two HE materials: TNT and composition B (CB). The investigation includes charges of different masses (0.25 - 20.0 kg) and of various casing materials (steel, Al, PVC), thickness (2 - 6 mm) and various casing type (open on both face ends and hermetically closed). Analysis of the data demonstrates the power of fast radiometry methodology and reveals the governing characteristics of atmospheric blasts.

Ben-Dov, R.; Bushlin, Y.; Devir, A. D.; Lessin, A. B.; Mendelewicz, I.; Shvebelman, M.

2014-06-01

128

Results from the SLAC NLC test accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The design for the Next Linear Collider (NLC) at SLAC is based on two 11.4 GHz linacs operating at an unloaded acceleration gradient of 50 MV/m increasing to 85 MV/m as the energy is increased from 1/2 TeV to 1 TeV in the center of mass. During the past several years there has been tremendous progress on the development of 11.4 GHz (X-band) RF systems. These developments include klystrons which operate at the required powder and pulse length, pulse compression systems that achieve a factor of four power multiplication and structures that are specially designed to reduce long-range wakefields. Together with these developments, we have constructed a 1/2 GeV test accelerator, the NLC Test Accelerator (NLCTA). The NLCTA will serve as a test bed as the design of the NLC is refined. In addition to testing the RF system, the NLCTA is designed to address many questions related to the dynamics of the beam during acceleration, in particular, multibunch beam-loading compensation and transverse beam break-up. In this paper we describe the NLCTA and present results from initial experiments.

Ruth, R.D.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S. [and others

1997-06-01

129

Space shuttle holddown post blast shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original and subsequent designs of the Solid Rocket Booster/Holddown Post blast shield assemblies and their associated hardware are described. It presents the major problems encountered during their early use in the Space Shuttle Program, during the Return-to-Flight Modification Phase, and during their fabrication and validation testing phases. The actions taken to correct the problems are discussed, along with the various concepts now being considered to increase the useful life of the blast shield.

Larracas, F. B.

1991-01-01

130

Simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.  

SciTech Connect

U.S. soldiers are surviving blast and impacts due to effective body armor, trauma evacuation and care. Blast injuries are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military personnel returning from combat. Understanding of Primary Blast Injury may be needed to develop better means of blast mitigation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of blast direction and strength on the resulting mechanical stress and wave energy distributions generated in the brain.

Taylor, Paul Allen; Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

2008-04-01

131

Aquifer test results, Green Swamp area, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An aquifer test conducted in the Green Swamp area December 15-16 , 1975 was designed to stress the uppermost part of the Floridan aquifer so that the leakage characteristics of the overlying confining bed could be determined. A well tapping the upper part of the Floridan aquifer was pumped at a rate of about 1,040 gallons per minute for 35 hours; drawdown was measured in the Floridan aquifer and in two horizons in the confining bed. Analysis of the data indicates that the transmissivity of the uppper 160 feet of the Floridan is 13,000 square feet per day, the storage coefficient is about 0.0002.5, and the overlying confining bed leakance coefficient is about 0.02 to 0.025 per day. The vertical hydraulic diffusivity of the confining bed ranged from 610 square feet per day to 16,000 square feet per day. Results of the test indicate that, in the area of the test site, a Floridan aquifer well field would induce additional recharge to the Floridan. As a result of that increased recharge , water levels in the surficial aquifer would tend to stand lower, runoff from the area would tend to be less, and, perhaps, evapotranspiration would be less than normal.(USGS)

Tibbals, C.H.; Grubb, Hayes F.

1982-01-01

132

The NASA B-757 HIRF Test Series: Flight Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1995, the NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of aircraft tests aimed at characterizing the electromagnetic environment (EME) in and around a Boeing 757 airliner. Measurements were made of the electromagnetic energy coupled into the aircraft and the signals induced on select structures as the aircraft was flown past known RF transmitters. These measurements were conducted to provide data for the validation of computational techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transport aircraft. This paper reports on the results of flight tests using RF radiators in the HF, VHF, and UHF ranges and on efforts to use computational and analytical techniques to predict RF field levels inside the airliner at these frequencies.

Moeller, Karl J.; Dudley, Kenneth L.

1997-01-01

133

GENIE Flight Test Results and System Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has envisioned a suite of lander test vehicles that will be flown in Earth s atmosphere to incrementally demonstrate applicable lunar lander performance in the terrestrial environment. As each terrestrial rocket progresses in maturity, relevant space flight technology matures to a higher technology readiness level, preparing it for inclusion on a future lunar lander design.. NASA s "Project M" lunar mission concept flew its first terrestrial rocket, RR1, in June 2010 in Caddo Mills, Texas. The Draper Laboratory built GENIE (Guidance Embedded Navigator Integration Environment) successfully demonstrated accurate, real time, embedded performance of Project M navigation and guidance algorithms in a highly dynamic environment. The RR1 vehicle, built by Armadillo Aerospace, performed a successful 60 second free flight and gave the team great confidence in Project M s highly reliable and robust GNC system design and implementation. This paper provides an overview of the GENIE system and describes recent flight performance test results onboard the RR1 terrestrial rocket.

Brady, Tye; Paschall, Stephen, II; Crain, Timothy P., II; Demars, Kyle; Bishop, Robert

2011-01-01

134

Results from the STAR TPC system test  

SciTech Connect

A system test of various components of the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) detector, operating in concern, has recently come on-line. Communication between a major sub-detector, a sector of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), and the trigger, data acquisition and slow controls systems has been established, enabling data from cosmic ray muons to be collected. First results from an analysis of the TPC data are presented. These include measurements of system noise, electronic parameters such as amplifier gains and pedestal values, and tracking resolution for cosmic ray muons and laser induced ionization tracks. A discussion on the experience gained in integrating the different components for the system test is also given.

Betts, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics; Bieser, F.; Bossingham, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

135

Highly Loaded Composite Strut Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly loaded composite struts from a proposed truss-based Altair lunar lander descent stage concept were selected for development under NASA's Advanced Composites Technology program. Predicted compressive member forces during launch and ascent of over -100,000 lbs were much greater than the tensile loads. Therefore, compressive failure modes, including structural stability, were primary design considerations. NASA's industry partner designed and built highly loaded struts that were delivered to NASA for testing. Their design, fabricated on a washout mandrel, had a uniform-diameter composite tube with composite tapered ends. Each tapered end contained a titanium end fitting with facing conical ramps that are overlaid and overwrapped with composite materials. The highly loaded struts were loaded in both tension and compression, with ultimate failure produced in compression. Results for the two struts tested are presented and discussed, along with measured deflections, strains and observed failure mechanisms.

Wu, K. C.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Barnard, Ansley; Phelps, James E.; McKeney, Martin J.

2011-01-01

136

PHASE I SINGLE CELL ELECTROLYZER TEST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of Phase I Single Cell testing of an SO{sub 2}-Depolarized Water Electrolyzer. Testing was performed primarily during the first quarter of FY 2008 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using an electrolyzer cell designed and built at SRNL. Other facility hardware were also designed and built at SRNL. This test further advances this technology for which work began at SRNL in 2005. This research is valuable in achieving the ultimate goal of an economical hydrogen production process based on the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle. The focus of this work was to conduct single cell electrolyzer tests to further develop the technology of SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis as part of the HyS Cycle. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by water-splitting. Like all other sulfur-based cycles, HyS utilizes the high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both thermodynamic efficiency and hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. The anode and cathode are formed by spraying platinum containing catalyst on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). In most testing the material of the PEM was NafionR. The electrolyzer cell active area can be as large as 54.8 cm{sup 2}. Feed to the anode of the electrolyzer is a sulfuric acid solution containing sulfur dioxide. The partial pressure of sulfur dioxide could be varied in the range of 1 to 6 atm (15 to 90 psia). Temperatures could be controlled in the range from ambient to 80 C. Hydrogen generated at the cathode of the cell was collected for the purpose of flow measurement and composition analysis. The test facility proved to be easy to operate, versatile, and reliable.

Steimke, J; Timothy Steeper, T

2008-08-05

137

Porcine head response to blast  

E-print Network

Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational ...

Nyein, Michelle K.

138

Field Lysimeter Test Facility: Second year (FY 1989) test results  

SciTech Connect

The Record of Decision associated with the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (53 FR 12449-53) commits to an evaluation of the use of protective barriers placed over near-surface wastes. The barrier must protect against wind and water erosion and limit plant and animal intrusion and infiltration of water. Successful conclusion of this program will yield the necessary protective barrier design for near-surface waste isolation. This report presents results from the second year of tests at the FLTF. The primary objective of testing protective barriers at the FLTF was to measure the water budgets within the various barriers and assess the effectiveness of their designs in limiting water intrusion into the zone beneath each barrier. Information obtained from these measurements is intended for use in refining barrier designs. Four elements of water budget were measured during the year: precipitation, evaporation, storage, and drainage. Run-off, which is a fifth element of a complete water budget, was made negligible by a lip on the lysimeters that protrudes 5 cm above the soil surface to prevent run-off. A secondary objective of testing protective barriers at the FLTF was to refine procedures and equipment to support data collection for verification of the computer model needed for long-term projections of barrier performance. 6 refs.

Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.; Kanyid, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.

1990-04-01

139

Optical best arc RMS test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the GEM-L2 Earth gravity model in converging several arcs of optical satellite tracking data was evaluated. The resulting root mean square (RMS) values for the arcs are compared with those obtained by using the GEM-9 and GEM-10B gravity models. The intention is to acquire additional data to be used in selecting a starting gravity model for the derivation of an adequate gravity model for TOPEX. In addition, test runs of the GEODYN program were performed using two different models to represent the coefficient of drag. Finally, satellite position and velocity vectors were obtained for arcs of optical data.

Felsentreger, T. L.

1985-01-01

140

Centrifugal shot blast system  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

NONE

1998-02-01

141

Preliminary test results for the SVX4  

SciTech Connect

We present and summarize the preliminary test results for SVX4 chip testing. There are presently two versions of the SVX4. Version 2 has on-chip bypassing and Version 1 does not. The on-chip bypassing is a layer of transistors under the front-end analog pipeline that acts as a bypassing capacitor for the voltage supply. Its size is about a microfarad. We aggressively choose to test Version 2 because of this feature. The feature is advantageous for hybrid design because it eliminates the need for an additional passive component on the hybrid itself by placing it on the actual SVX4 die. Also, the SVX4 was designed to operate in two modes: D. and CDF. One can set which mode the chip will operate by placing a jumper in the proper position on the SVX4 chip carrier. In either mode, the chip can either use the operating parameters from the shift register or the shadow register. Similarly, this is selected by placing a jumper on the SVX4 chip carrier. This chip has this feature because it was unknown whether the new design of the shadow register would be operable. The shadow register is also call the SEU register or Single Event Upset register. An introduction into the functionality of the chip and an explanation on the difference between D. and CDF mode can be found in the SVX4 User's Manual [1].

Christofek, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Rapidis, P.; Utes, M.; /Fermilab

2005-06-01

142

HMD fast jet flying test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system has several advantages in comparison with other displays used in the aeroplane. For example, no matter in which direction the pilot looks he always can see relevant flight data. Another point is the support of the pilot by projecting sensor pictures on the visor, especially increasing the pilot's view during night flights by an overlaid FLIR picture on the visor. The weapon delivery is faster and easier assisted by the displayed symbology and the tracking system. It is possible to lock a missile without the necessity of flight maneuvers. In more than 20 night flights on a Tornado Trainer seven different test pilows have tested a binocular HMD prototype. The helmet has been proved in ergonomic aspects, readibility and visibility of the stroke symbology and an overlaid sensor flights. There are great weaknesses for example in ergonomic aspects. The final result of the tests is that the system is not yet ready for series production. There are some important points that much be overworked, especially with the view to an application in fast jets.

Becker, Stefan; Sandl, Peter

2000-06-01

143

Arc melter demonstration baseline test results  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

1994-07-01

144

Alkahest NuclearBLAST : a user-friendly BLAST management and analysis system  

PubMed Central

Background - Sequencing of EST and BAC end datasets is no longer limited to large research groups. Drops in per-base pricing have made high throughput sequencing accessible to individual investigators. However, there are few options available which provide a free and user-friendly solution to the BLAST result storage and data mining needs of biologists. Results - Here we describe NuclearBLAST, a batch BLAST analysis, storage and management system designed for the biologist. It is a wrapper for NCBI BLAST which provides a user-friendly web interface which includes a request wizard and the ability to view and mine the results. All BLAST results are stored in a MySQL database which allows for more advanced data-mining through supplied command-line utilities or direct database access. NuclearBLAST can be installed on a single machine or clustered amongst a number of machines to improve analysis throughput. NuclearBLAST provides a platform which eases data-mining of multiple BLAST results. With the supplied scripts, the program can export data into a spreadsheet-friendly format, automatically assign Gene Ontology terms to sequences and provide bi-directional best hits between two datasets. Users with SQL experience can use the database to ask even more complex questions and extract any subset of data they require. Conclusion - This tool provides a user-friendly interface for requesting, viewing and mining of BLAST results which makes the management and data-mining of large sets of BLAST analyses tractable to biologists. PMID:15958161

Diener, Stephen E; Houfek, Thomas D; Kalat, Sam E; Windham, DE; Burke, Mark; Opperman, Charles; Dean, Ralph A

2005-01-01

145

Blast Effects of Twin Variable-Cant Rocket Nozzles on Visibility During Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blast Effects of Twin Variable-Cant Rocket Nozzles on Visibility During Landing on a Particle-Covered Surface. A limited investigation has been conducted to determine the jet-blast effect of twin variable-cant supersonic nozzles. These tests were made to examine the result of using canted main rocket engines to sweep the blast debris outward from the proposed landing area of a rocket-powered vehicle making a vertical approach to a touchdown. Cant angles from 0 degrees to 75 degrees, at intervals of 15 degrees, were tested at low ambient pressure and at atmospheric ambient pressure. Nozzle chamber pressures used were 400 psi and 2000 psi. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030964. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1964-01-01

146

Exposure of the thorax to a sublethal blast wave causes a hydrodynamic pulse that leads to perivenular inflammation in the brain.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by an explosive blast (blast-TBI) is postulated to result, in part, from transvascular transmission to the brain of a hydrodynamic pulse (a.k.a., volumetric blood surge, ballistic pressure wave, hydrostatic shock, or hydraulic shock) induced in major intrathoracic blood vessels. This mechanism of blast-TBI has not been demonstrated directly. We tested the hypothesis that a blast wave impacting the thorax would induce a hydrodynamic pulse that would cause pathological changes in the brain. We constructed a Thorax-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (TOBIA) and a Jugular-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (JOBIA). TOBIA delivered a collimated blast wave to the right lateral thorax of a rat, precluding direct impact on the cranium. JOBIA delivered a blast wave to the fluid-filled port of an extracorporeal intravenous infusion device whose catheter was inserted retrograde into the jugular vein, precluding lung injury. Long Evans rats were subjected to sublethal injury by TOBIA or JOBIA. Blast injury induced by TOBIA was characterized by apnea and diffuse bilateral hemorrhagic injury to the lungs associated with a transient reduction in pulse oximetry signals. Immunolabeling 24 h after injury by TOBIA showed up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha, ED-1, sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein in veins or perivenular tissues and microvessels throughout the brain. The perivenular inflammatory effects induced by TOBIA were prevented by ligating the jugular vein and were reproduced using JOBIA. We conclude that blast injury to the thorax leads to perivenular inflammation, Sur1 up-regulation, and reactive astrocytosis resulting from the induction of a hydrodynamic pulse in the vasculature. PMID:24673157

Simard, J Marc; Pampori, Adam; Keledjian, Kaspar; Tosun, Cigdem; Schwartzbauer, Gary; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

2014-07-15

147

Development of a pebble-bed liquid-nitrogen evaporator\\/superheater for the BRL 1\\/6th-scale large blast\\/thermal simulator test bed. Phase 1. Prototype design and analysis. Final report, Sep 87-Oct 88  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of design studies for the U.S. Large Blast\\/Thermal Simulator (LB\\/TS), a liquid-nitrogen (LN), pebble-bed evaporator and superheater was designed for the 1\\/6th-scale LB\\/TS Test Bed. This pebble-bed heater would produce hot nitrogen gas at a predetermined temperature from a cryogenic LN2 source at pressure up to 1700 psig. The flow rate would be sufficient to fill the

I. B. Osofsky; G. P. Mason; M. J. Tanaka

1991-01-01

148

Boeing's High Voltage Solar Tile Test Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real concerns of spacecraft charging and experience with solar array augmented electrostatic discharge arcs on spacecraft have minimized the use of high voltages on large solar arrays despite numerous vehicle system mass and efficiency advantages. Boeing's solar tile (patent pending) allows high voltage to be generated at the array without the mass and efficiency losses of electronic conversion. Direct drive electric propulsion and higher power payloads (lower spacecraft weight) will benefit from this design. As future power demand grows, spacecraft designers must use higher voltage to minimize transmission loss and power cable mass for very large area arrays. This paper will describe the design and discuss the successful test of Boeing's 500-Volt Solar Tile in NASA Glenn's Tenney chamber in the Space Plasma Interaction Facility. The work was sponsored by NASA's Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Program and will result in updated high voltage solar array design guidelines being published.

Reed, Brian J.; Harden, David E.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.

2002-10-01

149

Los Alamos test-room results  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen Los Alamos test rooms have been operated for several years; this paper covers operation during the winters of 1980-81 and 1981-82. Extensive data have been taken and computer analyzed to determine performance parameters such as efficiency, solar savings fraction, and comfort index. The rooms are directly comparable because each has the same net coefficient and solar collection area and thus the same load collector ratio. Configurations include direct gain, unvented Trombe walls, water walls, phase change walls, and two sunspace geometries. Strategies for reducing heat loss include selective surfaces, two brands of superglazing windows, a heat pipe system, and convection-suppression baffles. Significant differences in both backup heat and comfort are observed among the various rooms. The results are useful, not only for direct room-to-room comparisons, but also to provide data for validation of computer simulation programs.

McFarland, R.D.; Balcomb, J.D.

1982-01-01

150

Computation of viscous blast wave flowfields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method to determine unsteady solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations was developed and applied. The structural finite-volume, approximately factored implicit scheme uses Newton subiterations to obtain the spatially and temporally second-order accurate time history of the interaction of blast-waves with stationary targets. The inviscid flux is evaluated using MacCormack's modified Steger-Warming flux or Roe flux difference splittings with total variation diminishing limiters, while the viscous flux is computed using central differences. The use of implicit boundary conditions in conjunction with a telescoping in time and space method permitted solutions to this strongly unsteady class of problems. Comparisons of numerical, analytical, and experimental results were made in two and three dimensions. These comparisons revealed accurate wave speed resolution with nonoscillatory discontinuity capturing. The purpose of this effort was to address the three-dimensional, viscous blast-wave problem. Test cases were undertaken to reveal these methods' weaknesses in three regimes: (1) viscous-dominated flow; (2) complex unsteady flow; and (3) three-dimensional flow. Comparisons of these computations to analytic and experimental results provided initial validation of the resultant code. Addition details on the numerical method and on the validation can be found in the appendix. Presently, the code is capable of single zone computations with selection of any permutation of solid wall or flow-through boundaries.

Atwood, Christopher A.

1991-01-01

151

Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted within the CMU rover "Scarab" and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in November 2008. This technology could be used on Mars as well. As described at the 2008 Mars Society Convention, the Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) supports the objectives of the RESOLVE project by capturing and quantifying water and hydrogen released by regolith upon heating. Field test results for the quantification of water using LWRD showed that the volcanic ash (tephra) samples contained 0.15-0.41% water, in agreement with GC water measurements. Reduction of the RH in the surge tank to near zero during recirculation show that the water is captured by the water beds as desired. The water can be recovered by heating the Water Beds to 230 C or higher. Test results for the capture and quantification of pure hydrogen have shown that over 90% of the hydrogen can be captured and 98% of the absorbed hydrogen can be recovered upon heating the hydride to 400 C and desorbing the hydrogen several times into the evacuated surge tank. Thus, the essential requirement of capturing hydrogen and recovering it has been demonstrated. ,

Muscatello, Anthony C.; Captain, Janine E.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Perusich, Stephen A.; Weis, Kyle H.

2009-01-01

152

Dynamics and Afterglow Light Curves of Gamma-Ray Burst Blast Waves Encountering a Density Bump or Void  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves that encounter various density structures (such as bumps, voids, or steps) in the surrounding ambient medium. We present and explain the characteristic response features that each type of density structure in the medium leaves on the forward shock (FS) and reverse shock (RS) dynamics for blast waves with either a long-lived or short-lived RS. We show that when the ambient medium density drops, the blast waves exhibit in some cases a period of an actual acceleration (even during their deceleration stage) due to adiabatic cooling of blast waves. Comparing numerical examples that have different shapes of bumps or voids, we propose a number of consistency tests that must be satisfied by correct modeling of blast waves. Our model results successfully pass these tests. Employing a Lagrangian description of blast waves, we perform a sophisticated calculation of afterglow emission. We show that as a response to density structures in the ambient medium, the RS light curves produce more significant variations than the FS light curves. Some observed features (such as rebrightenings, dips, or slow wiggles) can be more easily explained within the RS model. We also discuss the origin of these different features imprinted on the FS and RS light curves.

Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing

2014-07-01

153

Lightweight blast shield  

DOEpatents

A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

1991-01-01

154

Robotic Water Blast Cleaner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

1983-01-01

155

Full length prototype SSC dipole test results  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from tests of the first full length prototype SSC dipole magnet. The cryogenic behavior of the magnet during a slow cooldown to 4.5K and a slow warmup to room temperature has been measured. Magnetic field quality was measured at currents up to 2000 A. Averaged over the body field all harmonics with the exception of b/sub 2/ and b/sub 8/ are at or within the tolerances specified by the SSC Central Design Group. (The values of b/sub 2/ and b/sub 8/ result from known design and construction defects which will be be corrected in later magnets.) Using an NMR probe the average body field strength is measured to be 10.283 G/A with point to point variations on the order of one part in 1000. Data are presented on quench behavior of the magnet up to 3500 A (approximately 55% of full field) including longitudinal and transverse velocities for the first 250 msec of the quench.

Strait, J.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.; Engler, N.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.; Koepke, K.; Kuchnir, M.; Larson, E.; Lundy, R.

1987-04-24

156

MEASUREMENT OF AIR BLAST EFFECTS FROM SIMULATED NUCLEAR REACTOR CORE EXCURSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted to evaluate methods of simulating on a small scale, ; the effect of nuclear reactor runaway'' on a containment shell surrounding the ; reactor. Reactor core vessels, simulated by small pressure tanks, were burst by ; chemical reactions of various rates, and the resulting pressure-time histories ; were recorded by piezoelectric air blast gages placed at various

R. J. Larson; W. C. Olson

1957-01-01

157

A study of intergrinding and separate grinding of blast furnace slag cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grinding-related parameters of blast furnace slag cements (BFC), such as Bond grindability, specific rate of breakage and breakage distributions were determined employing separate and intergrinding modes. Strength tests were performed on mortar specimens made by BFC prepared by these modes of grinding to the same fineness. Overall results favor the use of separate grinding mode in view of lower specific

M. Öner

2000-01-01

158

A Novel Closed-Head Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Primary Overpressure Blast to the Cranium Produces Sustained Emotional Deficits in Mice  

PubMed Central

Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month-old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25–40?psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50–60?psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2–8?weeks after blast, 50–60?psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, but did observe scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50 to 60?psi mice 3–8?weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50–60?psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to “diffuse” axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI. PMID:24478749

Heldt, Scott A.; Elberger, Andrea J.; Deng, Yunping; Guley, Natalie H.; Del Mar, Nobel; Rogers, Joshua; Choi, Gy Won; Ferrell, Jessica; Rex, Tonia S.; Honig, Marcia G.; Reiner, Anton

2014-01-01

159

Localized coating removal using plastic media blasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steps taken to qualify the use of plastic media blasting for safely and effectively removing paint and other coatings from solid rocket booster aluminum structures are described. As a result of the effort, an improvement was made in the design of surface finishing equipment for processing flight hardware, in addition to a potentially patentable idea on improved plastic media composition. The general arrangement of the blast equipment and the nozzle configuration are presented.

Novak, Howard L.; Wyckoff, Michael G.; Zook, Lee M.

1988-01-01

160

Karhula hot gas cleanup test results  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to develop a practical hot gas filter design that meets the performance and operational requirements of pressurized fluidized bed combustion--bubbling bed, circulating bed and second generation--applications. The Westinghouse hot gas candle filter system is currently installed in the Ahlstrom Pyropower 10 MW (thermal) pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustor (PCFB) test facility located in Karhula, Finland. The overall objective of the testing is to evaluate the filter design and operating reliability for selection and implementation into the Midwest Power DMEC-1 PCFB 150 MW(e) repowering project (Clean Coal III Selection). During 1,026 hours of operation represented by Test Segment 2 and current testing in Test Segment 3, the filter unit and test facility has performed very well and operated without major equipment failures. The filter has demonstrated stable pressure drop and has operated without candle failure. Tables summarize the filter operating parameters during these tests.

Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center; Isaksson, J. [Ahlstrom Pyropower, Karhula (Finland)

1994-10-01

161

Summary of CPAS EDU Testing Analysis Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Orion program's Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is currently conducting its third generation of testing, the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series. This series utilizes two test articles, a dart-shaped Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and capsule-shaped Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), both of which include a full size, flight-like parachute system and require a pallet delivery system for aircraft extraction. To date, 15 tests have been completed, including six with PCDTVs and nine with PTVs. Two of the PTV tests included the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) provided by Lockheed Martin. Advancements in modeling techniques applicable to parachute fly-out, vehicle rate of descent, torque, and load train, also occurred during the EDU testing series. An upgrade from a composite to an independent parachute simulation allowed parachute modeling at a higher level of fidelity than during previous generations. The complexity of separating the test vehicles from their pallet delivery systems necessitated the use the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulator for modeling mated vehicle aircraft extraction and separation. This paper gives an overview of each EDU test and summarizes the development of CPAS analysis tools and techniques during EDU testing.

Romero, Leah M.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Davidson, John.; Engert, Meagan E.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Galaviz, Fernando S.; Galvin, Patrick J.; Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose

2015-01-01

162

Irradiation effects test series test IE1 test results report. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes the results of the first programmatic test in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Irradiation Effects Test Series. This test (IE-1) used four 0.97m long PWR-type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated Saxton fuel. The objectives of this test were to evaluate the effect of fuel pellet density on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and to evaluate the

W. J. Quapp; C. M. Allison; L. C. Farrar; A. S. Mehner

1977-01-01

163

Test results: SEGS LS-2 solar collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A SEGS LS-2 parabolic trough solar collector was tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with two types of receiver selective coatings, combined with three different receiver configurations: glass envelope with either vacuum or air in the receiver annulus, and glass envelope removed from the receiver. As expected, collector performance was significantly affected by each variation in receiver configuration. Performance decreased when the cermet selective coating was changed to a black chrome coating, and progressively degraded as air was introduced into the vacuum annulus, and again when the glass envelope was removed from the receiver. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. For the bare receiver (no glass envelope) efficiency and thermal losses are shown as a function of wind speed. An incident angle modifier equation was also developed for each receiver case. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature. Results from the experiments were compared with predictions from a one-dimensional analytical model of the solar receiver. Differences between the model and experiment were generally within the band of experimental uncertainty.

Dudley, Vernon E.; Kolb, Gregory J.; Mahoney, A. Roderick; Mancini, Thomas R.; Matthews, Chauncey W.; Sloan, Michael; Kearney, David

1994-12-01

164

Correlation of modified radioallergosorbent test scores and skin test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to a significantly increased sensitivity as compared with the initial Phadebas radioallergosorbent test, a major advantage of the Fadal-Nalebuff modified RAST is its correlation with skin testing using skin end point titration. This correlation allows physicians to use both these modalities in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disorders. However, it has been anecdotally believed that the correlation

JAMES R. TANDY; RICHARD L. MABRY; CYNTHIA S. MABRY

1996-01-01

165

Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results  

MedlinePLUS

... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap Test: A test in ... document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

166

Critical distance for blast-resistant design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast loads have, in the recent past, become important service loads for certain categories of structures. An important task in blast-resistant design is to make a realistic prediction of the blast pressures. The distance of explosion from the structure is an important datum, governing the magnitude and duration of the blast loads. The current practice is to choose some arbitrary distance for design purposes. This paper presents some results of analytical studies to show that such a notion is likely to be erroneous, particularly for tall and slender structures. The elements of the blast phenomenon are reviewed, before going into the formulations leading to the 'critical blast distance' at which the transient dynamic response rises to a maximum. Based on the principle of Mach stem growth and consequent transformation of the spherical shock front into cylindrical or plane shock front, an expression for the distance at which the structure is fully engulfed by the Mach region is derived. This is the distance at which the cumulative blast effect reaches a maximum, and hence can be identified as critical distance. To verify this theory, certain numerical experiments are conducted on structures of different heights and diameters, such as cylindrical towers, a chimney and a cooling tower. The results of these studies have convincingly proved the existence of the critical ground-zero distance at which the cumulative blast effect reaches a maximum. It is concluded that this critical distance should be used as the design distance particularly for tall structures. It is also advisable to use a realistic type of shock front and shock reflection coefficient, consistent with the height of Mach stem, incidence angle and pressure magnitude.

Dharaneepathy, M. V.; Rao, M. N. Keshava; Santhakumar, A. R.

1995-02-01

167

Offline analysis of Direct Mount test results  

SciTech Connect

The tracking chamber design for the Direct Mount support system is discussed in this paper. It is called the Direct Mount design because the chambers are glued directly to the tank. This report continues the testing and study of the first Direct Mount prototype. The reader should keep in mind that our prototype assembly tests were done with materials on hand -- a mixture of tested and untested tubes, and a spacer constructed by gluing empty sleeves together, for a total of about 6 cm.

Alyea, E.D. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)); DeSilva, A.; Rossi, D.; Widgoff, M. (Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Dept. of Physics); Galeotti, P. (Turin Univ. (Italy)); Giusti, P. (Bologna Univ. (Italy)); von Goeler, E.; Moromisato, J. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)); Hafen, E.; Haridas, P.; Lainis, T.; McManus, K.; Pless, I.; Pu, M.; Tang, J. (Massachusetts

1990-10-08

168

Rice blast evaluation of newly introduced germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic resistance to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia grisea oryzae) was identified in newly introduced rice germplasm through quarantine when tested in artificially inoculated greenhouse and field nursery tests during the 2007 growing season. Of 229 accessions, 31 we...

169

Florida Teacher Education Testing: Requirements and Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Florida legislature recently mandated several testing programs to improve the quality of teacher education entrants, students, and graduates. These requirements and their impact on teacher education in Florida are discussed. (MT)

Anderson, Betty; And Others

1986-01-01

170

Flash Lidar Performance Testing: Configuration and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lidar-based hazard detection and avoidance will enable safe landing in scientifically interesting terrain with higher hazard abundance. ASC GoldenEye flash lidar was tested at JPL as part of EDL technology development for Mars 2018

Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Johnson, Andrew; Chang, Daniel; Ek, Eric; Natzic, David; Spiers, Gary; Penniman, Steve; Short, Brad

2012-01-01

171

X-48B Preliminary Flight Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the preliminary Flight tests of the X-48B development program. The X-48B is a blended wing body aircraft that is being used to test various features of the BWB concept. The research concerns the following: (1) Turbofan Development, (2) Intelligent Flight Control and Optimization, (3) Airdata Calibration (4) Parameter Identification (i.e., Determination of the parameters of a mathematical model of a system based on observation of the system inputs and response.)

Taylor, Brian R.

2009-01-01

172

Standardization of protocols to test wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for reaction to blast in a biocontainment laboratory  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growth medium, spore age, and inoculum density are essential factors for determining host responses to a plant pathogen. The standardization of these factors is important to obtain adequate and reproducible disease assessments. We are testing US wheat cultivars for reaction to the exotic disease bla...

173

The Next Generation BLAST Experiment  

E-print Network

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5 m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and ~3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid he...

Galitzki, Nicholas; Angilè, Francesco E; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J; Dober, Bradley J; Fissel, Laura M; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeffrey; Van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R; Ward-Thompson, Derek

2014-01-01

174

12 CFR 252.157 - Disclosure of stress test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.157 Section 252...STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations...Companies § 252.157 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public...

2014-01-01

175

12 CFR 325.207 - Publication of stress test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Publication of stress test results. 325.207 Section 325.207...GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.207 Publication of stress test results. (a) Publication...

2013-01-01

176

12 CFR 325.207 - Publication of stress test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Publication of stress test results. 325.207 Section 325.207...GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.207 Publication of stress test results. (a) Publication...

2014-01-01

177

12 CFR 252.157 - Disclosure of stress test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.157 Section 252...STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations...Companies § 252.157 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public...

2013-01-01

178

12 CFR 252.147 - Reports of stress test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.147 Section...STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Covered Companies § 252.147 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to...

2013-01-01

179

12 CFR 252.147 - Reports of stress test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.147 Section...STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Covered Companies § 252.147 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to...

2014-01-01

180

Methods for predicting rubble motion during blasting  

SciTech Connect

Recent applications of explosives and blasting agents to rubble rock have led to requirements for more elaborate design and analysis methods. Many in situ extraction techniques require rubblization to take place in a confined region where rock motion is a predominate factor in creating a permeable broken bed. Two analytical methods are presented which describe the large rubble motion during blasting. These methods are intended to provide the blast designer with a tool for evaluation and further refinement of blasting patterns and timing sequences. In both these methods, the rock medium is represented by a series of discrete, discontinuous regions (bodies, masses). The use of discontinuous techniques rather than the classical continuum methods, results in better approximations to the rubble motion. These regions are set in motion by pressure loads from the explosive. The motion of these regions is then calculated numerically using interaction laws between regions in contact. The basis for these models or methods is presented along with the background for selecting explosive pressure loads and rock mass material behavior. Typical examples, including both cratering and bench blasting geometries, are discussed which illustrate the use of these models to predict rubble motion. Such engineering representations appear to provide a practical method for use in predicting rubble motion and a tool for design evaluation of blasting in confined geometries.

Schamaun, J.T.

1984-03-01

181

REVIEW OF FENTON HILL HDR TEST RESULTS Donald BROWN  

E-print Network

REVIEW OF FENTON HILL HDR TEST RESULTS Donald BROWN Los Alamos National Laboratory ABSTRACT Results to the development of commercial-scale hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs at other sites. These test results, obtained as flow testing proceeded. Based on these test results together with previous HDR research at Fenton Hill

182

Irradiation effects test Series Scoping Test 1: test results report. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes the results of the first scoping test in the Irradiation Effects Test Series conducted by the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program, which is part of the Water Reactor Research Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The research is sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This test used an unirradiated, three-foot-long, PWR-type fuel rod. The objective

W. J. Quapp; C. M. Allison; L. C. Farrar

1977-01-01

183

Flexible Ablators Char Depths LHMEL Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Char and pyrolysis zone depths give physical evidence of peak temperature reached in depth: The pyrolyzing material acts as a temperature indicator within its characteristic thermal decomposition range. A matrix of novel flexible ablators were laser tested in one component of material screening for NASA Entry, Descent and Landing research for future Mars missions. LHMEL tests were run both on virgin materials, and on previously charred materials for a dual pulse simulation of the heating due to aerocapture followed by atmospheric entry. The test models were machined to expose the cross-sections. Char measurements were made at three locations near the center of the exposed area. Data are presented showing the char depths developed in these flexible materials, grouped by reinforcing fiber and pyrolyzing material type.

White, Susan; Qu, Vince; Fan, Wendy; Stackpoole, Mairead; Thornton, Jeremy

2012-01-01

184

Karhula hot gas cleanup test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to develop a practical hot gas filter design that meets the performance and operational requirements of pressurized fluidized bed combustion--bubbling bed, circulating bed and second generation--applications. The Westinghouse hot gas candle filter system is currently installed in the Ahlstrom Pyropower 10 MW (thermal) pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustor (PCFB) test facility located in Karhula,

T. E. Lippert; G. J. Bruck; J. Isaksson

1994-01-01

185

Phase C Flygt Mixer Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) teamed with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and ITT Flygt Corporation to conduct a test program evaluating shrouded axial propeller mixers (Flygt mixers) for heel removal in SRS Tank 19. SRS is identifying and investigating techniques to remove sludge heels from waste tanks such as Tank 19.

Poirier, M.R.

1999-06-08

186

Uprated OMS engine status: Altitude testing results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increased operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities on this engine system began at Aerojet in 1984. More recently,

Richard J. Schoenberg

1992-01-01

187

2006 Toyota Highlander5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

188

2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

189

2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid

Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

190

2006 Toyota Highlander6395 Hyrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

191

2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

192

Liquid Motion Experiment Flight Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Liquid Motion Experiment (LME), designed to study the effects of liquid motion in rotating tanks, was flown on STS 84. LME was essentially a spin table that created a realistic nutation motion of scale-model tanks containing liquid. TWo spherical and two cylindrical transparent tanks were tested simultaneously, and three sets of such tanks were employed to vary liquid viscosity, fill level, and propellant management device (PMD) design. All the tanks were approximately 4.5 inches diameter. The primary test measurements were the radial and tangential torques exerted on the tanks by the liquid. Resonant frequencies and damping of the liquid oscillations were determined by sine sweep tests. For a given tank shape, the resonant frequency depended on fill level. For the cylindrical tanks, the resonances had somewhat different frequencies for the tangential axis (0.55 to 0.75 times spin rate) and the radial axis (0.73 to 0.78 times spin rate), and the tangential axis resonance agreed more closely with available analytical models. For the spherical tanks, the resonant frequencies were between 0.74 to 0.77 times the spin rate and were the same for the tangential and radial axes. The damping coefficients varied from about I% to 3% of critical, depending on tank shape, fill level, and liquid viscosity. 'Me viscous energy dissipation rates of the liquid oscillations were determined from sine dwell tests. The LME energy dissipation rates varied from 0.3 to 0.5 times the estimates obtained from scaling previous ground tests and spacecraft flight data. The PNDs sometimes enhanced the resonances and energy dissipation rates and sometimes decreased them, which points out the need to understand better the effects of PMD on liquid motion as a function of PMD and tank design.

Chato David J.; Dalton, Penni J.; Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steve

1998-01-01

193

Preliminary Results of Field Emission Cathode Tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary screening tests of field emission cathodes such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, textured pyrolytic graphite, and textured copper were conducted at background pressures typical of electric thruster test facilities to assess cathode performance and stability. Very low power electric thrusters which provide tens to hundreds micronewtons of thrust may need field emission neutralizers that have a capability of tens to hundreds of microamperes. From current voltage characteristics, it was found that the CVD diamond and textured metals cathodes clearly satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim emission relation. The CVD diamond and a textured copper cathode had average current densities of 270 and 380 mA/sq cm, respectively, at the beginning-of-life. After a few hours of operation the cathode emission currents degraded by 40 to 75% at background pressures in the 10(exp -5) Pa to 10(exp -4) Pa range. The textured pyrolytic graphite had a modest current density at beginning-of-life of 84 mA/sq cm, but this cathode was the most stable of all. Extended testing of the most promising cathodes is warranted to determine if current degradation is a burn-in effect or whether it is a long-term degradation process. Preliminary experiments with ferroelectric emission cathodes, which are ceramics with spontaneous electric polarization, were conducted. Peak current densities of 30 to 120 mA/sq cm were obtained for pulse durations of about 500 ns in the 10(exp -4) Pa pressure range.

Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.

2001-01-01

194

Mechanisms of Hearing Loss after Blast Injury to the Ear  

PubMed Central

Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body’s most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S.; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T.; Raphael, Patrick D.; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N.; Oghalai, John S.

2013-01-01

195

Mechanisms of hearing loss after blast injury to the ear.  

PubMed

Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body's most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T; Raphael, Patrick D; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N; Oghalai, John S

2013-01-01

196

75 FR 23589 - Safety Zones; Blasting Operations and Movement of Explosives, St. Marys River, Sault Sainte Marie...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...project, the Army Corps of Engineers must blast and dredge portions of the Saint Marys...radius of 1,100 feet centered on the test blast location approximately 600 feet due east...radius of 1,100 feet centered on the test blast location approximately 600 feet due...

2010-05-04

197

The 757 NLF glove flight test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major concern in the application of a laminar flow wing design to commercial transports is whether laminar flow can be sustained in the presence of the noise environment due to wing mounted turbofan engines. To investigate this issue, a flight test program was conducted using the Boeing 757 flight research airplane with a portion of the wing modified to obtain natural laminar flow. The flight test had two primary objectives. The first was to measure the noise levels on the upper and lower surface of the wing for a range of flight conditions. The second was to investigate the effect of engine noise on laminar boundary layer transition. The noise field on the wing and transition location on the glove were then measured as a function of the engine power setting at a given flight condition. The transition and noise measurement on the glove show that there is no apparent effect of engine noise on the upper surface transition location. On the lower surface, the transition location moved forward 2 to 3 percent chord. A boundary layer stability analysis to the flight data showed that cross flow disturbances were the dominant cause of transition at most flight conditions.

Runyan, L. Jim; Bielak, G. W.; Behbehani, R. A.; Chen, A. W.; Rozendaal, Roger A.

1987-01-01

198

Natural rice rhizospheric microbes suppress rice blast infections  

PubMed Central

Background The natural interactions between plant roots and their rhizospheric microbiome are vital to plant fitness, modulating both growth promotion and disease suppression. In rice (Oryza sativa), a globally important food crop, as much as 30% of yields are lost due to blast disease caused by fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Capitalizing on the abilities of naturally occurring rice soil bacteria to reduce M. oryzae infections could provide a sustainable solution to reduce the amount of crops lost to blast disease. Results Naturally occurring root-associated rhizospheric bacteria were isolated from California field grown rice plants (M-104), eleven of which were taxonomically identified by16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. Bacterial isolates were tested for biocontrol activity against the devastating foliar rice fungal pathogen, M. oryzae pathovar 70–15. In vitro, a Pseudomonas isolate, EA105, displayed antibiosis through reducing appressoria formation by nearly 90% as well as directly inhibiting fungal growth by 76%. Although hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a volatile commonly produced by biocontrol pseudomonads, the activity of EA105 seems to be independent of its HCN production. During in planta experiments, EA105 reduced the number of blast lesions formed by 33% and Pantoea agglomerans isolate, EA106 by 46%. Our data also show both EA105 and EA106 trigger jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) response in rice. Conclusions Out of 11 bacteria isolated from rice soil, pseudomonad EA105 most effectively inhibited the growth and appressoria formation of M. oryzae through a mechanism that is independent of cyanide production. In addition to direct antagonism, EA105 also appears to trigger ISR in rice plants through a mechanism that is dependent on JA and ET signaling, ultimately resulting in fewer blast lesions. The application of native bacteria as biocontrol agents in combination with current disease protection strategies could aid in global food security. PMID:24884531

2014-01-01

199

40 CFR 211.212-5 - Reporting of test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Reporting of test results. 211.212-5 Section 211.212-5... § 211.212-5 Reporting of test results. (a)(1) The manufacturer...5 days after completion of testing. A suggested compliance audit test report form...

2010-07-01

200

Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

Courtney, Michael W.; Courtney, Amy C.

2010-12-01

201

Planar blast scaling with condensed-phase explosives in a shock tube  

SciTech Connect

Blast waves are strong shock waves that result from large power density deposition into a fluid. The rapid energy release of high-explosive (HE) detonation provides sufficiently high power density for blast wave generation. Often it is desirable to quantify the energy released by such an event and to determine that energy relative to other reference explosives to derive an explosive-equivalence value. In this study, we use condensed-phase explosives to drive a blast wave in a shock tube. The explosive material and quantity were varied to produce blast waves of differing strengths. Pressure transducers at varying lengths measured the post-shock pressure, shock-wave arrival time and sidewall impulse associated with each test. Blast-scaling concepts in a one-dimensional geometry were then used to both determine the energy release associated with each test and to verify the scaling of the shock position versus time, overpressure versus distance, and impulse. Most blast scaling measurements to-date have been performed in a three-dimensional geometry such as a blast arena. Testing in a three-dimensional geometry can be challenging, however, as spherical shock-wave symmetry is required for good measurements. Additionally, the spherical wave strength decays rapidly with distance and it can be necessary to utilize larger (several kg) quantities of explosive to prevent significant decay from occurring before an idealized blast wave has formed. Such a mode of testing can be expensive, require large quantities of explosive, and be limited by both atmospheric conditions (such as rain) and by noise complaints from the population density near the test arena. Testing is possible in more compact geometries, however. Non-planar blast waves can be formed into a quasi-planar shape by confining the shock diffraction with the walls of a shock tube. Regardless of the initial form, the wave shape will begin to approximate a planar front after successive wave reflections from the tube walls. Such a technique has previously been used to obtain blast scaling measurements in the planar geometry with gaseous explosives and the condensed-phase explosive nitroguanidine. Recently, there has been much interest in the blast characterization of various non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) materials. With non-ideals, the detonation reaction zone is significantly larger (up to several cm for ANFO) than more ideal explosives. Wave curvature, induced by charge-geometry, can significantly affect the energy release associated with NIHEs. To measure maximum NIHE energy release accurately, it is desirable to minimize any such curvature and, if possible, to overdrive the detonation shock to ensure completion of chemical reactions ahead of the sonic locus associated with the reaction zone. This is achieved in the current study through use of a powerful booster HE and a charge geometry consisting of short cylindrical lengths of NIHE initiated along the charge centerline.

Jackson, Scott L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-25

202

Shashlik calorimeter Beam-test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from an extensive study of nonprojective Shashlik calorimeter prototypes are reported. Nine (47 × 47 mm 2) towers were exposed to a high energy electron beam at CERN SPS and read out by silicon photodiodes followed by low noise preamplifiers. The main results are the measurements of the energy and shower position resolution and the angular resolution of the electron shower direction. The shower direction measurement is encouraging being in agreement at the tower center with a resolution of ??(mrad) = 70/? E (10 mrad for 50 GeV electrons). The uniformity of the calorimeter response is found to be better than ± 1%. The mean light yield measured in Shashlik towers equipped with Kuraray Y7 WLS fibres and aluminized at the front end of the tower is of the order of 13 photons/MeV.

Badier, J.; Busson, Ph.; Charlot, C.; Dobrzynski, L.; Tanaka, R.; Bordalo, P.; Ramos, S.; Bityukov, S.; Obraztsov, V.; Ostankov, A.; Zaitchenko, A.; Gninenko, S.; Guschin, E.; Issakov, V.; Mussienko, Y.; Semenjuk, I.

1994-08-01

203

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

Ensar Oguz

2004-01-01

204

30 CFR 56.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Electric Blasting § 56.6407 Circuit testing. A blasting galvanometer...designed for testing blasting circuits shall be used to test each...balanced series to be connected in parallel prior to their connection to...series. (d) Total blasting circuit resistance prior to...

2010-07-01

205

30 CFR 56.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Electric Blasting § 56.6407 Circuit testing. A blasting galvanometer...designed for testing blasting circuits shall be used to test each...balanced series to be connected in parallel prior to their connection to...series. (d) Total blasting circuit resistance prior to...

2012-07-01

206

30 CFR 56.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Electric Blasting § 56.6407 Circuit testing. A blasting galvanometer...designed for testing blasting circuits shall be used to test each...balanced series to be connected in parallel prior to their connection to...series. (d) Total blasting circuit resistance prior to...

2013-07-01

207

30 CFR 56.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Electric Blasting § 56.6407 Circuit testing. A blasting galvanometer...designed for testing blasting circuits shall be used to test each...balanced series to be connected in parallel prior to their connection to...series. (d) Total blasting circuit resistance prior to...

2011-07-01

208

30 CFR 56.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Electric Blasting § 56.6407 Circuit testing. A blasting galvanometer...designed for testing blasting circuits shall be used to test each...balanced series to be connected in parallel prior to their connection to...series. (d) Total blasting circuit resistance prior to...

2014-07-01

209

49 CFR 229.313 - Product testing results and records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics § 229.313 Product testing results and records. (a) Results of product testing conducted by a...

2014-10-01

210

49 CFR 229.313 - Product testing results and records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics § 229.313 Product testing results and records. (a) Results of product testing conducted by a...

2012-10-01

211

49 CFR 229.313 - Product testing results and records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics § 229.313 Product testing results and records. (a) Results of product testing conducted by a...

2013-10-01

212

40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.57-5 Reporting of test results...ii) Year, make, assembly date, and model of compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by...

2014-07-01

213

40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.57-5 Reporting of test results...ii) Year, make, assembly date, and model of compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by...

2012-07-01

214

40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.57-5 Reporting of test results...ii) Year, make, assembly date, and model of compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by...

2010-07-01

215

40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.57-5 Reporting of test results...ii) Year, make, assembly date, and model of compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by...

2011-07-01

216

40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.57-5 Reporting of test results...ii) Year, make, assembly date, and model of compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by...

2013-07-01

217

Curved characteristics behind blast waves.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of nonisentropic flow behind a propagating blast wave is theoretically studied. Exact solutions, expressed in closed form in terms of elementary functions, are presented for three sets of curved characteristicseind a self-similar, strong blast wave.

Laporte, O.; Chang, T. S.

1972-01-01

218

COMPARING FRACTURE PROPAGATION TESTS AND RELATING TEST RESULTS TO SNOWPACK CHARACTERISTICS  

E-print Network

COMPARING FRACTURE PROPAGATION TESTS AND RELATING TEST RESULTS TO SNOWPACK CHARACTERISTICS Cameron for a slab and weak layer combination to propagate a fracture. University of Calgary researchers performed propensity. KEYWORDS: fracture propagation, snowpack stability test, extended column test, propagation saw

Jamieson, Bruce

219

A critical review of anaesthetised animal models and alternatives for military research, testing and training, with a focus on blast damage, haemorrhage and resuscitation.  

PubMed

Military research, testing, and surgical and resuscitation training, are aimed at mitigating the consequences of warfare and terrorism to armed forces and civilians. Traumatisation and tissue damage due to explosions, and acute loss of blood due to haemorrhage, remain crucial, potentially preventable, causes of battlefield casualties and mortalities. There is also the additional threat from inhalation of chemical and aerosolised biological weapons. The use of anaesthetised animal models, and their respective replacement alternatives, for military purposes -- particularly for blast injury, haemorrhaging and resuscitation training -- is critically reviewed. Scientific problems with the animal models include the use of crude, uncontrolled and non-standardised methods for traumatisation, an inability to model all key trauma mechanisms, and complex modulating effects of general anaesthesia on target organ physiology. Such effects depend on the anaesthetic and influence the cardiovascular system, respiration, breathing, cerebral haemodynamics, neuroprotection, and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Some anaesthetics also bind to the NMDA brain receptor with possible differential consequences in control and anaesthetised animals. There is also some evidence for gender-specific effects. Despite the fact that these issues are widely known, there is little published information on their potential, at best, to complicate data interpretation and, at worst, to invalidate animal models. There is also a paucity of detail on the anaesthesiology used in studies, and this can hinder correct data evaluation. Welfare issues relate mainly to the possibility of acute pain as a side-effect of traumatisation in recovered animals. Moreover, there is the increased potential for animals to suffer when anaesthesia is temporary, and the procedures invasive. These dilemmas can be addressed, however, as a diverse range of replacement approaches exist, including computer and mathematical dynamic modelling of the human body, cadavers, interactive human patient simulators for training, in vitro techniques involving organotypic cultures of target organs, and epidemiological and clinical studies. While the first four of these have long proven useful for developing protective measures and predicting the consequences of trauma, and although many phenomena and their sequelae arising from different forms of trauma in vivo can be induced and reproduced in vitro, non-animal approaches require further development, and their validation and use need to be coordinated and harmonised. Recommendations to these ends are proposed, and the scientific and welfare problems associated with animal models are addressed, with the future focus being on the use of batteries of complementary replacement methods deployed in integrated strategies, and on greater transparency and scientific cooperation. PMID:24329746

Combes, Robert D

2013-11-01

220

Refurbishment of SRB aluminum components by walnut hull blast removal of protective coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test program was conducted to develop, optimize, and scale up an abrasive blasting procedure was developed for refurbishment of specific SRB components: aft skirt, forward skirt, frustrum, and painted piece parts. Test specimens utilizing 2219 T87 aluminum substrate of varying thicknesses were prepared and blasted at progressively increasing pressures with selected abrasives. Specimens were analyzed for material response. The optimum blasting parameters were determined on panel specimens and verified on a large cylindrical integrated test bed.

Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

1982-01-01

221

Stirling convertor performance mapping test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected Free-Piston Stirling Convertors as a technology for future advanced radioisotope space power systems. In August 2000, DOE awarded competitive Phase I, Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) power system integration contracts to three major aerospace contractors, resulting in SRG conceptual designs in February 2001. All three contractors based their designs on the Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for DOE. The contract award to a single system integration contractor for Phases II and III of the SRG program is anticipated in late 2001. The first potential SRG mission is targeted for a Mars rover. Recent TDC performance data are provided in this paper, together with predictions from Stirling simulation models. .

Qiu, Songgang; Peterson, Allen A.; White, Maurice A.; Faultersack, Franklyn; Redinger, Darin L.; Petersen, Stephen L.

2002-01-01

222

Mathematics Placement Test: Typical Results with Unexpected Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the results of a prior case-study analysis of mathematics placement at one university, the mathematics department developed and piloted a mathematics placement test. This article describes the implementation process for a mathematics placement test and further analyzes the test results for the pilot group. As an unexpected result, the…

Ingalls, Victoria

2011-01-01

223

L2B test results Jos de Kloe,  

E-print Network

ADM-Aeolus L2B test results Jos de Kloe, L2B PM15 11-Mar-2009 #12;L2B-PM15, J. de Kloe, 11-Mar-2009 2 Test cases: Base Reference RMS (1) Academic Tests [with/without noise] (27) Sanity Tests (2) Realistic Tests [LITE data] (9) Mispointing Tests [CALIPSO data] (9) #12;L2B-PM15, J. de Kloe, 11-Mar-2009 3

Stoffelen, Ad

224

L1B test results Jos de Kloe,  

E-print Network

ADM-Aeolus L1B test results Jos de Kloe, L1B PM16 10-Mar-2009 #12;L2B-PM15, J. de Kloe, 11-Mar-2009 2 Test cases: Base Reference RMS (1) Academic Tests [with/without noise] (27) Sanity Tests (2) Realistic Tests [LITE data] (9) Mispointing Tests [CALIPSO data] (9) #12;L2B-PM15, J. de Kloe, 11-Mar-2009 3

Stoffelen, Ad

225

2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

226

A mouse model of ocular blast injury that induces closed globe anterior and posterior pole damage  

PubMed Central

We developed and characterized a mouse model of primary ocular blast injury. The device consists of: a pressurized air tank attached to a regulated paintball gun with a machined barrel; a chamber that protects the mouse from direct injury and recoil, while exposing the eye; and a secure platform that enables fine, controlled movement of the chamber in relation to the barrel. Expected pressures were calculated and the optimal pressure transducer, based on the predicted pressures, was positioned to measure output pressures at the location where the mouse eye would be placed. Mice were exposed to one of three blast pressures (23.6, 26.4, or 30.4psi). Gross pathology, intraocular pressure, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity were assessed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after exposure. Contralateral eyes and non-blast exposed mice were used as controls. We detected increased damage with increased pressures and a shift in the damage profile over time. Gross pathology included corneal edema, corneal abrasions, and optic nerve avulsion. Retinal damage was detected by optical coherence tomography and a deficit in visual acuity was detected by optokinetics. Our findings are comparable to those identified in Veterans of the recent wars with closed eye injuries as a result of blast exposure. In summary, this is a relatively simple system that creates injuries with features similar to those seen in patients with ocular blast trauma. This is an important new model for testing the short-term and long-term spectrum of closed globe blast injuries and potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:22504073

Hines-Beard, Jessica; Marchetta, Jeffrey; Gordon, Sarah; Chaum, Edward; Geisert, Eldon E.; Rex, Tonia S.

2012-01-01

227

Computation of blast wave-obstacle interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical simulations of the interaction of a planar blast wave with various obstacles are presented. These obstacles are either ground structures or vehicles flying in the atmosphere. For a structure on the ground, the blast wave encounter is side-on, while for the flying vehicles the encounter is either head-on or oblique. Second-order accurate, finite-difference, and shock-capturing procedures are employed to solve the two-dimensional, axisymmetric, and three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations. Results are presented for the flow field consisting of blast wave striking obstacles that are at rest, moving subsonically and moving supersonically. Comparison of the numerical results with experimental data for a configuration at rest substantiates the validity of this approach and its potential as a flow analysis tool.

Champney, J. M.; Chaussee, D. S.; Kutler, P.

1982-01-01

228

Impact of complex blast waves on the human head: a computational study.  

PubMed

Head injuries due to complex blasts are not well examined because of limited published articles on the subject. Previous studies have analyzed head injuries due to impact from a single planar blast wave. Complex or concomitant blasts refer to impacts usually caused by more than a single blast source, whereby the blast waves may impact the head simultaneously or consecutively, depending on the locations and distances of the blast sources from the subject, their blast intensities, the sequence of detonations, as well as the effect of blast wave reflections from rigid walls. It is expected that such scenarios will result in more serious head injuries as compared to impact from a single blast wave due to the larger effective duration of the blast. In this paper, the utilization of a head-helmet model for blast impact analyses in Abaqus(TM) (Dassault Systemes, Singapore) is demonstrated. The model is validated against studies published in the literature. Results show that the skull is capable of transmitting the blast impact to cause high intracranial pressures (ICPs). In addition, the pressure wave from a frontal blast may enter through the sides of the helmet and wrap around the head to result in a second impact at the rear. This study recommended better protection at the sides and rear of the helmet through the use of foam pads so as to reduce wave entry into the helmet. The consecutive frontal blasts scenario resulted in higher ICPs compared with impact from a single frontal blast. This implied that blast impingement from an immediate subsequent pressure wave would increase severity of brain injury. For the unhelmeted head case, a peak ICP of 330?kPa is registered at the parietal lobe which exceeds the 235?kPa threshold for serious head injuries. The concurrent front and side blasts scenario yielded lower ICPs and skull stresses than the consecutive frontal blasts case. It is also revealed that the additional side blast would only significantly affect ICPs at the temporal and parietal lobes when compared with results from the single frontal blast case. By analyzing the pressure wave flow surrounding the head and correlating them with the consequential evolution of ICP and skull stress, the paper provides insights into the interaction mechanics between the concomitant blast waves and the biological head model. PMID:25132676

Tan, Long Bin; Chew, Fatt Siong; Tse, Kwong Ming; Chye Tan, Vincent Beng; Lee, Heow Pueh

2014-12-01

229

Effects of Testing Conditions on Conceptual Survey Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre-testing and post-testing is a commonly used method in Physics Education Research to assess student learning gains. It is well recognized in the community that timings and incentives in delivering conceptual tests can impact test results. However, it is difficult to control these variables across different studies. As a common practice, a…

Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

2008-01-01

230

An efficient approach to model response of submerged structures to blast loading  

SciTech Connect

Blast loading on submerged offshore structures due to fishing activities and hostile attacks is a concern to Oil Operators. The dynamic response of structures interacting with the fluid has been extensively detailed in the past. An efficient state-of-the-art methodology is presented to evaluate the structural behavior of underwater nearby blasts to steel and concrete elastoplastic structures. Contact charges require analyses by means of hydrocodes and are not covered in this contribution. The water shock model and the structure-medium interaction model are treated in detail, while a general description is given for the two dimensional lumped mass incremental implicit beam element code. Due to its nature the code is particularly suited to analyze the response of one dimensional extended structures, but appropriate results have been found also in cases where three-dimensional effects are predominant. Results of the blast code include time histories of structural ductility, which can be interpreted as a damage indicator in the consequence analyses. The performance of the blast methodology is evaluated by comparing numerical results with an experimental test of underwater explosion against a stiffened plate.

Manfredini, G.M.; Lagasco, F. [D`Appolonia S.p.A., Genoa (Italy); Drake, J.L. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1996-12-31

231

12 CFR 252.156 - Reports of stress test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.156 Section 252...STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations...Covered Companies § 252.156 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to...

2013-01-01

232

12 CFR 252.156 - Reports of stress test results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.156 Section 252...STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations...Covered Companies § 252.156 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to...

2014-01-01

233

Optimal placement of smart sensors in CFS structures under blast loading using hybrid FEM-GA approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blasts can produce, in a very short time, an overload much greater than the design load of a building. The blast explosion nearby or within structures causes catastrophic damage to the building both externally and internally. This study intends to model a Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) building using Finite Element Method (FEM) in which material properties of the model are defined according to results of performed laboratory tests. Then accelerograph record of a standard blast was applied to the Finite Element (FE) model. Furthermore, various Optimal Sensor Placement (OSP) algorithms were used and Genetic Algorithm (GA) was selected to act as the solution of the optimization formulation in selection of the best sensor placement according to the blast loading response of the system. In this research a novel numerical algorithm was proposed for OSP procedure which utilizes the exact value of the structural response under blast excitation. Results show that with a proper OSP method for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) can detect the weak points of CFS structures in different parts efficiently.

Vosoughifar, Hamid Reza; Sadat Shokouhi, Seyed Kazem; Dolatshah, Azam; Rahnavard, Yousef; Atapour, Hassan

2013-04-01

234

Isothermal blast wave model of supernova remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The validity of the 'adiabatic' assumption in supernova-remnant calculations is examined, and the alternative extreme of an isothermal blast wave is explored. It is concluded that, because of thermal conductivity, the large temperature gradients predicted by the adiabatic model probably are not maintained in nature. Self-similar solutions to the hydrodynamic equations for an isothermal blast wave have been found and studied. These solutions are then used to determine the relationship between X-ray observations and inferred parameters of supernova remnants. A comparison of the present results with those for the adiabatic model indicates differences which are less than present observational uncertainties. It is concluded that most parameters of supernova remnants inferred from X-ray measurements are relatively insensitive to the specifics of the blast-wave model.

Solinger, A.; Buff, J.; Rappaport, S.

1975-01-01

235

49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229 Section 199.229...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229...

2013-10-01

236

49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229 Section 199.229...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229...

2014-10-01

237

49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229 Section 199.229...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229...

2011-10-01

238

49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229 Section 199.229...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229...

2010-10-01

239

Testing of a composite thermal structure to insulate the drivers of a large-scale blast\\/thermal simulator. Final report, Sep 86-Jun 88  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the developmental testing of the thermal and mechanical properties of two versions of a composite structure which were developed for insulating the walls of high-pressure vessels containing hot nitrogen gas against heat loss and the results of these tests are presented. Included herein are data on thermal diffusivity, specific heat, density, expansion coefficients, thermal conductivity and mechanical

McCue

1991-01-01

240

Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury  

SciTech Connect

In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies that the headform locally experiences a nearly planar blast wave. Also, the positive phase durations and blast impulses are much larger than those of (1). Consequently, the blast model used in (1) is spatially and temporally very different from a military blast. It would be useful to repeat the calculations using military blast parameters. Finally, (1) overlooks a significant part of (5). On page 1 and on page 3, (1) states that (5) did not consider helmet pads. But pages pages 3 and 4 of (5) present simulations of blast wave propagation across an ACH helmeted head form with and without pads. (5) states that when the pads are present, the 'underwash' of air under the helmet is blocked when compared to the case without. (1) reaches this same conclusion, but reports it as a new result rather than a confirmation of that already found in (5).

Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

2011-01-21

241

A multi-mode shock tube for investigation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has become increasingly common in recent military conflicts. The mechanisms by which non-impact blast exposure results in bTBI are incompletely understood. Current small animal bTBI models predominantly utilize compressed air-driven membrane rupture as their blast wave source, while large animal models use chemical explosives. The pressure-time signature of each blast mode is unique, making it difficult to evaluate the contributions of the different components of the blast wave to bTBI when using a single blast source. We utilized a multi-mode shock tube, the McMillan blast device, capable of utilizing compressed air- and compressed helium-driven membrane rupture, and the explosives oxyhydrogen and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX, the primary component of C-4 plastic explosives) as the driving source. At similar maximal blast overpressures, the positive pressure phase of compressed air-driven blasts was longer, and the positive impulse was greater, than those observed for shockwaves produced by other driving sources. Helium-driven shockwaves more closely resembled RDX blasts, but by displacing air created a hypoxic environment within the shock tube. Pressure-time traces from oxyhydrogen-driven shockwaves were very similar those produced by RDX, although they resulted in elevated carbon monoxide levels due to combustion of the polyethylene bag used to contain the gases within the shock tube prior to detonation. Rats exposed to compressed air-driven blasts had more pronounced vascular damage than those exposed to oxyhydrogen-driven blasts of the same peak overpressure, indicating that differences in blast wave characteristics other than peak overpressure may influence the extent of bTBI. Use of this multi-mode shock tube in small animal models will enable comparison of the extent of brain injury with the pressure-time signature produced using each blast mode, facilitating evaluation of the blast wave components contributing to bTBI. PMID:21083431

Reneer, Dexter V; Hisel, Richard D; Hoffman, Joshua M; Kryscio, Richard J; Lusk, Braden T; Geddes, James W

2011-01-01

242

A Multi-Mode Shock Tube for Investigation of Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has become increasingly common in recent military conflicts. The mechanisms by which non-impact blast exposure results in bTBI are incompletely understood. Current small animal bTBI models predominantly utilize compressed air-driven membrane rupture as their blast wave source, while large animal models use chemical explosives. The pressure-time signature of each blast mode is unique, making it difficult to evaluate the contributions of the different components of the blast wave to bTBI when using a single blast source. We utilized a multi-mode shock tube, the McMillan blast device, capable of utilizing compressed air- and compressed helium-driven membrane rupture, and the explosives oxyhydrogen and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX, the primary component of C-4 plastic explosives) as the driving source. At similar maximal blast overpressures, the positive pressure phase of compressed air-driven blasts was longer, and the positive impulse was greater, than those observed for shockwaves produced by other driving sources. Helium-driven shockwaves more closely resembled RDX blasts, but by displacing air created a hypoxic environment within the shock tube. Pressure-time traces from oxyhydrogen-driven shockwaves were very similar those produced by RDX, although they resulted in elevated carbon monoxide levels due to combustion of the polyethylene bag used to contain the gases within the shock tube prior to detonation. Rats exposed to compressed air-driven blasts had more pronounced vascular damage than those exposed to oxyhydrogen-driven blasts of the same peak overpressure, indicating that differences in blast wave characteristics other than peak overpressure may influence the extent of bTBI. Use of this multi-mode shock tube in small animal models will enable comparison of the extent of brain injury with the pressure-time signature produced using each blast mode, facilitating evaluation of the blast wave components contributing to bTBI. PMID:21083431

Reneer, Dexter V.; Hisel, Richard D.; Hoffman, Joshua M.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Lusk, Braden T.

2011-01-01

243

Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (or any space vehicle that enters an atmosphere) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future vehicle concepts.

Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

2004-01-01

244

Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies (ITAGCT) has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future reusable vehicle concepts.

Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

2003-01-01

245

Turbine Air-Flow Test Rig CFD Results for Test Matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the Turbine Air-Flow Test (TAFT) rig computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results for test matrix. The topics include: 1) TAFT Background; 2) Design Point CFD; 3) TAFT Test Plan and Test Matrix; and 4) CFD of Test Points. This paper is in viewgraph form.

Wilson, Josh

2003-01-01

246

The Dornier 328 Acoustic Test Cell (ATC) for interior noise tests and selected test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To perform acoustic studies for achieving low noise levels for the Dornier 328, an acoustic test cell (ATC) of the Dornier 328 has been built. The ATC consists of a fuselage section, a realistic fuselage suspension system, and three exterior noise simulation rings. A complex digital 60 channel computer/amplifier noise generation system as well as multichannel digital data acquisition and evaluation system have been used. The noise control tests started with vibration measurements for supporting acoustic data interpretation. In addition, experiments have been carried out on dynamic vibration absorbers, the most important passive noise reduction measure for low frequency propeller noise. The design and arrangement of the current ATC are presented. Furthermore, exterior noise simulation as well as data acquisition are explained. The most promising results show noise reduction due to synchrophasing and dynamic vibration absorbers.

Hackstein, H. Josef; Borchers, Ingo U.; Renger, Klaus; Vogt, Konrad

1992-01-01

247

Compound 49b protects against blast-induced retinal injury  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine whether Compound 49b, a novel beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, can prevent increased inflammation and apoptosis in mice after exposure to ocular blast. Methods Eyes of C57/BL6 mice were exposed to a blast of air from a paintball gun at 26 psi (?0.18 MPa). Eyes were collected 4 hours, 24 hours, and 72 hours after blast exposure. In a subset of mice, Compound 49b eyedrops (1 mM) were applied within 4 hours, 24 hours, or 72 hours of the blast. Three days after blast exposure, all mice were sacrificed. One eye was used to measure levels of retinal proteins (TNF?, IL-1?, Bax, BcL-xL, caspase 3, and cytochrome C). The other eye was used for TUNEL labeling of apoptotic cells, which were co-labeled with NeuN to stain for retinal ganglion cells. Results We found that ocular exposure to 26 psi air pressure led to a significant increase in levels of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators within 4 hours, which lasted throughout the period investigated. When Compound 49b was applied within 4 hours or 24 hours of blast injury, levels of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators were significantly reduced. Application of Compound 49b within 72 hours of blast injury reduced levels of inflammatory mediators, but not to untreated levels. Conclusions Ocular blast injury produces a significant increase in levels of key inflammatory and apoptotic markers in the retina as early as 4 hours after blast exposure. These levels are significantly reduced if a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist is applied within 24 hours of blast exposure. Data suggest that local application of beta-adrenergic receptor agonists may be beneficial to reduce inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:23899290

2013-01-01

248

Comparison of transient PCRV model test results with analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons are made of transient data derived from simple models of a reactor containment vessel with analytical solutions. This effort is a part of the ongoing process of development and testing of the DYNAPCON computer code. The test results used in these comparisons were obtained from scaled models of the British sodium cooled fast breeder program. The test structure is

A. H. Marchertas; T. B. Belytschko

1979-01-01

249

A summary of SEU test results using Californium-252  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are reported from 4 years of single-event-upset tests on a wide range of devices and technologies, using Cf-252 having an average linear energy transfer of 43 MeV/(mg/sq cm). Sensitivity variations are highlighted, particularly for nominally identical devices. The significance of the testing and test data with respect to recent devices and technologies is discussed.

Harboe-Sorensen, R.; Adams, L.; Sanderson, T. K.

1988-12-01

250

Advanced Stirling Convertor Dynamic Test Approach and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. As part of the extended operation testing of this power system, the Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) at NASA GRC undergo a vibration test sequence intended to simulate the vibration history that an ASC would experience when used in an ASRG for a space mission. This sequence includes testing at workmanship and flight acceptance levels interspersed with periods of extended operation to simulate prefueling and post fueling. The final step in the test sequence utilizes additional testing at flight acceptance levels to simulate launch. To better replicate the acceleration profile seen by an ASC incorporated into an ASRG, the input spectra used in testing the convertors was modified based on dynamic testing of the ASRG Engineering Unit (ASRG EU) at LM. This paper outlines the overall test approach, summarizes the test results from the ASRG EU, describes the incorporation of those results into the test approach, and presents the results of applying the test approach to the ASC-1 #3 and #4 convertors. The test results include data from several accelerometers mounted on the convertors as well as the piston position and output power variables.

Meer, David W.; Hill, Dennis; Ursic, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

251

MSFC/Ball Space-Act Test Results of SBMD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of two cryo tests of the SBMD that were funded by Ball Aerospace through a Space-Act Agreement with MSFC will be discussed. These tests followed the formal completion of the SBMD program. The PhaseCam interferometer, rather than the Wavescope Shack-Hartmann sensor, was used during these tests.

Hadaway, James; Brown, Bob; Eng, Ron; Stahl, Phil

2002-01-01

252

Space Power Demonstration Engine linear alternator dynamometer test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify the alternator bench test and finite element code results, it was decided to test the Space Power Demonstration Engine (SPDE) alternator on a linear dynamometer. The dynamometer tests confirmed that the primary source of losses in the SPDE alternator assembly was the adjacent magnetic structure and not the alternator proper. Alternator efficiency above 90% was demonstrated by substitution

M. Dhar; J. Rauch; S. Huang; R. Bolton

1989-01-01

253

Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 2. Free-air peak-pressure measurements. Section 2. Telemetering from moored balloons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the free-air peak-pressure as a function of distance from an atomic explosion. In this report, free-air peak-pressure is defined as the pressure at the head of the blast wave in regions where it has not been reinforced by a reflected wave. Operation in the test area was more difficult than anticipated. Heavy winds made balloon handling very difficult. On the whole, the radio link performed satisfactorily on all occasions and appears to be a reliable method. For some unknown reason, blast switches closer than 1,500 feet failed to give satisfactory signals. Pressures were computed using the Rankine-Hugoniot relation, which is based on the shock wave being a definite discontinuity in pressure. Since the pressures measured on the ground showed relatively long times, there has been some speculation that a true shock wave may not exist in free air. If a true shock wave does not exist in the free-air region, pressures as computed are not correct, and the method of this experiment cannot be used.

Frolich, A.J.

1985-09-01

254

Blast-wave impact-mitigation capability of polyurea when used as helmet suspension-pad material  

E-print Network

, as well as exposure to elec- tromagnetic and thermal radiation [6]. Due to the fact that blast can often propel the soldier and result in a head impact, early blast-induced TBI mitigation efforts were mainly

Grujicic, Mica

255

EDD-7 Electric Charge Point Meter test results  

SciTech Connect

The results of tests evaluating the electric switching portion of the EDD-7 Electric Charge Point Meter (ECPM) are presented. The ECPM is a modified parking meter that allows the purchase of 120 or 240 volt electric power. The ECPM is designed to make electricity available at any vehicle parking location. The test results indicate that the ECPM operated without failure thru a series of over current and ground fault tests at three different test temperatures. The magnitude of current required to trip the over current protection circuitry varied with temperature while the performance of the ground fault interruption circuitry did not change significantly with the test temperature.

Mersman, C.R.

1993-09-01

256

2006 Toyota Highlander-6395 Hyrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A160006395). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

257

2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K773007129). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

258

2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

259

2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number 1N4CL21E27C177982). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

260

Physics of IED Blast Shock Tube Simulations for mTBI Research  

PubMed Central

Shock tube experiments and simulations are conducted with a spherical gelatin filled skull–brain surrogate, in order to study the mechanisms leading to blast induced mild traumatic brain injury. A shock tube including sensor system is optimized to simulate realistic improvised explosive device blast profiles obtained from full scale field tests. The response of the skull–brain surrogate is monitored using pressure and strain measurements. Fluid–structure interaction is modeled using a combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the air blast, and a finite element model for the structural response. The results help to understand the physics of wave propagation, from air blast into the skull–brain. The presence of openings on the skull and its orientation does have a strong effect on the internal pressure. A parameter study reveals that when there is an opening in the skull, the skull gives little protection and the internal pressure is fairly independent on the skull stiffness; the gelatin shear stiffness has little effect on the internal pressure. Simulations show that the presence of pressure sensors in the gelatin hardly disturbs the pressure field. PMID:21960984

Mediavilla Varas, Jesus; Philippens, M.; Meijer, S. R.; van den Berg, A. C.; Sibma, P. C.; van Bree, J. L. M. J.; de Vries, D. V. W. M.

2011-01-01

261

Visualization of blast waves created by exploding bridge wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast waves created by small exploding bridge wires are used as a test bed for the development of a particle image velocimetry\\u000a (PIV) technique that uses polymers, seeded with scattering particles, as dynamic witness plates. Combined with pulsed, incoherent\\u000a schlieren photography, the PIV method permits visualization of the instantaneous velocity vector field in a plane cutting\\u000a through the blast wave.

M. J. Murphy; R. J. Adrian; D. S. Stewart; G. S. Elliott; K. A. Thomas; J. E. Kennedy

2005-01-01

262

Correlating Flammability of Materials with FTIR Analysis Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this experiment was to correlate flammability data with FTIR test results. Kydex 100 is a blend of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and polymethylmethacrylate, with some filler materials. Samples supplied were 0.125 in. thick. 10 samples were taken from a sheet of Kydex and analyzed for flammability and by FTIR spectroscopy. This material was utilized as a round robin sample for flammability testing. The flammability test results were found to vary across the same sheet.

Moore, Robin; Whitfield, Steve

2003-01-01

263

China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room  

E-print Network

LBNL-3502E China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners Nan Zhou Round Robin Testing Results and Analysis by China National Institute of Standardization..................................................................................................................... 1 I.1.1 China's Energy Constraint Problem and the Need to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Energy

264

Properties of blast-furnace slags containing high amounts of manganese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of tests performed to characterize the physical and chemical properties of five blast-furnace slags having MnO content up to 21%. The interactions between ordinary Portland cement or calcium oxide and each slag were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and thermoanalysis. Mortars and concretes using these slags were cast. When ground to a Blaine surface

Jean Péra; Jean Ambroise; Michel Chabannet

1999-01-01

265

Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials  

PubMed Central

Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene–acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3?m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson–Cranz scaled distance of 3.02?m?kg?1/3, 100?kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14?m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411–413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast. PMID:24711494

Arora, H.; Kelly, M.; Worley, A.; Del Linz, P.; Fergusson, A.; Hooper, P. A.; Dear, J. P.

2014-01-01

266

Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials.  

PubMed

Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3?m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson-Cranz scaled distance of 3.02?m?kg(-1/3), 100?kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14?m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411-413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast. PMID:24711494

Arora, H; Kelly, M; Worley, A; Del Linz, P; Fergusson, A; Hooper, P A; Dear, J P

2014-05-13

267

29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...currents from galvanic action of the metals and water. (c) Only water-resistant blasting caps and detonating cords shall be used...blast shall be fired while any person is in the water. (f) Blasting flags shall be...

2011-07-01

268

Three principal results from recent Fenton Hill flow testing  

SciTech Connect

Results of recent flow testing at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, have been examined in light of their applicability to the development of commercial-scale hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs at other sites. These test results, obtained during the cumulative 11 months of reservoir flow testing between 1992 and 1995, show that there was no significant production temperature drawdown during this time and that the reservoir flow became more dispersed as flow testing proceeded. Based on these test results together with previous HDR research at Fenton Hill and elsewhere, it is concluded that a three-well geometry, with one centrally located injection well and two production wells -- one at each end of the pressure-stimulated reservoir region -- would provide a much more productive system for future HDR development than the two-well system tested at Fenton Hill.

Brown, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); DuTeaux, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1997-01-01

269

Molecular Changes and Vision Loss in a Mouse Model of Closed-Globe Blast Trauma  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To characterize retinal changes and assess vision after an eye-directed air blast. Methods. Adult C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a blast directed at one eye. Optical coherence tomography and histology were performed to assess retina and optic nerve integrity. Cell death, oxidative stress, and glial reactivity were examined by immunohistochemistry. Visual changes were measured by ERG recordings and the optokinetic reflex. Results. In the outer retina, eye blast caused retinal pigment epithelium vacuoles and rare retinal detachments followed by regional cell death. Labeling for nitrotyrosine and markers of pyroptosis (caspase-1) and necroptosis (receptor-interacting protein kinases-1, -3) increased, primarily in the inner retina, after blast. Caspase-1 labeling was restricted primarily to the starburst amacrine cells. A few degenerating axons were detected at 28 days post blast. Despite a lack of substantial cell death or decreased ERG, there was a deficit in visual acuity after blast. Conclusions. Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and cell death became increasingly prevalent, over time post blast suggestive of an ongoing neurodegenerative response. Outer retinal changes either resolved or remained focal. In contrast, inner retinal changes were more robust and spread from focal regions to the entire retina over time post blast. Our model of eye blast trauma causes molecular changes and a decrease in visual acuity within the first month post blast despite a lack of overt eye injury. This subtle response matches the delayed presentation of visual deficits in some blast-exposed Veterans. PMID:24994864

Bricker-Anthony, Courtney; Hines-Beard, Jessica; Rex, Tonia S.

2014-01-01

270

Environmental testing results over a tracker drive train  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental testing following the draft of the IEC62817 standard has been carried out at ISFOC using a Soitec Solar tracker drive. The objective of this work is twofold; first to assure that the tracker design can perform under varying conditions and survive under extreme conditions and secondly to test the viability and usefulness of the tests described in the standard. After some changes in the device under test (specifically, gear-box oil) the drive system produced satisfactory results, assuring its performance under operational temperatures. Therefore, this work has demonstrated that the tests described in the standard are useful for detecting early failures.

Martínez, María; Calvo-Parra, Gustavo; Gil, Eduardo; de la Rubia, Oscar; Hillebrand, Mario; Rubio, Francisca; Aipperspach, Wolfgang; Gombert, Andreas

2014-09-01

271

Cold vacuum drying proof of performance (first article testing) test results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and details the test results of the first of a kind process referred to as Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD). The test results are compiled from several months of testing of the first process equipment skid and ancillary components to de-water and dry Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCO) filled with Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The tests results provide design verifications, equipment validations, model validation data, and establish process parameters.

MCCRACKEN, K.J.

1999-06-23

272

NASA Fastrac Engine Gas Generator Component Test Program and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation consists of viewgraph which review the test program and the results of the tests for the Gas Generator (GG) component for the Fastrac Engine. Included are pictures of the Fastrac (MC-1) Engine and the GG, diagrams of the flight configuration, and schematics of the LOX, and the RP-1 systems and the injector assembly. The normal operating parameters are reviewed, as are the test instrumentation. Also shown are graphs of the hot gas temperature, and the test temperature profiles. The results are summarized.

Dennis, Henry J., Jr.; Sanders, Tim; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

273

Space Shuttle Main Engine instrumented High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump technology test bed testing results summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the test results from the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) instrumented High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP). The turbopump was tested on Engine 3001, a highly instrumented engine, in an effort to characterize the turbopump and the engine system. Seven tests, for a total duration of 766 seconds, were performed over a five month time period. The testing

Mary E. Koelbl

1993-01-01

274

Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) is a by-product from the blast-furnaces used to make iron. Blast-furnaces are\\u000a fed with controlled mixture of iron-ore, coke and limestone, and operated at a temperature of about 1,500°C. When iron-ore,\\u000a coke and limestone melt in the blast furnace, two products are produced—molten iron, and molten slag. The molten slag is lighter\\u000a and floats

Rafat Siddique; Mohammad Iqbal Khan

275

Pediatric blast lung injury from a fireworks-related explosion.  

PubMed

Blast injuries related to explosions have been described in the literature but are uncommon in children. We describe a multisystem blast injury in a child resulting from a commercial firework-related explosion in her home. She presented with respiratory failure, shock, altered level of consciousness, and multiple orthopedic injuries. The patient required immediate stabilization and resuscitation in the emergency department and a prolonged hospitalization. This report reviews the spectrum of injuries that are seen in blast-related trauma and the emergency measures needed for rapid stabilization of these critical patients. PMID:22668665

Ratto, Jessica; Johnson, Bernadette K; Condra, Cole S; Knapp, Jane F

2012-06-01

276

Relativistic blast waves in two dimensions. I - The adiabatic case  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximate solutions are presented for the dynamical evolution of strong adiabatic relativistic blast waves which result from a point explosion in an ambient gas in which the density varies both with distance from the explosion center and with polar angle in axisymmetry. Solutions are analytical or quasi-analytical for the extreme relativistic case and numerical for the arbitrarily relativistic case. Some general properties of nonplanar relativistic shocks are also discussed, including the incoherence of spherical ultrarelativistic blast-wave fronts on angular scales greater than the reciprocal of the shock Lorentz factor, as well as the conditions for producing blast-wave acceleration.

Shapiro, P. R.

1979-01-01

277

Measurement of Blast Waves from Bursting Pressureized Frangible Spheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small-scale experiments were conducted to obtain data on incident overpressure at various distances from bursting pressurized spheres. Complete time histories of blast overpressure generated by rupturing glass spheres under high internal pressure were obtained using eight side-on pressure transducers. A scaling law is presented, and its nondimensional parameters are used to compare peak overpressures, arrival times, impulses, and durations for different initial conditions and sizes of blast source. The nondimensional data are also compared, whenever possible, with results of theoretical calculations and compiled data for Pentolite high explosive. The scaled data are repeatable and show significant differences from blast waves generated by condensed high-explosives.

Esparza, E. D.; Baker, W. E.

1977-01-01

278

Spectrum of abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type  

PubMed Central

Introduction Abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type is always challenging for diagnosis. Air containing abdominal viscera is most vulnerable to effects of primary blast injury. In any patient exposed to a primary blast wave who presents with an acute abdomen, an abdominal organ injury is to be kept in a clinical suspicion. Aim Study various abdominal organ injuries occurring in a primary type of blast injury. Material and methods: All those who had exploratory laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries after a primary blast injury for a period of 10 years from January 1998 - January 2008 were included in this retrospective study. Results Total 154 patients had laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries with a primary blast type of injury. Small intestine was damaged in 48 patients (31.1%) followed by spleen in 22.7% cases. 54 patients (35.06%) had more than one organ injured. Liver laceration was present in 30 patients (19.48%). Multiple small gut perforations were present in 37 patients (77.08%). Negative laparotomy was found in 5 patients (3.24%) whereas 3 (1.94%) had re-exploration. Mortality was present in 6 patients (3.89%). Conclusions Primary blast injury causes varied abdominal organ injuries. Single or multiple organ damage can be there. Small intestine is commonest viscera injured. Laparotomy gives final diagnosis. PMID:20025766

2009-01-01

279

Mechanical properties testing and results for thermal barrier coatings  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports on several years of mechanical testing of thermal barrier coatings. The test results were generated to support the development of durability models for the coatings in heat engine applications. The test data that are reviewed include modulus, static strength, and fatigue strength data. The test methods and results are discussed, along with the significant difficulties inherent in mechanical testing of thermal barrier coating materials. The materials include 7 percent wt. and 8 percent wt. yttria, partially stabilized zirconia as well as a cermet material. Both low pressure plasma spray and electron-beam physical vapor deposited coatings were tested. The data indicate the basic trends in the mechanical properties of the coatings over a wide range of isothermal conditions. Some of the trends are correlated with material density.

Cruse, T.A.; Johnsen, B.P.; Nagy, A.

1995-10-01

280

Mechanical properties testing and results for thermal barrier coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reports on several years of mechanical testing of thermal barrier coatings. The test results were generated to support the development of durability models for the coatings in heat engine applications. The test data that are reviewed include modulus, static strength, and fatigue strength data. The test methods and results are discussed, along with the significant difficulties inherent in mechanical testing of thermal barrier coating materials. The materials include 7 percent wt. and 8 percent wt. yttria, partially stabilized zirconia as well as a cermet material. Both low pressure plasma spray and electron-beam physical vapor deposited coatings were tested. The data indicate the basic trends in the mechanical properties of the coatings over a wide range of isothermal conditions. Some of the trends are correlated with material density.

Cruse, Thomas A.; Johnsen, B. P.; Nagy, Andrew

1995-01-01

281

Statistical analysis of Salmonella test data and comparison to results of animal cancer tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A quantitative framework for the analysis of results of the Salmonella (Ames) test is presented, and the relationship between mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is examined. Color graphics are used for the Salmonella data to describe variability, and trends across multiple chemicals and test conditions. Positivity in the Salmonella test, using statistical criteria to classify results, is compared to positivity in

Joyce McCann; L SWIRSKYGOLD; Laura Horn; R. McGill; T. E. Graedel; John Kaldor

1988-01-01

282

2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima HEV, number 2351 (VIN 1N4CL21E87C172351). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec). The Idaho National Laboratory and eTec conduct the AVTA for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

283

2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

2010-01-01

284

FERET (Face Recognition Technology) Recognition Algorithm Development and Test Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Face Recognition Technology (FERET) program, the U.S. ArmyResearch Laboratory (ARL) conducted supervised government tests and evaluationsof automatic face recognition algorithms. The goal of the tests was toprovide an independent method of evaluating algorithms and assessing thestate of the art in automatic face recognition. This report describes the designand presents the results of the August1994andMarch1995FERET tests. Resultsfor

P. Jonathon Phillips; Patrick J. Rauss; Sandor Z. Der

1996-01-01

285

Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.  

PubMed

A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep. PMID:25411822

Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon

2015-04-01

286

Hybrid S2/Carbon Epoxy Composite Armours Under Blast Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Civil and military structures, such as helicopters, aircrafts, naval ships, tanks or buildings are susceptible to blast loads as terroristic attacks increases, therefore there is the need to design blast resistant structures. During an explosion the peak pressure produced by shock wave is much greater than the static collapse pressure. Metallic structures usually undergo large plastic deformations absorbing blast energy before reaching equilibrium. Due to their high specific properties, fibre-reinforced polymers are being considered for energy absorption applications in blast resistant armours. A deep insight into the relationship between explosion loads, composite architecture and deformation/fracture behaviour will offer the possibility to design structures with significantly enhanced energy absorption and blast resistance performance. This study presents the results of a numerical investigation aimed at understanding the performance of a hybrid composite (glass/carbon fibre) plate subjected to blast loads using commercial LS-DYNA software. In particular, the paper deals with numerical 3D simulations of damages caused by air blast waves generated by C4 charges on two fully clamped rectangular plates made of steel and hybrid (S2/Carbon) composite, respectively. A Multi Materials Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (MMALE) formulation was used to simulate the shock phenomenon. For the steel plates, the Johnson-Cook material model was employed. For the composite plates both in-plane and out-of-plane failure criteria were employed. In particular, a contact tiebreak formulation with a mixed mode failure criteria was employed to simulate delamination failure. As for the steel plates the results showed that excellent correlation with the experimental data for the two blast load conditions in terms of dynamic and residual deflection for two different C4 charges. For the composite plates the numerical results showed that, as expected, a wider delamination damage was observed for the higher blast loads case. Widespread tensile matrix damage was experienced for both blast load cases, while only for 875 g blast load fiber failure damage was observed. This agrees well with the experimental data showing that the composite panel was not able to resist to the 875 g blast load.

Dolce, F.; Meo, Michele; Wright, A.; French, M.; Bernabei, M.

2012-06-01

287

Fragmentation, Cost and Environmental Effects of Plaster Stemming Method for Blasting at A Basalt Quarry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the plaster stemming application for blasting at a basalt quarry is studied. Drill cuttings are generally used in open pits and quarries as the most common stemming material since these are most readily available at blast sites. However, dry drill cuttings eject very easily from blastholes without offering much resistance to blast energy. The plaster stemming method has been found to be better than the drill cuttings stemming method due to increased confinement inside the hole and better utilization of blast explosive energy in the rock. The main advantage of the new stemming method is the reduction in the cost of blasting. At a basalt quarry, blasting costs per unit volume of rock were reduced to 15% by increasing burden and spacing distances. In addition, better fragmentation was obtained by using the plaster stemming method. Blast trials showed that plaster stemming produced finer material. In the same blast tests, +30 cm size fragments were reduced to 47.3% of the total, compared to 32.6% in the conventional method of drill cuttings stemming. With this method of stemming, vibration and air shock values increased slightly due to more blast energy being available for rock breakage but generally these increased values were small and stayed under the permitted limit for blast damage criteria unless measuring distance is too close.

Cevizci, Halim

2014-10-01

288

Advanced Stirling Convertor Dynamic Test Approach and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. As part of the extended operation testing of this power system, the Advanced Stirling Converters (ASC) at NASA John H. Glenn Research Center undergo a vibration test sequence intended to simulate the vibration history of an ASC used in an ASRG for a space mission. This sequence includes testing at Workmanship and Flight Acceptance levels interspersed with periods of extended operation to simulate pre and post fueling. The final step in the test sequence utilizes additional testing at Flight Acceptance levels to simulate launch. To better replicate the acceleration profile seen by an ASC incorporated into an ASRG, the input spectra used in testing the convertors was modified based on dynamic testing of the ASRG Engineering Unit ( ASRG-EU) at Lockheed Martin. This paper presents the vibration test plan for current and future ASC units, including the modified input spectra, and the results of recent tests using these spectra. The test results include data from several accelerometers mounted on the convertors as well as the piston position and output power variables.

Meer, David W.; Hill, Dennis; Ursic, Joseph

2009-01-01

289

Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) waste treatment technology  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and occupational hazard regulations have motivated consideration of several new developments in paint removal technology. Plastic Media Blasting (PMB)/paint wastes consist predominantly of degraded plastic media plus the stripped paint. They are, in general, placed in the category of being characteristically hazardous'' according to the definition in the RCRA Act because of the excess leachability of toxic metals. The objective of the studies described in this paper is the identification and development of optimum methods for treating PMB/paint stripping wastes, particularly the type of such wastes generated by depainting operations performed at Hill Air Force Base. An optimum treatment method would be one which minimizes disposal costs, generally by waste volume reduction, and which results in a nonhazardous solidified product according to the established EPA criteria. The work has progressed in three phases. In Phase 1, the physical properties of the waste material were determined and full range of treatment methods were tested and evaluated. Phase 2 concentrated on a few selected treatments and encapsulation methods. Phase 3, which is currently in its early setup stages, is a demonstration test being conducted at Hill Air Force Base. 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Jermyn, H. (Air Force Engineering and Services Center, Tyndall AFB, FL (USA)); Wichner, R.P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1991-10-18

290

Swine influenza test results from animal health laboratories in Canada.  

PubMed

Due to its infrastructure and partnerships the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was able to rapidly collect test results from 9 Canadian laboratories that were conducting primary testing for influenza on swine-origin samples, in response to the threat posed by the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in 2009. PMID:24155436

Kloeze, Harold; Mukhi, Shamir N; Alexandersen, Soren

2013-05-01

291

EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF INDUSTRIAL FLARES: TEST RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of Phases 3 and 4 of a four-phase research program to quantify emissions from, and efficiencies of, industrial flares. Phase 1 consisted of the experimental design; Phase 2, the design of the test facilities; Phase 3, development of the test facilities; a...

292

Test cases of dam breach simulation Comments about Cemagref's results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two models developed by Cemagref were used to simulate the two test cases proposed before the meeting. The 1-D simplified model provided acceptable results. With a convenient choice of the main coefficient, the rate of erosion is right except in the first phase of evolution. The 2-D model provided a too fast erosion on test 2 and showed instabilities which,

André PAQUIER

293

Documenting and Explaining Major Field Test Results among Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the results of the Educational Testing Service Major Field Test (ETS-MFT) administered to business majors at a U.S. state university. Longitudinal trends and cross-sectional differences are documented, including significant performance differences among students of different majors. Findings suggest that a cohort affect…

Contreras, Salvador; Badua, Frank; Chen, Jiun Shiu; Adrian, Mitchell

2011-01-01

294

Explaining Test Results to Parents. ERIC Digest Number 102.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for explaining standardized test results to parents of students are provided. More specifically, the guidelines cover rationales for testing, the various types of scores and their meanings, and means of interpreting scores. Scores covered include stanine scores, percentile scores, and grade-level equivalent scores. The importance to…

Eissenberg, Thomas E.; Rudner, Lawrence M.

295

49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The MRO must report all drug test results to the operator...operator, by a substance abuse professional under contract...ensure that a substance abuse professional, who determines...resolving problems with drug abuse, does not refer the...

2013-10-01

296

49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The MRO must report all drug test results to the operator...operator, by a substance abuse professional under contract...ensure that a substance abuse professional, who determines...resolving problems with drug abuse, does not refer the...

2012-10-01

297

49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The MRO must report all drug test results to the operator...operator, by a substance abuse professional under contract...ensure that a substance abuse professional, who determines...resolving problems with drug abuse, does not refer the...

2011-10-01

298

49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...The MRO must report all drug test results to the operator...operator, by a substance abuse professional under contract...ensure that a substance abuse professional, who determines...resolving problems with drug abuse, does not refer the...

2014-10-01

299

49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The MRO must report all drug test results to the operator...operator, by a substance abuse professional under contract...ensure that a substance abuse professional, who determines...resolving problems with drug abuse, does not refer the...

2010-10-01

300

What Do the Results of Genetic Tests Mean?  

MedlinePLUS

... test results sometimes occur because everyone has common, natural variations in their DNA, called polymorphisms, that do ... be difficult to tell whether it is a natural polymorphism or a disease-causing mutation. An uninformative ...

301

Low Level Primary Blast Injury in Rodent Brain  

PubMed Central

The incidence of blast attacks and resulting traumatic brain injuries has been on the rise in recent years. Primary blast is one of the mechanisms in which the blast wave can cause injury to the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single sub-lethal blast over pressure (BOP) exposure of either 48.9?kPa (7.1?psi) or 77.3?kPa (11.3?psi) to rodents in an open-field setting. Brain tissue from these rats was harvested for microarray and histopathological analyses. Gross histopathology of the brains showed that cortical neurons were “darkened” and shrunken with narrowed vasculature in the cerebral cortex day 1 after blast with signs of recovery at day 4 and day 7 after blast. TUNEL-positive cells were predominant in the white matter of the brain at day 1 after blast and double-labeling of brain tissue showed that these DNA-damaged cells were both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes but were mainly not apoptotic due to the low caspase-3 immunopositivity. There was also an increase in amyloid precursor protein immunoreactive cells in the white matter which suggests acute axonal damage. In contrast, Iba-1 staining for macrophages or microglia was not different from control post-blast. Blast exposure altered the expression of over 5786 genes in the brain which occurred mostly at day 1 and day 4 post-blast. These genes were narrowed down to 10 overlapping genes after time-course evaluation and functional analyses. These genes pointed toward signs of repair at day 4 and day 7 post-blast. Our findings suggest that the BOP levels in the study resulted in mild cellular injury to the brain as evidenced by acute neuronal, cerebrovascular, and white matter perturbations that showed signs of resolution. It is unclear whether these perturbations exist at a milder level or normalize completely and will need more investigation. Specific changes in gene expression may be further evaluated to understand the mechanism of blast-induced neurotrauma. PMID:21541261

Pun, Pamela B. L.; Kan, Enci Mary; Salim, Agus; Li, Zhaohui; Ng, Kian Chye; Moochhala, Shabbir M.; Ling, Eng-Ang; Tan, Mui Hong; Lu, Jia

2011-01-01

302

Test results on reuse of reclaimed shower water - A summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from tests to evaluate a microgravity whole body shower and waste water recovery system design for possible use on the Space Station. Several water recovery methods were tested, including phase change distillation, a thermoelectric hollow fiber membrane evaporation subsystem, and a reverse osmosis dynamic membrane system. Consideration is given to the test hardware, the types of soaps evaluated, the human response to showering with reclaimed water, chemical treatment for microbial control, the procedures for providing hygienic water, and the quality of water produced by the systems. All three of the waste water recovery systems tested successfully produced reclaimed water for reuse.

Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Sauer, Richard; Reysa, Richard P.; Linton, Arthur T.

1989-01-01

303

Apollo experience report: Electronic systems test program accomplishments and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A chronological record is presented of the Electronic Systems Test Program from its conception in May 1963 to December 1969. The original concept of the program, which was primarily a spacecraft/Manned Space Flight Network communications system compatibility and performance evaluation, is described. The evolution of these concepts to include various levels of test detail, as well as systems level design verification testing, is discussed. Actual implementation of these concepts is presented, and the facility to support the program is described. Test results are given, and significant contributions to the lunar landing mission are underlined. Plans for modifying the facility and the concepts, based on Apollo experience, are proposed.

Ohnesorge, T. E.

1972-01-01

304

NNWSI Phase II materials interaction test procedure and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is investigating the volcanic tuff beds of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report describes a test method (Phase II) that has been developed to measure the release of radionuclides from the waste package under simulated repository conditions, and provides information on materials interactions that may occur in the repository. The results of 13 weeks of testing using the method are presented, and an analog test is described that investigates the relationship between the test method and expected repository conditions. 9 references, 10 figures, 11 tables.

Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

1985-01-01

305

Results from the BABAR electromagnetic calorimeter beam test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from the PSI test beam run for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the BABAR experiment. A system of 25 CsI(Tl) crystals was tested with electrons and pions in the momentum range from 100 to 405MeV\\/c. Results are presented on crystal light output, on coherent and incoherent noise, on energy resolution and on spatial resolution. The design energy resolutions

Roger J. Barlow; Roland Bernet; Christopher K. Bowdery; Jens Brose; Theresa Champion; Gerd Dahlinger; Paul Dauncey; Peter Eckstein; Gerald Eigen; Dietrich Freytag; John Fry; Neil I. Geddes; Vladimir Ivanchenko; Colin Jessop; Damian Johnson; Mary King; Eckart Lorenz; Helmut Marsiske; Steve McMahon; Howard Nicholson; Jim Reidy; Rafe Schindler; Klaus R. Schubert; Rainer Schwierz; Iain Scott; Reiner Seitz; Zurab Silagadze; Bernhard Spaan; David P. Stoker; Edward Tetteh-Lartey; Roland Waldi; William J. Wisniewski; Craig R. Wuest

1999-01-01

306

TF34 Quiet Nacelle nearfield acoustic test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the nearfield acoustic tests conducted on the TF34 Quiet Nacelle are presented. The high fan noise suppression levels being sought (26 PNdB reduction in aft noise) necessitated the use of an extensive system of special nearfield acoustic instrumentation to properly evaluate the suppression achieved. The design, operation, and test results from each of these nearfield acoustic instrumentation systems are presented.

Coward, W. E.; Smith, E. B.; Sowers, H. D.

1974-01-01

307

A Comparison Between The NORCAT Rover Test Results and the ISRU Excavation System Model Predictions Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Excavation System Model has been written to simulate the collection and transportation of regolith on the moon. The calculations in this model include an estimation of the forces on the digging tool as a result of excavation into the regolith. Verification testing has been performed and the forces recorded from this testing were compared to the calculated theoretical data. The Northern Centre for Advanced Technology Inc. rovers were tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center Simulated Lunar Operations facility. This testing was in support of the In-Situ Resource Utilization program Innovative Partnership Program. Testing occurred in soils developed at the Glenn Research Center which are a mixture of different types of sands and whose soil properties have been well characterized. This testing is part of an ongoing correlation of actual field test data to the blade forces calculated by the Excavation System Model. The results from this series of tests compared reasonably with the predicted values from the code.

Gallo, Christopher A.; Agui, Juan H.; Creager, Colin M.; Oravec, Heather A.

2012-01-01

308

Test results: hazardous waste disposal in an industrial boiler  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the key test results of a program designed to evaluate the environmental and technical consequences of burning hazardous waste in an industrial boiler. The boiler tested was one of four units at the Harley-Davidson Motor Company, Inc., facility located in York, Pennsylvania. SYSTECH Corporation conducted this evaluation in early 1982 for the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste (EPA/OSW) under Contract No. 68-01-6071. The primary conclusion resulting from this study is that the test boiler achieved DREs of at least 99.99 percent in 15 of the 19 test determinations. Measured DREs less than 99.99 percent were observed in three cases for methyl acetate and in one case for methanol. In all test cases the DREs for 1,1,1trichloroethane exceeded 99.99 percent.

Higgins, G.M.

1983-06-01

309

A $55 Shock Tube for Simulated Blast Waves  

E-print Network

Shock tubes are commonly employed to test candidate armor materials, validate numerical models, and conduct simulated blast experiments in animal models. As DoD interests desire to field wearable sensors as blast dosimeters, shock tubes may also serve for calibration and testing of these devices. The high blast pressures needed for experimental testing of candidate armors are unnecessary to test these sensors. An inexpensive, efficient, and easily available way of testing these pressure sensors is desirable. It is known that releasing compressed gas suddenly can create a repeatable shock front, and the pressures can be finely tuned by changing the pressure to which the gas is compressed. A Crosman 0.177 caliber air pistol was used (without loading any pellets) to compress and release air in one end of a 24 inch long 3/4 inch diameter standard pipe nipple to simulate a blast wave at the other end of the tube. A variable number of pumps were used to vary the peak blast pressure. As expected, the trials where 10...

Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael

2015-01-01

310

Military Personnel with Chronic Symptoms Following Blast Traumatic Brain Injury Have Differential Expression of Neuronal Recovery and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Genes  

PubMed Central

Objective: Approximately one-quarter of military personnel who deployed to combat stations sustained one or more blast-related, closed-head injuries. Blast injuries result from the detonation of an explosive device. The mechanisms associated with blast exposure that give rise to traumatic brain injury (TBI), and place military personnel at high risk for chronic symptoms of post-concussive disorder (PCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression are not elucidated. Methods: To investigate the mechanisms of persistent blast-related symptoms, we examined expression profiles of transcripts across the genome to determine the role of gene activity in chronic symptoms following blast-TBI. Active duty military personnel with (1) a medical record of a blast-TBI that occurred during deployment (n?=?19) were compared to control participants without TBI (n?=?17). Controls were matched to cases on demographic factors including age, gender, and race, and also in diagnoses of sleep disturbance, and symptoms of PTSD and depression. Due to the high number of PCD symptoms in the TBI+ group, we did not match on this variable. Using expression profiles of transcripts in microarray platform in peripheral samples of whole blood, significantly differentially expressed gene lists were generated. Statistical threshold is based on criteria of 1.5 magnitude fold-change (up or down) and p-values with multiple test correction (false discovery rate <0.05). Results: There were 34 transcripts in 29 genes that were differentially regulated in blast-TBI participants compared to controls. Up-regulated genes included epithelial cell transforming sequence and zinc finger proteins, which are necessary for astrocyte differentiation following injury. Tensin-1, which has been implicated in neuronal recovery in pre-clinical TBI models, was down-regulated in blast-TBI participants. Protein ubiquitination genes, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, were also down-regulated and identified as the central regulators in the gene network determined by interaction pathway analysis. Conclusion: In this study, we identified a gene-expression pathway of delayed neuronal recovery in military personnel a blast-TBI and chronic symptoms. Future work is needed to determine if therapeutic agents that regulate these pathways may provide novel treatments for chronic blast-TBI-related symptoms. PMID:25346719

Heinzelmann, Morgan; Reddy, Swarnalatha Y.; French, Louis M.; Wang, Dan; Lee, Hyunhwa; Barr, Taura; Baxter, Tristin; Mysliwiec, Vincent; Gill, Jessica

2014-01-01

311

Low Emissions RQL Flametube Combustor Component Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes and summarizes elements of the High Speed Research (HSR) Low Emissions Rich burn/Quick mix/Lean burn (RQL) flame tube combustor test program. This test program was performed at NASA Glenn Research Center circa 1992. The overall objective of this test program was to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of the RQL combustor concept for High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) applications with the goal of achieving NOx emission index levels of 5 g/kg-fuel at representative HSCT supersonic cruise conditions. The specific objectives of the tests reported herein were to investigate component performance of the RQL combustor concept for use in the evolution of ultra-low NOx combustor design tools. Test results indicated that the RQL combustor emissions and performance at simulated supersonic cruise conditions were predominantly sensitive to the quick mixer subcomponent performance and not sensitive to fuel injector performance. Test results also indicated the mixing section configuration employing a single row of circular holes was the lowest NOx mixer tested probably due to the initial fast mixing characteristics of this mixing section. However, other quick mix orifice configurations such as the slanted slot mixer produced substantially lower levels of carbon monoxide emissions most likely due to the enhanced circumferential dispersion of the air addition. Test results also suggested that an optimum momentum-flux ratio exists for a given quick mix configuration. This would cause undesirable jet under- or over-penetration for test conditions with momentum-flux ratios below or above the optimum value. Tests conducted to assess the effect of quick mix flow area indicated that reduction in the quick mix flow area produced lower NOx emissions at reduced residence time, but this had no effect on NOx emissions measured at similar residence time for the configurations tested.

Holdeman, James D.; Chang, Clarence T.

2001-01-01

312

Dioxin testing results confirm safety of bleached paperboard milk cartons  

SciTech Connect

The US paper industry is pleased that dioxin testing results announced on September 1 by the Food and Drug Administration confirm that milk packaged in bleached paperboard cartons is safe to drink. And American Paper Institute President Red Cavaney said, the FDA test results closely parallel our own independent studies, results of which will be finalized within the next few days. He also reported that paper industry efforts to reduce further the trace amounts of unwanted dioxin formed in the bleached paper manufacturing process have led to impressive results.

Not Available

1989-10-01

313

Development and Results of a First Generation Least Expensive Approach to Fission: Module Tests and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of resistance heaters to simulate heat from fission allows extensive development of fission systems to be performed in non-nuclear test facilities, saving time and money. Resistance heated tests on the Module Unfueled Thermal-hydraulic Test (MUTT) article has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This paper discusses the results of these experiments and identifies future tests to be performed.

Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Pederson, Kevin; Sena, J. Tom; VanDyke, Melissa; Dickens, Ricky; Reid, Bob J.; Martin, Jim

2000-01-01

314

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

Dr. M.A. Ebadian

2000-01-13

315

Oscillating flow loss test results in Stirling engine heat exchangers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented for a test program designed to generate a database of oscillating flow loss information that is applicable to Stirling engine heat exchangers. The tests were performed on heater/cooler tubes of various lengths and entrance/exit configurations, on stacked and sintered screen regenerators of various wire diameters and on Brunswick and Metex random fiber regenerators. The test results were performed over a range of oscillating flow parameters consistent with Stirling engine heat exchanger experience. The tests were performed on the Sunpower oscillating flow loss rig which is based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. In general, the results are presented by comparing the measured oscillating flow losses to the calculated flow losses. The calculated losses are based on the cycle integration of steady flow friction factors and entrance/exit loss coefficients.

Koester, G.; Howell, S.; Wood, G.; Miller, E.; Gedeon, D.

1990-01-01

316

Lateral blasts at Mount St. Helens and hazard zonation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lateral blasts at andesitic and dacitic volcanoes can produce a variety of direct hazards, including ballistic projectiles which can be thrown to distances of at least 10 km and pyroclastic density flows which can travel at high speed to distances of more than 30 km. Indirect effect that may accompany such explosions include wind-borne ash, pyroclastic flows formed by the remobilization of rock debris thrown onto sloping ground, and lahars. Two lateral blasts occurred at a lava dome on the north flank of Mount St. Helens about 1200 years ago; the more energetic of these threw rock debris northeastward across a sector of about 30?? to a distance of at least 10 km. The ballistic debris fell onto an area estimated to be 50 km2, and wind-transported ash and lapilli derived from the lateral-blast cloud fell on an additional lobate area of at least 200 km2. In contrast, the vastly larger lateral blast of May 18, 1980, created a devastating pyroclastic density flow that covered a sector of as much as 180??, reached a maximum distance of 28 km, and within a few minutes directly affected an area of about 550 km2. The May 18 lateral blast resulted from the sudden, landslide-induced depressurization of a dacite cryptodome and the hydrothermal system that surrounded it within the volcano. We propose that lateral-blast hazard assessments for lava domes include an adjoining hazard zone with a radius of at least 10 km. Although a lateral blast can occur on any side of a dome, the sector directly affected by any one blast probably will be less than 180??. Nevertheless, a circular hazard zone centered on the dome is suggested because of the difficulty of predicting the direction of a lateral blast. For the purpose of long-term land-use planning, a hazard assessment for lateral blasts caused by explosions of magma bodies or pressurized hydrothermal systems within a symmetrical volcano could designate a circular potential hazard area with a radius of 35 km centered on the volcano. For short-term hazard assessments, if seismicity and deformation indicate that magma is moving toward the flank of a volcano, it should be recognized that a landslide could lead to the sudden unloading of a magmatic or hydrothermal system and thereby cause a catastrophic lateral blast. A hazard assessment should assume that a lateral blast could directly affect an area at least 180?? wide to a distance of 35 km from the site of the explosion, irrespective of topography. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

Crandell, D.R.; Hoblitt, R.P.

1986-01-01

317

Uprated OMS Engine Status-Sea Level Testing Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increase operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities for this engine system have been on-going since 1984. More recently, a complete engine designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at sea level conditions by Aerojet. A description of the test hardware and results of the sea level test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope and projected performance at altitude conditions, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities, including ICTB tests at simulated altitude conditions, and recommendations for further engine development, are also discussed.

Bertolino, J. D.; Boyd, W. C.

1990-01-01

318

Flight Test Results of a Thermoelectric Energy Harvester for Aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of thermoelectric energy harvesting for low-power wireless sensor systems in aircraft and its practical implementation was recently published. The concept of using a thermoelectric generator (TEG) attached to the aircraft inner hull and a thermal storage device to create an artificial temperature gradient at the TEG during take-off and landing from the temperature changes of the fuselage has passed initial tests and is now subject to flight testing. This work presents preflight test results, e.g., vibration and temperature testing of the harvesters, the practical installation of two harvesting devices inside a test plane, and the first test flight results. Several flight cycles with different flight profiles, flight lengths, and outside temperatures have been performed. Although the influence of different flight profiles on the energy output of the harvester can be clearly observed, the results are in good agreement with expectations from numerical simulations with boundary conditions evaluated from initial climate chamber experiments. In addition, the flight test demonstrates that reliable operation of thermoelectric energy harvesting in harsh aircraft environments seems to be feasible, therefore paving the way for realization of energy-autonomous, wireless sensor networks.

Samson, D.; Kluge, M.; Fuss, T.; Schmid, U.; Becker, Th.

2012-06-01

319

Salmonella mutagenicity tests. IV. Results from the testing of 300 chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Three hundred chemicals were tested for mutagenicity, under code, in Salmonella typhimurium, using a preincubation protocol. All tests were performed in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation, and in the presence of liver S-9 from Aroclor-induced male Sprague-Dawley rats and Syrian hamsters. The results and data from these tests are presented.

Zeiger, E.; Anderson, B.; Haworth, S.; Lawlor, T.; Mortelmans, K.

1988-01-01

320

Numerical solutions for unsteady laminar boundary layers behind blast waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the similarity solutions obtained for laminar boundary layers behind a power-law shock associated with a blast wave. A finite-difference method based on Blottner's numerical scheme (1970) is used. The results are valid, at all times, in the entire flow region between the shock front and the immediate vicinity of the blast-wave origin provided the boundary layer remains laminar.

Liu, S. W.; Mirels, H.

1980-04-01

321

A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting  

SciTech Connect

A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

2006-07-01

322

Dynamic response of rock reinforcement in a cavity under internal blast loading: an add-on test to the pre-mill yard event  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of constructing an underground, reusable explosive test facility, termed the High Energy Density Experimental Facility (HEDEF), has been under consideration by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. One design concept calls for a large, steel lined chamber sited in hard rock. Externally serviceable reinforcement, i.e., rock bolts or rock tendons, would tie a steel lining to peripheral galleries surrounding the test chamber. In order to understand the dynamic behavior of rock reinforcement under internal cavity loading, we have conducted a field experiment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Four partially grouted rock bolts were installed radially from a 2.74 m radius hemispherical chamber in the N-tunnel complex at Rainier Mesa. Each bolt was 2.5 cm diameter by about 6 m long, connecting the test chamber with an external alcove. Each was instrumented with two axial strain gages over a 3.8 m midsection which remained unbonded to the grout. Airblast loading and ground motion produced from a 134 kg nitromethane charge in the cavity were calculated with a one-dimensional hydrodynamics code. The measured arrival time of the compressional wave at each gage location corresponded with that of the calculated stress wave in the medium, whereas a separate stress wave propagating in the bolt could not be detected. Static strain measurements taken after the dynamic test showed no load reduction in the rock bolts. The test results provide useful validation data for numerical models aimed at analyzing the dynamic behavior of partially grouted rock bolts. 14 refs., 24 figs.

Thorpe, R.K.; Heuze, F.E.

1985-09-01

323

Noise and blast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noise and blast environments are described, providing a definition of units and techniques of noise measurement and giving representative booster-launch and spacecraft noise data. The effects of noise on hearing sensitivity and performance are reviewed, and community response to noise exposure is discussed. Physiological, or nonauditory, effects of noise exposure are also treated, as are design criteria and methods for minimizing the noise effects of hearing sensitivity and communications. The low level sound detection and speech reception are included, along with subjective and behavioral responses to noise.

Hodge, D. C.; Garinther, G. R.

1973-01-01

324

Proposed Interventions to Decrease the Frequency of Missed Test Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have identified that delays in diagnosis related to the mishandling of abnormal test results are an import contributor to diagnostic errors. Factors contributing to missed results included organizational factors, provider factors and patient-related factors. At the diagnosis error conference continuing medical education conference…

Wahls, Terry L.; Cram, Peter

2009-01-01

325

Designs and test results for three new rotational sensors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We discuss the designs and testing of three rotational seismometer prototypes developed at the Institute of Geophysics, Academy of Sciences (Prague, Czech Republic). Two of these designs consist of a liquid-filled toroidal tube with the liquid as the proof mass and providing damping; we tested the piezoelectric and pressure transduction versions of this torus. The third design is a wheel-shaped solid metal inertial sensor with capacitive sensing and magnetic damping. Our results from testing in Prague and at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory of the US Geological Survey of transfer function and cross-axis sensitivities are good enough to justify the refinement and subsequent testing of advanced prototypes. These refinements and new testing are well along.

Jedlicka, P.; Kozak, J.T.; Evans, J.R.; Hutt, C.R.

2012-01-01

326

NEXT Ion Engine 2000 Hour Wear Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the NEXT 2000 h wear test are presented. This test was conducted with a 40 cm engineering model ion engine, designated EM1, at a 3.52 A beam current and 1800 V beam power supply voltage. Performance tests, which were conducted over a throttling range of 1.1 to 6.9 kW throughout the wear test, demonstrated that EM1 satisfied all thruster performance requirements. The ion engine accumulated 2038 h of operation at a thruster input power of 6.9 kW, processing 43 kg of xenon. Overall ion engine performance, which includes thrust, thruster input power, specific impulse, and thrust efficiency, was steady with no indications of performance degradation. The ion engine was also inspected following the test. This paper presents these findings.

Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani; Patterson, Michael J.; Britton, Melissa A.; Frandina, Michael M.

2004-01-01

327

Test results of the highly instrumented Space Shuttle Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test results of a highly instrumented Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are presented. The instrumented engine, when combined with instrumented high pressure turbopumps, contains over 750 special measurements, including flowrates, pressures, temperatures, and strains. To date, two different test series, accounting for a total of sixteen tests and 1,667 seconds, have been conducted with this engine. The first series, which utilized instrumented turbopumps, characterized the internal operating environment of the SSME for a variety of operating conditions. The second series provided system-level validation of a high pressure liquid oxygen turbopump that had been retrofitted with a fluid-film bearing in place of the usual pump-end ball bearings. Major findings from these two test series are highlighted in this paper. In addition, comparisons are made between model predictions and measured test data.

Mcconnaughey, H. V.; Leopard, J. L.; Lightfoot, R. M.

1992-01-01

328

Steel Containment Vessel Model Test: Results and Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure test of the steel containment vessel (SCV) model was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. A concentric steel contact structure (CS), installed over the SCV model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. The SCV model and contact structure were instrumented with strain gages and displacement transducers to record the deformation behavior of the SCV model during the high pressure test. This paper summarizes the conduct and the results of the high pressure test and discusses the posttest metallurgical evaluation results on specimens removed from the SCV model.

Costello, J.F.; Hashimote, T.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Luk, V.K.

1999-03-01

329

TEG® and ROTEM® in trauma: similar test but different results?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Transfusion in trauma is often empiric or based on traditional lab tests. Viscoelastic tests such as thromboelastography (TEG®) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) have been proposed as superior to traditional lab tests. Due to the similarities between the two tests, general opinion seems to consider them equivalent with interchangeable interpretations. However, it is not clear whether the results can be similarly interpreted. This review evaluates the comparability between TEG and ROTEM and performs a descriptive review of the parameters utilized in each test in adult trauma patients. Methods PUBMED database was reviewed using the keywords “thromboelastography” and “compare”, between 2000 and 2011. Original studies directly comparing TEG® with ROTEM® in any area were retrieved. To verify the individual test parameter used in studies involving trauma patients, we further performed a review using the keywords “thromboelastography” and “trauma” in the PUBMED database. Results Only 4 studies directly compared TEG® with ROTEM®. One in liver transplantation found that transfusion practice could differ depending on the device in use. Another in cardiac surgery concluded that all measurements are not completely interchangeable. The third article using commercially available plasma detected clinically significant differences in the results from the two devices. The fourth one was a head-to-head comparison of the technical aspects. The 24 articles reporting the use of viscoelastic tests in trauma patients, presented considerable heterogeneity. Conclusion Both tests are potentially useful as means to rapidly diagnose coagulopathy, guide transfusion and determine outcome in trauma patients. Differences in the activators utilized in each device limit the direct comparability. Standardization and robust clinical trials comparing the two technologies are needed before these tests can be widely recommended for clinical use in trauma. PMID:23531394

2012-01-01

330

Investigation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Objective Many troops deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan have sustained blast-related, closed-head injuries from being within non-lethal distance of detonated explosive devices. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms associated with blast exposure that give rise to traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study attempts to identify the precise conditions of focused stress wave energy within the brain, resulting from blast exposure, which will correlate with a threshold for persistent brain injury. Methods This study developed and validated a set of modelling tools to simulate blast loading to the human head. Using these tools, the blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave motions that lead to focal brain damage were simulated. Results The simulations predict the deposition of three distinct wave energy components, two of which can be related to injury-inducing mechanisms, namely cavitation and shear. Furthermore, the results suggest that the spatial distributions of these damaging energy components are independent of blast direction. Conclusions The predictions reported herein will simplify efforts to correlate simulation predictions with clinical measures of TBI and aid in the development of protective headwear. PMID:24766453

Ludwigsen, John S.; Ford, Corey C.

2014-01-01

331

Investigation of ultrafast laser-driven radiative blast waves.  

PubMed

We have examined the evolution of cylindrically symmetric blast waves produced by the deposition of femtosecond laser pulses in gas jets. In high- Z gases radiative effects become important. We observe the production of an ionization precursor ahead of the shock front and deceleration parameters below the adiabatic value of 1/2 (for a cylinder), an effect expected when the blast wave loses energy by radiative cooling. Despite significant radiative cooling, the blast waves do not appear to develop thin shell instabilities expected for strongly radiative waves. This is believed to be due to the stabilizing effect of a relatively thick blast wave shell resulting in part from electron thermal conduction effects. PMID:11497951

Edwards, M J; MacKinnon, A J; Zweiback, J; Shigemori, K; Ryutov, D; Rubenchik, A M; Keilty, K A; Liang, E; Remington, B A; Ditmire, T

2001-08-20

332

Modelling ironmaking blast furnace: Solid flow and thermochemical behaviours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-, co-, cross-current moving bed reactor, where solid particles are charged at the furnace top forming a downward moving bed while gas are introduced at the lower part of furnace and travels upward through the solid bed of varying porosity, reducing solid ore to liquid iron at the cohesive zone. These three phases interact intensely. In this paper, a three-dimensional mathematical model is developed. The model describes the motion of solid and gas, based on continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the liquid flow. The model is applied to a blast furnace, where raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results demonstrate and characterize the key multiphase flow patterns of solid-gas-liquid at different regions inside the blast furnace, in particular solid flow and associated thermochemical behaviours of solid particles. This model offers a costeffective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Yu, Aibing; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter

2013-06-01

333

Characterising the acceleration phase of blast wave formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensely heated, localised regions in uniform fluids will rapidly expand and generate an outwardly propagating blast wave. The Sedov-Taylor self-similar solution for such blast waves has long been studied and applied to a variety of scenarios. A characteristic time for their formation has also long been identified using dimensional analysis, which by its very nature, can offer several interpretations. We propose that, rather than simply being a characteristic time, it may be interpreted as the definitive time taken for a blast wave resulting from an intense explosion in a uniform media to contain its maximum kinetic energy. A scaling relation for this measure of the acceleration phase, preceding the establishment of the blast wave, is presented and confirmed using a 1D planar hydrodynamic model.

Fox, T. E.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H.; Pasley, J.

2014-10-01

334

Blast TBI Models, Neuropathology, and Implications for Seizure Risk  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies. PMID:24782820

Kovacs, S. Krisztian; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.

2014-01-01

335

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential of particles, specific surface area, and images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the particles before and after adsorption. The specific surface area of the blast furnace slag was 0.4m(2)g(-1). The removal of phosphate predominantly has taken place by a precipitation mechanism and weak physical interactions between the surface of adsorbent and the metallic salts of phosphate. In this study, phosphate removal in excess of 99% was obtained, and it was concluded that blast furnace slag is an efficient adsorbent for the removal of phosphate from solution. PMID:15511583

Oguz, Ensar

2004-10-18

336

Blast injury with particular reference to recent terrorist bombing incidents.  

PubMed Central

The aetiology of primary blast lung is discussed with reference to the biodynamics of blast injury, and the clinical and pathological features of the condition are described. An analysis of casualties from bomb blast incidents occurring in Northern Ireland leads to the following conclusions concerning the injuries found in persons exposed to explosions: (1) there is a predominance of head and neck trauma, including fractures, lacerations, burns, and eye and ear injuries; (2) fractures and traumatic amputations are common and often multiple; (3) penetrating trunk wounds carry a grave prognosis; and (4) primary blast lung is rare. A comparison of four bombing incidents in England in 1973 and 1974 shows how the type and severity of injury are related to the place in which the explosion occurs. The administrative and clinical aspects of the management of casualties resulting from terrorist bombing activities are discussed. PMID:369445

Hill, J. F.

1979-01-01

337

Blast investigation by fast multispectral radiometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge regarding the processes involved in blasts and detonations is required in various applications, e.g. missile interception, blasts of high-explosive materials, final ballistics and IED identification. Blasts release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some part of this energy is released as intense radiation in the optical spectral bands. This paper proposes to measure the blast radiation by

A. D. Devir; Y. Bushlin; I. Mendelewicz; A. B. Lessin; M. Engel

2011-01-01

338

Results of routine patch testing of 834 patients in Turin.  

PubMed

834 consecutive patients (630 female), aged between 26 and 46 years, who were suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested with the GIRDCA standard series during 1989-1990. The most frequent sensitizers observed included nickel sulphate, cobalt, Kathon CG, perfumes, potassium dichromate and balsam of Peru. We have evaluated the influence of individual factors such as sex, age and occupation on the patch test results, and the coexistence of 2 or more unrelated but statistically significant sensitivities. PMID:1451464

Castiglioni, G; Carosso, A; Manzoni, S; Nebiolo, F; Bugiani, M

1992-09-01

339

DWPF Sampling Device Development Test Results and Design Recommendation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the development and testing of a sample device for the DWPF sample cells. The clamp actuated manual Hydraguard valve used in conjunction with the concentric needle fill device is recommended for use in the DWPF. This is based on test results which indicate that this sampler is capable of obtaining samples within five percent of the solids concentration of the process stream at flow rates from 0.5 to 3.5 gpm.

Wilds, G.W.

2001-07-17

340

Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Pogo testing and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To effectively assess the Pogo stability of the space shuttle vehicle, it was necessary to characterize the structural, propellant, and propulsion dynamics subsystems. Extensive analyses and comprehensive testing programs were established early in the project as an implementation of management philosophy of Pogo prevention for space shuttle. The role of the space shuttle main engine (SSMF) in the Pogo prevention plans, the results obtained from engine ground testing with analysis, and measured data from STS-1 flight are discussed.

Fenwick, J. R.; Jones, J. H.; Jewell, R. E.

1982-01-01

341

Results of thermomechanical tests on specimens of Hanford basalts  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of laboratory tests and analysis performed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories of the University of California Berkeley to measure and calculate the specific heats, coefficients of thermal expansion, coefficients of thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivities of specimens of flood basalts from Hanford, Washington. The specimens were prepared from drill cores provided by Rockwell Hanford Operations. All cores and rock fragments were returned to Rockwell after testing was completed. 7 refs.

Meyer, L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1982-09-30

342

First CALICE results from test-beam data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly granular calorimeters are mandatory in the particle flow concept for ILC detectors. The CALICE Collaboration has built prototypes of finely segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and operated them in beam tests in 2006. First analyses reproduce known physics results and the performance of the detectors is close to expectations from Monte Carlo simulations. Tracks have been reconstructed inside the electromagnetic calorimeter. The measured data will be used in future analyses to test and improve particle flow algorithms and shower models.

Schätzel, S.

2008-05-01

343

Test results of Ya-21u thermionic space power system  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet-made TOPAZ-II space nuclear power system unit designated Ya-21u underwent a total of 15 tests both in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) (1989--1990) and in the US (August 1993 to March 1995) for a cumulative test/operation time of 7681 h at conditions far exceeding design limits. These tests included steady-state operation at different power levels, fast start-ups and power optimizations, and shock and vibration tests. Test results are presented and analyzed. Results indicate a gradual change in the performance parameters such as the optimum cesium pressure and optimum load voltage. The electric power and conversion efficiency of the unit at an input thermal power of 105 kW decreased from 3.7 kW (electric) and 4% in the test in the USSR to 2.13 kW (electric) and 2.3% in the last test in the US. A discussion and qualitative assessment of potential causes of the performance changes of the Ya-21u unit are given.

Paramonov, D.V.; El-Genk, M.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-01-01

344

A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; May, M. J.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Shingleton, N.; Kane, J. O.; Holtmeier, G.; Loey, H.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Dunlop, W. H.; Guyton, R. L.; Huffman, E.

2014-09-01

345

A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility.  

PubMed

The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes. PMID:25273784

Fournier, K B; Brown, C G; May, M J; Compton, S; Walton, O R; Shingleton, N; Kane, J O; Holtmeier, G; Loey, H; Mirkarimi, P B; Dunlop, W H; Guyton, R L; Huffman, E

2014-09-01

346

15Year blast furnace campaign concept for the reline of blast furnace C at Iscor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970`s, when blast furnace campaigns of 3 to 5 years were experienced at the Vanderbijlpark Works, consequent improvements of cooling and refractory concepts as well as the development of a hot guniting practice for belly and lower shaft resulted in campaigns of 10 years and more. Having mastered the problems in belly and lower shaft, the furnace hearth

Noska; T. G. L

1995-01-01

347

Wellbore inertial navigation system (WINS) software development and test results  

SciTech Connect

The structure and operation of the real-time software developed for the Wellbore Inertial Navigation System (WINS) application are described. The procedure and results of a field test held in a 7000-ft well in the Nevada Test Site are discussed. Calibration and instrumentation error compensation are outlined, as are design improvement areas requiring further test and development. Notes on Kalman filtering and complete program listings of the real-time software are included in the Appendices. Reference is made to a companion document which describes the downhole instrumentation package.

Wardlaw, R. Jr.

1982-09-01

348

Argon Spill Duct Bellows Leak Test Procedures and Results  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note describes the testing of the argoll spill duct bellows. It includes a detailed explanation of the procedures, along with a summary of the results of the testing done on 2/18/91 and 2/19/91 by Gary Trotter. The original bellows were purchased from Expansion Joint Systems (see Appendix 2). The general conclusion from the testing was that the leaks that were found were small enough so that they would not show up at the design pressure of 0.1 psig. Therefore, the leaks were acceptable, and the conclusion was that the bellows were fit for use.

Trotter, G.R.; Wu, J.; /Fermilab

1991-03-11

349

Advanced Stirling Convertor Durability Testing: Plans and Interim Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. In support of this program, GRC has been involved in testing Stirling convertors, including the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), for use in the ASRG. This testing includes electromagnetic interference/compatibility (EMI/EMC), structural dynamics, advanced materials, organics, and unattended extended operation. The purpose of the durability tests is to experimentally demonstrate the margins in the ASC design. Due to the high value of the hardware, previous ASC tests focused on establishing baseline performance of the convertors within the nominal operating conditions. The durability tests present the first planned extension of the operating conditions into regions beyond those intended to meet the product spec, where the possibility exists of lateral contact, overstroke, or over-temperature events. These tests are not intended to cause damage that would shorten the life of the convertors, so they can transition into extended operation at the conclusion of the tests. This paper describes the four tests included in the durability test sequence: 1) start/stop cycling, 2) exposure to constant acceleration in the lateral and axial directions, 3) random vibration at increased piston amplitude to induce contact events, and 4) overstroke testing to simulate potential failures during processing or during the mission life where contact events could occur. The paper also summarizes the analysis and simulation used to predict the results of each of these tests.

Meer, David W.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

2012-01-01

350

Bell Pole CROW pilot test results and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1990, efforts were initiated to implement an in situ remediation project to address the creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated surficial aquifer at the Bell Lumber and Pole Company (Bell Pole) Site. The remediation project involves the application of the Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes (CROW{trademark}) process which consists of hot-water injection to displace and recover the non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Based on the results from the pilot test the following conclusions can be made: (1) The pilot test provided sufficient hydraulic information to design the full-scale CROW remediation system. The pumping test portion of the pilot test indicated uniform aquifer properties. The entire thickness of the aquifer reached the target temperature range and containment of the injected hot water was achieved. (2) Pretest injection and production rate predictions were achieved. (3) The post test soil boring data indicated hot-water injection displaced greater than 80% of the NAPL near the injection well. The data indicates that a NAPL saturation of approximately 19% (pore volume basis) and a 500 fold decrease in PCP concentration can be achieved with 20 pore volumes of flushing. (4) The treatment system used during the pilot test was effective in reducing PCP and PAH compounds to concentrations acceptable for sanitary sewer discharge. (5) The microbial assay of the post test samples found an encouraging increase in microbial population compared to earlier data collected before the pilot test.

Fahy, L.J.; Johnson, L.A. Jr. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Sola, D.V.; Horn, S.G.; Christofferson, J.L. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates Limited, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1992-11-01

351

Bell Pole CROW pilot test results and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1990, efforts were initiated to implement an in situ remediation project to address the creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated surficial aquifer at the Bell Lumber and Pole Company (Bell Pole) Site. The remediation project involves the application of the Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes (CROW[trademark]) process which consists of hot-water injection to displace and recover the non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Based on the results from the pilot test the following conclusions can be made: (1) The pilot test provided sufficient hydraulic information to design the full-scale CROW remediation system. The pumping test portion of the pilot test indicated uniform aquifer properties. The entire thickness of the aquifer reached the target temperature range and containment of the injected hot water was achieved. (2) Pretest injection and production rate predictions were achieved. (3) The post test soil boring data indicated hot-water injection displaced greater than 80% of the NAPL near the injection well. The data indicates that a NAPL saturation of approximately 19% (pore volume basis) and a 500 fold decrease in PCP concentration can be achieved with 20 pore volumes of flushing. (4) The treatment system used during the pilot test was effective in reducing PCP and PAH compounds to concentrations acceptable for sanitary sewer discharge. (5) The microbial assay of the post test samples found an encouraging increase in microbial population compared to earlier data collected before the pilot test.

Fahy, L.J.; Johnson, L.A. Jr. (Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)); Sola, D.V.; Horn, S.G.; Christofferson, J.L. (Conestoga-Rovers and Associates Limited, St. Paul, MN (United States))

1992-01-01

352

ART-XC/SRG: results of thermo-vacuum tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ART-XC - a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument for SRG project is being developed in Russia. Space Research institute (IKI) and Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF) has developed and tested the STM (Structural and Thermal Model) of ART-XC/SRG Instrument. The STM was tested in a 40 m3 vacuum chamber, equipped with black cryogenic screens, cooled by liquid nitrogen. During the tests various thermal telescope modes were simulated. In particular we have simulated emergency mode, when mirrors heaters were switched-off. During the tests temperature of instrument's structure was controlled by 64 independent sensors. Stability of optical axis of mirror systems was also measured. STM test has shown that temperature of mirror system was lower than required, temperature of detectors met the requirements. The test also confirmed geometrical stability of the carbon fiber housing despite of significant temperature gradients. Additional experiments with two mirror systems, each containing a full set of simple nickel shells, were performed. In these experiments we have measured longitudinal and transverse temperature gradients of mirror systems. Next thermovacuum tests of the qualification model of the ART-XC instrument are being prepared. Results of STM tests are presented in this paper.

Semena, N.; Pavlinsky, M.; Buntov, M.; Serbinov, D.; Gurova, E.; Tambov, V.; Roiz, I.; Garin, M.; Lazarchuk, V.; Zaytcev, A.; Martunov, V.; Shabarchin, A.; Sokolov, A.

2014-07-01

353

Flight test results of the Strapdown hexad Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU). Volume 1: Flight test summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight test results of the strapdown inertial reference unit (SIRU) navigation system are presented. The fault-tolerant SIRU navigation system features a redundant inertial sensor unit and dual computers. System software provides for detection and isolation of inertial sensor failures and continued operation in the event of failures. Flight test results include assessments of the system's navigational performance and fault tolerance.

Hruby, R. J.; Bjorkman, W. S.

1977-01-01

354

Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

2009-03-15

355

Rapid Release of Tissue Enzymes into Blood after Blast Exposure: Potential Use as Biological Dosimeters  

PubMed Central

Explosive blast results in multiple organ injury and polytrauma, the intensity of which varies with the nature of the exposure, orientation, environment and individual resilience. Blast overpressure alone may not precisely indicate the level of body or brain injury after blast exposure. Assessment of the extent of body injury after blast exposure is important, since polytrauma and systemic factors significantly contribute to blast-induced traumatic brain injury. We evaluated the activity of plasma enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) at different time points after blast exposure using a mouse model of single and repeated blast exposures to assess the severity of injury. Our data show that activities of all the enzymes in the plasma were significantly increased as early as 1 h after blast exposure. The elevated enzyme activity remained up to 6 h in an overpressure dose-dependent manner and returned close to normal levels at 24 h. Head-only blast exposure with body protection showed no increase in the enzyme activities suggesting that brain injury alone does not contribute to the systemic increase. In contrast to plasma increase, AST, ALT and LDH activity in the liver and CK in the skeletal muscle showed drastic decrease at 6 h after blast exposures. Histopathology showed mild necrosis at 6 h and severe necrosis at 24 h after blast exposures in liver and no changes in the skeletal muscle suggesting that the enzyme release from the tissue to plasma is probably triggered by transient cell membrane disruption from shockwave and not due to necrosis. Overpressure dependent transient release of tissue enzymes and elevation in the plasma after blast exposure suggest that elevated enzyme activities in the blood can be potentially used as a biological dosimeter to assess the severity of blast injury. PMID:22493674

Arun, Peethambaran; Oguntayo, Samuel; Alamneh, Yonas; Honnold, Cary; Wang, Ying; Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Long, Joseph B.; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.

2012-01-01

356

Catastrophic eruptions of the directed-blast type at Mount St. Helens, bezymianny and Shiveluch volcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper describes catastrophic eruptions of Mount St. Helens (1980), Bezymianny (1955-1956), and Shiveluch (1964) volcanoes. A detailed description of eruption stages and their products, as well as the quantitative characteristics of the eruptive process are given. The eruptions under study belong to the directed-blast type. This type is characterized by the catastrophic character of the climatic stage during which a directed blast, accompanied by edifice destruction, the profound ejection of juvenile pyroclastics and the formation of pyroclastic flows, occur. The climatic stage of all three eruptions has similar characteristics, such as duration, kinetic energy of blast (1017-1018 J), the initial velocity of debris ejection, morphology and size of newly-formed craters. But there are also certain differences. At Mount St. Helens the directed blast was preceeded by failure of the edifice and these events produced separable deposits, namely debris avalanche and directed blast deposits which are composed of different materials and have different volumes, thickness and distribution. At Bezymianny, failure did not precede the blast and the whole mass of debris of the old edifice was outburst only by blast. The resulting deposits, represented by the directed blast agglomerate and sand facies, have characteristics of both the debris avalanche and the blast deposit at Mount St. Helens. At Shiveluch directed-blast deposits are represented only by the directed-blast agglomerate; the directed-blast sand facies, or blast proper, seen at Mount St. Helens is absent. During the period of Plinian activity, the total volumes of juvenile material erupted at Mount St. Helens and at Besymianny were roughly comparable and exceeded the volume of juvenile material erupted at Shiveluch, However, the volume of pyroclastic-flow deposits erupted at Mount St. Helens was much less. The heat energy of all three eruptions is comparable: 1.3 ?? 1018, 3.8-4.8 ?? 1018 and 1 ?? 1017 J for Shiveluch, Bezymianny, and Mount St. Helens, respectively. ?? 1985.

Bogoyavlenskaya, G.E.; Braitseva, O.A.; Melekestsev, I.V.; Kiriyanov, V. Yu; Dan, Miller C.

1985-01-01

357

A Monte Carlo Approach to Modeling the Breakup of the Space Launch System EM-1 Core Stage with an Integrated Blast and Fragment Catalogue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Liquid Propellant Fragment Overpressure Acceleration Model (L-FOAM) is a tool developed by Bangham Engineering Incorporated (BEi) that produces a representative debris cloud from an exploding liquid-propellant launch vehicle. Here it is applied to the Core Stage (CS) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS launch vehicle). A combination of Probability Density Functions (PDF) based on empirical data from rocket accidents and applicable tests, as well as SLS specific geometry are combined in a MATLAB script to create unique fragment catalogues each time L-FOAM is run-tailored for a Monte Carlo approach for risk analysis. By accelerating the debris catalogue with the BEi blast model for liquid hydrogen / liquid oxygen explosions, the result is a fully integrated code that models the destruction of the CS at a given point in its trajectory and generates hundreds of individual fragment catalogues with initial imparted velocities. The BEi blast model provides the blast size (radius) and strength (overpressure) as probabilities based on empirical data and anchored with analytical work. The coupling of the L-FOAM catalogue with the BEi blast model is validated with a simulation of the Project PYRO S-IV destruct test. When running a Monte Carlo simulation, L-FOAM can accelerate all catalogues with the same blast (mean blast, 2 s blast, etc.), or vary the blast size and strength based on their respective probabilities. L-FOAM then propagates these fragments until impact with the earth. Results from L-FOAM include a description of each fragment (dimensions, weight, ballistic coefficient, type and initial location on the rocket), imparted velocity from the blast, and impact data depending on user desired application. LFOAM application is for both near-field (fragment impact to escaping crew capsule) and far-field (fragment ground impact footprint) safety considerations. The user is thus able to use statistics from a Monte Carlo set of L-FOAM catalogues to quantify risk for a multitude of potential CS destruct scenarios. Examples include the effect of warning time on the survivability of an escaping crew capsule or the maximum fragment velocities generated by the ignition of leaking propellants in internal cavities.

Richardson, Erin; Hays, M. J.; Blackwood, J. M.; Skinner, T.

2014-01-01

358

Blast trauma: the fourth weapon of mass destruction.  

PubMed

Injury from blast is becoming more common in the non-military population. This is primarily a result of an increase in politically motivated bombings within the civilian sector. Explosions unrelated to terrorism may also occur in the industrial setting. Civilian physicians and surgeons need to have an understanding of the pathomechanics and physiology of blast injury and to recognize the hallmarks of severity in order to increase survivorship. Because victims may be transported rapidly to the hospital, occult injury to gas and fluid containing organs (particularly the ears, bowel and lungs) may go unrecognized. Information surrounding the physical environment of the explosion (whether inside or outside, underwater, associated building collapse, etc) will prove useful. Most of the immediate deaths are caused by primary blast injury from the primary blast wave, but secondary blast injury from flying debris can also be lethal and involve a much wider radius. Liberal use of X-ray examination in areas of skin punctures will help to identify a need for exploration and/or foreign body removal. Biologic serum markers may have a role in identifying victims of primary blast injury and assist in monitoring their clinical progress. Tertiary blast injury results from the airborne propulsion of the victim by the shockwave and is a source of additional blunt head and torso trauma as well as fractures. Miscellaneous (quaternary) blast injury include thermal or dust inhalation exposure as well as crush and compartment syndromes from building collapse. Any explosion has the potential to be associated with nuclear, biologic or chemical contaminants, and this should remain a consideration for healthcare givers until proven otherwise. PMID:16425623

Born, C T

2005-01-01

359

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2013-05-29

360

Comparison of road load simulator test results with track tests on electric vehicle propulsion system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A special-purpose dynamometer, the road load simulator (RLS), is being used at NASA's Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the RLS and track tests, similar tests were conducted on the same propulsion system on the RLS and on a test track. These tests are compared in this report. Battery current to maintain a constant vehicle speed with a fixed throttle was used for the comparison. Scatter in the data was greater in the track test results. This is attributable to variations in tire rolling resistance and wind effects in the track data. It also appeared that the RLS road load, determined by coastdown tests on the track, was lower than that of the vehicle on the track. These differences may be due to differences in tire temperature.

Dustin, M. O.

1983-01-01

361

NASA Fastrac Engine Gas Generator Component Test Program and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low cost access to space has been a long-time goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Fastrac engine program was begun at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a 60,000-pound (60K) thrust, liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon (LOX/RP), gas generator-cycle booster engine for a fraction of the cost of similar engines in existence. To achieve this goal, off-the-shelf components and readily available materials and processes would have to be used. This paper will present the Fastrac gas generator (GG) design and the component level hot-fire test program and results. The Fastrac GG is a simple, 4-piece design that uses well-defined materials and processes for fabrication. Thirty-seven component level hot-fire tests were conducted at MSFC's component test stand #116 (TS116) during 1997 and 1998. The GG was operated at all expected operating ranges of the Fastrac engine. Some minor design changes were required to successfully complete the test program as development issues arose during the testing. The test program data results and conclusions determined that the Fastrac GG design was well on the way to meeting the requirements of NASA's X-34 Pathfinder Program that chose the Fastrac engine as its main propulsion system.

Dennis, Henry J., Jr.; Sanders, T.

2000-01-01

362

Applications of network BLAST server.  

PubMed

The sequence databases continue to grow at an extraordinary rate. Contributions come from both small laboratories and large-scale projects, such as the Merck EST project. This growth has placed new demands on computational sequence comparison tools such as BLAST. Even now it is no longer practical to evaluate some BLAST reports manually; it is necessary to filter the output by, for example, organism, source, or degree of annotation. The new network BLAST service makes such tools possible. It is also possible to present BLAST output in different formats, such as BLANCE. Perhaps most important of all, it becomes simple to call BLAST from another application, making it one step within an integrated system. This makes the automated preparation of sequence evaluations that include BLAST runs possible. In the near future we expect to see a number of applications that use the network BLAST interface to help molecular biologists search against a database that is growing not only in size but in biological richness. PMID:8743682

Madden, T L; Tatusov, R L; Zhang, J

1996-01-01

363

Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this coarse Single Event Effect (SEE) test is to determine the suitability of the commercial Virtex-II Pro family for use in spaceflight applications. To this end, this test is primarily intended to determine any Singe Event Latchup (SEL) susceptibilities for these devices. Secondly, this test is intended to measure the level of Single Event Upset (SEU) susceptibilities and in a general sense where they occur. The coarse SEE test was performed on a commercial XC2VP7 device, a relatively small single processor version of the Virtex-II Pro. As the XC2VP7 shares the same functional block design and fabrication process with the larger Virtex-II Pro devices, the results of this test should also be applicable to the larger devices. The XC2VP7 device was tested on a commercial Virtex-II Pro development board. The testing was performed at the Cyclotron laboratories at Texas A&M and Michigan State Universities using ions of varying energy levels and fluences.

Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James W., Jr.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

2004-01-01

364

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2012-11-01

365

Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup 2008 Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the LER is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G LER mockup and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the aft bulkhead mockup test results from Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. Refer to 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) for test results of the EU. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the LER cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the LER cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles S.; Litaker, Harry L.

2009-01-01

366

Characterization of explosive devices in luggage: Initial results of the ART-IIC test series  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics and damage associated with exploded luggage aboard aircraft are presented in this paper. Plastic-sided suitcases filled with typical travel possessions were exploded inside the fuselage of decomissioned B-52 aircraft. Multilayered shield panels, mounted to one side of the fuselage, served to protect the aircraft body and flight system components from both the blast wave and exploded fragments. The resulting damage produced by the explosions was characterized and the absorbing characteristics of the shielding were evaluated. In addition, the energy of the luggage fragments was estimated.

Akerman, M.A.; Kass, M.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Clough, B.T. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

1993-12-31

367

Free-piston stirling component test power converter test results of the initial test phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)—Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has the responsibility to develop power technologies that have the potential of satisfying anticipated future space mission power requirements. The Free-Piston Stirling Power Converter (FPSC) is one of the many power technologies being evaluated and developed by NASA. FPSPCs have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, efficient operation; and they can be coupled with all potential heat sources, nuclear, radioisotope and solar, various heat input, heat rejection systems, and various power management and distribution systems. FPSPCs can complete favorably with alternative power conversion systems over a range of hundreds of watts to hundreds of kilowatts and to megawatts. Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) is developed FPSPC technology under contract to NASA-LeRC and will demonstrate this technology in two full-scale power converters. The first of these, the Component Test Power Converter (CTPC), initiated testing in Spring 1991 to evaluate mechanical operation at space operating temperatures. This paper reviews the testing of the CTPC at MTI and the companion testing of the earlier technology engine, the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE) at NASA-LeRC.

Dochat, George R.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

1992-01-01

368

Dielectric properties of Al2O3 coatings deposited via atmospheric plasma spraying and dry-ice blasting correlated with microstructural characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, atmospheric plasma spraying combined with dry-ice blasting have been used to prepare alumina (Al2O3) coatings designed for insulating applications. The microstructural characteristics and dielectric properties of Al2O3 coatings were presented. The electrical insulating properties, i.e., dielectric strength and breakdown voltage, were investigated by dielectric breakdown test using direct current and alternating current. Relationships between dielectric properties and coating characteristics were discussed. The results showed that dry-ice blasting used during atmospheric plasma spray process allowed the production of coatings with better dielectric properties than those prepared without dry-ice blasting. The dielectric properties were correlated with the microstructural characteristics, not with phase composition.

Dong, Shujuan; Song, Bo; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

2015-01-01

369

Blast wave simulation with ground surface effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsteady flowfield generated by the finite strength of a shock wave is computationally simulated with the discretization method. The results indicate that the overpressure depends on the ground surface geometry as well as the distance from the point of explosion. The present approach using the new computational-fluid-dynamic technology may improve the existing theory for estimating the unsteady motion and decay of blast waves and eventually lead to better estimation of the safety distance for rocket launching.

Fujii, Kozo; Shimizu, Fumio; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Higashino, Fumio; Hinada, Motoki; Akiba, Ryojiro

370

Test results of a shower water recovery system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A shower test was conducted recently at NASA-JSC in which waste water was reclaimed and reused. Test subjects showered in a prototype whole body shower following a protocol similar to that anticipated for Space Station. The waste water was purified using reverse osmosis followed by filtration through activated carbon and ion exchange resin beds. The reclaimed waste water was maintained free of microorganisms by using both heat and iodine. This paper discusses the test results, including the limited effectiveness of using iodine as a disinfectant and the evaluation of a Space Station candidate soap for showering. In addition, results are presented on chemical and microbial impurity content of water samples obtained from various locations in the water recovery process.

Verostko, Charles E.; Price, Donald F.; Garcia, Rafael; Pierson, Duane L.; Sauer, Richard L.

1987-01-01

371

Model NbTi Helical Solenoid Fabrication and Test Results  

SciTech Connect

A program to develop model magnets for a helical cooling channel is under way at Fermilab. In the first steps of a planned sequence of magnets, two four-coil helical solenoid models with 300 mm aperture have been fabricated and tested. These two models, HSM01 and HSM02, used insulated NbTi Rutherford cable wound onto stainless steel rings with spliceless transitions between coils. Strip heaters were included for quench protection of each coil, and the coils were epoxy-impregnated after winding inside the support structures. Based on the results of the first model the second model was made using a cable with optimized cross-section, improved winding and epoxy-impregnation procedures, enhanced ground insulation, and included heat exchange tubing for a test of conduction cooling. We report on the results and lessons learned from fabrication and tests of these two models.

Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Evbota, D.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Makarov, A.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.F.; Tartaglia, M.A.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

372

GICHD Mine Dog Testing Project - Soil Sample Results No.3  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the third batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in October 2002.

PHELAN, JAMES M.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; ARCHULETA, LUISA M.

2003-03-01

373

GICHD mine dog testing project : soil sample results #5.  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fifth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in June 2003.

Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

2004-01-01

374

GICHD mine dog testing project - soil sample results #4.  

SciTech Connect

A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fourth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in April 2003 and Sarajevo, Bosnia collected in May 2003.

Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Wood, Tyson B.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

2003-08-01

375

BLAST: at the core of a powerful and diverse set of sequence analysis tools.  

PubMed

Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is one of the most heavily used sequence analysis tools available in the public domain. There is now a wide choice of BLAST algorithms that can be used to search many different sequence databases via the BLAST web pages (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST/). All the algorithm-database combinations can be executed with default parameters or with customized settings, and the results can be viewed in a variety of ways. A new online resource, the BLAST Program Selection Guide, has been created to assist in the definition of search strategies. This article discusses optimal search strategies and highlights some BLAST features that can make your searches more powerful. PMID:15215342

McGinnis, Scott; Madden, Thomas L

2004-07-01

376

Ultra fast all-optical fiber pressure sensor for blast event evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a great potential threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions or athletes who receive cranial impacts. Protecting people from TBI has recently attracted a significant amount of attention due to recent military operations in the Middle East. Recording pressure transient data in a blast event is very critical to the understanding of the effects of blast events on TBI. However, due to the fast change of the pressure during blast events, very few sensors have the capability to effectively track the dynamic pressure transients. This paper reports an ultra fast, miniature and all-optical fiber pressure sensor which could be mounted at different locations of a helmet to measure the fast changing pressure simultaneously. The sensor is based on Fabry-Perot (FP) principle. The end face of the fiber is wet etched. A well controlled thickness silicon dioxide diaphragm is thermal bonded on the end face to form an FP cavity. A shock tube test was conducted at Natick Soldier Research Development and Engineering Center, where the sensors were mounted in a shock tube side by side with a reference sensor to measure the rapidly changing pressure. The results of the test demonstrated that the sensor developed had an improved rise time (shorter than 0.4 ?s) when compared to a commercially available reference sensor.

Wu, Nan; Wang, Wenhui; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

2011-05-01

377

Preliminary results of testing bioassay analytical performance standards  

SciTech Connect

The analytical performance of both in vivo and in vitro bioassay laboratories is being studied to determine the capability of these laboratories to meet the minimum criteria for accuracy and precision specified in the draft ANSI Standard N13.30, Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay. This paper presents preliminary results of the first round of testing. (ACR)

Fisher, D.R.; Robinson, A.V.; Hadley, R.T.

1983-08-01

378

RESEARCH RESULTS OF LARGE-SCALE EMBANKMENT OVERTOPPING BREACH TESTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dam and embankment breaching from overtopping is important to both engineers and planners. The processes observed during overtopping and breach tests conducted on large-scale models as well as preliminary analysis of the results are described in this paper. Three large-scale embankments, two at 2....

379

University of Massachusetts: MUC3 test results and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We believe that the score reports we obtained for TST2 provide an accurate assessment of our system's capabilities insofar as they are consistent with the results of our own internal tests conducted near the end of phase 2.. The required TST2 score reports indicate that our system achieved the highest combined scores for recall (51%) and precision (62%) as well

Wendy G. Lehnert; Claire Cardie; David Fisher; Ellen Riloff; Robert Williams

1991-01-01

380

Evaluation of Smart Irrigation Controllers: Initial Bench Testing Results  

E-print Network

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES TR-354 2009 Evaluation of Smart Irrigation Controllers: Initial Bench Testing Results July 2009 By Charles Swanson, Extension Associate Guy Fipps, Professor and Extension... Agricultural Engineer Rio Grande Basin Initiative Irrigation Technology Center Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas Water Resources Institute Technical Report July 2009 TR 354 EVALUATION OF SMART IRRIGATION CONTROLLERS...

Swanson, Charles; Fipps, Guy

381

Results from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test National Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) is the first research-based assessment tool developed for use in undergraduate introductory astronomy classrooms. The ADT National Project has rigorously measured reliability and validity through the collection and analysis of a large sample of student ADT results.

Grace L. Deming

2002-01-01

382

SSPS results of test and operation, 1981-1984  

SciTech Connect

The results of three years of testing and operation of the two dissimilar solar thermal power plants of the SSPS project are summarized. The project includes: (1) a Distributed Collector System, and (2) a Central Receiver System. Environmental conditions are presented and an economical assessment of the project is provided. (BCS)

none,

1985-05-01

383

Multi-bundle shashlik calorimeter prototypes beam-test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first beam-test results for two- and three-bundle shashlik tower prototypes are described. We found that the spatial resolution, the uniformity of energy response, the calorimeter reliability and hermeticity and also two showers separation are improved in multi-bundle design approach.

Badier, J.; Bloch, Ph.; Bityukov, S.; Bordalo, P.; Busson, Ph.; Charlot, C.; Dobrzynski, L.; Golutvin, I.; Gninenko, S.; Guschin, E.; Issakov, V.; Ivanchenko, I.; Lapshin, V.; Klimenko, V.; Marin, V.; Moissenz, P.; Musienko, Y.; Obraztsov, V.; Ostankov, A.; Popov, V.; Puljak, I.; Ramos, S.; Seez, C.; Sergueev, S.; Semenyuk, I.; Soushkov, V.; Tanaka, R.; Varela, J.; Virdee, T. S.; Zaitchenko, A.; Zamiatin, N.; RD-36 Collaboration

1995-01-01

384

Multi-bundle shashlik calorimeter prototypes beam-test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first beam-test results for two- and three-bundle shashlik tower prototypes are described. We found that the spatial resolution, the uniformity of energy response, the calorimeter reliability and hermeticity and also two showers separation are improved in multi-bundle design approach.

Puljak, I.; Badier, J.; Bloch, Ph.; Bityukov, S.; Bordalo, P.; Busson, Ph.; Charlot, C.; Dobrzynski, L.; Golutvin, I.; Gninenko, S.; Guschin, E.; Issakov, V.; Ivanchenko, I.; Lapshin, V.; Klimenko, V.; Marin, V.; Moissenz, P.; Musienko, Y.; Obraztsov, V.; Ostankov, A.; Popov, V.; Ramos, S.; Seez, C.; Sergueev, S.; Semenyuk, I.; Soushkov, V.; Tanaka, R.; Varela, J.; Virdee, T. S.; Zaitchenko, A.; Zamiatin, N.

1995-02-01

385

Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of this report is to present the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the large-scale test stand. The report includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodology, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging of small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. 2012a. The results of the aerosol measurements in the small-scale test stand are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012b).

Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

2012-12-01

386

Prognostic impact of day 15 blast clearance in risk-adapted remission induction chemotherapy for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia: long-term results of the multicenter prospective LAM-2001 trial by the GOELAMS study group.  

PubMed

Early response to chemotherapy has a major prognostic impact in acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with a double induction strategy. Less is known about patients treated with standard-dose cytarabine and anthracycline. We designed a risk-adapted remission induction regimen in which a second course of intermediate-dose cytarabine was delivered after standard "7+3" only if patients had 5% or more bone marrow blasts 15 days after chemotherapy initiation (d15-blasts). Of 823 included patients, 795 (96.6%) were evaluable. Five hundred and forty-five patients (68.6%) had less than 5% d15-blasts. Predictive factors for high d15-blasts were white blood cell count (P<0.0001) and cytogenetic risk (P<0.0001). Patients with fewer than 5% d15-blasts had a higher complete response rate (91.7% vs. 69.2%; P<0.0001) and a lower induction death rate (1.8% vs. 6.8%; P=0.001). Five-year event-free (48.4% vs. 25%; P<0.0001), relapse-free (52.7% vs. 36.9%; P=0.0016) and overall survival (55.3% vs. 36.5%; P<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with d15-blasts lower than 5%. Multivariate analyses identified d15-blasts and cytogenetic risk as independent prognostic factors for the three end points. Failure to achieve early blast clearance remains a poor prognostic factor even after early salvage. By contrast, early responding patients have a favorable outcome without any additional induction course. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01015196). PMID:23975179

Bertoli, Sarah; Bories, Pierre; Béné, Marie C; Daliphard, Sylvie; Lioure, Bruno; Pigneux, Arnaud; Vey, Norbert; Delaunay, Jacques; Leymarie, Vincent; Luquet, Isabelle; Blanchet, Odile; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Hunault, Mathilde; Bouscary, Didier; Fegueux, Nathalie; Guardiola, Philippe; Dreyfus, François; Harousseau, Jean Luc; Cahn, Jean Yves; Ifrah, Norbert; Récher, Christian

2014-01-01

387

Prognostic impact of day 15 blast clearance in risk-adapted remission induction chemotherapy for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia: long-term results of the multicenter prospective LAM-2001 trial by the GOELAMS study group  

PubMed Central

Early response to chemotherapy has a major prognostic impact in acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with a double induction strategy. Less is known about patients treated with standard-dose cytarabine and anthracycline. We designed a risk-adapted remission induction regimen in which a second course of intermediate-dose cytarabine was delivered after standard “7+3” only if patients had 5% or more bone marrow blasts 15 days after chemotherapy initiation (d15-blasts). Of 823 included patients, 795 (96.6%) were evaluable. Five hundred and forty-five patients (68.6%) had less than 5% d15-blasts. Predictive factors for high d15-blasts were white blood cell count (P<0.0001) and cytogenetic risk (P<0.0001). Patients with fewer than 5% d15-blasts had a higher complete response rate (91.7% vs. 69.2%; P<0.0001) and a lower induction death rate (1.8% vs. 6.8%; P=0.001). Five-year event-free (48.4% vs. 25%; P<0.0001), relapse-free (52.7% vs. 36.9%; P=0.0016) and overall survival (55.3% vs. 36.5%; P<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with d15-blasts lower than 5%. Multivariate analyses identified d15-blasts and cytogenetic risk as independent prognostic factors for the three end points. Failure to achieve early blast clearance remains a poor prognostic factor even after early salvage. By contrast, early responding patients have a favorable outcome without any additional induction course. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01015196) PMID:23975179

Bertoli, Sarah; Bories, Pierre; Béné, Marie C.; Daliphard, Sylvie; Lioure, Bruno; Pigneux, Arnaud; Vey, Norbert; Delaunay, Jacques; Leymarie, Vincent; Luquet, Isabelle; Blanchet, Odile; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Hunault, Mathilde; Bouscary, Didier; Fegueux, Nathalie; Guardiola, Philippe; Dreyfus, François; Harousseau, Jean Luc; Cahn, Jean Yves; Ifrah, Norbert; Récher, Christian

2014-01-01

388

Graphite electrode arc melter demonstration Phase 2 test results  

SciTech Connect

Several U.S. Department of Energy organizations and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been collaboratively conducting mixed waste treatment process demonstration testing on the near full-scale graphite electrode submerged arc melter system at the Bureau`s Albany (Oregon) Research Center. An initial test series successfully demonstrated arc melter capability for treating surrogate incinerator ash of buried mixed wastes with soil. The conceptual treatment process for that test series assumed that buried waste would be retrieved and incinerated, and that the incinerator ash would be vitrified in an arc melter. This report presents results from a recently completed second series of tests, undertaken to determine the ability of the arc melter system to stably process a wide range of {open_quotes}as-received{close_quotes} heterogeneous solid mixed wastes containing high levels of organics, representative of the wastes buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Phase 2 demonstration test results indicate that an arc melter system is capable of directly processing these wastes and could enable elimination of an up-front incineration step in the conceptual treatment process.

Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Oden, L.L.; Turner, P.C.

1996-06-01

389

Evaluation of dense gas dispersion test results. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A national Spill Test Facility (STF) program dedicated to public safety in the use and transport of fuels and other chemicals was established by Congress. The program is charged with developing technology for spill prediction, prevention, and mitigation. The Spill Test Facility, located northeast of Mercury, Nevada, is to be used for research leading to the development of tools for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment in response to accidental spills of hazardous materials. Public laws, including the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, also require that the Secretary of Energy make the STF and STF test data available to industry, academia, and other government agencies. The objective of this subtask is to produce a data base allowing the chemical and fuel accident responder to access emergency management information quickly and efficiently. The work has involved (1) archiving spill test facility results from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (LGFSTF) at the Nevada National Test Site, (2) updating the data base on spill control technology documents and data, and (3) transferring this information to the public.

Sheesley, D.

1997-03-01

390

Results of the HTHP ESP testing at Curtiss-Wright  

SciTech Connect

This report to the US Department of Energy discusses the testing and evaluation of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) that was installed at the government owned pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) test facility located in Wood-Ridge, NJ and operated by Curtiss-Wright Corporation. Test data on a short term ESP operation at 1400 to 1500/sup 0/F and 84 psia showed that particulate collection efficiencies in the range of 98 to 99.5% are possible and have the potential for meeting DOE's particulate control goals ahead of the gas turbine. The key test program to evaluate the ESP at 1600/sup 0/F and 94 psia could not be properly implemented because of severe damage to ESP internals prior to the test program. The damage was caused by several water floods into the ESP resulting from flow control upsets in the downstream pressurized water scrubber in the PFBC system. The damaged ESP showed particulate collection efficiencies in the 75 to 85% range. Recommendations are made for future course of study with the ESP so that the testing and evaluation program at 1600/sup 0/F and 94 psia can be fully implemented.

Kumar, K.S.; Feldman, P.L.; Jeselsohn, F.S.

1984-03-01

391

Results of the parabolic flight tests of the rapunzel deployer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tether assisted re-entry of small payloads is a highly interesting tool for space transportation especially for the return of small payloads from Space Station ISSA. The small tether mission Rapunzel was initiated in 1991 by the Institute of Astronautics, TU München and the Kayser-Threde Company, to design a low cost and feasible tether experiment for the verification of the tether assisted re-entry. Together with the Samara State Aerospace University, Russia, a mission concept on a Russian Resurs or Photon capsule was developed. Based on this mission a deployer has been designed, mainly based on technology of the textile industry, which insures high reliability at low cost. Recently a similar configuration is being discussed for the ESA-TSE mission. The main work during the recent time was the development and test of the breadboard model of the deployer system. After successfully completing initial ground tests with the deployer, further tests during the ESA Parabolic Flight campaign in November 1995 were conducted. After a short introduction of the overall mission scenario, the planned configuration in orbit, this paper will present the results of the microgravity test campaign onboard the KC-135 aircraft and compare them with the ground test. The deployer showed a good performance during all tests, including ejection of the end-mass, deployment, and braking. Problems that occurred during the tests will be discussed, and solutions for the detected flaws and the results of the redesign now in progress will be presented. These verifications have shown the feasibility of the concept and will lay the base for the planned development of the flight model of the deployer.

Sabath, D.; Krischke, M.; Kast, W.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kruijff, M.; van der Heide, E.

392

Semiparametric models for malaria rapid diagnosis test result  

PubMed Central

Background More than 75% of the total of Ethiopia is malarious. Therefore, malaria is a leading public health problem in Ethiopia. This study aims to identify socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors contributing to the spread of malaria and is based on the results of a malaria Rapid Diagnosis Test survey. Methods The data used in this study originates from the baseline malaria indicator survey, conducted in the Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP) regions of Ethiopia from December 2006 to January 2007. The study applies the method of generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) to analyse data. The response variable is the presence or absence of malaria, using the malaria Rapid Diagnosis Test (RDT). Results The results provide an improved insight into the distribution of malaria in relation to the age of affected people, the altitude, the total number of rooms, the total number of mosquito nets, family size, and the number of months that their rooms have been sprayed. The results confirm that positive malaria RDT test results are high for children under 15 years and for older persons. Gender, source of drinking water, time needed to fetch water, toilet facilities, main materials used for the construction of walls, floors and roofs, and use of mosquito nets were all found to have a significant impact on the results of the malaria rapid diagnosis test. Conclusion The result of the analysis identifies poor socio-economic conditions as a major contributing factor or determinant for the spread of malaria. With the correct use of mosquito nets, indoor residual spraying with insecticide and other preventative measures, the incidence of malaria could be decreased. In addition, improving housing conditions is a means to reduce the risk of malaria. Other measures such as creating awareness of the use of mosquito nets, indoor residual spraying with insecticide, and malaria transmission, can lead to a further reduction in the number of malaria cases. PMID:24418514

2014-01-01

393

Quantitative trait locus analysis of resistance to panicle blast in the rice cultivar Miyazakimochi  

PubMed Central

Background Rice blast is a destructive disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, and it has a large impact on rice production worldwide. Compared with leaf blast resistance, our understanding of panicle blast resistance is limited, with only one panicle blast resistance gene, Pb1, isolated so far. The japonica cultivar Miyazakimochi shows resistance to panicle blast, yet the genetic components accounting for this resistance remain to be determined. Results In this study, we evaluated the panicle blast resistance of populations derived from a cross between Miyazakimochi and the Bikei 22 cultivar, which is susceptible to both leaf and panicle blast. The phenotypic analyses revealed no correlation between panicle blast resistance and leaf blast resistance. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of 158 recombinant inbred lines using 112 developed genome-wide and 35 previously reported polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers revealed the presence of two QTLs conferring panicle blast resistance in Miyazakimochi: a major QTL, qPbm11, on chromosome 11; and a minor QTL, qPbm9, on chromosome 9. To clarify the contribution of these QTLs to panicle blast resistance, 24 lines homozygous for each QTL were selected from 2,818 progeny of a BC2F7 backcrossed population, and characterized for disease phenotypes. The panicle blast resistance of the lines harboring qPbm11 was very similar to the resistant donor parental cultivar Miyazakimochi, whereas the contribution of qPbm9 to the resistance was small. Genotyping of the BC2F7 individuals highlighted the overlap between the qPbm11 region and a locus of the panicle blast resistance gene, Pb1. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis revealed that the Pb1 transcript was absent in the panicles of Miyazakimochi, demonstrating that qPbm11 is a novel genetic component of panicle blast resistance. Conclusions This study revealed that Miyazakimochi harbors a novel panicle blast resistance controlled mainly by the major QTL qPbm11. qPbm11 is distinct from Pb1 and could be a genetic source for breeding panicle blast resistance, and will improve understanding of the molecular basis of host resistance to panicle blast. PMID:24920970

2014-01-01

394

GPM Avionics Module Heat Pipes Design and Performance Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international network of satellites that provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow. The GPM core satellite carries an advanced radar / radiometer system to measure precipitation from space and serve as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational satellites. Through improved measurements of precipitation globally, the GPM mission will help to advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycle, improve forecasting of extreme events that cause natural hazards and disasters, and extend current capabilities in using accurate and timely information of precipitation to directly benefit society. The avionics module on the core satellite contains a number of electronics boxes which are cooled by a network of aluminum/ammonia heat pipes and a honeycomb radiator which contains thirteen embedded aluminum/ammonia heat pipes. All heat pipes were individually tested by the vendor (Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.) prior to delivery. Following delivery to NASA, the flight avionics radiator and the flight spare transport heat pipes were mounted to flight-like test structure and a system level thermal vacuum test was performed. This test, which used simulators in place of all electronics boxes, was done to verify the operation of the thermal control system as a whole. This presentation will discuss the design of the avionics module heat pipes, and then discuss performance tests results for the individual heat pipes prior to delivery and for the system level thermal vacuum test. All heat pipes met their performance requirements. However, it was found that the power was too low in some instances to start all of the smaller radiator spreader heat pipes when they were tested in a reflux configuration (which is the nominal test configuration). Although this lowered the efficiency of the radiator somewhat, it did not impact the operating temperatures of the electronics boxes.

Ottenstein, Laura; DeChristopher, Mike

2011-01-01

395

Long Term Corrosion/Degradation Test Six Year Results  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains neutron-activated metals from non-fuel, nuclear reactor core components. The Long-Term Corrosion/Degradation (LTCD) Test is designed to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements to the environment. The test is using two proven, industry-standard methods—direct corrosion testing using metal coupons, and monitored corrosion testing using electrical/resistance probes—to determine corrosion rates for various metal alloys generally representing the metals of interest buried at the SDA, including Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, Beryllium S200F, Aluminum 6061, Zircaloy-4, low-carbon steel, and Ferralium 255. In the direct testing, metal coupons are retrieved for corrosion evaluation after having been buried in SDA backfill soil and exposed to natural SDA environmental conditions for times ranging from one year to as many as 32 years, depending on research needs and funding availability. In the monitored testing, electrical/resistance probes buried in SDA backfill soil will provide corrosion data for the duration of the test or until the probes fail. This report provides an update describing the current status of the test and documents results to date. Data from the one-year and three-year results are also included, for comparison and evaluation of trends. In the six-year results, most metals being tested showed extremely low measurable rates of general corrosion. For Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, and Ferralium 255, corrosion rates fell in the range of “no reportable” to 0.0002 mils per year (MPY). Corrosion rates for Zircaloy-4 ranged from no measurable corrosion to 0.0001 MPY. These rates are two orders of magnitude lower than those specified in the performance assessment for the SDA. The corrosion on the carbon steel, beryllium, and aluminum were more evident with a clear difference in corrosion performance between the 4-ft and 10-ft levels. Notable surface corrosion products were evident as well as numerous pit initiation sites. Since the corrosion of the beryllium and aluminum is characterized by pitting, the geometrical character of the corrosion becomes more significant than the general corrosion rate. Both pitting factor and weight loss data should be used together. For six-year exposure, the maximum carbon steel corrosion rate was 0.3643 MPY while the maximum beryllium corrosion rate was 0.3282 MPY and the maximum aluminum corrosion rate was 0.0030 MPY.

M. K. Adler Flitton; C. W. Bishop; M. E. Delwiche; T. S. Yoder

2004-09-01

396

Auditory Processing Tests for Children: Normative and Clinical Results on the SSW Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW), test results were studied in 93 normally achieving children and 97 children referred to a learning disabilities clinic. All subjects were 8-11 years of age. The SSW test was found to differentiate between the normally achieving children and those experiencing classroom learning difficulties. (Author/CL)

Berrick, Janet M.; And Others

1984-01-01

397

Validating Competency Tests and Using Test Results. Module 20. [Vocational Education Curriculum Specialist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module, the fourth of four units about vocational competency measurement, is module 20 in the Vocational Education Curriculum Specialist series. The purpose stated for the document is to help in the validation of a competency test after it has been developed, in the determination of how test results will be reported, and in the consideration…

Claudy, John G.; Appleby, Judith A.

398

The Results of Tests of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) spectrometer solenoid magnets will be the first magnets to be installed within the MICE cooling channel. The spectrometer magnets are the largest magnets in both mass and surface area within the MICE ooling channel. Like all of the other magnets in MICE, the spectrometer solenoids are kept cold using 1.5 W (at 4.2 K) pulse tube coolers. The MICE spectrometer solenoid is quite possibly the largest magnet that has been cooled using small coolers. Two pectrometer magnets have been built and tested. This report discusses the results of current and cooler tests of both magnets.

Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

2009-10-19

399

Thermosyphon Flooding in Reduced Gravity Environments Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The condenser flooding phenomenon associated with gravity aided two-phase thermosyphons was studied using parabolic flights to obtain the desired reduced gravity environment (RGE). The experiment was designed and built to test a total of twelve titanium water thermosyphons in multiple gravity environments with the goal of developing a model that would accurately explain the correlation between gravitational forces and the maximum axial heat transfer limit associated with condenser flooding. Results from laboratory testing and parabolic flights are included in this report as part I of a two part series. The data analysis and correlations are included in a follow on paper.

Gibson, Marc A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, Jim; Ljubanovic, Damir

2013-01-01

400

Code labs: expediting laboratory test results during a code.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Knowing a patient's "laboratory picture" is crucial in any code blue situation. Having no streamlined method for collecting and processing laboratory specimens during codes leads to staff frustration and critical delays in patient care. OBJECTIVE To simplify collection and testing of laboratory specimens during codes. METHODS Staff nurses led an initiative through which (1) code laboratory tests were placed in a computerized order set, thereby simplifying ordering; (2) prepackaged bags of supplies for the new order set were placed in each code cart; (3) the laboratory department supervisor began carrying a code pager to ensure that laboratory staff are prepared for incoming "code labs"; (4) a protocol was created for laboratory staff to follow after receiving code labs; and (5) processes were developed for units that are not integrated in the organization's electronic ordering system. RESULTS The mean turnaround time (the time from when laboratory tests are ordered to when results are posted) was reduced from 52.0 minutes to 31.3 minutes (P = .002). Laboratory staff improved their processing time (the time from when specimens are received by laboratory staff to when results are posted) from 34.9 minutes to 21.5 minutes (P = .01). Survey responses indicated that staff across disciplines were significantly more satisfied with the new process. CONCLUSIONS Because the changes are basic, they can be implemented easily in any hospital setting to improve turnaround time for laboratory tests during codes. PMID:21965381

Hurliman, Shannon K; Paston, Kristin

2011-10-01

401

Performance results of a digital test signal generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance results of a digital test signal-generator hardware-demonstration unit are reported. Capabilities available include baseband and intermediate frequency (IF) spectrum generation, for which test results are provided. Repeatability in the setting of a given signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when a baseband or an IF spectrum is being generated ranges from 0.01 dB at high SNR's or high data rates to 0.3 dB at low data rates or low SNR's. Baseband symbol SNR and carrier SNR (Pc/No) accuracies of 0.1 dB were verified with the built-in statistics circuitry. At low SNR's that accuracy remains to be fully verified. These results were confirmed with measurements from a demodulator synchronizer assembly for the baseband spectrum generation, and with a digital receiver (Pioneer 10 receiver) for the IF spectrum generation.

Gutierrez-Luaces, B. O.; Marina, M.; Parham, B.

1993-01-01

402

Predictions of Experimentally Observed Stochastic Ground Vibrations Induced by Blasting  

PubMed Central

In the present paper, we investigate the blast induced ground motion recorded at the limestone quarry “Suva Vrela” near Kosjeri?, which is located in the western part of Serbia. We examine the recorded signals by means of surrogate data methods and a determinism test, in order to determine whether the recorded ground velocity is stochastic or deterministic in nature. Longitudinal, transversal and the vertical ground motion component are analyzed at three monitoring points that are located at different distances from the blasting source. The analysis reveals that the recordings belong to a class of stationary linear stochastic processes with Gaussian inputs, which could be distorted by a monotonic, instantaneous, time-independent nonlinear function. Low determinism factors obtained with the determinism test further confirm the stochastic nature of the recordings. Guided by the outcome of time series analysis, we propose an improved prediction model for the peak particle velocity based on a neural network. We show that, while conventional predictors fail to provide acceptable prediction accuracy, the neural network model with four main blast parameters as input, namely total charge, maximum charge per delay, distance from the blasting source to the measuring point, and hole depth, delivers significantly more accurate predictions that may be applicable on site. We also perform a sensitivity analysis, which reveals that the distance from the blasting source has the strongest influence on the final value of the peak particle velocity. This is in full agreement with previous observations and theory, thus additionally validating our methodology and main conclusions. PMID:24358140

Kosti?, Sr?an; Perc, Matjaž; Vasovi?, Nebojša; Trajkovi?, Slobodan

2013-01-01

403

Blast From the Past  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recently recovered deep-sea core supports theories that an asteroid collided with the earth 65 million years ago, around the time of the extinction of the dinosaurs. The Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History's new site, Blast from the Past, contains details on this cataclysmic event. Colorful graphics provide conceptual illustrations of the asteroid impact and aftermath, accompanied by photographs of the deep-sea core. Text summaries, followed by bibliographic references, describe the asteroid hypothesis, the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary, and the utility of deep-sea cores. With links to other paleobiological sites and related museum exhibits, this site is a useful resource for those wanting to know more about fateful asteroid impacts.

404

Extramedullary T-lymphoblastic blast crisis in chronic myelogenous leukemia: A case report of successful diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Extramedullary T-lymphoblastic blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is uncommon and the prognosis is poor. It was usually misdiagnosed as the co-existence of T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) and CML. In the present study, we report a patient with CML, who developed extramedullary T-lymphoblastic blast crisis and was successfully treated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched stem cell transplantation. The patient was a 44-year-old man who presented with lymphadenectasis and leucocytosis prior to diagnosis. The bone marrow smear, biopsy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of Breakpoint Cluster Region/ Abelson murine leukaemia (BCR/ABL) supported the diagnosis of CML in the chronic phase, while the immunohistochemistry of lymph nodes supported the diagnosis of T-LBL. The FISH test for BCR/ABL in lymph node blast cells was performed and the result was positive; therefore, the patient was diagnosed with extramedullary T-lymphoblastic blast crisis of CML. After several courses of combined chemotherapy, the patient was treated with HLA-mismatched stem cell transplantation and obtained continuous remission for 51 months until the present (September 2013). PMID:25667640

ZENG, DONG-FENG; CHANG, CHENG; LI, JIE-PING; KONG, PEI-YAN; ZHANG, XI; GAO, LEI

2015-01-01

405

Traumatic brain injury produced by exposure to blasts, a critical problem in current wars: biomarkers, clinical studies, and animal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from exposure to blast energy released by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) has been recognized as the "signature injury" of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Repeated exposure to mild blasts may produce subtle deficits that are difficult to detect and quantify. Several techniques have been used to detect subtle brain dysfunction including neuropsychological assessments, computerized function testing and neuroimaging. Another approach is based on measurement of biologic substances (e.g. proteins) that are released into the body after a TBI. Recent studies measuring biomarkers in CSF and serum from patients with severe TBI have demonstrated the diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring potential. Advancement of the field will require 1) biochemical mining for new biomarker candidates, 2) clinical validation of utility, 3) technical advances for more sensitive, portable detectors, 4) novel statistical approach to evaluate multiple biomarkers, and 5) commercialization. Animal models have been developed to simulate elements of blast-relevant TBI including gas-driven shock tubes to generate pressure waves similar to those produced by explosives. These models can reproduce hallmark clinical neuropathological responses such as neuronal degeneration and inflammation, as well as behavioral impairments. An important application of these models is to screen novel therapies and conduct proteomic, genomic, and lipodomic studies to mine for new biomarker candidates specific to blast relevant TBI.

Dixon, C. Edward

2011-06-01

406

Capillary Suction Time (CST) Test: Developments in testing methodology and reliability of results   

E-print Network

The dewatering of wastewater sludge (slurry) is a routine operation at wastewater treatment plants, and the results of dewaterability tests underpin the selection of dewatering processes. The two most commonly applied ...

Sawalha, Ola

2011-01-01

407

Vehicle overturning vulnerability from air blast loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overturning response of an armored personnel carrier to air blast loads derived from a nuclear blast environment is presented. The orientation of the vehicle is side-on to the air blast shock front. It is assumed there is no translation at the downwind wheels, i.e., the roll over point. In addition, the vehicle is assumed to behave as a rigid body. That is, the suspension system are taken as rigid, so that the wheels and axles rotate in unison with the body. It can be shown that this assumption slightly overestimates the overturning resistance of vehicles with suspension systems. For a stiff suspension system, such as that of the APC, the rigid body behavior assumption is justified. The only motion possible for this analysis is rotation about the rollover point. The effect of overturning restraint systems has been included in the analysis by incorporating a perfectly plastic vehicle to ground connection on the upwind side of the vehicle. The results give the threshold nuclear environment that just causes overturning. The threshold environment is given in terms of a peak overpressure corresponding to a weapon yield. Results are presented for a range of weapon yields from 1KT to 1MT.

Robinson, R. R.; Napadensky, H.; Longinow, A.

1984-08-01

408

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-15

409

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2010-10-26

410

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOEpatents

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-22

411

Non-Nuclear Validation Test Results of a Closed Brayton Cycle Test-Loop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both NASA and DOE have programs that are investigating advanced power conversion cycles for planetary surface power on the moon or Mars, or for next generation nuclear power plants on earth. Although open Brayton cycles are in use for many applications (combined cycle power plants, aircraft engines), only a few closed Brayton cycles have been tested. Experience with closed Brayton cycles coupled to nuclear reactors is even more limited and current projections of Brayton cycle performance are based on analytic models. This report describes and compares experimental results with model predictions from a series of non-nuclear tests using a small scale closed loop Brayton cycle available at Sandia National Laboratories. A substantial amount of testing has been performed, and the information is being used to help validate models. In this report we summarize the results from three kinds of tests. These tests include: 1) test results that are useful for validating the characteristic flow curves of the turbomachinery for various gases ranging from ideal gases (Ar or Ar/He) to non-ideal gases such as CO2, 2) test results that represent shut down transients and decay heat removal capability of Brayton loops after reactor shut down, and 3) tests that map a range of operating power versus shaft speed curve and turbine inlet temperature that are useful for predicting stable operating conditions during both normal and off-normal operating behavior. These tests reveal significant interactions between the reactor and balance of plant. Specifically these results predict limited speed up behavior of the turbomachinery caused by loss of load, the conditions for stable operation, and for direct cooled reactors, the tests reveal that the coast down behavior during loss of power events can extend for hours provided the ultimate heat sink remains available.

Wright, Steven A.

2007-01-01

412

High-Speed, High-Temperature Finger Seal Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finger seals have significantly lower leakage rates than conventional labyrinth seals used in gas turbine engines and are expected to decrease specific fuel consumption by over 1 percent and to decrease direct operating cost by over 0.5 percent. Their compliant design accommodates shaft growth and motion due to thermal and dynamic loads with minimal wear. The cost to fabricate these finger seals is estimated to be about half the cost to fabricate brush seals. A finger seal has been tested in NASA's High Temperature, High Speed Turbine Seal Test Rig at operating conditions up to 1200 F, 1200 ft/s, and 75 psid. Static, performance and endurance test results are presented. While seal leakage and wear performance are acceptable, further design improvements are needed to reduce the seal power loss.

Proctor, Margaret P.; Kumar, Arun; Delgado, Irebert R.

2002-01-01

413

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

2012-09-01

414

Flight test results of the strapdown hexad inertial reference unit (SIRU). Volume 2: Test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of flight tests of the Strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU) navigation system are presented. The fault tolerant SIRU navigation system features a redundant inertial sensor unit and dual computers. System software provides for detection and isolation of inertial sensor failures and continued operation in the event of failures. Flight test results include assessments of the system's navigational performance and fault tolerance. Performance shortcomings are analyzed.

Hruby, R. J.; Bjorkman, W. S.

1977-01-01

415

DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected VOC soil gas concentrations during ASVE. Five (5) SVE wells that were located closest to the air injection wells were used as monitoring points during the air sparging tests. The air sparging tests lasted 48 hours. Soil gas sample results indicate that sparging did not affect VOC concentrations in four of the five sparging wells, while results from one test did show an increase in soil gas concentrations.

Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

2012-09-20

416

Accelerated aging test results for aerospace wire insulation constructions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several wire insulation constructions were evaluated with and without continuous glow discharges at low pressure and high temperature to determine the aging characteristics of acceptable wire insulation constructions. It was known at the beginning of the test program that insulation aging takes several years when operated at normal ambient temperature and pressure of 20 C and 760 torr. Likewise, it was known that the accelerated aging process decreases insulation life by approximately 50% for each 10 C temperature rise. Therefore, the first phases of the program, not reported in these test results, were to select wire insulation constructions that could operate at high temperature and low pressure for over 10,000 hours with negligible shrinkage and little materials' deterioration.The final phase of the program was to determine accelerated aging characteristics. When an insulation construction is subjected to partial discharges the insulation is locally heated by the bombardment of the discharges, the insulation is also subjected to ozone and other deteriorating gas particles that may significantly increase the aging process. Several insulation systems using either a single material or combinations of teflon, kapton, and glass insulation constructions were tested. All constructions were rated to be partial discharge and/or corona-free at 240 volts, 400 Hz and 260 C (500 F) for 50, 000 hours at altitudes equivalent to the Paschen law. Minimum partial discharge aging tests were preceded by screening tests lasting 20 hours at 260 C. The aging process was accelerated by subjecting the test articles to temperatures up to 370 C (700 F) with and without partial discharges. After one month operation with continuous glow discharges surrounding the test articles, most insulation systems were either destroyed or became brittle, cracked, and unsafe for use. Time with space radiation as with partial discharges is accumulative.

Dunbar, William G.

1995-01-01

417

30 CFR 57.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Underground § 57.6407 Circuit testing. A blasting galvanometer...designed for testing blasting circuits shall be used to test the following...balanced series to be connected in parallel prior to their connection to...and (4) Total blasting circuit resistance prior to...

2012-07-01

418

30 CFR 57.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Underground § 57.6407 Circuit testing. A blasting galvanometer...designed for testing blasting circuits shall be used to test the following...balanced series to be connected in parallel prior to their connection to...and (4) Total blasting circuit resistance prior to...

2013-07-01

419

30 CFR 57.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Underground § 57.6407 Circuit testing. A blasting galvanometer...designed for testing blasting circuits shall be used to test the following...balanced series to be connected in parallel prior to their connection to...and (4) Total blasting circuit resistance prior to...

2011-07-01

420

30 CFR 57.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Underground § 57.6407 Circuit testing. A blasting galvanometer...designed for testing blasting circuits shall be used to test the following...balanced series to be connected in parallel prior to their connection to...and (4) Total blasting circuit resistance prior to...

2014-07-01

421

30 CFR 57.6407 - Circuit testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Underground § 57.6407 Circuit testing. A blasting galvanometer...designed for testing blasting circuits shall be used to test the following...balanced series to be connected in parallel prior to their connection to...and (4) Total blasting circuit resistance prior to...

2010-07-01

422

Shake Test Results and Dynamic Calibration Efforts for the Large Rotor Test Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to the full-scale wind tunnel test of the UH-60A Airloads rotor, a shake test was completed on the Large Rotor Test Apparatus. The goal of the shake test was to characterize the oscillatory response of the test rig and provide a dynamic calibration of the balance to accurately measure vibratory hub loads. This paper provides a summary of the shake test results, including balance, shaft bending gauge, and accelerometer measurements. Sensitivity to hub mass and angle of attack were investigated during the shake test. Hub mass was found to have an important impact on the vibratory forces and moments measured at the balance, especially near the UH-60A 4/rev frequency. Comparisons were made between the accelerometer data and an existing finite-element model, showing agreement on mode shapes, but not on natural frequencies. Finally, the results of a simple dynamic calibration are presented, showing the effects of changes in hub mass. The results show that the shake test data can be used to correct in-plane loads measurements up to 10 Hz and normal loads up to 30 Hz.

Russell, Carl R.

2014-01-01

423

Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

2013-08-01

424

Investigation on Carbon-Deposition Behavior from Heating Cycle Gas in Oxygen Blast Furnace Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the different ways to study carbon deposition in the ironmaking process, not much attention was paid to that of heating the gas mixture, especially cycle gas in an oxygen blast furnace. In this work, the carbon-deposition characteristics of heating 100 pct CO, CO-H2 gas mixture, and cycle gas in the oxygen blast furnace process were, respectively, experimentally and theoretically investigated. First, the thermodynamics on carbon-deposition reactions were calculated. Then, the impacts of discharging operation temperature, the proportion of CO/H2 in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture, and the CO2 concentration in heating the cycle gas of an oxygen blast furnace on the carbon deposition were tested and investigated. Furthermore, the carbon-deposition behaviors in heating the CO-H2 gas mixture were compared with the thermodynamic calculation results for discussing the role of H2. In addition, carbon deposition in heating cycle gas includes CO decomposition and a carbon-deposition reaction by hybrid of CO and H2; the possible roles of each were analyzed by comparing thermodynamic calculation and experimental results. The deposited carbon was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the deposited carbon microstructure.

Liu, Jinzhou; Wang, Jingsong; She, Xuefeng; Zhang, Shiyang; Xue, Qingguo

2015-02-01

425

VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VLT Deformable secondary is planned to be installed on the VLT UT#4 as part of the telescope conversion into the Adaptive Optics test Facility (AOF). The adaptive unit is based on the well proven contactless, voice coil motor technology that has been already successfully implemented in the MMT, LBT and Magellan adaptive secondaries, and is considered a promising technical choice for the forthcoming ELT-generation adaptive correctors, like the E-ELT M4 and the GMT ASM. The VLT adaptive unit has been recently assembled after the completion of the manufacturing and modular test phases. In this paper, we present the most relevant aspects of the system integration and report the preliminary results of the electromechanical tests performed on the unit. This test campaign is a typical major step foreseen in all similar systems built so far: thanks to the metrology embedded in the system, that allows generating time-dependent stimuli and recording in real time the position of the controlled mirror on all actuators, typical dynamic response quality parameters like modal settling time, overshoot and following error can be acquired without employing optical measurements. In this way the system dynamic and some aspect of its thermal and long term stability can be fully characterized before starting the optical tests and calibrations.

Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Mair, C.; Pescoller, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Mantegazza, M.; Gallieni, D.; Vernet, E.; Arsenault, R.; Madec, P.-Y.; Duhoux, P.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Manetti, M.; Morandini, M.

2012-07-01

426

Results of a sub-scale model rotor icing test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heavily instrumented sub-scale model of a helicopter main rotor was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in September and November 1989. The four-bladed main rotor had a diameter of 1.83 m (6.00 ft) and the 0.124 m (4.9 in) chord rotor blades were specially fabricated for this experiment. The instrumented rotor was mounted on a Sikorsky Aircraft Powered Force Model, which enclosed a rotor balance and other measurement systems. The model rotor was exposed to a range of icing conditions that included variations in temperature, liquid water content, and median droplet diameter, and was operated over ranges of advance ratio, shaft angle, tip Mach number (rotor speed) and weight coefficient to determine the effect of these parameters on ice accretion. In addition to strain gage and balance data, the test was documented with still, video, and high speed photography, ice profile tracings, and ice molds. The sensitivity of the model rotor to the test parameters, is given, and the result to theoretical predictions are compared. Test data quality was excellent, and ice accretion prediction methods and rotor performance prediction methods (using published icing lift and drag relationships) reproduced the performance trends observed in the test. Adjustments to the correlation coefficients to improve the level of correlation are suggested.

Flemming, Robert J.; Bond, Thomas H.; Britton, Randall K.

1991-01-01

427

Thermally Induced Groundwater Flow Resulting from an Underground Nuclear Test  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine the transient residual thermal signal resulting from an underground nuclear test (buried below the water table) and its potential to affect local groundwater flow and radionuclide migration in a saturated, fractured, volcanic aquifer system. Thermal profiles measured in a drillback hole between 154 days and 6.5 years after the test have been used to calibrate a non-isothermal model of fluid flow. In this process, they have estimated the magnitude and relative changes in permeability, porosity and fracture density between different portions of the disturbed and undisturbed geologic medium surrounding the test location. The relative impacts of buoyancy forces (arising from the thermal residual of the test and the background geothermal gradient) and horizontal pressure gradients on the post-test flow system are better understood. A transient particle/streamline model of contaminant transport is used to visualize streamlines and streaklines of the flow field and to examine the migration of non-reactive radionuclides. Sensitivity analyses are performed to understand the effects of local and sub-regional geologic features, and the effects of fractured zones on the movement of groundwater and thermal energy. Conclusions regarding the overall effect of the thermal regime on the residence times and fluxes of radionuclides out of the system are drawn, and implications for more complicated, reactive contaminant transport are discussed.

Maxwell, R.M.; Tompson, A.F.B.; Rambo, J.T.; Carle, S.F.; Pawloski, G.A.

2000-12-16

428

Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)  

SciTech Connect

The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0.

Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

1998-07-01

429

Test Results for a High Power Thermal Management System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the identified needs of emerging high power spacecraft applications, a multiple evaporator hybrid loop heat pipe (H-LHP) was developed and tested as part of a Dual Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) program co-sponsored by ATK and AFRL/PRP. During the course of the DUS&T program, a two-kilowatt system with three evaporators was developed and tested to identify viable system architectures and characterize system performance capabilities as a function of heat load profiles and spatial distribution of the evaporators. Following the successful development of the two-kilowatt system, a 10-kilowatt system with six evaporators was fabricated and tested. Tests were performed with the system operating in a totally passive mode, where applying a small amount of power to a sweepage evaporator provides the auxiliary flow through the primary evaporators,