Science.gov

Sample records for blast test results

  1. BAE systems brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) system overview and flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykora, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Rotary wing aircraft continue to experience mishaps caused by the loss of visual situational awareness and spatial disorientation due to brownout or whiteout in dusty, sandy or snowy conditions as the downwash of the rotor blades creates obscurant clouds that completely engulf the helicopter during approaches to land. BAE Systems has developed a "see-through" brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) based on a small and light weight 94GHz radar with proven ability to penetrate dust, coupled with proprietary antenna tracking, signal processing and digital terrain morphing algorithms to produce a cognitive real-time 3D synthetic image of the ground and proximate surface hazards in and around the landing zone. A series of ground and flight tests have been conducted at the United States Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona that reflect operational scenarios in relevant environments to progressively mature the technology. A description of the BLAST solution developed by BAE Systems and results from recent flight tests is provided.

  2. Results of tests of MTA-2 TPS on the SRB hold-down bolt blast container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    The four solid rocket booster (SRB) hold-down posts are fastened to the mobile launch platform (MLP) with four large nuts. At liftoff the nuts are split with explosive changes to release the SRB/Shuttle. A blast container is placed over the nuts to protect the vehicle from flying debris. The blast container is a reusable part and has to be protected from aerodynamic heating during flight. The thermal protection system (TPS) used to protect these blast containers is cork. Fitting the flat cork sheet to this hemispherical shaped blast container is both time consuming and expensive. Another problem is removing the charred cork and epoxy glue from the blast containers. Replacements of this cork with another TPS material such as MTA-2 was examined. Heating rates along the centerline of the forward facing areas of the blast container were determined. The feasibility of using 1/2 in. MTA-2 on the SRB blast containers for protection from ascent, plume impingement and reentry heating is demonstrated.

  3. Laboratory Blast Testing Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, C.; Rule, G.

    Blast-induced injuries remain a critical problem facing US Forces during combat operations. As the nature of modern warfare has evolved, it is likely that the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) will remain a common battlefield threat for the foreseeable future. Thus, research devoted to improving protection, and characterizing the physiological response of people and equipment to blast exposure is and will remain a major thrust area for the DOD. Unfortunately, exact reproduction or simulation of the blast environment is technically challenging, while measuring and characterizing blast exposures is even more complex.

  4. Simulation of the ERDC Blast Load Simulator (BLS) in various test configurations using Loci/BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mord, Clayton T.

    This thesis describes the simulation of ERDC's Blast Load Simulator (BLS) using MSU's Loci/BLAST. The BLS was created to replicate waveforms found in blast scenarios. Loci/BLAST is an explicit, unstructured CFD code that specializes in moving waveforms. ERDC conducted various tests, and a grid for each scenario was created using the SolidMesh tool. Each grid was simulated, and the results were displayed as time history plots and spatial plots. Simulations were also performed that compared 2D and 3D grids and determined the effect of the grate and striker components. There was a strong correlation between the experimental and simulation results for each case, demonstrating that Loci/BLAST is fully capable of modeling the BLS waveforms. A 2D grid produced results comparable to those on a full 3D grid. The grate and striker were critical in the simulation because they significantly affected the waveform.

  5. BLAST Large-scale Extragalactic Submillimeter Survey Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Devlin, M. J.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Moncelsi, L.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2010-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500m, akin to the SPIRE instrument on Herschel. The optical design is based on a 2m diameter telescope, providing nearly diffraction-limited resolution of 36 at 250m. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hour, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2006 December. A deep, confusion limited, 0.8 deg map nested in a wide, 8.6 deg map in the direction of GOODS-South was made during the 2006 flight. Approximately half of all the light from stars is absorbed and reprocessed by dust. The resulting emission is grey body with a temperature near 30K. While it is believed that this radiation makes up the Far Infrared Background (FIRB) detected by COBE, it had not been resolved into individual galaxies. Combining BLAST data with data from Spitzer in the same region, we determine that at 500m all of the FIRB comes from sources that are identified in deep 24m surveys and that 70% of the FIRB comes from sources with z>1.2. Furthermore, we determine the number of galaxies as a function of flux and frequency in the submillimeter revealing a distinct evolution in the galaxy population from low to high redshift. The BLAST collaboration acknowledges the support of NASA, NSF Office of Polar Programs, the CSA (Canada), the STFC (UK), and NSERC (Canada).

  6. Small-Scale Chamber Test for Internal Blast Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Richard; Felts, Joshua

    2013-06-01

    The data reported here provides a validation of the use of a small-scale internal-blast test to predict the energy release of explosives in larger scale. The small-scale arrangement consisted of a 2-g booster and 10-g sample mounted in a holder attached at one end of a closed chamber. The internal volume of the chamber was 89 liters not including the charge holder. The design of the charge holder served two purposes. One was to provide confinement around the charge to avoid degradation of performance from explosives with critical diameters larger than that of the sample. The second was to provide a separate space from that of the chamber that retained the fragments from the confinement to minimize the absorption of heat from the products. The energy release was determined from measurements of the peak quasi-static overpressure and the ideal gas law. The results from six different explosives were compared to larger scale tests involving a bombproof chamber (180,000 liters) with bare charges between 1 and 16 kg. The energy release between small and large scale compared favorably with regard to relative ranking of each explosive. The energy release measured in the small chamber was lower than the large chamber analogs, possibly due to heat losses to the holder. Despite these differences, the small-scale chamber test appears to provide a ranking of explosives based on their energy release that correlates with larger scale tests. Hence, this test is a viable tool for optimizing compositional variations for internal blast performance in target scenarios of similar form factor.

  7. Grit Blasting Scribes Coats For Tests Of Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.

    1991-01-01

    Grit-blasting technique for cutting line gaps in paints, hard coats, lubricants, and other coating films undergoing development. Line gaps cut in chevron patterns, groups of parallel lines, or other prescribed patterns, in preparation for testing adhesions of coats to substrates by attempting to peel patterned areas off with adhesive tapes. Damage to substrate reduced.

  8. Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Sarah Jill

    2003-06-01

    Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

  9. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  10. Laboratory-scale blast testing of materials using air-shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svingala, Forrest; Biss, Matthew; Hargather, Michael; Settles, Gary

    2009-11-01

    The deformation of materials due to near-field explosions is a complex topic with many military and anti-terrorism applications. Typical explosive blast testing is conducted on large ballistic ranges using several kilograms of explosives, at a high cost, and with limited instrumentation. We have developed a range of experimental techniques for performing explosive blast research in the laboratory using gram-range explosive charges. Here we present recent measurements of the deformation of aluminum panels subjected to a range of explosive blast impulses. Through an explosive characterization procedure the blast impulse produced by a charge is known a priori. Our approach then couples the known explosion energy to the aluminum panels via shock wave propagation through the air. Time-resolved three-dimensional motion of the panel surface response is directly measured via stereoscopic high-speed digital image correlation. The data are used to compare material deformation characteristics to explosive loading parameters. These laboratory techniques can be used for validation of computational simulations and to develop high-strain rate material strength models. Ultimately results from these gram-range tests can be scaled to predict full-scale blast response characteristics.

  11. Blast-Associated Shock Waves Result in Increased Brain Vascular Leakage and Elevated ROS Levels in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Kabu, Shushi; Jaffer, Hayder; Petro, Marianne; Dudzinski, Dave; Stewart, Desiree; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Blast-associated shock wave-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) remains a persistent risk for armed forces worldwide, yet its detailed pathophysiology remains to be fully investigated. In this study, we have designed and characterized a laboratory-scale shock tube to develop a rodent model of bTBI. Our blast tube, driven by a mixture of oxygen and acetylene, effectively generates blast overpressures of 20-130 psi, with pressure-time profiles similar to those of free-field blast waves. We tested our shock tube for brain injury response to various blast wave conditions in rats. The results show that blast waves cause diffuse vascular brain damage, as determined using a sensitive optical imaging method based on the fluorescence signal of Evans Blue dye extravasation developed in our laboratory. Vascular leakage increased with increasing blast overpressures and mapping of the brain slices for optical signal intensity indicated nonhomogeneous damage to the cerebral vasculature. We confirmed vascular leakage due to disruption in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity following blast exposure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the brain also increased with increasing blast pressures and with time post-blast wave exposure. Immunohistochemical analysis of the brain sections analyzed at different time points post blast exposure demonstrated astrocytosis and cell apoptosis, confirming sustained neuronal injury response. The main advantages of our shock-tube design are minimal jet effect and no requirement for specialized equipment or facilities, and effectively generate blast-associated shock waves that are relevant to battle-field conditions. Overall data suggest that increased oxidative stress and BBB disruption could be the crucial factors in the propagation and spread of neuronal degeneration following blast injury. Further studies are required to determine the interplay between increased ROS activity and BBB disruption to develop effective therapeutic strategies that can prevent the resulting cascade of neurodegeneration. PMID:26024446

  12. Blast-Associated Shock Waves Result in Increased Brain Vascular Leakage and Elevated ROS Levels in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Petro, Marianne; Dudzinski, Dave; Stewart, Desiree; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Blast-associated shock wave-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) remains a persistent risk for armed forces worldwide, yet its detailed pathophysiology remains to be fully investigated. In this study, we have designed and characterized a laboratory-scale shock tube to develop a rodent model of bTBI. Our blast tube, driven by a mixture of oxygen and acetylene, effectively generates blast overpressures of 20–130 psi, with pressure-time profiles similar to those of free-field blast waves. We tested our shock tube for brain injury response to various blast wave conditions in rats. The results show that blast waves cause diffuse vascular brain damage, as determined using a sensitive optical imaging method based on the fluorescence signal of Evans Blue dye extravasation developed in our laboratory. Vascular leakage increased with increasing blast overpressures and mapping of the brain slices for optical signal intensity indicated nonhomogeneous damage to the cerebral vasculature. We confirmed vascular leakage due to disruption in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity following blast exposure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the brain also increased with increasing blast pressures and with time post-blast wave exposure. Immunohistochemical analysis of the brain sections analyzed at different time points post blast exposure demonstrated astrocytosis and cell apoptosis, confirming sustained neuronal injury response. The main advantages of our shock-tube design are minimal jet effect and no requirement for specialized equipment or facilities, and effectively generate blast-associated shock waves that are relevant to battle-field conditions. Overall data suggest that increased oxidative stress and BBB disruption could be the crucial factors in the propagation and spread of neuronal degeneration following blast injury. Further studies are required to determine the interplay between increased ROS activity and BBB disruption to develop effective therapeutic strategies that can prevent the resulting cascade of neurodegeneration. PMID:26024446

  13. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting...—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden stick... ends open, and is assembled in the following manner: (a) Close the bottom with a plastic plug...

  14. [The blast injury as a result of underwater explosion].

    PubMed

    Tolmachev, I A; Titov, R V; Tiurin, M V; Boiarintsev, V V; Nazarov, V E

    2006-01-01

    Experiments on pigs were made for determination of safe distance to blast center for a diver using the isolating breathing apparatus IDA-71U and aqualung AVM-5. The animals were placed at the distance 12, 9, 7 and 5 m from the blast center. After the explosion, basic physiological parameters and severity of traumas were monitored. Differences in morphological characteristics of the damage done on the earth and under water were identified. Safe distance was 12 m. PMID:17089599

  15. Test of Some Hybrid Combinations to Rice Blast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. Blast resistant cultivars are recognized as the most efficacious and economical way to control this disease. Genetic resistance to rice blast is generally governed by a few major genes, often in c...

  16. Liquid abrasive grit blasting literature search and decontamination scoping tests report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, R.L.

    1993-10-01

    Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using the current decontamination techniques of chemical/water flushes and steam jet cleaning. With the curtailment of reprocessing at the ICPP, the focus of decontamination is shifting from maintenance for continued operation of the facilities to decommissioning. As decommissioning plans are developed, new decontamination methods must be used which result in higher decontamination factors and generate lower amounts of sodium-bearing secondary waste. The primary initiative of the WINCO Decontamination Development Program is the development of methods to eliminate/minimize the use of sodium-bearing decontamination chemicals. One method that was chosen for cold scoping studies during FY-93 was abrasive grit blasting. Abrasive grit blasting has been used in many industries and a vast amount of research and development has already been conducted. However, new grits, process improvements and ICPP applicability was investigated. This evaluation report is a summary of the research efforts and scoping tests using the liquid abrasive grit blasting decontamination technique. The purpose of these scoping tests was to determine the effectiveness of three different abrasive grits: plastic beads, glass beads and alumina oxide.

  17. Cholesterol testing and results

    MedlinePlus

    ... test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia-results; Lipid disorder test results ... in your blood. You may also have a lipid (or coronary risk) profile, which includes: Total cholesterol ...

  18. Verification of BLAST by comparison with direct gain test cell measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.; Bauman, F.; Kammerud, R.

    1980-11-01

    Comparisons between temperatures measured in a direct solar gain test cell and temperatures predicted by the building energy analysis computer program BLAST are reported. The comparisons were performed for three distinct climate periods; the simulations were driven by weather data collected at the test cell site in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The test cell configurations and weather data manipulations are described; quantitative evaluations of the comparisons between measured and predicted interior temperatures are presented; limitations of the comparisons are discussed; and sensitivities of the simulation results to uncertainties in the measured parameters are examined.

  19. Source-emission testing of the Rail Shop Media Blast Booth, Hill AFB, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, R.J.

    1990-10-01

    At the request of HQ Ogden ALC/EM, personnel of the AFOEHL Air Quality Function conducted source emission testing for particulates on the Rail Shop Media Blast Booth at Hil AFB. Testing was performed on 29 and 30 Aug 90. The Utah Bureau of Air Quality required testing for approval order compliance. Particulate emissions were above the emission limits allowed by the State of Utah. Action is recommended to bring the media blast booth into compliance.

  20. An Assessment of Ore Waste and Dilution Resulting From Buffer/Choke Blasting in Surface Gold Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Preece, D.S.; Chung, S.H.; Tidman, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    A discrete element computer program named DMC{underscore}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece {ampersand} Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions (2-D). DMC{underscore}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Buffer Choke blasting is commonly used in surface gold mines to break the rock and dilate it sufficiently for ease of digging, with the assumption of insignificant horizontal movement. The blast designs usually call for relatively shallow holes benches ({lt} 11 m) with small blastholes (approx. 165 mm), small burdens and spacings ({lt}5 m), often with 50% or more of the hole stemmed. Control of blast-induced horizontal movement is desired because the ore is assayed in place from the blasthole drill cuttings and digging polygons of ore and waste are laid out before the blast. Horizontal movement at the ore waste boundary can result in dilution of the ore or loss of ore with the waste. The discrete element computer program DMC{underscore}BLAST has been employed to study spatial variation of horizontal rock motion during buffer choke blasting. Patterns of rock motion can be recognized from the discrete element simulations that would be difficult or impossible to recognize in the field (Preece, Tidman and Chung, 1997). Techniques have been developed to calculate ore waste and dilution from the horizontal movement predicted by DMC{underscore}BLAST. Four DMC{underscore}BLAST simulations of buffer blasting have been performed. The blasts are identical except that the burden and spacing are systematically varied which also changes the powder factor. Predictions of ore waste or dilution are made for each burden in the blast, assuming no horizontal movement, to illustrate the spatial variation observed.

  1. Blast Testing Issues and TBI: Experimental Models That Lead to Wrong Conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Charles E.; Ritzel, David; Rule, Gregory T.; Wiri, Suthee; Young, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have noticed an increase in the number of blast injury studies published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals that have utilized improperly conceived experiments. Data from these studies will lead to false conclusions and more confusion than advancement in the understanding of blast injury, particularly blast neurotrauma. Computational methods to properly characterize the blast environment have been available for decades. These methods, combined with a basic understanding of blast wave phenomena, enable researchers to extract useful information from well-documented experiments. This basic understanding must include the differences and interrelationships of static pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and total or stagnation pressure in transient shockwave flows, how they relate to loading of objects, and how they are properly measured. However, it is critical that the research community effectively overcomes the confusion that has been compounded by a misunderstanding of the differences between the loading produced by a free field explosive blast and loading produced by a conventional shock tube. The principles of blast scaling have been well established for decades and when properly applied will do much to repair these problems. This paper provides guidance regarding proper experimental methods and offers insights into the implications of improperly designed and executed tests. Through application of computational methods, useful data can be extracted from well-documented historical tests, and future work can be conducted in a way to maximize the effectiveness and use of valuable biological test data. PMID:25904891

  2. Blast Testing Issues and TBI: Experimental Models That Lead to Wrong Conclusions.

    PubMed

    Needham, Charles E; Ritzel, David; Rule, Gregory T; Wiri, Suthee; Young, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have noticed an increase in the number of blast injury studies published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals that have utilized improperly conceived experiments. Data from these studies will lead to false conclusions and more confusion than advancement in the understanding of blast injury, particularly blast neurotrauma. Computational methods to properly characterize the blast environment have been available for decades. These methods, combined with a basic understanding of blast wave phenomena, enable researchers to extract useful information from well-documented experiments. This basic understanding must include the differences and interrelationships of static pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and total or stagnation pressure in transient shockwave flows, how they relate to loading of objects, and how they are properly measured. However, it is critical that the research community effectively overcomes the confusion that has been compounded by a misunderstanding of the differences between the loading produced by a free field explosive blast and loading produced by a conventional shock tube. The principles of blast scaling have been well established for decades and when properly applied will do much to repair these problems. This paper provides guidance regarding proper experimental methods and offers insights into the implications of improperly designed and executed tests. Through application of computational methods, useful data can be extracted from well-documented historical tests, and future work can be conducted in a way to maximize the effectiveness and use of valuable biological test data. PMID:25904891

  3. Your Kidney Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Serum Creatinine Result: Your eGFR Result: Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR) CKD is more than ... Your Result: Other Important Tests Blood Pressure Serum Albumin Bicarbonate Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Potassium Calcium Phosphorus ...

  4. The PARIGA server for real time filtering and analysis of reciprocal BLAST results.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Massimiliano; Carcangiu, Simone; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Uva, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2013-01-01

    BLAST-based similarity searches are commonly used in several applications involving both nucleotide and protein sequences. These applications span from simple tasks such as mapping sequences over a database to more complex procedures as clustering or annotation processes. When the amount of analysed data increases, manual inspection of BLAST results become a tedious procedure. Tools for parsing or filtering BLAST results for different purposes are then required. We describe here PARIGA (http://resources.bioinformatica.crs4.it/pariga/), a server that enables users to perform all-against-all BLAST searches on two sets of sequences selected by the user. Moreover, since it stores the two BLAST output in a python-serialized-objects database, results can be filtered according to several parameters in real-time fashion, without re-running the process and avoiding additional programming efforts. Results can be interrogated by the user using logical operations, for example to retrieve cases where two queries match same targets, or when sequences from the two datasets are reciprocal best hits, or when a query matches a target in multiple regions. The Pariga web server is designed to be a helpful tool for managing the results of sequence similarity searches. The design and implementation of the server renders all operations very fast and easy to use. PMID:23667459

  5. GIRAFFE test results summary

    SciTech Connect

    Yokobori, S.; Arai, K.; Oikawa, H.

    1996-03-01

    A passive system can provide engineered safety features enhancing safety system reliability and plant simplicity. Toshiba has conducted the test Program to demonstrate the feasibility of the SBWR passive safety system using a full-height, integral system test facility GIRAFFE. The test facility GIRAFFE models the SBWR in full height to correctly present the gravity driving head forces with a 1/400 volume scale. The GIRAFFE test Program includes the certification tests of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) to remove the post-accident decay heat and the gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) to replenish the reactor coolant inventory during a LOCA. The test results have confirmed the PCCS and GDCS design and in addition, have demonstrated the operation of the pCCS with the presence of a lighter-than-steam noncondensable as well as with the presence of a heavier-than-steam, noncondensable. The GIRAFFE test Program has also provided the database to qualify a best estimate thermal-hydraulic computer code TRAC. The post test analysis results have shown that TRAC can accurately predict the PCCS heat removal Performance and the containment pressure response to a LOCA. This paper summarizes the GIRAFFE test results to investigate post-LOCA PCCS heat removal performance and post-test analysis using TRAC.

  6. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting literature search and decontamination scoping tests report

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.E.

    1993-12-01

    Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using current decontamination techniques. Chemical decontamination flushes have provided a satisfactory level of decontamination. However, this method generates large amounts of sodium-bearing secondary waste. Steam jet cleaning has also been used with a great deal of success but cannot be used on concrete or soft materials. With the curtailment of reprocessing at the ICPP, the focus of decontamination is shifting from maintenance for continued operation of the facilities to decommissioning. Treatment of sodium-bearing waste is a particularly difficult problem due to the high content of alkali metals in the sodium-bearing liquid waste. It requires a very large volume of cold chemical additive for calcination. In addition, the sodium content of the sodium-bearing waste exceeds the limit that can be incorporated into vitrified waste without the addition of glass-forming compounds (primarily silicon) to produce an acceptable immobilized waste form. The primary initiatives of the Decontamination Development Program is the development of methods to eliminate/minimize the use of sodium-bearing decontamination chemicals and to minimize all liquid decontamination wastes. One method chosen for cold scoping studies during FY-93 was CO{sub 2} pellet blasting. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting has been used extensively by commercial industries for general cleaning. However, using this method for decontamination of nuclear materials is a fairly new concept. The following report discusses the research and scoping tests completed on CO{sub 2} pellet blasting.

  7. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE...—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden stick... small perforations on top of the cotton; and (d) Place 10 g (0.35 ounce) of the dynamite sample on...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE...—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden stick... small perforations on top of the cotton; and (d) Place 10 g (0.35 ounce) of the dynamite sample on...

  9. Climax granite test results

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-01-15

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program, is carrying out in situ rock mechanics testing in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This summary addresses only those field data taken to date that address thermomechanical modeling for a hard-rock repository. The results to be discussed include thermal measurements in a heater test that was conducted from October 1977 through July 1978, and stress and displacement measurements made during and after excavation of the canister storage drift for the Spent Fuel Test (SFT) in the Climax granite. Associated laboratory and field measurements are summarized. The rock temperature for a given applied heat load at a point in time and space can be adequately modeled with simple analytic calculations involving superposition and integration of numerous point source solutions. The input, for locations beyond about a meter from the source, can be a constant thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The value of thermal conductivity required to match the field data is as much as 25% different from laboratory-measured values. Therefore, unless we come to understand the mechanisms for this difference, a simple in situ test will be required to obtain a value for final repository design. Some sensitivity calculations have shown that the temperature field is about ten times more sensitive to conductivity than to diffusivity under the test conditions. The orthogonal array was designed to detect anisotropy. After considering all error sources, anisotropic efforts in the thermal field were less than 5 to 10%.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS...

  12. June 7 Ballistic Blast Results in Solar Tsunami - Duration: 8 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    In addition to the magnificent blast, SDO detected a shadowy shock wave issuing from the blast site on the June 7, 2011 event. The 'solar tsunami' propagated more than halfway across the sun, visib...

  13. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  14. Organic Separation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  15. Comparison of Internal-Blast Explosive Performance in Small- and Large-Scale Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Small-scale internal blast measurements were correlated with large-scale test data. Highly confined small explosive samples <0.5 g were subjected to the output from a PETN detonator while enclosed in a 3-liter chamber. Large-scale tests up to 22.7 kg were generally unconfined and shot in a 180-m3 chamber. When sample mass was expressed as total sample energy/chamber volume, theoretical peak quasi-static blast pressures for both small and large-scale tests fell on the same curve. Blast explosives may comprise high levels of fuels and reactive materials to enhance or control the release of energy, and may be insensitive and slow-reacting, with performance that may not scale well to small size tests. High confinement of a small sample can compensate for low sensitivity, but at the expense of heat loss to the metal confinement. This heat loss can be measured to improve the correlation between large and small-scale measurements, unless the released energy becomes too low to sustain complete reaction of the sample, either with itself or with air in the chamber.

  16. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  17. Novel drug candidates for blast phase chronic myeloid leukemia from high-throughput drug sensitivity and resistance testing

    PubMed Central

    Pietarinen, P O; Pemovska, T; Kontro, M; Yadav, B; Mpindi, J P; Andersson, E I; Majumder, M M; Kuusanmäki, H; Koskenvesa, P; Kallioniemi, O; Wennerberg, K; Heckman, C A; Mustjoki, S; Porkka, K

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis (CML BC) remains a challenging disease to treat despite the introduction and advances in tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. In this study we set out to identify novel candidate drugs for CML BC by using an unbiased high-throughput drug testing platform. We used three CML cell lines representing different types of CML blast phases (K562, EM-2 and MOLM-1) and primary leukemic cells from three CML BC patients. Profiling of drug responses was performed with a drug sensitivity and resistance testing platform comprising 295 anticancer agents. Overall, drug sensitivity scores and the drug response profiles of cell line and primary cell samples correlated well and were distinct from other types of leukemia samples. The cell lines were highly sensitive to TKIs and the clinically TKI-resistant patient samples were also resistant ex vivo. Comparison of cell line and patient sample data identified new candidate drugs for CML BC, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitors. Our results indicate that these drugs in particular warrant further evaluation by analyzing a larger set of primary patient samples. The results also pave way for designing rational combination therapies. PMID:25933373

  18. Inconclusive TSC Genetic Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    INCONCLUSIVE TSC GENETIC TEST RESULTS Genetic testing for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) has been routinely available for some ... Medical Geneticist (August 2013) **This publication from the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance is intended to provide basic information about ...

  19. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

  20. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    VIGIL,MANUEL G.

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels.

  1. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  2. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO{sub 2} pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO{sub 2} blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report.

  3. Misleading biochemical laboratory test results

    PubMed Central

    Nanji, Amin A.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the general and specific factors that interfere with the performance of common biochemical laboratory tests and the interpretation of their results. The clinical status of the patient, drug interactions, and in-vivo and in-vitro biochemical interactions and changes may alter the results obtained from biochemical analysis of blood constituents. Failure to recognize invalid laboratory test results may lead to injudicious and dangerous management of patients. PMID:6375845

  4. MITG test procedure and results

    SciTech Connect

    Eck, M.B.; Mukunda, M.

    1983-01-01

    Elements and modules for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator have been performance tested since the inception of the RTG program. These test articles seldom resembled flight hardware and often lacked adequate diagnostic instrumentation. Because of this, performance problems were not identified in the early stage of program development. The lack of test data in an unexpected area often hampered the development of a problem solution. A procedure for conducting the MITG Test was developed in an effort to obtain data in a systematic, unambiguous manner. This procedure required the development of extensive data acquisition software and test automation. The development of a facility to implement the test procedure, the facility hardware and software requirements, and the results of the MITG testing are the subject of this paper.

  5. Full-scale testing and numerical modeling of a multistory masonry structure subjected to internal blast loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Brian Jarvis

    As military and diplomatic representatives of the United States are deployed throughout the world, they must frequently make use of local, existing facilities; it is inevitable that some of these will be load bearing unreinforced masonry (URM) structures. Although generally suitable for conventional design loads, load bearing URM presents a unique hazard, with respect to collapse, when exposed to blast loading. There is therefore a need to study the blast resistance of load bearing URM construction in order to better protect US citizens assigned to dangerous locales. To address this, the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte conducted three blast tests inside a decommissioned, coal-fired, power plant prior to its scheduled demolition. The power plant's walls were constructed of URM and provided an excellent opportunity to study the response of URM walls in-situ. Post-test analytical studies investigated the ability of existing blast load prediction methodologies to model the case of a cylindrical charge with a low height of burst. It was found that even for the relatively simple blast chamber geometries of these tests, simplified analysis methods predicted blast impulses with an average net error of 22%. The study suggested that existing simplified analysis methods would benefit from additional development to better predict blast loads from cylinders detonated near the ground's surface. A hydrocode, CTH, was also used to perform two and three-dimensional simulations of the blast events. In order to use the hydrocode, Jones Wilkins Lee (JWL) equation of state (EOS) coefficients were developed for the experiment's Unimax dynamite charges; a novel energy-scaling technique was developed which permits the derivation of new JWL coefficients from an existing coefficient set. The hydrocode simulations were able to simulate blast impulses with an average absolute error of 34.5%. Moreover, the hydrocode simulations provided highly resolved spatio-temporal blast loading data for subsequent structural simulations. Equivalent single-degree-of-freedom (ESDOF) structural response models were then used to predict the out-of-plane deflections of blast chamber walls. A new resistance function was developed which permits a URM wall to crack at any height; numerical methodologies were also developed to compute transformation factors required for use in the ESDOF method. When combined with the CTH derived blast loading predictions, the ESDOF models were able to predict out-of-plane deflections with reasonable accuracy. Further investigations were performed using finite element models constructed in LS-DYNA; the models used elastic elements combined with contacts possessing a tension/shear cutoff and the ability to simulate fracture energy release. Using the CTH predicted blast loads and carefully selected constitutive parameters, the LS-DYNA models were able to both qualitatively and quantitatively predict blast chamber wall deflections and damage patterns. Moreover, the finite element models suggested several modes of response which cannot be modeled by current ESDOF methods; the effect of these response modes on the accuracy of ESDOF predictions warrants further study.

  6. State Test Results Are Predictable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-school, community demographic and family-level variables have an important influence on student achievement as measured by large-scale standardized tests. Studies described here demonstrated that about half of the test score is accounted for by variables outside the control of teachers and school administrators. The results from these…

  7. HTS power lead test results

    SciTech Connect

    G. Citver, S. Feher, P.J. Limon D. Orris, T. Peterson, C. Sylvester, M.A. Tartaglia and J.C. Tompkins

    1999-11-02

    R&D High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) power leads were developed and built for Fermilab by American Superconductor Corporation and Intermagnetics General Corporation. Each company provided one pair of 5kA HTS current leads, and these have been successfully tested at Fermilab. This paper summarizes the test results.

  8. State Test Results Are Predictable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-school, community demographic and family-level variables have an important influence on student achievement as measured by large-scale standardized tests. Studies described here demonstrated that about half of the test score is accounted for by variables outside the control of teachers and school administrators. The results from these

  9. BEAUTY: an enhanced BLAST-based search tool that integrates multiple biological information resources into sequence similarity search results.

    PubMed

    Worley, K C; Wiese, B A; Smith, R F

    1995-09-01

    BEAUTY (BLAST enhanced alignment utility) is an enhanced version of the NCBI's BLAST data base search tool that facilitates identification of the functions of matched sequences. We have created new data bases of conserved regions and functional domains for protein sequences in NCBI's Entrez data base, and BEAUTY allows this information to be incorporated directly into BLAST search results. A Conserved Regions Data Base, containing the locations of conserved regions within Entrez protein sequences, was constructed by (1) clustering the entire data base into families, (2) aligning each family using our PIMA multiple sequence alignment program, and (3) scanning the multiple alignments to locate the conserved regions within each aligned sequence. A separate Annotated Domains Data Base was constructed by extracting the locations of all annotated domains and sites from sequences represented in the Entrez, PROSITE, BLOCKS, and PRINTS data bases. BEAUTY performs a BLAST search of those Entrez sequences with conserved regions and/or annotated domains. BEAUTY then uses the information from the Conserved Regions and Annotated Domains data bases to generate, for each matched sequence, a schematic display that allows one to directly compare the relative locations of (1) the conserved regions, (2) annotated domains and sites, and (3) the locally aligned regions matched in the BLAST search. In addition, BEAUTY search results include World-Wide Web hypertext links to a number of external data bases that provide a variety of additional types of information on the function of matched sequences. This convenient integration of protein families, conserved regions, annotated domains, alignment displays, and World-Wide Web resources greatly enhances the biological informativeness of sequence similarity searches. BEAUTY searches can be performed remotely on our system using the "BCM Search Launcher" World-Wide Web pages (URL is < http:/ /gc.bcm.tmc.edu:8088/ search-launcher/launcher.html > ). PMID:9132271

  10. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:26761543

  11. Bell Canyon test and results

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.L.; Hunter, T.O.

    1980-01-01

    The purposes of the Borehold Plugging Program are: to identify issues associated with sealing boreholes and shafts; to establish a data base from which to assess the importance of these issues; and to develop sealing criteria, materials, and demonstrative test for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Bell Canyon Test described in this report is one part of that program. Its purpose was to evaluate, in situ, the state of the art in borehole plugs and to identify and resolve problems encountered in evaluating a typical plug installation in anhydrite. The test results are summarized from the work of Peterson and Christensen and divided into two portions: system integrity and wellbore characterization tests prior to plug installation, and a series of tests to evaluate isolation characteristics of the 1.8-m-long plug. Conclusions of the Bell Canyon Test are: brine and fresh-water grouts, with acceptable physical properties in the fluid and hardened states, have been developed; the field data, taken together with laboratory data, suggest that the predominant flow into the test region occurs through the cement plug/borehold interface region, with lesser contributions occurring through the wellbore damage zone, the plug core, and the surrounding undisturbed anhydrite bed; and the 1.8-m-long by 20-cm-diameter grout plug, installed in anhydrite at a depth of 1370 m in the AEC-7 borehole, limits flow from the high pressure Bell Canyon aquifer to 0.6 liters/day.

  12. Accidental head explosion: an unusual blast wave injury as a result of self-made fireworks.

    PubMed

    Kunz, S N; Zinka, B; Peschel, O; Fieseler, S

    2011-07-15

    A 33-year old hobby pyrotechnician sustained a lethal craniofacial trauma secondary to a salute fireworks blast. He was examining a misfire of a self-constructed salute gun, when it detonated, causing an explosively rupture of his forehead, which led to his immediate death. An autopsy was performed to achieve knowledge of the injury and to be able to reconstruct the events that lead to it. The pressure effect of the explosion caused a shredded rupture of the forehead with a regional spread of brain tissue and small polygonal skull fragments up to 30m from the detonation site. Furthermore multiple cinderlike fragments of black powder were embedded in the skin of the face and the anterior aspect of the neck (s.c. blast tattoo). The complete destruction of the forehead in combination with the multiple blast tattooing suggested that the explosion detonated while he was leaning over the device. PMID:21570222

  13. Mobile evaporator corrosion test results

    SciTech Connect

    Rozeveld, A.; Chamberlain, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80{degrees}C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either {open_quotes}satisfactory{close_quotes} (2-20 mpy) or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} (<2 mpy) corrosion resistance as defined by National Association of Corrosion Engineers. However, many of the alloys experienced intergranular corrosion in the nitric acid test solution, which could indicate a susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in this environment.

  14. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Nuclear Blast Cavities of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Duane; Russell, Chuck; Marshall, Matthew; Czerwinski, Ken; Daly, Michael J; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2008-02-08

    This exploratory research project is designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the possible existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations in Nevada Test Site (NTS) subsurface nuclear blast cavities. Although subsurface microbiological studies have been performed at the NTS in the past, radioactive zones have yet to be addressed. Nuclear blast zone microbiology is a completely new field and our team is well-positioned to collect and analyze samples that have never before been available to microbiologists. Relevant samples are now being obtained by incorporating microbiological collections into an ongoing annual hot well sampling program being conducted by other agencies. A combination of cultivation-based and molecular microbial detection protocols is being utilized at multiple locations to survey for uncultivable microorganisms and to develop a culture collection which will be characterized for radionuclide- and metal-reduction capabilities. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, a positive outcome from this work would have significant implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites. A primary objective of the project has been the establishment of the regulatory and technical framework necessary to enable our acquisition of samples. Thus, much of our activity in the first phase of this work has involved the development an approved Field Area Work Plan (FAWP), Radiological Work Permit (RWP), and other documentation required for radiological work at the NTS. We have also invested significant time into ensuring that all personnel possess the required training (e.g. Radworker II and 40 hr. HAZWOPER) for access to the hot well sampling sites. Laboratory facilities, required for field processing of radioactive samples as well as DNA extraction and other manipulations, have been secured both the NTS (Mercury, NV) and UNLV. Although our year-1 field work was delayed due to non-availability of samples, an aggressive sampling campaign is now underway and our first hot well samples were collected on Feb 5th, 2008. The unique nature of this site, coupled with the combined expertise of the collaborating laboratories (DRI, LLNL, PNNL, and the Harry Reid Center) makes the likelihood of our achieving discoveries of value to DOE, the individual researchers, and society high. As the selective pressures at atomic blast sites are probably different from those of production and disposal sites, these habitats may contain novel organisms of utility for bioremediation. Such organisms will have had to develop physiological mechanisms to survive high doses of ionizing radiation over the variety of rock types and hydrologic environments present at the NTS.

  15. AXAF hypervelocity impact test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Cynthia L.; Rodriguez, Pedro I.

    1997-01-01

    Composite and honeycomb panels are commonly used for spacecraft structural components. The impact test results and analysis of six different composite and honeycomb combinations for use on the advanced X-ray astrophysics facility (AXAF) are reported. The AXAF consists of an X-ray telescope and the associated detecting devices attached to an octagonal spacecraft with an internal propulsion system. The spacecraft's structural panels and optical bench are made of two different graphite fiber reinforced polyimides or composite panels bonded to either side of an aluminum honeycomb. The instrument is required to have at least a 0.92 probability of no failure of any of the critical elements due to meteoroids and debris. In relation to the no-failure probability determination in its low earth orbit environment, hypervelocity impact testing was performed to determine the ballistic limit range and the extent of damage due to impact. The test results for a power and signal cable bundle located behind a panel are presented. Tests planned for a multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket and four types of cable bundles are discussed.

  16. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  17. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

  18. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  19. Class II-associated invariant chain peptide down-modulation enhances the immunogenicity of myeloid leukemic blasts resulting in increased CD4+ T-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    van Luijn, Marvin M.; Chamuleau, Martine E.D.; Thompson, James A.; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne; Westers, Theresia M.; Souwer, Yuri; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; van Ham, S. Marieke; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Disease recurrence in patients with acute myeloid leukemia may be partially explained by the escape of leukemic blasts from CD4+ T-cell recognition. The current study investigates the role of aberrant HLA class II antigen presentation on leukemic blasts by determining both the clinical and functional impact of the class II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP). Design and Methods The levels of expression of CLIP and HLA-DR on blood and bone marrow samples from 207 patients with acute myeloid leukemia were correlated with clinical outcome. Irradiated CLIP? and CLIP+ leukemic blasts were compared for their ability to induce CD4+ T cells during mixed leukocyte reactions. To discriminate between these blasts, we down-modulated CLIP expression on myeloid leukemic cell lines by RNA interference of the invariant chain, a chaperone protein critically involved in HLA-DR processing, and performed flow cytometric sorting for their isolation from primary acute myeloid leukemia samples. Results We found that patients with leukemic blasts characterized by a high amount of HLA-DR occupied by CLIP (relative amount of CLIP) had a significantly shortened disease-free survival. The clear reductions in amount of HLA-DR occupied by CLIP on blasts of the THP-1 and Kasumi-1 myeloid leukemic cell lines after treatment with invariant chain short interfering RNA resulted in enhanced rates of allogeneic CD4+ T-cell proliferation. Similar findings were obtained in an autologous setting, in which there were strong increases in proliferation of remission CD4+ T cells stimulated with CLIP?-sorted leukemic blasts from HLA-DR+ acute myeloid leukemia patients, in contrast to CLIP+-sorted leukemic blasts from the same patients. Conclusions These data highlight the relevance of CLIP expression on leukemic blasts and the potential of CLIP as a target for immunomodulatory strategies to enhance HLA class II antigen presentation and CD4+ T-cell reactivity in acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:19903675

  20. Diagnostic Tests and Examination Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Dennis

    1988-01-01

    A study of the usefulness of several diagnostic tests for selecting students to enter a civil engineering program found that the tests were not appropriate and that tests should be developed specifically for civil engineering. (MSE)

  1. Hercules Aerospace flywheel test results

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.S. Jr.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.; Sutton, B.J.

    1981-06-01

    The detailed results of the spin test evaluation of the Hercules Aerospace flywheel at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory (ORFEL) are presented. Details of the static evaluation with radiography and measures of weight, inertia, and natural frequencies are included. The flywheel was spun four times with the maximum speed being increased with each run. During the final run, the flywheel achieved 372 rps and stored 0.714 kWhr of kinetic energy at 37 Whr/kg. The ultimate speed was limited by a composite transverse strength that was somewhat lower than that used in the design of the flywheel. This resulted in internal cracking of the flywheel and, eventually, the loss of material from the outer circumference.

  2. Hercules Aerospace flywheel test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, R. S., Jr.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Sutton, B. J.

    1981-06-01

    The detailed results of the spin test evaluation of the Hercules Aerospace flywheel at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory (ORFEL) are presented. Details of the static evaluation with radiography and measures of weight, inertia and natural frequencies are included. The flywheel was spun four times with the maximum speed being increased with each run. During the final run, the flywheel achieved 372 rps and stored 0.714 kWhr of kinetic energy at 37 Whr/kg. The ultimate speed was limited by a composite transverse strength that was somewhat lower than that used in the design of the flywheel. This resulted in internal cracking of the flywheel and, eventually, the loss of material from the outer circumference.

  3. Test results of CHICO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A. B.; Kwan, E.; Chyzh, A.; Lee, I. Y.

    2012-10-01

    CHICO is a highly segmented 4π position-sensitive parallel-plate avalanche counter and has been used very successfully for many experiments as an auxiliary detector for Gammapshere. With the advent of the gamma-ray energy tracking array such as GRETINA, the development of a new generation of auxiliary detectors with a mating position resolution is absolutely needed. The upgrade of CHICO to CHICO2 with the matching position resolution for GRETINA is one of the coordinated efforts to accomplish this goal and is nearly complete. The test will be performed in the summer of 2012 with the new hardware and software. The new hardware includes the pixelated cathode board coupled with the delay-line readout for the position measurement and the 5-channel fast amplifier for processing both anode and cathode signals. The pulse height in addition to the time for the anode will be recorded for each event. The firmware for the new VME-based data acquisition system has been developed in anticipation of CHICO2 as an auxiliary detector for GRETINA and Gammasphere. The description of both hardware and software together with the test results will be presented. This work is supported by DOE, DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL) as well as the NSF for U. of Rochester.

  4. Performance tests of a fast-acting valve for the driver tubes of a large blast/thermal simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Marcela R.

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the testing of a fast-acting throat valve element designed by Eaton Consolidated Controls for use in driver tubes, (blast generators) of a Large Blast/Thermal Simulator (LB/TS). An LB/TS is used to simulate decaying blast waves such as are generated by nuclear explosions. The Eaton Throat Valve Element (ETVE) was tested at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to evaluate its performance against the design criteria. The ETVE was mounted at the end of a driver tube and actuated 16 times at 6 different driver pressures ranging from 396 kPa to 12.4 MPa (57.5 psi to 1,800 psi). The valve seals survived successfully all 16 tests with the driver gas at room temperature and maintained an acceptable leak rate throughout the test program. The average valve lag time was determined to vary from 36 to 120 ms; however, the valve was found to chatter, going through several (up to 20) opening/closing cycles after actuation before settling in the open position. An increase in the pneumatic supply pressure driving the valve showed a minor decrease in the number of chattering cycles. When the valve was actuated with no pressure in the driver tube, no chattering was observed. At the conclusion of the test sequence, the valve seals were inspected and were in good condition. The shock waves appeared to agree with code predictions when the chattering effects were disregarded.

  5. On the Interaction and Coalescence if Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The scaling and similarity laws concerning the propagation of isolated spherical blast waves are briefly reviewed. Both point source explosions and high pressure gas explosions are considered. Test data on blast overpressure from the interaction and coalescence of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives in the form of shaped charges of different strength placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure. The results point out the possibility of detecting source explosions from far-field pressure measurements.

  6. BLAST: THE REDSHIFT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Eales, Stephen; Dye, Simon; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Raymond, Gwenifer; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Rex, Marie; Semisch, Christopher; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Viero, Marco P.; Patanchon, Guillaume; Siana, Brian

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed approx =8.7 deg{sup 2} centered on Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South at 250, 350, and 500 mum. In Dye et al., we presented the catalog of sources detected at 5sigma in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 82 of these counterparts. The spectra show that the BLAST counterparts are mostly star-forming galaxies but not extreme ones when compared to those found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Roughly one quarter of the BLAST counterparts contain an active nucleus. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies, showing that the standard methods work well even when a galaxy contains a large amount of dust. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST bands. We find strong evolution out to z = 1, in the sense that there is a large increase in the space density of the most luminous galaxies. We have also investigated the evolution of the dust-mass function, finding similar strong evolution in the space density of the galaxies with the largest dust masses, showing that the luminosity evolution seen in many wavebands is associated with an increase in the reservoir of interstellar matter in galaxies.

  7. Results of PRIM gyroscope testing

    SciTech Connect

    Cornell, R.

    1985-03-01

    The tests were designed so that motions of the gyroscope and the Partially Restrained Internal Member (PRIM) could be measured at different conditions of spin and PRIM clearance gaps. Two types of PRIM drive were tested. A round shaft configuration was used to test theory. An octagon drive was used to simulate the XM785 design.

  8. CC Cryostat Cooldown Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.; /Fermilab

    1987-10-16

    A cooldown of the inner vessel of the Central Calorimeter cryostat to 77K was performed during the week of October 12 in order to 'cold shock' it, i.e., to check for insulating vacuum integrity with the inner vessel cold. The conclusion from our test results is that the vessel withstood the cold shock, and the insulating vacuum remained good. Cooldown was analyzed by J.D. Fuerst in D0 note 3740.000-EN-107, dated August 19. Warmup was analyzed by T. Peterson and B.Fitzpatrick in D0 Engineering Note 3740.214-EN-110, dated September 29. Both cooldown and warmup times were in accordance with predictions. An initial pumpdown of the insulating vacuum space was done with the vessel warm on October 9. The results of that pumpdown are shown in Figure 1 superimposed on a predicted pumpdown curve generated by Brian Fitzpatrick before the test began. After 24 hours the insulating vacuum was 7 microns. After 48 and 72 hours it was 2-3 microns. At this point (October 12) valving the pumps off resulted in a rise of 6 microns in 3 hours and 20 minutes, or 1.8 microns per hour. Before beginning cooldown, the pumps were valved off and the insulating vacuum was 15 microns. Cooldown and fill began at 0900 on Tuesday, October 13. At 1650, about 8 hours later, LN{sub 2} flow to the cryostat was shut off. A total of 2600 gallons was consumed during this period based on my readings of the trailer liquid level gauge and chart. An additional 500 gallons was used (according to the same liquid level gauge) in the final blowdown of pressure in the trailer, bringing the total to 3100 gallons. Based on weight in and weight out, 21980 pounds of LN{sub 2} was used, or 3273 gallons of liquid. This is good enough agreement with my readings of the gauge that I will use the 2600 gallon number as our usage in the cryostat; therefore, the average flow rate for 8 hours was 325 gallons per hour or 5.42 gallons per minute. At the end we had 1600 gallons of stored liquid in the cryostat, so 1000 gallons were consumed in cooling it down. At this time with the pumps still valved off the insulating vacuum was 13 microns. The vacuum had improved slightly while the pumps had been valved out for the entire time; no cold leakage was observed. Over the next 64 hours while draining and warmup were completed the pumps remained valved out and the vacuum rose to 170 microns, a rate of 2.5 microns per hour, not significantly different from the 1.8 microns per hour before the cooldown test. Except for the period of time when the drain was plugged with ice, the rate of warmup agreed very well with predicted rate. Figure 2 shows the warmup of 4 resistors in the gas space and one on the top of the inner vessel in the vacuum space. The insulating vacuum remained good during the cold shock, and the rate of rise after cold shock was similar to that before. The rate of warmup was in good agreement with predictions, indicating that predicted heat transfer coefficents inside the vessel were reasonably accurate (within 50% of actual).

  9. Test Results for CSTR Test 4

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.D.

    2001-05-31

    One of the 3 technologies currently being developed for the Savannah River Salt Waste Processing Program is the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP). This process uses sodium tetraphenylborate to precipitate and remove radioactive Cs from the waste and monosodium titanate to sorb and remove radioactive Sr and actinides. ORNL is demonstrating this process at the 1:4000 scale using a 20-liter continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The primary goal of Test 4 was to verify that the STTP process could achieve and maintain the necessary Cs decontamination while TPB was actively decomposing. Even with TPB being decomposed by the off-normal conditions of this test, the decontaimination factor for {sup 137}Cs obtained for the filtrate from the Slurry Concentrating Tank ranged from 47,000 to 646,000, exceeding the WAC standard.

  10. An introductory characterization of a combat-casualty-care relevant swine model of closed head injury resulting from exposure to explosive blast.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Richard A; Ling, Geoffrey; Tong, Lawrence; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Agoston, Dennis; Delanerolle, Nihal; Kim, Young; Ritzel, Dave; Bell, Randy; Ecklund, James; Armonda, Rocco; Bandak, Faris; Parks, Steven

    2009-06-01

    Explosive blast has been extensively used as a tactical weapon in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and more recently in Operation Enduring Freedom(OEF). The polytraumatic nature of blast injuries is evidence of their effectiveness,and brain injury is a frequent and debilitating form of this trauma. In-theater clinical observations of brain-injured casualties have shown that edema, intracranial hemorrhage, and vasospasm are the most salient pathophysiological characteristics of blast injury to the brain. Unfortunately, little is known about exactly how an explosion produces these sequelae as well as others that are less well documented. Consequently, the principal objective of the current report is to present a swine model of explosive blast injury to the brain. This model was developed during Phase I of the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) PREVENT (Preventing Violent Explosive Neurotrauma) blast research program. A second objective is to present data that illustrate the capabilities of this model to study the proximal biomechanical causes and the resulting pathophysiological, biochemical,neuropathological, and neurological consequences of explosive blast injury to the swine brain. In the concluding section of this article, the advantages and limitations of the model are considered, explosive and air-overpressure models are compared, and the physical properties of an explosion are identified that potentially contributed to the in-theater closed head injuries resulting from explosions of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). PMID:19215189

  11. Single round blasting of 10-foot diameter X 65-foot depth emplacement collar holes at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Since 1961 REECo has drilled and mined emplacement holes for testing nuclear devices underground. An oversize drill pattern was the primary method used. The application of drilling the final size configuration hole to a 65-foot depth and mucking with the Auger Rig was then investigated. Numerous drilling patterns, loading and time schemes and methods were tried. Some were successful. Most were expensive. All concerned looked for a better and less costly method for this collar casing installation. Poor fragmentation in the collar holes prior to Atlas Powder becoming involved resulted in slow hole cleanout and excessive rig maintenance with associated excessive costs. One of the more successful shots was a 120-inch diameter {times} 60-foot deep hole that was drilled using 3 1/2-inch holes and then casing them to a 2-inch diameter using PVC pipe. A 30-inch burn hole was drilled to total depth. Twenty-seven 3 1/2-inch holes were drilled and then loaded with 1 1/2-inch powder boosted with Detaprimes and wired using all 0 delay caps. This shot smooth walled and the blast holes were visible all the way from top to bottom. Fragmentation was excellent and the Auger Rig mucked out quickly. The 28-inch bit used for the burn hole was a high cost item in this test and other methods continued to be investigated.

  12. Results of Deposition Scoping Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, M.Z.

    2003-03-04

    The processes of crystallization and solid deposit formation that led to the shutdown of the 2H evaporator operation at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and that could possibly cause similar problems in the future or in other evaporators need to be better understood. Through experimentation, thermodynamic modeling, and correlation of scaling to historical tank farm operations, progress has been made in developing guidelines as to the concentrations of silicon and aluminum that can be processed by evaporators while avoiding unacceptable levels of scale formation. However, because of limitations of the thermodynamic model and an insufficient amount of operational data at slightly supersaturated concentration levels, uncertainty still exists regarding acceptable feed concentrations. The objective of this effort is to provide information that can be used in defining acceptable levels of silicon and aluminum in evaporator feed solutions. Data collected previously showed that particle formation reactions can be rapid at evaporator temperatures for elevated silicon and aluminum concentrations. However, insufficient data exists to estimate the silicon and aluminum concentrations above which solids will form in the time frame of evaporator processing. The work described in this report was designed to determine the induction period for solutions of decreasing aluminum and silicon concentration such that the supersaturation level corresponding to a 4-h induction time for particle nucleation/growth in bulk solution can be estimated. In addition, experiments were conducted to explore the supersaturation levels that can result in deposition of solids on metal surfaces at varying aluminum-to-silicon concentration ratios. Laboratory studies of particle growth in solution were conducted at relatively low supersaturation levels. Dynamic-light-scattering (DLS) studies and deposition tests, similar to those performed in FY 2001, were conducted with solutions at relatively low supersaturation levels and at elevated temperatures to explore the formation of solids under conditions similar to those encountered in evaporator processing. The deposition of solids on stainless steel samples placed in the solutions during the experiments was simultaneously investigated. In addition, the deposition of solids on stainless steel surfaces was investigated in laboratory-scale batch evaporation experiments. Completion of this effort will aid the development of operating strategies to mitigate or avoid solid scale formation on surfaces in evaporator systems. The results are expected to benefit plant operations by helping to determine acceptable silicon and aluminum feed concentrations.

  13. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  14. Experimental electrochemical capacitor test results

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.B.; Murphy, T.C.; Rogers, S.A.; Sutula, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    Various electrochemical capacitors (ultracapacitors) are being developed for hybrid vehicles as candidate power assist devices for the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) fast-response engine. The envisioned primary functions of the ultracapacitor are to level the dynamic power loads on the primary propulsion device and recover available energy from regenerative breaking during off-peak power periods. This paper will present test data from selected US Department of Energy (DOE) supported ultracapacitor projects designed to meet the fast response engine requirements. This paper will address the temperature dependence of test data obtained from a set of three devices provided from Maxwell Energy Products, Inc. These devices are rated at 2,300 F at 2.3 V. Constant-current, constant-power, and self-discharge testing as a function of temperature have been conducted. From these tests were determined the capacitance, equivalent series resistance, specific energy and power, and the self-discharge energy loss factor as a function of the device operating temperature.

  15. Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert; Chien, Hual-Te; Kohse, Gordon; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Rempe, Joy

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high-accuracy and -resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation-tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric transducer and two magnetostrictive transducers have demonstrated reliable operation under irradiation. The irradiation is ongoing.

  16. Evaluation of copper slag blast media for railcar maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagers, N. W.; Finlayson, Mack H.

    1989-01-01

    Copper slag was tested as a blasting substitute for zirconium silicate which is used to remove paint from railroad cars. The copper slag tested is less costly, strips paint faster, is produced near the point of need, provides a good bonding surface for paint, and permits the operator to work in a more comfortable position, i.e., standing nearly erect instead of having to crouch. Outdoor blasting with the tested Blackhawk (20 to 40 mesh) copper slag is also environmentally acceptable to the State of Utah. Results of tests for the surface erosion rate with copper slag blasting are included.

  17. Mars Balloon Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jeffery L.; Pauken, Michael T.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Walsh, Gerald J.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Lachenmeier, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a set of four Earth atmosphere flight test experiments on prototype helium superpressure balloons designed for Mars. Three of the experiments explored the problem of aerial deployment and inflation, using the cold, low density environment of the Earth's stratosphere at an altitude of 30-32 km as a proxy for the Martian atmosphere. Auxiliary carrier balloons were used in three of these test flights to lift the Mars balloon prototype and its supporting system from the ground to the stratosphere where the experiment was conducted. In each case, deployment and helium inflation was initiated after starting a parachute descent of the payload at 5 Pa dynamic pressure, thereby mimicking the conditions expected at Mars after atmospheric entry and high speed parachute deceleration. Upward and downward looking video cameras provided real time images from the flights, with additional data provided by onboard temperature, pressure and GPS sensors. One test of a 660 cc pumpkin balloon was highly successful, achieving deployment, inflation and separation of the balloon from the flight train at the end of inflation; however, some damage was incurred on the balloon during this process. Two flight tests of 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloons were not successful, although some lessons were learned based on the failure analyses. The final flight experiment consisted of a ground-launched 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloon that ascended to the designed 30.3 km altitude and successfully floated for 9.5 hours through full noontime daylight and into darkness, after which the telemetry system ran out of electrical power and tracking was lost. The altitude excursions for this last flight were +/-75 m peak to peak, indicating that the balloon was essentially leak free and functioning correctly. This provides substantial confidence that this balloon design will fly for days or weeks at Mars if it can be deployed and inflated without damage.

  18. Gunshot residue inserted under hair scales as a result of a muzzle blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Bryan R.

    2009-05-01

    The victim was alleged to have been shot in the head with a .40 caliber pistol from several feet. The defendant claimed that the shot was on the order of inches. Examination in the scanning electron microscope of the hair from around the victim's wound showed no adherent gunshot residue (GSR). However, when the hair was pulled apart by the adhesive of a standard GSR sampler, GSR was found associated with the exposed inner surfaces of the cuticle and cortex fragments. The pistol was discharged close enough to the victim's head that some of the cuticular scales were lifted in the muzzle blast which allowed GSR to be inserted under those scales. Gunshot residue associated with the surface of the victim's hair had somehow been removed. The defendant's account of the shooting was verified by the presence of under-scale GSR.

  19. Results of Neptunium Disposal Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2003-10-07

    Researchers investigated the neutralization of neptunium solution from H-Canyon Tank 16.4 and the properties of the resulting slurry. This work investigated slurry properties from a single neutralization protocol and limited storage times.

  20. Blast Loading Experiments of Surrogate Models for Tbi Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, M. D.; Son, S. F.

    2009-12-01

    This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical models. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical PMMA shells housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory test cell setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head near material interfaces due to impedance mismatches. In addition, significant relative displacement was observed between the interacting materials suggesting large strain values of nearly 5%. Further quantitative results were obtained through shadowgraph imaging of the blasts confirming a separation of time scales between blast interaction and bulk movement. These results lead to the conclusion that primary blast effects could cause TBI occurrences.

  1. Microsecond evolution of laser driven blast waves, the influence of shock asymmetries and the resulting development of magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubman, Eleanor; Crowston, R.; Lam, G.; Dimoline, G.; Alraddadi, R.; Doyle, H.; Meinecke, J.; Cross, J.; Bolis, R.; Lamb, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Doria, D.; Reville, B.; Ahmed, H.; Borghesi, M.; Gregori, G.; Woolsey, N.

    2015-11-01

    The ability to recreate scaled conditions of a supernova remnant within a laboratory environment is of great interest for informing the understanding of the evolution of galactic magnetic fields. The experiments rely on a near point explosion driven by one sided laser illumination producing a plasma, surrounded by a background gas. The subsequent shock and blast waves emerge following an initial ballistic phase into a self-similar expansion. Studies have been undertaken into the evolution of shock asymmetries which lead to magnetic field generation via the Biermann battery mechanism. Here we use the Vulcan laser facility, with targets such as carbon rods and plastic spheres placed in ambient gases of argon, helium or hydrogen, to produce the blast waves. These conditions allow us to study the asymmetries of the shocks using multi-frame imaging cameras, interferometry, and spectroscopy, while measuring the resulting magnetic fields with B-dot probes. The velocity of the shock and the temporal resolution of the asymmetries can be acquired on a single shot by the multi-framing cameras, and comparison with the measured B-dot fields allow for detailed inferences to be made.

  2. Porcine head response to blast.

    PubMed

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for computer model validation. PMID:22586417

  3. Porcine Head Response to Blast

    PubMed Central

    Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2 = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for computer model validation. PMID:22586417

  4. Azacitidine versus decitabine in patients with refractory anemia with excess blast-Results of multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Salim, Ozan; Toptas, Tayfur; Avsar, Esin; Yucel, Orhan Kemal; Ozturk, Erman; Ferhanoglu, Burhan; Geduk, Ayfer; Mehtap, Ozgur; Tombak, Anil; Tiftik, Eyup Naci; Deveci, Burak; Kurtoglu, Erdal; Kara, Osman; Atagunduz, Isik Kaygusuz; Tuglular, Tulin Firatli; Undar, Levent

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of azacitidine and decitabine in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). A total of 88 patients diagnosed with refractory anemia with excess blast (RAEB) treated with azacitidine (n=57) or decitabine (n=31) were evaluated. Comparisons between azacitidine and decitabine groups were performed in the whole cohort, and in a 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort in order to reduce the simple selection bias. Patients who received azacitidine or decitabine had comparable overall response rates in both the unmatched (49.1% vs. 64.5%, p=0.166) and the propensity-matched cohorts (52% vs. 68%, p=0.248). The cumulative incidence of AML transformation at one year was comparable between azacitidine and decitabine in the unmatched (24.0% vs. 31.3%, p=0.26) and in the propensity-matched cohorts (18.7% vs. 31.5%, p=0.11). There was no difference in terms of transfusion requirement, febrile neutropenia episodes or the need for antifungal use during the treatment cycles in the propensity-matched cohort. The median overall survival was 20.4 months for azacitidine and 16.8 months for decitabine (p=0.59). Finally, we found that at least a four-cycle treatment with any HMA was a favorable factor. In conclusion, both azacitidine and decitabine have similar efficacy and toxicity profiles in the treatment of MDS-RAEB. PMID:27107658

  5. Experimental modeling of explosive blast-related traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Alley, Matthew D; Schimizze, Benjamin R; Son, Steven F

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical systems. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shells housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head near material interfaces due to impedance mismatches. In addition, significant relative displacement was observed between the interacting materials suggesting large strain values of nearly 5%. Further quantitative results were obtained through shadowgraph imaging of the blasts confirming a separation of time scales between blast interaction and bulk movement. These results lead to a conclusion that primary blast effects may potentially contribute significantly to the occurrence of military associated TBI. PMID:20580931

  6. Survival risk assessment for primary blast exposures to the head.

    PubMed

    Rafaels, Karin; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Salzar, Robert S; Panzer, Matthew B; Woods, William; Feldman, Sanford; Cummings, Thomas; Capehart, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    Many soldiers returning from the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have had at least one exposure to an explosive event and a significant number have symptoms consistent with traumatic brain injury. Although blast injury risk functions have been determined and validated for pulmonary injury, there is little information on the blast levels necessary to cause blast brain injury. Anesthetized male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to varying levels of shock tube blast exposure focused on the head, while their thoraces were protected. The specimens were euthanized and evaluated when the blast resulted in respiratory arrest that was non-responsive to resuscitation or at 4?h post-exposure. Injury was evaluated by gross examination and histological evaluation. The fatality data from brain injury were then analyzed using Fisher's exact test to determine a brain fatality risk function. Greater blast intensity was associated with post-blast apnea and the need for mechanical ventilation. Gross examination revealed multifocal subdural hemorrhages, most often near the brainstem, at more intense levels of exposure. Histological evaluation revealed subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages in the non-responsive respiratory-arrested specimens. A fatality risk function from blast exposure to the head was determined for the rabbit specimens with an LD(50) at a peak overpressure of 750?kPa. Scaling techniques were used to predict injury risk at other blast overpressure/duration combinations. The fatality risk function showed that the blast level needed to cause fatality from an overpressure wave exposure to the head was greater than the peak overpressure needed to cause fatality from pulmonary injury. This risk function can be used to guide future research for blast brain injury by providing a realistic fatality risk to guide the design of protection or to evaluate injury. PMID:21463161

  7. SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

    2005-05-01

    The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

  8. 40 CFR 799.12 - Test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.12 Test results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive...

  9. 40 CFR 799.12 - Test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.12 Test results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive...

  10. LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  11. Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I; Hill, Larry G; Morris, John S

    2009-01-01

    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

  12. Blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sasser, Scott M; Sattin, Richard W; Hunt, Richard C; Krohmer, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Current trends in global terrorism mandate that emergency medical services, emergency medicine and other acute care clinicians have a basic understanding of the physics of explosions, the types of injuries that can result from an explosion, and current management for patients injured by explosions. High-order explosive detonations result in near instantaneous transformation of the explosive material into a highly pressurized gas, releasing energy at supersonic speeds. This results in the formation of a blast wave that travels out from the epicenter of the blast. Primary blast injuries are characterized by anatomical and physiological changes from the force generated by the blast wave impacting the body's surface, and affect primarily gas-containing structures (lungs, gastrointestinal tract, ears). "Blast lung" is a clinical diagnosis and is characterized as respiratory difficulty and hypoxia without obvious external injury to the chest. It may be complicated by pneumothoraces and air emboli and may be associated with multiple other injuries. Patients may present with a variety of symptoms, including dyspnea, chest pain, cough, and hemoptysis. Physical examination may reveal tachypnea, hypoxia, cyanosis, and decreased breath sounds. Chest radiography, computerized tomography, and arterial blood gases may assist with diagnosis and management; however, they should not delay diagnosis and emergency interventions in the patient exposed to a blast. High flow oxygen, airway management, tube thoracostomy in the setting of pneumothoraces, mechanical ventilation (when required) with permissive hypercapnia, and judicious fluid administration are essential components in the management of blast lung injury. PMID:16531371

  13. ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. fitch

    1995-03-13

    The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

  14. Modeling coupled blast/structure interaction with Zapotec, benchmark calculations for the Conventional Weapon Effects Backfill (CONWEB) tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Bessette, Gregory Carl

    2004-09-01

    Modeling the response of buried reinforced concrete structures subjected to close-in detonations of conventional high explosives poses a challenge for a number of reasons. Foremost, there is the potential for coupled interaction between the blast and structure. Coupling enters the problem whenever the structure deformation affects the stress state in the neighboring soil, which in turn, affects the loading on the structure. Additional challenges for numerical modeling include handling disparate degrees of material deformation encountered in the structure and surrounding soil, modeling the structure details (e.g., modeling the concrete with embedded reinforcement, jointed connections, etc.), providing adequate mesh resolution, and characterizing the soil response under blast loading. There are numerous numerical approaches for modeling this class of problem (e.g., coupled finite element/smooth particle hydrodynamics, arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian methods, etc.). The focus of this work will be the use of a coupled Euler-Lagrange (CEL) solution approach. In particular, the development and application of a CEL capability within the Zapotec code is described. Zapotec links two production codes, CTH and Pronto3D. CTH, an Eulerian shock physics code, performs the Eulerian portion of the calculation, while Pronto3D, an explicit finite element code, performs the Lagrangian portion. The two codes are run concurrently with the appropriate portions of a problem solved on their respective computational domains. Zapotec handles the coupling between the two domains. The application of the CEL methodology within Zapotec for modeling coupled blast/structure interaction will be investigated by a series of benchmark calculations. These benchmarks rely on data from the Conventional Weapons Effects Backfill (CONWEB) test series. In these tests, a 15.4-lb pipe-encased C-4 charge was detonated in soil at a 5-foot standoff from a buried test structure. The test structure was composed of a reinforced concrete slab bolted to a reaction structure. Both the slab thickness and soil media were varied in the test series. The wealth of data obtained from these tests along with the variations in experimental setups provide ample opportunity to assess the robustness of the Zapotec CEL methodology.

  15. Test 6, Test 7, and Gas Standard Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Horacio, III

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation shows results of analyses on odor, toxic off gassing and gas standards. The topics include: 1) Statistical Analysis Definitions; 2) Odor Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 6; 3) Toxic Off gassing Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7; and 4) Gas Standard Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7;

  16. Summary of Blast Shield and Material Testing for Development of Solid Debris Collection at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, D A; Gostic, J M; Moody, K J; Grant, P M; Lewis, L A; Hutcheon, I D

    2011-11-21

    The ability to collect solid debris from the target chamber following a NIF shot has application for both capsule diagnostics, particularly for fuel-ablator mix, and measuring cross sections relevant to the Stockpile Stewardship program and nuclear astrophysics. Simulations have shown that doping the capsule with up to 10{sup 15} atoms of an impurity not otherwise found in the capsule does not affect its performance. The dopant is an element that will undergo nuclear activations during the NIF implosion, forming radioactive species that can be collected and measured after extraction from the target chamber. For diagnostics, deuteron or alpha induced reactions can be used to probe the fuel-ablator mix. For measuring neutron cross sections, the dopant should be something that is sensitive to the 14 MeV neutrons produced through the fusion of deuterium and tritium. Developing the collector is a challenge due to the extreme environment of the NIF chamber. The collector surface is exposed to a large photon flux from x-rays and unconverted laser light before it is exposed to a debris wind that is formed from vaporized material from the target chamber center. The photons will ablate the collector surface to some extent, possibly impeding the debris from reaching the collector and sticking. In addition, the collector itself must be mechanically strong enough to withstand the large amount of energy it will be exposed to, and it should be something that will be easy to count and chemically process. In order to select the best material for the collector, a variety of different metals have been tested in the NIF chamber. They were exposed to high-energy laser shots in order to evaluate their postshot surface characterization, morphology, degree of melt, and their ability to retain debris from the chamber center. The first set of samples consisted of 1 mm thick pieces of aluminum that had been fielded in the chamber as blast shields protecting the neutron activation diagnostic. Ten of these pieces were fielded at the equator and one was fielded on the pole. The shields were analyzed using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and chemical leaching followed by mass spectrometry. On each shield, gold debris originating from the gold hohlraum was observed, as well as large quantities of debris that were present in the center of the target chamber at the time of the shot (i.e., stainless steel, indium, copper, etc.) Debris was visible in the SEM as large blobs or splats of material that had encountered the surface of the aluminum and stuck. The aluminum itself had obviously melted and condensed, and some of the large debris splats arrived after the surface had already hardened. Melt depth was determined by cross sectioning the pieces and measuring the melted surface layers via SEM. After the SEM analysis was completed, the pieces were sent for NAA at the USGS reactor and were analyzed by U. Greife at the Colorado School of Mines. The NAA showed that the majority of gold mass present on the shields was not in the form of large blobs and splats, but was present as small particulates that had most likely formed as condensed vapor. Further analysis showed that the gold was entrained in the melted aluminum surface layers and did not extend down into the bulk of the aluminum. Once the gold mass was accounted for from the NAA, it was determined that the aluminum fielded at the equator was collecting a fraction of the total gold hohlraum mass equivalent to 120% {+-} 10% of the solid angle subtended by the shield. The attached presentation has more information on the results of the aluminum blast shield analysis. In addition to the information given in the presentation, the surfaces of the shields have been chemically leached and submitted for mass spectrometric analysis. The results from that analysis are expected to arrive after the due date of this report and will be written up at a later time. Based on the results of the aluminum blast shield analysis, it was determined that additional materials needed to be tested as potential collectors in the NIF chamber. 1-2 mm thick pieces of tantalum, niobium, vanadium, silver, titanium, molybdenum, and graphite foil were fielded in the Wedge Range Filter (WRF) mount at a distance of 50 cm from target chamber center during the shock timing campaign. The pieces were subsequently removed and analyzed in a similar fashion to the aluminum shields. As of this writing, the pieces are still under analysis, but initial results indicate that gold debris was collected on the various materials. Currently, the pieces are being cross-sectioned so that the melt depths of each material can be compared. In addition, NAA and/or mass spectrometry will be performed in order to determine the total gold mass that was collected on each surface.

  17. Therapeutic effect of sildenafil on blast-induced tinnitus and auditory impairment.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, G; Mei, Z; Hojjat, H; Pace, E; Kallakuri, S; Zhang, J S

    2014-06-01

    Blast-induced tinnitus, along with associated auditory impairment and traumatic brain injury, is a primary concern facing military service members. To search for treatment, we investigated the therapeutic effects of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, given its vasodilatory effects and evidence suggesting its beneficial effects on noise-induced hearing loss. Rats were subjected to three consecutive blast exposures at 22 psi and were monitored for tinnitus using a gap-detection acoustic startle reflex paradigm. Hearing thresholds and detection were tested using auditory brainstem responses and prepulse inhibition, respectively. Blasted rats were either treated with sildenafil or tap water following blast exposure, while age-matched sham control rats were treated with sildenafil and no blast exposure. Our results showed that sildenafil did not effectively prevent acute tinnitus onset and hearing impairment. Instead, sildenafil significantly suppressed high-frequency tinnitus from 3 to 6 weeks after blast exposure and reduced hearing impairment during the first week after blast exposure. Complex results were observed in the startle force data, where sildenafil-treated rats displayed significantly reduced startle force compared to the untreated blasted group, suggesting possible mitigation of traumatic brain injury and suppression of hyperacusis-like percepts. Taken together, sildenafil showed a therapeutic effect on blast-induced tinnitus and audiological impairment in a time-dependent manner. Other regimens such as higher dosage prior to blast exposure and combination with other treatments deserve further investigation to optimize the therapeutic effects. PMID:24662845

  18. Surface mine blasting near pressurized transmission pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Siskind, D.E.; Stagg, M.S.; Wiegand, J.E.; Schultz, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines and the State of Indiana cooperated with AMAX Coal Co. and its consultants to determine the effects of coal mine overburden blasting on nearby pipelines. Five pressurized 76-m pipeline sections were installed on the Minnehaha Mine highwall near Sullivan, IN, for testing to failure. Four 17- to 51-cm-diameter welded steel pipes and one 22-cm PVC pipe were monitored for vibration, strain, and pressure for a period of 6 months while production blasting advanced up to the test pipeline field. In contrast to previous studies of small-scale, close-in blasting for construction, these tests involved overburden blasts of up to 950 kg per delay in 31-cm blastholes. Analyses found low pipe responses, strains, and calculated stresses from even large blasts. Ground vibrations of 120 to 250 mm/s produced worst case strains that were about 25 pcts of the strains resulting from normal pipeline operations and calculated stresses of only about 10 to 18 pct of the ultimate tensile strength. No pressurization failures or permanent strains occurred even at vibration amplitudes of 600 mm/s.

  19. Test results of ac superconducting cables

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    All the major components of an ac superconducting power transmission system have been developed. A summary of test results during the developmental stages is given. A Test Facility designed to demonstrate and evaluate cables rated for 138 kV, 1000-MVA 3-phi service is under construction. Most of the equipment has been installed and tested; results are presented.

  20. Mechanical and histological characterization of trachea tissue subjected to blast-type pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, B. J.; Bo, C.; Tucker, A. W.; Jardine, A. P.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2014-05-01

    Injuries to the respiratory system can be a component of polytrauma in blast-loading injuries. Tissues located at air-liquid interfaces, including such tissues in the respiratory system, are particularly vulnerable to damage by blast overpressures. There is a lack of information about the mechanical and cellular responses that contribute to the damage of this class of tissues subjected to the high strain rates associated with blast loading. Here, we describe the results of dynamic blast-like pressure loading tests at high strain rates on freshly harvested ex vivo trachea tissue specimens.

  1. Radiative, actively cooled panel tests results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, C. P.; Nowak, R. J.; Sharpe, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The radiative, actively cooled panel designed to withstand a uniform incident heat flux of 136 kW/sq m to a 444 K surface temperature was evaluated. The test program consisted of preliminary static thermal mechanical loading and aerothermal flow tests. Test results are briefly discussed.

  2. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Joel B.; Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-01

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  3. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Joel B; Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-01

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs. PMID:25832276

  4. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Joel B. Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-15

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  5. Altitude Compensating Nozzle Cold Flow Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, J. H.; McDaniels, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of four altitude compensating nozzle (ACN) concepts were evaluated by NASA MSFC in the Nozzle Test Facility. The ACN concepts were a dual bell, a dual expander, an annular plug nozzle and an expansion deflection nozzle. Two reference bell nozzles were also tested. Axial thrust and nozzle wall static pressures were measured for each nozzle over a wide range of nozzle pressure ratios. The nozzle hardware and test program are described. Sample test results are presented.

  6. A Multiscale Approach to Blast Neurotrauma Modeling: Part I – Development of Novel Test Devices for in vivo and in vitro Blast Injury Models

    PubMed Central

    Panzer, Matthew B.; Matthews, Kyle A.; Yu, Allen W.; Morrison, Barclay; Meaney, David F.; Bass, Cameron R.

    2012-01-01

    The loading conditions used in some current in vivo and in vitro blast-induced neurotrauma models may not be representative of real-world blast conditions. To address these limitations, we developed a compressed-gas driven shock tube with different driven lengths that can generate Friedlander-type blasts. The shock tube can generate overpressures up to 650 kPa with durations between 0.3 and 1.1 ms using compressed helium driver gas, and peak overpressures up to 450 kPa with durations between 0.6 and 3 ms using compressed nitrogen. This device is used for short-duration blast overpressure loading for small animal in vivo injury models, and contrasts the more frequently used long duration/high impulse blast overpressures in the literature. We also developed a new apparatus that is used with the shock tube to recreate the in vivo intracranial overpressure response for loading in vitro culture preparations. The receiver device surrounds the culture with materials of similar impedance to facilitate the propagation of a single overpressure pulse through the tissue. This method prevents pressure waves reflecting off the tissue that can cause unrealistic deformation and injury. The receiver performance was characterized using the longest helium-driven shock tube, and produced in-fluid overpressures up to 1500 kPa at the location where a culture would be placed. This response was well correlated with the overpressure conditions from the shock tube (R2 = 0.97). Finite element models of the shock tube and receiver were developed and validated to better elucidate the mechanics of this methodology. A demonstration exposing a culture to the loading conditions created by this system suggest tissue strains less than 5% for all pressure levels simulated, which was well below functional deficit thresholds for strain rates less than 50 s−1. This novel system is not limited to a specific type of culture model and can be modified to reproduce more complex pressure pulses. PMID:22470367

  7. A Multiscale Approach to Blast Neurotrauma Modeling: Part I - Development of Novel Test Devices for in vivo and in vitro Blast Injury Models.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Matthew B; Matthews, Kyle A; Yu, Allen W; Morrison, Barclay; Meaney, David F; Bass, Cameron R

    2012-01-01

    The loading conditions used in some current in vivo and in vitro blast-induced neurotrauma models may not be representative of real-world blast conditions. To address these limitations, we developed a compressed-gas driven shock tube with different driven lengths that can generate Friedlander-type blasts. The shock tube can generate overpressures up to 650 kPa with durations between 0.3 and 1.1 ms using compressed helium driver gas, and peak overpressures up to 450 kPa with durations between 0.6 and 3 ms using compressed nitrogen. This device is used for short-duration blast overpressure loading for small animal in vivo injury models, and contrasts the more frequently used long duration/high impulse blast overpressures in the literature. We also developed a new apparatus that is used with the shock tube to recreate the in vivo intracranial overpressure response for loading in vitro culture preparations. The receiver device surrounds the culture with materials of similar impedance to facilitate the propagation of a single overpressure pulse through the tissue. This method prevents pressure waves reflecting off the tissue that can cause unrealistic deformation and injury. The receiver performance was characterized using the longest helium-driven shock tube, and produced in-fluid overpressures up to 1500 kPa at the location where a culture would be placed. This response was well correlated with the overpressure conditions from the shock tube (R(2) = 0.97). Finite element models of the shock tube and receiver were developed and validated to better elucidate the mechanics of this methodology. A demonstration exposing a culture to the loading conditions created by this system suggest tissue strains less than 5% for all pressure levels simulated, which was well below functional deficit thresholds for strain rates less than 50 s(-1). This novel system is not limited to a specific type of culture model and can be modified to reproduce more complex pressure pulses. PMID:22470367

  8. Using Test Results To Support Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    This paper recommends an evaluation procedure for gifted children which uses test results only to confirm the conclusions resulting from clinical evaluation that involves observation, discussion with the child, an interview with the parents, developmental milestones, and family history. It suggests that traditional test interpretation may lead to…

  9. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6, blast measurements. Part 3. Pressure near ground level. Section 4. Blast asymmetry from aerial photographs. Section 5. Ball-crusher-gauge measurements of peak pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    Aerial motion pictures from manned aircraft were taken of the Dog, Easy, and George Shots and from a drone aircraft on Dog Shot to determine whether asymmetries in the blast waves could be detected and measured. Only one film, that taken of Dog Shot from a drone, was considered good enough to warrant detailed analysis, but this failed to yield any positive information on asymmetries. The analysis showed that failure to obtain good arrival-time data arose from a number of cases, but primarily from uncertainities in magnification and timing. Results could only be matched with reliable data from blast-velocity switches by use of large corrections. Asymnetries, if present, were judged to have been too small or to have occurred too early to be detected with the slow-frame speed used. Recommendations for better results include locating the aircraft directly overhead at the time of burst and using a camera having greater frame speed and provided with timing marks.

  10. Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O`Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994.

  11. Characterization of blasts in clinical samples containing few blasts.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Hideya; Ogata, Kiyoyuki; Tachibana, Mikiko; Dan, Kazuo

    2003-05-01

    Characterization (eg, phenotyping) of blasts present at low percentages in clinical samples is often required for decisions regarding the approach to therapy. However, the available methods for cell characterization do not yield reliable data when the target cells are scant, and the existing methods for blast enrichment, such as cell sorting by flow cytometry (FCM), cannot enrich blasts of unknown immunophenotype. Blastretriever is a newly developed density centrifugation reagent for retrieving blasts. We examined the utility of Blastretriever in clinical practice. When normal bone marrow (BM) cells were separated with this reagent, myeloblasts and B-cell precursors were enriched and detected as clusters on the FCM cytogram. Compared with a conventional reagent for mononuclear cell preparation, the Blastretriever reagent markedly enriched leukemic myeloblasts, leukemic lymphoblasts, and blastoid lymphoma cells from 36 test samples (BM cells and peripheral blood). We then applied the Blastretriever reagent to samples from 11 consecutive patients who had been referred to us because they exhibited low percentages of blasts (1 patient had only 0.2% blasts). Characterization was needed but impossible with conventional analyses. Blast enrichment was achieved for all 11 samples, allowing reliable blast characterization by FCM, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and/or G-banding determinations. The revealed blast characteristics were valuable for choosing appropriate therapy for the patients. PMID:12774927

  12. White Matter Compromise in Veterans Exposed to Primary Blast Forces

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Katherine H.; Hurley, Robin A.; Haswell, Courtney C.; Rowland, Jared A.; Hurt, Susan D.; Lamar, Cory D.; Morey, Rajendra A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Use Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter alterations associated with blast exposure with or without acute symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants Forty-five veterans of the recent military conflicts included twenty-three exposed to primary blast without TBI symptoms, six having primary blast mild TBI, and sixteen unexposed to blast. Design Cross-sectional case control study. Main Measures Neuropsychological testing and DTI metrics that quantified the number of voxel clusters with altered fractional anisotropy (FA) radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD), regardless of their spatial location. Results Significantly lower FA and higher RD was observed in veterans exposed to primary blast with and without mild TBI relative to blast unexposed veterans. Voxel clusters of lower FA were spatially dispersed and heterogeneous across affected individuals. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of clear TBI symptoms following primary blast exposure may not accurately reflect the extent of brain injury. If confirmed, our findings would argue for supplementing the established approach of making diagnoses based purely on clinical history and observable acute symptoms with novel neuroimaging-based diagnostic criteria that “look below the surface” for pathology. PMID:24590156

  13. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    PubMed

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues. PMID:23521031

  14. Computer cast blast modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-07-01

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  15. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-09-28

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

  16. Kilobar blast pressure transducer: 3.4 Kilobar piezoresistive blast pressure sensor using silicon load cell technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallon, J. R., Jr.

    1982-06-01

    Measurements of blast pressures in high-explosive experiments require highly specialized transducers. This report describes development of a resistance-based transducer for measurements to 3.4 kilobars. A unique transduction scheme employing a silicon cylinder incorporates diffused transverse piezoresistive elements to respond as a load cell to compressive stress. Considerations for hardening against blast thermal and shock accelerations are reflected in design of the unit. Five prototypes were fabricated and test results are presented.

  17. Test Results Untrustworthy. Point of View Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David C.; Nichols, Sharon L.

    2005-01-01

    America's public schools are making harmful, irreversible decisions based on test results that--in an increasing number of cases--can't be trusted, Arizona State University's Education Policy Research Laboratory has found. The pressure of high-stakes tests is forcing school districts and state Departments of Education to take inappropriate and at…

  18. Results of a retrofit sunspace testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.; Nelson, L.; Wexler, A.; Schiller, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a controlled thermal performance testing program on four retrofit sunspace modules located in northern California are described. The program was designed to test the performance of sunspaces attached to existing houses of frame construction. The major design variables - glazing, thermal mass and common wall venting - were evaluated to determine their effect on the thermal performance of the sunspaces in this climate.

  19. 40 CFR 799.12 - Test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.12...

  20. 40 CFR 799.12 - Test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.12...

  1. 40 CFR 799.12 - Test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.12...

  2. Module Hipot and ground continuity test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Hipot (high voltage potential) and module frame continuity tests of solar energy conversion modules intended for deployment into large arrays are discussed. The purpose of the tests is to reveal potentially hazardous voltage conditions in installed modules, and leakage currents that may result in loss of power or cause ground fault system problems, i.e., current leakage potential and leakage voltage distribution. The tests show a combined failure rate of 36% (69% when environmental testing is included). These failure rates are believed easily corrected by greater care in fabrication.

  3. Results of the HESSI Test Mishap Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worth, Daniel B.; Phillips, Rodney N.; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    On March 21, 2000, the High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) spacecraft was subjected to a series of vibration tests at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as a part of its flight certification program. The structural qualification test, denoted as the sineburst test, subjected the spacecraft to a major overtest that resulted in significant structural damage to the spacecraft. The HESSI Test Mishap Investigation Board (MIB) was formed on March 24, 2000, in response to a NASA headquarters request. Board membership included experts from NASA and the University of California at Berkeley. This paper will present the investigation methods, findings, and lessons learned from the HESSI mishap.

  4. Recent Radiation Test Results for Power MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Topper, Alyson D.; Casey, Megan C.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Kim, Hak S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-event effect (SEE) and total ionizing dose (TID) test results are presented for various hardened and commercial power metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), including vertical planar, trench, superjunction, and lateral process designs.

  5. Cone Penetrometer N Factor Determination Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-05

    This document contains the results of testing activities to determine the empirical 'N Factor' for the cone penetrometer in kaolin clay simulant. The N Factor is used to releate resistance measurements taken with the cone penetrometer to shear strength.

  6. Experimental results for absolute cylindrical wavefront testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Patrick J.; Alatawi, Ayshah

    2014-09-01

    Applications for Cylindrical and near-cylindrical surfaces are ever-increasing. However, fabrication of high quality cylindrical surfaces is limited by the difficulty of accurate and affordable metrology. Absolute testing of such surfaces represents a challenge to the optical testing community as cylindrical reference wavefronts are difficult to produce. In this paper, preliminary results for a new method of absolute testing of cylindrical wavefronts are presented. The method is based on the merging of the random ball test method with the fiber optic reference test. The random ball test assumes a large number of interferograms of a good quality sphere with errors that are statistically distributed such that the average of the errors goes to zero. The fiber optic reference test utilizes a specially processed optical fiber to provide a clean high quality reference wave from an incident line focus from the cylindrical wave under test. By taking measurements at different rotation and translations of the fiber, an analogous procedure can be employed to determine the quality of the converging cylindrical wavefront with high accuracy. This paper presents and discusses the results of recent tests of this method using a null optic formed by a COTS cylindrical lens and a free-form polished corrector element.

  7. Low Emissions RQL Flametube Combustor Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Clarence T.; Holdeman, James D.

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this test program was to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of the Rich-burn/Quick-mix/Lean-burn (RQL) combustor concept for HSR applications. This test program was in support of the Pratt & Whitney and GE Aircraft Engines HSR low-NOx Combustor Program. Collaborative programs with Parker Hannifin Corporation and Textron Fuel Systems resulted in the development and testing of the high-flow low-NOx rich-burn zone fuel-to-air ratio research fuel nozzles used in this test program. Based on the results obtained in this test program, several conclusions can be made: (1) The RQL tests gave low NOx and CO emissions results at conditions corresponding to HSR cruise. (2) The Textron fuel nozzle design with optimal multiple partitioning of fuel and air circuits shows potential of providing an acceptable uniform local fuel-rich region in the rich burner. (3) For the parameters studied in this test series, the tests have shown T3 is the dominant factor in the NOx formation for RQL combustors. As T3 increases from 600 to 1100 F, EI(NOx) increases approximately three fold. (4) Factors which appear to have secondary influence on NOx formation are P4, T4, infinity(sub rb), V(sub ref,ov). (5) Low smoke numbers were measured for infinity(sub rb) of 2.0 at P4 of 120 psia.

  8. Characterization of Viscoelastic Materials for Low-Magnitude Blast Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis

    2013-06-01

    Recent preliminary research indicates that exposure to low amplitude blast waves, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficiently protecting warfighters from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. The objective of this research is to evaluate the blast mitigating behavior of current helmet materials and new materials designed for blast mitigation using a test fixture recently developed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for use with an existing gas gun. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 5 to 30 psi) in a test fixture mounted at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release helium gas from a breech which forms into a blast wave and impacts instrumented targets in the test fixture. Blast attenuation of selected materials is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. Materials evaluated in this research include 6061-T6 aluminum, polyurea 1000, Styrofoam, and Sorbothane (durometer 50, shore 00). The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

  9. Punch valve development testing: Low and high velocity test results

    SciTech Connect

    Replogle, W.C.; Brandon, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    This is a report on the use of quasi-static tests to predict fundamental parameters for punch valve development. This report summarizes the results from low and high velocity tests performed with 0.63 and 0.38 cm diameter plungers, 5 cm long penetrating aluminium and composite targets. The low velocity tests, 0.025 m/s, were performed to understand the effects and interactions of plunger diameter plunger tip shape, target material, and target support on penetration energy and plunger functionality. High velocity tests, 75 m/s, were compared to low velocity results.

  10. Adaptive structures - Test hardware and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.; Fanson, James L.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Kuo, Chin-Po

    1990-01-01

    The facilities and procedures used at JPL to test adaptive structures such as the large deployable reflector (LDR) are described and preliminary results are reported. The applications of adaptive structures in future NASA missions are outlined, and the techniques which are employed to modify damping, stiffness, and isolation characteristics, as well as geometric changes, are listed. The development of adaptive structures is shown to be effective as a result of new actuators and sensors, and examples are listed for categories such as fiber optics, shape-memory materials, piezoelectrics, and electrorheological fluids. Some ground test results are described for laboratory truss structures and truss test beds, which are shown to be efficient and easy to assemble in space. Adaptive structures are shown to be important for precision space structures such as the LDR, and can alleviate ground test requirements.

  11. Cryogenic Test Results of Hextek Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James; Stahl, H. Philip; Eng, Ron; Hogue, William

    2004-01-01

    A 250 mm diameter lightweight borosilicate mirror has been interferometrically tested from room-temperature down to 30 K at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The minor blank was manufactured by Hextek Corporation using a high-temperature gas fusion process and was then polished at MSFC. It is a sandwich-type mirror consisting of a thin face-sheet (approx.1.5 mm thick), a core structure (20 mm thick, approx.43 mm diameter cells, & 0.5-1.2 mm thick walls), and a thin back-sheet (3 mm thick). The mirror has a 2500 mm spherical radius-of- curvature @/lo). The areal density is 14 kg/sq m. The mirror was tested in the 1 m x 2 m chamber using an Instantaneous Phase Interferometer (PI) from ADE Phase Shift Technologies. The mirror was tested twice. The first test measured the change in surface figure from ambient to 30 K and the repeatability of the change. An attempt was then made by QED Technologies to cryo-figure the mirror using magnetorheological finishing. The second test measured the effectiveness of the cryo- figuring. This paper will describe the test goals, the test instrumentation, and the test results for these cryogenic tests.

  12. NEXT Single String Integration Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pinero, Luis; Herman, Daniel A.; Snyder, Steven John

    2010-01-01

    As a critical part of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) test validation process, a single string integration test was performed on the NEXT ion propulsion system. The objectives of this test were to verify that an integrated system of major NEXT ion propulsion system elements meets project requirements, to demonstrate that the integrated system is functional across the entire power processor and xenon propellant management system input ranges, and to demonstrate to potential users that the NEXT propulsion system is ready for transition to flight. Propulsion system elements included in this system integration test were an engineering model ion thruster, an engineering model propellant management system, an engineering model power processor unit, and a digital control interface unit simulator that acted as a test console. Project requirements that were verified during this system integration test included individual element requirements ; integrated system requirements, and fault handling. This paper will present the results of these tests, which include: integrated ion propulsion system demonstrations of performance, functionality and fault handling; a thruster re-performance acceptance test to establish baseline performance: a risk-reduction PMS-thruster integration test: and propellant management system calibration checks.

  13. Characterization of viscoelastic materials for low-magnitude blast mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W.

    2014-05-01

    Recent research indicates that exposure to low amplitude blast waves, such as IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficiently protecting warfighters from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the blast mitigating behavior of current helmet materials and new materials designed for blast mitigation using a test fixture recently developed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for use with an existing gas gun. The 40-mm-bore gas gun was used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 0.5 to 2 bar) in the test fixture mounted on the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve was used to release helium gas from the breech which formed into a blast wave and impacted instrumented targets in the test fixture. Blast attenuation of selected materials was determined through the measurement of stress data in front of and behind the target. Materials evaluated in this research include polyurethane foam from currently fielded US Army and Marine Corps helmets, polyurea 1000, and three hardnesses of Sorbothane (48, 58, and 70 durometer, Shore 00). Polyurea 1000 and 6061-T6 aluminum were used to calibrate the stress gauges.

  14. LTC 1073 vacuum blasting (concrete) human factors assessment -- Baseline (summary)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high capacity, direct pressure blasting system incorporating a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast head. A vacuum system removes dust and debris from the surfaces as it is blasted. After cleaning the surface, the abrasive, together with the rust or coating that was removed from the surface, is vacuumed into the machine through the suction hose. The dust separator contains angled steel collision pads, working with the force of gravity, to allow any reusable abrasive to fall back into the pressure vessel. The filters are manually back flushed to prevent clogging. After back flushing, dust is dumped from the dust chamber into the dust collection bag or drum by operation of the bellows valve. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on dust and noise exposure. Dust exposure was found to be minimal, but noise exposure was potentially significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may cause the results to be inapplicable to indoor settings. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  15. Friction drive characterization breadboard: test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedghi, B.; Lucuix, C.; Tortolani, J. M.; Brunetto, E.; Delrez, C.; Gabriel, E.

    2010-07-01

    The drive and bearing technologies have a major impact on the static and dynamic performance of steerable structures such as telescope and dome. Merging drive and bearing system into friction drive mechanical devices (bogie) can reduce the complexity and cost of the design. In the framework of ELT design study (European FP6) a breadboard test setup was realized to test and evaluate the static and dynamic behavior of such bogies. In this paper some of the characterization test results are presented. Characterization of the bogies and the setup structure in the frequency domain, quantification and measure of the most important parameters of the friction forces, the control of the bogies and the tracking performance of the test setup are among the main results discussed in this paper.

  16. Rockwell-Rocketdyne flywheel test results

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.S. Jr.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.; Sutton, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of the spin test evaluation of the Rockwell-Rocketdyne RPE-10 design flywheel at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory. Details of the static evaluation, including measures of weight, inertia, natural frequencies, and radiography, are also presented. The flywheel was subjected to seven spin cycles with a maximum of 383 rps, 105% of design speed. At that speed, the energy stored was 1.94 kWhr at 36.1 Whr/kg. The maximum speed was limited by the inability of the test facility to accommodate the increasing eccentric shift of both hub disks with increasing speed. No material degradation was observed during the testing.

  17. BPX insulation irradiation program test results

    SciTech Connect

    McManamy, T.J. ); Kanemoto, G. ); Snook, P.G. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    The toroidal field coil insulation for the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) is expected to receive a radiation dose of nearly 10{sup 10} rad and to withstand significant mechanical stresses. An irradiation test program was performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) using the Advanced Technology Reactor (ATR) for irradiations to doses on the order of 3 {times} 10{sup 10} rad. The flexure and shear strength with compression of commercially procured sheet material were reported earlier. A second series of tests has been performed to slightly higher dose levels with vacuum impregnated materials, glass strand material, and Spaulrad-S sheet samples. Vacuum impregnation with a Shell 9405 resin and 9470 hardener was used to produce bonded copper squares and flexure samples of both pure resin and resin with S-glass. A new test fixture was developed to test the bonded samples in shear without applied compression. The Spaulrad-S flexure samples demonstrated a loss of strength with irradiation, similar to previous results. The pure resin lost nearly all flexibility, while the S-glass-reinforced samples retained between 30% and 40% of the initial flexure strength. The S-glass strands showed a 30% loss of strength at the higher dose level when tested in tension. The bonded copper squares had a low room-temperature shear strength of approximately 17 MPa before irradiation, which was unchanged in the irradiated samples. Shear testing of unirradiated bonded copper squares with ten different types of surface treatment revealed that the low shear strength resulted from the polyurethane primer used. In the later series of test, the epoxy-based primers and DZ-80 from Ciba-Geigy did much better, with shear strengths on the order of 40 MPa. These samples also demonstrated a resistance to cryogenic shock. One irradiated bonded sample was tested up 10 210 MPa in compression, the limit of the test fixture, without failure.

  18. Characterization of microbial communities in subsurface nuclear blast cavities of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Duane P; Czerwinski, Ken; Russell, Charles E; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2010-07-13

    This US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this program's Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H2 and SO42- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

  19. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Nuclear Blast Cavities of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Duane P.; Bruckner, Jim; Fisher, Jen; Czerwinski, Ken; Russell, Charles E.; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2010-09-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this program’s Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H2 and SO42- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

  20. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  1. Simulation of Blast Waves with Headwind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lawrence, Scott W.; Klopfer, Goetz H.; Mathias, Dovan; Onufer, Jeff T.

    2005-01-01

    The blast wave resulting from an explosion was simulated to provide guidance for models estimating risks for human spacecraft flight. Simulations included effects of headwind on blast propagation, Blasts were modelled as an initial value problem with a uniform high energy sphere expanding into an ambient field. Both still air and cases with headwind were calculated.

  2. On the Propagation and Interaction of Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics and the scaling laws of isolated spherical blast waves have been briefly reviewed. Both self-similar solutions and numerical solutions of isolated blast waves are discussed. Blast profiles in the near-field (strong shock region) and the far-field (weak shock region) are examined. Particular attention is directed at the blast overpressure and shock propagating speed. Consideration is also given to the interaction of spherical blast waves. Test data for the propagation and interaction of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure.

  3. The use of high density ammonium nitrate mini-prill blasting agents to reduce drilling and blasting costs

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.C.; Irwin, R.

    1994-12-31

    In early 1993 a test program was designed to determine if mining costs could be reduced by using a high density ammonium nitrate mini-prill blasting agent. The goal was to reduce mining costs by expanding blast hole patterns while maintaining or improving dig-ability of the shot material. The results of the program indicated that with the high density ammonium nitrate blasting agent, fragmentation of the waste rock could be maintained or improved while expanding blast patterns by 23%. When used within ore zone boundaries, where pattern expansion and material displacement is not desirable, an improvement in shovel productivity was recognized while no increase in ore dilution was experienced. A reduction in bucket tooth wear was also reported.

  4. J series thruster thermal test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Dulgeroff, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Test experience with J series ion thrusters have indicated that the present thruster design may result in excessive temperatures in areas which utilize organic materials such as wire insulation, with the resultant outgassing and potential contamination of insulating materials. Further, it appears that thermal data obtained with earlier thruster designs, such as the 700 series thruster, may not be directly applicable to the J series design. Two J series thrusters were fitted with thermocouples and critical temperatures measured for a variety of configurations and operating parameters. Completely enclosing the thruster to reduce facility contamination significantly increased temperatures prompting the selection of a compromise geometry for life testing. The operating parameter having the largest effect on temperatures was discharge power, while beam power affected little else than extraction system temperatures. Several off-normal operating modes were also investigated. Data believed to be sufficient to effectively modify existing thermal models were obtained from the tests.

  5. SLD liquid argon calorimeter prototype test results

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, R.; Eigen, G.; Au, Y.; Sleeman, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Brau, J.; Ludgate, G.A.; Oram, C.J.; Cook, V.; Johnson, J.

    1985-10-01

    The results of the SLD test beam program for the selection of a calorimeter radiator composition within a liquid argon system are described, with emphasis on the study of the use of uranium to obtain equalization of pion and electron responses.

  6. Group Test Results, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Public Schools, CT.

    The underlying theme of the 1979-80 Hartford Public Schools Group test results was maintenance of the status quo. There were both gains and declines in city-wide averages: individual subtest gains in some cases, put Hartford at or above the national norm (math computation in grades 2, 3, and 4), while the reading comprehension averages in grades 7…

  7. Deformable Mirror Optical Calibration and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Boucarut, Ray

    1999-01-01

    We describe the initial setup, configuration, and component level testing procedures that were used to incorporate a Xinetics 349 channel deformable mirror into the DCATT active optical system. Initial flattening results are presented as well as calibration data on actuator gain and mirror response. The RMS measures of surface quality are also analyzed for drift in the power-up state.

  8. Drug-testing methods and clinical interpretations of test results.

    PubMed

    Kapur, B M

    1993-01-01

    In the present paper, major issues related to drug testing are discussed. For example, drug-testing techniques measure the presence of a drug or drugs but are not sophisticated enough to measure impairment from drug use. Moreover, it is difficult to determine the route of drug administration, quantity or frequency, as well as when the drug was taken, on the basis of the laboratory results. Selection of the drug to be tested should depend on the local availability of the drug, its abuse potential and clinical effects, as well as on the availability of analytical technology and expertise in testing and in interpreting laboratory results. The most sophisticated drug-testing approach is gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which is regarded as a "gold standard"; it is used in confirmatory testing. Typically, GC/MS is preceded by a rapid immunoassay method to eliminate the majority of the "negative" samples. Despite the existence of sophisticated drug-testing methods, it is still possible to obtain incorrect test results. Such results may be caused by the presence of interfering substances or adulteration of the urine sample. A number of techniques can be employed to reduce the likelihood of obtaining erroneous results and to detect adulterated urine samples. A "positive" drug finding can have a serious impact on the livelihood of an individual, therefore, persons conducting such tests should adhere to the strictest standards of laboratory performance. Only qualified and experienced individuals with proper laboratory equipment should perform these analyses. The standards of laboratory performance must meet local legal and forensic requirements. Access to patient samples and laboratory records must be restricted in order to prevent the tampering of samples and results. In order to maintain confidentiality, the results must be communicated only to the medical review officer. Chain-of-custody documents and all file so that they can be examined in case of a legal challenge. The laboratory must have a complete record on quality control. Finally, specific initial and confirmatory testing requirements should be met. PMID:7920539

  9. Qualification test results for the TIRS cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, Eric; Gully, Wilfred; Marquardt, Jennifer; Boyle, Robert; Hale, Taylor

    2012-06-01

    Ball Aerospace has completed qualification testing of its flight Stirling-cycle mechanical cryocooler for the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), an instrument slated to fly on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) platform. The TIRS cooler, developed under subcontract to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, consists of a sophisticated and highly reliable, two-stage, fixed regenerator Stirling cryocooler and its drive electronics. The TIRS cooler provides 2 W of 38 K cooling to the TIRS detectors and 9.8 W shield cooling to 85 K for less than 225 W total input power. Performance test results are reported.

  10. Blast injuries.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Stephen J; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Bonnett, Carl J; Pons, Peter T; Cantrill, Stephen V

    2009-08-01

    Health-care providers are increasingly faced with the possibility of needing to care for people injured in explosions, but can often, however, feel undertrained for the unique aspects of the patient's presentation and management. Although most blast-related injuries (eg, fragmentation injuries from improvised explosive devices and standard military explosives) can be managed in a similar manner to typical penetrating or blunt traumatic injuries, injuries caused by the blast pressure wave itself cannot. The blast pressure wave exerts forces mainly at air-tissue interfaces within the body, and the pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and auditory systems are at greatest risk. Arterial air emboli arising from severe pulmonary injury can cause ischaemic complications-especially in the brain, heart, and intestinal tract. Attributable, in part, to the scene chaos that undoubtedly exists, poor triage and missed diagnosis of blast injuries are substantial concerns because injuries can be subtle or their presentation can be delayed. Management of these injuries can be a challenge, compounded by potentially conflicting treatment goals. This Seminar aims to provide a thorough overview of these unique primary blast injuries and their management. PMID:19631372

  11. Testing SPH Against Experimental Laboratory Impact Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruesch, L. S.; Asphaug, E.

    2002-09-01

    The smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code is the leading technique for modeling meteoroid collisions into asteroids with realistic geologies and shapes (e.g. Asphaug et al., Icarus 1996, "Mechanical and geological effects of impact cratering on Ida"). However, it is important to test the code against results from laboratory impact experiments whenever they become available. Recently, Housen and Holsapple (Icarus 1999, "Scale effects in strength-dominated collisions of rocky asteroids") carried out a controlled set of laboratory experiments designed to examine the dependence of a body's strength on its size, and found an inverse relationship. We are currently running a set of numerical simulations to test the validity of the SPH code by reproducing the findings of these experiments. Our results will be reported at the meeting.

  12. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  13. Boeing's STAR-FODB test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Martin E.; de la Chapelle, Michael; Van Ausdal, Arthur W.

    1995-05-01

    Boeing has successfully concluded a 2 1/2 year, two phase developmental contract for the STAR-Fiber Optic Data Bus (FODB) that is intended for future space-based applications. The first phase included system analysis, trade studies, behavior modeling, and architecture and protocal selection. During this phase we selected AS4074 Linear Token Passing Bus (LTPB) protocol operating at 200 Mbps, along with the passive, star-coupled fiber media. The second phase involved design, build, integration, and performance and environmental test of brassboard hardware. The resulting brassboard hardware successfully passed performance testing, providing 200 Mbps operation with a 32 X 32 star-coupled medium. This hardware is suitable for a spaceflight experiment to validate ground testing and analysis and to demonstrate performace in the intended environment. The fiber bus interface unit (FBIU) is a multichip module containing transceiver, protocol, and data formatting chips, buffer memory, and a station management controller. The FBIU has been designed for low power, high reliability, and radiation tolerance. Nine FBIUs were built and integrated with the fiber optic physical layer consisting of the fiber cable plant (FCP) and star coupler assembly (SCA). Performance and environmental testing, including radiation exposure, was performed on selected FBIUs and the physical layer. The integrated system was demonstrated with a full motion color video image transfer across the bus while simultaneously performing utility functions with a fiber bus control module (FBCM) over a telemetry and control (T&C) bus, in this case AS1773.

  14. Blast impact behaviour of concrete with different fibre reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drdlová, Martina; Čechmánek, René; Řídký, Radek

    2015-09-01

    The paper summarizes the results of the development of special concrete intended for the explosion resistance applications, with the emphasis on minimal secondary fragments formation at the explosion. The fine-grained concrete matrix has been reinforced by various types of short dispersed fibers (metallic, mineral and polymer) of different sizes and by their combination and the effect of the fibre reinforcement on the physico-mechanical properties and blast resistance was observed. The concrete prism specimens have been subjected to the determination of mechanical parameters (compressive and flexural strength at quasi-static load). The blast tests were conducted on the slab specimens prepared from selected mixtures. The material characteristics and explosion test data have been used for numerical investigation, which defined the optimal wall composition and dimensions of the concrete element which should resist the explosion defined by type, size, weight and placement of the blast. In the next step the test elements resistance was verified by real explosion test.

  15. Aquifer test results, Green Swamp area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbals, C.H.; Grubb, Hayes F.

    1982-01-01

    An aquifer test conducted in the Green Swamp area December 15-16 , 1975 was designed to stress the uppermost part of the Floridan aquifer so that the leakage characteristics of the overlying confining bed could be determined. A well tapping the upper part of the Floridan aquifer was pumped at a rate of about 1,040 gallons per minute for 35 hours; drawdown was measured in the Floridan aquifer and in two horizons in the confining bed. Analysis of the data indicates that the transmissivity of the uppper 160 feet of the Floridan is 13,000 square feet per day, the storage coefficient is about 0.0002.5, and the overlying confining bed leakance coefficient is about 0.02 to 0.025 per day. The vertical hydraulic diffusivity of the confining bed ranged from 610 square feet per day to 16,000 square feet per day. Results of the test indicate that, in the area of the test site, a Floridan aquifer well field would induce additional recharge to the Floridan. As a result of that increased recharge , water levels in the surficial aquifer would tend to stand lower, runoff from the area would tend to be less, and, perhaps, evapotranspiration would be less than normal.(USGS)

  16. Operation Plumbbob. Project 1. 2. Field test of a system for measuring blast phenomena by airborne gages. Preliminary report May-Sep 57

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Project 1.2 participated in Operation Plumbbob in order to proof test prototype air-blast instrumentation for Operation Hardtack and to train personnel in handling this experiment under field conditions. The air-blast systems consisted of (1) parachute-supported canisters containing self-recording mechanical pressure gages that were deployed by means of rockets and (2) balloon-supported pressure instrumentation. The pressure and recording equipment were used with both the balloon and rocket systems. Pressure-time records were obtained in all cases except one. In one of the rockets a pressure record was not obtained, due to a failure in the electrical system. There were several defects noted in the system, none of which are considered serious. The general performance of the system was satisfactory. It was concluded that the basic design was sound.

  17. Highly Loaded Composite Strut Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. C.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Barnard, Ansley; Phelps, James E.; McKeney, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Highly loaded composite struts from a proposed truss-based Altair lunar lander descent stage concept were selected for development under NASA's Advanced Composites Technology program. Predicted compressive member forces during launch and ascent of over -100,000 lbs were much greater than the tensile loads. Therefore, compressive failure modes, including structural stability, were primary design considerations. NASA's industry partner designed and built highly loaded struts that were delivered to NASA for testing. Their design, fabricated on a washout mandrel, had a uniform-diameter composite tube with composite tapered ends. Each tapered end contained a titanium end fitting with facing conical ramps that are overlaid and overwrapped with composite materials. The highly loaded struts were loaded in both tension and compression, with ultimate failure produced in compression. Results for the two struts tested are presented and discussed, along with measured deflections, strains and observed failure mechanisms.

  18. Results from the STAR TPC system test

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, W.; Bieser, F.; Bossingham, R.

    1996-12-31

    A system test of various components of the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) detector, operating in concern, has recently come on-line. Communication between a major sub-detector, a sector of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), and the trigger, data acquisition and slow controls systems has been established, enabling data from cosmic ray muons to be collected. First results from an analysis of the TPC data are presented. These include measurements of system noise, electronic parameters such as amplifier gains and pedestal values, and tracking resolution for cosmic ray muons and laser induced ionization tracks. A discussion on the experience gained in integrating the different components for the system test is also given.

  19. GENIE Flight Test Results and System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Tye; Paschall, Stephen, II; Crain, Timothy P., II; Demars, Kyle; Bishop, Robert

    2011-01-01

    NASA has envisioned a suite of lander test vehicles that will be flown in Earth s atmosphere to incrementally demonstrate applicable lunar lander performance in the terrestrial environment. As each terrestrial rocket progresses in maturity, relevant space flight technology matures to a higher technology readiness level, preparing it for inclusion on a future lunar lander design.. NASA s "Project M" lunar mission concept flew its first terrestrial rocket, RR1, in June 2010 in Caddo Mills, Texas. The Draper Laboratory built GENIE (Guidance Embedded Navigator Integration Environment) successfully demonstrated accurate, real time, embedded performance of Project M navigation and guidance algorithms in a highly dynamic environment. The RR1 vehicle, built by Armadillo Aerospace, performed a successful 60 second free flight and gave the team great confidence in Project M s highly reliable and robust GNC system design and implementation. This paper provides an overview of the GENIE system and describes recent flight performance test results onboard the RR1 terrestrial rocket.

  20. Test Results from a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This presentation describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  1. Test Results From a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This report describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  2. PHASE I SINGLE CELL ELECTROLYZER TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J; Timothy Steeper, T

    2008-08-05

    This document reports the results of Phase I Single Cell testing of an SO{sub 2}-Depolarized Water Electrolyzer. Testing was performed primarily during the first quarter of FY 2008 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using an electrolyzer cell designed and built at SRNL. Other facility hardware were also designed and built at SRNL. This test further advances this technology for which work began at SRNL in 2005. This research is valuable in achieving the ultimate goal of an economical hydrogen production process based on the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle. The focus of this work was to conduct single cell electrolyzer tests to further develop the technology of SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis as part of the HyS Cycle. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by water-splitting. Like all other sulfur-based cycles, HyS utilizes the high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both thermodynamic efficiency and hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. The anode and cathode are formed by spraying platinum containing catalyst on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). In most testing the material of the PEM was NafionR. The electrolyzer cell active area can be as large as 54.8 cm{sup 2}. Feed to the anode of the electrolyzer is a sulfuric acid solution containing sulfur dioxide. The partial pressure of sulfur dioxide could be varied in the range of 1 to 6 atm (15 to 90 psia). Temperatures could be controlled in the range from ambient to 80 C. Hydrogen generated at the cathode of the cell was collected for the purpose of flow measurement and composition analysis. The test facility proved to be easy to operate, versatile, and reliable.

  3. Application of coupled analysis methods for prediction of blast-induced dominant vibration frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haibo; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Jianchun; Xia, Xiang; Wang, Xiaowei

    2016-03-01

    Blast-induced dominant vibration frequency (DVF) involves a complex, nonlinear and small sample system considering rock properties, blasting parameters and topography. In this study, a combination of grey relational analysis and dimensional analysis procedures for prediction of dominant vibration frequency are presented. Six factors are selected from extensive effect factor sequences based on grey relational analysis, and then a novel blast-induced dominant vibration frequency prediction is obtained by dimensional analysis. In addition, the prediction is simplified by sensitivity analysis with 195 experimental blast records. Validation is carried out for the proposed formula based on the site test database of the firstperiod blasting excavation in the Guangdong Lufeng Nuclear Power Plant (GLNPP). The results show the proposed approach has a higher fitting degree and smaller mean error when compared with traditional predictions.

  4. Blast joint

    SciTech Connect

    Uherek, R.J.; Claycomb, J.R.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes a blast joint. It comprises: at least two tubular members having threaded opposed ends; a plurality of erosion resistant rings encasing the tubular members; support means for supporting the erosion resistant rings about the tubular member; coupling shield means supported on at least one of the tubular members in telescoping relation about the erosion resistant rings; at least one tubular open ended slip sleeve mounted about the erosion resistant rings on the tubular members for providing a surface for engagement by pipe slips for suspending the tubular members in a well bore; and connector means for connecting the tubular members to form the blast joint.

  5. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  6. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-21

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  7. Dual color radiometer imagery and test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Alan; Carlen, Frank; Link, David; Zegel, Ferdinand

    1989-09-01

    Laboratory test results are presented for the Dual Color Radiometer (DCR), a device that furnishes simultaneous pixel-to-pixel registered thermal imagery in both the 3-5 and 8-12 micron regions. The DCR is unique in being able to achieve thermal and spatial resolutions of less than 0.1 C and 0.1 milliradian, respectively. The DCR has been designed for the maximum user-friendliness; an analysis control window contains commands which allow the user to tailor system-operating characteristics for the required image and data needed to satisfy mission requirements. An overview is given of a typical ground truth operation for the DCR system.

  8. Preliminary test results for the SVX4

    SciTech Connect

    Christofek, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Rapidis, P.; Utes, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    We present and summarize the preliminary test results for SVX4 chip testing. There are presently two versions of the SVX4. Version 2 has on-chip bypassing and Version 1 does not. The on-chip bypassing is a layer of transistors under the front-end analog pipeline that acts as a bypassing capacitor for the voltage supply. Its size is about a microfarad. We aggressively choose to test Version 2 because of this feature. The feature is advantageous for hybrid design because it eliminates the need for an additional passive component on the hybrid itself by placing it on the actual SVX4 die. Also, the SVX4 was designed to operate in two modes: D. and CDF. One can set which mode the chip will operate by placing a jumper in the proper position on the SVX4 chip carrier. In either mode, the chip can either use the operating parameters from the shift register or the shadow register. Similarly, this is selected by placing a jumper on the SVX4 chip carrier. This chip has this feature because it was unknown whether the new design of the shadow register would be operable. The shadow register is also call the SEU register or Single Event Upset register. An introduction into the functionality of the chip and an explanation on the difference between D. and CDF mode can be found in the SVX4 User's Manual [1].

  9. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  10. Blast induced subsidence in the craters of nuclear tests over coral

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.E.; Swift, R.P.; Glenn, H.D.; Bryan, J.B.

    1985-02-01

    The craters from high-yield nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds are very broad and shallow in comparison with the bowl-shaped craters formed in continental rock at the Nevada Test Site and elsewhere. Attempts to account for the differences quantitatively have been generally unsatisfactory. We have for the first time successfully modeled the Koa Event, a representative coral-atoll test. On the basis of plausible assumptions about the geology and about the constitutive relations for coral, we have shown that the size and shape of the Koa crater can be accounted for by subsidence and liquefaction phenomena. If future studies confirm these assumptions, it will mean that some scaling formulas based on data from the Pacific will have to be revised to avoid overestimating weapons effects in continental geology. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Results from the Cooler and Lead Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A

    2010-06-10

    The report presents the results of testing MICE spectrometer magnet current leads on a test apparatus that combines both the copper leads and the high temperature superconducting (HTS) leads with a single Cryomech PT415 cooler and liquid helium tank. The current is carried through the copper leads from 300 K to the top of the HTS leads. The current is then carried through the HTS leads to a feed-through from the vacuum space to the inside of a liquid helium tank. The experiment allows one to measure the performance of both cooler stages along with the performance of the leads. While the leads were powered we measured the voltage drops through the copper leads, through the HTS leads, through spliced to the feed-through, through the feed-through and through the low-temperature superconducting loop that connects one lead to the other. Measurements were made using the leads that were used in spectrometer magnet 1A and spectrometer magnet 2A. These are the same leads that were used for Superbend and Venus magnets at LBNL. The IL/A for these leads was 5.2 x 10{sup 6} m{sup -1}. The leads turned out to be too long. The same measurements were made using the leads that were installed in magnet 2B. The magnet 2B leads had an IL/A of 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A m{sup -1}. This report discusses the cooler performance and the measured electrical performance of the lead circuit that contains the copper leads and the superconducting leads. All of the HTS leads that were installed in magnet 2B were current tested using this apparatus.

  12. Advanced wing design survivability testing and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, J.; Tobias, M.

    1992-01-01

    Composite wings on current operational aircraft are conservatively designed to account for stress/strain concentrations, and to assure specified damage tolerance. The technology that can lead to improved composite wing structures and associated structural efficiency is to increase design ultimate strain levels beyond their current limit of 3500 to 4000 micro-in/in to 6000 micro-in/in without sacrificing structural integrity, durability, damage tolerance, or survivability. Grumman, under the sponsorship of the Naval Air Development Center (NADC), has developed a high-strain composite wing design for a subsonic aircraft wing using novel and innovative design concepts and manufacturing methods, while maintaining a state-of-the-art fiber/resin system. The current advanced wing design effort addressed a tactical subsonic aircraft wing using previously developed, high-strain wing design concepts in conjunction with newer/emerging fiber and polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials to achieve the same goals, while reducing complexity. Two categories of advanced PMC materials were evaluated: toughened thermosets; and engineered thermoplastics. Advanced PMC materials offer the technological opportunity to take maximum advantage of improved material properties, physical characteristics, and tailorability to increase performance and survivability over current composite structure. Damage tolerance and survivability to various threats, in addition to structural integrity and durability, were key technical issues addressed during this study, and evaluated through test. This paper focuses on the live-fire testing, and the results performed to experimentally evaluate the survivability of the advanced wing design.

  13. Boeing's High Voltage Solar Tile Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian J.; Harden, David E.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.

    2002-01-01

    Real concerns of spacecraft charging and experience with solar array augmented electrostatic discharge arcs on spacecraft have minimized the use of high voltages on large solar arrays despite numerous vehicle system mass and efficiency advantages. Boeing's solar tile (patent pending) allows high voltage to be generated at the array without the mass and efficiency losses of electronic conversion. Direct drive electric propulsion and higher power payloads (lower spacecraft weight) will benefit from this design. As future power demand grows, spacecraft designers must use higher voltage to minimize transmission loss and power cable mass for very large area arrays. This paper will describe the design and discuss the successful test of Boeing's 500-Volt Solar Tile in NASA Glenn's Tenney chamber in the Space Plasma Interaction Facility. The work was sponsored by NASA's Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Program and will result in updated high voltage solar array design guidelines being published.

  14. Results of the fourth Hanna field test

    SciTech Connect

    Covell, J. R.; Wojdac, L. F.; Barbour, F. A.; Gardner, G. W.; Glass, R.; Hommert, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The second phase (Hanna IVB) of a coal gasification experiment near Hanna, Wyoming, was completed in September 1979. The experiment attempted to link and gasify coal between process wells spaced 34.3 meters apart. Intermediate wells were positioned between the process wells so that the link could be relayed over shorter distances. Reverse combustion linking was attempted over a 22.9-meter and a 11.4-meter distance of the total well spacing. Thermal activity was generally noted in the upper 3 meters of the coal seam during the link. Two attempts to gasify over the 34.3-meter distance resulted in the propagation of the burn front at the coal overburden interface. Post-burn evaluation indicates fractures as major influencing factors of the combustion process. The Hanna IVB field test provided much insight into influence that geologic features have on in situ coal combustion. The influence of these faults, permeable zones, and cleats, on the air flow patterns can drastically change the overall results of a gasification experiment and should be studied further. The overall results of Hanna IVB were discouraging because of the rapid decline in the heating values for the production gas and the amount of coal gasified. With more complete geologic characerization prior to experimentation and proper well completions, it is believed that most of the subsurface operational problems encountered during Hanna IV could have been avoided.

  15. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Captain, Janine E.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Perusich, Stephen A.; Weis, Kyle H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted within the CMU rover "Scarab" and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in November 2008. This technology could be used on Mars as well. As described at the 2008 Mars Society Convention, the Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) supports the objectives of the RESOLVE project by capturing and quantifying water and hydrogen released by regolith upon heating. Field test results for the quantification of water using LWRD showed that the volcanic ash (tephra) samples contained 0.15-0.41% water, in agreement with GC water measurements. Reduction of the RH in the surge tank to near zero during recirculation show that the water is captured by the water beds as desired. The water can be recovered by heating the Water Beds to 230 C or higher. Test results for the capture and quantification of pure hydrogen have shown that over 90% of the hydrogen can be captured and 98% of the absorbed hydrogen can be recovered upon heating the hydride to 400 C and desorbing the hydrogen several times into the evacuated surge tank. Thus, the essential requirement of capturing hydrogen and recovering it has been demonstrated. ,

  16. Field Lysimeter Test Facility: Second year (FY 1989) test results

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.; Kanyid, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1990-04-01

    The Record of Decision associated with the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (53 FR 12449-53) commits to an evaluation of the use of protective barriers placed over near-surface wastes. The barrier must protect against wind and water erosion and limit plant and animal intrusion and infiltration of water. Successful conclusion of this program will yield the necessary protective barrier design for near-surface waste isolation. This report presents results from the second year of tests at the FLTF. The primary objective of testing protective barriers at the FLTF was to measure the water budgets within the various barriers and assess the effectiveness of their designs in limiting water intrusion into the zone beneath each barrier. Information obtained from these measurements is intended for use in refining barrier designs. Four elements of water budget were measured during the year: precipitation, evaporation, storage, and drainage. Run-off, which is a fifth element of a complete water budget, was made negligible by a lip on the lysimeters that protrudes 5 cm above the soil surface to prevent run-off. A secondary objective of testing protective barriers at the FLTF was to refine procedures and equipment to support data collection for verification of the computer model needed for long-term projections of barrier performance. 6 refs.

  17. Design of blast deflectors for a mine resistant vehicle by CFD/CSD simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lottati, I.; Eidelman, S.; Dillon, J.; Sergi, S.; Sousk, S.

    1996-12-31

    Results of a successful effort to significantly improve resistance of the tactical wheeled vehicle to mine detonation are reported. The design methodology is based on a comprehensive use of numerical simulation for blast/structure interaction and structure deformation as a result of blast load. Both Computational Fluid and Structural Dynamic (CFD and CSD) simulations are performed in three dimensions for the most comprehensive representation of the tactical wheeled vehicle geometry. Detailed three dimensional simulations of interaction of the blast waves generated by mine detonations against full configurations of tactical wheeled vehicles were validated by dedicated experiments. Three main scenarios for mine detonation were considered: command detonation of a mine under the truck crew cab, detonation of the mine under the front wheel, and detonation under the middle or aft wheel. Blast deflectors, designed using this comprehensive CFD/CSD methodology, were built and tested for blast loads generated by high explosive detonations. Results of these tests demonstrate a remarkable level of blast protection achieved by low cost deflectors of very simple geometry placed in key locations. The study demonstrates the advantages of including high level CFD/CSD simulations in blast deflectors design.

  18. Experimental Investigation on the Basic Law of the Fracture Spatial Morphology for Water Pressure Blasting in a Drillhole Under True Triaxial Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bingxiang; Li, Pengfeng

    2015-07-01

    The present literature on the morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not sufficient and does not take triaxial confining stress into account. Because the spatial morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not clear, the operations lack an exact basis. Using a large true triaxial water pressure blasting experimental system and an acoustic emission 3-D positioning system, water pressure blasting experiments on cement mortar test blocks (300 mm × 300 mm × 300 mm) were conducted to study the associated basic law of the fracture spatial morphology. The experimental results show that water pressure blasting does not always generate bubble pulsation. After water pressure blasting under true triaxial stress, a crushed compressive zone and a blasting fracture zone are formed from the inside, with the blasting section of the naked drillhole as the center, to the outside. The shape of the outer edges of the two zones is ellipsoidal. The range of the blasting fracture is large in the radial direction of the drillhole, where the surrounding pressure is large, i.e., the range of the blasting fracture in the drillhole radial cross-section is approximately ellipsoidal. The rock near the drillhole wall is affected by a tensile stress wave caused by the test block boundary reflection, resulting in more flake fractures appearing in the fracturing crack surface in the drillhole axial direction and parallel to the boundary surface. The flake fracture is thin, presenting a small-range flake fracture. The spatial morphology of the water pressure blasting fracture in the drillhole along the axial direction is similar to a wide-mouth Chinese bottle: the crack extent is large near the drillhole orifice, gradually narrows inward along the drillhole axial direction, and then increases into an approximate ellipsoid in the internal naked blasting section. Based on the causes of the crack generation, the blasting cracks are divided into three zones: the blasting shock zone, the axial extension zone, and the orifice influence zone. The explosion shock zone is the range that is directly impacted by the explosive shock waves. The axial extension zone is the axial crack area with uniform width, which is formed when the blasting fracture in the edge of the explosion shock zone extends along the drillhole wall. The extension of the orifice influence zone is very large because the explosion stress waves reflect at the free face and generate tensile stress waves. In the water pressure blasting of the drillhole, the sealing section should be lengthened to allow the drillhole blasting cracks to extend sufficiently under the long-time effect of the blasting stress field of quasi-hydrostatic pressure.

  19. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and microhardness testing respectively.

  20. Analyzing Educational Testing Service Graduate Major Field Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    The Educational Testing Service (ETS) created the Graduate Major Field Test in Business (GMFT-B) for MBA students. This test is administered to all MBA classes at Jacksonville University for the purpose of measuring student academic achievement and growth, as well as to assess educational outcomes. The test is given in the capstone course,…

  1. What Do the Results of Genetic Tests Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic tests mean? What do the results of genetic tests mean? The results of genetic tests are ... type of result. For more information about interpreting genetic test results: The National Cancer Institute fact sheet ...

  2. What Do the Results of Genetic Tests Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Handbook > Genetic Testing > What do the results of genetic tests mean? The results of genetic tests are ... type of result. For more information about interpreting genetic test results: The National Cancer Institute fact sheet ...

  3. Summary of CPAS EDU Testing Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Leah M.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Davidson, John.; Engert, Meagan E.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Galaviz, Fernando S.; Galvin, Patrick J.; Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Orion program's Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is currently conducting its third generation of testing, the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series. This series utilizes two test articles, a dart-shaped Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and capsule-shaped Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), both of which include a full size, flight-like parachute system and require a pallet delivery system for aircraft extraction. To date, 15 tests have been completed, including six with PCDTVs and nine with PTVs. Two of the PTV tests included the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) provided by Lockheed Martin. Advancements in modeling techniques applicable to parachute fly-out, vehicle rate of descent, torque, and load train, also occurred during the EDU testing series. An upgrade from a composite to an independent parachute simulation allowed parachute modeling at a higher level of fidelity than during previous generations. The complexity of separating the test vehicles from their pallet delivery systems necessitated the use the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulator for modeling mated vehicle aircraft extraction and separation. This paper gives an overview of each EDU test and summarizes the development of CPAS analysis tools and techniques during EDU testing.

  4. Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

  5. Power Actuation and Switching Module Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Franco, Lauro; Jones, Loren; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treichler, John; Wester, Gene

    2006-01-01

    The X2000 Power System Electronics (PSE) is a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) task to develop a new generation of power system building blocks for use on future deep-space missions. The effort includes the development of electronic components and modules that can be used as building blocks in the design of generic spacecraft power systems. All X2000 avionics components and modules are designed for use in centralized or distributed spacecraft architectures. The Power Actuation and Switching Module (PASM) has been developed under the X2000 program. This component enables a modular and scalable design approach for power switching applications, which can result in a wide variety of power switching architectures using this simple building block. The PASM is designed to provide most of the necessary power switching functions of spacecraft for various Deep Space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. It is fabricated using an ASIC process that is tolerant of high radiation. The development included two application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and support circuitry all packaged using High Density Interconnect (HDI) technology. It can be operated in series or parallel with other PASMs. It can be used as a high-side or low-side switch and it can drive thruster valves, pyrotechnic devices such as NASA standard initiators, bus shunt resistors, and regular spacecraft component loads. Each PASM contains two independent switches with internal current limiting and over-current trip-off functions to protect the power subsystem from load faults. During turnon and turnoff each switch can limit the rate of current change (di/dt) to a value determined by the user. Three-way majority-voted On/Off commandability and full switch status telemetry (both analog and digital) are built into the module. This paper is a follow up to the one presented at he IECEC 2004 conference that will include the lessons learned and test results from the development.

  6. Monitoring and Testing the Parts Cleaning Stations, Abrasive Blasting Cabinets, and Paint Booths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Tracee M.

    2004-01-01

    I have the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) this summer. One of the EMO's tasks is to make sure the Environmental Management System is implemented to the entire Glenn Research Center (GRC). The Environmental Management System (EMS) is a policy or plan that is oriented toward minimizing an organization's impact to the environment. Our EMS includes the reduction of solid waste regeneration and the reduction of hazardous material use, waste, and pollution. With the Waste Management Team's (WMT) help, the EMS can be implemented throughout the NASA Glenn Research Center. The WMT is responsible for the disposal and managing of waste throughout the GRC. They are also responsible for the management of all chemical waste in the facility. My responsibility is to support the waste management team by performing an inventory on parts cleaning stations, abrasive cabinets, and paint booths through out the entire facility. These booths/stations are used throughout the center and they need to be monitored and tested for hazardous waste and material. My job is to visit each of these booths/stations, take samples of the waste, and analyze the samples.

  7. Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Candole, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  8. Honeycomb spacer crush stength test results

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1993-09-15

    This report discusses aluminum honeycomb spacers, which are used as an energy absorbent material in shipping packages for off site shipment of radioactive materials and which were ordered in two crush strengths, 1,000 psi and 2,000 psi for use in drop tests requested by the Packaging and Transportation group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the vendor and the SRTC Materials Laboratory performed crush strength measurements on test samples made from the material used to fabricate the actual spacers. The measurements of crush strength made in the SRTC Materials Laboratory are within 100 psi of the measurements made by the manufacturer for all samples tested and all test measurements are within 10% of the specified crush strength, which is acceptable to the P&T group for the planned tests.

  9. Flash Lidar Performance Testing: Configuration and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Johnson, Andrew; Chang, Daniel; Ek, Eric; Natzic, David; Spiers, Gary; Penniman, Steve; Short, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Lidar-based hazard detection and avoidance will enable safe landing in scientifically interesting terrain with higher hazard abundance. ASC GoldenEye flash lidar was tested at JPL as part of EDL technology development for Mars 2018

  10. Surface mine blasting near pressurized transmission pipelines. Report of investigations/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Siskind, D.E.; Stagg, M.S.; Wiegand, J.E.; Schulz, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The mining industry and regulatory agencies have requested guidance on blasting near buried transmission pipelines and safe vibration levels. The U.S. Bureau of Mines and the State of Indiana cooperated with AMAX Coal Company and its consultants to determine the effects of coal mine overburden blasting on nearby pipelines. Five pressurized 76-m pipeline sections were installed on the Minnehaha Mine highwall near Sullivan, IN for testing to failure. Four 17- to 51-cm diameter welded steel pipes and one 20-cm PVC water pipe were monitored for vibration, strain, and pressure for a period of 6 months while production blasting advanced up to the pipeline field. In contrast to previous studies of small-scale close-in blasting for construction, these tests involved overburden blasts of up to 950 kg per delay in 31-cm blast-holes. Analyses found low responses, strains, and calculated stresses from even large blasts. Ground vibrations of 120-250 mm/s produced worst case strains of about 25 pct of those resulting from pipeline operations and calculated stresses of only about 10-18 pct of the ultimate tensile strength.

  11. X-48B Preliminary Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the preliminary Flight tests of the X-48B development program. The X-48B is a blended wing body aircraft that is being used to test various features of the BWB concept. The research concerns the following: (1) Turbofan Development, (2) Intelligent Flight Control and Optimization, (3) Airdata Calibration (4) Parameter Identification (i.e., Determination of the parameters of a mathematical model of a system based on observation of the system inputs and response.)

  12. Heated Promoted Combustion-Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Herald, Stephen; Davis, S. Eddie

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the STD 6001 test 17 is to determine the flammability of materials in GOX at ambient temperature and at use pressure. The purpose of the new Heated Promoted combustion test is to determine the flammability of material in GOX at use temperature and pressure. The objective is to present the new heated promoted combustion method and show initial data and trends for three representative metals.

  13. Head injury and blast exposure: vestibular consequences.

    PubMed

    Akin, Faith W; Murnane, Owen D

    2011-04-01

    Young adults are more likely to suffer blast injury and traumatic brain injury (TBI) than other age groups. This article reviews the literature on the vestibular consequences of blast exposure and TBI and concussion. In addition, the vestibular test findings obtained from 31 veterans with a history of blast exposure and/or mild TBI are presented. The authors discuss loss of horizontal semicircular canal function and postural instability related to head injury. Preliminary data suggest the novel theory that otolith organs are uniquely vulnerable to head injury and blast exposure. PMID:21474007

  14. A Mouse Model of Blast-Induced mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rubovitch, Vardit; Ten-Bosch, Meital; Zohar, Ofer; Harrison, Catherine R.; Tempel-Brami, Catherine; Stein, Elliot; Hoffer, Barry J.; Balaban, Carey D.; Schreiber, Shaul; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Pick, Chaim G.

    2011-01-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are one of the main causes for casualties among civilians and military personnel in the present war against terror. Mild traumatic brain injury from IEDs induces various degrees of cognitive, emotional and behavioral disturbances but knowledge of the exact brain pathophysiology following exposure to blast is poorly understood. The study was aimed at establishing a murine model for a mild BI-TBI that isolates low-level blast pressure effects to the brain without systemic injuries. An open-field explosives detonation was used to replicate, as closely as possible, low-level blast trauma in the battlefield or at a terror-attack site. No alterations in basic neurological assessment or brain gross pathology were found acutely in the blast-exposed mice. At 7 days post blast, cognitive and behavioral tests revealed significantly decreased performance at both 4 and 7 meters distance from the blast (5.5 and 2.5 PSI, respectively). At 30 days post-blast, clear differences were found in animals at both distances in the object recognition test, and in the 7 m group in the Y maze test. Using MRI, T1 weighted images showed an increased BBB permeability one month post-blast. DTI analysis showed an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) and a decrease in radial diffusivity. These changes correlated with sites of up-regulation of manganese superoxide dismutase 2 in neurons and CXC-motif chemokine receptor 3 around blood vessels in fiber tracts. These results may represent brain axonal and myelin abnormalities. Cellular and biochemical studies are underway in order to further correlate the blast-induced cognitive and behavioral changes and to identify possible underlying mechanisms that may help develop treatment- and neuroprotective modalities. PMID:21946269

  15. Cryogenic optical testing results of JWST aspheric test plate lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Koby Z.; Towell, Timothy C.

    2011-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) is a circular 740mm diameter beryllium convex hyperboloid that has a 23.5nm-RMS (λ/27 RMS) on-orbit surface figure error requirement. The radius of curvature of the SMA is 1778.913mm+/-0.45mm and has a conic constant of -1.6598+/-0.0005. The on-orbit operating temperature of the JWST SMA is 22.5K. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC) is under contract to Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) to fabricate, assemble, and test the JWST SMA to its on-orbit requirements including the optical testing of the SMA at its cryogenic operating temperature. BATC has fabricated and tested an Aspheric Test Plate Lens (ATPL) that is an 870mm diameter fused silica lens used as the Fizeau optical reference in the ambient and cryogenic optical testing of the JWST Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA). As the optical reference for the SMA optical test, the concave optical surface of the ATPL is required to be verified at the same 20K temperature range required for the SMA. In order to meet this objective, a state-of-the-art helium cryogenic testing facility was developed to support the optical testing requirements of a number of the JWST optical testing needs, including the ATPL and SMA. With the implementation of this cryogenic testing facility, the ATPL was successfully cryogenically tested and performed to less than 10nm-RMS (λ/63 RMS) surface figure uncertainty levels for proper reference backout during the SMA optical testing program.

  16. Primary and secondary skeletal blast trauma.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Victoria A; Ramos, Vanessa; Shegogue, Candie; Whitworth, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study examines primary (resulting from blast wave) and secondary (resulting from disintegrated, penetrating fragments) blast trauma to the skeleton. Eleven pigs were exposed to semi-controlled blast events of varying explosive type, charge size, and distance, including some cases with shrapnel. Skeletal trauma was found to be extensive, presenting as complex, comminuted fractures with numerous small, displaced bone splinters and fragments. Traumatic amputation of the limbs and cranium was also observed. Fractures were concentrated in areas nearer the blast, but there was generally no identifiable point of impact. Fractures were more random in appearance and widespread than those typically associated with gunshot or blunt force injury events. These patterns appear to be uniquely associated with blast trauma and may therefore assist forensic anthropologists and other forensic examiners in the interpretation of skeletal trauma by enabling them to differentiate between blast trauma and trauma resulting from some other cause. PMID:21981586

  17. Results from Grimethorpe PFBC turbine cascade tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The test program at the Grimethorpe Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) facility included an assessment of the potential for deposition, corrosion, and erosion of gas turbine blade materials when exposed to PFBC off gases. Flue gas from the combustor was fed through three stages of cyclones before entering the cascade. The impulse foils were approximately the size and shape of the first stage blades in the GE MS-1002 gas turbine. The cascade operated through three test series, accumulating a total of 649 hours. The conditions experienced are summarized. The paper lists the alloys tested, and discusses the efficiency of the cyclones, the particle size distribution of the dusts not removed by the cyclones, and corrosion of the turbine blades. 4 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  18. Gifted Adolescents: A Handbook of Test Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, George S.

    The Governor's School of North Carolina is a residential summer program for talented and gifted juniors and seniors from all over the state. It is designed to provide a distinctive educational experience and to serve as an experimental laboratory for innovative instruction. This handbook reports on an extensive testing program carried out at the

  19. Phase C Flygt Mixer Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-06-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) teamed with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and ITT Flygt Corporation to conduct a test program evaluating shrouded axial propeller mixers (Flygt mixers) for heel removal in SRS Tank 19. SRS is identifying and investigating techniques to remove sludge heels from waste tanks such as Tank 19.

  20. Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic Energy Redirection and Release Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

  1. Blast shock wave mitigation using the hydraulic energy redirection and release technology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

  2. Liquid Motion Experiment Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato David J.; Dalton, Penni J.; Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steve

    1998-01-01

    The Liquid Motion Experiment (LME), designed to study the effects of liquid motion in rotating tanks, was flown on STS 84. LME was essentially a spin table that created a realistic nutation motion of scale-model tanks containing liquid. TWo spherical and two cylindrical transparent tanks were tested simultaneously, and three sets of such tanks were employed to vary liquid viscosity, fill level, and propellant management device (PMD) design. All the tanks were approximately 4.5 inches diameter. The primary test measurements were the radial and tangential torques exerted on the tanks by the liquid. Resonant frequencies and damping of the liquid oscillations were determined by sine sweep tests. For a given tank shape, the resonant frequency depended on fill level. For the cylindrical tanks, the resonances had somewhat different frequencies for the tangential axis (0.55 to 0.75 times spin rate) and the radial axis (0.73 to 0.78 times spin rate), and the tangential axis resonance agreed more closely with available analytical models. For the spherical tanks, the resonant frequencies were between 0.74 to 0.77 times the spin rate and were the same for the tangential and radial axes. The damping coefficients varied from about I% to 3% of critical, depending on tank shape, fill level, and liquid viscosity. 'Me viscous energy dissipation rates of the liquid oscillations were determined from sine dwell tests. The LME energy dissipation rates varied from 0.3 to 0.5 times the estimates obtained from scaling previous ground tests and spacecraft flight data. The PNDs sometimes enhanced the resonances and energy dissipation rates and sometimes decreased them, which points out the need to understand better the effects of PMD on liquid motion as a function of PMD and tank design.

  3. Code Verification Results of an LLNL ASC Code on Some Tri-Lab Verification Test Suite Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S R; Bihari, B L; Salari, K; Woodward, C S

    2006-12-29

    As scientific codes become more complex and involve larger numbers of developers and algorithms, chances for algorithmic implementation mistakes increase. In this environment, code verification becomes essential to building confidence in the code implementation. This paper will present first results of a new code verification effort within LLNL's B Division. In particular, we will show results of code verification of the LLNL ASC ARES code on the test problems: Su Olson non-equilibrium radiation diffusion, Sod shock tube, Sedov point blast modeled with shock hydrodynamics, and Noh implosion.

  4. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:23741416

  5. Mild Blast Events Alter Anxiety, Memory, and Neural Activity Patterns in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:23741416

  6. Blast Loading Experiments of Developed Surrogate Models for TBI Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, Matthew; Son, Steven

    2009-06-01

    This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical systems. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical PMMA shells followed by SLA prototyped skulls housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted with the simple geometries to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head due to impedance mismatches. Results from the strain correlations added to the theory of internal shearing between tissues.

  7. Conical isogrid adapter structural test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, J. E.; Slysh, P.

    1974-01-01

    The structural characteristics of isogrid composite structures are discussed. To demonstrate the feasibility of applying isogrid to conical structures, a full scale flanged isogrid conical adapter similar to the configuration of the D-1 Centaur equipment module was constructed. The adapter was tested to evaluate the response of the conical isogrid structure to various combinations of bending and axial compression loading. The analysis techniques for predicting conical isogrid structural capability are examined.

  8. Preliminary Results of Field Emission Cathode Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary screening tests of field emission cathodes such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, textured pyrolytic graphite, and textured copper were conducted at background pressures typical of electric thruster test facilities to assess cathode performance and stability. Very low power electric thrusters which provide tens to hundreds micronewtons of thrust may need field emission neutralizers that have a capability of tens to hundreds of microamperes. From current voltage characteristics, it was found that the CVD diamond and textured metals cathodes clearly satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim emission relation. The CVD diamond and a textured copper cathode had average current densities of 270 and 380 mA/sq cm, respectively, at the beginning-of-life. After a few hours of operation the cathode emission currents degraded by 40 to 75% at background pressures in the 10(exp -5) Pa to 10(exp -4) Pa range. The textured pyrolytic graphite had a modest current density at beginning-of-life of 84 mA/sq cm, but this cathode was the most stable of all. Extended testing of the most promising cathodes is warranted to determine if current degradation is a burn-in effect or whether it is a long-term degradation process. Preliminary experiments with ferroelectric emission cathodes, which are ceramics with spontaneous electric polarization, were conducted. Peak current densities of 30 to 120 mA/sq cm were obtained for pulse durations of about 500 ns in the 10(exp -4) Pa pressure range.

  9. Test results for robotic manipulator EMMA

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsower, D.C.

    1996-07-30

    Testing was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) headquarters in Gaithersburg, Maryland, where Grey Pilgrim has experimental space available under a Cooperative R & D Agreement (CRADA) with NIST. Under the CRADA, Grey Pilgrim is tasked with developing a version of EMMA suitable for deployment of a stereo camera on a NIST RoboCrane, a mobile platform with applications to several industrial environments (including hazardous materials) based on the concept of the Steward Platform, a structure with great strength and a minimum of material.

  10. Simulation of blast-furnace raceway conditions in a wire-mesh reactor: interference by the reactions of molybdenum mesh and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Long Wu; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti

    2006-12-15

    A novel trapped air injection system has been built for a wire-mesh reactor to enable tests with short exposure times to air that are intended to simulate typical residence times in blast-furnace raceways. Initial tests have shown that the molybdenum wire-mesh sample-holder reacts with O{sub 2} under conditions intended for this work. By varying the proportions of solid MoO{sub 2} (weight gain), vapor phase oxides (weight loss) may form, depending on reaction conditions. Oxide formation pathways thus become relevant to coal weight loss determinations during experiments. If, in addition to solid MoO{sub 2} formation, significant formation of vapor phase oxides occurs, then the weight change is more complicated to understand and the impact on the O{sub 2} concentration cannot be unravelled. Furthermore, it turns out that O{sub 2}-scavenging by the mesh affects the amount of O{sub 2} that is available to react with the coal sample. It was concluded that it is only possible to conduct reliable tests under conditions which the favor the formation of solid MoO{sub 2} only, as this leads to a quantifiable weight gain. Its impact can then be accounted for in the evaluation of the experimental weight change. In the case of MoO{sub 2} formation, the impact of the mesh oxidation on the amount of O{sub 2} available to react with the sample can also be estimated. It has been found that the wire-mesh reactor, equipped with the trapped air injection system, can be used to obtain valid data at up to 1600{sup o} C and 0.5 MPa. This pressure is similar to that of the blast-furnace raceway, but the temperature is several hundred degrees lower. However, preliminary tests have shown that useful kinetic data on the extents of reaction can be obtained with the equipment, provided it is operated under conditions that minimize the formation of vapor phase Mo oxides. 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Retinal Ganglion Cell Damage in an Experimental Rodent Model of Blast-Mediated Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Kabhilan; Kecova, Helga; Hernandez-Merino, Elena; Kardon, Randy H.; Harper, Matthew M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate retina and optic nerve damage following experimental blast injury. Methods. Healthy adult mice were exposed to an overpressure blast wave using a custom-built blast chamber. The effects of blast exposure on retina and optic nerve function and structure were evaluated using the pattern electroretinogram (pERG), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the chromatic pupil light reflex. Results. Assessment of the pupil response to light demonstrated decreased maximum pupil constriction diameter in blast-injured mice using red light or blue light stimuli 24 hours after injury compared with baseline in the eye exposed to direct blast injury. A decrease in the pupil light reflex was not observed chronically following blast exposure. We observed a biphasic pERG decrease with the acute injury recovering by 24 hours postblast and the chronic injury appearing at 4 months postblast injury. Furthermore, at 3 months following injury, a significant decrease in the retinal nerve fiber layer was observed using OCT compared with controls. Histologic analysis of the retina and optic nerve revealed punctate regions of reduced cellularity in the ganglion cell layer and damage to optic nerves. Additionally, a significant upregulation of proteins associated with oxidative stress was observed acutely following blast exposure compared with control mice. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that decrements in retinal ganglion cell responses can be detected after blast injury using noninvasive functional and structural tests. These objective responses may serve as surrogate tests for higher CNS functions following traumatic brain injury that are difficult to quantify. PMID:23620426

  12. The 757 NLF glove flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyan, L. Jim; Bielak, G. W.; Behbehani, R. A.; Chen, A. W.; Rozendaal, Roger A.

    1987-01-01

    A major concern in the application of a laminar flow wing design to commercial transports is whether laminar flow can be sustained in the presence of the noise environment due to wing mounted turbofan engines. To investigate this issue, a flight test program was conducted using the Boeing 757 flight research airplane with a portion of the wing modified to obtain natural laminar flow. The flight test had two primary objectives. The first was to measure the noise levels on the upper and lower surface of the wing for a range of flight conditions. The second was to investigate the effect of engine noise on laminar boundary layer transition. The noise field on the wing and transition location on the glove were then measured as a function of the engine power setting at a given flight condition. The transition and noise measurement on the glove show that there is no apparent effect of engine noise on the upper surface transition location. On the lower surface, the transition location moved forward 2 to 3 percent chord. A boundary layer stability analysis to the flight data showed that cross flow disturbances were the dominant cause of transition at most flight conditions.

  13. OPERA Resistive Plate Chambers underground test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergnoli, A.; Brugnera, R.; Candela, A.; Carrara, E.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Degli Esposti, L.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Di Troia, C.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Felici, G.; Gambarara, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gatta, M.; Grianti, F.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Monacelli, P.; Paoloni, A.; Stanco, L.; Tatananni, E.; Terranova, F.; Spinetti, M.; Stipcevic, M.; Sugonyaev, V.; Terminiello, L.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.

    2006-08-01

    The OPERA experiment [M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2000-028, SPSC/P318, LNGS P25/2000, July 10, 2000; M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2001-025, SPSC/M668, LNGS-EXP 30/2001 Add. 1/01, August 21, 2001] will study ν→ν oscillations through τ appearance on the 732 Km long CERN to Gran Sasso baseline. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with 44 layers of high resistivity bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) operated in streamer mode. Each layer covers about 70 m2. Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behaviour of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents. The measured noise maps agree with those obtained in the extensive quality tests performed at surface. Counting rates are below 20 Hz/m2. Single an multiple cosmic muon tracks were also reconstructed. The estimated efficiency is close to the geometrical limit and the very first measurements of the absolute and differential muon flux are in agreement with expectations.

  14. Using BLAST for performing sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Healy, Matthew D

    2007-01-01

    BLAST is a widely used genetic sequence comparison program developed at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). In this unit, three Basic Protocols and one Support Protocol are provided for general-purpose BLAST searches on the NCBI and ENSEMBL Web-accessible BLAST servers. Key parameters affecting how the search algorithm works are reviewed, with advice on modifying search parameters for specific situations. Many other public and private Web sites offer BLAST interfaces which may differ from those described in this unit, but the general principles will be similar. The Support Protocol describes how to obtain sequences in various formats from NCBI for use in BLAST searches. It is emphasized that no algorithm can be a substitute for biological understanding; performing a BLAST search takes only a few minutes but understanding the implications of the results takes much longer. PMID:18428415

  15. Automated Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Isaiah R.; Yulfo, Alyce R.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic grit-blasting machine removes melted-layer residue from electrical-discharge-machined surfaces of turbine blades. Automatic control system of machine provides steady flow of grit and maintains blast nozzles at proper distance and in correct orientation perpendicular to surface being blasted, regardless of contour. Eliminates localized excessive blasting and consequent excessive removal of underlying material, blasting of adjacent surfaces, and missed areas.

  16. Airlift recirculation well test results -- Southern sector

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.; Hiergesell, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A and M-Areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952--1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. A plume of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in the Lost Lake aquifer is moving generally southward with the natural flow of groundwater. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, a series of wells is being installed to contain and treat the plume. Airlift Recirculation Wells (ARW) are a new and innovative technology with potential for more cost effective implementation than conventional pump and treat systems. Two Airlift Recirculation Wells have been installed and tested to quantify performance parameters needed to locate a line of these wells along the leading edge of the contaminant plume. The wells proved to be very sensitive to proper development, but after this requirement was met, performance was very good. The Zone of Capture has been estimated to be within a radius of 130--160 ft. around the wells. Thus a line of wells spaced at 250 ft. intervals could intercept the contaminant plume. At SSR-012, TCE was stripped from the groundwater at approximately 1.2 lb./day. The longer term effect of the recirculation wells upon the plume and the degree of recirculation within the aquifer itself will require additional data over a longer time period for an accurate review. Data collection is ongoing.

  17. Recent results of the GAINS test flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girz, C.

    A demonstration flight of the Global Atmosphere-ocean IN-situ System (GAINS) Prototype III balloon is scheduled to occur in early summer 2002. The 18-m diameter PIII superpressure balloon, built by GSSL, Inc., will float a 135-kg payload at 16 km. Performance of the SpectraTM envelope will be assessed over two day-night cycles. The payload consists of line-of-sight communications for transmitting GPS position, and monitored parameters on balloon and payload state and the internal and external thermal environments. Primary termination is by radio command with several independent backup termination systems. Safe operation of the balloon is ensured by an onboard transponder that keeps the balloon under active air traffic control. The balloon is tracked by an aircraft that will record communications from the balloon and instigate termination of the flight. Mobile ground stations positioned at the launch and recovery locations will also be capable of recording and terminating the flight. A suite of trajectory forecast tools has been developed based on radiosondes and winds from numerical weather models. A GPS surface reflection experiment for determining ocean surface winds will be tested on this platform. Physical and electronic integration of the radio and mechanical systems was completed over the last two years. Data and videos from the June flight will be presented.

  18. Disability evaluation in acoustic blast trauma

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acoustic blast trauma is different from Noise induced hearing loss. Blast trauma can damage the tympanic membrane, ossicles and cochlea singly or in combination. It produces immediate severe hearing loss and may be associated with tinnitus and vestibular symptoms. Hearing loss recovers spontaneously in many cases but may be permanent in 30-55% cases. Thirteen patients working in an explosive manufacturing unit in Andhra Pradesh were exposed to blast trauma at work place. All these workers complained of immediate hearing loss and were subjected to audiological investigations. Methods: Initial evaluation showed a severe sensorineural type of hearing loss 10 of the 13 cases (77%). They were referred to our Medical board for disability evaluation after 2-3 years of initial injury. Pure tone audiometry indicated severe hearing loss in 12 of 13 cases (92%) that was not correlating clinically. Re-evaluation with Acoustic reflex and ABR (BERA) tests were done and permanent disability was evaluated with the results of these investigations. Observations: No significant hearing loss was found in most patients and these patients had minimal disability. Conclusion: Objective hearing tests should be carried out after one year or more before evaluation of permanent disability. PMID:26957811

  19. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

  20. Test results of a prototype dielectric microcalorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfafman, T. E.; Silver, E.; Labov, S.; Beeman, J.; Goulding, F.; Hansen, W.; Landis, D.; Madden, N.

    1990-01-01

    The initial development work on a dielectric microcalorimeter is presented. It focuses on the dielectric properties of the ferroelectric material KTa(1-x)Nb(x)O3 (KTN). Measurements of the temperature dependent dielectric constant are given together with the first alpha particle detection results from a prototype composite microcalorimeter operating at 1.3 K. A nonthermal mechanism for detecting 6 MeV alpha particles in a monolithic KTN sample is also reported.

  1. Brain injuries from blast.

    PubMed

    Bass, Cameron R; Panzer, Matthew B; Rafaels, Karen A; Wood, Garrett; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are the primary blast brain injury mechanisms in humans? (4) If TBI can present with clinical symptoms similar to those of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), how do we clinically differentiate blast TBI from PTSD and other psychiatric conditions? (5) How do we scale experimental animal models to human response? The preponderance of the evidence from a combination of clinical practice and experimental models suggests that blast TBI from direct blast exposure occurs on the modern battlefield. Progress has been made in establishing injury risk functions in terms of blast overpressure time histories, and there is strong experimental evidence in animal models that mild brain injuries occur at blast intensities that are similar to the pulmonary injury threshold. Enhanced thoracic protection from ballistic protective body armor likely plays a role in the occurrence of blast TBI by preventing lung injuries at blast intensities that could cause TBI. Principal areas of uncertainty include the need for a more comprehensive injury assessment for mild blast injuries in humans, an improved understanding of blast TBI pathophysiology of blast TBI in animal models and humans, the relationship between clinical manifestations of PTSD and mild TBI from blunt or blast trauma including possible synergistic effects, and scaling between animals models and human exposure to blasts in wartime and terrorist attacks. Experimental methodologies, including location of the animal model relative to the shock or blast source, should be carefully designed to provide a realistic blast experiment with conditions comparable to blasts on humans. If traditional blast scaling is appropriate between species, many reported rodent blast TBI experiments using air shock tubes have blast overpressure conditions that are similar to human long-duration nuclear blasts, not high explosive blasts. PMID:22012085

  2. Effect of Blast-Induced Vibration from New Railway Tunnel on Existing Adjacent Railway Tunnel in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qingguo; Li, Jie; Li, Dewu; Ou, Erfeng

    2013-01-01

    The vibrations of existing service tunnels induced by blast-excavation of adjacent tunnels have attracted much attention from both academics and engineers during recent decades in China. The blasting vibration velocity (BVV) is the most widely used controlling index for in situ monitoring and safety assessment of existing lining structures. Although numerous in situ tests and simulations had been carried out to investigate blast-induced vibrations of existing tunnels due to excavation of new tunnels (mostly by bench excavation method), research on the overall dynamical response of existing service tunnels in terms of not only BVV but also stress/strain seemed limited for new tunnels excavated by the full-section blasting method. In this paper, the impacts of blast-induced vibrations from a new tunnel on an existing railway tunnel in Xinjiang, China were comprehensively investigated by using laboratory tests, in situ monitoring and numerical simulations. The measured data from laboratory tests and in situ monitoring were used to determine the parameters needed for numerical simulations, and were compared with the calculated results. Based on the results from in situ monitoring and numerical simulations, which were consistent with each other, the original blasting design and corresponding parameters were adjusted to reduce the maximum BVV, which proved to be effective and safe. The effect of both the static stress before blasting vibrations and the dynamic stress induced by blasting on the total stresses in the existing tunnel lining is also discussed. The methods and related results presented could be applied in projects with similar ground and distance between old and new tunnels if the new tunnel is to be excavated by the full-section blasting method.

  3. Cognitive and self-reported psychological outcomes of blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury in veterans: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bolzenius, Jacob D; Roskos, P Tyler; Salminen, Lauren E; Paul, Robert H; Bucholz, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of explosives in combat has resulted in a large number of returning veterans suffering from blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and self-reported complications. It remains unclear whether this increase in self-reported difficulties is unique to the blast mechanism or stressful preinjury environment and whether cognitive-functioning deficits correspond with these difficulties in the postacute phase. This study examined the relationship between cognitive performance and self-reported psychological and somatic symptoms of blast-related mTBI compared with civilian mTBI, independent of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Twelve veterans with blast-related mTBI were compared to 18 individuals with civilian mTBI on cognitive tests and self-report questionnaires. Univariate analyses failed to reveal differences on any individual cognitive test. Further, veterans reported more psychological and somatic complaints. These self-reported difficulties were not significantly correlated with neuropsychological performance. Overall, preliminary results suggest that in the postacute phase, subjective complaints related to blast-related mTBI do not covary with objective cognitive performance. Additionally, cognitive outcomes from blast-related mTBI were similar to those of civilian forms of mTBI. Future studies should identify the cognitive and self-reported sequelae of blast-related mTBI independent of comorbid PTSD in a larger sample of veterans. PMID:24940794

  4. Blast vulnerability detected in novel blast-resistant germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research in artificially inoculated greenhouse tests and field nurseries identified new rice germplasm accession as being resistant to the common blast (Pyricularia grisea) races found in Arkansas (IB-1, IB-49, IC-17, IE-1, IE-1k, IG-1, and IH-1) and eliminated those accessions with major b...

  5. LTC American`s, Inc. vacuum blasting machine: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise.

  6. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Lee E; Fisher, Andrew M; Tagge, Chad A; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W; Goletiani, Cezar J; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A; Cantu, Robert C; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K; Wolozin, Benjamin L; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D; Budson, Andrew E; Kowall, Neil W; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F; Moss, William C; Cleveland, Robin O; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Stanton, Patric K; McKee, Ann C

    2012-05-16

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  7. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Lee E.; Fisher, Andrew M.; Tagge, Chad A.; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A.; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W.; Goletiani, Cezar J.; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M.; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A.; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F.; Moss, William C.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Stanton, Patric K.; McKee, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein–linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  8. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... laboratory must document all test result comparison activities....

  9. Repeated blast exposure alters open field behavior recorded under low illumination.

    PubMed

    Huang, Emerald; Ngo, Mai; Yee, Stuart; Held, Laura; Norman, Keith; Scremin, A M Erika; Scremin, Oscar

    2013-09-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) can have devastating behavioral consequences. This study was designed to evaluate the behavioral consequences of single or repeated bTBI, as evaluated by an open field (OF) test conducted in near-darkness to avoid confounding effects of illumination and photophobia. Sprague-Dawley rats under isoflurane anesthesia were exposed to a series of 3 sub-lethal blasts into a compressed air-driven blast chamber separated by 2 week intervals (n=11). Sham controls received anesthesia but without blast exposure (n=11). OF tests were performed 1 or 7 days after each blast using a computerized video tracking system in near-darkness to monitor spontaneous activity. Spatial and temporal variables calculated for both blast and sham groups were: Distance moved (cm) and time (s) spent in the center or periphery zones of the field, total distance traveled, speed in center and periphery zones, rearing events and non-linear regressions of distance moved and rearing events on time. Results showed that the sham group expressed the expected decrease (habituation) in total distance walked, and distance walked as well as speed in center and periphery in successive exposures to the OF while the blast group did not, a sign of impaired learning. The blast group also walked more and faster and demonstrated more rearing behavior, both considered OF signs of anxiety. These results indicate that OF outcomes of bTBI in animals have resemblance to alterations observed in human subjects with this condition and might be useful in evaluating the response of behavioral outcomes of bTBI to experimental treatments. PMID:23850767

  10. Dynamic Docking Test System (DDTS) active table frequency response test results. [Apollo Soyuz Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the frequency response test performed on the dynamic docking test system (DDTS) active table. Sinusoidal displacement commands were applied to the table and the dynamic response determined from measured actuator responses and accelerometers mounted to the table and one actuator.

  11. Concussive brain injury from explosive blast

    PubMed Central

    de Lanerolle, Nihal C; Hamid, Hamada; Kulas, Joseph; Pan, Jullie W; Czlapinski, Rebecca; Rinaldi, Anthony; Ling, Geoffrey; Bandak, Faris A; Hetherington, Hoby P

    2014-01-01

    Objective Explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with a variety of symptoms including memory impairment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Explosive shock waves can cause hippocampal injury in a large animal model. We recently reported a method for detecting brain injury in soldiers with explosive blast mTBI using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). This method is applied in the study of veterans exposed to blast. Methods The hippocampus of 25 veterans with explosive blast mTBI, 20 controls, and 12 subjects with PTSD but without exposure to explosive blast were studied using MRSI at 7 Tesla. Psychiatric and cognitive assessments were administered to characterize the neuropsychiatric deficits and compare with findings from MRSI. Results Significant reductions in the ratio of N-acetyl aspartate to choline (NAA/Ch) and N-acetyl aspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) (P < 0.05) were found in the anterior portions of the hippocampus with explosive blast mTBI in comparison to control subjects and were more pronounced in the right hippocampus, which was 15% smaller in volume (P < 0.05). Decreased NAA/Ch and NAA/Cr were not influenced by comorbidities – PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Subjects with PTSD without blast had lesser injury, which tended to be in the posterior hippocampus. Explosive blast mTBI subjects had a reduction in visual memory compared to PTSD without blast. Interpretation The region of the hippocampus injured differentiates explosive blast mTBI from PTSD. MRSI is quite sensitive in detecting and localizing regions of neuronal injury from explosive blast associated with memory impairment. PMID:25493283

  12. Rodent model of direct cranial blast injury.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Reed; Simard, Philippe F; Driscoll, Ian; Keledjian, Kaspar; Ivanova, Svetlana; Tosun, Cigdem; Williams, Alicia; Bochicchio, Grant; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosive blast is one of the most serious wounds suffered by warfighters, yet the effects of explosive blast overpressure directly impacting the head are poorly understood. We developed a rodent model of direct cranial blast injury (dcBI), in which a blast overpressure could be delivered exclusively to the head, precluding indirect brain injury via thoracic transmission of the blast wave. We constructed and validated a Cranium Only Blast Injury Apparatus (COBIA) to deliver blast overpressures generated by detonating .22 caliber cartridges of smokeless powder. Blast waveforms generated by COBIA replicated those recorded within armored vehicles penetrated by munitions. Lethal dcBI (LD(50) ∼ 515 kPa) was associated with: (1) apparent brainstem failure, characterized by immediate opisthotonus and apnea leading to cardiac arrest that could not be overcome by cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (2) widespread subarachnoid hemorrhages without cortical contusions or intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhages; and (3) no pulmonary abnormalities. Sub-lethal dcBI was associated with: (1) apnea lasting up to 15 sec, with transient abnormalities in oxygen saturation; (2) very few delayed deaths; (3) subarachnoid hemorrhages, especially in the path of the blast wave; (4) abnormal immunolabeling for IgG, cleaved caspase-3, and β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP), and staining for Fluoro-Jade C, all in deep brain regions away from the subarachnoid hemorrhages, but in the path of the blast wave; and (5) abnormalities on the accelerating Rotarod that persisted for the 1 week period of observation. We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction. PMID:21639724

  13. Initial test results using the GEOS-3 engineering model altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, G. S.; Clary, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Data from a series of experimental tests run on the engineering model of the GEOS 3 radar altimeter using the Test and Measurement System (TAMS) designed for preflight testing of the radar altimeter are presented. These tests were conducted as a means of preparing and checking out a detailed test procedure to be used in running similar tests on the GEOS 3 protoflight model altimeter systems. The test procedures and results are also included.

  14. 12 CFR 325.207 - Publication of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Publication of stress test results. 325.207... GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.207 Publication of stress test results. (a... annual stress test in the period starting June 15 and ending June 30. (2) An over $50 billion...

  15. 12 CFR 325.207 - Publication of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Publication of stress test results. 325.207... GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.207 Publication of stress test results. (a... annual stress test in the period starting June 15 and ending June 30. (2) An over $50 billion...

  16. 49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of drug testing results. 199.109 Section... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.109 Review of drug testing results. (a) MRO appointment. Each operator...

  17. 13. BUILDING NO. 621, INTERIOR, TOP OF BLASTING TUB UNDERNEATH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING NO. 621, INTERIOR, TOP OF BLASTING TUB UNDERNEATH SAWDUST HOPPER. BLASTING TUB HAS DOUBLE WALLS OF 3/4' THICK STEEL ARMOR PLATE. CHARGE TO BE TESTED IS BURIED IN SAWDUST WITH FLAME RESISTANT CHEMICALS. ELEVATOR BEHIND TUB CARRIES SAWDUST BACK TO TOP OF SAWDUST HOPPER AFTER TEST IS COMPLETED AND SAWDUST IN BLASTING TUB HAS BEEN SIFTED FOR SHELL FRAGMENTS. LOUVERS IN WALLS ARE HINGED FREELY SO THEY OPEN TO RELIEVE BLAST PRESSURE DURING A TEST. - Picatinny Arsenal, 600 Area, Test Areas District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  18. Discrete fiber-reinforced polyurea systems for infrastructure strengthening and blast mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Natalia L.

    The research presented in this dissertation focused on evaluating the effectiveness of various blast mitigation materials and coating technologies to be used for enhancing blast resistance of structural members. Mechanical properties and blast mitigation performance of different discrete fiber-reinforced polyurea (DFRP) systems were investigated through experimental and analytical work. Four technical papers discuss the research efforts conducted within this dissertation. The first paper examined the development and characterization of different DFRP systems for infrastructure strengthening and blast retrofit. The behavior of various systems which consisted of chopped E-glass fibers discretely integrated in with the polyurea matrix was evaluated through coupon tensile testing. The addition of glass fiber to a polymer coating provided improved stiffness and strength to the composite system while the polyurea base material provided ductility. The second paper evaluated the behavior of hybrid, plain, and steel fiber-reinforced concrete panels coated with various polyurea and DFRP systems under blast loading. Hybrid panels demonstrated higher blast mitigation performance compared to plain and steel fiber-reinforced concrete panels due to sacrificial hybrid layer. The addition of plain polyurea or DFRP systems on the tension side improved panel performance by containing fragmentation during a blast event. The third paper presents an analytical investigation conducted using the explicit finite element program LS-DYNA to model panel and coating response under blast loading. Several modeling solutions were undertaken and compared for concrete formulation. Modeling results were analyzed and compared to the experimental work to validate the conclusions. The final paper describes an internal equilibrium mechanics based model developed to predict the flexural capacity of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with various DFRP systems. The developed model was validated using available experimental results. A parametric analysis was conducted on four aged bridges in Missouri using an internal force equilibrium approach and material characterization results of the various DFRP systems to evaluate an increase in flexural capacity due to strengthening systems.

  19. Color changing photonic crystals detect blast exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, D. Kacy; Xu, Yongan; Reneer, Dexter V.; Browne, Kevin D.; Geddes, James W.; Yang, Shu; Smith, Douglas H.

    2010-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the “signature wound” of the current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, with no objective information of relative blast exposure, warfighters with bTBI may not receive appropriate medical care and are at risk of being returned to the battlefield. Accordingly, we have created a colorimetric blast injury dosimeter (BID) that exploits material failure of photonic crystals to detect blast exposure. Appearing like a colored sticker, the BID is fabricated in photosensitive polymers via multi-beam interference lithography. Although very stable in the presence of heat, cold or physical impact, sculpted micro- and nano-structures of the BID are physically altered in a precise manner by blast exposure, resulting in color changes that correspond with blast intensity. This approach offers a lightweight, power-free sensor that can be readily interpreted by the naked eye. Importantly, with future refinement this technology may be deployed to identify soldiers exposed to blast at levels suggested to be supra-threshold for non-impact blast-induced mild TBI. PMID:21040795

  20. GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe Life Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was built as a life test unit for the loop heat pipes on the GOES N-Q series satellites. This propylene LHP was built by Dynatherm Corporation in 2000 and tested continuously for approximately 14 months. It was then put into storage for 3 years. Following the storage period, the LHP was tested at Swales Aerospace to verify that the loop performance hadn t changed. Most test results were consistent with earlier results. At the conclusion of testing at Swales, the LHP was transferred to NASA/GSFC for continued periodic testing. The LHP has been set up for testing in the Thermal Lab at GSFC since 2006. A group of tests consisting of start-ups, power cycles, and a heat transport limit test have been performed every six to nine months since March 2006. Tests results have shown no change in the loop performance over the five years of testing. This presentation will discuss the test hardware, test set-up, and tests performed. Test results to be presented include sample plots from individual tests, along with conductance measurements for all tests performed.

  1. Effects of Testing Conditions on Conceptual Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Pre-testing and post-testing is a commonly used method in Physics Education Research to assess student learning gains. It is well recognized in the community that timings and incentives in delivering conceptual tests can impact test results. However, it is difficult to control these variables across different studies. As a common practice, a

  2. Effects of Testing Conditions on Conceptual Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Pre-testing and post-testing is a commonly used method in Physics Education Research to assess student learning gains. It is well recognized in the community that timings and incentives in delivering conceptual tests can impact test results. However, it is difficult to control these variables across different studies. As a common practice, a…

  3. The blast wave mitigation effects of a magnetogasdynamic decelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S; Lundgren, Ronald G; Tucker, Don H

    2009-01-01

    This work computes shock wave jump functions for viscous blast waves propagating in a magnetogasdynamic decelerator. The decelerator is assumed to be a one-dimensional channel with sides that are perfect conductors. An electric field applied on the walls of the channel produces a magnetogasdynamic pump, which decelerates the flow field induced by a blast wave. The blast wave jump functions computed here are compared to magnetogasdynamic results for steady supersonic channel flow to quantify potential blast mitigation effects. Theoretical shock wave jump functions are also presented for inviscid blast waves propagating in a one-dimensional channel with an electromagnetic field.

  4. Nondestructive thermoelectric evaluation of the grit blasting induced effects in metallic biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreon, H.; Ruiz, A.; Barriuso, S.; González-Carrasco, J. L.; Caballero, F. G.; Lieblich, M.

    2013-01-01

    Grit blasting is a surface treatment process widely used to enhance mechanical fixation of the implants through increasing their roughness. Test samples of two metallic biomaterial alloys such 316LVM and Ti6Al4V were blasted by projecting Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles which yield a coarse and a fine rough surface. Then, the blasted samples were thermally treated before and after partial stress relaxation and measured by non-destructive thermoelectric techniques (NDTT), the non-contacting and contacting thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements respectively. It has been found that the TEP measurements are associated directly with the subtle material variations such as cold work and compressive residual stresses due to plastic deformation produced by grit blasting. The TEP measurements clearly demonstrate that the non-contact NDTT technique is very sensitive to the reverse transformation of the α'-martensite (blasted 316LVM) and the expected relaxation of compressive residual stresses with increasing the severity of the thermal treatment (blasted 316LVM and Ti-6Al-4V), while the contact NDTT results are closely related to grain size refinement and work hardening.

  5. Blast-Induced Pressure Fields Beneath a Military Helmet for Non-Lethal Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, David; Schwer, Douglas; Young, Theodore; Levine, Jeffrey; Dionne, Jean-Philippe; Makris, Aris; Hubler, Graham

    2008-11-01

    Coordinated experiments and numerical simulations investigated the pressure field surrounding a head with a helmet subjected to a blast wave typical of injurious but non-lethal threats. Experiments were conducted with C4 explosive charges ranging from 0.75 kg to 5 kg, and two anthropomorphic test mannequins (Hybrid III) located 3 m from the explosive. Experimental diagnostics included pressure sensors mounted at selected locations around each mannequin's head and in the free-field. Numerical modeling was done using a two-step approach. First, the blast and ground reflection were computed using a multi-component, reacting flow model. Second, the results were used to specify the boundary conditions for a three-dimensional unsteady simulation of the head-helmet complex subjected to a blast wave. The helmet was shown to provide protection against primary blast injury both in computations and experiments. The simulations indicate that pressure waves entering the gap between the helmet and head focus on the side of the head away from the blast and produce pressures comparable to that experienced on unprotected surfaces subjected to the blast.

  6. Suppression of blast pressure and noise from implosive-type connectors

    SciTech Connect

    Contestabile, E.; Thomas, C.

    1995-12-31

    Implosive-type electrical/mechanical connectors such as XECONEX have been used extensively for joining electrical transmission lines. This implosive action of explosives has also been applied to other forms of high energy metal working with excellent results. However, as with many other products, the inherent blast energy of these units has caused some environmental concerns especially when used in proximity to inhabited areas. This paper identifies the problem associated with the use of this type of connector in inhabited areas and details the efforts directed toward its solution. A test program was designed in which various materials and configurations were evaluated as potential candidates for reducing the blast pressure. The explosive charges were in two configurations; linear charges assembled with detonating cord and steel pipes wrapped with detonating cord. Various materials of varying densities and sizes were then used as a wrap around the explosive charge. The effectiveness of these wraps as blast suppressing mediums was established by monitoring the blast pressure and sound levels. Although, a complete solution was not found within the performance requirements, materials such as vermiculite and cardboard were found to be particularly useful in suppressing blast overpressures. Plotted against scaled distance on a TNT output curve, the data indicates the effectiveness of these materials. Also practical are the plots showing the mitigation of blast pressure as the suppressant material thickness is varied.

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of coagulation in swine subjected to isolated primary blast injury.

    PubMed

    Prat, Nicolas J; Montgomery, Robbie; Cap, Andrew P; Dubick, Michael A; Sarron, Jean-Claude; Destombe, Casimir; May, Philippe; Magnan, Pascal

    2015-06-01

    Blast is one of the major causes of injury and death in recent armed conflicts. With increased use of improvised explosive devices in Iraq and Afghanistan, more than 71% of combat casualties are caused by explosions. Blast injuries can range from primary (caused by shock wave) to quaternary injuries (e.g., burns), and such injuries can result in an acute coagulopathy denoted by a hypocoagulable state. It is not clear if this coagulopathy observed in victims of explosion is caused by local or general effect of the primary blast injury itself. In this study, 13 pigs were subjected to severe isolated open-field blast injury and we measured indices of coagulation impairment during the first hour after injury: ROTEM, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, coagulation factors, thrombin generation potential, platelet count, platelet activation, platelet function, and procoagulant microparticle formation. After 1 h, the mortality was 33%. No coagulation dysfunction was observed in the survivors in this period. This study presented a highly reproducible and consistent isolated blast injury in large mammals with comprehensive coagulation testing. The data suggest that isolated primary blast injury is not responsible for acute coagulopathy of trauma in victims of explosion but seems to lead to an early hypercoagulable state. PMID:25643012

  8. Study of blast event propagation in different media using a novel ultrafast miniature optical pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Hongtao; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

    2011-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI, also called intracranial injury) is a high potential threat to our soldiers. A helmet structural health monitoring system can be effectively used to study the effects of ballistic/blast events on the helmet and human skull to prevent soldiers from TBI. However, one of the biggest challenges lies in that the pressure sensor installed inside the helmet system must be fast enough to capture the blast wave during the transient period. In this paper, an ultrafast optical fiber sensor is presented to measure the blast signal. The sensor is based on a Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometeric principle. An FP cavity is built between the endface of an etched optical fiber tip and the silica thin diaphragm attached on the end of a multimode optical fiber. The sensor is small enough to be installed in different locations of a helmet to measure blast pressure simultaneously. Several groups of tests regarding multi-layer blast events were conducted to evaluate the sensors' performance. The sensors were mounted in different segments of a shock tube side by side with the reference sensors, to measure a rapidly increasing pressure. The segments of the shock tube were filled with different media. The results demonstrated that our sensors' responses agreed well with those from the electrical reference sensors. In addition, the home-made shock tube could provide a good resource to study the propagation of blast event in different media.

  9. Experimental studies on intake headloss of a blasted lake tap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, James; Billstein, Mats; Engström, Fredrik; Strand, Rikard

    2014-03-01

    In existing reservoirs, construction of an intake is sometimes achieved by so-called lake tapping, a submerged tunnel piercing by blasting out the rock plug at the intake. The blasting process involves phases of rock, water, air and gas released from the explosive charge; the resulting entrance profile often differs from design assumptions. The intake headloss is a factor of concern for power generation. For a vertical intake formed by lake tapping, experiments have been carried out in a 1:30 physical model to examine the effect of entrance shapes on intake headlosses. The purpose is that, if there is potential to reduce the headlosses, the originally blasted intake shape would be modified. In the model, five alternative shapes are evaluated. The test results show that to enlarge the vertical shaft area is the most effective way to reduce the intake headloss; to further blast out a narrow channel upstream does not give much effect. Bearing in mind the risk of free-surface vortex at the intake, the influence of the intake modifications on vortex is also checked.

  10. Nucleon Form Factors from BLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, Michael

    2009-08-04

    The BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) experiment has been carried out at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center to study spin-dependent electron scattering from protons and deuterons with small systematic uncertainties. The experiment used a longitudinally polarized, intense electron beam stored in the Bates South Hall Ring in combination with isotopically pure, highly-polarized internal targets of polarized hydrogen and vector- and tensor-polarized deuterium from an atomic beam source. The BLAST data have been used to extract precise results for the elastic form factor ratios G{sub E}/G{sub M} of the proton and the neutron at low momentum transfer.

  11. Numerical study of rock blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, Yu. P.; Bakeev, R. A.; Yudin, A. S.; Kuznetsova, N. S.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation results on fracture of a concrete block due to dynamic explosive loads applied to the walls of a blast hole. Considered in the study is the influence of the pulse shape and rock properties on the pattern of irreversible deformation and cracking. It is found that a fractured zone bounded by a plastically deformed contour always arises around the explosion site. Comparison of elastoplastic deformation and fracture induced in the concrete block by explosion pulses of different durations and amplitudes shows that shorter pulses with higher amplitudes and steeper rise times provide a higher blasting efficiency.

  12. Therapeutic polo-like kinase 1 inhibition results in mitotic arrest and subsequent cell death of blasts in the bone marrow of AML patients and has similar effects in non-neoplastic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Münch, Claudia; Dragoi, Diana; Frey, Anna-Verena; Thurig, Katja; Lübbert, Michael; Wäsch, Ralph; Bogatyreva, Lioudmila; Hauschke, Dieter; Lassmann, Silke; Werner, Martin; May, Annette M

    2015-04-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is an important regulator of the cell cycle and is overexpressed in various solid and hematological malignancies. Small molecule inhibitors targeting PLK1, such as BI2536 or BI6727 (Volasertib) are a promising therapeutic approach in such malignancies. Here, we show a loss of specifically localized PLK1 in AML blasts in vivo, accompanied by mitotic arrest with transition into apoptosis, in bone marrow biopsies of AML patients after treatment with BI2536. We verify these results in live cell imaging experiments with the AML cell line HL-60, and demonstrate that non-neoplastic, immortalized lymphoblastoid cells are also sensitive to PLK1 inhibition. It is demonstrated that normal granulopoietic precursors have similar PLK1 expression levels as leukemic blasts. These results are in line with the adverse effects of PLK1 inhibition and underline the great potential of PLK1 inhibitors in the treatment of AML. PMID:25697066

  13. Low-Cost Blast Wave Generator for Studies of Hearing Loss and Brain Injury: Blast Wave Effects in Closed Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Andrew J.; Hayes, Sarah H.; Rao, Abhiram S.; Allman, Brian L.; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Ding, Dalian; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lobarinas, Edward; Mollendorf, Joseph C.; Salvi, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Military personnel and civilians living in areas of armed conflict have increased risk of exposure to blast overpressures that can cause significant hearing loss and/or brain injury. The equipment used to simulate comparable blast overpressures in animal models within laboratory settings is typically very large and prohibitively expensive. New Method To overcome the fiscal and space limitations introduced by previously reported blast wave generators, we developed a compact, low-cost blast wave generator to investigate the effects of blast exposures on the auditory system and brain. Results The blast wave generator was constructed largely from off the shelf components, and reliably produced blasts with peak sound pressures of up to 198 dB SPL (159.3 kPa) that were qualitatively similar to those produced from muzzle blasts or explosions. Exposure of adult rats to 3 blasts of 188 dB peak SPL (50.4 kPa) resulted in significant loss of cochlear hair cells, reduced outer hair cell function and a decrease in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Comparison to existing methods Existing blast wave generators are typically large, expensive, and are not commercially available. The blast wave generator reported here provides a low-cost method of generating blast waves in a typical laboratory setting. Conclusions This compact blast wave generator provides scientists with a low cost device for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in blast wave injury to the rodent cochlea and brain that may model many of the damaging effects sustained by military personnel and civilians exposed to intense blasts. PMID:25597910

  14. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  15. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  16. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  17. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  18. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  19. 12 CFR 252.148 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.148... RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Covered Companies § 252.148 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure...

  20. 12 CFR 252.148 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.148... RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Covered Companies § 252.148 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure...

  1. 12 CFR 252.157 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.157... RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test... Companies § 252.157 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure of results—(1) In general....

  2. 12 CFR 252.157 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.157... RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test... Companies § 252.157 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure of results—(1) In general....

  3. Effects of Filtering on Experimental Blast Overpressure Measurements.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Vanessa D; Kemper, Andrew R; Duma, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    When access to live-fire test facilities is limited, experimental studies of blast-related injuries necessitate the use of a shock tube or Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS) to mimic free-field blast overpressure. However, modeling blast overpressure in a laboratory setting potentially introduces experimental artifacts in measured responses. Due to the high sampling rates required to capture a blast overpressure event, proximity to alternating current (AC-powered electronics) and poorly strain-relieved or unshielded wires can result in artifacts in the recorded overpressure trace. Data in this study were collected for tests conducted on an empty ABS (“Empty Tube”) using high frequency pressure sensors specifically designed for blast loading rates (n=5). Additionally, intraocular overpressure data (“IOP”) were collected for porcine eyes potted inside synthetic orbits located inside the ABS using an unshielded miniature pressure sensor (n=3). All tests were conducted at a 30 psi static overpressure level. A 4th order phaseless low pass Butterworth software filter was applied to the data. Various cutoff frequencies were examined to determine if the raw shock wave parameters values could be preserved while eliminating noise and artifacts. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was applied to each test to examine the frequency spectra of the raw and filtered signals. Shock wave parameters (time of arrival, peak overpressure, positive duration, and positive impulse) were quantified using a custom MATLAB® script. Lower cutoff frequencies attenuated the raw signal, effectively decreasing the peak overpressure and increasing the positive duration. Rise time was not preserved the filtered data. A CFC 6000 filter preserved the remaining shock wave parameters within ±2.5% of the average raw values for the Empty Tube test data. A CFC 7000 filter removed experimental high-frequency artifacts and preserved the remaining shock wave parameters within ±2.5% of the average raw values for test IOP test data. Though the region of interest of the signals examined in the current study did not contain extremely high frequency content, it is possible that live-fire testing may produce shock waves with higher frequency content. While post-processing filtering can remove experimental artifacts, special care should be taken to minimize or eliminate the possibility of recording these artifacts in the first place. PMID:25996711

  4. Simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Ford, Corey C.

    2008-04-01

    U.S. soldiers are surviving blast and impacts due to effective body armor, trauma evacuation and care. Blast injuries are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military personnel returning from combat. Understanding of Primary Blast Injury may be needed to develop better means of blast mitigation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of blast direction and strength on the resulting mechanical stress and wave energy distributions generated in the brain.

  5. Test results of the DOE/Sandia 17 meter VAWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nellums, R. O.; Worstell, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of the test program of a 17 meter Vertical Axis Wind Turbine VAWT. Performance test results are discussed including difficulties encountered during the VAWT operation along with ways of solving these problems.

  6. Making Sense of Your Pap and HPV Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases (STDs) Making Sense of Your Pap & HPV Test Results Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... same symptoms or health problems. Cervical Cancer Screening Tests One important way to prevent cervical cancer is ...

  7. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  8. Evaluation of Liquefaction Susceptibility of Clean Sands after Blast Densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Posada, Carlos Alberto

    The effect of earthquakes on infrastructure facilities is an important topic of interest in geotechnical research. A key design issue for such facilities is whether or not liquefaction will occur during an earthquake. The consequences of this type of ground failure are usually severe, resulting in severe damage to a facility and in some cases the loss of human life. One approach to minimize the effect of liquefaction is to improve the ground condition by controlled blasting. The main limitations of the blast densification technique are that the design is mostly empirical and verification studies of densification have resulted in contradictory results in some case studies. In such cases, even though the ground surface settles almost immediately after blasting, common verification tests such as the cone penetration test (CPT), standard penetration test (SPT), and shear wave velocity test (Vs) suggest that the soil mass has not been improved at all. This raises concerns regarding the future performance of the soil and casts doubts on whether or not the improved deposit is still susceptible to liquefaction. In this work, a blast densification program was implemented at the Oakridge Landfill located in Dorchester County, SC, to gain information regarding the condition of a loose sand deposit during and after each blast event. In addition, an extensive laboratory testing program was conducted on reconstituted sand specimens to evaluate the mechanical behavior of saturated and gassy, medium dense sands during monotonic and cyclic loading. The results from the field and laboratory program indicate that gas released during blasting can remain trapped in the soil mass for several years, and this gas greatly affects the mechanical behavior of the sand. Gas greatly increases the liquefaction resistance of the soil. If the gas remains in the sand over the life of a project, then it will maintain this increased resistance to liquefaction, whether or not the penetration resistance increases with time. As part of this work, a methodology based on the critical state concepts was described to quantify the amount of densification needed at a certain project to make the soil more resistant to liquefaction and flow.

  9. Investigation of atmospheric blasts by fast radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dov, R.; Bushlin, Y.; Devir, A. D.; Lessin, A. B.; Mendelewicz, I.; Shvebelman, M.

    2014-06-01

    Blasts and detonations release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some of this energy is released through radiation in the whole optical spectrum. Measurement of this radiation may serve as a base for investigation of the blast phenomena. A fast multispectral radiometer that operates in proper chosen spectral bands provides extensive information on the physical processes that govern the blast. This information includes the time dependence of the temperature, area of the blast as-well-as of the aerosols and gases that are generated. Analysis of this data indicates the order of the detonation and provides good estimation on the masses and types of the high-explosives (HE) materials and their casing. This paper presents the methodology and instrumentation of fast multispectral radiometry in application to the blast measurement and analysis in a Near-ground Explosion Test (NET). In NET, the flash radiation of the blast was measured for two HE materials: TNT and composition B (CB). The investigation includes charges of different masses (0.25 - 20.0 kg) and of various casing materials (steel, Al, PVC), thickness (2 - 6 mm) and various casing type (open on both face ends and hermetically closed). Analysis of the data demonstrates the power of fast radiometry methodology and reveals the governing characteristics of atmospheric blasts.

  10. Windows .NET Network Distributed Basic Local Alignment Search Toolkit (W.ND-BLAST)

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Scot E; Zaragoza, Joaquin; Rodriguez, Javier R; Oliver, Melvin J; Payton, Paxton R

    2005-01-01

    Background BLAST is one of the most common and useful tools for Genetic Research. This paper describes a software application we have termed Windows .NET Distributed Basic Local Alignment Search Toolkit (W.ND-BLAST), which enhances the BLAST utility by improving usability, fault recovery, and scalability in a Windows desktop environment. Our goal was to develop an easy to use, fault tolerant, high-throughput BLAST solution that incorporates a comprehensive BLAST result viewer with curation and annotation functionality. Results W.ND-BLAST is a comprehensive Windows-based software toolkit that targets researchers, including those with minimal computer skills, and provides the ability increase the performance of BLAST by distributing BLAST queries to any number of Windows based machines across local area networks (LAN). W.ND-BLAST provides intuitive Graphic User Interfaces (GUI) for BLAST database creation, BLAST execution, BLAST output evaluation and BLAST result exportation. This software also provides several layers of fault tolerance and fault recovery to prevent loss of data if nodes or master machines fail. This paper lays out the functionality of W.ND-BLAST. W.ND-BLAST displays close to 100% performance efficiency when distributing tasks to 12 remote computers of the same performance class. A high throughput BLAST job which took 662.68 minutes (11 hours) on one average machine was completed in 44.97 minutes when distributed to 17 nodes, which included lower performance class machines. Finally, there is a comprehensive high-throughput BLAST Output Viewer (BOV) and Annotation Engine components, which provides comprehensive exportation of BLAST hits to text files, annotated fasta files, tables, or association files. Conclusion W.ND-BLAST provides an interactive tool that allows scientists to easily utilizing their available computing resources for high throughput and comprehensive sequence analyses. The install package for W.ND-BLAST is freely downloadable from . With registration the software is free, installation, networking, and usage instructions are provided as well as a support forum. PMID:15819992

  11. Blasting and blast effects in cold regions. Part 1. Air blast. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Contents include: ideal blast waves in free air; the shock equations for air blast; scaling procedures for comparison of explosions; reflection and refraction of airblast; effect of charge height, or height of burst; attenuation of air blast and variation of shock-front properties; air blast from nuclear explosions; air blast from underground explosions; air blast from underwater explosions; air blast damage criteria; effects of ambient pressure and temperature; explosions in vacuum or in space; air blast attenuation over snow surfaces; shock reflection from snow surfaces; shock velocity over snow; variation of shock pressure with charge height over snow; release of avalanches by air blast.

  12. Batch Blast Extractor: an automated blastx parser application

    PubMed Central

    Pirooznia, Mehdi; Perkins, Edward J; Deng, Youping

    2008-01-01

    Motivation BLAST programs are very efficient in finding similarities for sequences. However for large datasets such as ESTs, manual extraction of the information from the batch BLAST output is needed. This can be time consuming, insufficient, and inaccurate. Therefore implementation of a parser application would be extremely useful in extracting information from BLAST outputs. Results We have developed a java application, Batch Blast Extractor, with a user friendly graphical interface to extract information from BLAST output. The application generates a tab delimited text file that can be easily imported into any statistical package such as Excel or SPSS for further analysis. For each BLAST hit, the program obtains and saves the essential features from the BLAST output file that would allow further analysis. The program was written in Java and therefore is OS independent. It works on both Windows and Linux OS with java 1.4 and higher. It is freely available from: PMID:18831775

  13. Space shuttle holddown post blast shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larracas, F. B.

    1991-01-01

    The original and subsequent designs of the Solid Rocket Booster/Holddown Post blast shield assemblies and their associated hardware are described. It presents the major problems encountered during their early use in the Space Shuttle Program, during the Return-to-Flight Modification Phase, and during their fabrication and validation testing phases. The actions taken to correct the problems are discussed, along with the various concepts now being considered to increase the useful life of the blast shield.

  14. Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (or any space vehicle that enters an atmosphere) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future vehicle concepts.

  15. Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies (ITAGCT) has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future reusable vehicle concepts.

  16. The Next Generation BLAST Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galitzki, Nicholas; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A.; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J.; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C.; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeffrey; van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P.; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G.; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P.; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N.; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5-m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and 3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 μm. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn-coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid helium cooled cryostat will have a 28-day hold time and will utilize a closed-cycle 3He refrigerator to cool the detector arrays to 270 mK. This will enable a detailed mapping of more targets with higher polarization resolution than any other submillimeter experiment to date. BLAST-TNG will also be the first balloon-borne telescope to offer shared risk observing time to the community. This paper outlines the motivation for the project and the instrumental design.

  17. A summary of SEU test results using Californium-252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harboe-Sorensen, R.; Adams, L.; Sanderson, T. K.

    1988-12-01

    Results are reported from 4 years of single-event-upset tests on a wide range of devices and technologies, using Cf-252 having an average linear energy transfer of 43 MeV/(mg/sq cm). Sensitivity variations are highlighted, particularly for nominally identical devices. The significance of the testing and test data with respect to recent devices and technologies is discussed.

  18. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL-CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Test results from a demonstration of fuel-cell (FC) energy recovery and control of landfill gas emissions are presented. The project addressed two major issues: (i) the design, construction, and testing of a landfill-gas cleanup system; and (ii) a field test of a commercial phos...

  19. Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) has undergone ground and flight tests, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope. The preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wind, configuration are reviewed and the test results are discussed.

  20. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Diagnostic and Dispositional Tool after Mild-Moderate Blast Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Olga; Schaefer, Michele L; Wester, Brock; Lee, Yi-Chien; Boggs, Nathan; Conner, Howard A; Merkle, Andrew C; Fricke, Stanley T; Albanese, Chris; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by explosive munitions, known as blast TBI, is the signature injury in recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Diagnostic evaluation of TBI, including blast TBI, is based on clinical history, symptoms, and neuropsychological testing, all of which can result in misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis of this condition, particularly in the case of TBI of mild-to-moderate severity. Prognosis is currently determined by TBI severity, recurrence, and type of pathology, and also may be influenced by promptness of clinical intervention when more effective treatments become available. An important task is prevention of repetitive TBI, particularly when the patient is still symptomatic. For these reasons, the establishment of quantitative biological markers can serve to improve diagnosis and preventative or therapeutic management. In this study, we used a shock-tube model of blast TBI to determine whether manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) can serve as a tool to accurately and quantitatively diagnose mild-to-moderate blast TBI. Mice were subjected to a 30 psig blast and administered a single dose of MnCl2 intraperitoneally. Longitudinal T1-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h and at 14 and 28 days revealed a marked signal enhancement in the brain of mice exposed to blast, compared with sham controls, at nearly all time-points. Interestingly, when mice were protected with a polycarbonate body shield during blast exposure, the marked increase in contrast was prevented. We conclude that manganese uptake can serve as a quantitative biomarker for TBI and that MEMRI is a minimally-invasive quantitative approach that can aid in the accurate diagnosis and management of blast TBI. In addition, the prevention of the increased uptake of manganese by body protection strongly suggests that the exposure of an individual to blast risk could benefit from the design of improved body armor. PMID:26414591

  1. EDD-7 Electric Charge Point Meter test results

    SciTech Connect

    Mersman, C.R.

    1993-09-01

    The results of tests evaluating the electric switching portion of the EDD-7 Electric Charge Point Meter (ECPM) are presented. The ECPM is a modified parking meter that allows the purchase of 120 or 240 volt electric power. The ECPM is designed to make electricity available at any vehicle parking location. The test results indicate that the ECPM operated without failure thru a series of over current and ground fault tests at three different test temperatures. The magnitude of current required to trip the over current protection circuitry varied with temperature while the performance of the ground fault interruption circuitry did not change significantly with the test temperature.

  2. OsGF14b Positively Regulates Panicle Blast Resistance but Negatively Regulates Leaf Blast Resistance in Rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Yang, Jianyuan; Zhang, Shaohong; Zhao, Junliang; Feng, Aiqing; Yang, Tifeng; Wang, Xiaofei; Mao, Xinxue; Dong, Jingfang; Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Although 14-3-3 proteins have been reported to be involved in responses to biotic stresses in plants, their functions in rice blast, the most destructive disease in rice, are largely unknown. Only GF14e has been confirmed to negatively regulate leaf blast. We report that GF14b is highly expressed in seedlings and panicles during blast infection. Rice plants overexpressing GF14b show enhanced resistance to panicle blast but are susceptible to leaf blast. In contrast, GF14b-silenced plants show increased susceptibility to panicle blast but enhanced resistance to leaf blast. Yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrate that WRKY71 binds to the promoter of GF14b and modulates its expression. Overexpression of GF14b induces expression of jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis-related genes but suppresses expression of salicylic acid (SA) synthesis-related genes. In contrast, suppressed GF14b expression causes decreased expression of JA synthesis-related genes but activation of SA synthesis-related genes. These results suggest that GF14b positively regulates panicle blast resistance but negatively regulates leaf blast resistance, and that GF14b-mediated disease resistance is associated with the JA- and SA-dependent pathway. The different functions for 14-3-3 proteins in leaf and panicle blast provide new evidence that leaf and panicle blast resistance are controlled by different mechanisms. PMID:26467468

  3. 2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. 2006 Toyota Highlander-6395 Hyrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A160006395). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. 2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number 1N4CL21E27C177982). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. 2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K773007129). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This joint mobility KC lecture included information from two papers, "A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements" and "Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing," as presented for the International Conference on Environmental Systems in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The first paper discusses historical joint torque testing methodologies and approaches that were tested in 2008 and 2009. The second paper discusses the testing that was completed in 2009 and 2010.

  8. Dry ice blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  9. Triaxial and torsional shear test results for sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutter, Bruce L.; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Shen, C. K.

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the results of the laboratory tests conducted in triaxial and torsional apparatus. The purposes of this report are not only to support the calibration and verification of the bounding surface hypoplasticity model for granular soil but to provide a valuable data base for future research in numerical model simulation and design. Under this contract, two experiments were carried out: (1) Laboratory samples in the triaxial apparatus and hollow cylinder torsional apparatus; and (2) Centrifuge model tests including two and three-dimensional structures subjected to static and dynamic loadings. This report presents the results of triaxial tests including drained and undrained, monotonic and cyclic, and stress and strain controlled tests. The maximum stress ratio achieved in drained triaxial tests was significantly larger than that in undrained triaxial tests. Results of six hollow cylinder torsional and rotational shear tests are also presented. The results from different types are compared. Finally, the conclusions of these laboratory tests are also discussed. The test results indicate that the shape of phase transformation and failure surfaces were different when viewed in the pi-plane. It was also found that samples subject to rotational shear may be less likely to develop larger strain during undrained cycling than samples in triaxial compression/extension cyclic tests at similar stress ratios.

  10. Exposure of the thorax to a sublethal blast wave causes a hydrodynamic pulse that leads to perivenular inflammation in the brain.

    PubMed

    Simard, J Marc; Pampori, Adam; Keledjian, Kaspar; Tosun, Cigdem; Schwartzbauer, Gary; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2014-07-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by an explosive blast (blast-TBI) is postulated to result, in part, from transvascular transmission to the brain of a hydrodynamic pulse (a.k.a., volumetric blood surge, ballistic pressure wave, hydrostatic shock, or hydraulic shock) induced in major intrathoracic blood vessels. This mechanism of blast-TBI has not been demonstrated directly. We tested the hypothesis that a blast wave impacting the thorax would induce a hydrodynamic pulse that would cause pathological changes in the brain. We constructed a Thorax-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (TOBIA) and a Jugular-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (JOBIA). TOBIA delivered a collimated blast wave to the right lateral thorax of a rat, precluding direct impact on the cranium. JOBIA delivered a blast wave to the fluid-filled port of an extracorporeal intravenous infusion device whose catheter was inserted retrograde into the jugular vein, precluding lung injury. Long Evans rats were subjected to sublethal injury by TOBIA or JOBIA. Blast injury induced by TOBIA was characterized by apnea and diffuse bilateral hemorrhagic injury to the lungs associated with a transient reduction in pulse oximetry signals. Immunolabeling 24 h after injury by TOBIA showed up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha, ED-1, sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein in veins or perivenular tissues and microvessels throughout the brain. The perivenular inflammatory effects induced by TOBIA were prevented by ligating the jugular vein and were reproduced using JOBIA. We conclude that blast injury to the thorax leads to perivenular inflammation, Sur1 up-regulation, and reactive astrocytosis resulting from the induction of a hydrodynamic pulse in the vasculature. PMID:24673157

  11. Exposure of the Thorax to a Sublethal Blast Wave Causes a Hydrodynamic Pulse That Leads to Perivenular Inflammation in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Pampori, Adam; Keledjian, Kaspar; Tosun, Cigdem; Schwartzbauer, Gary; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by an explosive blast (blast-TBI) is postulated to result, in part, from transvascular transmission to the brain of a hydrodynamic pulse (a.k.a., volumetric blood surge, ballistic pressure wave, hydrostatic shock, or hydraulic shock) induced in major intrathoracic blood vessels. This mechanism of blast-TBI has not been demonstrated directly. We tested the hypothesis that a blast wave impacting the thorax would induce a hydrodynamic pulse that would cause pathological changes in the brain. We constructed a Thorax-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (TOBIA) and a Jugular-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (JOBIA). TOBIA delivered a collimated blast wave to the right lateral thorax of a rat, precluding direct impact on the cranium. JOBIA delivered a blast wave to the fluid-filled port of an extracorporeal intravenous infusion device whose catheter was inserted retrograde into the jugular vein, precluding lung injury. Long Evans rats were subjected to sublethal injury by TOBIA or JOBIA. Blast injury induced by TOBIA was characterized by apnea and diffuse bilateral hemorrhagic injury to the lungs associated with a transient reduction in pulse oximetry signals. Immunolabeling 24 h after injury by TOBIA showed up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha, ED-1, sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein in veins or perivenular tissues and microvessels throughout the brain. The perivenular inflammatory effects induced by TOBIA were prevented by ligating the jugular vein and were reproduced using JOBIA. We conclude that blast injury to the thorax leads to perivenular inflammation, Sur1 up-regulation, and reactive astrocytosis resulting from the induction of a hydrodynamic pulse in the vasculature. PMID:24673157

  12. 40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of test results. 204.57-5 Section 204.57-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.57-5 Reporting of test results. (a)(1) The...

  13. 12 CFR 252.156 - Reports of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....C. 552(b)) and the Board's Rules Regarding Availability of Information (12 CFR part 261). ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.156 Section... report the results of the stress test to the Board by January 5 of each calendar year in the manner...

  14. Comparison of Some Blast Vibration Predictors for Blasting in Underground Drifts and Some Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, Vaibhab Pramod; Dey, Kaushik

    2015-08-01

    Drilling and blasting are the most economical excavation techniques in underground drifts driven through hard rock formation. Burn cut is the most popular drill pattern, used in this case, to achieve longer advance per blast round. The ground vibration generated due to the propagation of blast waves on the detonation of explosive during blasting is the principal cause for structural and rock damage. Thus, ground vibration is a point of concern for the blasting engineers. The ground vibration from a blast is measured using a seismograph placed at the blast monitoring station. The measured vibrations, in terms of peak particle velocity, are related to the maximum charge detonated at one instant and the distance of seismograph from the blast point. The ground vibrations from a number of blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances are monitored. A number of scaling factors of these dependencies (viz. Distance and maximum charge/delay) have been proposed by different researchers, namely, square root, cube root, CMRI, Langefors and Kihlstrom, Ghosh-Daemon, Indian standard etc. Scaling factors of desired type are computed for all the measured blast rounds. Regression analysis is carried out between the scaling factors and peak particle velocities to establish the coefficients of the vibration predictor equation. Then, the developed predictor equation is used for designing the blast henceforth. Director General of Mine Safety, India, specified that ground vibrations from eight to ten blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances should be monitored to develop a predictor equation; however, there is no guideline about the type of scaling factor to be used. Further to this, from the statistical point of view, a regression analysis on a small sample population cannot be accepted without the testing of hypothesis. To show the importance of the above, in this paper, seven scaling factors are considered for blast data set of a hard-rock underground drift using burn-cut blast design. The possible step by step approach to establish a vibration predictor equation is also proposed.

  15. Comparison of Some Blast Vibration Predictors for Blasting in Underground Drifts and Some Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, Vaibhab Pramod; Dey, Kaushik

    2016-04-01

    Drilling and blasting are the most economical excavation techniques in underground drifts driven through hard rock formation. Burn cut is the most popular drill pattern, used in this case, to achieve longer advance per blast round. The ground vibration generated due to the propagation of blast waves on the detonation of explosive during blasting is the principal cause for structural and rock damage. Thus, ground vibration is a point of concern for the blasting engineers. The ground vibration from a blast is measured using a seismograph placed at the blast monitoring station. The measured vibrations, in terms of peak particle velocity, are related to the maximum charge detonated at one instant and the distance of seismograph from the blast point. The ground vibrations from a number of blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances are monitored. A number of scaling factors of these dependencies (viz. Distance and maximum charge/delay) have been proposed by different researchers, namely, square root, cube root, CMRI, Langefors and Kihlstrom, Ghosh-Daemon, Indian standard etc. Scaling factors of desired type are computed for all the measured blast rounds. Regression analysis is carried out between the scaling factors and peak particle velocities to establish the coefficients of the vibration predictor equation. Then, the developed predictor equation is used for designing the blast henceforth. Director General of Mine Safety, India, specified that ground vibrations from eight to ten blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances should be monitored to develop a predictor equation; however, there is no guideline about the type of scaling factor to be used. Further to this, from the statistical point of view, a regression analysis on a small sample population cannot be accepted without the testing of hypothesis. To show the importance of the above, in this paper, seven scaling factors are considered for blast data set of a hard-rock underground drift using burn-cut blast design. The possible step by step approach to establish a vibration predictor equation is also proposed.

  16. Blast furnace stove control

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R.; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J.; Chaubal, P.C.

    1998-12-31

    This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

  17. Centrifugal shot blast system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

  18. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2001-01-19

    This report provides the results of detailed hydrologic characterization tests conducted within newly constructed Hanford Site wells during FY 1999. Detailed characterization tests performed during FY 1999 included: groundwater flow characterization, barometric response evaluation, slug tests, single-well tracer tests, constant-rate pumping tests, and in-well vertical flow tests. Hydraulic property estimates obtained from the detailed hydrologic tests include: transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, effective porosity, in-well lateral flow velocity, aquifer flow velocity, vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity (within the well-screen section) and in-well vertical flow velocity. In addition, local groundwater flow characteristics (i.e., hydraulic gradient and flow direction) were determined for four sites where detailed well testing was performed.

  19. Blast injury of the ear: clinical update from the global war on terror.

    PubMed

    Cave, Kara M; Cornish, Elizabeth M; Chandler, David W

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of blast exposure on hearing status. This study retrospectively analyzed hearing thresholds and otologic complaints for >250 patients with blast-related injuries from the global war on terror. Of patients who received full diagnostic evaluations, 32% reported a history of tympanic membrane perforation, 49% experienced tinnitus, 26% reported otalgia (ear pain), and 15% reported dizziness. Expected hearing thresholds were computed by applying age-correction factors to hearing tests performed earlier in the service members' careers and before their most recent deployment. Expected hearing thresholds were significantly better than actual postdeployment thresholds, indicating that significant changes occurred in the patients' hearing that could not be accounted for by age. Results from this study underline the need for documentation of pre-and postdeployment hearing tests and prompt otologic evaluation for the blast-exposed population. PMID:17691685

  20. NASA Fastrac Engine Gas Generator Component Test Program and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Henry J., Jr.; Sanders, Tim; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This presentation consists of viewgraph which review the test program and the results of the tests for the Gas Generator (GG) component for the Fastrac Engine. Included are pictures of the Fastrac (MC-1) Engine and the GG, diagrams of the flight configuration, and schematics of the LOX, and the RP-1 systems and the injector assembly. The normal operating parameters are reviewed, as are the test instrumentation. Also shown are graphs of the hot gas temperature, and the test temperature profiles. The results are summarized.

  1. Finite Element Analysis and Test Results Comparison for the Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the comparison of test measurements and predictive finite element analysis results for a hybrid wing body center section test article. The testing and analysis efforts were part of the Airframe Technology subproject within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. Test results include full field displacement measurements obtained from digital image correlation systems and discrete strain measurements obtained using both unidirectional and rosette resistive gauges. Most significant results are presented for the critical five load cases exercised during the test. Final test to failure after inflicting severe damage to the test article is also documented. Overall, good comparison between predicted and actual behavior of the test article is found.

  2. Dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves encountering a density bump or void

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves that encounter various density structures (such as bumps, voids, or steps) in the surrounding ambient medium. We present and explain the characteristic response features that each type of density structure in the medium leaves on the forward shock (FS) and reverse shock (RS) dynamics for blast waves with either a long-lived or short-lived RS. We show that when the ambient medium density drops, the blast waves exhibit in some cases a period of an actual acceleration (even during their deceleration stage) due to adiabatic cooling of blast waves. Comparing numerical examples that have different shapes of bumps or voids, we propose a number of consistency tests that must be satisfied by correct modeling of blast waves. Our model results successfully pass these tests. Employing a Lagrangian description of blast waves, we perform a sophisticated calculation of afterglow emission. We show that as a response to density structures in the ambient medium, the RS light curves produce more significant variations than the FS light curves. Some observed features (such as rebrightenings, dips, or slow wiggles) can be more easily explained within the RS model. We also discuss the origin of these different features imprinted on the FS and RS light curves.

  3. Dynamics and Afterglow Light Curves of Gamma-Ray Burst Blast Waves Encountering a Density Bump or Void

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics and afterglow light curves of gamma-ray burst blast waves that encounter various density structures (such as bumps, voids, or steps) in the surrounding ambient medium. We present and explain the characteristic response features that each type of density structure in the medium leaves on the forward shock (FS) and reverse shock (RS) dynamics for blast waves with either a long-lived or short-lived RS. We show that when the ambient medium density drops, the blast waves exhibit in some cases a period of an actual acceleration (even during their deceleration stage) due to adiabatic cooling of blast waves. Comparing numerical examples that have different shapes of bumps or voids, we propose a number of consistency tests that must be satisfied by correct modeling of blast waves. Our model results successfully pass these tests. Employing a Lagrangian description of blast waves, we perform a sophisticated calculation of afterglow emission. We show that as a response to density structures in the ambient medium, the RS light curves produce more significant variations than the FS light curves. Some observed features (such as rebrightenings, dips, or slow wiggles) can be more easily explained within the RS model. We also discuss the origin of these different features imprinted on the FS and RS light curves.

  4. A novel closed-head model of mild traumatic brain injury caused by primary overpressure blast to the cranium produces sustained emotional deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Heldt, Scott A; Elberger, Andrea J; Deng, Yunping; Guley, Natalie H; Del Mar, Nobel; Rogers, Joshua; Choi, Gy Won; Ferrell, Jessica; Rex, Tonia S; Honig, Marcia G; Reiner, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month-old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25-40 psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50-60 psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2-8 weeks after blast, 50-60 psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, but did observe scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50 to 60 psi mice 3-8 weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50-60 psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to "diffuse" axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI. PMID:24478749

  5. A Novel Closed-Head Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Primary Overpressure Blast to the Cranium Produces Sustained Emotional Deficits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heldt, Scott A.; Elberger, Andrea J.; Deng, Yunping; Guley, Natalie H.; Del Mar, Nobel; Rogers, Joshua; Choi, Gy Won; Ferrell, Jessica; Rex, Tonia S.; Honig, Marcia G.; Reiner, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month-old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25–40 psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50–60 psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2–8 weeks after blast, 50–60 psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, but did observe scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50 to 60 psi mice 3–8 weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50–60 psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to “diffuse” axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI. PMID:24478749

  6. Physical and chemical test results of electrostatic safe flooring materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gompf, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    This test program was initiated because a need existed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to have this information readily available to the engineer who must make the choice of which electrostatic safe floor to use in a specific application. The information, however, should be of value throughout both the government and private industry in the selection of a floor covering material. Included are the test results of 18 floor covering materials which by test evaluation at KSC are considered electrostatically safe. Tests were done and/or the data compiled in the following areas: electrostatics, flammability, hypergolic compatibility, outgassing, floor type, material thickness, and available colors. Each section contains the test method used to gather the data and the test results.

  7. 2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima HEV, number 2351 (VIN 1N4CL21E87C172351). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec). The Idaho National Laboratory and eTec conduct the AVTA for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program.

  8. 2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Sims Prototype System 2 test results: Engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The testing, problems encountered, and the results and conclusions obtained from tests performed on the IBM Prototype System, 2, solar hot water system, at the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Test Facility was described. System 2 is a liquid, non draining solar energy system for supplying domestic hot water to single residences. The system consists of collectors, storage tank, heat exchanger, pumps and associated plumbing and controls.

  10. A Comparison Between The NORCAT Rover Test Results and the ISRU Excavation System Model Predictions Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Agui, Juan H.; Creager, Colin M.; Oravec, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    An Excavation System Model has been written to simulate the collection and transportation of regolith on the moon. The calculations in this model include an estimation of the forces on the digging tool as a result of excavation into the regolith. Verification testing has been performed and the forces recorded from this testing were compared to the calculated theoretical data. The Northern Centre for Advanced Technology Inc. rovers were tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center Simulated Lunar Operations facility. This testing was in support of the In-Situ Resource Utilization program Innovative Partnership Program. Testing occurred in soils developed at the Glenn Research Center which are a mixture of different types of sands and whose soil properties have been well characterized. This testing is part of an ongoing correlation of actual field test data to the blade forces calculated by the Excavation System Model. The results from this series of tests compared reasonably with the predicted values from the code.

  11. Study of consumer fireworks post-blast residues by ATR-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alberca, Carlos; Zapata, Félix; Carrascosa, Héctor; Ortega-Ojeda, Fernando E; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Specific analytical procedures are requested for the forensic analysis of pre- and post-blast consumer firework samples, which present significant challenges. Up to date, vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have not been tested for the analysis of post-blast residues in spite of their interesting strengths for the forensic field. Therefore, this work proposes a simple and fast procedure for the sampling and analysis of consumer firework post-blast residues by a portable FTIR instrument with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) accessory. In addition, the post-blast residues spectra of several consumer fireworks were studied in order to achieve the identification of their original chemical compositions. Hence, this work analysed 22 standard reagents usually employed to make consumer fireworks, or because they are related to their combustion products. Then, 5 different consumer fireworks were exploded, and their residues were sampled with dry cotton swabs and directly analysed by ATR-FTIR. In addition, their pre-blast fuses and charges were also analysed in order to stablish a proper comparison. As a result, the identification of the original chemical compositions of the post-blast samples was obtained. Some of the compounds found were potassium chlorate, barium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate or charcoal. An additional study involving chemometric tools found that the results might greatly depend on the swab head type used for the sampling, and its sampling efficiency. The proposed procedure could be used as a complementary technique for the analysis of consumer fireworks post-blast residues. PMID:26717839

  12. Development of Unified Lab Test Result Master for Multiple Facilities.

    PubMed

    Kume, Naoto; Suzuki, Kenji; Kobayashi, Shinji; Araki, Kenji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    A clinical study requires massive amounts of of lab test data, especially for rare diseases. Before creating a protocol, the hypothesis if the protocol will work with enough amount of patients' dataset has to be proved. However, a single facility, such as a university hospital, often faces a lack of number of patients for specific target diseases. Even if collecting datasets from several facilities, there is no active master table that can merge lab test results between the facility datasets. Therefore, the authors develop a unified lab test result master. Because test master standards such as JLAC10 and LOINC are provided from a viewpoint of academic classification of laboratory medicine, the classification does not fit clinical classification, which doctors understand with a mind-set of establishing a clinical study protocol. The authors establish a method to unify masters using an active lab test result master from two university hospitals. PMID:26262349

  13. Advanced Stirling Convertor Dynamic Test Approach and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meer, David W.; Hill, Dennis; Ursic, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. As part of the extended operation testing of this power system, the Advanced Stirling Converters (ASC) at NASA John H. Glenn Research Center undergo a vibration test sequence intended to simulate the vibration history of an ASC used in an ASRG for a space mission. This sequence includes testing at Workmanship and Flight Acceptance levels interspersed with periods of extended operation to simulate pre and post fueling. The final step in the test sequence utilizes additional testing at Flight Acceptance levels to simulate launch. To better replicate the acceleration profile seen by an ASC incorporated into an ASRG, the input spectra used in testing the convertors was modified based on dynamic testing of the ASRG Engineering Unit ( ASRG-EU) at Lockheed Martin. This paper presents the vibration test plan for current and future ASC units, including the modified input spectra, and the results of recent tests using these spectra. The test results include data from several accelerometers mounted on the convertors as well as the piston position and output power variables.

  14. Development and Results of a First Generation Least Expensive Approach to Fission: Module Tests and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Pederson, Kevin; Sena, J. Tom; VanDyke, Melissa; Dickens, Ricky; Reid, Bob J.; Martin, Jim

    2000-01-01

    The use of resistance heaters to simulate heat from fission allows extensive development of fission systems to be performed in non-nuclear test facilities, saving time and money. Resistance heated tests on the Module Unfueled Thermal-hydraulic Test (MUTT) article has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This paper discusses the results of these experiments and identifies future tests to be performed.

  15. Effects of scale on internal blast measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, R.; Sandusky, H.; Lee, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a comparative study between large and small-scale internal blast experiments with the goal of using the small-scale analog for energetic performance evaluation. In the small-scale experiment, highly confined explosive samples <0.5 g were subjected to the output from a PETN detonator while enclosed in a 3-liter chamber. Large-scale tests up to 23 kg were unconfined and released in a chamber with a factor of 60,000 increase in volume. The comparative metric in these experiments is peak quasi-static overpressure, with the explosive sample expressed as sample energy/chamber volume, which normalizes measured pressures across scale. Small-scale measured pressures were always lower than the large-scale measurements, because of heat-loss to the high confinement inherent in the small-scale apparatus. This heat-loss can be quantified and used to correct the small-scale pressure measurements. In some cases the heat-loss was large enough to quench reaction of lower energy samples. These results suggest that small-scale internal blast tests do correlate with their large-scale counterparts, provided that heat-loss to confinement can be measured, and that less reactive or lower energy samples are not quenched by heat-loss.

  16. Vision, Training Hours, and Road Testing Results in Bioptic Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Bradley E.; Flom, Roanne E.; Bullimore, Mark A.; Raasch, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bioptic telescopic spectacles (BTS) can be used by people with central visual acuity that does not meet the state standards to obtain an unrestricted driver’s license. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among visual and demographic factors, training hours, and the results of road testing for bioptic drivers. Methods A retrospective study of patients who received an initial daylight bioptic examination at the Ohio State University and subsequently received a bioptic license was conducted. Data were collected on vision including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and visual field. Hours of driver training and results of Highway Patrol road testing were extracted from records. Relationships among vision, training hours, and road testing were analyzed. Results Ninety-seven patients who completed a vision examination between 2004 and 2008 and received daylight licensure with BTS were included. Results of the first Highway Patrol road test were available for 74 patients. The median interquartile range (IQR) hours of training prior to road testing was 21±17 hours, (range of 9 to 75 hours). Candidates without previous licensure were younger (p< 0.001) and had more documented training (p< 0.001). Lack of previous licensure and more training were significantly associated with having failed a portion of the Highway Patrol test and points deducted on the road test. Conclusions New bioptic drivers without previous non-bioptic driving experience required more training and performed more poorly on road testing for licensure than those who had previous non-bioptic licensure. No visual factor was predictive of road testing results after adjustment for previous experience. The hours of training received remained predictive of road testing outcome even with adjustment for previous experience. These results suggest that previous experience and trainer assessments should be investigated as potential predictors of road safety in bioptic drivers in future studies. PMID:25946098

  17. B-52B/DTV (Drop Test Vehicle) flight test results: Drop test missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA test airplane, B-52B-008, was a carrier for drop tests of the shuttle booster recovery parachute system. The purpose of the test support by Boeing was to monitor the vertical loads on the pylon hooks. The hooks hold the Drop Test Vehicle to the B-52 pylon during drop test missions. The loads were monitored to assure the successful completion of the flight and the safety of the crew.

  18. RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C. Edward; Klee, Paul M.

    1997-01-10

    Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted.

  20. Swine influenza test results from animal health laboratories in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kloeze, Harold; Mukhi, Shamir N; Alexandersen, Soren

    2013-05-01

    Due to its infrastructure and partnerships the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was able to rapidly collect test results from 9 Canadian laboratories that were conducting primary testing for influenza on swine-origin samples, in response to the threat posed by the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in 2009. PMID:24155436

  1. Results from tests of three prototype general aviation seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. S.; Fasanella, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    Three types of energy absorbing general aviation seats were dynamically tested and evaluated for crash load attenuation. On the basis of the static and dynamic test results, it was recommended that the tubular frame seats be redesigned to initiate stroking at approximately 12 G's rather than the 20 to 25 G range. Lower density foam was recommended for the foam wedge passenger seat.

  2. 12 CFR 252.156 - Reports of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....C. 552(b)) and the Board's Rules Regarding Availability of Information (12 CFR part 261). ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.156 Section... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements...

  3. 12 CFR 252.147 - Reports of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552(b)) and the Board's Rules Regarding Availability of Information (12 CFR part 261). ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.147 Section... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements...

  4. Documenting and Explaining Major Field Test Results among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Salvador; Badua, Frank; Chen, Jiun Shiu; Adrian, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the results of the Educational Testing Service Major Field Test (ETS-MFT) administered to business majors at a U.S. state university. Longitudinal trends and cross-sectional differences are documented, including significant performance differences among students of different majors. Findings suggest that a cohort affect

  5. General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" (built in 1907) to the left; in the foreground is the turbo-blower and blast furnace gas-powered electric generating station (built in 1919), looking northwest - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  6. Computation of viscous blast wave flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.

    1991-01-01

    A method to determine unsteady solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations was developed and applied. The structural finite-volume, approximately factored implicit scheme uses Newton subiterations to obtain the spatially and temporally second-order accurate time history of the interaction of blast-waves with stationary targets. The inviscid flux is evaluated using MacCormack's modified Steger-Warming flux or Roe flux difference splittings with total variation diminishing limiters, while the viscous flux is computed using central differences. The use of implicit boundary conditions in conjunction with a telescoping in time and space method permitted solutions to this strongly unsteady class of problems. Comparisons of numerical, analytical, and experimental results were made in two and three dimensions. These comparisons revealed accurate wave speed resolution with nonoscillatory discontinuity capturing. The purpose of this effort was to address the three-dimensional, viscous blast-wave problem. Test cases were undertaken to reveal these methods' weaknesses in three regimes: (1) viscous-dominated flow; (2) complex unsteady flow; and (3) three-dimensional flow. Comparisons of these computations to analytic and experimental results provided initial validation of the resultant code. Addition details on the numerical method and on the validation can be found in the appendix. Presently, the code is capable of single zone computations with selection of any permutation of solid wall or flow-through boundaries.

  7. Test results on reuse of reclaimed shower water - A summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Sauer, Richard; Reysa, Richard P.; Linton, Arthur T.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from tests to evaluate a microgravity whole body shower and waste water recovery system design for possible use on the Space Station. Several water recovery methods were tested, including phase change distillation, a thermoelectric hollow fiber membrane evaporation subsystem, and a reverse osmosis dynamic membrane system. Consideration is given to the test hardware, the types of soaps evaluated, the human response to showering with reclaimed water, chemical treatment for microbial control, the procedures for providing hygienic water, and the quality of water produced by the systems. All three of the waste water recovery systems tested successfully produced reclaimed water for reuse.

  8. Compact Explosive Driven Sources of Microwaves:. Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altgilbers, L.; Merritt, I.; Brown, M.; Henderson, J.; Holder, D.; Verma, A.; Hoeberling, M. J.; Hoeberling, R. F.; Carp, G.; Fenner, W.; Fowler, C. M.; Pina, J.; Lewis, M.

    2004-11-01

    In 1994, a paper [1] was published by A.B. Prishchepenko, in which he described several different designs of compact explosive driven sources of microwaves. He called these devices "electromagnetic ammunition" (EMA). In 1997, a joint test of the EMA was conducted in Nalchik, Russia at the High Mountain Geophysical Institute (VGI). In addition, a parallel test of one version of the EMA (i.e., the Explosive Magnetic Generator of Frequency) was conducted at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center in Soccoro, New Mexico. The results of both tests are presented in this paper.

  9. NNWSI Phase II materials interaction test procedure and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is investigating the volcanic tuff beds of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report describes a test method (Phase II) that has been developed to measure the release of radionuclides from the waste package under simulated repository conditions, and provides information on materials interactions that may occur in the repository. The results of 13 weeks of testing using the method are presented, and an analog test is described that investigates the relationship between the test method and expected repository conditions. 9 references, 10 figures, 11 tables.

  10. Apollo experience report: Electronic systems test program accomplishments and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohnesorge, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    A chronological record is presented of the Electronic Systems Test Program from its conception in May 1963 to December 1969. The original concept of the program, which was primarily a spacecraft/Manned Space Flight Network communications system compatibility and performance evaluation, is described. The evolution of these concepts to include various levels of test detail, as well as systems level design verification testing, is discussed. Actual implementation of these concepts is presented, and the facility to support the program is described. Test results are given, and significant contributions to the lunar landing mission are underlined. Plans for modifying the facility and the concepts, based on Apollo experience, are proposed.

  11. TF34 Quiet Nacelle nearfield acoustic test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coward, W. E.; Smith, E. B.; Sowers, H. D.

    1974-01-01

    The results of the nearfield acoustic tests conducted on the TF34 Quiet Nacelle are presented. The high fan noise suppression levels being sought (26 PNdB reduction in aft noise) necessitated the use of an extensive system of special nearfield acoustic instrumentation to properly evaluate the suppression achieved. The design, operation, and test results from each of these nearfield acoustic instrumentation systems are presented.

  12. Pharmacogenetic allele nomenclature: International workgroup recommendations for test result reporting.

    PubMed

    Kalman, L V; Agúndez, Jag; Appell, M Lindqvist; Black, J L; Bell, G C; Boukouvala, S; Bruckner, C; Bruford, E; Caudle, K; Coulthard, S A; Daly, A K; Tredici, Al Del; den Dunnen, J T; Drozda, K; Everts, R E; Flockhart, D; Freimuth, R R; Gaedigk, A; Hachad, H; Hartshorne, T; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Klein, T E; Lauschke, V M; Maglott, D R; McLeod, H L; McMillin, G A; Meyer, U A; Müller, D J; Nickerson, D A; Oetting, W S; Pacanowski, M; Pratt, V M; Relling, M V; Roberts, A; Rubinstein, W S; Sangkuhl, K; Schwab, M; Scott, S A; Sim, S C; Thirumaran, R K; Toji, L H; Tyndale, R F; van Schaik, Rhn; Whirl-Carrillo, M; Yeo, Ktj; Zanger, U M

    2016-02-01

    This article provides nomenclature recommendations developed by an international workgroup to increase transparency and standardization of pharmacogenetic (PGx) result reporting. Presently, sequence variants identified by PGx tests are described using different nomenclature systems. In addition, PGx analysis may detect different sets of variants for each gene, which can affect interpretation of results. This practice has caused confusion and may thereby impede the adoption of clinical PGx testing. Standardization is critical to move PGx forward. PMID:26479518

  13. Underwater blast injury: a review of standards.

    PubMed

    Lance, Rachel M; Bass, Cameron R

    2015-09-01

    The first cases of underwater blast injury appeared in the scientific literature in 1917, and thousands of service members and civilians were injured or killed by underwater blast during WWII. The prevalence of underwater blast injuries and occupational blasting needs led to the development of many safety standards to prevent injury or death. Most of these standards were not supported by experimental data or testing. In this review, we describe existing standards, discuss their origins, and we comprehensively compare their prescriptions across standards. Surprisingly, we found that most safety standards had little or no scientific basis, and prescriptions across standards often varied by at least an order of magnitude. Many published standards traced back to a US Navy 500 psi guideline, which was intended to provide a peak pressure at which injuries were likely to occur. This standard itself seems to have been based upon a completely unfounded assertion that has propagated throughout the literature in subsequent years. Based on the limitations of the standards discussed, we outline future directions for underwater blast injury research, such as the compilation of epidemiological data to examine actual injury risk by human beings subjected to underwater blasts. PMID:26415071

  14. Structural fatigue test results for large wind turbine blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to provide quantitative information on the operating life capabilities of wind turbine rotor blade concepts for root-end load transfer, a series of cantilever beam fatigue tests was conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted on a laminated wood blade with bonded steel studs, a low cost steel spar (utility pole) with a welded flange, a utility pole with additional root-end thickness provided by a swaged collar, fiberglass spars with both bonded and nonbonded fittings, and, finally, an aluminum blade with a bolted steel fitting (Lockheed Mod-0 blade). Photographs, data, and conclusions for each of these tests are presented. In addition, the aluminum blade test results are compared to field failure information; these results provide evidence that the cantilever beam type of fatigue test is a satisfactory method for obtaining qualitative data on blade life expectancy and for identifying structurally underdesigned areas (hot spots).

  15. Delta undulator model: Magnetic field and beam test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temnykh, A.; Babzien, M.; Davis, D.; Fedurin, M.; Kusche, K.; Park, J.; Yakimenko, V.

    2011-09-01

    A novel type of in-vacuum Elliptical Polarization Undulator (EPU) magnet optimized for linac beam (Delta undulator) was developed at the Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics (LEPP) at Cornell University as part of insertion device development for the future Cornell 5 GeV Energy Recovery Source of coherent hard X-rays [1,7]. To evaluate mechanical, vacuum and magnetic properties of the magnet, a short 30 cm model with a 5 mm diameter round gap and a 2.4 cm period was built and tested in LEPP. The beam test of the Delta undulator model was conducted at Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) in BNL with ˜60 MeV linac beam. The beam testing results confirmed basic properties of the undulator magnet obtained through the magnetic field measurement. In the paper we describe the magnet design, techniques and setups used for the magnetic field measurement and the beam testing results.

  16. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  17. Lightweight blast shield

    DOEpatents

    Mixon, Larry C.; Snyder, George W.; Hill, Scott D.; Johnson, Gregory L.; Wlodarski, J. Frank; von Spakovsky, Alexis P.; Emerson, John D.; Cole, James M.; Tipton, John P.

    1991-01-01

    A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

  18. Results from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test National Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, G. L.

    2001-12-01

    During 2000 and 2001, the validity and reliability of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 2.0 (ADT 2.0) were formally investigated through the Astronomy Diagnostic Test National Project. The ADT 2.0 was administered as a pre-test to 5346 students and as a post-test to 3842 students. Student test results were collected from 97 classes that ranged in size from 4 to 320 students with 30 states represented. The 68 professors participating in the ADT National Project taught classes at universities (54%), 4-year colleges (27%), and 2-year colleges (19%). The database was analyzed for reliability at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. A pre-test value for Cronbach's alpha of 0.65 and post-test value of 0.76 demonstrate an acceptable degree of internal consistency. The average score for the 44 participating professors who completed the ADT as experts was 98%. Face and content validity were established by combining results from the experts with feedback from 60 student interviews. Student results from the National Project yielded an average score of 32.4% for the pre-test and 47.3% for the post-test. There is a gender discrepancy in favor of males that persists in both the pre-test (11% points) and the post-test (12% points) scores. The variations across geographic distribution and institution types were not significant. In addition to the 21 content items, the ADT 2.0 has 12 student background questions enabling instructors to have a better understanding of who takes introductory astronomy. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation through grants REC-0089239 (GD) and DGE-9714489 (BH).

  19. Low-energy demonstration accelerator (LEDA) test results and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H. V.; Schneider, J. D.; Sheffield, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    The LEDA 75-keV injector and 6.7-MeV RFQ have been tested with pulsed and cw proton beam currents up to 100 mA. Several LINAC2000 papers give the results of those measurements. A follow-on experiment, to intentionally introduce and measure beam halo on the RFQ output beam, is reported in several papers at this conference (PAC2001). In this paper we summarize the LEDA RFQ commissioning results and the beam-halo measurements and we discuss future test plans for this high-current, high-average-power rf structures test bed.

  20. Dioxin testing results confirm safety of bleached paperboard milk cartons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The US paper industry is pleased that dioxin testing results announced on September 1 by the Food and Drug Administration confirm that milk packaged in bleached paperboard cartons is safe to drink. And American Paper Institute President Red Cavaney said, the FDA test results closely parallel our own independent studies, results of which will be finalized within the next few days. He also reported that paper industry efforts to reduce further the trace amounts of unwanted dioxin formed in the bleached paper manufacturing process have led to impressive results.

  1. Comparative study of blasting vibrations from Indiana surface coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Siskind, D.E.; Crum, S.V.; Otterness, R.E.; Kopp, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines performed a comparative study of nine sites at eight surface coal mines to determine if the presence of near-surface underground abandoned workings resulted in the generation of adverse long-duration, low-frequency blast vibrations. Six of the nine sites had underlying workings, and two had thick layers of low-velocity unconsolidated surface material. Extended seismic arrays were used to identify the vibration characteristics within a few tens of feet of the blasts and also as modified by the propagating media at distances over 1 mile. Production blasts and specially fired single-charge blasts allowed the determination of natural ground frequency and the influence of initiation delay timing. Vibration amplitudes from the production blasts at all sites exceeded historical norms, particularly at the greater distances. This contrasts with the near-normal results from single-charge blasts.

  2. Oscillating flow loss test results in Stirling engine heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, G.; Howell, S.; Wood, G.; Miller, E.; Gedeon, D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented for a test program designed to generate a database of oscillating flow loss information that is applicable to Stirling engine heat exchangers. The tests were performed on heater/cooler tubes of various lengths and entrance/exit configurations, on stacked and sintered screen regenerators of various wire diameters and on Brunswick and Metex random fiber regenerators. The test results were performed over a range of oscillating flow parameters consistent with Stirling engine heat exchanger experience. The tests were performed on the Sunpower oscillating flow loss rig which is based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. In general, the results are presented by comparing the measured oscillating flow losses to the calculated flow losses. The calculated losses are based on the cycle integration of steady flow friction factors and entrance/exit loss coefficients.

  3. HSST wide-plate test results and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Bass, B.R.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Fields, R.J.; deWit, R.; Low, S.R. III

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen wide-plate crack-arrest tests have been completed to date, ten utilizing specimens fabricated from A533B class 1 material (WP-1 and WP-CE series), and five fabricated from a low upper-shelf base material (WP-2 series). Each test utilized a single-edge notched specimen that was subjected to a linear thermal gradient along the plane of crack propagation. Test results exhibit an increase in crack-arrest toughness with temperature, with the rate of increase becoming greater as the temperature increases. When the wide-plate test results are combined with other large-specimen results the data show a consistent trend in which the K/sub Ia/ data extends above the limit provided in ASME Section XI. 24 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Uprated OMS Engine Status-Sea Level Testing Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertolino, J. D.; Boyd, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increase operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities for this engine system have been on-going since 1984. More recently, a complete engine designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at sea level conditions by Aerojet. A description of the test hardware and results of the sea level test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope and projected performance at altitude conditions, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities, including ICTB tests at simulated altitude conditions, and recommendations for further engine development, are also discussed.

  5. Assessment of Galileo modal test results for mathematical model verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trubert, M.

    1984-01-01

    The modal test program for the Galileo Spacecraft was completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the summer of 1983. The multiple sine dwell method was used for the baseline test. The Galileo Spacecraft is a rather complex 2433 kg structure made of a central core on which seven major appendages representing 30 percent of the total mass are attached, resulting in a high modal density structure. The test revealed a strong nonlinearity in several major modes. This nonlinearity discovered in the course of the test necessitated running additional tests at the unusually high response levels of up to about 21 g. The high levels of response were required to obtain a model verification valid at the level of loads for which the spacecraft was designed. Because of the high modal density and the nonlinearity, correlation between the dynamic mathematical model and the test results becomes a difficult task. Significant changes in the pre-test analytical model are necessary to establish confidence in the upgraded analytical model used for the final load verification. This verification, using a test verified model, is required by NASA to fly the Galileo Spacecraft on the Shuttle/Centaur launch vehicle in 1986.

  6. Cold vacuum drying proof of performance (first article testing) test results

    SciTech Connect

    MCCRACKEN, K.J.

    1999-06-23

    This report presents and details the test results of the first of a kind process referred to as Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD). The test results are compiled from several months of testing of the first process equipment skid and ancillary components to de-water and dry Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCO) filled with Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The tests results provide design verifications, equipment validations, model validation data, and establish process parameters.

  7. Results from Testing of Two Rotary Percussive Drilling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriechbaum, Kristopher; Brown, Kyle; Cady, Ian; von der Heydt, Max; Klein, Kerry; Kulczycki, Eric; Okon, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental test program for the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) rotary percussive drill examined the e ect of various drill input parameters on the drill pene- tration rate. Some of the input parameters tested were drill angle with respect to gravity and percussive impact energy. The suite of rocks tested ranged from a high strength basalt to soft Kaolinite clay. We developed a hole start routine to reduce high sideloads from bit walk. The ongoing development test program for the IMSAH (Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling) rotary percussive corer uses many of the same rocks as the MSL suite. An additional performance parameter is core integrity. The MSL development test drill and the IMSAH test drill use similar hardware to provide rotation and percussion. However, the MSL test drill uses external stabilizers, while the IMSAH test drill does not have external stabilization. In addition the IMSAH drill is a core drill, while the MSL drill uses a solid powdering bit. Results from the testing of these two related drilling systems is examined.

  8. Automation of studies of the dynamics of blast processes in underground mining establishments

    SciTech Connect

    Sboev, V.M.

    1986-09-01

    A test was made of the subsystem of the geomechanical measurement-computer complex ''CMCC Mass-1'' and examined the feasibility of using it to automate investigations of explosive processes. Oscillograms of microseismic oscillations induced by a series of technological blasts in four pillars are presented in a figure. In concluding, the authors noted that as a result of the investigations of microseismic oscillations that develop due to blasting conditions, certain laws were established experimentally under mine conditions. They assume extremely critical significance for the monitoring and predicting of dynamic manifestations of frock pressure and the working of a structure of geochemical measurement-computer complexes.

  9. Changes over time in milk test results following pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Hideki; Utsumi, Masashi; Sui, Kenta; Kanaya, Nobuhiko; Kunitomo, Tomoyoshi; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Takakura, Norihisa; Shiozaki, Shigehiro; Matsukawa, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate changes over time in, and effects of sealing technology on, milk test results following pancreatectomy. METHODS: From April 2008 to October 2013, 66 pancreatic resections were performed at the Iwakuni Clinical Center. The milk test has been routinely conducted at the institute whenever possible during pancreatectomy. The milk test comprises the following procedure: A nasogastric tube is inserted until the third portion of the duodenum, followed by injection of 100 mL of milk through the tube. If a chyle leak is present, the patient tests positive in this milk test based on the observation of a white milky discharge. Positive milk test rates, leakage sites, and chylous ascites incidence were examined. LigaSure™ (LS; Covidien, Dublin, Ireland), a vessel-sealing device, is routinely used in pancreatectomy. Positive milk test rates before and after use of LS, as well as drain discharge volume at the 2nd and 3rd postoperative days, were compared retrospectively. Finally, positive milk test rates and chylous ascites incidence were compared with the results of a previous report. RESULTS: Fifty-nine milk tests were conducted during pancreatectomy. The positive milk test rate for all pancreatectomy cases was 13.6% (8 of 59 cases). One case developed postoperative chylous ascites (2.1% among the pancreatoduedenectomy cases and 1.7% among all pancreatectomies). Positive rates by procedure were 12.8% for pancreatoduodenectomy and 22.2% for distal pancreatectomy. Positive rates by disease were 17.9% for pancreatic and 5.9% for biliary diseases. When comparing results from before and after use of LS, positive milk test rates in pancreatoduodenectomy were 13.0% before and 12.5% after, while those in distal pancreatectomy were 33.3% and 0%. Drainage volume tended to decrease when LS was used on the 3rd postoperative day (volumes were 424 ± 303 mL before LS and 285 ± 185 mL after, P = 0.056). Both chylous ascites incidence and positive milk test rates decreased slightly compared with those rates from the previous study. CONCLUSION: Positive milk test rates and chylous ascites incidence decreased over time. Sealing technology may thus play an important role in preventing postoperative chylous ascites. PMID:27022452

  10. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  11. Critical distance for blast-resistant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharaneepathy, M. V.; Rao, M. N. Keshava; Santhakumar, A. R.

    1995-02-01

    Blast loads have, in the recent past, become important service loads for certain categories of structures. An important task in blast-resistant design is to make a realistic prediction of the blast pressures. The distance of explosion from the structure is an important datum, governing the magnitude and duration of the blast loads. The current practice is to choose some arbitrary distance for design purposes. This paper presents some results of analytical studies to show that such a notion is likely to be erroneous, particularly for tall and slender structures. The elements of the blast phenomenon are reviewed, before going into the formulations leading to the 'critical blast distance' at which the transient dynamic response rises to a maximum. Based on the principle of Mach stem growth and consequent transformation of the spherical shock front into cylindrical or plane shock front, an expression for the distance at which the structure is fully engulfed by the Mach region is derived. This is the distance at which the cumulative blast effect reaches a maximum, and hence can be identified as critical distance. To verify this theory, certain numerical experiments are conducted on structures of different heights and diameters, such as cylindrical towers, a chimney and a cooling tower. The results of these studies have convincingly proved the existence of the critical ground-zero distance at which the cumulative blast effect reaches a maximum. It is concluded that this critical distance should be used as the design distance particularly for tall structures. It is also advisable to use a realistic type of shock front and shock reflection coefficient, consistent with the height of Mach stem, incidence angle and pressure magnitude.

  12. Communication of Genetic Test Results to Family and Health Care Providers Following Disclosure of Research Results

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Kristi D.; Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Esplen, Mary Jane; Peterson, Susan K.; Patten, Christi A.; Lowery, Jan; Sinicrope, Frank A.; Nigon, Sandra K.; Borgen, Joyce; Gorin, Sherri Sheinfeld; Keogh, Louise A.; Lindor, Noralane M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have examined methods to promote communication following the return of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genetic test results obtained during research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a telephone protocol for returning research results of MMR gene testing to identify Lynch Syndrome. Methods We invited individuals with known MMR mutations in their family who were enrolled in the Colon Cancer Family Registry at the Mayo Clinic to participate. Participants completed surveys before and 6-months after MMR test result disclosure. Results Among 107 participants, 79% opted to learn their MMR test results; of these, 44 (41%) carried MMR mutations. Post-disclosure, 54% reported screening for any type of cancer. Among carriers, >74% reported communicating results to family; communication was predicted by baseline confidence in coping with the genetic test result (Z=1.97, P=.04). Result disclosure to a physician was predicted by greater perceived cancer risk (Z=2.08, P=.03) and greater intention to share results with family (Z=3.07, P=.002). Conclusions Research vs. clinically-based gene disclosure presents challenges. A telephone disclosure process for the return of research-based results among Lynch syndrome families led to high rates of result uptake and participant communication of results to providers and family members. PMID:24091800

  13. Designs and test results for three new rotational sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jedlicka, P.; Kozak, J.T.; Evans, J.R.; Hutt, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the designs and testing of three rotational seismometer prototypes developed at the Institute of Geophysics, Academy of Sciences (Prague, Czech Republic). Two of these designs consist of a liquid-filled toroidal tube with the liquid as the proof mass and providing damping; we tested the piezoelectric and pressure transduction versions of this torus. The third design is a wheel-shaped solid metal inertial sensor with capacitive sensing and magnetic damping. Our results from testing in Prague and at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory of the US Geological Survey of transfer function and cross-axis sensitivities are good enough to justify the refinement and subsequent testing of advanced prototypes. These refinements and new testing are well along.

  14. NEXT Ion Engine 2000 Hour Wear Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani; Patterson, Michael J.; Britton, Melissa A.; Frandina, Michael M.

    2004-01-01

    The results of the NEXT 2000 h wear test are presented. This test was conducted with a 40 cm engineering model ion engine, designated EM1, at a 3.52 A beam current and 1800 V beam power supply voltage. Performance tests, which were conducted over a throttling range of 1.1 to 6.9 kW throughout the wear test, demonstrated that EM1 satisfied all thruster performance requirements. The ion engine accumulated 2038 h of operation at a thruster input power of 6.9 kW, processing 43 kg of xenon. Overall ion engine performance, which includes thrust, thruster input power, specific impulse, and thrust efficiency, was steady with no indications of performance degradation. The ion engine was also inspected following the test. This paper presents these findings.

  15. COMPARISON OF RESPONSE OF 9977 TEST PACKAGES TO ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Tsu-Te Wu, T

    2007-12-05

    Each of the hypothetical accident test cases for the 9977 prototypes was included in the battery of finite element structural analyses performed for the package. Comparison of the experimental and analytical results provides a means of confirming that the analytical model correctly represents the physical behavior of the package. The ability of the analytical model to correctly predict the performance of the foam overpack material for the crush test is of particular interest. The dissipation of energy in the crushing process determines the deceleration of the package upon impact and the duration of the impact. In addition, if the analytical model correctly models the foam behavior, the predicted deformation of the package will match that measured on the test articles. This study compares the deformations of the test packages with the analytical predictions. In addition, the impact acceleration and impact duration for the test articles are compared with those predicted by the analyses.

  16. Test results of the highly instrumented Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnaughey, H. V.; Leopard, J. L.; Lightfoot, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Test results of a highly instrumented Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are presented. The instrumented engine, when combined with instrumented high pressure turbopumps, contains over 750 special measurements, including flowrates, pressures, temperatures, and strains. To date, two different test series, accounting for a total of sixteen tests and 1,667 seconds, have been conducted with this engine. The first series, which utilized instrumented turbopumps, characterized the internal operating environment of the SSME for a variety of operating conditions. The second series provided system-level validation of a high pressure liquid oxygen turbopump that had been retrofitted with a fluid-film bearing in place of the usual pump-end ball bearings. Major findings from these two test series are highlighted in this paper. In addition, comparisons are made between model predictions and measured test data.

  17. Designs and test results for three new rotational sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlička, P.; Kozák, J. T.; Evans, J. R.; Hutt, C. R.

    2012-10-01

    We discuss the designs and testing of three rotational seismometer prototypes developed at the Institute of Geophysics, Academy of Sciences (Prague, Czech Republic). Two of these designs consist of a liquid-filled toroidal tube with the liquid as the proof mass and providing damping; we tested the piezoelectric and pressure transduction versions of this torus. The third design is a wheel-shaped solid metal inertial sensor with capacitive sensing and magnetic damping. Our results from testing in Prague and at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory of the US Geological Survey of transfer function and cross-axis sensitivities are good enough to justify the refinement and subsequent testing of advanced prototypes. These refinements and new testing are well along.

  18. Results of acoustic emission tests on Halon fire bottles

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A.G.; Shurtleff, W.W.

    1996-10-01

    An acoustic emission tester for aircraft Halon bottles has been developed. The necessary load is applied by heating the bottles. Acoustic emission is monitored during the heating by six sensors held in position by a special fixture. This fixture was designed to fit spheres with diameters between 5 and 16 inches. A prototype has been undergoing testing in two commercial Halon bottle repair and test facilities. Results to date indicate that about 97 percent of the bottles tested show no indications of any flaws. The other three percent have had indications of flaws in non-critical areas of the bottles. All bottles tested to date have passed the hydrostatic test required by the Department of Transportation (DOT).

  19. Proposed Interventions to Decrease the Frequency of Missed Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahls, Terry L.; Cram, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified that delays in diagnosis related to the mishandling of abnormal test results are an import contributor to diagnostic errors. Factors contributing to missed results included organizational factors, provider factors and patient-related factors. At the diagnosis error conference continuing medical education conference…

  20. Automated Testing Infrastructure and Result Comparison for Geodynamics Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heien, E. M.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    The geodynamics community uses a wide variety of codes on a wide variety of both software and hardware platforms to simulate geophysical phenomenon. These codes are generally variants of finite difference or finite element calculations involving Stokes flow or wave propagation. A significant problem is that codes of even low complexity will return different results depending on the platform due to slight differences in hardware, software, compiler, and libraries. Furthermore, changes to the codes during development may affect solutions in unexpected ways such that previously validated results are altered. The Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) is funded by the NSF to enhance the capabilities of the geodynamics community through software development. CIG has recently done extensive work in setting up an automated testing and result validation system based on the BaTLab system developed at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. This system uses 16 variants of Linux and Mac platforms on both 32 and 64-bit processors to test several CIG codes, and has also recently been extended to support testing on the XSEDE TACC (Texas Advanced Computing Center) Stampede cluster. In this work we overview the system design and demonstrate how automated testing and validation occurs and results are reported. We also examine several results from the system from different codes and discuss how changes in compilers and libraries affect the results. Finally we detail some result comparison tools for different types of output (scalar fields, velocity fields, seismogram data), and discuss within what margins different results can be considered equivalent.

  1. Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration Phase I Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibley, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides flight test results of the automatic in-flight refueling of an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) using an automated hose-and-drogue refueling method. The program objective was to demonstrate one fully automatic engagement between the receiver and tanker aircraft. Systems involved, concept of operations, results and conclusions are included.

  2. Proposed Interventions to Decrease the Frequency of Missed Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahls, Terry L.; Cram, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified that delays in diagnosis related to the mishandling of abnormal test results are an import contributor to diagnostic errors. Factors contributing to missed results included organizational factors, provider factors and patient-related factors. At the diagnosis error conference continuing medical education conference

  3. TEG® and ROTEM® in trauma: similar test but different results?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Transfusion in trauma is often empiric or based on traditional lab tests. Viscoelastic tests such as thromboelastography (TEG®) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) have been proposed as superior to traditional lab tests. Due to the similarities between the two tests, general opinion seems to consider them equivalent with interchangeable interpretations. However, it is not clear whether the results can be similarly interpreted. This review evaluates the comparability between TEG and ROTEM and performs a descriptive review of the parameters utilized in each test in adult trauma patients. Methods PUBMED database was reviewed using the keywords “thromboelastography” and “compare”, between 2000 and 2011. Original studies directly comparing TEG® with ROTEM® in any area were retrieved. To verify the individual test parameter used in studies involving trauma patients, we further performed a review using the keywords “thromboelastography” and “trauma” in the PUBMED database. Results Only 4 studies directly compared TEG® with ROTEM®. One in liver transplantation found that transfusion practice could differ depending on the device in use. Another in cardiac surgery concluded that all measurements are not completely interchangeable. The third article using commercially available plasma detected clinically significant differences in the results from the two devices. The fourth one was a head-to-head comparison of the technical aspects. The 24 articles reporting the use of viscoelastic tests in trauma patients, presented considerable heterogeneity. Conclusion Both tests are potentially useful as means to rapidly diagnose coagulopathy, guide transfusion and determine outcome in trauma patients. Differences in the activators utilized in each device limit the direct comparability. Standardization and robust clinical trials comparing the two technologies are needed before these tests can be widely recommended for clinical use in trauma. PMID:23531394

  4. Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

  5. The Complexity of Biomechanics Causing Primary Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review of Potential Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a prevalent battlefield injury in recent conflicts, yet biomechanical mechanisms of bTBI remain unclear. Elucidating specific biomechanical mechanisms is essential to developing animal models for testing candidate therapies and for improving protective equipment. Three hypothetical mechanisms of primary bTBI have received the most attention. Because translational and rotational head accelerations are primary contributors to TBI from non-penetrating blunt force head trauma, the acceleration hypothesis suggests that blast-induced head accelerations may cause bTBI. The hypothesis of direct cranial transmission suggests that a pressure transient traverses the skull into the brain and directly injures brain tissue. The thoracic hypothesis of bTBI suggests that some combination of a pressure transient reaching the brain via the thorax and a vagally mediated reflex result in bTBI. These three mechanisms may not be mutually exclusive, and quantifying exposure thresholds (for blasts of a given duration) is essential for determining which mechanisms may be contributing for a level of blast exposure. Progress has been hindered by experimental designs, which do not effectively expose animal models to a single mechanism and by over-reliance on poorly validated computational models. The path forward should be predictive validation of computational models by quantitative confirmation with blast experiments in animal models, human cadavers, and biofidelic human surrogates over a range of relevant blast magnitudes and durations coupled with experimental designs, which isolate a single injury mechanism. PMID:26539158

  6. Test results of Ya-21u thermionic space power system

    SciTech Connect

    Paramonov, D.V.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Soviet-made TOPAZ-II space nuclear power system unit designated Ya-21u underwent a total of 15 tests both in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) (1989--1990) and in the US (August 1993 to March 1995) for a cumulative test/operation time of 7681 h at conditions far exceeding design limits. These tests included steady-state operation at different power levels, fast start-ups and power optimizations, and shock and vibration tests. Test results are presented and analyzed. Results indicate a gradual change in the performance parameters such as the optimum cesium pressure and optimum load voltage. The electric power and conversion efficiency of the unit at an input thermal power of 105 kW decreased from 3.7 kW (electric) and 4% in the test in the USSR to 2.13 kW (electric) and 2.3% in the last test in the US. A discussion and qualitative assessment of potential causes of the performance changes of the Ya-21u unit are given.

  7. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Pogo testing and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, J. R.; Jones, J. H.; Jewell, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    To effectively assess the Pogo stability of the space shuttle vehicle, it was necessary to characterize the structural, propellant, and propulsion dynamics subsystems. Extensive analyses and comprehensive testing programs were established early in the project as an implementation of management philosophy of Pogo prevention for space shuttle. The role of the space shuttle main engine (SSMF) in the Pogo prevention plans, the results obtained from engine ground testing with analysis, and measured data from STS-1 flight are discussed.

  8. Acoustic results of the Boeing model 360 whirl tower test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Michael E.; Jordan, David

    1990-09-01

    An evaluation is presented for whirl tower test results of the Model 360 helicopter's advanced, high-performance four-bladed composite rotor system intended to facilitate over-200-knot flight. During these performance measurements, acoustic data were acquired by seven microphones. A comparison of whirl-tower tests with theory indicate that theoretical prediction accuracies vary with both microphone position and the inclusion of ground reflection. Prediction errors varied from 0 to 40 percent of the measured signal-to-peak amplitude.

  9. DSN advanced receiver: Breadboard description and test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. H.; Hurd, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    A breadboard Advanced Receiver for use in the Deep Space Network was designed, built, and tested in the laboratory. Field testing was also performed during Voyager Uranus encounter at DSS-13. The development of the breadboard is intended to lead towards implementation of the new receiver throughout the network. The receiver is described on a functional level and then in terms of more specific hardware and software architecture. The results of performance tests in the laboratory and in the field are given. Finally, there is a discussion of suggested improvements for the next phase of development.

  10. Argon Spill Duct Bellows Leak Test Procedures and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Trotter, G.R.; Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-03-11

    This engineering note describes the testing of the argoll spill duct bellows. It includes a detailed explanation of the procedures, along with a summary of the results of the testing done on 2/18/91 and 2/19/91 by Gary Trotter. The original bellows were purchased from Expansion Joint Systems (see Appendix 2). The general conclusion from the testing was that the leaks that were found were small enough so that they would not show up at the design pressure of 0.1 psig. Therefore, the leaks were acceptable, and the conclusion was that the bellows were fit for use.

  11. Construction details and test results from RHIC sextupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, M.; Anerella, M.; Ganetis, G.

    1993-12-31

    Four 8 cm aperture sextupoles have been built at BNL to verify the magnetic performance of this magnet in the RHIC installation. Two significantly different mechanical configurations have been designed, and two magnets of each design have been built, and successfully tested, and have exceeded the required minimum quench current by a substantial margin. This report describes the assembly details of the second configuration, which is the final production configuration. In addition the first industry built production sextupole has been delivered and tested. This report presents the results of quench tests on all 5 magnets and field measurements on the first production sextupole.

  12. Wellbore inertial navigation system (WINS) software development and test results

    SciTech Connect

    Wardlaw, R. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    The structure and operation of the real-time software developed for the Wellbore Inertial Navigation System (WINS) application are described. The procedure and results of a field test held in a 7000-ft well in the Nevada Test Site are discussed. Calibration and instrumentation error compensation are outlined, as are design improvement areas requiring further test and development. Notes on Kalman filtering and complete program listings of the real-time software are included in the Appendices. Reference is made to a companion document which describes the downhole instrumentation package.

  13. VLT secondary mirror unit performance and test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barho, Reiner; Stanghellini, Stefano; Jander, Georg

    1998-08-01

    This paper explains the overall mechanical functions of the Very Large Telescope Secondary Mirror Unit (VLT-M2 Unit), and the method of their verification by tests inside two different test adapters. The cinematic mechanisms of the M2 Unit are the Focusing Stage, Centering Stage and the Chopping Assembly which enables to adjust the position of the secondary mirror along 5 degrees of freedom. All these mechanisms are characterized by very high stiffness and accuracy, long lifetime and high reliability. The presentation of the finally achieved performance test results of the M2 Unit, realized by their high precision mechanisms, are the major points of this presentation.

  14. SLS Scale Model Acoustic Test Liftoff Results and Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, Douglas; Giacomoni, Clothilde

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible design phase test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments.

  15. Advanced Stirling Convertor Durability Testing: Plans and Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meer, Dave; Oriti, Sal

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. In support of this program, NASA?s Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in testing Stirling convertors, including the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), for use in the ASRG. This testing includes electromagnetic interference/compatibility (EMI/EMC), structural dynamics, advanced materials, organics, and unattended extended operation. The purpose of the durability tests is to experimentally demonstrate the margins in the ASC design. Due to the high value of the hardware, previous ASC tests focused on establishing baseline performance of the convertors within the nominal operating conditions. The durability tests present the first planned extension of the operating conditions into regions beyond those intended to meet the product spec, where the possibility exists of lateral contact, overstroke, or over-temperature events. These tests are not intended to cause damage that would shorten the life of the convertors, so they can transition into extended operation at the conclusion of the tests. This paper describes the four tests included in the durability test sequence: 1) start/stop cycling, 2) exposure to constant acceleration in the lateral and axial directions, 3) random vibration at increased piston amplitude to induce contact events, and 4) overstroke testing to simulate potential failures during processing or during the mission life where contact events could occur. The paper also summarizes the analysis and simulation used to predict the results of each of these tests.

  16. Advanced Stirling Convertor Durability Testing: Plans and Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meer, David W.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. In support of this program, GRC has been involved in testing Stirling convertors, including the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), for use in the ASRG. This testing includes electromagnetic interference/compatibility (EMI/EMC), structural dynamics, advanced materials, organics, and unattended extended operation. The purpose of the durability tests is to experimentally demonstrate the margins in the ASC design. Due to the high value of the hardware, previous ASC tests focused on establishing baseline performance of the convertors within the nominal operating conditions. The durability tests present the first planned extension of the operating conditions into regions beyond those intended to meet the product spec, where the possibility exists of lateral contact, overstroke, or over-temperature events. These tests are not intended to cause damage that would shorten the life of the convertors, so they can transition into extended operation at the conclusion of the tests. This paper describes the four tests included in the durability test sequence: 1) start/stop cycling, 2) exposure to constant acceleration in the lateral and axial directions, 3) random vibration at increased piston amplitude to induce contact events, and 4) overstroke testing to simulate potential failures during processing or during the mission life where contact events could occur. The paper also summarizes the analysis and simulation used to predict the results of each of these tests.

  17. Dynamic Modelling of Fault Slip Induced by Stress Waves due to Stope Production Blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainoki, Atsushi; Mitri, Hani S.

    2016-01-01

    Seismic events can take place due to the interaction of stress waves induced by stope production blasts with faults located in close proximity to stopes. The occurrence of such seismic events needs to be controlled to ensure the safety of the mine operators and the underground mine workings. This paper presents the results of a dynamic numerical modelling study of fault slip induced by stress waves resulting from stope production blasts. First, the calibration of a numerical model having a single blast hole is performed using a charge weight scaling law to determine blast pressure and damping coefficient of the rockmass. Subsequently, a numerical model of a typical Canadian metal mine encompassing a fault parallel to a tabular ore deposit is constructed, and the simulation of stope extraction sequence is carried out with static analyses until the fault exhibits slip burst conditions. At that point, the dynamic analysis begins by applying the calibrated blast pressure to the stope wall in the form of velocities generated by the blast holes. It is shown from the results obtained from the dynamic analysis that the stress waves reflected on the fault create a drop of normal stresses acting on the fault, which produces a reduction in shear stresses while resulting in fault slip. The influence of blast sequences on the behaviour of the fault is also examined assuming several types of blast sequences. Comparison of the blast sequence simulation results indicates that performing simultaneous blasts symmetrically induces the same level of seismic events as separate blasts, although seismic energy is more rapidly released when blasts are performed symmetrically. On the other hand when nine blast holes are blasted simultaneously, a large seismic event is induced, compared to the other two blasts. It is concluded that the separate blasts might be employed under the adopted geological conditions. The developed methodology and procedure to arrive at an ideal blast sequence can be applied to other mines where faults are found in the vicinity of stopes.

  18. Physical separations soil washing system cold test results

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, J.P.

    1993-07-28

    This test summary describes the objectives, methodology, and results of a physical separations soil-washing system setup and shakedown test using uncontaminated soil. The test is being conducted in preparation for a treatability test to be conducted in the North Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. It will be used to assess the feasibility of using a physical separations process to reduce the volume of contaminated soils in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The test is described in DOE-RL (1993). The setup test was conducted at an uncontrolled area located approximately 3.2 km northwest of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The material processed was free of contamination. The physical separation equipment to be used in the test was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. On May 13, 1993, soil-washing equipment was moved to the cold test location. Design assistance and recommendation for operation was provided by the EPA.

  19. ART-XC/SRG: results of thermo-vacuum tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semena, N.; Pavlinsky, M.; Buntov, M.; Serbinov, D.; Gurova, E.; Tambov, V.; Roiz, I.; Garin, M.; Lazarchuk, V.; Zaytcev, A.; Martunov, V.; Shabarchin, A.; Sokolov, A.

    2014-07-01

    ART-XC - a medium-x-ray-energy survey instrument for SRG project is being developed in Russia. Space Research institute (IKI) and Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF) has developed and tested the STM (Structural and Thermal Model) of ART-XC/SRG Instrument. The STM was tested in a 40 m3 vacuum chamber, equipped with black cryogenic screens, cooled by liquid nitrogen. During the tests various thermal telescope modes were simulated. In particular we have simulated emergency mode, when mirrors heaters were switched-off. During the tests temperature of instrument's structure was controlled by 64 independent sensors. Stability of optical axis of mirror systems was also measured. STM test has shown that temperature of mirror system was lower than required, temperature of detectors met the requirements. The test also confirmed geometrical stability of the carbon fiber housing despite of significant temperature gradients. Additional experiments with two mirror systems, each containing a full set of simple nickel shells, were performed. In these experiments we have measured longitudinal and transverse temperature gradients of mirror systems. Next thermovacuum tests of the qualification model of the ART-XC instrument are being prepared. Results of STM tests are presented in this paper.

  20. Bell Pole CROW pilot test results and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fahy, L.J.; Johnson, L.A. Jr. ); Sola, D.V.; Horn, S.G.; Christofferson, J.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, efforts were initiated to implement an in situ remediation project to address the creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated surficial aquifer at the Bell Lumber and Pole Company (Bell Pole) Site. The remediation project involves the application of the Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes (CROW[trademark]) process which consists of hot-water injection to displace and recover the non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Based on the results from the pilot test the following conclusions can be made: (1) The pilot test provided sufficient hydraulic information to design the full-scale CROW remediation system. The pumping test portion of the pilot test indicated uniform aquifer properties. The entire thickness of the aquifer reached the target temperature range and containment of the injected hot water was achieved. (2) Pretest injection and production rate predictions were achieved. (3) The post test soil boring data indicated hot-water injection displaced greater than 80% of the NAPL near the injection well. The data indicates that a NAPL saturation of approximately 19% (pore volume basis) and a 500 fold decrease in PCP concentration can be achieved with 20 pore volumes of flushing. (4) The treatment system used during the pilot test was effective in reducing PCP and PAH compounds to concentrations acceptable for sanitary sewer discharge. (5) The microbial assay of the post test samples found an encouraging increase in microbial population compared to earlier data collected before the pilot test.

  1. Bell Pole CROW pilot test results and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fahy, L.J.; Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Sola, D.V.; Horn, S.G.; Christofferson, J.L.

    1992-11-01

    Beginning in 1990, efforts were initiated to implement an in situ remediation project to address the creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated surficial aquifer at the Bell Lumber and Pole Company (Bell Pole) Site. The remediation project involves the application of the Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes (CROW{trademark}) process which consists of hot-water injection to displace and recover the non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Based on the results from the pilot test the following conclusions can be made: (1) The pilot test provided sufficient hydraulic information to design the full-scale CROW remediation system. The pumping test portion of the pilot test indicated uniform aquifer properties. The entire thickness of the aquifer reached the target temperature range and containment of the injected hot water was achieved. (2) Pretest injection and production rate predictions were achieved. (3) The post test soil boring data indicated hot-water injection displaced greater than 80% of the NAPL near the injection well. The data indicates that a NAPL saturation of approximately 19% (pore volume basis) and a 500 fold decrease in PCP concentration can be achieved with 20 pore volumes of flushing. (4) The treatment system used during the pilot test was effective in reducing PCP and PAH compounds to concentrations acceptable for sanitary sewer discharge. (5) The microbial assay of the post test samples found an encouraging increase in microbial population compared to earlier data collected before the pilot test.

  2. Note: Device for underwater laboratory simulation of unconfined blast waves.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest that peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source. PMID:26133878

  3. Note: Device for underwater laboratory simulation of unconfined blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest that peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source.

  4. Shock focusing using multiple micro-blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shi; Zhang, Zijie; Eliasson, Veronica

    2013-11-01

    Numerical simulations have been used to study shock focusing effects from multiple micro-blast waves and to determine shock front amplification mechanisms as the wave converges. Overture, a partial differential equation solver, was used to solve the Euler equations with a second-order accurate Godunov algorithm. Adaptive mesh refinement was used to improve the accuracy and reduce the computational time. The early stage of each micro-blast wave was initialized using Taylor's similarity laws. The total energy of the blast waves was kept constant, but the number of blast waves and their respective size were varied from case to case. Results show that through careful geometrical arrangement and timing of the initialization of the charge, multiple micro-blast waves can be combined to yield more extreme thermodynamic conditions at the focal area than compared to a large blast wave with the same total initial energy.

  5. Thermal Analysis of Low Layer Density Multilayer Insulation Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of the thermal performance of low layer density multilayer insulations is important for designing long-duration space exploration missions involving the storage of cryogenic propellants. Theoretical calculations show an analytical optimal layer density, as widely reported in the literature. However, the appropriate test data by which to evaluate these calculations have been only recently obtained. As part of a recent research project, NASA procured several multilayer insulation test coupons for calorimeter testing. These coupons were configured to allow for the layer density to be varied from 0.5 to 2.6 layer/mm. The coupon testing was completed using the cylindrical Cryostat-l00 apparatus by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center. The results show the properties of the insulation as a function of layer density for multiple points. Overlaying these new results with data from the literature reveals a minimum layer density; however, the value is higher than predicted. Additionally, the data show that the transition region between high vacuum and no vacuum is dependent on the spacing of the reflective layers. Historically this spacing has not been taken into account as thermal performance was calculated as a function of pressure and temperature only; however the recent testing shows that the data is dependent on the Knudsen number which takes into account pressure, temperature, and layer spacing. These results aid in the understanding of the performance parameters of MLI and help to complete the body of literature on the topic.

  6. Standardization of protocols to test wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for reaction to blast in a biocontainment laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth medium, spore age, and inoculum density are essential factors for determining host responses to a plant pathogen. The standardization of these factors is important to obtain adequate and reproducible disease assessments. We are testing US wheat cultivars for reaction to the exotic disease bla...

  7. 7. INTERIOR, STEEL BLAST DOORS, INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. Edwards Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, STEEL BLAST DOORS, INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-4, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. Compendium of Test Results of Recent Single Event Effect Tests Conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Steven S.; Allen, Gregory R.; Irom, Farokh; Scheick, Leif Z.; Adell, Philippe C.; Miyahira, Tetsuo F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports heavy ion and proton-induced single event effect (SEE) results from recent tests for a variety of microelectronic devices. The compendium covers devices tested over the last two years by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  9. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

  10. Hearing aid or tinnitus masker: which one is the best treatment for blast-induced tinnitus? The results of a long-term study on 974 patients.

    PubMed

    Jalilvand, Hamid; Pourbakht, Akram; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore whether a hearing aid or noise generator would be an effective audiological treatment for blast-induced chronic tinnitus. The amount of satisfaction from different hearing devices (hearing aid, noise generator, or both) during different time periods (1, 6, 12 and 24 months after fitting) was assessed. The 974 subjects enrolled in this study were Iran-Iraq war veterans, suffering from tinnitus for at least 2 years. About 84% of the subjects preferred just a hearing aid. Only 2.7% chose the noise generator, and the others preferred to use both devices. There were no significant differences between the hearing thresholds of the 3 groups. The satisfaction score for the hearing aid and combined devices increased by time but decreased for the noise generator. There was no correlation between the satisfaction score and parameters such as hearing thresholds, audiogram configuration and tinnitus pitch. We concluded that, compared with a noise generator, the most long-lasting treatment for blast-induced tinnitus is a hearing aid. The possible cause for such a performance is probably the recovery of the auditory function and neuroplasticity through the hearing aid. PMID:25924663

  11. Spent fuel drying system test results (first dry-run)

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site. Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the first dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. The empty test apparatus was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The data from this dry-run test can serve as a baseline for the first two fuel element tests, 1990 (Run 1) and 3128W (Run 2). The purpose of this dry-run was to establish the background levels of hydrogen in the system, and the hydrogen generation and release characteristics attributable to the test system without a fuel element present. This test also serves to establish the background levels of water in the system and the water release characteristics. The system used for the drying test series was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, which is located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodology are given in section 3.0, and the experimental results provided in Section 4.0. These results are further discussed in Section 5.0.

  12. Development of a pebble-bed liquid-nitrogen evaporator/superheater for the BRL 1/6th-scale large blast/thermal simulator test bed. Phase 1. Prototype design and analysis. Final report, Sep 87-Oct 88

    SciTech Connect

    Osofsky, I.B.; Mason, G.P.; Tanaka, M.J.

    1991-08-01

    In the context of design studies for the U.S. Large Blast/Thermal Simulator (LB/TS), a liquid-nitrogen (LN), pebble-bed evaporator and superheater was designed for the 1/6th-scale LB/TS Test Bed. This pebble-bed heater would produce hot nitrogen gas at a predetermined temperature from a cryogenic LN2 source at pressure up to 1700 psig. The flow rate would be sufficient to fill the driver tube of the BRL LB/TS Test Bed rapidly enough to minimize the heat losses through the uninsulated driver walls and to maintain the required nitrogen gas temperature.

  13. Biogas plasticization coupled anaerobic digestion: batch test results.

    PubMed

    Schimel, Keith A

    2007-06-01

    Biogas has unique properties for improving the biodegradability of biomass solids during anaerobic digestion (AD). This report presents batch test results of the first investigation into utilizing biogas plasticization to "condition" organic polymers during active digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Preliminary design calculations based on polymer diffusion rate limitation are presented. Analysis of the 20 degrees C batch test data determined the first order (k(1)) COD conversion coefficient to be 0.167 day(-1) with a maximum COD utilization rate of 11.25 g L(-1) day(-1). Comparison of these batch test results to typical conventional AD performance parameters showed orders of magnitude improvement. These results show that biogas plasticization during active AD could greatly improve renewable energy yields from biomass waste materials such as MSW RDF, STP sludges, food wastes, animal manure, green wastes, and agricultural crop residuals. PMID:17054122

  14. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  15. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  16. Rice blast evaluation of newly introduced germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic resistance to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia grisea oryzae) was identified in newly introduced rice germplasm through quarantine when tested in artificially inoculated greenhouse and field nursery tests during the 2007 growing season. Of 229 accessions, 31 we...

  17. NASA Fastrac Engine Gas Generator Component Test Program and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Henry J., Jr.; Sanders, T.

    2000-01-01

    Low cost access to space has been a long-time goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Fastrac engine program was begun at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a 60,000-pound (60K) thrust, liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon (LOX/RP), gas generator-cycle booster engine for a fraction of the cost of similar engines in existence. To achieve this goal, off-the-shelf components and readily available materials and processes would have to be used. This paper will present the Fastrac gas generator (GG) design and the component level hot-fire test program and results. The Fastrac GG is a simple, 4-piece design that uses well-defined materials and processes for fabrication. Thirty-seven component level hot-fire tests were conducted at MSFC's component test stand #116 (TS116) during 1997 and 1998. The GG was operated at all expected operating ranges of the Fastrac engine. Some minor design changes were required to successfully complete the test program as development issues arose during the testing. The test program data results and conclusions determined that the Fastrac GG design was well on the way to meeting the requirements of NASA's X-34 Pathfinder Program that chose the Fastrac engine as its main propulsion system.

  18. Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James W., Jr.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this coarse Single Event Effect (SEE) test is to determine the suitability of the commercial Virtex-II Pro family for use in spaceflight applications. To this end, this test is primarily intended to determine any Singe Event Latchup (SEL) susceptibilities for these devices. Secondly, this test is intended to measure the level of Single Event Upset (SEU) susceptibilities and in a general sense where they occur. The coarse SEE test was performed on a commercial XC2VP7 device, a relatively small single processor version of the Virtex-II Pro. As the XC2VP7 shares the same functional block design and fabrication process with the larger Virtex-II Pro devices, the results of this test should also be applicable to the larger devices. The XC2VP7 device was tested on a commercial Virtex-II Pro development board. The testing was performed at the Cyclotron laboratories at Texas A&M and Michigan State Universities using ions of varying energy levels and fluences.

  19. Results of W-87/Mk21 Deployment Separation Shock Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Avalle, C.A.

    1999-04-21

    This report summarizes results of the W-87/Mk21 Deployment Separation Shock Tests conducted at the Survivability and Vulnerability Integration Center (SVIC) Hill Air Force Base in Ogden, Utah, from 10/5/98 to 10/8/98. Specific details regarding the test plan and procedures can be found in the Master Test Plan listed in the references. Test Objectives: (1) Evaluate the performance of a set of servo accelerometers during and post Re-entry Vehicle (RV) separation events. These ultra-sensitive accelerometers ({mu}g) needed operate during and after the separation shock events and these tests would serve as confirmation of proper functioning. These sensors were later flown on FrU-15, a development flight unit supporting the Instrumented High Fidelity Joint Test Assembly Program, as part of an experimental Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) measure RV dynamics during RV mechanical separation and spin-up. (2) Measure separation shock response at the IMU accelerometer locations. (3) Measure separation shock response at locations on the warhead and RV common to locations used on MMIII separation tests conducted at LMMS Valley Forge for data comparison.

  20. Monitoring thermal impact resulting from solid rocket motor test operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Thurman, Charles; Carr, Hugh V.

    1990-01-01

    The use of remote sensing is discussed with respect to determining the thermal conditions and the immediate environmental effects of large-scale rocket propulsion tests. Data acquired during a test firing of a solid rocket motor are presented including thermal data and surface temperatures from before, during, and after the firing. Thermal impact directly behind the nozzle is assessed, temperature values within the plume are determined, and data are generated for use in an environmental monitoring system which can analyze and forecast impact. The airborne multispectral scanner and thermocouples behind the solid rocket motor discerned that radiant temperatures are higher than predictions indicate and that the testing affects 34 acres of ground. The results are of use in determining the design and area required for developing testing facilities for rocket motors.

  1. The advanced receiver 2: Telemetry test results in CTA 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Bevan, R.; Marina, M.

    1991-01-01

    Telemetry tests with the Advanced Receiver II (ARX II) in Compatibility Test Area 21 are described. The ARX II was operated in parallel with a Block-III Receiver/baseband processor assembly combination (BLK-III/BPA) and a Block III Receiver/subcarrier demodulation assembly/symbol synchronization assembly combination (BLK-III/SDA/SSA). The telemetry simulator assembly provided the test signal for all three configurations, and the symbol signal to noise ratio as well as the symbol error rates were measured and compared. Furthermore, bit error rates were also measured by the system performance test computer for all three systems. Results indicate that the ARX-II telemetry performance is comparable and sometimes superior to the BLK-III/BPA and BLK-III/SDA/SSA combinations.

  2. Orbiter post-tire failure and skid testing results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to define the post-tire failure drag characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main tire and wheel assembly. Skid tests on various materials were also conducted to define their friction and wear rate characteristics under higher speed and bearing pressures than any previous tests. The skid tests were conducted to support a feasibility study of adding a skid to the orbiter strut between the main tires to protect an intact tire from failure due to overload should one of the tires fail. Roll-on-rim tests were conducted to define the ability of a standard and a modified orbiter main wheel to roll without a tire. Results of the investigation are combined into a generic model of strut drag versus time under failure conditions for inclusion into rollout simulators used to train the shuttle astronauts.

  3. High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southwick, Robert D.; Gallops, George W.; Kerr, Laura J.; Kielb, Robert P.; Welsh, Mark G.; DeLaat, John C.; Orme, John S.

    1998-01-01

    The High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) Program, managed and funded by the NASA Lewis Research Center, is a cooperative effort between NASA and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). The program objective is to develop and flight demonstrate an advanced high stability integrated engine control system that uses real-time, measurement-based estimation of inlet pressure distortion to enhance engine stability. Flight testing was performed using the NASA Advanced Controls Technologies for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) F-15 aircraft at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The flight test configuration, details of the research objectives, and the flight test matrix to achieve those objectives are presented. Flight test results are discussed that show the design approach can accurately estimate distortion and perform real-time control actions for engine accommodation.

  4. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup 2008 Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles S.; Litaker, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the LER is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G LER mockup and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the aft bulkhead mockup test results from Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. Refer to 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) for test results of the EU. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the LER cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the LER cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  5. Wind tunnel test IA300 analysis and results, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, P. B.; Beaufait, W. B.; Kitchens, L. L.; Pace, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of wind tunnel pressure data from the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test IA300 are presented. The primary objective of the test was to determine the effects of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) plumes on the integrated vehicle forebody pressure distributions, the elevon hinge moments, and wing loads. The results of this test will be combined with flight test results to form a new data base to be employed in the IVBC-3 airloads analysis. A secondary objective was to obtain solid plume data for correlation with the results of gaseous plume tests. Data from the power level portion was used in conjunction with flight base pressures to evaluate nominal power levels to be used during the investigation of changes in model attitude, eleveon deflection, and nozzle gimbal angle. The plume induced aerodynamic loads were developed for the Space Shuttle bases and forebody areas. A computer code was developed to integrate the pressure data. Using simplified geometrical models of the Space Shuttle elements and components, the pressure data were integrated to develop plume induced force and moments coefficients that can be combined with a power-off data base to develop a power-on data base.

  6. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  7. Experimental study of blast-induced traumatic brain injury using a physical head model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Gennarelli, Thomas A; Son, Steven F

    2009-11-01

    This study was conducted to quantify intracranial biomechanical responses and external blast overpressures using physical head model to understand the biomechanics of blast traumatic brain injury and to provide experimental data for computer simulation of blast-induced brain trauma. Ellipsoidal-shaped physical head models, made from 3-mm polycarbonate shell filled with Sylgard 527 silicon gel, were used. Six blast tests were conducted in frontal, side, and 45 degrees oblique orientations. External blast overpressures and internal pressures were quantified with ballistic pressure sensors. Blast overpressures, ranging from 129.5 kPa to 769.3 kPa, were generated using a rigid cannon and 1.3 to 3.0 grams of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) plastic sheet explosive (explosive yield of 13.24 kJ and TNT equivalent mass of 2.87 grams for 3 grams of material). The PETN plastic sheet explosive consisted of 63% PETN powder, 29% plasticizer, and 8% nitrocellulose with a density of 1.48 g/cm3 and detonation velocity of 6.8 km/s. Propagation and reflection of the shockwave was captured using a shadowgraph technique. Shockwave speeds ranging from 423.3 m/s to 680.3 m/s were recorded. The model demonstrated a two-stage response: a pressure dominant (overpressure) stage followed by kinematic dominant (blast wind) stage. Positive pressures in the brain simulant ranged from 75.1 kPa to 1095 kPa, and negative pressures ranged from -43.6 kPa to -646.0 kPa. High- and normal-speed videos did not reveal observable deformations in the brain simulant from the neutral density markers embedded in the midsagittal plane of the head model. Amplitudes of the internal positive and negative pressures were found to linearly correlate with external overpressure. Results from the current study suggested a pressure-dominant brain injury mechanism instead of strain injury mechanism under the blast severity of the current study. These quantitative results also served as the validation and calibration data for computer simulation models of blast brain injuries. PMID:20058556

  8. Test results of a shower water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Price, Donald F.; Garcia, Rafael; Pierson, Duane L.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    A shower test was conducted recently at NASA-JSC in which waste water was reclaimed and reused. Test subjects showered in a prototype whole body shower following a protocol similar to that anticipated for Space Station. The waste water was purified using reverse osmosis followed by filtration through activated carbon and ion exchange resin beds. The reclaimed waste water was maintained free of microorganisms by using both heat and iodine. This paper discusses the test results, including the limited effectiveness of using iodine as a disinfectant and the evaluation of a Space Station candidate soap for showering. In addition, results are presented on chemical and microbial impurity content of water samples obtained from various locations in the water recovery process.

  9. Model NbTi Helical Solenoid Fabrication and Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Evbota, D.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Makarov, A.; Novitski, I.; Orris, D.F.; Tartaglia, M.A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    A program to develop model magnets for a helical cooling channel is under way at Fermilab. In the first steps of a planned sequence of magnets, two four-coil helical solenoid models with 300 mm aperture have been fabricated and tested. These two models, HSM01 and HSM02, used insulated NbTi Rutherford cable wound onto stainless steel rings with spliceless transitions between coils. Strip heaters were included for quench protection of each coil, and the coils were epoxy-impregnated after winding inside the support structures. Based on the results of the first model the second model was made using a cable with optimized cross-section, improved winding and epoxy-impregnation procedures, enhanced ground insulation, and included heat exchange tubing for a test of conduction cooling. We report on the results and lessons learned from fabrication and tests of these two models.

  10. Operational Results From a High Power Alternator Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2007-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio was used to simulate the operating conditions and evaluate the performance of the ATU and its interaction with various LPSF components in accordance with the current Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) requirements. The testing was carried out at the breadboard development level. These results successfully demonstrated excellent ATU power bus characteristics and rectified user load power quality during steady state and transient conditions. Information gained from this work could be used to assist the design and primary power quality considerations for a possible future FSPS. This paper describes the LPSF components and some preliminary test results.

  11. FDIR Validation Test-Bed Development and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Alexander; Sakthivel, Anandhavel; Aberg, Martin; Andersson, Jan; Habinc, Sandi; Dellandrea, Brice; Nodet, Jean-Christian; Guettache, Farid; Furano, Gianluca

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes work being performed by Cobham Gaisler and Thales Alenia Space France for the European Space Agency to develop an extension of the existing avionics system testbed facility in ESTEC's Avionics Lab. The work is funded by the European Space Agency under contract 4000109928/13/NL/AK. The resulting FDIR (Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery) testbed will allow to test concepts, strategy mechanisms and tools related to FDIR. The resulting facility will have the capabilities to support nominal and off-nominal test cases and to support tools for post testing and post simulation analysis. Ultimately the purpose of the output of this activity is to provide a tool for assessment and validation at laboratory level. This paper describes an on-going development; at the time of writing the activity is in the validation phase.

  12. GICHD Mine Dog Testing Project - Soil Sample Results No.3

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; ARCHULETA, LUISA M.

    2003-03-01

    A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the third batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in October 2002.

  13. GICHD mine dog testing project : soil sample results #5.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

    2004-01-01

    A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fifth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in June 2003.

  14. GICHD mine dog testing project - soil sample results #4.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Wood, Tyson B.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

    2003-08-01

    A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fourth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in April 2003 and Sarajevo, Bosnia collected in May 2003.

  15. SIMS prototype system 3 test results: Engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The results obtained during testing of a closed hydronic drain down solar system designed for space and hot water heating is presented. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 3 for field installation.

  16. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605 Section 219.605 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug...

  17. 40 CFR 211.212-5 - Reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with applicable regulations under 40 CFR Part 211 et seq. All the data reported are true and accurate... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of test results. 211.212-5 Section 211.212-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE...

  18. Results of irradiated cladding tests and clad plate experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Haggag, F.M.; Iskander, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    Two aspects critical to the fracture behavior of three-wire stainless steel cladding were investigated by the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program: (1) radiation effects on cladding strength and toughness, and (2) the response of mechanically loaded, flawed structures in the presence of cladding (clad plate experiments). Postirradiation testing results show that, in the test temperature range from /minus/125 to 288/degree/C, the yield strength increased, and ductility insignificantly increased, while there was almost no change in ultimate tensile strength. All cladding exhibited ductile-to-brittle transition behavior during Charpy impact testing. Radiation damage decreased the Charpy upper-shelf energy by 15 to 20% and resulted in up to 28/degree/C shifts of the Charpy impact transition temperature. Results of irradiated 12.5-mm-thick compact specimens (0.5TCS) show consistent decreases in the ductile fracture toughness, J/sub Ic/, and the tearing modulus. Results from clad plate tests have shown that (1) a tough surface layer composed of cladding and/or heat-affected zone has arrested running flaws under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured, and (2) the residual load-bearing capacity of clad plates with large subclad flaws significantly exceeded that of an unclad plate. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281 Section 493.1281 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... following relevant criteria, when available: (1) Patient age. (2) Sex. (3) Diagnosis or pertinent...

  20. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605 Section 219.605 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug...

  1. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605 Section 219.605 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug...

  2. RESEARCH RESULTS OF LARGE-SCALE EMBANKMENT OVERTOPPING BREACH TESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dam and embankment breaching from overtopping is important to both engineers and planners. The processes observed during overtopping and breach tests conducted on large-scale models as well as preliminary analysis of the results are described in this paper. Three large-scale embankments, two at 2....

  3. Results of Sandia National Laboratories grid-tied inverter testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, G.A.; Bonn, R.H.; Ginn, J.; Gonzalez, S.

    1998-07-01

    This paper proposes a definition for a Non-Islanding Inverter. This paper also presents methods that can be used to implement such an inverter, along with references to prior work on the subject. Justification for the definition is provided on both a theoretical basis and results from tests conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and Ascension Technology, Inc.

  4. Communicating Test Results: A Training Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.

    This training guide is prepared primarily for the professional practitioner; however, academicians may find the guide to have considerable value in both graduate and undergraduate courses in the helping services. The material presents techniques and methods for communicating test results of a psychometric nature, suggested standards for

  5. 12 CFR 252.147 - Reports of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Information (12 CFR part 261). ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.147 Section... to the Board by January 5 of each calendar year in the manner and form prescribed by the...

  6. SSPS results of test and operation, 1981-1984

    SciTech Connect

    1985-05-01

    The results of three years of testing and operation of the two dissimilar solar thermal power plants of the SSPS project are summarized. The project includes: (1) a Distributed Collector System, and (2) a Central Receiver System. Environmental conditions are presented and an economical assessment of the project is provided. (BCS)

  7. First Test Results of the New LANSCE Wire Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Sedillo, James Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation Team (BDIT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE facility is presently developing a new and improved wire scanner diagnostics system controlled by National Instrument's cRIO platform. This paper describes the current state of development of the control system along with the results gathered from the latest actuator motion performance and accelerator-beam data acquisition tests.

  8. Salmonella mutagenicity tests. IV. Results from the testing of 300 chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiger, E.; Anderson, B.; Haworth, S.; Lawlor, T.; Mortelmans, K.

    1988-01-01

    Three hundred chemicals were tested for mutagenicity, under code, in Salmonella typhimurium, using a preincubation protocol. All tests were performed in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation, and in the presence of liver S-9 from Aroclor-induced male Sprague-Dawley rats and Syrian hamsters. The results and data from these tests are presented.

  9. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of this report is to present the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the large-scale test stand. The report includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodology, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging of small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. 2012a. The results of the aerosol measurements in the small-scale test stand are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012b).

  10. Evaluation of dense gas dispersion test results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheesley, D.

    1997-03-01

    A national Spill Test Facility (STF) program dedicated to public safety in the use and transport of fuels and other chemicals was established by Congress. The program is charged with developing technology for spill prediction, prevention, and mitigation. The Spill Test Facility, located northeast of Mercury, Nevada, is to be used for research leading to the development of tools for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment in response to accidental spills of hazardous materials. Public laws, including the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, also require that the Secretary of Energy make the STF and STF test data available to industry, academia, and other government agencies. The objective of this subtask is to produce a data base allowing the chemical and fuel accident responder to access emergency management information quickly and efficiently. The work has involved (1) archiving spill test facility results from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (LGFSTF) at the Nevada National Test Site, (2) updating the data base on spill control technology documents and data, and (3) transferring this information to the public.

  11. First results of the full-array LCT coil tests

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.S.; Baylor, L.R.; Clinard, J.A.; Cogswell, F.D.; Dresner, L.; Ellis, J.F.; Fietz, W.A.; Fletcher, W.M.; Haubenreich, P.N.; Herz, W.

    1986-09-01

    The international Large Coil Task (LCT) has designed, built, and is testing six different toroidal field coils. Each has a 2.5- x 3.5-m D-shaped bore, a current between 10 and 18 kA, and is designed for stable operation at 8 T. Three coils are bath-cooled; three are cooled by forced flow of helium at supercritical pressure. One uses Nb/sub 3/Sn; the others NbTi. The test coils are equipped with voltage, temperature, magnetic field, flow pressure, strain, displacement, and acoustic emission sensors sufficient for penetrating analysis of performance field. Shakedown operation of the test facility and preliminary tests of the first three coils were accomplished in 1984. Tests of the full six-coil toroidal array began early in 1986 and have progressed to the stage of design-current, design-field stability tests. Results to date have elucidated complex structural and electrical interactions in a multicoil array and provide gratifying assurance of coil performance.

  12. Developing a flammability test system for sunglasses: results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Renan; Ventura, Liliane

    2015-03-01

    Sunglasses popularity has increased tremendously. This fact has further led to the need of certificating sunglasses accordingly to the standard NBR 15111 to protect consumers from damages and secondary hazards caused by sunglasses use. The ongoing need comes at the expense that none certification institution in Brazil performs all tests procedures required by the NBR 15111. This manuscript presents the development of a flammability test system for sunglasses and the assessments results. The equipment for testing flammability developed is made of an electrical furnace with a thermocouple and electronic system that maintains the temperature in 650 ºC. This furnace heats a steel rod used for testing flammability. A steel cable connected to a linear actuator drives the rod. The main control system is based on an ARM Cortex M0 microcontroller and we developed a PC interface in LabView to acquire data and store it. The equipment built also has a control panel with a push button, status LEDs and temperature indicator. We performed flammability tests in 45 sunglasses: 45 lenses and 45 frames using the equipment described. None of the samples ignited or continued to glow when the test has finished, however, all polycarbonate samples were melted in the contact region with the steel rod. All samples complied with the NBR 15111. The proof argues that the polycarbonate is extremely resistant to ignition.

  13. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Experimental Operations & Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish; MacLean, Matthew; Seaford, Mark; Holden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Test methodology and conditions are presented, and base heating results from 76 runs are reported in non-dimensional form. Regions of high heating are identified and comparisons of various configuration and conditions are highlighted. Base pressure and radiometer results are also reported.

  14. Graphite electrode arc melter demonstration Phase 2 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Oden, L.L.; Turner, P.C.

    1996-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Energy organizations and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been collaboratively conducting mixed waste treatment process demonstration testing on the near full-scale graphite electrode submerged arc melter system at the Bureau`s Albany (Oregon) Research Center. An initial test series successfully demonstrated arc melter capability for treating surrogate incinerator ash of buried mixed wastes with soil. The conceptual treatment process for that test series assumed that buried waste would be retrieved and incinerated, and that the incinerator ash would be vitrified in an arc melter. This report presents results from a recently completed second series of tests, undertaken to determine the ability of the arc melter system to stably process a wide range of {open_quotes}as-received{close_quotes} heterogeneous solid mixed wastes containing high levels of organics, representative of the wastes buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Phase 2 demonstration test results indicate that an arc melter system is capable of directly processing these wastes and could enable elimination of an up-front incineration step in the conceptual treatment process.

  15. GPM Avionics Module Heat Pipes Design and Performance Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, Laura; DeChristopher, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international network of satellites that provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow. The GPM core satellite carries an advanced radar / radiometer system to measure precipitation from space and serve as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational satellites. Through improved measurements of precipitation globally, the GPM mission will help to advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycle, improve forecasting of extreme events that cause natural hazards and disasters, and extend current capabilities in using accurate and timely information of precipitation to directly benefit society. The avionics module on the core satellite contains a number of electronics boxes which are cooled by a network of aluminum/ammonia heat pipes and a honeycomb radiator which contains thirteen embedded aluminum/ammonia heat pipes. All heat pipes were individually tested by the vendor (Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.) prior to delivery. Following delivery to NASA, the flight avionics radiator and the flight spare transport heat pipes were mounted to flight-like test structure and a system level thermal vacuum test was performed. This test, which used simulators in place of all electronics boxes, was done to verify the operation of the thermal control system as a whole. This presentation will discuss the design of the avionics module heat pipes, and then discuss performance tests results for the individual heat pipes prior to delivery and for the system level thermal vacuum test. All heat pipes met their performance requirements. However, it was found that the power was too low in some instances to start all of the smaller radiator spreader heat pipes when they were tested in a reflux configuration (which is the nominal test configuration). Although this lowered the efficiency of the radiator somewhat, it did not impact the operating temperatures of the electronics boxes.

  16. Long Term Corrosion/Degradation Test Six Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Adler Flitton; C. W. Bishop; M. E. Delwiche; T. S. Yoder

    2004-09-01

    The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains neutron-activated metals from non-fuel, nuclear reactor core components. The Long-Term Corrosion/Degradation (LTCD) Test is designed to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements to the environment. The test is using two proven, industry-standard methods—direct corrosion testing using metal coupons, and monitored corrosion testing using electrical/resistance probes—to determine corrosion rates for various metal alloys generally representing the metals of interest buried at the SDA, including Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, Beryllium S200F, Aluminum 6061, Zircaloy-4, low-carbon steel, and Ferralium 255. In the direct testing, metal coupons are retrieved for corrosion evaluation after having been buried in SDA backfill soil and exposed to natural SDA environmental conditions for times ranging from one year to as many as 32 years, depending on research needs and funding availability. In the monitored testing, electrical/resistance probes buried in SDA backfill soil will provide corrosion data for the duration of the test or until the probes fail. This report provides an update describing the current status of the test and documents results to date. Data from the one-year and three-year results are also included, for comparison and evaluation of trends. In the six-year results, most metals being tested showed extremely low measurable rates of general corrosion. For Type 304L stainless steel, Type 316L stainless steel, Inconel 718, and Ferralium 255, corrosion rates fell in the range of “no reportable” to 0.0002 mils per year (MPY). Corrosion rates for Zircaloy-4 ranged from no measurable corrosion to 0.0001 MPY. These rates are two orders of magnitude lower than those specified in the performance assessment for the SDA. The corrosion on the carbon steel, beryllium, and aluminum were more evident with a clear difference in corrosion performance between the 4-ft and 10-ft levels. Notable surface corrosion products were evident as well as numerous pit initiation sites. Since the corrosion of the beryllium and aluminum is characterized by pitting, the geometrical character of the corrosion becomes more significant than the general corrosion rate. Both pitting factor and weight loss data should be used together. For six-year exposure, the maximum carbon steel corrosion rate was 0.3643 MPY while the maximum beryllium corrosion rate was 0.3282 MPY and the maximum aluminum corrosion rate was 0.0030 MPY.

  17. Mechanisms of Hearing Loss after Blast Injury to the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S.; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T.; Raphael, Patrick D.; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N.; Oghalai, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body’s most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

  18. Mechanisms of hearing loss after blast injury to the ear.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T; Raphael, Patrick D; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N; Oghalai, John S

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body's most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

  19. The Results of Tests of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2009-10-19

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) spectrometer solenoid magnets will be the first magnets to be installed within the MICE cooling channel. The spectrometer magnets are the largest magnets in both mass and surface area within the MICE ooling channel. Like all of the other magnets in MICE, the spectrometer solenoids are kept cold using 1.5 W (at 4.2 K) pulse tube coolers. The MICE spectrometer solenoid is quite possibly the largest magnet that has been cooled using small coolers. Two pectrometer magnets have been built and tested. This report discusses the results of current and cooler tests of both magnets.

  20. Thermosyphon Flooding in Reduced Gravity Environments Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Marc A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, Jim; Ljubanovic, Damir

    2013-01-01

    The condenser flooding phenomenon associated with gravity aided two-phase thermosyphons was studied using parabolic flights to obtain the desired reduced gravity environment (RGE). The experiment was designed and built to test a total of twelve titanium water thermosyphons in multiple gravity environments with the goal of developing a model that would accurately explain the correlation between gravitational forces and the maximum axial heat transfer limit associated with condenser flooding. Results from laboratory testing and parabolic flights are included in this report as part I of a two part series. The data analysis and correlations are included in a follow on paper.

  1. Quantification and aging of the post-blast residue of TNT landmines.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Resende, Elmo; Pearce, Evan

    2003-07-01

    Post-blast residues are potential interferents to chemical detection of landmines. To assess the potential problem related to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), its post-blast residue was identified and quantified. In the first part of this study laboratory-scale samples of TNT (2 g) were detonated in a small-scale explosivity device (SSED) to evaluate the explosive power and collect post-blast residue for chemical analysis. Initiator size was large relative to the TNT charge; thus, issues arose regarding choice of initiator, residue from the initiator, and afterburning of TNT. The second part of this study detonated 75 to 150 g of military-grade TNT (typical of antipersonnel mines) in 55-gal barrels containing various witness materials (metal plates, sand, barrel walls, the atmosphere). The witness materials were analyzed for explosive residue. In a third set of tests, 75-g samples of TNT were detonated over soil (from Fort Leonard Wood or Sandia National Laboratory) in an indoor firing chamber (100 by 4.6 by 2.7 m high). Targeted in these studies were TNT and four explosive-related compounds (ERC): 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB), 2- and 4-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT and 4-ADNT). The latter two are microbial degradation products of TNT. Post-blast residue was allowed to age in the soils as a function of moisture contents (5 and 10%) in order to quantify the rate of degradation of the principal residues (TNT, DNT, and DNB) and formation of the TNT microbial degradation products (2-ADNT and 4-ADNT). The major distinction between landmine leakage and post-blast residue was not the identity of the species but relative ratios of amounts. In landmine leakage the DNT/TNT ratio was usually greater than 1. In post-blast residue it was on the order of 1 to 1/100th of a percent, and the total amount of pre-blast residue (landmine leakage) was a factor of 1/100 to 1/1000 less than post-blast. In addition, landmine leakage resulted in low DNT/ADNT ratios, usually less than 1, whereas pre-blast residues started with ratios above 20. Because with time DNT decreased and ADNT increased, over a month the ratio decreased by a factor of 2. The rate of TNT degradation in soil observed in this study was much slower than that reported when initial concentrations of TNT were lower. Degradation rates yielded half-lives of 40 and 100 days for 2,4-DNT and TNT, respectively. PMID:12877289

  2. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

  3. Experimental test results of a generalized parameter fuel control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterton, P. G.; Gold, H.

    1973-01-01

    Considerable interest has been generated recently in low cost jet propulsion systems. One of the more complicated components of jet engines is the fuel control. Results of an effort to develop a simpler hydromechanical fuel control are presented. This prototype fuel control was installed on a J85-GE-13 jet engine. Results show that the fuel control provided satisfactory engine performance at sea level static conditions over its normal nonafterburning operating range, including startup. Results of both bench and engine tests are presented; the difficulties encountered are described.

  4. Mu2e transport solenoid prototype tests results

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lopes, Mauricio L.; G. Ambrosio; DiMarco, J.; Evbota, D.; Feher, S.; Friedsam, H.; Galt, A.; Hays, S.; Hocker, J.; Kim, M. J.; et al

    2016-02-08

    The Fermilab Mu2e experiment has been developed to search for evidence of charged lepton flavor violation through the direct conversion of muons into electrons. The transport solenoid is an s-shaped magnet which guides the muons from the source to the stopping target. It consists of fifty-two superconducting coils arranged in twenty-seven coil modules. A full-size prototype coil module, with all the features of a typical module of the full assembly, was successfully manufactured by a collaboration between INFN-Genoa and Fermilab. The prototype contains two coils that can be powered independently. In order to validate the design, the magnet went throughmore » an extensive test campaign. Warm tests included magnetic measurements with a vibrating stretched wire, electrical and dimensional checks. As a result, the cold performance was evaluated by a series of power tests as well as temperature dependence and minimum quench energy studies.« less

  5. Investigation results of optical fiber splice cycle temperature tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esin, Semen R.; Inyakin, Vladimir V.; Miftyachitdinov, Sergey H.; Ploshay, Leonid L.

    2001-10-01

    Results of cycle temperature tests of optical fiber fusion splices are represented. An algorithm, method and object of investigation are described. Thermochamber providing temperature range from -- 60 degree(s)C to + 50 degree(s)C was used to carry out temperature tests. Whole delivery length of optical cable was tested. Fibers at the cable end were sequentially joined together. Two splice groups were investigated. First group consisted of splices with reflection attenuation less than 90 dB. Second group included splices with reflection attenuation more than 100 dB. One-half of each group splices was protected by sleeves, another -- by silicon gel. Splice parameters were measured by optical time domain reflectometer.

  6. High-Speed, High-Temperature Finger Seal Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Kumar, Arun; Delgado, Irebert R.

    2002-01-01

    Finger seals have significantly lower leakage rates than conventional labyrinth seals used in gas turbine engines and are expected to decrease specific fuel consumption by over 1 percent and to decrease direct operating cost by over 0.5 percent. Their compliant design accommodates shaft growth and motion due to thermal and dynamic loads with minimal wear. The cost to fabricate these finger seals is estimated to be about half the cost to fabricate brush seals. A finger seal has been tested in NASA's High Temperature, High Speed Turbine Seal Test Rig at operating conditions up to 1200 F, 1200 ft/s, and 75 psid. Static, performance and endurance test results are presented. While seal leakage and wear performance are acceptable, further design improvements are needed to reduce the seal power loss.

  7. Cycom 977-2 Composite Material: Impact Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Herald, Stephen; Watkins, Casey

    2005-01-01

    The reaction frequency data from 13A testing by MSFC and WSTF appear well behaved for the sample number used by each and exhibit the same type of energy level dependency. The reaction frequency shift in energy level is unexplained at this time. All the 13A data suggest that only a small amount of material is consumed when reactions take place. At ambient pressure, most of not all reactions are quenched as indicated by the small mass loss. As test pressure is increased in LOX using 13B results. Cycom does not support initiation of reactions or propagations of reactions in GOX at 100 psis based on tests at MSFC and WSTF at 72 ft-lb impact energy. No batch effect was identified in LOX or GOX.

  8. SP-100 fuel pin performance: Results from irradiation testing

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.; Paxton, D.M.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Hoth, C.W.

    1993-09-01

    A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pin are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the reactor fuel system. This paper provides a brief description of the in-reactor fuel pin tests and presents the most recent irradiation data on the performance of wrought rhenium (Re) liner material and high density UN fuel at goal burnup of 6 atom percent (at. %). It also provides an overview of the significant variety of other fuel/liner/cladding combinations which were irradiated as part of this program and which may be of interest to more advanced efforts.

  9. TEST RESULTS FROM GAMMA IRRADIATION OF ALUMINUM OXYHYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.; Westbrook, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-02-01

    Hydrated metal oxides or oxyhydroxides boehmite and gibbsite that can form on spent aluminum-clad nuclear fuel assemblies during in-core and post-discharge wet storage were exposed as granular powders to gamma irradiation in a {sup 60}Co irradiator in closed laboratory test vessels with air and with argon as separate cover gases. The results show that boehmite readily evolves hydrogen with exposure up to a dose of 1.8 x 10{sup 8} rad, the maximum tested, in both a full-dried and moist condition of the powder, whereas only a very small measurable quantity of hydrogen was generated from the granular powder of gibbsite. Specific information on the test setup, sample characteristics, sample preparation, irradiation, and gas analysis are described.

  10. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2012-09-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

  11. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected VOC soil gas concentrations during ASVE. Five (5) SVE wells that were located closest to the air injection wells were used as monitoring points during the air sparging tests. The air sparging tests lasted 48 hours. Soil gas sample results indicate that sparging did not affect VOC concentrations in four of the five sparging wells, while results from one test did show an increase in soil gas concentrations.

  12. Accelerated aging test results for aerospace wire insulation constructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Several wire insulation constructions were evaluated with and without continuous glow discharges at low pressure and high temperature to determine the aging characteristics of acceptable wire insulation constructions. It was known at the beginning of the test program that insulation aging takes several years when operated at normal ambient temperature and pressure of 20 C and 760 torr. Likewise, it was known that the accelerated aging process decreases insulation life by approximately 50% for each 10 C temperature rise. Therefore, the first phases of the program, not reported in these test results, were to select wire insulation constructions that could operate at high temperature and low pressure for over 10,000 hours with negligible shrinkage and little materials' deterioration.The final phase of the program was to determine accelerated aging characteristics. When an insulation construction is subjected to partial discharges the insulation is locally heated by the bombardment of the discharges, the insulation is also subjected to ozone and other deteriorating gas particles that may significantly increase the aging process. Several insulation systems using either a single material or combinations of teflon, kapton, and glass insulation constructions were tested. All constructions were rated to be partial discharge and/or corona-free at 240 volts, 400 Hz and 260 C (500 F) for 50, 000 hours at altitudes equivalent to the Paschen law. Minimum partial discharge aging tests were preceded by screening tests lasting 20 hours at 260 C. The aging process was accelerated by subjecting the test articles to temperatures up to 370 C (700 F) with and without partial discharges. After one month operation with continuous glow discharges surrounding the test articles, most insulation systems were either destroyed or became brittle, cracked, and unsafe for use. Time with space radiation as with partial discharges is accumulative.

  13. D-0 South End Cap Calorimeter Cold Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-26

    The South endcap calorimeter vessel was moved into Lab A on Sept. 18, 1990. A cooldown of the pressure vessel with liquid nitrogen was performed on Sept. 26 to check the vessel's integrity. With the pressure vessel cold, the insulating vacuum was monitored for leaks. Through out the testing, the insulating vacuum remained good and the vessel passed the test. The cold test was carried out per the procedures of D-Zero engineering note 3740.220-EN-250. The test was very similar to the cold test performed on the Central Calorimeter in October of 1987. The test of the ECS was performed in the same manner using the same equipment as the ECN cold test. Reference D-Zero engineering notes 3740.210-EN-122, 3740.000-EN-I07, and 3740.210-EN-II0 for information about the CC cold test. Reference EN-260 for the results of the ECN cold test. The insulating vacuum space was pumped on while equipment was being connected to the pressure vessel. Two hours after starting to pump with the blower the vacuum space pressure was at about 40 microns. The pumping continued overnight (another 16 hours). In the morning the pressure was 11.5 microns. A rate of rise test was performed. With the pump valved off, the pressure rose to 14 microns within 5 minutes and then rose to 16 microns in 6 hours (0.33 microns/hour). After all connections were made to the pressure vessel, a vacuum pump with an estimated effective pumping speed of about 70 scfm was valved on. After 18 hours, the pressure vessel was down to 270 microns. An additional day of pumping took the pressure down to only 250 microns. A leak was then found and fixed around the seal of the rupture disc. The pump was put on line again. The pressure vessel with pump on line was 27 microns after 16.5 hours. A rate of rise was then conducted. The pressure was 90 microns after valving out the pump. After 30 minutes the pressure increased to 107 microns. (34 microns/hr).

  14. Copper staves in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Helenbrook, R.G.; Kowalski, W.; Grosspietsch, K.H.; Hille, H.

    1996-08-01

    Operational data for stave cooling systems for two German blast furnaces show good correlation with predicted thermal results. Copper staves have been installed in blast furnaces in the zones exposed to the highest thermal loads. The good operational results achieved confirm the choice of copper staves in the areas of maximum heat load. Both temperature measurements and predictions establish that the MAN GHH copper staves do not experience large temperature fluctuations and that the hot face temperatures will be below 250 F. This suggests that the copper staves maintain a more stable accretion layer than the cast iron staves. Contrary to initial expectations, heat flux to the copper staves is 50% lower than that to cast iron staves. The more stable accretion layer acts as an excellent insulator for the stave and greatly reduces the number of times the hot face of the stave is exposed to the blast furnace process and should result in a more stable furnace operation. In the future, it may be unnecessary to use high quality, expensive refractories in front of copper staves because of the highly stable accretion layer that appears to rapidly form due to the lower operating temperature of the staves. There is a balance of application regions for cast iron and copper staves that minimizes the capital cost of a blast furnace reline and provides an integrated cooling system with multiple campaign life potential. Cast iron staves are proven cooling elements that are capable of multiple campaign life in areas of the blast furnace which do not experience extreme heat loads. Copper staves are proving to be an effective and reliable blast furnace cooling element that are subject to virtually no wear and are projected to have a longer campaign service life in the areas of highest thermal load in the blast furnace.

  15. Characterization of explosive devices in luggage: Initial results of the ART-IIC test series

    SciTech Connect

    Akerman, M.A.; Kass, M.D.; Clough, B.T.

    1993-12-31

    Characteristics and damage associated with exploded luggage aboard aircraft are presented in this paper. Plastic-sided suitcases filled with typical travel possessions were exploded inside the fuselage of decomissioned B-52 aircraft. Multilayered shield panels, mounted to one side of the fuselage, served to protect the aircraft body and flight system components from both the blast wave and exploded fragments. The resulting damage produced by the explosions was characterized and the absorbing characteristics of the shielding were evaluated. In addition, the energy of the luggage fragments was estimated.

  16. Flight test results of the Strapdown hexad Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU). Volume 1: Flight test summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Bjorkman, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    Flight test results of the strapdown inertial reference unit (SIRU) navigation system are presented. The fault-tolerant SIRU navigation system features a redundant inertial sensor unit and dual computers. System software provides for detection and isolation of inertial sensor failures and continued operation in the event of failures. Flight test results include assessments of the system's navigational performance and fault tolerance.

  17. Test Results for a High Power Thermal Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrenn, Kimberly R.; Wolf, David A.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the identified needs of emerging high power spacecraft applications, a multiple evaporator hybrid loop heat pipe (H-LHP) was developed and tested as part of a Dual Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) program co-sponsored by ATK and AFRL/PRP. During the course of the DUS&T program, a two-kilowatt system with three evaporators was developed and tested to identify viable system architectures and characterize system performance capabilities as a function of heat load profiles and spatial distribution of the evaporators. Following the successful development of the two-kilowatt system, a 10-kilowatt system with six evaporators was fabricated and tested. Tests were performed with the system operating in a totally passive mode, where applying a small amount of power to a sweepage evaporator provides the auxiliary flow through the primary evaporators, and as a self-regulating, capillary-controlled mechanically pumped system. This paper will provide a description of the 10-kilowatt multi-evaporator system and present the results of the passive and mechanically pump test programs.

  18. Experimental Results of Integrated Refrigeration and Storage System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Jumper, K.

    2009-01-01

    Launch operations engineers at the Kennedy Space Center have identified an Integrated Refrigeration and Storage system as a promising technology to reduce launch costs and enable advanced cryogenic operations. This system uses a close cycle Brayton refrigerator to remove energy from the stored cryogenic propellant. This allows for the potential of a zero loss storage and transfer system, as well and control of the state of the propellant through densification or re-liquefaction. However, the behavior of the fluid in this type of system is different than typical cryogenic behavior, and there will be a learning curve associated with its use. A 400 liter research cryostat has been designed, fabricated and delivered to KSC to test the thermo fluid behavior of liquid oxygen as energy is removed from the cryogen by a simulated DC cycle cryocooler. Results of the initial testing phase focusing on heat exchanger characterization and zero loss storage operations using liquid oxygen are presented in this paper. Future plans for testing of oxygen densification tests and oxygen liquefaction tests will also be discussed. KEYWORDS: Liquid Oxygen, Refrigeration, Storage

  19. Experimental Results of Integrated Refrigeration and Storage System Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Oliveira, J.; Jumper, K.

    2010-04-01

    Launch operations engineers at the Kennedy Space Center have identified an Integrated Refrigeration and Storage system as a promising technology to reduce launch costs and enable advanced cryogenic operations. This system uses a closed cycle Brayton refrigerator to remove energy from the stored cryogenic propellant. This allows for control of the temperature and pressure of the fluid, and enables advanced operations such as zero boil off storage and zero loss transfer. If required, this also can serve as a propellant densification system or liquefier. However, the behavior of the fluid in this type of system is different than typical cryogenic storage systems, and there will be a learning curve associated with its use. A 400 liter research cryostat has been designed, fabricated and delivered to KSC to test the thermofluid behavior of liquid oxygen as energy is removed from the cryogen by a simulated DC cycle cryocooler. Results of the initial testing phase focusing on heat exchanger characterization and zero loss storage operations using liquid oxygen are presented in this paper. Future plans for testing of oxygen densification tests and oxygen liquefaction tests will also be discussed.

  20. Results of a sub-scale model rotor icing test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemming, Robert J.; Bond, Thomas H.; Britton, Randall K.

    1991-01-01

    A heavily instrumented sub-scale model of a helicopter main rotor was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in September and November 1989. The four-bladed main rotor had a diameter of 1.83 m (6.00 ft) and the 0.124 m (4.9 in) chord rotor blades were specially fabricated for this experiment. The instrumented rotor was mounted on a Sikorsky Aircraft Powered Force Model, which enclosed a rotor balance and other measurement systems. The model rotor was exposed to a range of icing conditions that included variations in temperature, liquid water content, and median droplet diameter, and was operated over ranges of advance ratio, shaft angle, tip Mach number (rotor speed) and weight coefficient to determine the effect of these parameters on ice accretion. In addition to strain gage and balance data, the test was documented with still, video, and high speed photography, ice profile tracings, and ice molds. The sensitivity of the model rotor to the test parameters, is given, and the result to theoretical predictions are compared. Test data quality was excellent, and ice accretion prediction methods and rotor performance prediction methods (using published icing lift and drag relationships) reproduced the performance trends observed in the test. Adjustments to the correlation coefficients to improve the level of correlation are suggested.

  1. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0.

  2. Results of a sub-scale model rotor icing test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemming, Robert J.; Bond, Thomas H.; Britton, Randall K.

    1991-01-01

    A heavily instrumented sub-scale model of a helicopter main rotor was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in September and November 1989. The four-bladed main rotor had a diameter of 1.83 m (6.00 ft) and the 0.124 m (4.9 in) chord rotor blades were specially fabricated for this experiment. The instrumented rotor was mounted on a Sikorsky Aircraft Powered Force Model, which enclosed a rotor balance and other measurement systems. The model rotor was exposed to a range of icing conditions that included variations in temperature, liquid water content, and median droplet diameter, and was operated over ranges of advance ratio, shaft angle, tip Mach number (rotor speed) and weight coefficient to determine the effect of these parameters on ice accretion. In addition to strain gage and balance data, the test was documented with still, video, and high speed photography, ice profile tracings, and ice molds. The sensitivity of the model rotor to the test parameters is given, and the result to theoretical predictions are compared. Test data quality was excellent, and ice accretion prediction methods and rotor performance prediction methods (using published icing lift and drag relationships) reproduced the performance trends observed in the test. Adjustments to the correlation coefficients to improve the level of correlation are suggested.

  3. VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Mair, C.; Pescoller, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Mantegazza, M.; Gallieni, D.; Vernet, E.; Arsenault, R.; Madec, P.-Y.; Duhoux, P.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Manetti, M.; Morandini, M.

    2012-07-01

    The VLT Deformable secondary is planned to be installed on the VLT UT#4 as part of the telescope conversion into the Adaptive Optics test Facility (AOF). The adaptive unit is based on the well proven contactless, voice coil motor technology that has been already successfully implemented in the MMT, LBT and Magellan adaptive secondaries, and is considered a promising technical choice for the forthcoming ELT-generation adaptive correctors, like the E-ELT M4 and the GMT ASM. The VLT adaptive unit has been recently assembled after the completion of the manufacturing and modular test phases. In this paper, we present the most relevant aspects of the system integration and report the preliminary results of the electromechanical tests performed on the unit. This test campaign is a typical major step foreseen in all similar systems built so far: thanks to the metrology embedded in the system, that allows generating time-dependent stimuli and recording in real time the position of the controlled mirror on all actuators, typical dynamic response quality parameters like modal settling time, overshoot and following error can be acquired without employing optical measurements. In this way the system dynamic and some aspect of its thermal and long term stability can be fully characterized before starting the optical tests and calibrations.

  4. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

  5. Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  6. Flight test results of riblets at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuniga, Fanny A.; Anderson, Bianca T.; Bertelrud, Arild

    1992-01-01

    A flight experiment to test and evaluate the skin friction drag characteristics of a riblet surface in turbulent flow at supersonic speeds was conducted at NASA Dryden. Riblets of groove sizes 0.0030 and 0.0013 in. were mounted on the F-104G flight test fixture. The test surfaces were surveyed with boundary layer rakes and pressure orifices to examine the boundary layer profiles and pressure distributions of the flow. Skin friction reductions caused by the riblet surface were reported based on measured differences of momentum thickness between the smooth and riblet surfaces obtained from the boundary layer data. Flight test results for the 0.0030 in. riblet show skin friction reductions of 4 to 8 % for Mach numbers ranging from 1.2 to 1.6 and Reynolds numbers ranging from 2 to 3.4 million per unit foot. The results from the 0.0013 in. riblets show skin friction reductions of 4 to 15 % for Mach 1.2 to 1.4 and Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.6 to 6 million per unit foot.

  7. Test Results for the Automated Rendezvous and Capture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig; Dabney, Richard; Lomas, James

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) system was designed and tested at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to demonstrate technologies and mission strategies for automated rendezvous and docking of spacecraft in Earth orbit, The system incorporates some of the latest innovations in Global Positioning, System space navigation, laser sensor technologies and automated mission sequencing algorithms. The system's initial design and integration was completed in 1998 and has undergone testing at MSFC. This paper describes the major components of the AR&C system and presents results from the official system tests performed in MSFC's Flight Robotics Laboratory with digital simulations and hardware in the loop tests. The results show that the AR&C system can safely and reliably perform automated rendezvous and docking missions in the absence of system failures with 100 percent success. When system failures are included, the system uses its automated collision avoidance maneuver logic to recover in a safe manner. The primary objective of the AR&C project is to prove that by designing a safe and robust automated system, mission operations cost can be reduced by decreasing the personnel required for mission design, preflight planning and training required for crewed rendezvous and docking missions.

  8. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Tone Modal Structure Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation is part of a test series that was extremely comprehensive and included aerodynamic and acoustic testing of a fan stage using two different fan rotors and three different stator designs. The test series is known as the Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) and was conducted by NASA Glenn as part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. Tone mode measurements of one of the rotors with three different stators were made. The stator designs involve changes in vane count and sweep at constant solidity. The results of both inlet and exhaust tone mode measurements are presented in terms of mode power for both circumferential and radial mode orders. The results show benefits of vane sweep to be large, up to 13 dB in total tone power. At many conditions, the increase in power due to cutting on the rotor/stator interaction is more than offset by vane sweep. The rotor locked mode is shown as an important contributor to tone power when the blade tip speed is near and above Mach one. This is most evident in the inlet when the direct rotor field starts to cut on.

  9. Horizontal grout barrier project results of the latest testing

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, K.W.; Ridenour, D.E.; Walker, J.

    1995-03-01

    Throughout United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites are situations where storage tanks and pits are leaking or have the potential to leak contamination into the soil. Subsequent leaching from rain and groundwater flow disperses the contamination far from the original site and, in some cases, into aquifers which serve as a drinking water source. Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) at Fernald working with the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) and two subcontractors, is pursuing the goal of placing a barrier beneath the contamination to prevent this dispersion. The technology being developed is an in situ approach based on directional drilling and jet grouting techniques developed in the oil fields. The unique barrier techniques being developed depend on innovative tooling and special grouts to install a horizontal barrier underground without disturbing the contaminated soils above. The initial tool designs were tested in December 1992 and were encouraging enough that the DOE agreed to fund continued development. A second set of designs were tested in August 1994. The testing results were less than expected but did provide a number of lessons learned. This paper reports on the third set of tool designs and the results of testing these tools prior to the full demonstration project at Fernald.

  10. Initial test results for the mini-mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, L.; Horner, G.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the 20-meter Mini-Mast were: (1) to learn how to efficiently test this type of large truss structure, (2) to relate component testing to the overall behavior of the structure, and (3) to update the associated analytical model based upon the experimental data. The Mini-Mast represents structural characteristics similar to the COFS beam which is planned to be flown on Shuttle to perform on-orbit structures and controls experiments. The information is of interest to LDR because it represents analysis and test information on a truss-type structure which may be similar to the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) backup structure. The structure has a total of 111 titanium joints; the joint in the center of the truss element is a near-center latch joint. The results of this research indicate that linear deployable-type structures can be built, but difficulties do exist in extracting modes with identical frequencies; gravitational loading does affect the ground test results; and prediction of truss-type-structure dynamic characteristics is not trivial.

  11. Performance test results for the Eaton dc development power train in an electric test bed vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumley, R. L.; Donaldson, M. R.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of the tests performed on a direct current (dc) power train in a test bed vehicle developed by the Eaton Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The tests were performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the INEL testing was to provide test results from which an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the Eaton dc power train could be made and compared with other vehicle propulsion systems. The planned tests were primarily oriented toward road testing, chassis dynamometer testing, and associated dynamometer coastdown tests for road loss determination. Range tests of the Eaton dc test bed vehicle using an ALCO 2200 lead acid battery pack, produced ranges of 97 km at 56 km/h (60 miles at 35 mph), 79 km at 72 km/h (49 miles at 45 mph), and 47 km at 88 km/h (29 miles at 55 mph). The corresponding net dc energy consumptions are 135 Wh/km (217 Wh/mile), 145 Wh/km (233 Wh/mile), and 178 Wh/km (287 Wh/mile). The energy consumption for the D-cycle test was 241 Wh/km (387 Wh/mile).

  12. Performance test results for the Eaton dc developmental power train in an electric test bed vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Crumley, R.L.; Donaldson, M.R.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of the tests performed on a direct current (dc) power train in a test bed vehicle developed by the Eaton Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests were performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the INEL testing was to provide test results from which an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the Eaton dc power train could be made and compared with other vehicle propulsion systems. The planned tests were primarily oriented toward road testing, chassis dynamometer testing, and associated dynamometer coastdown tests for road loss determination. Range tests of the Eaton dc test bed vehicle using an ALCO 2200 lead acid battery pack, produced ranges of 97 km at 56 km/h (60 miles at 35 mph), 79 km at 72 km/h (49 miles at 45 mph), and 47 km at 88 km/h (29 miles at 55 mph). The corresponding net dc energy consumptions are 135 Wh/km (217 Wh/mile), 145 Wh/km (233 Wh/mile), and 178 Wh/km (287 Wh/mile). The energy consumption for the D-cycle test was 241 Wh/km (387 Wh/mile). 8 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Comparison of road load simulator test results with track tests on electric vehicle propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    A special-purpose dynamometer, the road load simulator (RLS), is being used at NASA's Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the RLS and track tests, similar tests were conducted on the same propulsion system on the RLS and on a test track. These tests are compared in this report. Battery current to maintain a constant vehicle speed with a fixed throttle was used for the comparison. Scatter in the data was greater in the track test results. This is attributable to variations in tire rolling resistance and wind effects in the track data. It also appeared that the RLS road load, determined by coastdown tests on the track, was lower than that of the vehicle on the track. These differences may be due to differences in tire temperature.

  14. Results of testing various natural gas desulfurization adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israelson, Gordon

    2004-06-01

    This article presents the results of testing many commercially available and some experimental sulfur adsorbents. The desired result of our testing was to find an effective method to reduce the quantity of sulfur in natural gas to less than 100 ppb volume (0.1 ppm volume). An amount of 100 ppb sulfur is the maximum limit permitted for Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The tested adsorbents include some that rely only on physical adsorption such as activated carbon, some that rely on chemisorption such as heated zinc oxide, and some that may use both processes. The testing was performed on an engineering scale with beds larger than those used for typical laboratory tests. All tests were done at about 3.45 barg (50 psig). The natural gas used for testing was from the local pipeline in Pittsburgh and averaged 6 ppm volume total sulfur. The primary sulfur species were dimethyl sulfide (DMS), isopropyl mercaptan, tertiary butyl mercaptan, and tetrahydrothiophene. Some tests required several months to achieve a sulfur breakthrough of the bed. It was found that DMS always came through a desulfurizer bed first, independent of adsorption process. Since the breakthrough of DMS always exceeds the 100 ppb SOFC sulfur limit before other sulfurs were detected, an index was created to rate the adsorbents in units of ppm DMS × absorbent bed volume. This index is useful for calculating the expected adsorbent bed lifetime before sulfur breakthrough when the inlet natural gas DMS content is known. The adsorbents that are included in these reports were obtained from suppliers in the United States, the Netherlands, Japan, and England. Three activated carbons from different suppliers were found to have identical performance in removing DMS. One of these activated carbons was operated at four different space velocities and again showed the same performance. When using activated carbon as the basis of comparison for other adsorbents, three high-performance adsorbents were found that removed about 100 to 150 times as much DMS as activated carbon before breakthrough.

  15. Flight test results of ladar brownout look-through capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmash, Stephen; Münsterer, Thomas; Kramper, Patrick; Samuelis, Christian; Bühler, Daniel; Wegner, Matthias; Sheth, Sagar

    2015-06-01

    The paper discusses recent results of flight tests performed with the Airbus Defence and Space ladar system at Yuma Proving Grounds. The ladar under test was the SferiSense® system which is in operational use as an in-flight obstacle warning and avoidance system on the NH90 transport helicopter. Just minor modifications were done on the sensor firmware to optimize its performance in brownout. Also a new filtering algorithm fitted to segment dust artefacts out of the collected 3D data in real-time was employed. The results proved that this ladar sensor is capable to detect obstacles through brownout dust clouds with a depth extending up to 300 meters from the landing helicopter.

  16. Factory acceptance test results for the DIRSP projection optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Matthew C.; Ward, Craig S.

    2000-07-01

    The Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) results for the projection optical subsystem (POS) of US Army STIRCOM's dynamic infrared scene projector (DIRSP) are presented in this paper. DIRSP is a low background (-35 degrees Celsius) hardware-in-the- loop (HWIL), long-wave infrared (LWIR) scene projector built by Mission Research Corporation (MRC) for use by the Redstone Technical Test Center (RTTC). It has an effective emitter array size of 1632 X 672 suspended-membrane micro-resistor elements. The POS is responsible for generating this effective array size from three smaller arrays using a mosaic image combiner, adding background light from an external blackbody, and collimating the combined radiation with a 5:1 vacuum enclosed -35 degree Celsius zoom lens. The FAT results reported demonstrate good POS performance compared to the design for focal length, F/#, MTF and apparent temperature.

  17. Preliminary test results with a Stirling Laboratory Research Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.; Nguyen, B. D.; Schmit, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed, assembled, and initiated testing of a Stirling Laboratory Research Engine (SLRE). This preprototype engine provides a research tool to support the development of a broad range of analytical modeling and experimental efforts. The SLRE is a horizontally opposed, two-piston, single-acting Stirling engine with a split crankshaft drive mechanism. The paper discusses the preliminary results obtained during engine motoring tests and compares these results with two different analytical prediction models. Comparisons are made between experiment, the classical Schmidt analysis, and the JPL Stirling Cycle Analysis Model (SCAM). SCAM is a computerized one-dimensional, cyclic, compressible flow model of the SLRE and consists of a compilation of individual component subroutines. The formulation and current state of development of the SCAM program is briefly described.

  18. Natural rice rhizospheric microbes suppress rice blast infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The natural interactions between plant roots and their rhizospheric microbiome are vital to plant fitness, modulating both growth promotion and disease suppression. In rice (Oryza sativa), a globally important food crop, as much as 30% of yields are lost due to blast disease caused by fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Capitalizing on the abilities of naturally occurring rice soil bacteria to reduce M. oryzae infections could provide a sustainable solution to reduce the amount of crops lost to blast disease. Results Naturally occurring root-associated rhizospheric bacteria were isolated from California field grown rice plants (M-104), eleven of which were taxonomically identified by16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. Bacterial isolates were tested for biocontrol activity against the devastating foliar rice fungal pathogen, M. oryzae pathovar 70–15. In vitro, a Pseudomonas isolate, EA105, displayed antibiosis through reducing appressoria formation by nearly 90% as well as directly inhibiting fungal growth by 76%. Although hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a volatile commonly produced by biocontrol pseudomonads, the activity of EA105 seems to be independent of its HCN production. During in planta experiments, EA105 reduced the number of blast lesions formed by 33% and Pantoea agglomerans isolate, EA106 by 46%. Our data also show both EA105 and EA106 trigger jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) response in rice. Conclusions Out of 11 bacteria isolated from rice soil, pseudomonad EA105 most effectively inhibited the growth and appressoria formation of M. oryzae through a mechanism that is independent of cyanide production. In addition to direct antagonism, EA105 also appears to trigger ISR in rice plants through a mechanism that is dependent on JA and ET signaling, ultimately resulting in fewer blast lesions. The application of native bacteria as biocontrol agents in combination with current disease protection strategies could aid in global food security. PMID:24884531

  19. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    PubMed

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading experienced by the unprotected eye after 0.2 ms of impact of blast wave, for lower as well as higher charge mass. The present model provides fundamental insights of flow and pressure fields in the ocular region, which helps to explain the effectiveness of the eye armor. Since the measurements of these fields are not trivial, the computational model aids in better understanding of development of PBI. PMID:25828209

  20. Blast-Driven Hydrodynamic Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc T.; Johnsen, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Accurate characterization of mixing from hydrodynamic instabilities, such as Richtmyer-Meshkov, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz, is important to many multi-fluid applications, particularly, inertial confinement fusion, supernova collapse, and scramjet combustion. We investigate the dynamics of a perturbed interface between two fluids subjected to a planar blast wave. An initial point source explosion initiates a blast, which can be described as a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. The interface, therefore, experiences an instantaneous acceleration (a pressure increase) followed by a gradual, time-dependent deceleration (a pressure decrease). The resulting interaction gives rise to Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor growth, depending on the shock strength and blast profile. Using a high-order accurate numerical method that prevents pressure errors at interfaces when simulating variable specific heats ratios, we identify regimes in which one or the other instability dominates. This research was supported by the DOE NNSA/ASC under the predictive Science Academic Alliance Program by Grant No. DEFC52-08NA28616.

  1. Scorpion HMCS developmental and operational flight test status and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atac, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Gentex Corporation is nearing completion of the developmental and operational test phase of the Helmet Mounted Integrated Targeting (HMIT) contract with the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve. The HMIT program involves qualification and installation of the Scorpion Helmet Mounted Cueing System (HMCS) Color Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) in both the A-10C and F-16C Block 30 aircraft. This paper discusses the program status and results.

  2. Summary of Test Results for Daya Bay Rock Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2004-10-12

    A series of analytical tests was conducted on a suite of granitic rock samples from the Daya Bay region of southeast China. The objective of these analyses was to determine key rock properties that would affect the suitability of this location for the siting of a neutrino oscillation experiment. This report contains the results of chemical analyses, rock property measurements, and a calculation of the mean atomic weight.

  3. NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program test results

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications program were to investigate the effects of atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and AO with UV synergistic effects on wire insulation materials. The AO exposure was on the order of 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm and the vacuum UV radiation was on the order of 10,000 ESH. The results of these tests are presented in this document.

  4. NASA wind shear flight test in situ results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera, Rosa M.

    1992-01-01

    The main objectives in developing the NASA in situ windshear detection algorithm were to provide a measurement standard for validation of forward-look sensors under development, and to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to operate with a suitably low nuisance alert rate. It was necessary to know exactly how the algorithm was implemented and what parameters and filtering were used, in order to be able to fully test its effectiveness and correlate in situ results with forward-look sensor data.

  5. First tritium results of the KATRIN test experiment TRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Eichelhardt, F.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Kazachenko, O.; Kernert, N.; Sturm, M.

    2008-07-15

    The TRAP experiment (Tritium Argon frost Pump) has been built at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) as a test rig for the Cryogenic Pumping Section (CPS) of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN). TRAP employs a heterogeneous layer of pre-condensed argon to adsorb hydrogen isotopes at {approx} 4.2 K This paper presents results obtained in the first three tritium experiments with TRAP. (authors)

  6. Discrimination of Mine Seismic Events and Blasts Using the Fisher Classifier, Naive Bayesian Classifier and Logistic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Longjun; Wesseloo, Johan; Potvin, Yves; Li, Xibing

    2016-01-01

    Seismic events and blasts generate seismic waveforms that have different characteristics. The challenge to confidently differentiate these two signatures is complex and requires the integration of physical and statistical techniques. In this paper, the different characteristics of blasts and seismic events were investigated by comparing probability density distributions of different parameters. Five typical parameters of blasts and events and the probability density functions of blast time, as well as probability density functions of origin time difference for neighbouring blasts were extracted as discriminant indicators. The Fisher classifier, naive Bayesian classifier and logistic regression were used to establish discriminators. Databases from three Australian and Canadian mines were established for training, calibrating and testing the discriminant models. The classification performances and discriminant precision of the three statistical techniques were discussed and compared. The proposed discriminators have explicit and simple functions which can be easily used by workers in mines or researchers. Back-test, applied results, cross-validated results and analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves in different mines have shown that the discriminator for one of the mines has a reasonably good discriminating performance.

  7. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.

    1993-03-01

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the {open_quotes}sources{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}targets{close_quotes} requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.

  8. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.

    1993-03-01

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the [open quotes]sources[close quotes] and [open quotes]targets[close quotes] requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.

  9. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

  10. Qualification test results for blue-red reflecting solar covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, W. T.

    1994-01-01

    Recent market forces and design innovations have spurred the development of solar cell covers that significantly reduce the solar absorptance for a cell array. GaAs cells, using Ge as the substrate host material, can have a significantly higher output if the solar absorptance of the cell array is reduced. New optical coating design techniques have allowed the construction of covers that reflect the ultraviolet energy (below 350 nm) and the near infrared energy (above 900 nm) resulting in the beneficial reduction in absorptance. Recent modeling suggests three or more present output increase due to the lowered temperature with such a device. Within the last several months we have completed the testing of production samples of these new covers in a qualification series that included the usual environmental effects associated with the routine testing of solar cell covers and the combined effects of protons, electrons and solar UV as would be encountered in space. For the combined effects testing the samples were exposed to 300 sun days equivalent UV, 5 x 10(exp 14)/sq cm of 0.5 MeV protons and 10(exp 15)/sq cm of 1.0 MeV electrons. Measurements of the reflectance, transmission, emittance and other appropriate parameters were made before and after the testing. As measured by the averaged transmission over the cell operating band, the change in transmission for the samples was less than or about equal to 1 percent. The details of the testing and the results in terms of transmission, reflectance and emittance are discussed in the paper.

  11. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Rotor Alone Aerodynamic Performance Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Woodward, Richard P.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of an isolated fan or rotor alone model was measured in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel as part of the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test conducted at NASA Glenn. The Source Diagnostic Test was conducted to identify the noise sources within a wind tunnel scale model of a turbofan engine and quantify their contribution to the overall system noise level. The fan was part of a 1/5th scale model representation of the bypass stage of a current technology turbofan engine. For the rotor alone testing, the fan and nacelle, including the inlet, external cowl, and fixed area fan exit nozzle, were modeled in the test hardware; the internal outlet guide vanes located behind the fan were removed. Without the outlet guide vanes, the velocity at the nozzle exit changes significantly, thereby affecting the fan performance. As part of the investigation, variations in the fan nozzle area were tested in order to match as closely as possible the rotor alone performance with the fan performance obtained with the outlet guide vanes installed. The fan operating performance was determined using fixed pressure/temperature combination rakes and the corrected weight flow. The performance results indicate that a suitable nozzle exit was achieved to be able to closely match the rotor alone and fan/outlet guide vane configuration performance on the sea level operating line. A small shift in the slope of the sea level operating line was measured, which resulted in a slightly higher rotor alone fan pressure ratio at take-off conditions, matched fan performance at cutback conditions, and a slightly lower rotor alone fan pressure ratio at approach conditions. However, the small differences in fan performance at all fan conditions were considered too small to affect the fan acoustic performance.

  12. Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Michael W.; Courtney, Amy C.

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

  13. Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Michael W; Courtney, Amy C

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test. PMID:21198058

  14. Results of accelerated thermal cycle tests of solar cells modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, P.; Mueller, R.; Salama, M.; Yasui, R.

    1976-01-01

    Various candidate solar panel designs were evaluated, both theoretically and experimentally, with respect to their thermal cycling survival capability, and in particular with respect to an accelerated simulation of thermal cycles representative of Viking '75 mission requirements. The experimental results were obtained on 'mini-panels' thermally cycled in a newly installed automated test facility herein described. The resulting damage was analyzed physically and theoretically, and on the basis of these analyses the panel design was suitably modified to significantly improve its ability to withstand the thermal environment. These successful modifications demonstrate the value of the complementary theoretical-experimental approach adopted, and discussed in detail in this paper.

  15. Microrobotized blasting improves the bone-to-textured implant response. A preclinical in vivo biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo G; Gil, Luiz F; Neiva, Rodrigo; Jimbo, Ryo; Tovar, Nick; Lilin, Thomas; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of microrobotized blasting of titanium endosteal implants relative to their manually blasted counterparts. Two different implant systems were utilized presenting two different implant surfaces. Control surfaces (Manual) were fabricated by manually grit blasting the implant surfaces while experimental surfaces (Microblasted) were fabricated through a microrobotized system that provided a one pass grit blasting routine. Both surfaces were created with the same ~50µm average particle size alumina powder at ~310KPa. Surfaces were then etched with 37% HCl for 20min, washed, and packaged through standard industry procedures. The surfaces were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical interferometry, and were then placed in a beagle dog radius model remaining in vivo for 3 and 6 weeks. The implant removal torque was recorded and statistical analysis evaluated implant system and surface type torque levels as a function of time in vivo. Histologic sections were qualitatively evaluated for tissue response. Electron microscopy depicted textured surfaces for both manual and microblasted surfaces. Optical interferometry showed significantly higher Sa, Sq, values for the microblasted surface and no significant difference for Sds and Sdr values between surfaces. In vivo results depicted that statistically significant gains in biomechanical fixation were obtained for both implant systems tested at 6 weeks in vivo, while only one system presented significant biomechanical gain at 3 weeks. Histologic sections showed qualitative higher amounts of new bone forming around microblasted implants relative to the manually blasted group. Microrobotized blasting resulted in higher biomechanical fixation of endosteal dental implants and should be considered as an alternative for impant surface manufacturing. PMID:26703231

  16. Factor Analysis of Persistent Post-Concussive Symptoms within a Military Sample with Blast Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Franke, L.M.; Czarnota, J.N.; Ketchum, J.M.; Walker, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the factor structure of persistent post-concussive syndrome (PPCS) symptoms in a blast-exposed military sample and validate factors against objective and symptom measures. Setting Veterans Affairs medical center and military bases. Participants One hundred eighty-one service members and veterans with at least one significant exposure to blast during deployment within the two years prior to study enrollment. Design Confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of the Rivermead Post-concussion Questionnaire (RPQ). Main Measures RPQ, PTSD Symptom Checklist-Civilian, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression inventory, Sensory Organization Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, California Verbal Learning Test, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System subtests. Results The three-factor structure of PPCS was not confirmed. A four-factor structure was extracted, and factors were interpreted as reflecting emotional, cognitive, visual, and vestibular functions. All factors were associated with scores on psychological symptom inventories; visual and vestibular factors were also associated with balance performance. There was no significant association between the cognitive factor and neuropsychological performance, nor between a history of mTBI and factor scores. Conclusion Persistent post-concussive symptoms observed months after blast exposure seem to be related to four distinct forms of distress, but not to mTBI per se, with vestibular and visual factors possibly related to injury of sensory organs by blast. PMID:24695267

  17. Planar blast scaling with condensed-phase explosives in a shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott L

    2011-01-25

    Blast waves are strong shock waves that result from large power density deposition into a fluid. The rapid energy release of high-explosive (HE) detonation provides sufficiently high power density for blast wave generation. Often it is desirable to quantify the energy released by such an event and to determine that energy relative to other reference explosives to derive an explosive-equivalence value. In this study, we use condensed-phase explosives to drive a blast wave in a shock tube. The explosive material and quantity were varied to produce blast waves of differing strengths. Pressure transducers at varying lengths measured the post-shock pressure, shock-wave arrival time and sidewall impulse associated with each test. Blast-scaling concepts in a one-dimensional geometry were then used to both determine the energy release associated with each test and to verify the scaling of the shock position versus time, overpressure versus distance, and impulse. Most blast scaling measurements to-date have been performed in a three-dimensional geometry such as a blast arena. Testing in a three-dimensional geometry can be challenging, however, as spherical shock-wave symmetry is required for good measurements. Additionally, the spherical wave strength decays rapidly with distance and it can be necessary to utilize larger (several kg) quantities of explosive to prevent significant decay from occurring before an idealized blast wave has formed. Such a mode of testing can be expensive, require large quantities of explosive, and be limited by both atmospheric conditions (such as rain) and by noise complaints from the population density near the test arena. Testing is possible in more compact geometries, however. Non-planar blast waves can be formed into a quasi-planar shape by confining the shock diffraction with the walls of a shock tube. Regardless of the initial form, the wave shape will begin to approximate a planar front after successive wave reflections from the tube walls. Such a technique has previously been used to obtain blast scaling measurements in the planar geometry with gaseous explosives and the condensed-phase explosive nitroguanidine. Recently, there has been much interest in the blast characterization of various non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) materials. With non-ideals, the detonation reaction zone is significantly larger (up to several cm for ANFO) than more ideal explosives. Wave curvature, induced by charge-geometry, can significantly affect the energy release associated with NIHEs. To measure maximum NIHE energy release accurately, it is desirable to minimize any such curvature and, if possible, to overdrive the detonation shock to ensure completion of chemical reactions ahead of the sonic locus associated with the reaction zone. This is achieved in the current study through use of a powerful booster HE and a charge geometry consisting of short cylindrical lengths of NIHE initiated along the charge centerline.

  18. Final Test and Evaluation Results from the Solar Two Project

    SciTech Connect

    BRADSHAW, ROBERT W.; DAWSON, DANIEL B.; DE LA ROSA, WILFREDO; GILBERT, ROCKWELL; GOODS, STEVEN H.; HALE, MARY JANE; JACOBS, PETER; JONES, SCOTT A.; KOLB, GREGORY J.; PACHECO, JAMES E.; PRAIRIE, MICHAEL R.; REILLY, HUGH E.; SHOWALTER, STEVEN K.; VANT-HULL, LORIN L.

    2002-01-01

    Solar Two was a collaborative, cost-shared project between 11 U. S. industry and utility partners and the U. S. Department of Energy to validate molten-salt power tower technology. The Solar Two plant, located east of Barstow, CA, comprised 1926 heliostats, a receiver, a thermal storage system, a steam generation system, and steam-turbine power block. Molten nitrate salt was used as the heat transfer fluid and storage media. The steam generator powered a 10-MWe (megawatt electric), conventional Rankine cycle turbine. Solar Two operated from June 1996 to April 1999. The major objective of the test and evaluation phase of the project was to validate the technical characteristics of a molten salt power tower. This report describes the significant results from the test and evaluation activities, the operating experience of each major system, and overall plant performance. Tests were conducted to measure the power output (MW) of the each major system, the efficiencies of the heliostat, receiver, thermal storage, and electric power generation systems and the daily energy collected, daily thermal-to-electric conversion, and daily parasitic energy consumption. Also included are detailed test and evaluation reports.

  19. Underground tank vitrification: Engineering-scale test results

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, B.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Bonner, W.F.

    1990-06-01

    Contamination associated with underground tanks at US Department of Energy sites and other sites may be effectively remediated by application of in situ vitrification (ISV) technology. In situ vitrification converts contaminated soil and buried wastes such as underground tanks into a glass and crystalline block, similar to obsidian with crystalline phases. A radioactive engineering-scale test performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in September 1989 demonstrated the feasibility of using ISV for this application. A 30-cm-diameter (12-in.-diameter) buried steel and concrete tank containing simulated tank sludge was vitrified, producing a solid block. The tank sludge used in the test simulated materials in tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous components of the tank sludge were immobilized or removed and captured in the off-gas treatment system. The steel tank was converted to ingots near the bottom of the block and the concrete walls were dissolved into the resulting glass and crystalline block. Although one of the four moving electrodes froze'' in place about halfway into the test, operations were able to continue. The test was successfully completed and all the tank sludge was vitrified. 7 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Results of toxicological testing of Jefferson Paris pilot plant samples

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Kopfler, F.C.; Condie, L.W.; Pereira, M.A.; Meier, J.R.; Ringhand, H.P.; Robinson, M.; Casto, B.C.

    1986-11-01

    Five toxicological tests were performed using concentrated drinking water samples collected at a pilot-scale drinking water treatment plant that had streams treated with different disinfectants (no disinfectant, ozone, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, or chlorine) before treatment with granular activated carbon (GAC). The toxicological tests used in this study were the Ames Salmonella assay, a subchronic in vivo toxicity assay in mice, the SENCAR mouse skin initiation-promotion assay, a rat liver foci assay, and the lung adenoma assay in strain A mice. These tests were conducted to determine the general toxicity and the mutagenic/carcinogenic potential association with the use of disinfection and/or GAC in the treatment of drinking water. Results indicated that the samples remained mutagenic for the duration of the tests. All the drinking water concentrates (4000 x) prepared by the XAD resin adsorption procedure failed to provide statistically significant indication of carcinogenic activity in the SENCAR mouse, rat liver foci, and the lung adenoma assays. However, concentrates of the chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine treated waters gave consistent mutagenic responses in the Ames Salmonella assay. GAC was effective for 6 months in removing both the mutagenicity of chlorine-treated water and the potential of water to become mutagenic when treated with chlorine. A consistent pattern of these differences indicating overt toxicity was not detected.