Science.gov

Sample records for blast test results

  1. BAE systems brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) system overview and flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykora, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Rotary wing aircraft continue to experience mishaps caused by the loss of visual situational awareness and spatial disorientation due to brownout or whiteout in dusty, sandy or snowy conditions as the downwash of the rotor blades creates obscurant clouds that completely engulf the helicopter during approaches to land. BAE Systems has developed a "see-through" brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) based on a small and light weight 94GHz radar with proven ability to penetrate dust, coupled with proprietary antenna tracking, signal processing and digital terrain morphing algorithms to produce a cognitive real-time 3D synthetic image of the ground and proximate surface hazards in and around the landing zone. A series of ground and flight tests have been conducted at the United States Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona that reflect operational scenarios in relevant environments to progressively mature the technology. A description of the BLAST solution developed by BAE Systems and results from recent flight tests is provided.

  2. Results of tests of MTA-2 TPS on the SRB hold-down bolt blast container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    The four solid rocket booster (SRB) hold-down posts are fastened to the mobile launch platform (MLP) with four large nuts. At liftoff the nuts are split with explosive changes to release the SRB/Shuttle. A blast container is placed over the nuts to protect the vehicle from flying debris. The blast container is a reusable part and has to be protected from aerodynamic heating during flight. The thermal protection system (TPS) used to protect these blast containers is cork. Fitting the flat cork sheet to this hemispherical shaped blast container is both time consuming and expensive. Another problem is removing the charred cork and epoxy glue from the blast containers. Replacements of this cork with another TPS material such as MTA-2 was examined. Heating rates along the centerline of the forward facing areas of the blast container were determined. The feasibility of using 1/2 in. MTA-2 on the SRB blast containers for protection from ascent, plume impingement and reentry heating is demonstrated.

  3. Laboratory Blast Testing Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, C.; Rule, G.

    Blast-induced injuries remain a critical problem facing US Forces during combat operations. As the nature of modern warfare has evolved, it is likely that the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) will remain a common battlefield threat for the foreseeable future. Thus, research devoted to improving protection, and characterizing the physiological response of people and equipment to blast exposure is and will remain a major thrust area for the DOD. Unfortunately, exact reproduction or simulation of the blast environment is technically challenging, while measuring and characterizing blast exposures is even more complex.

  4. Membrane characteristics for biological blast overpressure testing using blast simulators.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Vanessa D; Siva Sai Sujith Sajja, Venkata; Kemper, Andrew R; Rizel, Dave V; Duma, Stefan M; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    Blast simulators often use passive-rupture membranes to generate shock waves similar to free-field blasts. The purpose of this study was to compare rupture patterns and pressure traces of three distinct membrane materials for biological and biomechanical blast studies. An Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS) located at the Center for Injury Biomechanics at Virginia Tech was used to test membrane characteristics. Acetate, Mylar, and aluminum sheets with different thicknesses were used to obtain pressures between 70–210 kPa. Static pressure was measured inside the tube at the test section using piezoelectric pressure sensors. Peak overpressure, positive duration, and positive impulse were calculated for each test. Rupture patterns and characteristic pressure traces were unique to each membrane type and thickness. Shock wave speed ranged between 1.2-1.8 Mach for static overpressures of 70–210 kPa. Acetate membranes fragmented sending pieces down the tube, but produced ideal (Friedlander) pressure traces. Mylar membranes bulged without fragmenting, but produced less-than-ideal pressure traces. Aluminum membranes did not fragment and produced ideal pressure traces. However, the cost of manufacturing and characterizing aluminum membranes should be considered during membrane selection. This study illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of using Mylar, acetate, and aluminum for passive rupture membranes for blast simulators. PMID:25405432

  5. Small-Scale Shock Reactivity and Internal Blast Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.

    2006-07-01

    Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT) uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter. Early and late-time reactions are simultaneously measured from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. Prompt reactions are quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block, while later reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion, are measured by recording blast pressure. Internal blast quasi-static pressure is obtained by confining the sample apparatus within a three-liter chamber. Late-time reaction effects of plastics, and results from HMX, HMX/Aluminum, and a plastic-bonded explosive (PBX) are reported.

  6. Bridging the Gap of Standardized Animals Models for Blast Neurotrauma: Methodology for Appropriate Experimental Testing.

    PubMed

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Leonardi, Alessandra Dal Cengio; Ritzel, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure. Both the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the National Institutes of Health have noted that there is a lack of standardized preclinical models of TBI. It is recommended that the blast injury research community converge on a consistent set of experimental procedures and reporting of blast test conditions. This chapter describes the blast conditions which can be recreated within a laboratory setting and methodology for testing in vivo models within the appropriate environment. PMID:27604715

  7. Grit Blasting Scribes Coats For Tests Of Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.

    1991-01-01

    Grit-blasting technique for cutting line gaps in paints, hard coats, lubricants, and other coating films undergoing development. Line gaps cut in chevron patterns, groups of parallel lines, or other prescribed patterns, in preparation for testing adhesions of coats to substrates by attempting to peel patterned areas off with adhesive tapes. Damage to substrate reduced.

  8. June 7 Ballistic Blast Results in Solar Tsunami

    NASA Video Gallery

    In addition to the magnificent blast, SDO detected a shadowy shock wave issuing from the blast site on the June 7, 2011 event. The 'solar tsunami' propagated more than halfway across the sun, visib...

  9. Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Sarah Jill

    2003-06-01

    Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

  10. Blast-Associated Shock Waves Result in Increased Brain Vascular Leakage and Elevated ROS Levels in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Petro, Marianne; Dudzinski, Dave; Stewart, Desiree; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Blast-associated shock wave-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) remains a persistent risk for armed forces worldwide, yet its detailed pathophysiology remains to be fully investigated. In this study, we have designed and characterized a laboratory-scale shock tube to develop a rodent model of bTBI. Our blast tube, driven by a mixture of oxygen and acetylene, effectively generates blast overpressures of 20–130 psi, with pressure-time profiles similar to those of free-field blast waves. We tested our shock tube for brain injury response to various blast wave conditions in rats. The results show that blast waves cause diffuse vascular brain damage, as determined using a sensitive optical imaging method based on the fluorescence signal of Evans Blue dye extravasation developed in our laboratory. Vascular leakage increased with increasing blast overpressures and mapping of the brain slices for optical signal intensity indicated nonhomogeneous damage to the cerebral vasculature. We confirmed vascular leakage due to disruption in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity following blast exposure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the brain also increased with increasing blast pressures and with time post-blast wave exposure. Immunohistochemical analysis of the brain sections analyzed at different time points post blast exposure demonstrated astrocytosis and cell apoptosis, confirming sustained neuronal injury response. The main advantages of our shock-tube design are minimal jet effect and no requirement for specialized equipment or facilities, and effectively generate blast-associated shock waves that are relevant to battle-field conditions. Overall data suggest that increased oxidative stress and BBB disruption could be the crucial factors in the propagation and spread of neuronal degeneration following blast injury. Further studies are required to determine the interplay between increased ROS activity and BBB disruption to develop effective therapeutic

  11. Blast-Associated Shock Waves Result in Increased Brain Vascular Leakage and Elevated ROS Levels in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Kabu, Shushi; Jaffer, Hayder; Petro, Marianne; Dudzinski, Dave; Stewart, Desiree; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Blast-associated shock wave-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) remains a persistent risk for armed forces worldwide, yet its detailed pathophysiology remains to be fully investigated. In this study, we have designed and characterized a laboratory-scale shock tube to develop a rodent model of bTBI. Our blast tube, driven by a mixture of oxygen and acetylene, effectively generates blast overpressures of 20-130 psi, with pressure-time profiles similar to those of free-field blast waves. We tested our shock tube for brain injury response to various blast wave conditions in rats. The results show that blast waves cause diffuse vascular brain damage, as determined using a sensitive optical imaging method based on the fluorescence signal of Evans Blue dye extravasation developed in our laboratory. Vascular leakage increased with increasing blast overpressures and mapping of the brain slices for optical signal intensity indicated nonhomogeneous damage to the cerebral vasculature. We confirmed vascular leakage due to disruption in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity following blast exposure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the brain also increased with increasing blast pressures and with time post-blast wave exposure. Immunohistochemical analysis of the brain sections analyzed at different time points post blast exposure demonstrated astrocytosis and cell apoptosis, confirming sustained neuronal injury response. The main advantages of our shock-tube design are minimal jet effect and no requirement for specialized equipment or facilities, and effectively generate blast-associated shock waves that are relevant to battle-field conditions. Overall data suggest that increased oxidative stress and BBB disruption could be the crucial factors in the propagation and spread of neuronal degeneration following blast injury. Further studies are required to determine the interplay between increased ROS activity and BBB disruption to develop effective therapeutic strategies

  12. Testing the blast wave model with Swift GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, P. A.; Starling, R. L. C.; van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; de Pasquale, M.; Page, M.

    2011-04-01

    The complex structure of the light curves of Swift GRBs (e.g. superimposed flares and shallow decay) has made their interpretation and that of the blast wave caused by the burst, more difficult than in the pre-Swift era. We aim to constrain the blast wave parameters: electron energy distribution, p, density profile of the circumburst medium, k, and the continued energy injection index, q. We do so by comparing the observed multi-wavelength light curves and X-ray spectra of a Swift sample to the predictions of the blast wave model.We can successfully interpret all of the bursts in our multi-wavelength sample of 10, except two, within the framework of the blast wave model, and we can estimate with confidence the electron energy distribution index for 6 of the sample. Furthermore we identify jet breaks in almost half of the bursts. The values of k suggest that the circumburst density profiles are not drawn from only one of the constant density or wind-like media populations. A statistical analysis of the distribution of p reveals that, even in the most conservative case of least scatter, the values are not consistent with a single, universal value. This is in agreement with our results for a larger sample of X-ray only afterglows which we summarise here.

  13. Test of Some Hybrid Combinations to Rice Blast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. Blast resistant cultivars are recognized as the most efficacious and economical way to control this disease. Genetic resistance to rice blast is generally governed by a few major genes, often in c...

  14. GIRAFFE test results summary

    SciTech Connect

    Yokobori, S.; Arai, K.; Oikawa, H.

    1996-03-01

    A passive system can provide engineered safety features enhancing safety system reliability and plant simplicity. Toshiba has conducted the test Program to demonstrate the feasibility of the SBWR passive safety system using a full-height, integral system test facility GIRAFFE. The test facility GIRAFFE models the SBWR in full height to correctly present the gravity driving head forces with a 1/400 volume scale. The GIRAFFE test Program includes the certification tests of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) to remove the post-accident decay heat and the gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) to replenish the reactor coolant inventory during a LOCA. The test results have confirmed the PCCS and GDCS design and in addition, have demonstrated the operation of the pCCS with the presence of a lighter-than-steam noncondensable as well as with the presence of a heavier-than-steam, noncondensable. The GIRAFFE test Program has also provided the database to qualify a best estimate thermal-hydraulic computer code TRAC. The post test analysis results have shown that TRAC can accurately predict the PCCS heat removal Performance and the containment pressure response to a LOCA. This paper summarizes the GIRAFFE test results to investigate post-LOCA PCCS heat removal performance and post-test analysis using TRAC.

  15. Your Kidney Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... Important Tests Blood Pressure Serum Albumin Bicarbonate Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Potassium Calcium Phosphorus Results Goal: Your ... level in your blood. BUN checks how much urea, a waste product, is in your blood. Potassium ...

  16. Source-emission testing of the Rail Shop Media Blast Booth, Hill AFB, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, R.J.

    1990-10-01

    At the request of HQ Ogden ALC/EM, personnel of the AFOEHL Air Quality Function conducted source emission testing for particulates on the Rail Shop Media Blast Booth at Hil AFB. Testing was performed on 29 and 30 Aug 90. The Utah Bureau of Air Quality required testing for approval order compliance. Particulate emissions were above the emission limits allowed by the State of Utah. Action is recommended to bring the media blast booth into compliance.

  17. Comparing the Neuropsychological Test Performance of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with and without Blast Exposure, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, Daniel; O'Neil, Maya Elin; Roost, Saw-Myo; Kowalski, Halina; Iverson, Grant L; Binder, Laurence M; Fann, Jesse R; Huckans, Marilyn

    2015-05-01

    To compare neuropsychological test performance of Veterans with and without mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), blast exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We compared the neuropsychological test performance of 49 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans diagnosed with MTBI resulting from combat blast-exposure to that of 20 blast-exposed OEF/OIF Veterans without history of MTBI, 23 OEF/OIF Veterans with no blast exposure or MTBI history, and 40 matched civilian controls. Comparison of neuropsychological test performance across all four participant groups showed a complex pattern of mixed significant and mostly nonsignificant results, with omnibus tests significant for measures of attention, spatial abilities, and executive function. The most consistent pattern was the absence of significant differences between blast-exposed Veterans with MTBI history and blast-exposed Veterans without MTBI history. When blast-exposed Veteran groups with and without MTBI history were aggregated and compared to non-blast-exposed Veterans, there were significant differences for some measures of learning and memory, spatial abilities, and executive function. However, covariation for severity of PTSD symptoms eliminated all significant omnibus neuropsychological differences between Veteran groups. Our results suggest that, although some mild neurocognitive effects were associated with blast exposure, these neurocognitive effects might be better explained by PTSD symptom severity rather than blast exposure or MTBI history alone. PMID:26029852

  18. An Assessment of Ore Waste and Dilution Resulting From Buffer/Choke Blasting in Surface Gold Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Preece, D.S.; Chung, S.H.; Tidman, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    A discrete element computer program named DMC{underscore}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece {ampersand} Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions (2-D). DMC{underscore}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Buffer Choke blasting is commonly used in surface gold mines to break the rock and dilate it sufficiently for ease of digging, with the assumption of insignificant horizontal movement. The blast designs usually call for relatively shallow holes benches ({lt} 11 m) with small blastholes (approx. 165 mm), small burdens and spacings ({lt}5 m), often with 50% or more of the hole stemmed. Control of blast-induced horizontal movement is desired because the ore is assayed in place from the blasthole drill cuttings and digging polygons of ore and waste are laid out before the blast. Horizontal movement at the ore waste boundary can result in dilution of the ore or loss of ore with the waste. The discrete element computer program DMC{underscore}BLAST has been employed to study spatial variation of horizontal rock motion during buffer choke blasting. Patterns of rock motion can be recognized from the discrete element simulations that would be difficult or impossible to recognize in the field (Preece, Tidman and Chung, 1997). Techniques have been developed to calculate ore waste and dilution from the horizontal movement predicted by DMC{underscore}BLAST. Four DMC{underscore}BLAST simulations of buffer blasting have been performed. The blasts are identical except that the burden and spacing are systematically varied which also changes the powder factor. Predictions of ore waste or dilution are made for each burden in the blast, assuming no horizontal movement, to illustrate the spatial variation observed.

  19. Lithium cell test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

  20. Blast Testing Issues and TBI: Experimental Models That Lead to Wrong Conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Charles E.; Ritzel, David; Rule, Gregory T.; Wiri, Suthee; Young, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have noticed an increase in the number of blast injury studies published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals that have utilized improperly conceived experiments. Data from these studies will lead to false conclusions and more confusion than advancement in the understanding of blast injury, particularly blast neurotrauma. Computational methods to properly characterize the blast environment have been available for decades. These methods, combined with a basic understanding of blast wave phenomena, enable researchers to extract useful information from well-documented experiments. This basic understanding must include the differences and interrelationships of static pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and total or stagnation pressure in transient shockwave flows, how they relate to loading of objects, and how they are properly measured. However, it is critical that the research community effectively overcomes the confusion that has been compounded by a misunderstanding of the differences between the loading produced by a free field explosive blast and loading produced by a conventional shock tube. The principles of blast scaling have been well established for decades and when properly applied will do much to repair these problems. This paper provides guidance regarding proper experimental methods and offers insights into the implications of improperly designed and executed tests. Through application of computational methods, useful data can be extracted from well-documented historical tests, and future work can be conducted in a way to maximize the effectiveness and use of valuable biological test data. PMID:25904891

  1. Blast Testing Issues and TBI: Experimental Models That Lead to Wrong Conclusions.

    PubMed

    Needham, Charles E; Ritzel, David; Rule, Gregory T; Wiri, Suthee; Young, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have noticed an increase in the number of blast injury studies published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals that have utilized improperly conceived experiments. Data from these studies will lead to false conclusions and more confusion than advancement in the understanding of blast injury, particularly blast neurotrauma. Computational methods to properly characterize the blast environment have been available for decades. These methods, combined with a basic understanding of blast wave phenomena, enable researchers to extract useful information from well-documented experiments. This basic understanding must include the differences and interrelationships of static pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and total or stagnation pressure in transient shockwave flows, how they relate to loading of objects, and how they are properly measured. However, it is critical that the research community effectively overcomes the confusion that has been compounded by a misunderstanding of the differences between the loading produced by a free field explosive blast and loading produced by a conventional shock tube. The principles of blast scaling have been well established for decades and when properly applied will do much to repair these problems. This paper provides guidance regarding proper experimental methods and offers insights into the implications of improperly designed and executed tests. Through application of computational methods, useful data can be extracted from well-documented historical tests, and future work can be conducted in a way to maximize the effectiveness and use of valuable biological test data. PMID:25904891

  2. Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) resulting from Chelyabinsk Meteor Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeks, B. J.; Warren, N.; Coster, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    A global network of GPS receivers continuously make line-of-sight (LOS) measurements of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere. This TEC measurement data can be analyzed to 'persistently monitor' natural and man-made activity in the atmosphere (such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, rocket launches, etc) which propagate into the ionosphere to produce TIDs (Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances). As an example we have analyzed in detail the TIDs resulting from the 15 Feb 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor blast as observed by the Artu GPS receiver site in Arti, Russia close to the event. Seven of the GPS satellite measurements with LOS pierce points within 1000 km of the blast show disturbances. Four of these clearly show VTEC oscillations with ~12 minute periods. The other three show much weaker responses, but their LOS pierce points are far from the blast and their aspects between the geomagnetic field & blast propagation vector are unfavorable (near broadside). By fitting all seven measurements we estimate a propagation speed of ~380 m/s for these medium-scale TIDs. As future 'persistent surveillance' efforts we intend to investigate the observability of man-made activities such as static rocket engine firings in TEC measurements. Analysis of MSTIDs resulting from the Chelyabinsk meteor blast

  3. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting literature search and decontamination scoping tests report

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.E.

    1993-12-01

    Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using current decontamination techniques. Chemical decontamination flushes have provided a satisfactory level of decontamination. However, this method generates large amounts of sodium-bearing secondary waste. Steam jet cleaning has also been used with a great deal of success but cannot be used on concrete or soft materials. With the curtailment of reprocessing at the ICPP, the focus of decontamination is shifting from maintenance for continued operation of the facilities to decommissioning. Treatment of sodium-bearing waste is a particularly difficult problem due to the high content of alkali metals in the sodium-bearing liquid waste. It requires a very large volume of cold chemical additive for calcination. In addition, the sodium content of the sodium-bearing waste exceeds the limit that can be incorporated into vitrified waste without the addition of glass-forming compounds (primarily silicon) to produce an acceptable immobilized waste form. The primary initiatives of the Decontamination Development Program is the development of methods to eliminate/minimize the use of sodium-bearing decontamination chemicals and to minimize all liquid decontamination wastes. One method chosen for cold scoping studies during FY-93 was CO{sub 2} pellet blasting. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting has been used extensively by commercial industries for general cleaning. However, using this method for decontamination of nuclear materials is a fairly new concept. The following report discusses the research and scoping tests completed on CO{sub 2} pellet blasting.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Pt. 173, App. D Appendix D to Part 173—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  8. Pressure locking test results

    SciTech Connect

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  9. Organic Separation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  10. MER ARA pyroshock test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kurng Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the shock test results achieved in the MER ARA/brush motor pyroshock qualification. The results of MER flight system pyrofiring tests in comparison with the ARA shock test requirements are discussed herein. Alternate test methods were developed in an effort to qualify the critical MER equipment for adequate performance in the actual flight pyroshock condition.

  11. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  12. Small-scale materials blast testing using gram-range explosives and air-shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargather, Michael; Settles, Gary

    2006-11-01

    Many material properties are unknown under the high strain rates of shock wave impulse from an explosion in air. Actual blast testing is required for this, but full-scale explosive tests are expensive and dangerous, and yield limited data. Here we explore the possibility that gram-range explosive charges can be used for such testing in an ordinary laboratory setting. The explosion is characterized by high-speed digital shadowgraphy and piezoelectric pressure records of shock speed and overpressure duration. These data yield an explosive impulse describing the strength of shock loading at various standoff distances from a material sample (typically 25cm diameter). Simultaneously, twin high-speed digital cameras and surface tracking software provide material displacement and strain rate data during the test. In principle, these data and the measured shock loading provide a means to find dynamic material properties by an inverse computational approach. A scaling analysis also relates the gram-range blast test to a large-scale blast from the same or a different explosive.

  13. Comparison of Internal-Blast Explosive Performance in Small- and Large-Scale Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Small-scale internal blast measurements were correlated with large-scale test data. Highly confined small explosive samples <0.5 g were subjected to the output from a PETN detonator while enclosed in a 3-liter chamber. Large-scale tests up to 22.7 kg were generally unconfined and shot in a 180-m3 chamber. When sample mass was expressed as total sample energy/chamber volume, theoretical peak quasi-static blast pressures for both small and large-scale tests fell on the same curve. Blast explosives may comprise high levels of fuels and reactive materials to enhance or control the release of energy, and may be insensitive and slow-reacting, with performance that may not scale well to small size tests. High confinement of a small sample can compensate for low sensitivity, but at the expense of heat loss to the metal confinement. This heat loss can be measured to improve the correlation between large and small-scale measurements, unless the released energy becomes too low to sustain complete reaction of the sample, either with itself or with air in the chamber.

  14. Misleading biochemical laboratory test results

    PubMed Central

    Nanji, Amin A.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the general and specific factors that interfere with the performance of common biochemical laboratory tests and the interpretation of their results. The clinical status of the patient, drug interactions, and in-vivo and in-vitro biochemical interactions and changes may alter the results obtained from biochemical analysis of blood constituents. Failure to recognize invalid laboratory test results may lead to injudicious and dangerous management of patients. PMID:6375845

  15. MITG test procedure and results

    SciTech Connect

    Eck, M.B.; Mukunda, M.

    1983-01-01

    Elements and modules for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator have been performance tested since the inception of the RTG program. These test articles seldom resembled flight hardware and often lacked adequate diagnostic instrumentation. Because of this, performance problems were not identified in the early stage of program development. The lack of test data in an unexpected area often hampered the development of a problem solution. A procedure for conducting the MITG Test was developed in an effort to obtain data in a systematic, unambiguous manner. This procedure required the development of extensive data acquisition software and test automation. The development of a facility to implement the test procedure, the facility hardware and software requirements, and the results of the MITG testing are the subject of this paper.

  16. State Test Results Are Predictable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-school, community demographic and family-level variables have an important influence on student achievement as measured by large-scale standardized tests. Studies described here demonstrated that about half of the test score is accounted for by variables outside the control of teachers and school administrators. The results from these…

  17. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  18. Site Testing Results and Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Michael M.; Storey, John W.; Burton, Michael G.

    NOTE: this is highly preliminary just to get the abstract in by the deadline! - brief summary of the AASTO program - key points from the site testing results at South Pole - very brief introduction to ICECAM and the AASTINO - key results from ICECAM and the AASTINO instruments - next year's instrument plans at South Pole and Dome C including a brief mention of Doug Caldwell's experiment

  19. Bell Canyon test and results

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C. L.; Hunter, T. O.

    1980-01-01

    The purposes of the Borehold Plugging Program are: to identify issues associated with sealing boreholes and shafts; to establish a data base from which to assess the importance of these issues; and to develop sealing criteria, materials, and demonstrative test for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Bell Canyon Test described in this report is one part of that program. Its purpose was to evaluate, in situ, the state of the art in borehole plugs and to identify and resolve problems encountered in evaluating a typical plug installation in anhydrite. The test results are summarized from the work of Peterson and Christensen and divided into two portions: system integrity and wellbore characterization tests prior to plug installation, and a series of tests to evaluate isolation characteristics of the 1.8-m-long plug. Conclusions of the Bell Canyon Test are: brine and fresh-water grouts, with acceptable physical properties in the fluid and hardened states, have been developed; the field data, taken together with laboratory data, suggest that the predominant flow into the test region occurs through the cement plug/borehold interface region, with lesser contributions occurring through the wellbore damage zone, the plug core, and the surrounding undisturbed anhydrite bed; and the 1.8-m-long by 20-cm-diameter grout plug, installed in anhydrite at a depth of 1370 m in the AEC-7 borehole, limits flow from the high pressure Bell Canyon aquifer to 0.6 liters/day.

  20. Realistic warhead and blast shield testing of chemical energy tandem warhead systems for advanced antitank missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Fradkin, D.B.; Hull, L.M.; Laabs, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    The results of dynamic sled track performance testing of advanced tandem configuration shaped-charge warheads against multiple-reactive-element tank armors are presented. Tandem configurations utilizing both currently fielded and experimental shaped-charge warheads were tested. Sled velocities used were between 400 and 1100 ft/s (Mach number 0.35 to 0.95), typical of the terminal approach velocity of TOW-type antitank missiles. High-speed motion pictures (5000 frames/s) of the sled in operation and a typical mock missile'' warhead package approaching the target are shown. Details of the sled design and fabrication and of the warhead package design and fabrication are presented. Sled track instrumentation is discussed. This instrumentation includes foil make/break switches and associated time interval meters (TIM) and digital delay units (DDU), magnetic Hall-effect transistors for measuring sled trajectory, and flash x-rays (FXR). Methods for timing the x-rays are presented. Schematic functional diagrams of the experimental setups are also given. Evidence of the ability to accurately time the delay between precursor and main warheads for even very long time delays are presented. FXR pictures illustrate the dynamics of the interaction of the jets with various target elements. The interaction dynamics of the jets is discussed in relation to the overall penetration performance of the tandem warhead. The use of x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to help diagnose interaction dynamics is illustrated. The results of a test utilizing the missile propulsion rocket motor as a blast shield is presented in this paper. 2 refs., 22 figs.

  1. COLD TEST LOOP INTEGRATED TEST LOOP RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, TJ

    2003-10-22

    A testing facility (Cold Test Loop) was constructed and operated to demonstrate the efficacy of the Accelerated Waste Retrieval (AWR) Project's planned sluicing approach to the remediation of Silos 1 and 2 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, Ohio. The two silos contain almost 10,000 tons of radium-bearing low-level waste, which consists primarily of solids of raffinates from processing performed on ores from the Democratic Republic of Congo (commonly referred to as ''Belgium Congo ores'') for the recovery of uranium. These silos are 80 ft in diameter, 36 ft high to the center of the dome, and 26.75 ft to the top of the vertical side walls. The test facility contained two test systems, each designed for a specific purpose. The first system, the Integrated Test Loop (ITL), a near-full-scale plant including the actual equipment to be installed at the Fernald Site, was designed to demonstrate the sluicing operation and confirm the selection of a slurry pump, the optimal sluicing nozzle operation, and the preliminary design material balance. The second system, the Component Test Loop (CTL), was designed to evaluate many of the key individual components of the waste retrieval system over an extended run. The major results of the initial testing performed during July and August 2002 confirmed that the AWR approach to sluicing was feasible. The ITL testing confirmed the following: (1) The selected slurry pump (Hazleton 3-20 type SHW) performed well and is suitable for AWR application. However, the pump's motor should be upgraded to a 200-hp model and be driven by a 150-hp variable-frequency drive (VFD). A 200-hp VFD is not much more expensive and would allow the pump to operate at full speed. (2) The best nozzle performance was achieved by using 15/16-in. nozzles operated alternately. This configuration appeared to most effectively mine the surrogate. (3) The Solartron densitometer, which was tested as an alternative mass flow measurement

  2. Mobile evaporator corrosion test results

    SciTech Connect

    Rozeveld, A.; Chamberlain, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80{degrees}C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either {open_quotes}satisfactory{close_quotes} (2-20 mpy) or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} (<2 mpy) corrosion resistance as defined by National Association of Corrosion Engineers. However, many of the alloys experienced intergranular corrosion in the nitric acid test solution, which could indicate a susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in this environment.

  3. Novel drug candidates for blast phase chronic myeloid leukemia from high-throughput drug sensitivity and resistance testing

    PubMed Central

    Pietarinen, P O; Pemovska, T; Kontro, M; Yadav, B; Mpindi, J P; Andersson, E I; Majumder, M M; Kuusanmäki, H; Koskenvesa, P; Kallioniemi, O; Wennerberg, K; Heckman, C A; Mustjoki, S; Porkka, K

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis (CML BC) remains a challenging disease to treat despite the introduction and advances in tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. In this study we set out to identify novel candidate drugs for CML BC by using an unbiased high-throughput drug testing platform. We used three CML cell lines representing different types of CML blast phases (K562, EM-2 and MOLM-1) and primary leukemic cells from three CML BC patients. Profiling of drug responses was performed with a drug sensitivity and resistance testing platform comprising 295 anticancer agents. Overall, drug sensitivity scores and the drug response profiles of cell line and primary cell samples correlated well and were distinct from other types of leukemia samples. The cell lines were highly sensitive to TKIs and the clinically TKI-resistant patient samples were also resistant ex vivo. Comparison of cell line and patient sample data identified new candidate drugs for CML BC, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitors. Our results indicate that these drugs in particular warrant further evaluation by analyzing a larger set of primary patient samples. The results also pave way for designing rational combination therapies. PMID:25933373

  4. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

  5. AXAF hypervelocity impact test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Cynthia L.; Rodriguez, Pedro I.

    1997-01-01

    Composite and honeycomb panels are commonly used for spacecraft structural components. The impact test results and analysis of six different composite and honeycomb combinations for use on the advanced X-ray astrophysics facility (AXAF) are reported. The AXAF consists of an X-ray telescope and the associated detecting devices attached to an octagonal spacecraft with an internal propulsion system. The spacecraft's structural panels and optical bench are made of two different graphite fiber reinforced polyimides or composite panels bonded to either side of an aluminum honeycomb. The instrument is required to have at least a 0.92 probability of no failure of any of the critical elements due to meteoroids and debris. In relation to the no-failure probability determination in its low earth orbit environment, hypervelocity impact testing was performed to determine the ballistic limit range and the extent of damage due to impact. The test results for a power and signal cable bundle located behind a panel are presented. Tests planned for a multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket and four types of cable bundles are discussed.

  6. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    VIGIL,MANUEL G.

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels.

  7. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  8. Cryogenic Brush Seal Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Walker, James F.

    1996-01-01

    Brush seals are compliant, contact seals that have long-life, low-leakage characteristics desirable for use in rocket engine turbopumps. 50.8-mm (2.0 inch) diameter brush seals with a nominal initial radial interference of 0.127-mm (0.005 inch) were tested in liquid nitrogen at shaft speeds up to 35,000 rpm and differential pressure loads up to 1.21 MPa (175 psi) per brush. The measured leakage rate of a single brush was 2-3 times less than that measured for a 12-tooth, 0.127-mm (0.005 inch) radial clearance labyrinth seal used as a baseline. Stage effects were studied and it was found that two brush seals with a large separation distance leaked less than two brushes tightly packed together. The maximum measured groove depth on the Inconel 718 rotor was 25.4 (mu)m (0.001 inch) after 4.31 hours of shaft rotation. The Haynes-25 bristles wore approximately 25.4-76.2 (mu)m (0.001-0.003 inch) under the same conditions. Three seal runner coatings, chromium carbide, Teflon impregnated chromium, and zirconium oxide, were tested in liquid hydrogen at 35,000 and 65,000 rpm with separate 50.8 mm diameter brush seals made of Haynes-25 bristles and having a nominal initial radial interference of 129 rpm. Two bare Inconel-718 rotors were also tested as a baseline. The test results revealed significant differences between the wear characteristics of the uncoated and coated seal runners. At both speeds the brush seal with the bare Inconel-718 seal runner exhibited significant bristle wear with excessive material transferring to the runner surface. In contrast, the coated seal runners inhibited the transfer and deposit of bristle material. The chromium carbide coating showed only small quantities of bristle material transferring to its surface. The Teflon impregnated chromium coating also inhibited material transfer and provided some lubrication. This coating, however, is self-sacrificing. The Teflon remained present on the low speed runner, but it was completely removed from the

  9. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  10. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO{sub 2} pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO{sub 2} blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report.

  11. Diagnostic Tests and Examination Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Dennis

    1988-01-01

    A study of the usefulness of several diagnostic tests for selecting students to enter a civil engineering program found that the tests were not appropriate and that tests should be developed specifically for civil engineering. (MSE)

  12. Blast assessment and optimization for high quarry face-blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Sames, F.; O`Meara, R.

    1996-12-01

    Where applicable, high production benches can improve efficiency in quarrying. Quality control, geological, cost or other considerations might result in the development of quarry benches higher than 30 m and sometimes up to 60 m. Production blasts on high quarry faces require a confident blast design with respect to safety, cost efficiency and minimized environmental effects. Careful pre-blast assessment of the design parameters, blast monitoring of the product performance and the environmental effects and post-blast assessment of the overall blast performance are essential for the successful implementation of the blast design. The blast geometry for high quarry faces and a blast design that often includes multiple explosive charges in a blasthole, make a reliable assessment of the blast parameters difficult. Assessment techniques, their applications and limitations are described and discussed. This will include such methods as blast surveying using laser profiling and borehole deviation measurements, blast monitoring using continuous velocity of detonation measurement systems, high speed photography and seismographs for blast performance and environmental effects. Observations of low frequency airblast and high standard deviations in ground vibration measurements are described and discussed against a background of timing assessment and frequency spectra analysis. Approaches where an optimized design was implemented based on the blast parameter assessment and modeling are presented. An improvement in blast efficiency lies in the combination of blast assessment and blast modeling, whilst adequate documentation supports the process of designing and implementing successful blasts.

  13. Full-scale testing and numerical modeling of a multistory masonry structure subjected to internal blast loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Brian Jarvis

    As military and diplomatic representatives of the United States are deployed throughout the world, they must frequently make use of local, existing facilities; it is inevitable that some of these will be load bearing unreinforced masonry (URM) structures. Although generally suitable for conventional design loads, load bearing URM presents a unique hazard, with respect to collapse, when exposed to blast loading. There is therefore a need to study the blast resistance of load bearing URM construction in order to better protect US citizens assigned to dangerous locales. To address this, the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte conducted three blast tests inside a decommissioned, coal-fired, power plant prior to its scheduled demolition. The power plant's walls were constructed of URM and provided an excellent opportunity to study the response of URM walls in-situ. Post-test analytical studies investigated the ability of existing blast load prediction methodologies to model the case of a cylindrical charge with a low height of burst. It was found that even for the relatively simple blast chamber geometries of these tests, simplified analysis methods predicted blast impulses with an average net error of 22%. The study suggested that existing simplified analysis methods would benefit from additional development to better predict blast loads from cylinders detonated near the ground's surface. A hydrocode, CTH, was also used to perform two and three-dimensional simulations of the blast events. In order to use the hydrocode, Jones Wilkins Lee (JWL) equation of state (EOS) coefficients were developed for the experiment's Unimax dynamite charges; a novel energy-scaling technique was developed which permits the derivation of new JWL coefficients from an existing coefficient set. The hydrocode simulations were able to simulate blast impulses with an average absolute error of 34.5%. Moreover, the hydrocode simulations

  14. BEAUTY: an enhanced BLAST-based search tool that integrates multiple biological information resources into sequence similarity search results.

    PubMed

    Worley, K C; Wiese, B A; Smith, R F

    1995-09-01

    BEAUTY (BLAST enhanced alignment utility) is an enhanced version of the NCBI's BLAST data base search tool that facilitates identification of the functions of matched sequences. We have created new data bases of conserved regions and functional domains for protein sequences in NCBI's Entrez data base, and BEAUTY allows this information to be incorporated directly into BLAST search results. A Conserved Regions Data Base, containing the locations of conserved regions within Entrez protein sequences, was constructed by (1) clustering the entire data base into families, (2) aligning each family using our PIMA multiple sequence alignment program, and (3) scanning the multiple alignments to locate the conserved regions within each aligned sequence. A separate Annotated Domains Data Base was constructed by extracting the locations of all annotated domains and sites from sequences represented in the Entrez, PROSITE, BLOCKS, and PRINTS data bases. BEAUTY performs a BLAST search of those Entrez sequences with conserved regions and/or annotated domains. BEAUTY then uses the information from the Conserved Regions and Annotated Domains data bases to generate, for each matched sequence, a schematic display that allows one to directly compare the relative locations of (1) the conserved regions, (2) annotated domains and sites, and (3) the locally aligned regions matched in the BLAST search. In addition, BEAUTY search results include World-Wide Web hypertext links to a number of external data bases that provide a variety of additional types of information on the function of matched sequences. This convenient integration of protein families, conserved regions, annotated domains, alignment displays, and World-Wide Web resources greatly enhances the biological informativeness of sequence similarity searches. BEAUTY searches can be performed remotely on our system using the "BCM Search Launcher" World-Wide Web pages (URL is < http:/ /gc.bcm.tmc.edu:8088/ search

  15. Results of Deposition Scoping Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, M.Z.

    2003-03-04

    The processes of crystallization and solid deposit formation that led to the shutdown of the 2H evaporator operation at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and that could possibly cause similar problems in the future or in other evaporators need to be better understood. Through experimentation, thermodynamic modeling, and correlation of scaling to historical tank farm operations, progress has been made in developing guidelines as to the concentrations of silicon and aluminum that can be processed by evaporators while avoiding unacceptable levels of scale formation. However, because of limitations of the thermodynamic model and an insufficient amount of operational data at slightly supersaturated concentration levels, uncertainty still exists regarding acceptable feed concentrations. The objective of this effort is to provide information that can be used in defining acceptable levels of silicon and aluminum in evaporator feed solutions. Data collected previously showed that particle formation reactions can be rapid at evaporator temperatures for elevated silicon and aluminum concentrations. However, insufficient data exists to estimate the silicon and aluminum concentrations above which solids will form in the time frame of evaporator processing. The work described in this report was designed to determine the induction period for solutions of decreasing aluminum and silicon concentration such that the supersaturation level corresponding to a 4-h induction time for particle nucleation/growth in bulk solution can be estimated. In addition, experiments were conducted to explore the supersaturation levels that can result in deposition of solids on metal surfaces at varying aluminum-to-silicon concentration ratios. Laboratory studies of particle growth in solution were conducted at relatively low supersaturation levels. Dynamic-light-scattering (DLS) studies and deposition tests, similar to those performed in FY 2001, were conducted with solutions at relatively low

  16. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries. PMID:26761543

  17. Accidental head explosion: an unusual blast wave injury as a result of self-made fireworks.

    PubMed

    Kunz, S N; Zinka, B; Peschel, O; Fieseler, S

    2011-07-15

    A 33-year old hobby pyrotechnician sustained a lethal craniofacial trauma secondary to a salute fireworks blast. He was examining a misfire of a self-constructed salute gun, when it detonated, causing an explosively rupture of his forehead, which led to his immediate death. An autopsy was performed to achieve knowledge of the injury and to be able to reconstruct the events that lead to it. The pressure effect of the explosion caused a shredded rupture of the forehead with a regional spread of brain tissue and small polygonal skull fragments up to 30m from the detonation site. Furthermore multiple cinderlike fragments of black powder were embedded in the skin of the face and the anterior aspect of the neck (s.c. blast tattoo). The complete destruction of the forehead in combination with the multiple blast tattooing suggested that the explosion detonated while he was leaning over the device. PMID:21570222

  18. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  19. Experimental electrochemical capacitor test results

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.B.; Murphy, T.C.; Rogers, S.A.; Sutula, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    Various electrochemical capacitors (ultracapacitors) are being developed for hybrid vehicles as candidate power assist devices for the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) fast-response engine. The envisioned primary functions of the ultracapacitor are to level the dynamic power loads on the primary propulsion device and recover available energy from regenerative breaking during off-peak power periods. This paper will present test data from selected US Department of Energy (DOE) supported ultracapacitor projects designed to meet the fast response engine requirements. This paper will address the temperature dependence of test data obtained from a set of three devices provided from Maxwell Energy Products, Inc. These devices are rated at 2,300 F at 2.3 V. Constant-current, constant-power, and self-discharge testing as a function of temperature have been conducted. From these tests were determined the capacitance, equivalent series resistance, specific energy and power, and the self-discharge energy loss factor as a function of the device operating temperature.

  20. Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert; Chien, Hual-Te; Kohse, Gordon; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Rempe, Joy

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high-accuracy and -resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation-tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric

  1. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Nuclear Blast Cavities of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Duane; Russell, Chuck; Marshall, Matthew; Czerwinski, Ken; Daly, Michael J; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2008-02-08

    This exploratory research project is designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the possible existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations in Nevada Test Site (NTS) subsurface nuclear blast cavities. Although subsurface microbiological studies have been performed at the NTS in the past, radioactive zones have yet to be addressed. Nuclear blast zone microbiology is a completely new field and our team is well-positioned to collect and analyze samples that have never before been available to microbiologists. Relevant samples are now being obtained by incorporating microbiological collections into an ongoing annual hot well sampling program being conducted by other agencies. A combination of cultivation-based and molecular microbial detection protocols is being utilized at multiple locations to survey for uncultivable microorganisms and to develop a culture collection which will be characterized for radionuclide- and metal-reduction capabilities. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, a positive outcome from this work would have significant implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites. A primary objective of the project has been the establishment of the regulatory and technical framework necessary to enable our acquisition of samples. Thus, much of our activity in the first phase of this work has involved the development an approved Field Area Work Plan (FAWP), Radiological Work Permit (RWP), and other documentation required for radiological work at the NTS. We have also invested significant time into ensuring that all personnel possess the required training (e.g. Radworker II and 40 hr. HAZWOPER) for access to the hot well sampling sites. Laboratory facilities, required for field processing of radioactive samples as well as DNA extraction and other manipulations, have been secured both the NTS (Mercury, NV) and UNLV. Although our year-1 field work was delayed due

  2. Mars Balloon Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jeffery L.; Pauken, Michael T.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Walsh, Gerald J.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Lachenmeier, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a set of four Earth atmosphere flight test experiments on prototype helium superpressure balloons designed for Mars. Three of the experiments explored the problem of aerial deployment and inflation, using the cold, low density environment of the Earth's stratosphere at an altitude of 30-32 km as a proxy for the Martian atmosphere. Auxiliary carrier balloons were used in three of these test flights to lift the Mars balloon prototype and its supporting system from the ground to the stratosphere where the experiment was conducted. In each case, deployment and helium inflation was initiated after starting a parachute descent of the payload at 5 Pa dynamic pressure, thereby mimicking the conditions expected at Mars after atmospheric entry and high speed parachute deceleration. Upward and downward looking video cameras provided real time images from the flights, with additional data provided by onboard temperature, pressure and GPS sensors. One test of a 660 cc pumpkin balloon was highly successful, achieving deployment, inflation and separation of the balloon from the flight train at the end of inflation; however, some damage was incurred on the balloon during this process. Two flight tests of 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloons were not successful, although some lessons were learned based on the failure analyses. The final flight experiment consisted of a ground-launched 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloon that ascended to the designed 30.3 km altitude and successfully floated for 9.5 hours through full noontime daylight and into darkness, after which the telemetry system ran out of electrical power and tracking was lost. The altitude excursions for this last flight were +/-75 m peak to peak, indicating that the balloon was essentially leak free and functioning correctly. This provides substantial confidence that this balloon design will fly for days or weeks at Mars if it can be deployed and inflated without damage.

  3. Dynamic test of a corrugated steel keyworker blast shelter MISTY PICTURE. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, R.L.; Slawson, T.R.; Harris, A.L.

    1987-11-01

    The 18-man blast shelter was tested dynamically on May 14, 1987 in the MISTY PICTURE event at White Sands Missile Range, NM. The main section of the shelter was fabricated from a 9-foot-diameter, 27.5-foot-long section of 10-gage, galvanized, corrugated steel culvert. The shelter included a vertical entryway and air intake and exhaust stacks. The shelter design was found to be conservative during a previous 50-psi validation test, and some constructibility problems were encountered with the entryway-to-shelter connections. This test was conducted to validate the modifications made to the shelter design. The modifications were made to reduce construction costs and improve constructibility. Primary modifications included: replacing the stiffened endwalls with lighter-weight unstiffened plates, connecting the entryway to an endwall rather than to the main section of the shelter, and the inclusion of an emergency exit. The structure was located at the anticipated 200-psi peak overpressure level. Post-test inspection revealed that the main section of the shelter suffered very little damage during the test. Due to the failure of the emergency exit cover plate, it was necessary to determine if enough pressure entered the shelter to affect its structural response. This test also investigated the shock environment inside the shelter.

  4. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  5. Results of Neptunium Disposal Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2003-10-07

    Researchers investigated the neutralization of neptunium solution from H-Canyon Tank 16.4 and the properties of the resulting slurry. This work investigated slurry properties from a single neutralization protocol and limited storage times.

  6. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

  7. Mechanism of Traumatic Brain Injury at Distant Locations After Exposure to Blast Waves: Preliminary Results from Animal and Phantom Experiments.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Ohtani, Kiyonobu; Goda, Keisuke; Kudo, Daisuke; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Washio, Toshikatsu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the least understood of the four phases of blast injury. Distant injury induced by the blast wave, on the opposite side from the wave entry, is not well understood. This study investigated the mechanism of distant injury in bTBI. Materials and Methods Eight 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: group 1 served as the control group and did not receive any shock wave (SW) exposure; group 2 was exposed to SWs (12.5 ± 2.5 MPa). Propagation of SWs within a brain phantom was evaluated by visualization, pressure measurement, and numerical simulation. Results Intracerebral hemorrhage near the ignition site and elongation of the distant nucleus were observed, despite no apparent damage between the two locations in the animal experiment. Visualization, pressure measurement, and numerical simulation indicated the presence of complex wave dynamics accompanying a sudden increase in pressure, followed by negative pressure in the phantom experiment. Conclusion A local increase in pressure above the threshold caused by interference of reflection and rarefaction waves in the vicinity of the brain-skull surface may cause distant injury in bTBI. PMID:27165867

  8. It's a Blast! Results from a Teacher-Researcher Collaboration to Study Mining Explosions in Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combs, W. B.; Shannon, E.; Kelly, M.; Hamburger, M.; Gary, P.

    2004-12-01

    The most common signals recorded by the PEPP network in Indiana are mining explosions from surface coal mines and aggregate quarry operations. We examined recording from 30 events from west-central Indiana with known locations determined through previous work by a high school student involved in the program. We also obtained more precise ground truth from a mine near Evansville including one shot with near-field recordings. We examined data from these explosions in three independent, but related projects. One study used high-frequency Rayleigh waves to develop group velocity curves that have proven useful for location of mining explosions in the region. We measured arrival times of surface waves observed with narrow band filters centered at 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 Hz. These data were inverted using two different procedures that yielded consistent results. We measured group velocities of 2.40, 2.28, 1.99, and 1.83 km/s, respectively. The second study focused on velocities from the mine in Evansville with a known origin time. These results suggested a possible bias in the origin time computed from the surface wave group velocity measurements due to timing of the peak amplitude instead of the signal onset. The third study examined the amplitudes from the west-central Indiana data in order to determine the amplitude decay characteristics of these events with the aim of using the results for yield estimation of explosions in the region. We measured best-fit amplitude decay curves for the same four frequency bands used for group velocity estimation. The decay rates increased strongly with increasing frequency, which is probably due to stronger dispersion in the higher frequency bands. The best-fit curves allowed us to estimate a pseudo-magnitude for each frequency band. We found a poor correlation of the pseudo-magnitudes to the known yields of these explosions, suggesting that amplitudes are being influenced strongly by details of blasting practice in different mines

  9. On the Interaction and Coalescence if Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The scaling and similarity laws concerning the propagation of isolated spherical blast waves are briefly reviewed. Both point source explosions and high pressure gas explosions are considered. Test data on blast overpressure from the interaction and coalescence of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives in the form of shaped charges of different strength placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure. The results point out the possibility of detecting source explosions from far-field pressure measurements.

  10. Performance tests of a fast-acting valve for the driver tubes of a large blast/thermal simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Marcela R.

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the testing of a fast-acting throat valve element designed by Eaton Consolidated Controls for use in driver tubes, (blast generators) of a Large Blast/Thermal Simulator (LB/TS). An LB/TS is used to simulate decaying blast waves such as are generated by nuclear explosions. The Eaton Throat Valve Element (ETVE) was tested at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to evaluate its performance against the design criteria. The ETVE was mounted at the end of a driver tube and actuated 16 times at 6 different driver pressures ranging from 396 kPa to 12.4 MPa (57.5 psi to 1,800 psi). The valve seals survived successfully all 16 tests with the driver gas at room temperature and maintained an acceptable leak rate throughout the test program. The average valve lag time was determined to vary from 36 to 120 ms; however, the valve was found to chatter, going through several (up to 20) opening/closing cycles after actuation before settling in the open position. An increase in the pneumatic supply pressure driving the valve showed a minor decrease in the number of chattering cycles. When the valve was actuated with no pressure in the driver tube, no chattering was observed. At the conclusion of the test sequence, the valve seals were inspected and were in good condition. The shock waves appeared to agree with code predictions when the chattering effects were disregarded.

  11. An introductory characterization of a combat-casualty-care relevant swine model of closed head injury resulting from exposure to explosive blast.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Richard A; Ling, Geoffrey; Tong, Lawrence; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Agoston, Dennis; Delanerolle, Nihal; Kim, Young; Ritzel, Dave; Bell, Randy; Ecklund, James; Armonda, Rocco; Bandak, Faris; Parks, Steven

    2009-06-01

    Explosive blast has been extensively used as a tactical weapon in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and more recently in Operation Enduring Freedom(OEF). The polytraumatic nature of blast injuries is evidence of their effectiveness,and brain injury is a frequent and debilitating form of this trauma. In-theater clinical observations of brain-injured casualties have shown that edema, intracranial hemorrhage, and vasospasm are the most salient pathophysiological characteristics of blast injury to the brain. Unfortunately, little is known about exactly how an explosion produces these sequelae as well as others that are less well documented. Consequently, the principal objective of the current report is to present a swine model of explosive blast injury to the brain. This model was developed during Phase I of the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) PREVENT (Preventing Violent Explosive Neurotrauma) blast research program. A second objective is to present data that illustrate the capabilities of this model to study the proximal biomechanical causes and the resulting pathophysiological, biochemical,neuropathological, and neurological consequences of explosive blast injury to the swine brain. In the concluding section of this article, the advantages and limitations of the model are considered, explosive and air-overpressure models are compared, and the physical properties of an explosion are identified that potentially contributed to the in-theater closed head injuries resulting from explosions of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). PMID:19215189

  12. 40 CFR 799.12 - Test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.12 Test results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive...

  13. 40 CFR 799.12 - Test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.12 Test results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive...

  14. 40 CFR 799.12 - Test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.12 Test results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive...

  15. Single round blasting of 10-foot diameter X 65-foot depth emplacement collar holes at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Since 1961 REECo has drilled and mined emplacement holes for testing nuclear devices underground. An oversize drill pattern was the primary method used. The application of drilling the final size configuration hole to a 65-foot depth and mucking with the Auger Rig was then investigated. Numerous drilling patterns, loading and time schemes and methods were tried. Some were successful. Most were expensive. All concerned looked for a better and less costly method for this collar casing installation. Poor fragmentation in the collar holes prior to Atlas Powder becoming involved resulted in slow hole cleanout and excessive rig maintenance with associated excessive costs. One of the more successful shots was a 120-inch diameter {times} 60-foot deep hole that was drilled using 3 1/2-inch holes and then casing them to a 2-inch diameter using PVC pipe. A 30-inch burn hole was drilled to total depth. Twenty-seven 3 1/2-inch holes were drilled and then loaded with 1 1/2-inch powder boosted with Detaprimes and wired using all 0 delay caps. This shot smooth walled and the blast holes were visible all the way from top to bottom. Fragmentation was excellent and the Auger Rig mucked out quickly. The 28-inch bit used for the burn hole was a high cost item in this test and other methods continued to be investigated.

  16. Evaluation of copper slag blast media for railcar maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagers, N. W.; Finlayson, Mack H.

    1989-01-01

    Copper slag was tested as a blasting substitute for zirconium silicate which is used to remove paint from railroad cars. The copper slag tested is less costly, strips paint faster, is produced near the point of need, provides a good bonding surface for paint, and permits the operator to work in a more comfortable position, i.e., standing nearly erect instead of having to crouch. Outdoor blasting with the tested Blackhawk (20 to 40 mesh) copper slag is also environmentally acceptable to the State of Utah. Results of tests for the surface erosion rate with copper slag blasting are included.

  17. Test 6, Test 7, and Gas Standard Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Horacio, III

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation shows results of analyses on odor, toxic off gassing and gas standards. The topics include: 1) Statistical Analysis Definitions; 2) Odor Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 6; 3) Toxic Off gassing Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7; and 4) Gas Standard Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7;

  18. Gunshot residue inserted under hair scales as a result of a muzzle blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Bryan R.

    2009-05-01

    The victim was alleged to have been shot in the head with a .40 caliber pistol from several feet. The defendant claimed that the shot was on the order of inches. Examination in the scanning electron microscope of the hair from around the victim's wound showed no adherent gunshot residue (GSR). However, when the hair was pulled apart by the adhesive of a standard GSR sampler, GSR was found associated with the exposed inner surfaces of the cuticle and cortex fragments. The pistol was discharged close enough to the victim's head that some of the cuticular scales were lifted in the muzzle blast which allowed GSR to be inserted under those scales. Gunshot residue associated with the surface of the victim's hair had somehow been removed. The defendant's account of the shooting was verified by the presence of under-scale GSR.

  19. Blast Loading Experiments of Surrogate Models for Tbi Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, M. D.; Son, S. F.

    2009-12-01

    This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical models. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical PMMA shells housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory test cell setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head near material interfaces due to impedance mismatches. In addition, significant relative displacement was observed between the interacting materials suggesting large strain values of nearly 5%. Further quantitative results were obtained through shadowgraph imaging of the blasts confirming a separation of time scales between blast interaction and bulk movement. These results lead to the conclusion that primary blast effects could cause TBI occurrences.

  20. Microsecond evolution of laser driven blast waves, the influence of shock asymmetries and the resulting development of magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubman, Eleanor; Crowston, R.; Lam, G.; Dimoline, G.; Alraddadi, R.; Doyle, H.; Meinecke, J.; Cross, J.; Bolis, R.; Lamb, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Doria, D.; Reville, B.; Ahmed, H.; Borghesi, M.; Gregori, G.; Woolsey, N.

    2015-11-01

    The ability to recreate scaled conditions of a supernova remnant within a laboratory environment is of great interest for informing the understanding of the evolution of galactic magnetic fields. The experiments rely on a near point explosion driven by one sided laser illumination producing a plasma, surrounded by a background gas. The subsequent shock and blast waves emerge following an initial ballistic phase into a self-similar expansion. Studies have been undertaken into the evolution of shock asymmetries which lead to magnetic field generation via the Biermann battery mechanism. Here we use the Vulcan laser facility, with targets such as carbon rods and plastic spheres placed in ambient gases of argon, helium or hydrogen, to produce the blast waves. These conditions allow us to study the asymmetries of the shocks using multi-frame imaging cameras, interferometry, and spectroscopy, while measuring the resulting magnetic fields with B-dot probes. The velocity of the shock and the temporal resolution of the asymmetries can be acquired on a single shot by the multi-framing cameras, and comparison with the measured B-dot fields allow for detailed inferences to be made.

  1. Evolution of blast wave profiles in simulated air blasts: experiment and computational modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N.; Ganpule, S.; Kleinschmit, N. N.; Feng, R.; Holmberg, A. D.; Sundaramurthy, A.; Selvan, V.; Alai, A.

    2012-09-01

    Shock tubes have been extensively used in the study of blast traumatic brain injury due to increased incidence of blast-induced neurotrauma in Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. One of the important aspects in these studies is how to best replicate the field conditions in the laboratory which relies on reproducing blast wave profiles. Evolution of the blast wave profiles along the length of the compression-driven air shock tube is studied using experiments and numerical simulations with emphasis on the shape and magnitude of pressure time profiles. In order to measure dynamic pressures of the blast, a series of sensors are mounted on a cylindrical specimen normal to the flow direction. Our results indicate that the blast wave loading is significantly different for locations inside and outside of the shock tube. Pressure profiles inside the shock tube follow the Friedlander waveform fairly well. Upon approaching exit of the shock tube, an expansion wave released from the shock tube edges significantly degrades the pressure profiles. For tests outside the shock tube, peak pressure and total impulse reduce drastically as we move away from the exit and majority of loading is in the form of subsonic jet wind. In addition, the planarity of the blast wave degrades as blast wave evolves three dimensionally. Numerical results visually and quantitatively confirm the presence of vortices, jet wind and three-dimensional expansion of the planar blast wave near the exit. Pressure profiles at 90° orientation show flow separation. When cylinder is placed inside, this flow separation is not sustained, but when placed outside the shock tube this flow separation is sustained which causes tensile loading on the sides of the cylinder. Friedlander waves formed due to field explosives in the intermediate-to far-field ranges are replicated in a narrow test region located deep inside the shock tube.

  2. Blast injury research models

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, E.; Watts, S.; Cooper, G.

    2011-01-01

    Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. Blast casualties also commonly suffer secondary and tertiary blast injuries resulting in significant blood loss. The presence of hypoxaemia owing to blast lung complicates the process of fluid resuscitation. Consequently, prolonged hypotensive resuscitation was found to be incompatible with survival after combined blast lung and haemorrhage. This article describes studies addressing new forward resuscitation strategies involving a hybrid blood pressure profile (initially hypotensive followed later by normotensive resuscitation) and the use of supplemental oxygen to increase survival and reduce physiological deterioration during prolonged resuscitation. Surprisingly, hypertonic saline dextran was found to be inferior to normal saline after combined blast injury and haemorrhage. New strategies have therefore been developed to address the needs of blast-injured casualties and are likely to be particularly useful under circumstances of enforced delayed evacuation to surgical care. PMID:21149352

  3. Altitude Compensating Nozzle Cold Flow Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, J. H.; McDaniels, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of four altitude compensating nozzle (ACN) concepts were evaluated by NASA MSFC in the Nozzle Test Facility. The ACN concepts were a dual bell, a dual expander, an annular plug nozzle and an expansion deflection nozzle. Two reference bell nozzles were also tested. Axial thrust and nozzle wall static pressures were measured for each nozzle over a wide range of nozzle pressure ratios. The nozzle hardware and test program are described. Sample test results are presented.

  4. Reproducibility of liquid oxygen impact test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayle, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    Results for 12,000 impacts on a wide range of materials were studied to determine the reproducibility of the liquid oxygen impact test method. Standard deviations representing the overall variability of results were in close agreement with the expected values for a binomial process. This indicates that the major source of variability is due to the go - no go nature of the test method and that variations due to sampling and testing operations were not significant.

  5. Using Test Results To Support Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    This paper recommends an evaluation procedure for gifted children which uses test results only to confirm the conclusions resulting from clinical evaluation that involves observation, discussion with the child, an interview with the parents, developmental milestones, and family history. It suggests that traditional test interpretation may lead to…

  6. Results of steel containment vessel model test

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, V.K.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Komine, Kuniaki; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Costello, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two tests are being conducted: (1) a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) and (2) a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper summarizes the conduct of the high pressure pneumatic test of the SCV model and the results of that test. Results of this test are summarized and are compared with pretest predictions performed by the sponsoring organizations and others who participated in a blind pretest prediction effort. Questions raised by this comparison are identified and plans for posttest analysis are discussed.

  7. Azacitidine versus decitabine in patients with refractory anemia with excess blast-Results of multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Salim, Ozan; Toptas, Tayfur; Avsar, Esin; Yucel, Orhan Kemal; Ozturk, Erman; Ferhanoglu, Burhan; Geduk, Ayfer; Mehtap, Ozgur; Tombak, Anil; Tiftik, Eyup Naci; Deveci, Burak; Kurtoglu, Erdal; Kara, Osman; Atagunduz, Isik Kaygusuz; Tuglular, Tulin Firatli; Undar, Levent

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of azacitidine and decitabine in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). A total of 88 patients diagnosed with refractory anemia with excess blast (RAEB) treated with azacitidine (n=57) or decitabine (n=31) were evaluated. Comparisons between azacitidine and decitabine groups were performed in the whole cohort, and in a 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort in order to reduce the simple selection bias. Patients who received azacitidine or decitabine had comparable overall response rates in both the unmatched (49.1% vs. 64.5%, p=0.166) and the propensity-matched cohorts (52% vs. 68%, p=0.248). The cumulative incidence of AML transformation at one year was comparable between azacitidine and decitabine in the unmatched (24.0% vs. 31.3%, p=0.26) and in the propensity-matched cohorts (18.7% vs. 31.5%, p=0.11). There was no difference in terms of transfusion requirement, febrile neutropenia episodes or the need for antifungal use during the treatment cycles in the propensity-matched cohort. The median overall survival was 20.4 months for azacitidine and 16.8 months for decitabine (p=0.59). Finally, we found that at least a four-cycle treatment with any HMA was a favorable factor. In conclusion, both azacitidine and decitabine have similar efficacy and toxicity profiles in the treatment of MDS-RAEB. PMID:27107658

  8. Superconducting solenoid model magnet test results

    SciTech Connect

    Carcagno, R.; Dimarco, J.; Feher, S.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Hess, C.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Superconducting solenoid magnets suitable for the room temperature front end of the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (formerly known as Proton Driver), an 8 GeV superconducting H- linac, have been designed and fabricated at Fermilab, and tested in the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility. We report here results of studies on the first model magnets in this program, including the mechanical properties during fabrication and testing in liquid helium at 4.2 K, quench performance, and magnetic field measurements. We also describe new test facility systems and instrumentation that have been developed to accomplish these tests.

  9. Galileo spacecraft system level environmental test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Schlue, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Project Galileo, the United States' next planetary mission, will be launched by the Shuttle/Centaur in May 1986. The Galileo spacecraft consists of both a planetary Orbiter and an atmospheric Probe. The spacecraft was environmentally tested as a system in the fall and winter of 1984/1985 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The protoflight qualification program consisted of vibration, acoustics, pyrotechnic shock, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and Solar Thermal Vacuum (STV) tests. This test program was accomplished on a large, complex, dual-spin spacecraft without the benefit of precursor spacecraft prototype tests. This paper discusses the objectives of these tests and the implementation, and summarizes the results.

  10. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-09-28

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

  11. Porcine Head Response to Blast

    PubMed Central

    Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2 = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  12. BWR Full Integral Simulation Test (FIST). Phase I test results

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, W S; Alamgir, M; Sutherland, W A

    1984-09-01

    A new full height BWR system simulator has been built under the Full-Integral-Simulation-Test (FIST) program to investigate the system responses to various transients. The test program consists of two test phases. This report provides a summary, discussions, highlights and conclusions of the FIST Phase I tests. Eight matrix tests were conducted in the FIST Phase I. These tests have investigated the large break, small break and steamline break LOCA's, as well as natural circulation and power transients. Results and governing phenomena of each test have been evaluated and discussed in detail in this report. One of the FIST program objectives is to assess the TRAC code by comparisons with test data. Two pretest predictions made with TRACB02 are presented and compared with test data in this report.

  13. Blast-wave characteristics near Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sang-Wook; Kleiber, J.C. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    The blast-wave overpressures propagating in the atmosphere near the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 have been measured at selected locations to determine whether the Site 300 blast operations will be hindered by the proposed construction of a residential development adjacent to its border.We tested high-explosives (HE) weights ranging from 14 to 545 lb under various weather conditions. Although more tests should be conducted before a definitive statement can be made on the blast propagation near Site 300, we offer the following preliminary interpretation of the results obtained to date. The readings at the closest locations show that the blast-wave overpressures exceed the 126-decibel (dB) level established by LLNL at about 250 lb of HE detonation. The weather conditions do not materially affect the pressure levels at these locations. Insufficient test data exist along the Corral Hollow Road perimeter, making it difficult to reasonably predict HE blast effects along the southern border. Therefore, we recommend that additional measurements be made along this and other boundaries in future tests, to provide more comprehensive data to help determine the blast-wave propagation characteristics in the proposed development areas. Blast-wave focusing may occur in the proposed residential development area under certain weather conditions. We recommend that this possibility should be addressed for its potentially adverse impact on the proposed residential area. Because the testing ground controlled by Physics International, Inc. (PI) is adjacent to Site 300, it is important to be aware of PI`s detonation activities. Peak overpressure measurements near PI`s Corral Hollow Road entrance reveal that PI shots over 25 lb HE have exceeded 126 dB, the limit established by LLNL for safe operations.

  14. Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, A.R.; Kleine, T.H.; Forsyth, W.W.

    1995-12-31

    In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing; evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.

  15. Salmonella mutagenicity test results for 250 chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Haworth, S.; Lawlor, T.; Mortelmans, K.; Speck, W.; Zeiger, E.

    1983-01-01

    This publication is a presentation of Salmonella testing results on 250 coded chemicals, encompassing 370 tests. The majority of these results were previously summarized in issues of the National Toxicology Program Technical Bulletin. However, some interpretations were changed since publication in the NTP Bulletin, based upon a reevaluation of the data. The presentation here is designed both to summarize the results in the text and to present the data so that the reader has the opportunity of performing an independent evaluation of the data. The chemicals tested, their source, and purity (where known) are listed and their structures are given in Appendix 1.

  16. SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

    2005-05-01

    The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

  17. Survival risk assessment for primary blast exposures to the head.

    PubMed

    Rafaels, Karin; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Salzar, Robert S; Panzer, Matthew B; Woods, William; Feldman, Sanford; Cummings, Thomas; Capehart, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    Many soldiers returning from the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have had at least one exposure to an explosive event and a significant number have symptoms consistent with traumatic brain injury. Although blast injury risk functions have been determined and validated for pulmonary injury, there is little information on the blast levels necessary to cause blast brain injury. Anesthetized male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to varying levels of shock tube blast exposure focused on the head, while their thoraces were protected. The specimens were euthanized and evaluated when the blast resulted in respiratory arrest that was non-responsive to resuscitation or at 4?h post-exposure. Injury was evaluated by gross examination and histological evaluation. The fatality data from brain injury were then analyzed using Fisher's exact test to determine a brain fatality risk function. Greater blast intensity was associated with post-blast apnea and the need for mechanical ventilation. Gross examination revealed multifocal subdural hemorrhages, most often near the brainstem, at more intense levels of exposure. Histological evaluation revealed subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages in the non-responsive respiratory-arrested specimens. A fatality risk function from blast exposure to the head was determined for the rabbit specimens with an LD(50) at a peak overpressure of 750?kPa. Scaling techniques were used to predict injury risk at other blast overpressure/duration combinations. The fatality risk function showed that the blast level needed to cause fatality from an overpressure wave exposure to the head was greater than the peak overpressure needed to cause fatality from pulmonary injury. This risk function can be used to guide future research for blast brain injury by providing a realistic fatality risk to guide the design of protection or to evaluate injury. PMID:21463161

  18. Preliminary Silver-hydrogen Cell Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, C.

    1984-01-01

    Silver-hydrogen cells were tested. The objective of the test was to estimate useful life by operation at accelerated, simulated geosynchronous orbit conditions. Ten simulated seasons were run and are summarized. The results to-date reflect stable, trouble-free performance and indicate that the silver-hydrogen couple shows promise as a lightweight alternative to the nickel systems.

  19. Results of the HESSI Test Mishap Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worth, Daniel B.; Phillips, Rodney N.; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    On March 21, 2000, the High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) spacecraft was subjected to a series of vibration tests at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as a part of its flight certification program. The structural qualification test, denoted as the sineburst test, subjected the spacecraft to a major overtest that resulted in significant structural damage to the spacecraft. The HESSI Test Mishap Investigation Board (MIB) was formed on March 24, 2000, in response to a NASA headquarters request. Board membership included experts from NASA and the University of California at Berkeley. This paper will present the investigation methods, findings, and lessons learned from the HESSI mishap.

  20. Module Hipot and ground continuity test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Hipot (high voltage potential) and module frame continuity tests of solar energy conversion modules intended for deployment into large arrays are discussed. The purpose of the tests is to reveal potentially hazardous voltage conditions in installed modules, and leakage currents that may result in loss of power or cause ground fault system problems, i.e., current leakage potential and leakage voltage distribution. The tests show a combined failure rate of 36% (69% when environmental testing is included). These failure rates are believed easily corrected by greater care in fabrication.

  1. Recent Radiation Test Results for Power MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Topper, Alyson D.; Casey, Megan C.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Kim, Hak S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-event effect (SEE) and total ionizing dose (TID) test results are presented for various hardened and commercial power metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), including vertical planar, trench, superjunction, and lateral process designs.

  2. Cone Penetrometer N Factor Determination Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-05

    This document contains the results of testing activities to determine the empirical 'N Factor' for the cone penetrometer in kaolin clay simulant. The N Factor is used to releate resistance measurements taken with the cone penetrometer to shear strength.

  3. Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I; Hill, Larry G; Morris, John S

    2009-01-01

    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

  4. Low Emissions RQL Flametube Combustor Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Clarence T.; Holdeman, James D.

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this test program was to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of the Rich-burn/Quick-mix/Lean-burn (RQL) combustor concept for HSR applications. This test program was in support of the Pratt & Whitney and GE Aircraft Engines HSR low-NOx Combustor Program. Collaborative programs with Parker Hannifin Corporation and Textron Fuel Systems resulted in the development and testing of the high-flow low-NOx rich-burn zone fuel-to-air ratio research fuel nozzles used in this test program. Based on the results obtained in this test program, several conclusions can be made: (1) The RQL tests gave low NOx and CO emissions results at conditions corresponding to HSR cruise. (2) The Textron fuel nozzle design with optimal multiple partitioning of fuel and air circuits shows potential of providing an acceptable uniform local fuel-rich region in the rich burner. (3) For the parameters studied in this test series, the tests have shown T3 is the dominant factor in the NOx formation for RQL combustors. As T3 increases from 600 to 1100 F, EI(NOx) increases approximately three fold. (4) Factors which appear to have secondary influence on NOx formation are P4, T4, infinity(sub rb), V(sub ref,ov). (5) Low smoke numbers were measured for infinity(sub rb) of 2.0 at P4 of 120 psia.

  5. LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  6. Punch valve development testing: Low and high velocity test results

    SciTech Connect

    Replogle, W.C.; Brandon, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    This is a report on the use of quasi-static tests to predict fundamental parameters for punch valve development. This report summarizes the results from low and high velocity tests performed with 0.63 and 0.38 cm diameter plungers, 5 cm long penetrating aluminium and composite targets. The low velocity tests, 0.025 m/s, were performed to understand the effects and interactions of plunger diameter plunger tip shape, target material, and target support on penetration energy and plunger functionality. High velocity tests, 75 m/s, were compared to low velocity results.

  7. A study on post blast generation of nitrogen oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, L.D.

    1996-12-31

    Certain blasting applications are more prone to the generation of significant levels of nitrogen dioxide post blast fumes, more commonly referred to as after blast smoke, generally ranging in color from dark yellow to bright red. This paper reviews basic background chemistry defining the observed fumes and attempts to correlate geology, blast design, and explosive composition effects on the level of nitrogen dioxide that can be observed in various blasting conditions. Additionally, a test setting for evaluating the generation of post blast fumes is presented with pertinent test data detailing generic explosive formulation modifications which effect the overall level of post detonation generation of nitrogen dioxide. Scaled up field trials were completed to evaluate the results obtained using data generated from the test model. Specifically, deep, wet blasting applications in softer geologies with reduced confinement appear to promote the generation of nitric oxide from the explosive composition within the borehole due to partial reaction of the nitrates contained in commercial explosives. As the nitric oxide is released from the muck pile following the detonation of the blast pattern, the gas is readily oxidized to form the colorful after blast fumes of nitrogen dioxide. Using the experimental testing procedure it has been determined that variations to the explosive composition which affect detonation velocity and explosion temperature seem to have a significant effect on the level of nitric oxide formed during a less than ideal detonation. Additional chemical additives to reduce the level of nitric oxide which results from a less than ideal detonation front have been evaluated using the proposed test procedure.

  8. Blast Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Service Members & Veterans Family & Caregivers Medical Providers Blast Injuries U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Gustavo Olgiati How ... tertiary injury Does a blast cause different brain injuries than blunt trauma? There currently is no evidence ...

  9. Adaptive structures - Test hardware and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.; Fanson, James L.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Kuo, Chin-Po

    1990-01-01

    The facilities and procedures used at JPL to test adaptive structures such as the large deployable reflector (LDR) are described and preliminary results are reported. The applications of adaptive structures in future NASA missions are outlined, and the techniques which are employed to modify damping, stiffness, and isolation characteristics, as well as geometric changes, are listed. The development of adaptive structures is shown to be effective as a result of new actuators and sensors, and examples are listed for categories such as fiber optics, shape-memory materials, piezoelectrics, and electrorheological fluids. Some ground test results are described for laboratory truss structures and truss test beds, which are shown to be efficient and easy to assemble in space. Adaptive structures are shown to be important for precision space structures such as the LDR, and can alleviate ground test requirements.

  10. CEBAF'S New RF Separator Structure Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Reza Kazimi; Jock Fugitt; A. Krycuk; Charles Sinclair; Larry Turlington

    1993-05-01

    Prototypes of the rf separator for CEBAF have been made and successfully beam tested. The structure is a new design which has a high transverse shunt impedance together with a small transverse dimension compared to more conventional rf deflecting structures. Five rf separators will be used at CEBAF to allow beam from any one of the five recirculation passes to be delivered to any of the three experimental halls. The authors have already described the basic design of the structure and theoretical calculations. They have also reported some results from rf measurements and beam tests. In this paper they present more beam test results, their final design parameters, and test results of coupling two 1/2 wavelength cavities together.

  11. Repeated blast exposures cause brain DNA fragmentation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Arun, Peethambaran; Wei, Yanling; Oguntayo, Samuel; Gharavi, Robert; Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Long, Joseph B

    2014-03-01

    The pathophysiology of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent behavioral deficits are not well understood. Unraveling the mechanisms of injury is critical to derive effective countermeasures against this form of neurotrauma. Preservation of the integrity of cellular DNA is crucial for the function and survival of cells. We evaluated the effect of repeated blast exposures on the integrity of brain DNA and tested the utility of cell-free DNA (CFD) in plasma as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of blast-induced polytrauma. The results revealed time-dependent breakdown in cellular DNA in different brain regions, with the maximum damage at 24 h post-blast exposures. CFD levels in plasma showed a significant transient increase, which was largely independent of the timing and severity of brain DNA damage; maximum levels were recorded at 2 h after repeated blast exposure and returned to baseline at 24 h. A positive correlation was observed between the righting reflex time and CFD level in plasma at 2 h after blast exposure. Brain DNA damage subsequent to repeated blast was associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased release of cytochrome C, and up-regulation of caspase-3, all of which are indicative of cellular apoptosis. Shock-wave-induced DNA damage and initiation of mitochondrial-driven cellular apoptosis in the brain after repeated blast exposures indicate that therapeutic strategies directed toward inhibition of DNA damage or instigation of DNA repair may be effective countermeasures. PMID:24074345

  12. Women's interpretation of cervical smear test results.

    PubMed

    Philips, Z; Avis, M; Whynes, D K

    2004-06-01

    Screening for cervical cancer using the Papanicolaou smear test has been available in England since the 1960s, yet very little is known about how women interpret their test results. This questionnaire study required women to explain, in their own words, the meaning of normal and abnormal test results. It was discovered that the use of the word cell as a description of findings was extremely common, and that a proportion of subjects equated abnormal results with technical inadequacy. The frequency of circularity in the interpretations, i.e. interpreting 'normal' as 'not abnormal' and vice versa, was striking. Contrary to previous research, we find that, whilst many women interpret normal results as indicating the current absence of cancer, few appear to believe that future cancer is thereby definitively ruled out. By the same token, only a very small minority interpret abnormal results as definitive of cancer. PMID:15165270

  13. NEXT Single String Integration Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pinero, Luis; Herman, Daniel A.; Snyder, Steven John

    2010-01-01

    As a critical part of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) test validation process, a single string integration test was performed on the NEXT ion propulsion system. The objectives of this test were to verify that an integrated system of major NEXT ion propulsion system elements meets project requirements, to demonstrate that the integrated system is functional across the entire power processor and xenon propellant management system input ranges, and to demonstrate to potential users that the NEXT propulsion system is ready for transition to flight. Propulsion system elements included in this system integration test were an engineering model ion thruster, an engineering model propellant management system, an engineering model power processor unit, and a digital control interface unit simulator that acted as a test console. Project requirements that were verified during this system integration test included individual element requirements ; integrated system requirements, and fault handling. This paper will present the results of these tests, which include: integrated ion propulsion system demonstrations of performance, functionality and fault handling; a thruster re-performance acceptance test to establish baseline performance: a risk-reduction PMS-thruster integration test: and propellant management system calibration checks.

  14. Densification of pond ash by blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, S.R.; Dey, A.K.; Selvam, S.

    1999-10-01

    Fly ash from thermal power plants is disposed, in huge quantities in ash ponds, which occupy large land areas otherwise useful for agriculture, housing, or other development. For effective rehabilitation of ash ponds, densification of the slurry deposit is essential to increase the bearing capacity and to improve its resistance to liquefaction. Extensive field trials were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of deep blasting for densification of deposited fly ash. Ninety explosions comprising 15 single blasts, with varying depths and quantities of charges, and 3 group blasts, each having 25 charges placed at various spacings, were carried out. The compaction achieved in terms of an increase in relative density was evaluated from surface settlement measurements. Extensive field monitoring was undertaken through pore-water pressure measurements, vibration measurements, penetration tests, and block vibration tests. For the average charge of 2--4 g of explosive per cubic meter of untreated deposit, the average relative density was found to improve from 50% to 56--58%. Analysis of the test results indicates that deep blasting may be an effective technique for modest compaction of loose fly ash deposits. The field testing program presented in this paper provides valuable information that can be used for planning blast densification of fly ash deposits.

  15. NCBI BLAST: a better web interface

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark; Zaretskaya, Irena; Raytselis, Yan; Merezhuk, Yuri; McGinnis, Scott; Madden, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is a sequence similarity search program. The public interface of BLAST, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast, at the NCBI website has recently been reengineered to improve usability and performance. Key new features include simplified search forms, improved navigation, a list of recent BLAST results, saved search strategies and a documentation directory. Here, we describe the BLAST web application's new features, explain design decisions and outline plans for future improvement. PMID:18440982

  16. Test Result Management in Global Health Settings

    PubMed Central

    Palazuelos, Daniel; Payne, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    OVERVIEW Across the globe, the ways in which patients' test results are managed are as varied as the many different types of healthcare systems that manage these data. The outcomes, however, are often not too dissimilar: too many clinically significant test results fall through the cracks. The consequences of not following up test results in a timely manner are serious and often devastating to patients: diagnoses are delayed, treatments are not initiated or altered in time, and diseases progress. In resource-poor settings, test results too commonly get filed away within the paper chart in ways that isolate them and prevent passage to future providers caring for a patient. To make matters worse, the onus to act upon these test results often rests on patients who need to return to the clinic within a specified timeframe in order to obtain their results but who may not have the means or are too ill to do so. Even in more developed healthcare settings that use electronic records, clinical data residing in the electronic medical record (EMR) are often stubbornly “static”—key pieces of clinical information are frequently not recognized, retrieved, or shared easily. In this way, EMRs are not unlike paper record systems, and therefore, EMRs alone will not solve this problem. To illustrate this problem, consider the case of a patient newly diagnosed with HIV in 3 different healthcare delivery settings. PMID:24278831

  17. Friction drive characterization breadboard: test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedghi, B.; Lucuix, C.; Tortolani, J. M.; Brunetto, E.; Delrez, C.; Gabriel, E.

    2010-07-01

    The drive and bearing technologies have a major impact on the static and dynamic performance of steerable structures such as telescope and dome. Merging drive and bearing system into friction drive mechanical devices (bogie) can reduce the complexity and cost of the design. In the framework of ELT design study (European FP6) a breadboard test setup was realized to test and evaluate the static and dynamic behavior of such bogies. In this paper some of the characterization test results are presented. Characterization of the bogies and the setup structure in the frequency domain, quantification and measure of the most important parameters of the friction forces, the control of the bogies and the tracking performance of the test setup are among the main results discussed in this paper.

  18. JPL pyro shock test approaches and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kurng Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the overall approach at JPL in performing spacecraft pyrotechnic shock qualification testing. Initially, the assembly shock requirements are developed early in the program based on previous spacecraft test experience and data. Pyrotechnic device development testing firings and spacecraft Development Test Model (DTM) pyro firings are then conducted to verify the adequacy of the assembly shock requirements and to determine the subsystem test firing and the subsequent system level test firing requirements. The electro-dynamic shaker, through shock synthesis techniques, is utilized to qualify the shock sensitive flight equipment with margins applied. Actual pyrotechnic device firings on spacecraft equipment or science instruments are performed when the influence of the pyros is localized and can be ignored at the system level. Full spacecraft system level shock tests, which include multiple firings of certain critical pyro devices, are conducted to verify the spacecraft design structural integrity and functions as well as to qualify hardware items which have not been previously qualified. These tests also provide a source of data from which assembly level requirements can be evaluated and compared. For example, during the Galileo program, the results demonstrated that good agreement between predicted and measured shock environments and adequate qualification of the flight spacecraft was achieved.

  19. Canister Decontamination Chamber No. 1 operability test results

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V.E.

    1987-10-30

    The DWPF Canister Decontamination Chamber No. 1 (CDC) was installed at the TNX facility in October, 1986 for operability testing. Operability testing was required because this equipment is unique and is a critical part of the defense waste process. The test was successful in demonstrating the canister decontamination operation. Testing verified proper nozzle locations, frit suspension, level probe and CCTV operations. The following recommendations are based on data obtained from frit blasting 24 canisters: reduce the recirculation pump speed, to allow proper level probes operation; add an extension to the chamber rinse nozzle which allows removal of frit from the top of the upper guide rinse nozzle; increase visibility through the CCTV camera; make the CMM grapple jaw pins more compatible with the MSM; and improve canister guide capability to aid in canister loading. CDC Operability Testing was completed October, 1987. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Modeling coupled blast/structure interaction with Zapotec, benchmark calculations for the Conventional Weapon Effects Backfill (CONWEB) tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Bessette, Gregory Carl

    2004-09-01

    Modeling the response of buried reinforced concrete structures subjected to close-in detonations of conventional high explosives poses a challenge for a number of reasons. Foremost, there is the potential for coupled interaction between the blast and structure. Coupling enters the problem whenever the structure deformation affects the stress state in the neighboring soil, which in turn, affects the loading on the structure. Additional challenges for numerical modeling include handling disparate degrees of material deformation encountered in the structure and surrounding soil, modeling the structure details (e.g., modeling the concrete with embedded reinforcement, jointed connections, etc.), providing adequate mesh resolution, and characterizing the soil response under blast loading. There are numerous numerical approaches for modeling this class of problem (e.g., coupled finite element/smooth particle hydrodynamics, arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian methods, etc.). The focus of this work will be the use of a coupled Euler-Lagrange (CEL) solution approach. In particular, the development and application of a CEL capability within the Zapotec code is described. Zapotec links two production codes, CTH and Pronto3D. CTH, an Eulerian shock physics code, performs the Eulerian portion of the calculation, while Pronto3D, an explicit finite element code, performs the Lagrangian portion. The two codes are run concurrently with the appropriate portions of a problem solved on their respective computational domains. Zapotec handles the coupling between the two domains. The application of the CEL methodology within Zapotec for modeling coupled blast/structure interaction will be investigated by a series of benchmark calculations. These benchmarks rely on data from the Conventional Weapons Effects Backfill (CONWEB) test series. In these tests, a 15.4-lb pipe-encased C-4 charge was detonated in soil at a 5-foot standoff from a buried test structure. The test structure was composed of a

  1. Summary of Blast Shield and Material Testing for Development of Solid Debris Collection at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, D A; Gostic, J M; Moody, K J; Grant, P M; Lewis, L A; Hutcheon, I D

    2011-11-21

    of this report and will be written up at a later time. Based on the results of the aluminum blast shield analysis, it was determined that additional materials needed to be tested as potential collectors in the NIF chamber. 1-2 mm thick pieces of tantalum, niobium, vanadium, silver, titanium, molybdenum, and graphite foil were fielded in the Wedge Range Filter (WRF) mount at a distance of 50 cm from target chamber center during the shock timing campaign. The pieces were subsequently removed and analyzed in a similar fashion to the aluminum shields. As of this writing, the pieces are still under analysis, but initial results indicate that gold debris was collected on the various materials. Currently, the pieces are being cross-sectioned so that the melt depths of each material can be compared. In addition, NAA and/or mass spectrometry will be performed in order to determine the total gold mass that was collected on each surface.

  2. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  3. Mechanical and histological characterization of trachea tissue subjected to blast-type pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, B. J.; Bo, C.; Tucker, A. W.; Jardine, A. P.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2014-05-01

    Injuries to the respiratory system can be a component of polytrauma in blast-loading injuries. Tissues located at air-liquid interfaces, including such tissues in the respiratory system, are particularly vulnerable to damage by blast overpressures. There is a lack of information about the mechanical and cellular responses that contribute to the damage of this class of tissues subjected to the high strain rates associated with blast loading. Here, we describe the results of dynamic blast-like pressure loading tests at high strain rates on freshly harvested ex vivo trachea tissue specimens.

  4. SLD liquid argon calorimeter prototype test results

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, R.; Eigen, G.; Au, Y.; Sleeman, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Brau, J.; Ludgate, G.A.; Oram, C.J.; Cook, V.; Johnson, J.

    1985-10-01

    The results of the SLD test beam program for the selection of a calorimeter radiator composition within a liquid argon system are described, with emphasis on the study of the use of uranium to obtain equalization of pion and electron responses.

  5. Ball Aerospace SBMD Coating Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert; Lightsey, Paul; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Sub-scale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator that was successfully tested to demonstrate cryogenic figuring of a bare mirror has been coated with a protected gold reflective surface and retested at cryogenic temperatures. Results showing less than 9 nm rms surface distortion attributable to the added coating are presented.

  6. Comparing diagnostic tests: trials in people with discordant test results.

    PubMed

    Hooper, R; Díaz-Ordaz, K; Takeda, A; Khan, K

    2013-06-30

    Diagnostic tests are traditionally compared for accuracy against a gold standard but can also be compared prospectively in a trial. A conventional trial comparing two tests would randomize each participant to a testing strategy, but a more efficient alternative is to give both tests to all participants and follow up those with discordant results. Participants could be randomized before or after testing. The statistical analysis of such a trial has not previously been described. We investigated two estimates of the risk difference for a binary outcome: one based on analysing outcomes as if from a conventional trial and one combining estimates of different parameters in the manner of a decision analysis. We show that the trial estimate and decision analysis estimate are both unbiased and derive approximate formulae for their standard errors. By using the decision analysis estimate (but not the trial estimate), the same precision can be achieved by randomizing before testing as by randomizing after. To avoid destroying equipoise, and to allow consenting and randomizing to be carried out at the same visit, we recommend randomizing before testing. Giving both tests to all participants means fewer need to be recruited: in one example from the literature, the proposed design was nearly four times more efficient in this sense than a conventional trial design. PMID:23172716

  7. MIT 12 Tesla Coil test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeves, M. M.; Hoenig, M. O.

    1985-07-01

    Test results from the MIT 12 Tesla Coil experiment are presented. The coil was tested in the High Field Test Facility (HFTF) of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in October 1984 and January 1985. The experiment measured the performance of an Internally Cooled, Cabled Superconductor (ICCS) of practical size, intended for use in magnetic fusion experiments. The MIT coil carried 15 kA at 11 T for 5 min with no sign of instability. A half turn length in a 10 T field was able to absorb a heat load in 4 msec of more than 200 mJ sub cm of cable volume while carrying a current of 12 kA. The MIT coil successfully met the performance requirements of the Department of Energy's 12 Tesla Coil Program.

  8. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Joel B.; Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-01

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  9. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Joel B; Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-01

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs. PMID:25832276

  10. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Joel B. Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-15

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  11. Rib butterfly fractures as a possible indicator of blast trauma.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Victoria A

    2013-01-01

    Forensic anthropologists have become increasingly involved in the interpretation of skeletal trauma caused by exploding ordnance. This study examines the cause and significance of butterfly fractures observed in a recent study investigating skeletal blast trauma by Christensen et al. Fractured ribs resulting from blast events carried out in the original study were re-examined revealing that rib butterfly fractures with the tensile indicator on the visceral surface were present in 100% of viable pig specimens. Additionally, manual fracture testing was performed on 46 pig ribs to simulate the bending force believed to have been sustained in the original blast events. Fracture testing resulted in 93% of specimens presenting butterfly fractures with the tensile indicator on the visceral surface. This fracture pattern differs significantly from that normally observed in association with other types of trauma events and may aid forensic anthropologists and other investigators in the identification and interpretation of blast events. PMID:23126284

  12. CLSM bleed water reduction test results

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Rajendran, N.

    1997-04-21

    Previous testing by BSRI/SRTC/Raytheon indicated that the CLSM specified for the Tank 20 closure generates about 6 gallons (23 liters) of bleed water per cubic yard of material (0.76 m3).1 This amount to about 10 percent of the total mixing water. HLWE requested that the CLSM mix be optimized to reduce bleed water while maintaining flow. Elimination of bleed water from the CLSM mix specified for High-Level Waste Tank Closure will result in waste minimization, time savings and cost savings. Over thirty mixes were formulated and evaluated at the on-site Raytheon Test Laboratory. Improved low bleed water CLSM mixes were identified. Results are documented in this report.

  13. Results from the final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.L.; Final Focus Test Beam Collaboration

    1994-07-01

    first experimental results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) are given in this report. The FFTB has been constructed as a prototype for the final focus system of a future TeV-scale electron-positron linear collider. The vertical dimension of the 47 GeV electron beam form the SLAC linac has been reduced at the focal point of the FFTB by a demagnification of 320 to a beam height of approximately 70 nanometers.

  14. Excellent results of HA coating on a grit-blasted stem: 245 patients followed for 8-12 years.

    PubMed

    Reikerås, Olav; Gunderson, Ragnhild B

    2003-04-01

    We report the outcome of a grit-blasted titanium stem designed for press-fit insertion and entirely plasma sprayed with HA. During the years 1988-1993, we performed 323 primary total hip replacements in 276 patients (189 women) with a HA-coated prosthesis. Their mean age was 48 (15-79) years. During the follow-up, 12 patients died. 19 other patients did not attend the follow-up examination, but had no major symptoms according to telephone interviews and written replies. Thus, 245 patients (291 hips) were followed for a mean of 10 (8-12) years with radiographic and clinical examinations. Only 1 stem was revised due to mechanical failure. None were revised because of infection. Osteolysis was significantly associated with wear, and wear was significantly associated with the size of the femoral head. We found a small amount of proximal bone loss (37/291) and a low incidence of distal hypertrophy of the bone (23/291). These observations indicate an essentially physiological weight distribution from the stem to the femoral bone. The changes in the bone confirmed that the femoral component was well fixed in asymptomatic patients. To conclude, we found excellent 8-12-year results with a fully HA-coated femoral prosthesis designed for press-fit insertion. PMID:12807319

  15. White Matter Compromise in Veterans Exposed to Primary Blast Forces

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Katherine H.; Hurley, Robin A.; Haswell, Courtney C.; Rowland, Jared A.; Hurt, Susan D.; Lamar, Cory D.; Morey, Rajendra A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Use Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter alterations associated with blast exposure with or without acute symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants Forty-five veterans of the recent military conflicts included twenty-three exposed to primary blast without TBI symptoms, six having primary blast mild TBI, and sixteen unexposed to blast. Design Cross-sectional case control study. Main Measures Neuropsychological testing and DTI metrics that quantified the number of voxel clusters with altered fractional anisotropy (FA) radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD), regardless of their spatial location. Results Significantly lower FA and higher RD was observed in veterans exposed to primary blast with and without mild TBI relative to blast unexposed veterans. Voxel clusters of lower FA were spatially dispersed and heterogeneous across affected individuals. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of clear TBI symptoms following primary blast exposure may not accurately reflect the extent of brain injury. If confirmed, our findings would argue for supplementing the established approach of making diagnoses based purely on clinical history and observable acute symptoms with novel neuroimaging-based diagnostic criteria that “look below the surface” for pathology. PMID:24590156

  16. Aquifer test results, Green Swamp area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbals, C.H.; Grubb, Hayes F.

    1982-01-01

    An aquifer test conducted in the Green Swamp area December 15-16 , 1975 was designed to stress the uppermost part of the Floridan aquifer so that the leakage characteristics of the overlying confining bed could be determined. A well tapping the upper part of the Floridan aquifer was pumped at a rate of about 1,040 gallons per minute for 35 hours; drawdown was measured in the Floridan aquifer and in two horizons in the confining bed. Analysis of the data indicates that the transmissivity of the uppper 160 feet of the Floridan is 13,000 square feet per day, the storage coefficient is about 0.0002.5, and the overlying confining bed leakance coefficient is about 0.02 to 0.025 per day. The vertical hydraulic diffusivity of the confining bed ranged from 610 square feet per day to 16,000 square feet per day. Results of the test indicate that, in the area of the test site, a Floridan aquifer well field would induce additional recharge to the Floridan. As a result of that increased recharge , water levels in the surficial aquifer would tend to stand lower, runoff from the area would tend to be less, and, perhaps, evapotranspiration would be less than normal.(USGS)

  17. Highly Loaded Composite Strut Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. C.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Barnard, Ansley; Phelps, James E.; McKeney, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Highly loaded composite struts from a proposed truss-based Altair lunar lander descent stage concept were selected for development under NASA's Advanced Composites Technology program. Predicted compressive member forces during launch and ascent of over -100,000 lbs were much greater than the tensile loads. Therefore, compressive failure modes, including structural stability, were primary design considerations. NASA's industry partner designed and built highly loaded struts that were delivered to NASA for testing. Their design, fabricated on a washout mandrel, had a uniform-diameter composite tube with composite tapered ends. Each tapered end contained a titanium end fitting with facing conical ramps that are overlaid and overwrapped with composite materials. The highly loaded struts were loaded in both tension and compression, with ultimate failure produced in compression. Results for the two struts tested are presented and discussed, along with measured deflections, strains and observed failure mechanisms.

  18. Energy dissipation in Exosat tanks: Test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marce, J. L.; Torres, L.; Assemat, D.; Michel, S.

    1981-03-01

    Results of tests performed with inertia ratio and filling ratio scanning on Ariane tanks are presented. The Exosat launch requires the use of a fourth stage (P 0.7). The Exosat + P 0.7 assembly is spin stabilized with a spin rate of 50 rpm during transfer orbit. The unstable assembly is fitted with an active nutation damping system. To size this, it is necessary to know the time constant of nutation build up essentially due to fuel motion in the propane tanks and the hydrazine tank of Exosat. The major source of dissipation is the hydrazine tank for which an hysteresis phenomenon on diaphragm position was observed; the worst time constants of nutation build up, deduced from tests are 2.5 mn before P 0.7 and 1.9 mn after P 0.7 firing, taking into account the appropriate safety factors.

  19. Flight qualification test results for violet cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    The violet solar cell has been submitted to a flight qualification program. The tasks included in this program were: to define the violet cell's electrical output from -100 C to +100 C; to determine the violet cell's degradation under 2 MeV, 1 MeV and .3 MeV proton irradiation, under a high humidity environment and under ultraviolet light; to thermal cycle two similar modules of violet cells; to flight qualify a full size violet cell panel for the IMP-J flight; and to obtain a primary balloon-flown standard of the violet cell type. The results of these tests demonstrate that the violet cell is fully qualified for space flight use with no further development work. The tests show that the violet cell offers a power increase of at least twenty-one per cent over presently available commercial cells.

  20. GENIE Flight Test Results and System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Tye; Paschall, Stephen, II; Crain, Timothy P., II; Demars, Kyle; Bishop, Robert

    2011-01-01

    NASA has envisioned a suite of lander test vehicles that will be flown in Earth s atmosphere to incrementally demonstrate applicable lunar lander performance in the terrestrial environment. As each terrestrial rocket progresses in maturity, relevant space flight technology matures to a higher technology readiness level, preparing it for inclusion on a future lunar lander design.. NASA s "Project M" lunar mission concept flew its first terrestrial rocket, RR1, in June 2010 in Caddo Mills, Texas. The Draper Laboratory built GENIE (Guidance Embedded Navigator Integration Environment) successfully demonstrated accurate, real time, embedded performance of Project M navigation and guidance algorithms in a highly dynamic environment. The RR1 vehicle, built by Armadillo Aerospace, performed a successful 60 second free flight and gave the team great confidence in Project M s highly reliable and robust GNC system design and implementation. This paper provides an overview of the GENIE system and describes recent flight performance test results onboard the RR1 terrestrial rocket.

  1. Results from the STAR TPC system test

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, W.; Bieser, F.; Bossingham, R.

    1996-12-31

    A system test of various components of the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) detector, operating in concern, has recently come on-line. Communication between a major sub-detector, a sector of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), and the trigger, data acquisition and slow controls systems has been established, enabling data from cosmic ray muons to be collected. First results from an analysis of the TPC data are presented. These include measurements of system noise, electronic parameters such as amplifier gains and pedestal values, and tracking resolution for cosmic ray muons and laser induced ionization tracks. A discussion on the experience gained in integrating the different components for the system test is also given.

  2. Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O`Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994.

  3. A new model for mild blast injury utilizing Drosophila melanogaster - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Hockey, K S; Hubbard, W B; Sajja, V S; Sholar, C A; Thorpe, C; Vandevord, P J; Rzigalinski, B A

    2013-01-01

    Current models for blast injury involve the use of mammalian species, which are costly and require extensive monitoring and housing, making it difficult to generate large numbers of injuries. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been utilized for many models of human disease including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. In this study, a model of blast injury was designed based on Drosophila, to provide a mechanism to investigate blast injury in large numbers and assess biochemical mechanisms of brain injury. Such studies may be used to identify specific pathways involved in blast-associated neurodegeneration, allowing more effective use of mammalian models. A custom-built blast wave simulator (ORA Inc.), comprised of a driver, test section, and wave eliminator, was used to create a blast wave. An acetate membrane was placed between the driver and the rectangular test section before compressed helium caused the membrane to rupture creating the blast wave. Membrane thickness correlates with the blast wave magnitude, which averaged 120 kPa for this experiment. Pressure sensors were inserted into the side of the tube in order to quantify the level of overpressure that the flies were exposed to. Five day old flies were held in a rectangular enclosed mesh fixture (10 flies per enclosure) which was placed in the center of the test section for blast delivery. Sham controls were exposed to same conditions with exception of blast. Lifespan and negative geotaxis, a measurement of motor function, was measured in flies after blast injury. Mild blast resulted in death of 28% of the flies. In surviving flies, motor function was initially reduced, but flies regained normal function by 8 days after injury. Although surviving flies regained normal motor function, flies subjected to mild blast died earlier than uninjured controls, with a 15.4% reduction in maximum lifespan and a 17% reduction in average lifespan, mimicking the scenario

  4. PHASE I SINGLE CELL ELECTROLYZER TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J; Timothy Steeper, T

    2008-08-05

    This document reports the results of Phase I Single Cell testing of an SO{sub 2}-Depolarized Water Electrolyzer. Testing was performed primarily during the first quarter of FY 2008 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using an electrolyzer cell designed and built at SRNL. Other facility hardware were also designed and built at SRNL. This test further advances this technology for which work began at SRNL in 2005. This research is valuable in achieving the ultimate goal of an economical hydrogen production process based on the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle. The focus of this work was to conduct single cell electrolyzer tests to further develop the technology of SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis as part of the HyS Cycle. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by water-splitting. Like all other sulfur-based cycles, HyS utilizes the high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both thermodynamic efficiency and hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. The anode and cathode are formed by spraying platinum containing catalyst on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). In most testing the material of the PEM was NafionR. The electrolyzer cell active area can be as large as 54.8 cm{sup 2}. Feed to the anode of the electrolyzer is a sulfuric acid solution containing sulfur dioxide. The partial pressure of sulfur dioxide could be varied in the

  5. Test Results From a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This report describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  6. Test Results from a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This presentation describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  7. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  8. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-21

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  9. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6, blast measurements. Part 3. Pressure near ground level. Section 4. Blast asymmetry from aerial photographs. Section 5. Ball-crusher-gauge measurements of peak pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    Aerial motion pictures from manned aircraft were taken of the Dog, Easy, and George Shots and from a drone aircraft on Dog Shot to determine whether asymmetries in the blast waves could be detected and measured. Only one film, that taken of Dog Shot from a drone, was considered good enough to warrant detailed analysis, but this failed to yield any positive information on asymmetries. The analysis showed that failure to obtain good arrival-time data arose from a number of cases, but primarily from uncertainities in magnification and timing. Results could only be matched with reliable data from blast-velocity switches by use of large corrections. Asymnetries, if present, were judged to have been too small or to have occurred too early to be detected with the slow-frame speed used. Recommendations for better results include locating the aircraft directly overhead at the time of burst and using a camera having greater frame speed and provided with timing marks.

  10. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    PubMed

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues. PMID:23521031

  11. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  12. Preliminary test results for the SVX4

    SciTech Connect

    Christofek, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Rapidis, P.; Utes, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    We present and summarize the preliminary test results for SVX4 chip testing. There are presently two versions of the SVX4. Version 2 has on-chip bypassing and Version 1 does not. The on-chip bypassing is a layer of transistors under the front-end analog pipeline that acts as a bypassing capacitor for the voltage supply. Its size is about a microfarad. We aggressively choose to test Version 2 because of this feature. The feature is advantageous for hybrid design because it eliminates the need for an additional passive component on the hybrid itself by placing it on the actual SVX4 die. Also, the SVX4 was designed to operate in two modes: D. and CDF. One can set which mode the chip will operate by placing a jumper in the proper position on the SVX4 chip carrier. In either mode, the chip can either use the operating parameters from the shift register or the shadow register. Similarly, this is selected by placing a jumper on the SVX4 chip carrier. This chip has this feature because it was unknown whether the new design of the shadow register would be operable. The shadow register is also call the SEU register or Single Event Upset register. An introduction into the functionality of the chip and an explanation on the difference between D. and CDF mode can be found in the SVX4 User's Manual [1].

  13. A Multiscale Approach to Blast Neurotrauma Modeling: Part I – Development of Novel Test Devices for in vivo and in vitro Blast Injury Models

    PubMed Central

    Panzer, Matthew B.; Matthews, Kyle A.; Yu, Allen W.; Morrison, Barclay; Meaney, David F.; Bass, Cameron R.

    2012-01-01

    The loading conditions used in some current in vivo and in vitro blast-induced neurotrauma models may not be representative of real-world blast conditions. To address these limitations, we developed a compressed-gas driven shock tube with different driven lengths that can generate Friedlander-type blasts. The shock tube can generate overpressures up to 650 kPa with durations between 0.3 and 1.1 ms using compressed helium driver gas, and peak overpressures up to 450 kPa with durations between 0.6 and 3 ms using compressed nitrogen. This device is used for short-duration blast overpressure loading for small animal in vivo injury models, and contrasts the more frequently used long duration/high impulse blast overpressures in the literature. We also developed a new apparatus that is used with the shock tube to recreate the in vivo intracranial overpressure response for loading in vitro culture preparations. The receiver device surrounds the culture with materials of similar impedance to facilitate the propagation of a single overpressure pulse through the tissue. This method prevents pressure waves reflecting off the tissue that can cause unrealistic deformation and injury. The receiver performance was characterized using the longest helium-driven shock tube, and produced in-fluid overpressures up to 1500 kPa at the location where a culture would be placed. This response was well correlated with the overpressure conditions from the shock tube (R2 = 0.97). Finite element models of the shock tube and receiver were developed and validated to better elucidate the mechanics of this methodology. A demonstration exposing a culture to the loading conditions created by this system suggest tissue strains less than 5% for all pressure levels simulated, which was well below functional deficit thresholds for strain rates less than 50 s−1. This novel system is not limited to a specific type of culture model and can be modified to reproduce more complex pressure

  14. Characterization of Viscoelastic Materials for Low-Magnitude Blast Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis

    2013-06-01

    Recent preliminary research indicates that exposure to low amplitude blast waves, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficiently protecting warfighters from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. The objective of this research is to evaluate the blast mitigating behavior of current helmet materials and new materials designed for blast mitigation using a test fixture recently developed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for use with an existing gas gun. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 5 to 30 psi) in a test fixture mounted at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release helium gas from a breech which forms into a blast wave and impacts instrumented targets in the test fixture. Blast attenuation of selected materials is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. Materials evaluated in this research include 6061-T6 aluminum, polyurea 1000, Styrofoam, and Sorbothane (durometer 50, shore 00). The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

  15. Bayesian detection of acoustic muzzle blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Collins, Leslie

    2009-05-01

    Acoustic detection of gunshots has many security and military applications. Most gunfire produces both an acoustic muzzle-blast signal as well as a high-frequency shockwave. However some guns do not propel bullets with the speed required to cause shockwaves, and the use of a silencer can significantly reduce the energy of muzzle blasts; thus, although most existing commercial and military gunshot detection systems are based on shockwave detection, reliable detection across a wide range of applications requires the development of techniques which incorporate both muzzle-blast and shockwave phenomenologies. The detection of muzzle blasts is often difficult due to the presence of non-stationary background signals. Previous approaches to muzzle blast detection have applied pattern recognition techniques without specifically considering the non-stationary nature of the background signals and thus these techniques may perform poorly under realistic operating conditions. This research focuses on time domain modeling of the non-stationary background using Bayesian auto-regressive models. Bayesian parameter estimation can provide a principled approach to non-stationary modeling while also eliminating the stability concerns associated with standard adaptive procedures. Our proposed approach is tested on a synthetic dataset derived from recordings of actual background signals and a database of isolated gunfire. Detection results are compared to a standard adaptive approach, the least-mean squares (LMS) algorithm, across several signal to background ratios in both indoor and outdoor conditions.

  16. Computer cast blast modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-07-01

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  17. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 2. 9. Blast injuries in foxholes

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, J.M.; Maupin, C.S.

    1985-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to gain information about the amount of protection from direct blast effects that may be provided by foxholes of uniform dimensions located within distances of a nuclear explosion that are recognized as lethal for combinations of thermal and ionzing radiations and indirect blast injuries. Sixteen dogs protected in foxholes were exposed in pairs to the nuclear detonation. Autopsies performed between 10 and 15 hours after the blast demonstrated mild to moderately severe lung hemorrhages and three instances of mild to moderately severe brain hemorrhage. Ruptured ear drums and blast damage to abdominal viscera were infrequent. Evidences of acute ionizing radiation injury consisted in decreases in absolute lymphocyte counts and changes in lymph nodes and spleens. Photographs and diagrams of foxholes, animals, and tissue speciments; graphs of blast pressures, gamma doses, and neutron fluxes are included.

  18. The NASA B-757 HIRF Test Series: Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Karl J.; Dudley, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of aircraft tests aimed at characterizing the electromagnetic environment (EME) in and around a Boeing 757 airliner. Measurements were made of the electromagnetic energy coupled into the aircraft and the signals induced on select structures as the aircraft was flown past known RF transmitters. These measurements were conducted to provide data for the validation of computational techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transport aircraft. This paper reports on the results of flight tests using RF radiators in the HF, VHF, and UHF ranges and on efforts to use computational and analytical techniques to predict RF field levels inside the airliner at these frequencies.

  19. Results from the Cooler and Lead Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A

    2010-06-10

    The report presents the results of testing MICE spectrometer magnet current leads on a test apparatus that combines both the copper leads and the high temperature superconducting (HTS) leads with a single Cryomech PT415 cooler and liquid helium tank. The current is carried through the copper leads from 300 K to the top of the HTS leads. The current is then carried through the HTS leads to a feed-through from the vacuum space to the inside of a liquid helium tank. The experiment allows one to measure the performance of both cooler stages along with the performance of the leads. While the leads were powered we measured the voltage drops through the copper leads, through the HTS leads, through spliced to the feed-through, through the feed-through and through the low-temperature superconducting loop that connects one lead to the other. Measurements were made using the leads that were used in spectrometer magnet 1A and spectrometer magnet 2A. These are the same leads that were used for Superbend and Venus magnets at LBNL. The IL/A for these leads was 5.2 x 10{sup 6} m{sup -1}. The leads turned out to be too long. The same measurements were made using the leads that were installed in magnet 2B. The magnet 2B leads had an IL/A of 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A m{sup -1}. This report discusses the cooler performance and the measured electrical performance of the lead circuit that contains the copper leads and the superconducting leads. All of the HTS leads that were installed in magnet 2B were current tested using this apparatus.

  20. Advanced wing design survivability testing and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, J.; Tobias, M.

    1992-01-01

    Composite wings on current operational aircraft are conservatively designed to account for stress/strain concentrations, and to assure specified damage tolerance. The technology that can lead to improved composite wing structures and associated structural efficiency is to increase design ultimate strain levels beyond their current limit of 3500 to 4000 micro-in/in to 6000 micro-in/in without sacrificing structural integrity, durability, damage tolerance, or survivability. Grumman, under the sponsorship of the Naval Air Development Center (NADC), has developed a high-strain composite wing design for a subsonic aircraft wing using novel and innovative design concepts and manufacturing methods, while maintaining a state-of-the-art fiber/resin system. The current advanced wing design effort addressed a tactical subsonic aircraft wing using previously developed, high-strain wing design concepts in conjunction with newer/emerging fiber and polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials to achieve the same goals, while reducing complexity. Two categories of advanced PMC materials were evaluated: toughened thermosets; and engineered thermoplastics. Advanced PMC materials offer the technological opportunity to take maximum advantage of improved material properties, physical characteristics, and tailorability to increase performance and survivability over current composite structure. Damage tolerance and survivability to various threats, in addition to structural integrity and durability, were key technical issues addressed during this study, and evaluated through test. This paper focuses on the live-fire testing, and the results performed to experimentally evaluate the survivability of the advanced wing design.

  1. Smart wing wind tunnel test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Lewis B.; Martin, Christopher A.; Appa, Kari; Kudva, Jayanth N.; West, Mark N.

    1997-05-01

    The use of smart materials technologies can provide unique capabilities in improving aircraft aerodynamic performance. Northrop Grumman built and tested a 16% scale semi-span wind tunnel model of the F/A-18 E/F for the on-going DARPA/WL Smart Materials and Structures-Smart Wing Program. Aerodynamic performance gains to be validated included increase in the lift to drag ratio, increased pitching moment (Cm), increased rolling moment (Cl) and improved pressure distribution. These performance gains were obtained using hingeless, contoured trailing edge control surfaces with embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) wires and spanwise wing twist via a SMA torque tube and are compared to a conventional wind tunnel model with hinged control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the results from the first wind tunnel test performed at the NASA Langley's 16 ft Transonic Dynamic Tunnel. Among the benefits demonstrated are 8 - 12% increase in rolling moment due to wing twist, a 10 - 15% increase in rolling moment due to contoured aileron, and approximately 8% increase in lift due to contoured flap, and improved pressure distribution due to trailing edge control surface contouring.

  2. Boeing's High Voltage Solar Tile Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian J.; Harden, David E.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.

    2002-01-01

    Real concerns of spacecraft charging and experience with solar array augmented electrostatic discharge arcs on spacecraft have minimized the use of high voltages on large solar arrays despite numerous vehicle system mass and efficiency advantages. Boeing's solar tile (patent pending) allows high voltage to be generated at the array without the mass and efficiency losses of electronic conversion. Direct drive electric propulsion and higher power payloads (lower spacecraft weight) will benefit from this design. As future power demand grows, spacecraft designers must use higher voltage to minimize transmission loss and power cable mass for very large area arrays. This paper will describe the design and discuss the successful test of Boeing's 500-Volt Solar Tile in NASA Glenn's Tenney chamber in the Space Plasma Interaction Facility. The work was sponsored by NASA's Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Program and will result in updated high voltage solar array design guidelines being published.

  3. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Captain, Janine E.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Perusich, Stephen A.; Weis, Kyle H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted within the CMU rover "Scarab" and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in November 2008. This technology could be used on Mars as well. As described at the 2008 Mars Society Convention, the Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) supports the objectives of the RESOLVE project by capturing and quantifying water and hydrogen released by regolith upon heating. Field test results for the quantification of water using LWRD showed that the volcanic ash (tephra) samples contained 0.15-0.41% water, in agreement with GC water measurements. Reduction of the RH in the surge tank to near zero during recirculation show that the water is captured by the water beds as desired. The water can be recovered by heating the Water Beds to 230 C or higher. Test results for the capture and quantification of pure hydrogen have shown that over 90% of the hydrogen can be captured and 98% of the absorbed hydrogen can be recovered upon heating the hydride to 400 C and desorbing the hydrogen several times into the evacuated surge tank. Thus, the essential requirement of capturing hydrogen and recovering it has been demonstrated. ,

  4. Field Lysimeter Test Facility: Second year (FY 1989) test results

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.; Kanyid, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1990-04-01

    The Record of Decision associated with the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (53 FR 12449-53) commits to an evaluation of the use of protective barriers placed over near-surface wastes. The barrier must protect against wind and water erosion and limit plant and animal intrusion and infiltration of water. Successful conclusion of this program will yield the necessary protective barrier design for near-surface waste isolation. This report presents results from the second year of tests at the FLTF. The primary objective of testing protective barriers at the FLTF was to measure the water budgets within the various barriers and assess the effectiveness of their designs in limiting water intrusion into the zone beneath each barrier. Information obtained from these measurements is intended for use in refining barrier designs. Four elements of water budget were measured during the year: precipitation, evaporation, storage, and drainage. Run-off, which is a fifth element of a complete water budget, was made negligible by a lip on the lysimeters that protrudes 5 cm above the soil surface to prevent run-off. A secondary objective of testing protective barriers at the FLTF was to refine procedures and equipment to support data collection for verification of the computer model needed for long-term projections of barrier performance. 6 refs.

  5. A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  6. Characterization of viscoelastic materials for low-magnitude blast mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W.

    2014-05-01

    Recent research indicates that exposure to low amplitude blast waves, such as IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficiently protecting warfighters from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the blast mitigating behavior of current helmet materials and new materials designed for blast mitigation using a test fixture recently developed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for use with an existing gas gun. The 40-mm-bore gas gun was used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 0.5 to 2 bar) in the test fixture mounted on the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve was used to release helium gas from the breech which formed into a blast wave and impacted instrumented targets in the test fixture. Blast attenuation of selected materials was determined through the measurement of stress data in front of and behind the target. Materials evaluated in this research include polyurethane foam from currently fielded US Army and Marine Corps helmets, polyurea 1000, and three hardnesses of Sorbothane (48, 58, and 70 durometer, Shore 00). Polyurea 1000 and 6061-T6 aluminum were used to calibrate the stress gauges.

  7. LTC 1073 vacuum blasting (concrete) human factors assessment -- Baseline (summary)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high capacity, direct pressure blasting system incorporating a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast head. A vacuum system removes dust and debris from the surfaces as it is blasted. After cleaning the surface, the abrasive, together with the rust or coating that was removed from the surface, is vacuumed into the machine through the suction hose. The dust separator contains angled steel collision pads, working with the force of gravity, to allow any reusable abrasive to fall back into the pressure vessel. The filters are manually back flushed to prevent clogging. After back flushing, dust is dumped from the dust chamber into the dust collection bag or drum by operation of the bellows valve. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on dust and noise exposure. Dust exposure was found to be minimal, but noise exposure was potentially significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may cause the results to be inapplicable to indoor settings. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  8. Electromagnetic emissions during rock blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, S. G.; Thiel, D. V.

    1991-05-01

    Radio emissions during quarry blasting have been recorded in the audio frequency band. Three distinct mechanisms are suggested to explain the observed results; rock fracture at the time of the explosion, charged rocks discharging on impact with the pit floor and micro-fracture of the remaining rock wall due to pressure adjustment of the bench behind the blast. The last mechanism was evident by a train of discrete impulses recorded for up to one minute after the blast. It is assumed that during this time the rock behind the blast was subjected to a significant change in pressure. This may be related to ELF observations during earthquakes.

  9. Performance tests of a fast-acting valve for the driver tubes of a large blast/thermal simulator. Final report, Jan 91-Jan 92

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, M.R.

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the testing of a fast-acting throat valve element designed by Eaton Consolidated Controls for use in driver tubes, (blast generators) of a Large Blast/Thermal Simulator (LB/TS). An LB/TS is used to simulate decaying blast waves such as are generated by nuclear explosions. The Eaton Throat Valve Element (ETVE) was tested at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to evaluate its performance against the design criteria. The ETVE was mounted at the end of a driver tube and actuated 16 times at 6 different driver pressures ranging from 396 kPa to 12.4 MPa (57.5 psi to 1,800 psi). The valve seals survived successfully all 16 tests with the driver gas at room temperature and maintained an acceptable leak rate throughout the test program. The average valve lag time was determined to vary from 36 to 120 ms; however, the valve was found to chatter, going through several (up to 20) opening/closing cycles after actuation before settling in the open position. An increase in the pneumatic supply pressure driving the valve showed a minor decrease in the number of chattering cycles. When the valve was actuated with no pressure in the driver tube, no chattering was observed. At the conclusion of the test sequence, the valve seals were inspected and were in good condition. The shock waves appeared to agree with code predictions when the chattering effects were disregarded.

  10. Summary of CPAS EDU Testing Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Leah M.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Davidson, John.; Engert, Meagan E.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Galaviz, Fernando S.; Galvin, Patrick J.; Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Orion program's Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is currently conducting its third generation of testing, the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series. This series utilizes two test articles, a dart-shaped Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and capsule-shaped Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), both of which include a full size, flight-like parachute system and require a pallet delivery system for aircraft extraction. To date, 15 tests have been completed, including six with PCDTVs and nine with PTVs. Two of the PTV tests included the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) provided by Lockheed Martin. Advancements in modeling techniques applicable to parachute fly-out, vehicle rate of descent, torque, and load train, also occurred during the EDU testing series. An upgrade from a composite to an independent parachute simulation allowed parachute modeling at a higher level of fidelity than during previous generations. The complexity of separating the test vehicles from their pallet delivery systems necessitated the use the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulator for modeling mated vehicle aircraft extraction and separation. This paper gives an overview of each EDU test and summarizes the development of CPAS analysis tools and techniques during EDU testing.

  11. Analyzing Educational Testing Service Graduate Major Field Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    The Educational Testing Service (ETS) created the Graduate Major Field Test in Business (GMFT-B) for MBA students. This test is administered to all MBA classes at Jacksonville University for the purpose of measuring student academic achievement and growth, as well as to assess educational outcomes. The test is given in the capstone course,…

  12. What Do the Results of Genetic Tests Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic tests mean? What do the results of genetic tests mean? The results of genetic tests are ... type of result. For more information about interpreting genetic test results: The National Cancer Institute fact sheet ...

  13. Power Actuation and Switching Module Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Franco, Lauro; Jones, Loren; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treichler, John; Wester, Gene

    2006-01-01

    The X2000 Power System Electronics (PSE) is a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) task to develop a new generation of power system building blocks for use on future deep-space missions. The effort includes the development of electronic components and modules that can be used as building blocks in the design of generic spacecraft power systems. All X2000 avionics components and modules are designed for use in centralized or distributed spacecraft architectures. The Power Actuation and Switching Module (PASM) has been developed under the X2000 program. This component enables a modular and scalable design approach for power switching applications, which can result in a wide variety of power switching architectures using this simple building block. The PASM is designed to provide most of the necessary power switching functions of spacecraft for various Deep Space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. It is fabricated using an ASIC process that is tolerant of high radiation. The development included two application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and support circuitry all packaged using High Density Interconnect (HDI) technology. It can be operated in series or parallel with other PASMs. It can be used as a high-side or low-side switch and it can drive thruster valves, pyrotechnic devices such as NASA standard initiators, bus shunt resistors, and regular spacecraft component loads. Each PASM contains two independent switches with internal current limiting and over-current trip-off functions to protect the power subsystem from load faults. During turnon and turnoff each switch can limit the rate of current change (di/dt) to a value determined by the user. Three-way majority-voted On/Off commandability and full switch status telemetry (both analog and digital) are built into the module. This paper is a follow up to the one presented at he IECEC 2004 conference that will include the lessons learned and test results from the development.

  14. The use of high density ammonium nitrate mini-prill blasting agents to reduce drilling and blasting costs

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.C.; Irwin, R.

    1994-12-31

    In early 1993 a test program was designed to determine if mining costs could be reduced by using a high density ammonium nitrate mini-prill blasting agent. The goal was to reduce mining costs by expanding blast hole patterns while maintaining or improving dig-ability of the shot material. The results of the program indicated that with the high density ammonium nitrate blasting agent, fragmentation of the waste rock could be maintained or improved while expanding blast patterns by 23%. When used within ore zone boundaries, where pattern expansion and material displacement is not desirable, an improvement in shovel productivity was recognized while no increase in ore dilution was experienced. A reduction in bucket tooth wear was also reported.

  15. Nickel hydrogen cell characterization test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otzinger, B.

    1980-01-01

    Charge control studies on nickel hydrogen cells are discussed. Characterization test data for the cells are presented in graphical form. The test areas covered were capacity versus temperature, ampere-hour cycling efficiency, and the charge method which involved voltage level with current limiting.

  16. Heaf test results after neonatal BCG.

    PubMed Central

    Crawshaw, P A; Thomson, A H

    1988-01-01

    Heaf testing was carried out on 98 preschool Asian children who had received a BCG vaccination. A strongly positive Heaf reaction (grade 3) occurred in only two children. Heaf testing can still be used in tuberculosis screening after neonatal BCG. PMID:3232997

  17. On the Propagation and Interaction of Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics and the scaling laws of isolated spherical blast waves have been briefly reviewed. Both self-similar solutions and numerical solutions of isolated blast waves are discussed. Blast profiles in the near-field (strong shock region) and the far-field (weak shock region) are examined. Particular attention is directed at the blast overpressure and shock propagating speed. Consideration is also given to the interaction of spherical blast waves. Test data for the propagation and interaction of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure.

  18. Honeycomb spacer crush stength test results

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1993-09-15

    This report discusses aluminum honeycomb spacers, which are used as an energy absorbent material in shipping packages for off site shipment of radioactive materials and which were ordered in two crush strengths, 1,000 psi and 2,000 psi for use in drop tests requested by the Packaging and Transportation group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the vendor and the SRTC Materials Laboratory performed crush strength measurements on test samples made from the material used to fabricate the actual spacers. The measurements of crush strength made in the SRTC Materials Laboratory are within 100 psi of the measurements made by the manufacturer for all samples tested and all test measurements are within 10% of the specified crush strength, which is acceptable to the P&T group for the planned tests.

  19. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Nuclear Blast Cavities of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Duane P.; Bruckner, Jim; Fisher, Jen; Czerwinski, Ken; Russell, Charles E.; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2010-09-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this program’s Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H2 and SO42- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

  20. Characterization of microbial communities in subsurface nuclear blast cavities of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Duane P; Czerwinski, Ken; Russell, Charles E; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2010-07-13

    This US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this program's Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H2 and SO42- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

  1. German bundle shear - cold test results

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the planned Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) reprocessing plant, the mechanical decladding of the fuel elements will be done with a bundle shear. This shear was designed and built with Thyssen Henschel by adapting the experiences of the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (WAK), the FRG reprocessing pilot plant. The tests included boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) dummy elements filled with porcelain as well as steel fuel rod simulators. During the test period with prototype bundle shear, some technical improvements have been found that refer both to operating conditions and to remote handling. In 1987 the acceptance tests will be run.

  2. Simulation of Blast Waves with Headwind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lawrence, Scott W.; Klopfer, Goetz H.; Mathias, Dovan; Onufer, Jeff T.

    2005-01-01

    The blast wave resulting from an explosion was simulated to provide guidance for models estimating risks for human spacecraft flight. Simulations included effects of headwind on blast propagation, Blasts were modelled as an initial value problem with a uniform high energy sphere expanding into an ambient field. Both still air and cases with headwind were calculated.

  3. X-48B Preliminary Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the preliminary Flight tests of the X-48B development program. The X-48B is a blended wing body aircraft that is being used to test various features of the BWB concept. The research concerns the following: (1) Turbofan Development, (2) Intelligent Flight Control and Optimization, (3) Airdata Calibration (4) Parameter Identification (i.e., Determination of the parameters of a mathematical model of a system based on observation of the system inputs and response.)

  4. Computer cast blast modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the advance in computer technology has increased the computing power of small work stations as well as PC (personal computers) to permit a much shorter turn-around time for complex computations. The DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARC station 10-41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  5. Cryogenic optical testing results of JWST aspheric test plate lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Koby Z.; Towell, Timothy C.

    2011-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) is a circular 740mm diameter beryllium convex hyperboloid that has a 23.5nm-RMS (λ/27 RMS) on-orbit surface figure error requirement. The radius of curvature of the SMA is 1778.913mm+/-0.45mm and has a conic constant of -1.6598+/-0.0005. The on-orbit operating temperature of the JWST SMA is 22.5K. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC) is under contract to Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) to fabricate, assemble, and test the JWST SMA to its on-orbit requirements including the optical testing of the SMA at its cryogenic operating temperature. BATC has fabricated and tested an Aspheric Test Plate Lens (ATPL) that is an 870mm diameter fused silica lens used as the Fizeau optical reference in the ambient and cryogenic optical testing of the JWST Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA). As the optical reference for the SMA optical test, the concave optical surface of the ATPL is required to be verified at the same 20K temperature range required for the SMA. In order to meet this objective, a state-of-the-art helium cryogenic testing facility was developed to support the optical testing requirements of a number of the JWST optical testing needs, including the ATPL and SMA. With the implementation of this cryogenic testing facility, the ATPL was successfully cryogenically tested and performed to less than 10nm-RMS (λ/63 RMS) surface figure uncertainty levels for proper reference backout during the SMA optical testing program.

  6. Results from Grimethorpe PFBC turbine cascade tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The test program at the Grimethorpe Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) facility included an assessment of the potential for deposition, corrosion, and erosion of gas turbine blade materials when exposed to PFBC off gases. Flue gas from the combustor was fed through three stages of cyclones before entering the cascade. The impulse foils were approximately the size and shape of the first stage blades in the GE MS-1002 gas turbine. The cascade operated through three test series, accumulating a total of 649 hours. The conditions experienced are summarized. The paper lists the alloys tested, and discusses the efficiency of the cyclones, the particle size distribution of the dusts not removed by the cyclones, and corrosion of the turbine blades. 4 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  7. Flexible Ablators Char Depths LHMEL Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Qu, Vince; Fan, Wendy; Stackpoole, Mairead; Thornton, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Char and pyrolysis zone depths give physical evidence of peak temperature reached in depth: The pyrolyzing material acts as a temperature indicator within its characteristic thermal decomposition range. A matrix of novel flexible ablators were laser tested in one component of material screening for NASA Entry, Descent and Landing research for future Mars missions. LHMEL tests were run both on virgin materials, and on previously charred materials for a dual pulse simulation of the heating due to aerocapture followed by atmospheric entry. The test models were machined to expose the cross-sections. Char measurements were made at three locations near the center of the exposed area. Data are presented showing the char depths developed in these flexible materials, grouped by reinforcing fiber and pyrolyzing material type.

  8. Avco Lycoming emission and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The Avco Lycoming flight test program for reduced emissions was conducted to determine and document the lean fuel schedule limits for current production aircraft based on flight safety. Based on analysis of the emissions profile, Avco Lycoming proposed to evaluate the effect of leaner schedules in the idle/taxi, climb, and approach modes. These modes were selected as areas where it was felt that possible improvements could be made with the greatest improvement in cyclic emissions reduction. The fuel systems to produce these leaner stepped fuel schedules were tailored specifically for the flight test.

  9. Gifted Adolescents: A Handbook of Test Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, George S.

    The Governor's School of North Carolina is a residential summer program for talented and gifted juniors and seniors from all over the state. It is designed to provide a distinctive educational experience and to serve as an experimental laboratory for innovative instruction. This handbook reports on an extensive testing program carried out at the…

  10. Phase C Flygt Mixer Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-06-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) teamed with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and ITT Flygt Corporation to conduct a test program evaluating shrouded axial propeller mixers (Flygt mixers) for heel removal in SRS Tank 19. SRS is identifying and investigating techniques to remove sludge heels from waste tanks such as Tank 19.

  11. Liquid Motion Experiment Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato David J.; Dalton, Penni J.; Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steve

    1998-01-01

    The Liquid Motion Experiment (LME), designed to study the effects of liquid motion in rotating tanks, was flown on STS 84. LME was essentially a spin table that created a realistic nutation motion of scale-model tanks containing liquid. TWo spherical and two cylindrical transparent tanks were tested simultaneously, and three sets of such tanks were employed to vary liquid viscosity, fill level, and propellant management device (PMD) design. All the tanks were approximately 4.5 inches diameter. The primary test measurements were the radial and tangential torques exerted on the tanks by the liquid. Resonant frequencies and damping of the liquid oscillations were determined by sine sweep tests. For a given tank shape, the resonant frequency depended on fill level. For the cylindrical tanks, the resonances had somewhat different frequencies for the tangential axis (0.55 to 0.75 times spin rate) and the radial axis (0.73 to 0.78 times spin rate), and the tangential axis resonance agreed more closely with available analytical models. For the spherical tanks, the resonant frequencies were between 0.74 to 0.77 times the spin rate and were the same for the tangential and radial axes. The damping coefficients varied from about I% to 3% of critical, depending on tank shape, fill level, and liquid viscosity. 'Me viscous energy dissipation rates of the liquid oscillations were determined from sine dwell tests. The LME energy dissipation rates varied from 0.3 to 0.5 times the estimates obtained from scaling previous ground tests and spacecraft flight data. The PNDs sometimes enhanced the resonances and energy dissipation rates and sometimes decreased them, which points out the need to understand better the effects of PMD on liquid motion as a function of PMD and tank design.

  12. Blast impact behaviour of concrete with different fibre reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drdlová, Martina; Čechmánek, René; Řídký, Radek

    2015-09-01

    The paper summarizes the results of the development of special concrete intended for the explosion resistance applications, with the emphasis on minimal secondary fragments formation at the explosion. The fine-grained concrete matrix has been reinforced by various types of short dispersed fibers (metallic, mineral and polymer) of different sizes and by their combination and the effect of the fibre reinforcement on the physico-mechanical properties and blast resistance was observed. The concrete prism specimens have been subjected to the determination of mechanical parameters (compressive and flexural strength at quasi-static load). The blast tests were conducted on the slab specimens prepared from selected mixtures. The material characteristics and explosion test data have been used for numerical investigation, which defined the optimal wall composition and dimensions of the concrete element which should resist the explosion defined by type, size, weight and placement of the blast. In the next step the test elements resistance was verified by real explosion test.

  13. Preliminary Results of Field Emission Cathode Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary screening tests of field emission cathodes such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, textured pyrolytic graphite, and textured copper were conducted at background pressures typical of electric thruster test facilities to assess cathode performance and stability. Very low power electric thrusters which provide tens to hundreds micronewtons of thrust may need field emission neutralizers that have a capability of tens to hundreds of microamperes. From current voltage characteristics, it was found that the CVD diamond and textured metals cathodes clearly satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim emission relation. The CVD diamond and a textured copper cathode had average current densities of 270 and 380 mA/sq cm, respectively, at the beginning-of-life. After a few hours of operation the cathode emission currents degraded by 40 to 75% at background pressures in the 10(exp -5) Pa to 10(exp -4) Pa range. The textured pyrolytic graphite had a modest current density at beginning-of-life of 84 mA/sq cm, but this cathode was the most stable of all. Extended testing of the most promising cathodes is warranted to determine if current degradation is a burn-in effect or whether it is a long-term degradation process. Preliminary experiments with ferroelectric emission cathodes, which are ceramics with spontaneous electric polarization, were conducted. Peak current densities of 30 to 120 mA/sq cm were obtained for pulse durations of about 500 ns in the 10(exp -4) Pa pressure range.

  14. Application of coupled analysis methods for prediction of blast-induced dominant vibration frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haibo; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Jianchun; Xia, Xiang; Wang, Xiaowei

    2016-03-01

    Blast-induced dominant vibration frequency (DVF) involves a complex, nonlinear and small sample system considering rock properties, blasting parameters and topography. In this study, a combination of grey relational analysis and dimensional analysis procedures for prediction of dominant vibration frequency are presented. Six factors are selected from extensive effect factor sequences based on grey relational analysis, and then a novel blast-induced dominant vibration frequency prediction is obtained by dimensional analysis. In addition, the prediction is simplified by sensitivity analysis with 195 experimental blast records. Validation is carried out for the proposed formula based on the site test database of the firstperiod blasting excavation in the Guangdong Lufeng Nuclear Power Plant (GLNPP). The results show the proposed approach has a higher fitting degree and smaller mean error when compared with traditional predictions.

  15. Development of a finite element model for blast brain injury and the effects of CSF cavitation.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Matthew B; Myers, Barry S; Capehart, Bruce P; Bass, Cameron R

    2012-07-01

    Blast-related traumatic brain injury is the most prevalent injury for combat personnel seen in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, yet as a research community,we still do not fully understand the detailed etiology and pathology of this injury. Finite element (FE) modeling is well suited for studying the mechanical response of the head and brain to blast loading. This paper details the development of a FE head and brain model for blast simulation by examining both the dilatational and deviatoric response of the brain as potential injury mechanisms. The levels of blast exposure simulated ranged from 50 to 1000 kPa peak incident overpressure and 1–8 ms in positive-phase duration, and were comparable to real-world blast events. The frontal portion of the brain had the highest pressures corresponding to the location of initial impact, and peak pressure attenuated by 40–60% as the wave propagated from the frontal to the occipital lobe. Predicted brain pressures were primarily dependent on the peak overpressure of the impinging blast wave, and the highest predicted brain pressures were 30%less than the reflected pressure at the surface of blast impact. Predicted shear strain was highest at the interface between the brain and the CSF. Strain magnitude was largely dependent on the impulse of the blast, and primarily caused by the radial coupling between the brain and deforming skull.The largest predicted strains were generally less than 10%,and occurred after the shock wave passed through the head.For blasts with high impulses, CSF cavitation had a large role in increasing strain levels in the cerebral cortex and periventricular tissues by decoupling the brain from the skull. Relating the results of this study with recent experimental blast testing suggest that a rate-dependent strain-based tissue injury mechanism is the source primary blast TBI. PMID:22298329

  16. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  17. Operational results of shaft repair by installing stave type cooler at Kimitsu Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Hiroshi; Amano, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Aiichiro; Anzai, Osamu; Nakagome, Michiru; Kuze, Toshisuke; Imuta, Akira

    1997-12-31

    Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces in Nippon Steel Corporation Kimitsu Works were both initially fitted with cooling plate systems. With the aging of each furnace, the damage to their respective inner-shaft profiles had become serious. Thus, in order to prevent operational change and prolong the furnace life, the inner-shaft profile of each furnace was repaired by replacing the former cooling plate system with the stave type cooler during the two-week-shutdowns. With this repair, stability of burden descent and gas flow near the wall part of the furnace have been achieved. Thus the prolongation of the furnace life is naturally expected.

  18. Effect of micro-roughness produced by TiO2 blasting--tensile testing of bone attachment by using coin-shaped implants.

    PubMed

    Rønold, Hans Jacob; Ellingsen, Jan Eirik

    2002-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine bone response to micro-rough titanium implants. Forty coin-shaped implants were divided into eight groups according to their surface roughness. The first group had electropolished surfaces. The surfaces of implant groups 2-8 were blasted with TiO2 particles with incremental grain sizes ranging from 7.5-12.5 to 270-330 microns. Five implants from each group were placed into the cortical bone of the proximal tibia in New Zealand Black rabbits. To avoid bone overgrowth during the retention phase the implants were fitted into tight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) caps leaving only the flat test surface exposed to bone. The healing period was set to 10 weeks, and implants with attached bone were evaluated using a tensile testing machine. In groups 1-7 a significant correlation between the micro-roughness of the implant surfaces and retention strength was observed. Maximum bone bonding was observed with implants blasted with 180-220 microns grain size (group 7). Blasting with larger TiO2 particles appeared to decrease the effect. The findings suggest that the best grain size of TiO2 particles for optimising retention of titanium implants in cortical bone should be in the 180-220 microns range. PMID:12194524

  19. Test results for robotic manipulator EMMA

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsower, D.C.

    1996-07-30

    Testing was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) headquarters in Gaithersburg, Maryland, where Grey Pilgrim has experimental space available under a Cooperative R & D Agreement (CRADA) with NIST. Under the CRADA, Grey Pilgrim is tasked with developing a version of EMMA suitable for deployment of a stereo camera on a NIST RoboCrane, a mobile platform with applications to several industrial environments (including hazardous materials) based on the concept of the Steward Platform, a structure with great strength and a minimum of material.

  20. The 757 NLF glove flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyan, L. Jim; Bielak, G. W.; Behbehani, R. A.; Chen, A. W.; Rozendaal, Roger A.

    1987-01-01

    A major concern in the application of a laminar flow wing design to commercial transports is whether laminar flow can be sustained in the presence of the noise environment due to wing mounted turbofan engines. To investigate this issue, a flight test program was conducted using the Boeing 757 flight research airplane with a portion of the wing modified to obtain natural laminar flow. The flight test had two primary objectives. The first was to measure the noise levels on the upper and lower surface of the wing for a range of flight conditions. The second was to investigate the effect of engine noise on laminar boundary layer transition. The noise field on the wing and transition location on the glove were then measured as a function of the engine power setting at a given flight condition. The transition and noise measurement on the glove show that there is no apparent effect of engine noise on the upper surface transition location. On the lower surface, the transition location moved forward 2 to 3 percent chord. A boundary layer stability analysis to the flight data showed that cross flow disturbances were the dominant cause of transition at most flight conditions.

  1. Code Verification Results of an LLNL ASC Code on Some Tri-Lab Verification Test Suite Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S R; Bihari, B L; Salari, K; Woodward, C S

    2006-12-29

    As scientific codes become more complex and involve larger numbers of developers and algorithms, chances for algorithmic implementation mistakes increase. In this environment, code verification becomes essential to building confidence in the code implementation. This paper will present first results of a new code verification effort within LLNL's B Division. In particular, we will show results of code verification of the LLNL ASC ARES code on the test problems: Su Olson non-equilibrium radiation diffusion, Sod shock tube, Sedov point blast modeled with shock hydrodynamics, and Noh implosion.

  2. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... weighed to determine the percent of weight loss. 3. Test method D-3—Compression Exudation Test The entire... from the glass tube and weighed to determine the percent of weight loss. EC02MR91.067 ... assembly is placed under the compression rod, and compression is applied by means of the weight on...

  3. Panoramic night vision goggle flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Douglas L.; Geiselman, Eric E.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

    2000-06-01

    The Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG) has begun operational test and evaluation with its 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical field of view (FOV) on different aircraft and at different locations. Two configurations of the PNVG are being evaluated. The first configuration design (PNVG I) is very low in profile and fits underneath a visor. PNVG I can be retained by the pilot during ejection. This configuration is interchangeable with a day helmet mounted tracker and display through a standard universal connector. The second configuration (PNVG II) resembles the currently fielded 40-degree circular FOV Aviator Night Vision Imaging Systems (ANVIS) and is designed for non-ejection seat aircraft and ground applications. Pilots completed subjective questionnaires after each flight to compare the capability of the 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical PNVG to the 40-degree circular ANVIS across different operational tasks. This paper discusses current findings and pilot feedback from the flight trials objectives of the next phase of the PNVG program are also discussed.

  4. Flight Test Results for the NICMOS Cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, F. X.; McCormick, J. A.; Nellis, G. F.; Sixsmith, H.; Swift, W. L.

    1999-01-01

    In October 1998 a mechanical cryocooler and cryogenic circulator loop were flown on NASA's STS-95 as part of the Hubble Orbital System Test (HOST). The system will be installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during Service Mission #3 in 2000 and will provide cooling to the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). It will extend the useful life of that instrument by 5 to 10 years. This was the first successful space demonstration of a turbobrayton cryocooler. The cooler is a single stage reverse Brayton type, using low-vibration high-speed miniature turbomachines for the compression and expansion functions. A miniature centrifugal cryogenic circulator is used to deliver refrigerated neon to the instrument. During the mission, the cooler operated without anomalies for approximately 185 hours over a range of conditions to verify its mechanical, thermodynamic and control functions. The cryocooler satisfied all mission objectives including maximum cooldown to near-design operating conditions, warm and cold starts and stops, operation at near-design temperatures, and demonstration of long-term temperature stability. This paper presents a description of the cooler and its operation during the HOST flight.

  5. Recent results of the GAINS test flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girz, C.

    A demonstration flight of the Global Atmosphere-ocean IN-situ System (GAINS) Prototype III balloon is scheduled to occur in early summer 2002. The 18-m diameter PIII superpressure balloon, built by GSSL, Inc., will float a 135-kg payload at 16 km. Performance of the SpectraTM envelope will be assessed over two day-night cycles. The payload consists of line-of-sight communications for transmitting GPS position, and monitored parameters on balloon and payload state and the internal and external thermal environments. Primary termination is by radio command with several independent backup termination systems. Safe operation of the balloon is ensured by an onboard transponder that keeps the balloon under active air traffic control. The balloon is tracked by an aircraft that will record communications from the balloon and instigate termination of the flight. Mobile ground stations positioned at the launch and recovery locations will also be capable of recording and terminating the flight. A suite of trajectory forecast tools has been developed based on radiosondes and winds from numerical weather models. A GPS surface reflection experiment for determining ocean surface winds will be tested on this platform. Physical and electronic integration of the radio and mechanical systems was completed over the last two years. Data and videos from the June flight will be presented.

  6. Airlift recirculation well test results -- Southern sector

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.; Hiergesell, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A and M-Areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952--1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. A plume of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in the Lost Lake aquifer is moving generally southward with the natural flow of groundwater. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, a series of wells is being installed to contain and treat the plume. Airlift Recirculation Wells (ARW) are a new and innovative technology with potential for more cost effective implementation than conventional pump and treat systems. Two Airlift Recirculation Wells have been installed and tested to quantify performance parameters needed to locate a line of these wells along the leading edge of the contaminant plume. The wells proved to be very sensitive to proper development, but after this requirement was met, performance was very good. The Zone of Capture has been estimated to be within a radius of 130--160 ft. around the wells. Thus a line of wells spaced at 250 ft. intervals could intercept the contaminant plume. At SSR-012, TCE was stripped from the groundwater at approximately 1.2 lb./day. The longer term effect of the recirculation wells upon the plume and the degree of recirculation within the aquifer itself will require additional data over a longer time period for an accurate review. Data collection is ongoing.

  7. Shashlik calorimeter Beam-test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badier, J.; Busson, Ph.; Charlot, C.; Dobrzynski, L.; Tanaka, R.; Bordalo, P.; Ramos, S.; Bityukov, S.; Obraztsov, V.; Ostankov, A.; Zaitchenko, A.; Gninenko, S.; Guschin, E.; Issakov, V.; Mussienko, Y.; Semenjuk, I.

    1994-08-01

    Results from an extensive study of nonprojective Shashlik calorimeter prototypes are reported. Nine (47 × 47 mm 2) towers were exposed to a high energy electron beam at CERN SPS and read out by silicon photodiodes followed by low noise preamplifiers. The main results are the measurements of the energy and shower position resolution and the angular resolution of the electron shower direction. The shower direction measurement is encouraging being in agreement at the tower center with a resolution of σθ(mrad) = 70/√ E (10 mrad for 50 GeV electrons). The uniformity of the calorimeter response is found to be better than ± 1%. The mean light yield measured in Shashlik towers equipped with Kuraray Y7 WLS fibres and aluminized at the front end of the tower is of the order of 13 photons/MeV.

  8. Test results of a prototype dielectric microcalorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfafman, T. E.; Silver, E.; Labov, S.; Beeman, J.; Goulding, F.; Hansen, W.; Landis, D.; Madden, N.

    1990-01-01

    The initial development work on a dielectric microcalorimeter is presented. It focuses on the dielectric properties of the ferroelectric material KTa(1-x)Nb(x)O3 (KTN). Measurements of the temperature dependent dielectric constant are given together with the first alpha particle detection results from a prototype composite microcalorimeter operating at 1.3 K. A nonthermal mechanism for detecting 6 MeV alpha particles in a monolithic KTN sample is also reported.

  9. Experimental Investigation on the Basic Law of the Fracture Spatial Morphology for Water Pressure Blasting in a Drillhole Under True Triaxial Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bingxiang; Li, Pengfeng

    2015-07-01

    The present literature on the morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not sufficient and does not take triaxial confining stress into account. Because the spatial morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not clear, the operations lack an exact basis. Using a large true triaxial water pressure blasting experimental system and an acoustic emission 3-D positioning system, water pressure blasting experiments on cement mortar test blocks (300 mm × 300 mm × 300 mm) were conducted to study the associated basic law of the fracture spatial morphology. The experimental results show that water pressure blasting does not always generate bubble pulsation. After water pressure blasting under true triaxial stress, a crushed compressive zone and a blasting fracture zone are formed from the inside, with the blasting section of the naked drillhole as the center, to the outside. The shape of the outer edges of the two zones is ellipsoidal. The range of the blasting fracture is large in the radial direction of the drillhole, where the surrounding pressure is large, i.e., the range of the blasting fracture in the drillhole radial cross-section is approximately ellipsoidal. The rock near the drillhole wall is affected by a tensile stress wave caused by the test block boundary reflection, resulting in more flake fractures appearing in the fracturing crack surface in the drillhole axial direction and parallel to the boundary surface. The flake fracture is thin, presenting a small-range flake fracture. The spatial morphology of the water pressure blasting fracture in the drillhole along the axial direction is similar to a wide-mouth Chinese bottle: the crack extent is large near the drillhole orifice, gradually narrows inward along the drillhole axial direction, and then increases into an approximate ellipsoid in the internal naked blasting section. Based on the causes of the crack generation, the blasting cracks are divided into three

  10. Blast optimization for improved dragline productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.; Baldwin, G.

    1994-12-31

    A project aimed at blast optimization for large open pit coal mines is utilizing blast monitoring and analysis techniques, advanced dragline monitoring equipment, and blast simulation software, to assess the major controlling factors affecting both blast performance and subsequent dragline productivity. This has involved collaborative work between the explosives supplier, mine operator, monitoring equipment manufacturer, and a mining research organization. The results from trial blasts and subsequently monitored dragline production have yielded promising results and continuing studies are being conducted as part of a blast optimization program. It should be stressed that the optimization of blasting practices for improved dragline productivity is a site specific task, achieved through controlled and closely monitored procedures. The benefits achieved at one location can not be simply transferred to another minesite unless similar improvement strategies are first implemented.

  11. Test results of a prototype dielectric microcalorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Pfafman, T.E.; Silver, E.; Labov, S. ); Beeman, J.; Goulding, F.; Hansen, W.; Landis, D.; Madden, N. )

    1990-08-13

    The initial development work on a dielectric microcalorimeter is presented. It focuses on the dielectric properties of the ferroelectric material KTa{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} (KTN). Measurements of the temperature dependent dielectric constant are given together with the first alpha particle detection results from a prototype composite microcalorimeter operating at 1.3 K. a non-thermal mechanism for detecting 6 MeV alpha particles in a monolithic KTN sample is also reported. 7 refs, 16 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Phenotypic screening and molecular analysis of blast resistance in fragrant rice for marker assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Sen, Partha Pratim; Bhuiyan, Rejwan; Kabir, Enamul; Chowdhury, Abul Kashem; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Ali, Ansar; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to identify blast-resistant fragrant genotypes for the development of a durable blast-resistant rice variety during years 2012-2013. The results indicate that out of 140 test materials including 114 fragrant germplasms, 25 differential varieties (DVs) harbouring 23 blast-resistant genes, only 16 fragrant rice germplasms showed comparatively better performance against a virulent isolate of blast disease. The reaction pattern of single-spore isolate of Magnaporthe oryzae to differential varieties showed that Pish, Pi9, Pita-2 and Pita are the effective blast-resistant genes against the tested blast isolates in Bangladesh. The DNA markers profiles of selected 16 rice germplasms indicated that genotype Chinigura contained Pish, Pi9 and Pita genes; on the other hand, both BRRI dhan50 and Bawaibhog contained Pish and Pita genes in their genetic background. Genotypes Jirakatari, BR5, and Gopalbhog possessed Pish gene, while Uknimodhu, Deshikatari, Radhunipagol, Kalijira (3), Chinikanai each contained the Pita gene only. There are some materials that did not contain any target gene(s) in their genetic background, but proved resistant in pathogenicity tests. This information provided valuable genetic information for breeders to develop durable blast-resistant fragrant or aromatic rice varieties in Bangladesh. PMID:24841958

  13. Blasting: Another environmental woe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Thomas A.

    1989-03-01

    The much increased use of explosives to move and extract rock masses in construction and mining over the past two decades has resulted in a plethora of complaints from the general public in areas of close proximity to public facilities, communication, and transportation systems. Air blasts and ground vibrations caused by explosive detonation can have desultory and damaging effects to public and private property, impose adverse effects on underground mining operations, and change the course of flow or effect the availability of surface and groundwater. Attempts to prevent damage and alleviate problems from blasting have been initiated by the federal and state governments by the promulgation of rules and regulations to prevent against vagrant and negligent blasting procedures. The Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) provided regulations in the Federal Register on March 8, 1983, with particular reference to surface mining practices. Most of the states have adopted the OSMRE guidelines to enforce these rules and regulations.

  14. Blast induced subsidence in the craters of nuclear tests over coral

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.E.; Swift, R.P.; Glenn, H.D.; Bryan, J.B.

    1985-02-01

    The craters from high-yield nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds are very broad and shallow in comparison with the bowl-shaped craters formed in continental rock at the Nevada Test Site and elsewhere. Attempts to account for the differences quantitatively have been generally unsatisfactory. We have for the first time successfully modeled the Koa Event, a representative coral-atoll test. On the basis of plausible assumptions about the geology and about the constitutive relations for coral, we have shown that the size and shape of the Koa crater can be accounted for by subsidence and liquefaction phenomena. If future studies confirm these assumptions, it will mean that some scaling formulas based on data from the Pacific will have to be revised to avoid overestimating weapons effects in continental geology. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

  16. A Standardized Inoculation Protocol to Test Wheat Cultivars for Reaction to Head Blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (Triticum pathotype)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat blast, caused by the Triticum pathotype of M. oryzae (MoT), poses a significant threat to wheat production worldwide. Because this pathotype does not occur in the U.S., it is important to prepare for its possible introduction. As part of this preparation, over 500 U.S. wheat cultivars were tes...

  17. U.S. Army RDECOM-ARDEC's results of the TG-53 experiment and field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Sachi V.; Morcos, Amir

    2009-05-01

    shrapnel effects, while launch events are similar to explosions, designed to expel and propel an artillery round from a gun. The ensuing signatures are readily characterized by variations in the corresponding peak pressure and rise time of the waveform, differences in the ratio of positive pressure amplitude to the negative amplitude, variations in the prominent frequencies associated with the blast events and variations in the overall duration of the resulting waveform. Unique attributes can also be identified that depend upon the properties of the gun tube, projectile speed at the muzzle, and the explosive/concussive properties associated with the events. The event allows the examination of particular extreme battlefield acoustic challenges not normally documented or readily studied. The final portion will focus on the unique acoustic signatures data collected and how it allowed very relevant situations to be tested in a variety of scenarios.

  18. Dynamic Docking Test System (DDTS) active table frequency response test results. [Apollo Soyuz Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the frequency response test performed on the dynamic docking test system (DDTS) active table. Sinusoidal displacement commands were applied to the table and the dynamic response determined from measured actuator responses and accelerometers mounted to the table and one actuator.

  19. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  20. A Mouse Model of Blast-Induced mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rubovitch, Vardit; Ten-Bosch, Meital; Zohar, Ofer; Harrison, Catherine R.; Tempel-Brami, Catherine; Stein, Elliot; Hoffer, Barry J.; Balaban, Carey D.; Schreiber, Shaul; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Pick, Chaim G.

    2011-01-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are one of the main causes for casualties among civilians and military personnel in the present war against terror. Mild traumatic brain injury from IEDs induces various degrees of cognitive, emotional and behavioral disturbances but knowledge of the exact brain pathophysiology following exposure to blast is poorly understood. The study was aimed at establishing a murine model for a mild BI-TBI that isolates low-level blast pressure effects to the brain without systemic injuries. An open-field explosives detonation was used to replicate, as closely as possible, low-level blast trauma in the battlefield or at a terror-attack site. No alterations in basic neurological assessment or brain gross pathology were found acutely in the blast-exposed mice. At 7 days post blast, cognitive and behavioral tests revealed significantly decreased performance at both 4 and 7 meters distance from the blast (5.5 and 2.5 PSI, respectively). At 30 days post-blast, clear differences were found in animals at both distances in the object recognition test, and in the 7 m group in the Y maze test. Using MRI, T1 weighted images showed an increased BBB permeability one month post-blast. DTI analysis showed an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) and a decrease in radial diffusivity. These changes correlated with sites of up-regulation of manganese superoxide dismutase 2 in neurons and CXC-motif chemokine receptor 3 around blood vessels in fiber tracts. These results may represent brain axonal and myelin abnormalities. Cellular and biochemical studies are underway in order to further correlate the blast-induced cognitive and behavioral changes and to identify possible underlying mechanisms that may help develop treatment- and neuroprotective modalities. PMID:21946269

  1. Monitoring and Testing the Parts Cleaning Stations, Abrasive Blasting Cabinets, and Paint Booths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Tracee M.

    2004-01-01

    I have the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) this summer. One of the EMO's tasks is to make sure the Environmental Management System is implemented to the entire Glenn Research Center (GRC). The Environmental Management System (EMS) is a policy or plan that is oriented toward minimizing an organization's impact to the environment. Our EMS includes the reduction of solid waste regeneration and the reduction of hazardous material use, waste, and pollution. With the Waste Management Team's (WMT) help, the EMS can be implemented throughout the NASA Glenn Research Center. The WMT is responsible for the disposal and managing of waste throughout the GRC. They are also responsible for the management of all chemical waste in the facility. My responsibility is to support the waste management team by performing an inventory on parts cleaning stations, abrasive cabinets, and paint booths through out the entire facility. These booths/stations are used throughout the center and they need to be monitored and tested for hazardous waste and material. My job is to visit each of these booths/stations, take samples of the waste, and analyze the samples.

  2. Initial test results using the GEOS-3 engineering model altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, G. S.; Clary, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Data from a series of experimental tests run on the engineering model of the GEOS 3 radar altimeter using the Test and Measurement System (TAMS) designed for preflight testing of the radar altimeter are presented. These tests were conducted as a means of preparing and checking out a detailed test procedure to be used in running similar tests on the GEOS 3 protoflight model altimeter systems. The test procedures and results are also included.

  3. Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic Energy Redirection and Release Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

  4. Blast shock wave mitigation using the hydraulic energy redirection and release technology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

  5. 12 CFR 325.207 - Publication of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Publication of stress test results. 325.207... GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.207 Publication of stress test results. (a... annual stress test in the period starting June 15 and ending June 30. (2) An over $50 billion...

  6. 12 CFR 325.207 - Publication of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Publication of stress test results. 325.207... GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.207 Publication of stress test results. (a... annual stress test in the period starting June 15 and ending June 30. (2) An over $50 billion...

  7. Antioxidant treatment reduces blast-induced cochlear damage and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Ewert, Donald L; Lu, Jianzhong; Li, Wei; Du, Xiaoping; Floyd, Robert; Kopke, Richard

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to blast overpressure has become one of the hazards of both military and civilian life in many parts of the world due to war and terrorist activity. Auditory damage is one of the primary sequela of blast trauma, affecting immediate situational awareness and causing permanent hearing loss. Protecting against blast exposure is limited by the inability to anticipate the timing of these exposures, particularly those caused by terrorists. Therefore a therapeutic regimen is desirable that is able to ameliorate auditory damage when administered after a blast exposure has occurred. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of a combination of antioxidants 2,4-disulfonyl α-phenyl tertiary butyl nitrone (HPN-07) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) beginning 1 h after blast exposure could reduce both temporary and permanent hearing loss. To this end, a blast simulator was developed and the operational conditions established for exposing rats to blast overpressures comparable to those encountered in an open-field blast of 14 pounds per square inch (psi). This blast model produced reproducible blast overpressures that resulted in physiological and physical damage to the auditory system that was proportional to the number and amplitude of the blasts. After exposure to 3 consecutive 14 psi blasts 100% of anesthetized rats had permanent hearing loss as determined at 21 days post exposure by auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) testing. Animals treated with HPN-07 and NAC after blast exposure showed a significant reduction in ABR threshold shifts and DPOAE level shifts at 2-16 kHz with significant reduction in inner hair cell (IHC) and outer hair cell (OHC) loss across the 5-36 kHz region of the cochlea compared with control animals. The time course of changes in the auditory system was documented at 3 h, 24 h, 7 day and 21 day after blast exposure. At 3 h after blast exposure the auditory brainstem response (ABR

  8. Recovery from blast fishing on coral reefs: a tale of two scales.

    PubMed

    Fox, Helen E; Caldwell, Roy L

    2006-10-01

    Dynamite or "blast" fishing is one of the most immediate and destructive threats to coral reefs worldwide. However, little is known about the long-term ecosystem effects of such blasts or the dynamics of recovery. Here, we examine coral reef recovery in the simplest case of acute single blasts of known age, as well as recovery from chronic blasting over greater spatial and temporal scales. Rubble resulting from single blasts slowly stabilized, and craters filled in with surrounding coral and new colonies. After five years, coral cover within craters no longer differed significantly from control plots. In contrast, extensively bombed areas showed no significant recovery over the six years of this study, despite adequate supply of coral larvae. After extensive blasting, the resulting coral rubble shifts in ocean currents, forming unstable "killing fields" for new recruits. While recently tested rehabilitation methods might be feasible on a small scale, human intervention is unlikely to be effective on large spatial scales, highlighting the need for effective management to prevent blast fishing in the first place. PMID:17069358

  9. Mild Blast Events Alter Anxiety, Memory, and Neural Activity Patterns in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:23741416

  10. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:23741416

  11. Primary and secondary skeletal blast trauma.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Victoria A; Ramos, Vanessa; Shegogue, Candie; Whitworth, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study examines primary (resulting from blast wave) and secondary (resulting from disintegrated, penetrating fragments) blast trauma to the skeleton. Eleven pigs were exposed to semi-controlled blast events of varying explosive type, charge size, and distance, including some cases with shrapnel. Skeletal trauma was found to be extensive, presenting as complex, comminuted fractures with numerous small, displaced bone splinters and fragments. Traumatic amputation of the limbs and cranium was also observed. Fractures were concentrated in areas nearer the blast, but there was generally no identifiable point of impact. Fractures were more random in appearance and widespread than those typically associated with gunshot or blunt force injury events. These patterns appear to be uniquely associated with blast trauma and may therefore assist forensic anthropologists and other forensic examiners in the interpretation of skeletal trauma by enabling them to differentiate between blast trauma and trauma resulting from some other cause. PMID:21981586

  12. Blast Loading Experiments of Developed Surrogate Models for TBI Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, Matthew; Son, Steven

    2009-06-01

    This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical systems. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical PMMA shells followed by SLA prototyped skulls housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted with the simple geometries to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head due to impedance mismatches. Results from the strain correlations added to the theory of internal shearing between tissues.

  13. Mathematics Placement Test: Typical Results with Unexpected Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingalls, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of a prior case-study analysis of mathematics placement at one university, the mathematics department developed and piloted a mathematics placement test. This article describes the implementation process for a mathematics placement test and further analyzes the test results for the pilot group. As an unexpected result, the…

  14. Reporting Test Results to the Public: Exploring the Doughnut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Carole L.

    This paper examines some of the issues involved in releasing test results to the press. The first part is based on a survey of National Association of Test Directors members (72 of the 142 members completed a questionnaire on reporting test results to the public). The survey included the following: to whom are results reported; what kind of…

  15. Retinal Ganglion Cell Damage in an Experimental Rodent Model of Blast-Mediated Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Kabhilan; Kecova, Helga; Hernandez-Merino, Elena; Kardon, Randy H.; Harper, Matthew M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate retina and optic nerve damage following experimental blast injury. Methods. Healthy adult mice were exposed to an overpressure blast wave using a custom-built blast chamber. The effects of blast exposure on retina and optic nerve function and structure were evaluated using the pattern electroretinogram (pERG), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the chromatic pupil light reflex. Results. Assessment of the pupil response to light demonstrated decreased maximum pupil constriction diameter in blast-injured mice using red light or blue light stimuli 24 hours after injury compared with baseline in the eye exposed to direct blast injury. A decrease in the pupil light reflex was not observed chronically following blast exposure. We observed a biphasic pERG decrease with the acute injury recovering by 24 hours postblast and the chronic injury appearing at 4 months postblast injury. Furthermore, at 3 months following injury, a significant decrease in the retinal nerve fiber layer was observed using OCT compared with controls. Histologic analysis of the retina and optic nerve revealed punctate regions of reduced cellularity in the ganglion cell layer and damage to optic nerves. Additionally, a significant upregulation of proteins associated with oxidative stress was observed acutely following blast exposure compared with control mice. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that decrements in retinal ganglion cell responses can be detected after blast injury using noninvasive functional and structural tests. These objective responses may serve as surrogate tests for higher CNS functions following traumatic brain injury that are difficult to quantify. PMID:23620426

  16. GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe Life Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was built as a life test unit for the loop heat pipes on the GOES N-Q series satellites. This propylene LHP was built by Dynatherm Corporation in 2000 and tested continuously for approximately 14 months. It was then put into storage for 3 years. Following the storage period, the LHP was tested at Swales Aerospace to verify that the loop performance hadn t changed. Most test results were consistent with earlier results. At the conclusion of testing at Swales, the LHP was transferred to NASA/GSFC for continued periodic testing. The LHP has been set up for testing in the Thermal Lab at GSFC since 2006. A group of tests consisting of start-ups, power cycles, and a heat transport limit test have been performed every six to nine months since March 2006. Tests results have shown no change in the loop performance over the five years of testing. This presentation will discuss the test hardware, test set-up, and tests performed. Test results to be presented include sample plots from individual tests, along with conductance measurements for all tests performed.

  17. Effects of Testing Conditions on Conceptual Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Pre-testing and post-testing is a commonly used method in Physics Education Research to assess student learning gains. It is well recognized in the community that timings and incentives in delivering conceptual tests can impact test results. However, it is difficult to control these variables across different studies. As a common practice, a…

  18. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

  19. Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Candole, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  20. Blast injury.

    PubMed

    de Candole, C A

    1967-01-28

    The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  1. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  2. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... was conducted in strict conformance with applicable regulations under 40 CFR Part 204 et seq. All the... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting of test results. 204.57-5... of test results. (a)(1) The manufacturer shall submit a copy of the test report for all...

  4. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  5. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  6. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  7. 12 CFR 252.157 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.157... RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test... Companies § 252.157 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure of results—(1) In general....

  8. 12 CFR 252.157 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.157... RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test... Companies § 252.157 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure of results—(1) In general....

  9. 12 CFR 252.148 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.148... RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Covered Companies § 252.148 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure...

  10. Electrophysiological white matter dysfunction and association with neurobehavioral deficits following low-level primary blast trauma.

    PubMed

    Park, Eugene; Eisen, Rebecca; Kinio, Anna; Baker, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    animals as indicated by the increased frequency of fecal droppings (p=0.029) and reduced exploratory activity (p=0.036) in the open-field test. Blast rats had fewer transitions and time spent in lit sections of the light/dark box. Electrophysiological recordings from the corpus callosum indicated greater deficits in unmyelinated fibers of the corpus callosum relative to myelinated fibers characterized by reduced CAP amplitude response at 14 days post-injury. Analysis of the relationship between stimulation distance to evoked response indicated an underlying abnormality in N1 myelinated fibers at close stimulation distances. Collectively, our results indicate that subclinical blast exposure can result in persistent neurological changes in cerebral white matter occurring in parallel with detectable neurobehavioral deficits. PMID:23238347