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Sample records for blocks lung vascular

  1. Strategic Plan for Lung Vascular Research

    PubMed Central

    Erzurum, Serpil; Rounds, Sharon I.; Stevens, Troy; Aldred, Micheala; Aliotta, Jason; Archer, Stephen L.; Asosingh, Kewal; Balaban, Robert; Bauer, Natalie; Bhattacharya, Jahar; Bogaard, Harm; Choudhary, Gaurav; Dorn, Gerald W.; Dweik, Raed; Fagan, Karen; Fallon, Michael; Finkel, Toren; Geraci, Mark; Gladwin, Mark T.; Hassoun, Paul M.; Humbert, Marc; Kaminski, Naftali; Kawut, Steven M.; Loscalzo, Joseph; McDonald, Donald; McMurtry, Ivan F.; Newman, John; Nicolls, Mark; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Shizuru, Judy; Oka, Masahiko; Polgar, Peter; Rodman, David; Schumacker, Paul; Stenmark, Kurt; Tuder, Rubin; Voelkel, Norbert; Sullivan, Eugene; Weinshilboum, Richard; Yoder, Mervin C.; Zhao, Yingming; Gail, Dorothy; Moore, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    The Division of Lung Diseases of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, with the Office of Rare Diseases Research, held a workshop to identify priority areas and strategic goals to enhance and accelerate research that will result in improved understanding of the lung vasculature, translational research needs, and ultimately the care of patients with pulmonary vascular diseases. Multidisciplinary experts with diverse experience in laboratory, translational, and clinical studies identified seven priority areas and discussed limitations in our current knowledge, technologies, and approaches. The focus for future research efforts include the following: (1) better characterizing vascular genotype–phenotype relationships and incorporating systems biology approaches when appropriate; (2) advancing our understanding of pulmonary vascular metabolic regulatory signaling in health and disease; (3) expanding our knowledge of the biologic relationships between the lung circulation and circulating elements, systemic vascular function, and right heart function and disease; (4) improving translational research for identifying disease-modifying therapies for the pulmonary hypertensive diseases; (5) establishing an appropriate and effective platform for advancing translational findings into clinical studies testing; and (6) developing the specific technologies and tools that will be enabling for these goals, such as question-guided imaging techniques and lung vascular investigator training programs. Recommendations from this workshop will be used within the Lung Vascular Biology and Disease Extramural Research Program for planning and strategic implementation purposes. PMID:20833821

  2. Bronchial and vascular effects of Paf in the rat isolated lung are completely blocked by WEB 2086, a novel specific Paf antagonist.

    PubMed Central

    Casals-Stenzel, J.; Franke, J.; Friedrich, T.; Lichey, J.

    1987-01-01

    1 The effect of the platelet-activating factor (Paf) antagonist, WEB 2086, on Paf-induced increase of pulmonary artery perfusion pressure (Pp), bronchial inflation pressure (Pi) and wet-to-dry lung weight ratios (W/D) was investigated in the rat isolated lung. 2 Lungs were perfused with Krebs-Ringer solution (KRS) as controls or with KRS containing WEB 2086 (0.1, 1.0, 10.0 or 100 micrograms ml-1) and then injected with a bolus of 20 micrograms Paf. 3 A dose-related inhibition of the Paf-induced increase of Pp, Pi and W/D was observed, being almost maximal for the 10.0 micrograms ml-1 and complete for the 100 micrograms ml-1 doses of WEB 2086 when compared to controls. 4 It is concluded that WEB 2086 is a highly effective and specific Paf antagonist in the pulmonary vasculature and bronchial tract. PMID:3664079

  3. Role played by Prx1-dependent extracellular matrix properties in vascular smooth muscle development in embryonic lungs

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Juliana; Chokshi, Mithil; Aiad, Norman; Sanyal, Sonali; Kawabata, Kimihito C.; Levental, Ilya; Sundararaghavan, Harini G.; Burdick, Jason A.; Janmey, Paul; Miyazono, Kohei; Wells, Rebecca G.; Jones, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although there are many studies focusing on the molecular pathways underlying lung vascular morphogenesis, the extracellular matrix (ECM)–dependent regulation of mesenchymal cell differentiation in vascular smooth muscle development needs better understanding. In this study, we demonstrate that the paired related homeobox gene transcription factor Prx1 maintains the elastic ECM properties, which are essential for vascular smooth muscle precursor cell differentiation. We have found that Prx1null mouse lungs exhibit defective vascular smooth muscle development, downregulated elastic ECM expression, and compromised transforming growth factor (TGF)–β localization and signaling. Further characterization of ECM properties using decellularized lung ECM scaffolds derived from Prx1 mice demonstrated that Prx1 is required to maintain lung ECM stiffness. The results of cell culture using stiffness-controlled 2-D and 3-D synthetic substrates confirmed that Prx1-dependent ECM stiffness is essential for promotion of smooth muscle precursor differentiation for effective TGF-β stimulation. Supporting these results, both decellularized Prx1null lung ECM and Prx1WT (wild type) ECM scaffolds with blocked TGF-β failed to support mesenchymal cell to 3-D smooth muscle cell differentiation. These results suggest a novel ECM-dependent regulatory pathway of lung vascular development wherein Prx1 regulates lung vascular smooth muscle precursor development by coordinating the ECM biophysical and biochemical properties. PMID:26064466

  4. Vascular leiomyoma of the lung arising from pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the lung is extremely rare. The entity is not described in WHO blue book. Less than 100 cases of leiomyoma of the lung have been reported in the literature. However, vascular leiomyoma has not been reported in the literature, to the author's best knowledge. Herein reported is the first case of vascular leiomyoma of the lung arising from smooth muscles of the pulmonary artery. A 62-year-old woman (non-smoker) was found to have a small tumor in the upper lobe in the right lung in routine check. Imaging modalities including CT demonstrated no metastatic lesions. Although clinical cytology and biopsy revealed no malignant cell, right upper lobectomy was performed under the clinical diagnosis of lung carcinoma. Grossly, a white tumor of 1 x 0.8 cm was recognized in the lung. Microscopically, the tumor was connected to the pulmonary arteries. The tumor was composed of mature smooth muscles. Small pulmonary arteries are embedded in the tumor. No lymphatics were seen. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were poisitive for alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin and Ki-67 (labeling 2%). However, they were negative for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, desmin, S100 protein, p53, CD34, KIT, HMB45, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and myoglobin. A pathological diagnosis of primary vascular leiomyoma arising from the smooth muscle of pulmonary artery was made. The patient is now free from tumor, and is now alive 10 year after the operation. PMID:23236548

  5. Pulmonary vascular destabilization in the premetastatic phase facilitates lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yujie; Song, Nan; Ding, Yanping; Yuan, Shaopeng; Li, Xuhui; Cai, Hongchen; Shi, Hubing; Luo, Yongzhang

    2009-10-01

    Before metastasis, certain organs have already been influenced by primary tumors. However, the exact alterations and regulatory mechanisms of the premetastatic organs remain poorly understood. Here, we report that, in the premetastatic stage, angiopoietin 2 (Angpt2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 3, and MMP10 are up-regulated in the lung by primary B16/F10 tumor, which leads to the increased permeability of pulmonary vasculatures and extravasation of circulating tumor cells. Subsequent studies show that Angpt2, MMP3, and MMP10 have a synergistic effect on disrupting vascular integrity in both in vitro and in vivo models. Lentivirus-based in vivo RNA interference of Angpt2, MMP3, and MMP10 attenuates the pulmonary vascular permeability and suppresses the infiltration of myeloid cells in the premetastatic lung. Moreover, knocking down these factors significantly inhibits the spontaneous lung metastasis in the model by orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231-Luc-D3H1 cells in nude mice. Further investigations reveal that the malignancy of tumor cells is positively correlated with their capabilities to induce the expression of Angpt2, MMP3, and MMP10. Luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay also suggest that transforming growth factor-beta1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha signaling are involved in the regulation of these premetastatic factors. Our study shows that pulmonary vascular destabilization in the premetastatic phase promotes the extravasation of tumor cells and facilitates lung metastasis, which may provide potential targets for clinical prevention of metastasis. PMID:19773447

  6. Adiponectin protects against hyperoxic lung injury and vascular leak

    PubMed Central

    Sliman, Sean M.; Patel, Rishi B.; Cruff, Jason P.; Kotha, Sainath R.; Newland, Christie A.; Schrader, Carrie A.; Sherwani, Shariq I.; Gurney, Travis O.; Magalang, Ulysses J.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin (Ad), an adipokine exclusively secreted by the adipose tissue, has emerged as a paracrine metabolic regulator as well as a protectant against oxidative stress. Pharmacological approaches of protecting against clinical hyperoxic lung injury during oxygen therapy/treatment are limited. Earlier, we have reported that Ad inhibits the NADPH oxidase-catalyzed formation of superoxide from molecular oxygen in human neutrophils. Having this as the premise, we conducted studies to determine whether (i) exogenous Ad would protect against the hyperoxia-induced barrier dysfunction in the lung endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and (ii) endogenously synthesized Ad would protect against hyperoxic lung injury in wild type (WT) and Ad-overexpressing transgenic (AdTg) mice in vivo. The results demonstrated that exogenous Ad protected against the hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress, loss of glutathione (GSH), cytoskeletal reorganization, barrier dysfunction, and leak in the lung ECs in vitro. Furthermore, the hyperoxia-induced lung injury, vascular leak, and lipid peroxidation were significantly attenuated in AdTg mice in vivo. Also, AdTg mice exhibited elevated levels of total thiols and GSH in the lungs as compared to WT mice. For the first time, our studies demonstrated that Ad protected against the hyperoxia-induced lung damage apparently through attenuation of oxidative stress and modulation of thiol-redox status. PMID:22183615

  7. Attenuation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Vascular Stiffening by Lipoxin Reduces Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanyong; Mambetsariev, Isa; Tian, Yufeng; Beckham, Yvonne; Meliton, Angelo; Leff, Alan; Gardel, Margaret L.; Allen, Michael J.; Birukov, Konstantin G.

    2015-01-01

    Reversible changes in lung microstructure accompany lung inflammation, although alterations in tissue micromechanics and their impact on inflammation remain unknown. This study investigated changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and tissue stiffness in a model of LPS-induced inflammation and examined the role of lipoxin analog 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (eLXA4) in the reduction of stiffness-dependent exacerbation of the inflammatory process. Atomic force microscopy measurements of live lung slices were used to directly measure local tissue stiffness changes induced by intratracheal injection of LPS. Effects of LPS on ECM properties and inflammatory response were evaluated in an animal model of LPS-induced lung injury, live lung tissue slices, and pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) culture. In vivo, LPS increased perivascular stiffness in lung slices monitored by atomic force microscopy and stimulated expression of ECM proteins fibronectin, collagen I, and ECM crosslinker enzyme, lysyl oxidase. Increased stiffness and ECM remodeling escalated LPS-induced VCAM1 and ICAM1 expression and IL-8 production by lung ECs. Stiffness-dependent exacerbation of inflammatory signaling was confirmed in pulmonary ECs grown on substrates with high and low stiffness. eLXA4 inhibited LPS-increased stiffness in lung cross sections, attenuated stiffness-dependent enhancement of EC inflammatory activation, and restored lung compliance in vivo. This study shows that increased local vascular stiffness exacerbates lung inflammation. Attenuation of local stiffening of lung vasculature represents a novel mechanism of lipoxin antiinflammatory action. PMID:24992633

  8. Radioimmunotherapy of micrometastases in lung with vascular targeted 213Bi.

    PubMed

    Kennel, S J; Boll, R; Stabin, M; Schuller, H M; Mirzadeh, S

    1999-04-01

    A model system has been used to test the efficacy of vascular targeting of alpha-particle emitter 213Bi for therapy of small, 'artificial' metastases in mouse lung. Specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) 201 B was used to deliver greater than 30% of the injected dose to lung where tumours had developed due to intravenous injection of cells. Specific 213Bi-mAb 201B treatment of BALB/c mammary carcinoma EMT-6 tumours in lung resulted in a dose-dependent destruction of tumours and an extended lifespan of treated animals relative to controls. Significant reduction of lung tumour burden was noted in animals treated with 0.93 MBq injected dose or as little as 14 Gy absorbed dose to the lung. Animals treated with higher doses (2.6-6.7 MBq) had nearly complete cure of lung tumours but eventually died of lung fibrosis induced by the treatment. Four other tumour cell types were studied: murine Line 1 lung carcinomas in syngeneic BALB/c mice, rat IC-12 tracheal carcinoma growing in severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice, and two human tumours--epidermoid carcinoma A431 and lung carcinoma A549--growing in SCID mice. In all cases, the number of lung tumour colonies was reduced in animals treated with specific, labelled mAb relative to those in animals treated with control 213Bi MAb or EDTA complexed 213Bi. Tumours treated in immunodeficient SCID mice were partially destroyed or at least retarded in growth, but ultimately regrew and proved fatal, indicating that an intact immune function is necessary for complete cure. The data show that the short-lived alpha-particle emitter 213Bi can be effectively targeted to lung blood vessels and that tumour cells growing in the lung are killed. The mechanism may involve direct killing of tumour cells from alpha-particle irradiation, killing through destruction of blood supply to the tumour, or a combination of the two. PMID:10389994

  9. Radioimmunotherapy of micrometastases in lung with vascular targeted213Bi

    PubMed Central

    Kennel, S J; Boll, R; Stabin, M; Schuller, H M; Mirzadeh, S

    1999-01-01

    A model system has been used to test the efficacy of vascular targeting of α-particle emitter213Bi for therapy of small, ‘artificial’ metastases in mouse lung. Specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) 201B was used to deliver greater than 30% of the injected dose to lung where tumours had developed due to intravenous injection of cells. Specific213Bi-mAb 201B treatment of BALB/c mammary carcinoma EMT-6 tumours in lung resulted in a dose-dependent destruction of tumours and an extended lifespan of treated animals relative to controls. Significant reduction of lung tumour burden was noted in animals treated with 0.93 MBq injected dose or as little as 14 Gy absorbed dose to the lung. Animals treated with higher doses (2.6–6.7 MBq) had nearly complete cure of lung tumours but eventually died of lung fibrosis induced by the treatment. Four other tumour cell types were studied: murine Line 1 lung carcinomas in syngeneic BALB/c mice, rat IC-12 tracheal carcinoma growing in severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice, and two human tumours – epidermoid carcinoma A431 and lung carcinoma A549 – growing in SCID mice. In all cases, the number of lung tumour colonies was reduced in animals treated with specific, labelled mAb relative to those in animals treated with control213Bi MAb or EDTA complexed213Bi. Tumours treated in immunodeficient SCID mice were partially destroyed or at least retarded in growth, but ultimately regrew and proved fatal, indicating that an intact immune function is necessary for complete cure. The data show that the short-lived α-particle emitter213Bi can be effectively targeted to lung blood vessels and that tumour cells growing in the lung are killed. The mechanism may involve direct killing of tumour cells from α-particle irradiation, killing through destruction of blood supply to the tumour, or a combination of the two. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10389994

  10. Increased Sheep Lung Vascular Permeability Caused by Pseudomonas Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Brigham, Kenneth L.; Woolverton, William C.; Blake, Lynn H.; Staub, Norman C.

    1974-01-01

    In awake sheep, we compared the responses of lung lymph flow and lymph and plasma protein concentrations to steady state elevations of pulmonary vascular pressures made by inflating a left atrial balloon with those after an intravenous infusion of 105-1010Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lymph flow increased when pressure was increased, but lymph-plasma protein concentration ratios always fell and lymph protein flow (lymph flow × lymph protein concentration) increased only slightly. After Pseudomonas, sheep had transient chills, fever, leukopenia, hypoxemia, increased pulmonary artery pressure and lymph flow and decreased left atrial pressure and lymph protein concentration, 3-5 h after Pseudomonas, when vascular pressures and lymph protein concentrations had returned to near base line, lymph flow increased further to 3-10 times base line and remained at a steady level for many hours. During this steady state period, lymph-plasma protein concentration ratios were similar to base line and lymph protein flow was higher than in the increased pressure studies. Two sheep died of pulmonary edema 7 and 9 h after Pseudomonas, but in 16 studies, five other sheep appeared well during the period of highest lymph flow and all variables returned to base line in 24-72 h. Six serial indicator dilution lung water studies in five sheep changed insignificantly from base line after Pseudomonas. Postmortem lung water was high in the two sheep dead of pulmonary edema and one other, but six sheep killed 1-6 h after Pseudomonas had normal lung water. Because of the clear difference between the effects of increased pressure and Pseudomonas on lymphplasma protein concentration ratios and lymph protein flow, we conclude that Pseudomonas causes a prolonged increase in lung vessel permeability to protein. Because we saw lung lymph flow as high as 10 times base line without pulmonary edema, we conclude that lung lymphatics are a sensitive high-capacity mechanism for removing excess filtered fluid. An

  11. Vascular response to radiation injury in the rat lung.

    PubMed

    Peterson, L M; Evans, M L; Graham, M M; Eary, J F; Dahlen, D D

    1992-02-01

    Changes in relative left-to-right lung blood flow ratios were followed as an index of vascular radiation injury in left-hemithorax-irradiated Sprague-Dawley rats. Single doses of 11 to 21 Gy gamma radiation resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in relative blood flow to the irradiated lung from 3 to 5 weeks after exposure during the development of pneumonitis. Blood flow returned to near normal by 5 weeks after lower doses (11-13.5 Gy). After a single dose of 15 Gy the left-to-right blood flow ratio recovered to 75% of normal at 12 weeks and leveled off. Following 18 Gy irradiation a second period of reduced flow began 16 weeks after exposure. After 21 Gy irradiation flow to the irradiated side remained low for 1 year after exposure. Rats that received a single dose of 18 Gy to the left hemithorax were also treated with one or two of the following drugs: captopril, cyproheptadine, dexamethasone, diethylcarbamazine, penicillamine, or theophylline. Dexamethasone was most effective at preventing the decrease in blood flow to the irradiated lung when treatment was continued through the pneumonitis period and dose was not tapered until 8 weeks after radiation exposure. All other drugs and drug combinations were, for the most part, virtually ineffective after the pneumonitis period. There was a relatively poor correlation with earlier vascular permeability surface area product studies. This suggests that endothelial damage, as well as damage to other cell types, contributes to the development of post-irradiation fibrosis in the lung. PMID:1734443

  12. Prognostic value of vascularity and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, R; Carlile, J; Pendleton, N; Schor, A

    2001-01-01

    Aims—High expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumours has been found to be associated with poor prognosis in some studies, but not in others. The aims of this study were to determine the prognostic value of VEGF in operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its possible association with vascularity. Methods—Sections from 81 NSCLC archival specimens were stained with antibodies to von Willebrand factor (vWF) and VEGF. Vascularity was measured by the average density of vWF positive vessels. VEGF expression in tumour cells was assessed by consensus of two independent observers according to three indices, namely: (1) percentage of area stained, (2) intensity of staining, and (3) final score (product of area and intensity). Results—VEGF immunoreactivity was present in all tumours and adjacent normal lung tissue. None of the three VEGF indices was associated with vascularity or the clinical parameters examined. Mean survival times were shorter in patients with high VEGF expression, but the difference was not significant. This applied to the full cohort of patients, or when analysed separately according to tumour type or stage. However, high VEGF expression was associated with poor survival in patients with high vascularity (p = 0.02). VEGF had no discriminant value among patients with low vascularity. Vascularity had no prognostic value, except for late stage patients (UICC stages II and IIIa combined; n = 36), where high vascularity was associated with longer survival (p = 0.01). Conclusions—VEGF on its own has no prognostic value in NSCLC, but may become a useful indicator when combined with vascularity. VEGF may play a physiological role in the normal lung. Key Words: non-small cell lung cancer • vascular endothelial growth factor • vascularity • prognosis PMID:11215279

  13. siRNA-induced caveolin-1 knockdown in mice increases lung vascular permeability via the junctional pathway.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki-Shimizu, Kayo; Predescu, Dan; Shimizu, Jun; Broman, Michael; Predescu, Sanda; Malik, Asrar B

    2006-02-01

    Caveolin-1, the principal integral membrane protein of caveolae, has been implicated in regulating the structural integrity of caveolae, vesicular trafficking, and signal transduction. Although the functions of caveolin-1 are beginning to be explored in caveolin-1-/- mice, these results are confounded by unknown compensatory mechanisms and the development of pulmonary hypertension, cardiomyopathy, and lung fibrosis. To address the role of caveolin-1 in regulating lung vascular permeability, in the present study we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down caveolin-1 expression in mouse lung endothelia in vivo. Intravenous injection of siRNA against caveolin-1 mRNA incorporated in liposomes selectively reduced the expression of caveolin-1 by approximately 90% within 96 h of injection compared with wild-type mice. We observed the concomitant disappearance of caveolae in lung vessel endothelia and dilated interendothelial junctions (IEJs) as well as increased lung vascular permeability to albumin via IEJs. The reduced caveolin-1 expression also resulted in increased plasma nitric oxide concentration. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, in part, blocked the increased vascular albumin permeability. These morphological and functional effects of caveolin-1 knockdown were reversible within 168 h after siRNA injection, corresponding to the restoration of caveolin-1 expression. Thus our results demonstrate the essential requirement of caveolin-1 in mediating the formation of caveolae in endothelial cells in vivo and in negatively regulating IEJ permeability. PMID:16183667

  14. Neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein regulates TGF-β1-mediated lung vascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Brant M; Hu, Meng; Zheng, Anni; Zhao, Xueke; Che, Pulin; Brandon, Angela; Anjum, Naseem; Snapper, Scott; Creighton, Judy; Guan, Jun-Lin; Han, Qimei; Cai, Guo-Qiang; Han, Xiaosi; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Ding, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    TGF-β1 induces an increase in paracellular permeability and actin stress fiber formation in lung microvascular endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells via small Rho GTPase. The molecular mechanism involved is not fully understood. Neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) has an essential role in actin structure dynamics. We hypothesized that N-WASP plays a critical role in these TGF-β1-induced responses. In these cell monolayers, we demonstrated that N-WASP down-regulation by short hairpin RNA prevented TGF-β1-mediated disruption of the cortical actin structure, actin stress filament formation, and increased permeability. Furthermore, N-WASP down-regulation blocked TGF-β1 activation mediated by IL-1β in alveolar epithelial cells, which requires actin stress fiber formation. Control short hairpin RNA had no effect on these TGF-β1-induced responses. TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Y256 of N-WASP via activation of small Rho GTPase and focal adhesion kinase mediates TGF-β1-induced paracellular permeability and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. In vivo, compared with controls, N-WASP down-regulation increases survival and prevents lung edema in mice induced by bleomycin exposure-a lung injury model in which TGF-β1 plays a critical role. Our data indicate that N-WASP plays a crucial role in the development of TGF-β1-mediated acute lung injury by promoting pulmonary edema via regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics.-Wagener, B. M., Hu, M., Zheng, A., Zhao, X., Che, P., Brandon, A., Anjum, N., Snapper, S., Creighton, J., Guan, J.-L., Han, Q., Cai, G.-Q., Han, X., Pittet, J.-F., Ding, Q. Neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein regulates TGF-β1-mediated lung vascular permeability. PMID:27025963

  15. Behavior of vascular resistance undergoing various pressure insufflation and perfusion on decellularized lungs.

    PubMed

    da Palma, Renata Kelly; Nonaka, Paula Naomi; Campillo, Noelia; Uriarte, Juan J; Urbano, Jessica Julioti; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon; Oliveira, Luis V F

    2016-05-01

    Bioengineering of functional lung tissue by using whole lung scaffolds has been proposed as a potential alternative for patients awaiting lung transplant. Previous studies have demonstrated that vascular resistance (Rv) could be altered to optimize the process of obtaining suitable lung scaffolds. Therefore, this work was aimed at determining how lung inflation (tracheal pressure) and perfusion (pulmonary arterial pressure) affect vascular resistance. This study was carried out using the lungs excised from 5 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats. The trachea was cannulated and connected to a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device to provide a tracheal pressure ranging from 0 to 15cmH2O. The pulmonary artery was cannulated and connected to a controlled perfusion system with continuous pressure (gravimetric level) ranging from 5 to 30cmH2O. Effective Rv was calculated by ratio of pulmonary artery pressure (PPA) by pulmonary artery flow (V'PA). Rv in the decellularized lungs scaffolds decreased at increasing V'PA, stabilizing at a pulmonary arterial pressure greater than 20cmH2O. On the other hand, CPAP had no influence on vascular resistance in the lung scaffolds after being subjected to pulmonary artery pressure of 5cmH2O. In conclusion, compared to positive airway pressure, arterial lung pressure markedly influences the mechanics of vascular resistance in decellularized lungs. PMID:26949099

  16. Role of Nitric Oxide Isoforms in Vascular and Alveolar Development and Lung Injury in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Overexpressing Neonatal Mice Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Mansoor A.; Choo-Wing, Rayman; Homer, Robert J.; Bhandari, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced 3 different nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in lung development and injury in the newborn (NB) lung are not known. We hypothesized that VEGF-induced specific NOS pathways are critical regulators of lung development and injury. Methodology We studied NB wild type (WT), lung epithelial cell-targeted VEGF165 doxycycline-inducible overexpressing transgenic (VEGFTG), VEGFTG treated with a NOS1 inhibitor (L-NIO), VEGFTG x NOS2-/- and VEGFTG x NOS3+/- mice in room air (RA) for 7 postnatal (PN) days. Lung morphometry (chord length), vascular markers (Ang1, Ang2, Notch2, vWF, CD31 and VE-cadherin), cell proliferation (Ki67), vascular permeability, injury and oxidative stress markers (hemosiderin, nitrotyrosine and 8-OHdG) were evaluated. Results VEGF overexpression in RA led to increased chord length and vascular markers at PN7, which were significantly decreased to control values in VEGFTG x NOS2−/− and VEGFTG x NOS3+/- lungs. However, we found no noticeable effect on chord length and vascular markers in the VEGFTG / NOS1 inhibited group. In the NB VEGFTG mouse model, we found VEGF-induced vascular permeability in the NB murine lung was partially dependent on NOS2 and NOS3-signaling pathways. In addition, the inhibition of NOS2 and NOS3 resulted in a significant decrease in VEGF-induced hemosiderin, nitrotyrosine- and 8-OHdG positive cells at PN7. NOS1 inhibition had no significant effect. Conclusion Our data showed that the complete absence of NOS2 and partial deficiency of NOS3 confers protection against VEGF-induced pathologic lung vascular and alveolar developmental changes, as well as injury markers. Inhibition of NOS1 does not have any modulating role on VEGF-induced changes in the NB lung. Overall, our data suggests that there is a significant differential regulation in the NOS-mediated effects of VEGF overexpression in the developing mouse lung. PMID:26799210

  17. [Research in Austria - the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research].

    PubMed

    Kovacs, G; Kleinschek, D; Kwapiszewska, G; Bálint, Z; Olschewski, H; Olschewski, A

    2016-05-01

    The Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research was founded in 2010 and performs basic and clinical research on the field of chronic pulmonary vascular diseases. The major projects of the institute focus on the investigation of the pathomechanisms of pulmonary vascular remodeling, the development of novel non-invasive diagnostic techniques of pulmonary hypertension and the early detection of pulmonary vascular diseases. The institute closely cooperates with patient organizations and aims to contribute to the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with pulmonary vascular diseases. In this short overview the most important results of the first six years of the institute will be summarized. PMID:27168041

  18. Combined neurohumoral block modulates pulmonary vascular P/Q relationship in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Geller, H S; Nyhan, D P; Goll, H M; Clougherty, P W; Chen, B B; Murray, P A

    1988-11-01

    Our objective was to investigate the integrated pulmonary vascular response of conscious dogs to combined inhibition of the autonomic nervous system, arginine vasopressin (V1) receptors (vasopressinergic V1), and converting enzyme to identify the overall influence of these three major neurohumoral mechanisms in vascular regulation of the pulmonary circulation. Multipoint pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index (P/Q) plots were generated by graded constriction of the thoracic inferior vena cava, which produced stepwise decreases in Q. When compared with the P/Q relationship measured in intact conscious dogs, combined neurohumoral block resulted in active, nonflow-dependent pulmonary vasodilation. A second objective was to assess the extent to which cyclooxygenase pathway inhibition modified both the intact P/Q relationship and the pulmonary vasodilator response to combined neurohumoral block. Cyclooxygenase inhibition alone (either indomethacin or sodium meclofenamate) resulted in active, nonflow-dependent pulmonary vasoconstriction. Moreover, the pulmonary vasodilation in response to combined neurohumoral block was entirely abolished following cyclooxygenase inhibition. Thus the integrated pulmonary vascular response of conscious dogs to combined neurohumoral block is active vasodilation. This response appears to be mediated by metabolites of the cyclooxygenase pathway. PMID:2847557

  19. The M2 macrophages induce autophagic vascular disorder and promote mouse sensitivity to urethane-related lung carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, G-G; Guo, Z-Z; Ma, X-F; Cao, N; Geng, S-N; Zheng, Y-Q; Meng, M-J; Lin, H-H; Han, G; Du, G-J

    2016-06-01

    Tumor vessels are known to be abnormal, with typically aberrant, leaky and disordered vessels. Here, we investigated whether polarized macrophage phenotypes are involved in tumor abnormal angiogenesis and what is its mechanism. We found that there was no difference in chemotaxis of polarized M1 and M2 macrophages to lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells and that either M1 or M2 macrophage-conditioned media had no effect on LLC cell proliferation. Unexpectedly, the M2 but not M1 macrophage-conditioned media promoted the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and simultaneously increased endothelial cell permeability in vitro and angiogenic index in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The treatment with M2 but not M1 macrophage-conditioned media increased autophagosomes as well as microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3-B) expression (a robust marker of autophagosomes) but decreased p62 protein expression (a selective autophagy substrate) in HUVECs, the treatment with chloroquine that blocked autophagy abrogated the abnormal angiogenic efficacy of M2 macrophage-conditioned media. These results were confirmed in urethane-induced lung carcinogenic progression. Urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis led to more M2 macrophage phenotype and increased abnormal angiogenesis concomitant with the upregulation of LC3-B and the downregulation of p62. Clodronate liposome-induced macrophage depletion, chloroquine-induced autophagic prevention or salvianolic acid B-induced vascular protection decreased abnormal angiogenesis and lung carcinogenesis. In addition, we found that the tendency of age-related M2 macrophage polarization also promoted vascular permeability and carcinogenesis in urethane carcinogenic progression. These findings indicate that the M2 macrophages induce autophagic vascular disorder to promote lung cancer progression, and the autophagy improvement represents an efficacious strategy for abnormal angiogenesis and cancer

  20. Preemptive mechanical ventilation can block progressive acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Sadowitz, Benjamin; Jain, Sumeet; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader; Gatto, Louis A; Nieman, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains unacceptable, approaching 45% in certain high-risk patient populations. Treating fulminant ARDS is currently relegated to supportive care measures only. Thus, the best treatment for ARDS may lie with preventing this syndrome from ever occurring. Clinical studies were examined to determine why ARDS has remained resistant to treatment over the past several decades. In addition, both basic science and clinical studies were examined to determine the impact that early, protective mechanical ventilation may have on preventing the development of ARDS in at-risk patients. Fulminant ARDS is highly resistant to both pharmacologic treatment and methods of mechanical ventilation. However, ARDS is a progressive disease with an early treatment window that can be exploited. In particular, protective mechanical ventilation initiated before the onset of lung injury can prevent the progression to ARDS. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a novel mechanical ventilation strategy for delivering a protective breath that has been shown to block progressive acute lung injury (ALI) and prevent ALI from progressing to ARDS. ARDS mortality currently remains as high as 45% in some studies. As ARDS is a progressive disease, the key to treatment lies with preventing the disease from ever occurring while it remains subclinical. Early protective mechanical ventilation with APRV appears to offer substantial benefit in this regard and may be the prophylactic treatment of choice for preventing ARDS. PMID:26855896

  1. Preemptive mechanical ventilation can block progressive acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sadowitz, Benjamin; Jain, Sumeet; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader; Gatto, Louis A; Nieman, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains unacceptable, approaching 45% in certain high-risk patient populations. Treating fulminant ARDS is currently relegated to supportive care measures only. Thus, the best treatment for ARDS may lie with preventing this syndrome from ever occurring. Clinical studies were examined to determine why ARDS has remained resistant to treatment over the past several decades. In addition, both basic science and clinical studies were examined to determine the impact that early, protective mechanical ventilation may have on preventing the development of ARDS in at-risk patients. Fulminant ARDS is highly resistant to both pharmacologic treatment and methods of mechanical ventilation. However, ARDS is a progressive disease with an early treatment window that can be exploited. In particular, protective mechanical ventilation initiated before the onset of lung injury can prevent the progression to ARDS. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a novel mechanical ventilation strategy for delivering a protective breath that has been shown to block progressive acute lung injury (ALI) and prevent ALI from progressing to ARDS. ARDS mortality currently remains as high as 45% in some studies. As ARDS is a progressive disease, the key to treatment lies with preventing the disease from ever occurring while it remains subclinical. Early protective mechanical ventilation with APRV appears to offer substantial benefit in this regard and may be the prophylactic treatment of choice for preventing ARDS. PMID:26855896

  2. Segmental pulmonary vascular resistances during oleic acid lung injury in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Maarek, J M; Grimbert, F

    1994-10-01

    We studied in isolated rabbit lungs the effects of oleic acid (OA) injury on the segmental distribution of vascular resistance. Vascular occlusion pressures were measured in control and OA-injured preparations over 90 min. Capillary filtration coefficient KF,C increased from 0.61 (+/- 0.10) to 0.91 (+/- 0.14) g.min-1.mmHg-1.(100 g)-1 in OA-injured lungs whereas it remained constant in control lungs. Total pulmonary vascular resistance changed little in both control and OA-injured lungs. OA injury resulted in a 15% increase of the double occlusion capillary pressure. In addition, the contribution of the microvascular to the total vascular resistance rose from 8% to 22%. The increase in microvascular resistance was significant 15 min after OA on the arteriolar side and became significant 30 min later on the venular side. Oleic acid injury does not change the total pulmonary vascular resistance but alters the distribution of segmental resistances in the isolated rabbit lung, thereby contributing to the accumulation of lung water in this model of low pressure permeability edema. PMID:7817049

  3. A 3D Poly(ethylene glycol)-based Tumor Angiogenesis Model to Study the Influence of Vascular Cells on Lung Tumor Cell Behavior.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Laila C; Jeffs, Sydney E; Witt, Amber S; Gill, Bartley J; West, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is critical to tumor growth and metastasis, yet much is unknown about the role vascular cells play in the tumor microenvironment. In vitro models that mimic in vivo tumor neovascularization facilitate exploration of this role. Here we investigated lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells (344SQ) and endothelial and pericyte vascular cells encapsulated in cell-adhesive, proteolytically-degradable poly(ethylene) glycol-based hydrogels. 344SQ in hydrogels formed spheroids and secreted proangiogenic growth factors that significantly increased with exposure to transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a potent tumor progression-promoting factor. Vascular cells in hydrogels formed tubule networks with localized activated TGF-β1. To study cancer cell-vascular cell interactions, we engineered a 2-layer hydrogel with 344SQ and vascular cell layers. Large, invasive 344SQ clusters (area > 5,000 μm(2), circularity < 0.25) developed at the interface between the layers, and were not evident further from the interface or in control hydrogels without vascular cells. A modified model with spatially restricted 344SQ and vascular cell layers confirmed that observed cluster morphological changes required close proximity to vascular cells. Additionally, TGF-β1 inhibition blocked endothelial cell-driven 344SQ migration. Our findings suggest vascular cells contribute to tumor progression and establish this culture system as a platform for studying tumor vascularization. PMID:27596933

  4. A 3D Poly(ethylene glycol)-based Tumor Angiogenesis Model to Study the Influence of Vascular Cells on Lung Tumor Cell Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Roudsari, Laila C.; Jeffs, Sydney E.; Witt, Amber S.; Gill, Bartley J.; West, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is critical to tumor growth and metastasis, yet much is unknown about the role vascular cells play in the tumor microenvironment. In vitro models that mimic in vivo tumor neovascularization facilitate exploration of this role. Here we investigated lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells (344SQ) and endothelial and pericyte vascular cells encapsulated in cell-adhesive, proteolytically-degradable poly(ethylene) glycol-based hydrogels. 344SQ in hydrogels formed spheroids and secreted proangiogenic growth factors that significantly increased with exposure to transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a potent tumor progression-promoting factor. Vascular cells in hydrogels formed tubule networks with localized activated TGF-β1. To study cancer cell-vascular cell interactions, we engineered a 2-layer hydrogel with 344SQ and vascular cell layers. Large, invasive 344SQ clusters (area > 5,000 μm2, circularity < 0.25) developed at the interface between the layers, and were not evident further from the interface or in control hydrogels without vascular cells. A modified model with spatially restricted 344SQ and vascular cell layers confirmed that observed cluster morphological changes required close proximity to vascular cells. Additionally, TGF-β1 inhibition blocked endothelial cell-driven 344SQ migration. Our findings suggest vascular cells contribute to tumor progression and establish this culture system as a platform for studying tumor vascularization. PMID:27596933

  5. From Here to There, Progenitor Cells and Stem Cells Are Everywhere in Lung Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Heise, Rebecca L.; Link, Patrick A.; Farkas, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    The field of stem cell biology, cell therapy, and regenerative medicine has expanded almost exponentially, in the last decade. Clinical trials are evaluating the potential therapeutic use of stem cells in many adult and pediatric lung diseases with vascular component, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Extensive research activity is exploring the lung resident and circulating progenitor cells and their contribution to vascular complications of chronic lung diseases, and researchers hope to use resident or circulating stem/progenitor cells to treat chronic lung diseases and their vascular complications. It is becoming more and more clear that progress in mechanobiology will help to understand the various influences of physical forces and extracellular matrix composition on the phenotype and features of the progenitor cells and stem cells. The current review provides an overview of current concepts in the field. PMID:27583245

  6. From Here to There, Progenitor Cells and Stem Cells Are Everywhere in Lung Vascular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Heise, Rebecca L; Link, Patrick A; Farkas, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    The field of stem cell biology, cell therapy, and regenerative medicine has expanded almost exponentially, in the last decade. Clinical trials are evaluating the potential therapeutic use of stem cells in many adult and pediatric lung diseases with vascular component, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Extensive research activity is exploring the lung resident and circulating progenitor cells and their contribution to vascular complications of chronic lung diseases, and researchers hope to use resident or circulating stem/progenitor cells to treat chronic lung diseases and their vascular complications. It is becoming more and more clear that progress in mechanobiology will help to understand the various influences of physical forces and extracellular matrix composition on the phenotype and features of the progenitor cells and stem cells. The current review provides an overview of current concepts in the field. PMID:27583245

  7. Hesperidin Inhibits Vascular Formation by Blocking the AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gi Dae

    2015-12-01

    Hesperidin has been shown to possess a potential inhibitory effect on vascular formation in endothelial cells. However, the fundamental mechanism for the anti-angiogenic activity of hesperidin is not fully understood. In the present study, we evaluated whether hesperidin has anti-angiogenic effects in mouse embryonic stem cell (mES)-derived endothelial-like cells, and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), and evaluated their mechanism via the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The endothelial cells were treated with several doses of hesperidin (12.5, 25, 50, and 100 μM) for 24 h. Cell viability and vascular formation were analyzed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and tube formation assay, respectively. Alteration of the AKT/mTOR signaling in vascular formation was analyzed by western blot. In addition, a mouse aortic ring assay was used to determine the effect of hesperidin on vascular formation. There were no differences between the viability of mES-derived endothelial-like cells and HUVECs after hesperidin treatment. However, hesperidin significantly inhibited cell migration and tube formation of HUVECs (P<0.05) and suppressed sprouting of microvessels in the mouse aortic ring assay. Moreover, hesperidin suppressed the expression of AKT and mTOR in HUVECs. Taken together, these findings suggest that hesperidin inhibits vascular formation by blocking the AKT/mTOR signaling pathways. PMID:26770908

  8. Vascular effects of acetylcholine in the perfused rabbit lung

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, P.D.; Gillis, C.N.

    1986-03-05

    Acetylcholine (ACh) relaxes large, isolated arteries by releasing an endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). The authors decided to determine if ACh releases EDRF in rabbit lungs (RL) perfused in situ and if chemical injury with tetradecanoyl phorbol myristate acetate (TPA) could modify EDRF release in RL and in rabbit pulmonary arteries (RPA) in vitro. RL were perfused at 15 ml/min with Krebs-dextran solution. 1 ..mu..M ACh infusion raised perfusion pressure (P) in RL that was blocked by 30 ..mu..M indomethacin (IND) in the perfusate. However, when IND-treated RL were perfused with the stable endoperoxide analog, U46619 (2-6nM) to increase P, ACh infusion (0.01-1.0 ..mu..M) consistently decreased elevated P. The vasodilator response to infusion of 1 ..mu..M ACh was acutely antagonized by infusion of either 20 ..mu..M quinacrine (Q) or 10 ..mu..M Fe/sup + +/-hemoglobin (Hb). ACh did not decrease P in IND-treated RL pre-equilibrated with Q or Hb. TPA (10 nM) antagonized ACh-reduction of P and the ACh-induced relaxation of isolated RPA. The TPA antagonism of ACh-relaxation of RPA was prevented by catalase (300 U/ml). From these results they conclude that: 1) ACh-induced vasoconstriction in RL depends on cyclooxygenase product(s). 2) IND unmasks ACh-induced vasodilatation in RL that is inhibited by Q and by Hb suggesting that the effect is mediated by EDRF. 3) TPA inhibits ACh-induced vasodilatation and relaxation of RPA via the release of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or a related oxidant that injures the endothelium.

  9. Hemorrhagic shock primes for lung vascular endothelial cell pyroptosis: role in pulmonary inflammation following LPS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Zhao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yuehua; Yang, Yong; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Junjie; Song, Xiao; Jiang, Gening; Fan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) often renders patients more susceptible to lung injury by priming for an exaggerated response to a second infectious stimulus. Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major component of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following HS and regularly serves as a major cause of patient mortality. The lung vascular endothelium is an active organ that has a central role in the development of ALI through synthesizing and releasing of a number of inflammatory mediators. Cell pyroptosis is a caspase-1-dependent regulated cell death, which features rapid plasma membrane rupture and release of proinflammatory intracellular contents. In this study, we demonstrated an important role of HS in priming for LPS-induced lung endothelial cell (EC) pyroptosis. We showed that LPS through TLR4 activates Nlrp3 (NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains containing protein 3) inflammasome in mouse lung vascular EC, and subsequently induces caspase-1 activation. However, HS induced release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which acting through the receptor for advanced glycation end products initiates EC endocytosis of HMGB1, and subsequently triggers a cascade of molecular events, including cathepsin B release from ruptured lysosomes followed by pyroptosome formation and caspase-1 activation. These HS-induced events enhance LPS-induced EC pyroptosis. We further showed that lung vascular EC pyroptosis significantly exaggerates lung inflammation and injury. The present study explores a novel mechanism underlying HS-primed ALI and thus presents a potential therapeutic target for post-HS ALI. PMID:27607578

  10. MiR-221 and miR-130a Regulate Lung Airway and Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Mujahid, Sana

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions play a crucial role in branching morphogenesis, but very little is known about how endothelial cells contribute to this process. Here, we examined how anti-angiogenic miR-221 and pro-angiogenic miR-130a affect airway and vascular development in the fetal lungs. Lung-specific effects of miR-130a and miR-221 were studied in mouse E14 whole lungs cultured for 48 hours with anti-miRs or mimics to miR-130a and miR-221. Anti-miR 221 treated lungs had more distal branch generations with increased Hoxb5 and VEGFR2 around airways. Conversely, mimic 221 treated lungs had reduced airway branching, dilated airway tips and decreased Hoxb5 and VEGFR2 in mesenchyme. Anti-miR 130a treatment led to reduced airway branching with increased Hoxa5 and decreased VEGFR2 in the mesenchyme. Conversely, mimic 130a treated lungs had numerous finely arborized branches extending into central lung regions with diffusely localized Hoxa5 and increased VEGFR2 in the mesenchyme. Vascular morphology was analyzed by GSL-B4 (endothelial cell-specific lectin) immunofluorescence. Observed changes in airway morphology following miR-221 inhibition and miR-130a enhancement were mirrored by changes in vascular plexus formation around the terminal airways. Mouse fetal lung endothelial cells (MFLM-91U) were used to study microvascular cell behavior. Mimic 221 treatment resulted in reduced tube formation and cell migration, where as the reverse was observed with mimic 130a treatment. From these data, we conclude that miR-221 and miR-130a have opposing effects on airway and vascular morphogenesis of the developing lung. PMID:23409087

  11. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-02-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin-dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladapted hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis. PMID:26779814

  12. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y.; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P.; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin–dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladaptbed hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis. PMID:26779814

  13. Mechanistic Insights into the Relationship between Lung and Vascular Response to Ambient Particulate Matter (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms by which pulmonary-encountered ambient PM induces vascular response are not well understood. We examined lung and aortic response of rats following intratracheal instillation of three ambient PM. Chemically characterized PM10 and PM2.5 from th...

  14. Disturbed Homeostasis of Lung Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 During Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Laudes, Ines J.; Guo, Ren-Feng; Riedemann, Niels C.; Speyer, Cecilia; Craig, Ron; Sarma, J. Vidya; Ward, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice was associated with perturbations in vascular adhesion molecules. In CLP mice, lung vascular binding of 125I-monoclonal antibodies to intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 revealed sharp increases in binding of anti-ICAM-1 and significantly reduced binding of anti-VCAM-1. In whole lung homogenates, intense ICAM-1 up-regulation was found (both in mRNA and in protein levels) during sepsis, whereas very little increase in VCAM-1 could be measured although some increased mRNA was found. During CLP soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) appeared in the serum. When mouse dermal microvascular endothelial cells (MDMECs) were incubated with serum from CLP mice, constitutive endothelial VCAM-1 fell in association with the appearance of sVCAM-1 in the supernatant fluids. Under the same conditions, ICAM-1 cell content increased in MDMECs. When MDMECs were evaluated for leukocyte adhesion, exposure to CLP serum caused increased adhesion of neutrophils and decreased adhesion of macrophages and T cells. The progressive build-up in lung myeloperoxidase after CLP was ICAM-1-dependent and independent of VLA-4 and VCAM-1. These data suggest that sepsis disturbs endothelial homeostasis, greatly favoring neutrophil adhesion in the lung microvasculature, thereby putting the lung at increased risk of injury. PMID:15039231

  15. Sequestration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Induces Late Restrictive Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wieck, Minna M.; Spurrier, Ryan G.; Levin, Daniel E.; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Hiatt, Michael J.; Reddy, Raghava; Hou, Xiaogang; Navarro, Sonia; Lee, Jooeun; Lundin, Amber; Driscoll, Barbara; Grikscheit, Tracy C.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is a restrictive lung disease characterized by surfactant deficiency. Decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which demonstrates important roles in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of restrictive lung diseases. Current animal models investigating VEGF in the etiology and outcomes of RDS require premature delivery, hypoxia, anatomically or temporally limited inhibition, or other supplemental interventions. Consequently, little is known about the isolated effects of chronic VEGF inhibition, started at birth, on subsequent developing lung structure and function. Objectives To determine whether inducible, mesenchyme-specific VEGF inhibition in the neonatal mouse lung results in long-term modulation of AECII and whole lung function. Methods Triple transgenic mice expressing the soluble VEGF receptor sFlt-1 specifically in the mesenchyme (Dermo-1/rtTA/sFlt-1) were generated and compared to littermate controls at 3 months to determine the impact of neonatal downregulation of mesenchymal VEGF expression on lung structure, cell composition and function. Reduced tissue VEGF bioavailability has previously been demonstrated with this model. Measurements and Main Results Triple transgenic mice demonstrated restrictive lung pathology. No differences in gross vascular development or protein levels of vascular endothelial markers was noted, but there was a significant decrease in perivascular smooth muscle and type I collagen. Mutants had decreased expression levels of surfactant protein C and hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha without a difference in number of type II pneumocytes. Conclusions These data show that mesenchyme-specific inhibition of VEGF in neonatal mice results in late restrictive disease, making this transgenic mouse a novel model for future investigations on the consequences of neonatal RDS and potential interventions. PMID:26863115

  16. Dasatinib induces lung vascular toxicity and predisposes to pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Guignabert, Christophe; Phan, Carole; Seferian, Andrei; Huertas, Alice; Tu, Ly; Thuillet, Raphaël; Sattler, Caroline; Le Hiress, Morane; Tamura, Yuichi; Jutant, Etienne-Marie; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Bouchet, Stéphane; Manéglier, Benjamin; Molimard, Mathieu; Rousselot, Philippe; Sitbon, Olivier; Simonneau, Gérald; Montani, David; Humbert, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease that can be induced by dasatinib, a dual Src and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Today, key questions remain regarding the mechanisms involved in the long-term development of dasatinib-induced PAH. Here, we demonstrated that chronic dasatinib therapy causes pulmonary endothelial damage in humans and rodents. We found that dasatinib treatment attenuated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction responses and increased susceptibility to experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats, but these effects were absent in rats treated with imatinib, another BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, dasatinib treatment induced pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, while imatinib did not. Dasatinib treatment mediated endothelial cell dysfunction via increased production of ROS that was independent of Src family kinases. Consistent with these findings, we observed elevations in markers of endothelial dysfunction and vascular damage in the serum of CML patients who were treated with dasatinib, compared with CML patients treated with imatinib. Taken together, our findings indicate that dasatinib causes pulmonary vascular damage, induction of ER stress, and mitochondrial ROS production, which leads to increased susceptibility to PH development. PMID:27482885

  17. Evaluation of the field-in-field technique with lung blocks for breast tangential radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Hayashi, Shinya; Kajiura, Yuichi; Kitahara, Masashi; Matsuyama, Katsuya; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several studies have reported the advantages of the field-in-field (FIF) technique in breast radiotherapy, including dose reduction in the lungs by using lung field blocks. We evaluated the FIF technique with lung blocks for breast tangential radiotherapy. Sixteen patients underwent free breathing (FB) computed tomography (CT), followed by two CT procedures performed during breath hold after light inhalation (IN) and light exhalation (EX). Three radiotherapy plans were created using the FIF technique based on the FB-CT images: one without lung blocks (LB0) and two with lung blocks whose monitor units (MUs) were 5 (LB5) and 10 (LB10), respectively. These plans were copied to the IN-CT and EX-CT images. V20Gy, V30Gy, and V40Gy of the ipsilateral lung and V100%, V95%, and the mean dose (Dmean) to the planning target volume (PTV) were analyzed. The extent of changes in these parameters on the IN-plan and EX-plan compared with the FB-plan was evaluated. V20Gy, V30Gy, and V40Gy were significantly smaller for FB-LB5 and FB-LB10 than for FB-LB0; similar results were obtained for the IN-plan and EX-plan. V100%, V95%, and Dmean were also significant smaller for FB-LB5 and FB-LB10 than for FB-LB0. The extent of changes in V20Gy, V30Gy, and V40Gy on the IN-plan and EX-plan compared with the FB-plan was not statistically significant. Lung blocks were useful for dose reduction in the lung and a simultaneous PTV decrease. This technique should not be applied in the general population. PMID:26412879

  18. Evaluation of the field-in-field technique with lung blocks for breast tangential radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Hayashi, Shinya; Kajiura, Yuichi; Kitahara, Masashi; Matsuyama, Katsuya; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have reported the advantages of the field-in-field (FIF) technique in breast radiotherapy, including dose reduction in the lungs by using lung field blocks. We evaluated the FIF technique with lung blocks for breast tangential radiotherapy. Sixteen patients underwent free breathing (FB) computed tomography (CT), followed by two CT procedures performed during breath hold after light inhalation (IN) and light exhalation (EX). Three radiotherapy plans were created using the FIF technique based on the FB-CT images: one without lung blocks (LB0) and two with lung blocks whose monitor units (MUs) were 5 (LB5) and 10 (LB10), respectively. These plans were copied to the IN-CT and EX-CT images. V20Gy, V30Gy, and V40Gy of the ipsilateral lung and V100%, V95%, and the mean dose (Dmean) to the planning target volume (PTV) were analyzed. The extent of changes in these parameters on the IN-plan and EX-plan compared with the FB-plan was evaluated. V20Gy, V30Gy, and V40Gy were significantly smaller for FB-LB5 and FB-LB10 than for FB-LB0; similar results were obtained for the IN-plan and EX-plan. V100%, V95%, and Dmean were also significant smaller for FB-LB5 and FB-LB10 than for FB-LB0. The extent of changes in V20Gy, V30Gy, and V40Gy on the IN-plan and EX-plan compared with the FB-plan was not statistically significant. Lung blocks were useful for dose reduction in the lung and a simultaneous PTV decrease. This technique should not be applied in the general population. PMID:26412879

  19. Pigment epithelium-derived factor mediates impaired lung vascular development in neonatal hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Anne; Bennett, Michelle; Dang, Linh; Nakamura, Daisy; Cao, Gong-Jie; Mujahid, Sana; Volpe, MaryAnn; Herman, Ira; Becerra, S Patricia; Nielsen, Heber C

    2015-03-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a chronic lung disease of preterm infants characterized by arrested microvascularization and alveolarization. Studies show the importance of proangiogenic factors for alveolarization, but the importance of antiangiogenic factors is unknown. We proposed that hyperoxia increases the potent angiostatin, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), in neonatal lungs, inhibiting alveolarization and microvascularization. Wild-type (WT) and PEDF(-/-) mice were exposed to room air (RA) or 0.9 fraction of inspired oxygen from Postnatal Day 5 to 13. PEDF protein was increased in hyperoxic lungs compared with RA-exposed lungs (P < 0.05). In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence identified PEDF production primarily in alveolar epithelium. Hyperoxia reduced alveolarization in WT mice (P < 0.05) but not in PEDF(-/-) mice. WT hyperoxic mice had fewer platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-positive cells per alveolus (1.4 ± 0.4) than RA-exposed mice (4.3 ± 0.3; P < 0.05); this reduction was absent in hyperoxic PEDF(-/-) mice. The interactive regulation of lung microvascularization by vascular endothelial growth factor and PEDF was studied in vitro using MFLM-91U cells, a fetal mouse lung endothelial cell line. Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation of proliferation, migration, and capillary tube formation was inhibited by PEDF. MFLM-91U cells exposed to conditioned medium (CM) from E17 fetal mouse lung type II (T2) cells cultured in 0.9 fraction of inspired oxygen formed fewer capillary tubes than CM from T2 cells cultured in RA (hyperoxia CM, 51 ± 10% of RA CM, P < 0.05), an effect abolished by PEDF antibody. We conclude that PEDF mediates reduced vasculogenesis and alveolarization in neonatal hyperoxia. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia likely results from an altered balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. PMID:25054647

  20. Vascular effects of cigarette smoke in isolated pig lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, M.J.; Sylvester, J.T.; Kennedy, T.P.; Menkes, H.A.; Traystman, R.J.

    1981-11-01

    To determine the local effects of cigarette smoke on the pulmonary vasculature, we measured pulmonary artery pressure--flow curves in isolated, blood-perfused pig lungs before and after 4 exposures to cigarette smoke. During each exposure, smoke was administered into the trachea for 3 to 4 min at a rate of 20 to 25 puffs/min and a puff volume of 35 to 50 ml with a smoking machine. During hypoxia (inspired PO2, 50 mmHg), when baseline vasomotor tone was high, cigarette smoke caused an acute transient vasodilation. During control (inspired PO2, 200 mmHg), when baseline tone was low, no significant effect was observed. In addition to this acute effect, cigarette smoke caused a depression of the pulmonary pressor response to hypoxia, which developed gradually during the course of the experiment. Indomethacin, at perfusate concentrations of 20 and 100 micrograms/ml, did not significantly alter the acute vasodilating effect of smoking, suggesting that prostaglandins synthesized by cyclooxygenase were not the mediators of this response. Indomethacin did, however, prevent the gradual depression of the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypoxia.

  1. Induction of vascular remodeling in the lung by chronic house dust mite exposure.

    PubMed

    Rydell-Törmänen, Kristina; Johnson, Jill R; Fattouh, Ramzi; Jordana, Manel; Erjefält, Jonas S

    2008-07-01

    Structural changes to the lung are associated with chronic asthma. In addition to alterations to the airway wall, asthma is associated with vascular modifications, although this aspect of remodeling is poorly understood. We sought to evaluate the character and kinetics of vascular remodeling in response to chronic aeroallergen exposure. Because many ovalbumin-driven models used to investigate allergic airway disease do so in the absence of persistent airway inflammation, we used a protocol of chronic respiratory exposure to house dust mite extract (HDME), which has been shown to induce persistent airway inflammation consistent with that seen in humans with asthma. Mice were exposed to HDME intranasally for 7 or 20 consecutive weeks, and resolution of the inflammatory and remodeling response to allergen was investigated 4 weeks after the end of a 7-week exposure protocol. Measures of vascular remodeling, including total collagen deposition, procollagen I production, endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation, smooth muscle area, and presence of myofibroblasts, were investigated histologically in lung vessels of different sizes and locations. We observed an increase in total collagen content, which did not resolve upon cessation of allergen exposure. Other parameters were significantly increased after 7 and/or 20 weeks of allergen exposure but returned to baseline after allergen withdrawal. We conclude that respiratory HDME exposure induces airway remodeling and pulmonary vascular remodeling, and, in accordance with airway remodeling, some components of these structural changes may be irreversible. PMID:18314535

  2. Daltroban blocks thromboxane responses in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat.

    PubMed

    Hood, J S; Nossaman, B D; Ibrahim, I N; McMahon, T J; Babycos, C R; Kadowitz, P J

    1992-06-01

    The influence of daltroban (BM13.505; SK&F 96148), a thromboxane (Tx) A2-receptor-blocking agent, on responses to the TxA2 mimics U-46619 and U-44069 was investigated in the pulmonary vascular bed of the intact-chest cat under constant-flow conditions. Daltroban (5 mg/kg iv) had no significant effect on mean baseline vascular pressures but significantly decreased responses to the TxA2 mimics without altering responses to prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha or PGD2 or the PGD2 metabolite 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2. Dose-response curves for U-46619 and U-44069 were shifted to the right in a parallel manner, and daltroban had no significant effect on responses to norepinephrine, serotonin, angiotensin II, BAY K 8644, endothelin-(ET) 1, ET-2, or platelet-activating factor (PAF). After administration of daltroban, responses to U-46619 returned to 50% of control in 90 min and responses to the PG and TxA2 precursor arachidonic acid were decreased significantly. These results suggest that daltroban selectively antagonizes TxA2-receptor-mediated responses in a competitive and reversible manner. These data provide support for the hypothesis that discrete TxA2 receptors unrelated to receptors stimulated by PGF2 alpha, PGD2, or 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 are present in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat. The present data suggest that pulmonary vasoconstrictor responses to PAF and ET peptides are not dependent on activation of TxA2 receptors in the cat. PMID:1385804

  3. Calcium entry blocking drugs, 'calcium antagonists' and vascular smooth muscle function.

    PubMed

    Bou, J; Llenas, J; Massingham, R

    1983-09-01

    The group of drugs known as "calcium antagonists' is under extensive investigation in experimental animals and man and a re-evaluation of their pharmacological properties is overdue. Recent proposals to adopt the more specific nomenclature of calcium entry blockers for some of these compounds (Vanhoutte & Bohr, 1981) should be supported since there is much confusion in the literature with this class of compound. In this review, which concentrates on vascular smooth muscle, only nifedipine, verapamil, their close chemical analogues and diltiazem are recognised as being relatively selective calcium entry blocking drugs. Whilst definitive evidence for calcium entry blockade must include the demonstration of a selective inhibition of Ca2+-influx into a tissue over a range of concentrations also inhibiting contraction, it is nevertheless possible to define several simple pharmacological criteria which may aid in the identification of such activity. These criteria include the selective antagonism of K+ and Ca2+-induced contractions, relative to those of noradrenaline in suitable vascular smooth muscle preparations and a selective inhibition of alpha 2- as opposed to alpha 1-adrenoreceptor mediated pressor responses in, for example, pithed rat preparations. Recent pharmacological and biochemical studies have identified 3 major subgroups of "calcium antagonist' drugs but the compounds within each subgroup varies with the technique adopted. It is therefore suggested that a combination of both pharmacological and ligand-binding studies be used for purposes of classification. Which mechanism, if any, of inhibiting calcium entry is therapeutically most desirable remains an important question for future research. PMID:6315739

  4. Relationship between vascularity, age and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Chandrachud, L. M.; Pendleton, N.; Chisholm, D. M.; Horan, M. A.; Schor, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    Lung tumours in the elderly show reduced growth potential; impaired angiogenesis may contribute to this phenomenon. Recent studies have suggested that the angiogenic potential of a tumour may be inferred by the vascularity measured in histological sections. The purpose of this study has been to determine whether vascularity is related to age, survival or other clinical parameters in resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A group of 88 consecutive patients with a follow-up period of at least 5 years was selected. The group exhibited a wide age range (37-78 years) and similar survival characteristics to those of the general NSCLC population. Tumour sections were stained with a pan-endothelial antibody (vWF) and vascularity was quantitated, without knowledge of the clinical details, by three methods: highest microvascular density; average microvascular density; and average microvascular volume. The results were analysed by non-parametric statistical tests. A correlation was found between all three methods of quantitation. Vascularity was not associated with age, sex, tumour type, stage, volume, size (TNM-T) nodal status (TNM-N) or survival. However, survival time was generally longer for patients with higher vascularity, reaching borderline significance (P = 0.06) for the average microvascular density values. Higher tumour volume (P = 0.02) and stage (P = 0.05) were associated with lower survival times. Using multivariate survival analysis, tumour volume was the only factor related to survival. We conclude that vascularity is not associated with age and has no significant prognostic value in NSCLC. Images Figure 1 PMID:9374385

  5. VEGF and endothelium-derived retinoic acid regulate lung vascular and alveolar development.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Jun; Lorizio, Walter; Seedorf, Gregory; Abman, Steven H; Vu, Thiennu H

    2016-02-15

    Prevention or treatment of lung diseases caused by the failure to form, or destruction of, existing alveoli, as observed in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and adults with emphysema, requires understanding of the molecular mechanisms of alveolar development. In addition to its critical role in gas exchange, the pulmonary circulation also contributes to alveolar morphogenesis and maintenance by the production of paracrine factors, termed "angiocrines," that impact the development of surrounding tissue. To identify lung angiocrines that contribute to alveolar formation, we disrupted pulmonary vascular development by conditional inactivation of the Vegf-A gene during alveologenesis. This resulted in decreased pulmonary capillary and alveolar development and altered lung elastin and retinoic acid (RA) expression. We determined that RA is produced by pulmonary endothelial cells and regulates pulmonary angiogenesis and elastin synthesis by induction of VEGF-A and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-18, respectively. Inhibition of RA synthesis in newborn mice decreased FGF-18 and elastin expression and impaired alveolarization. Treatment with RA and vitamin A partially reversed the impaired vascular and alveolar development induced by VEGF inhibition. Thus we identified RA as a lung angiocrine that regulates alveolarization through autocrine regulation of endothelial development and paracrine regulation of elastin synthesis via induction of FGF-18 in mesenchymal cells. PMID:26566904

  6. Platelet-derived SDF1 primes pulmonary capillary vascular niche to drive lung alveolar regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Shahin; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y.; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    The lung alveoli regenerate after surgical removal of the left lobe by pneumonectomy (PNX). How this alveolar regrowth/regeneration is initiated remains unknown. We found that activated platelets trigger lung regeneration by supplying stromal cell-derived-factor1 (SDF1/CXCL12). After PNX, platelets stimulate SDF1-receptor CXCR4 and CXCR7 on pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) to deploy membrane-type metalloproteinase MMP14, stimulating proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and neo-alveolarization. In mice lacking platelets or platelet Sdf1, PNX-induced alveologenesis was diminished. Reciprocally, infusion of Sdf1+/+ but not Sdf1-deficient platelets rescued lung regeneration in platelet-depleted mice. Endothelial-specific ablation of Cxcr4 and Cxcr7 in adult mice similarly impeded lung regeneration. Notably, mice with endothelial-specific Mmp14 deletion (Mmp14iΔEC/iΔEC) exhibited impaired expansion of AECs but not PCECs, which could not be rescued by platelet infusion. Therefore, platelets prime PCECs to initiate lung regeneration, extending beyond their hemostatic contribution. Therapeutic targeting of this hemo-vascular niche could enable regenerative therapy for lung diseases. PMID:25621952

  7. An orally administered DNA vaccine targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 inhibits lung carcinoma growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Xin; Jin, Cong Guo; Zhou, Yong Chun; Navab, Roya; Jakobsen, Kristine Raaby; Chen, Xiao Qun; Li, Jia; Li, Ting Ting; Luo, Lu; Wang, Xi Cai

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of mortality and 5-year survival rate is very low worldwide. Recent studies show that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) signaling pathway contributes to lung cancer progression. So we hypothesize that an oral DNA vaccine that targets VEGFR-3 carried by attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium strain SL3261 has impacts on lung cancer progression. In this study, the oral VEGFR-3-based vaccine-immunized mice showed appreciable inhibition of tumor growth and tumor lymphatic microvessels in lung cancer mice model. Moreover, the oral VEGFR-3-based vaccine-immunized mice showed remarkable increases in both VEGFR-3-specific antibody levels and cytotoxic activity. Furthermore, the oral VEGFR-3-based vaccine-immunized mice showed a significant increase in the levels of T helper type 1 (Th1) cell intracellular cytokine expression (IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). After inoculation with murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells, CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell numbers obviously declined in control groups whereas high levels were maintained in the oral VEGFR-3-based vaccine group. These results demonstrated that the oral VEGFR-3-based vaccine could induce specific humoral and cellular immune responses and then significantly inhibit lung carcinoma growth via suppressing lymphangiogenesis. PMID:26376999

  8. Pressure- and flow-controlled media perfusion differently modify vascular mechanics in lung decellularization.

    PubMed

    da Palma, Renata K; Campillo, Noelia; Uriarte, Juan J; Oliveira, Luis V F; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon

    2015-09-01

    Organ biofabrication is a potential future alternative for obtaining viable organs for transplantation. Achieving intact scaffolds to be recellularized is a key step in lung bioengineering. Perfusion of decellularizing media through the pulmonary artery has shown to be effective. How vascular perfusion pressure and flow vary throughout lung decellularization, which is not well known, is important for optimizing the process (minimizing time) while ensuring scaffold integrity (no barotrauma). This work was aimed at characterizing the pressure/flow relationship at the pulmonary vasculature and at how effective vascular resistance depends on pressure- and flow-controlled variables when applying different methods of media perfusion for lung decellularization. Lungs from 43 healthy mice (C57BL/6; 7-8 weeks old) were investigated. After excision and tracheal cannulation, lungs were inflated at 10 cmH2O airway pressure and subjected to conventional decellularization with a solution of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Pressure (PPA) and flow (V'PA) at the pulmonary artery were continuously measured. Decellularization media was perfused through the pulmonary artery: (a) at constant PPA=20 cmH2O or (b) at constant V'PA=0.5 and 0.2 ml/min. Effective vascular resistance was computed as Rv=PPA/V'PA. Rv (in cmH2O/(ml/min)); mean±SE) considerably varied throughout lung decellularization, particularly for pressure-controlled perfusion (from 29.1±3.0 in baseline to a maximum of 664.1±164.3 (p<0.05), as compared with flow-controlled perfusion (from 49.9±3.3 and 79.5±5.1 in baseline to a maximum of 114.4±13.9 and 211.7±70.5 (p<0.05, both), for V'PA of 0.5 and 0.2 ml/min respectively. Most of the media infused to the pulmonary artery throughout decellularization circulated to the airways compartment across the alveolar-capillary membrane. This study shows that monitoring perfusion mechanics throughout decellularization provides information relevant for optimizing the process

  9. Association between vascular-poor area of primary tumors and epidermal growth factor receptor gene status in advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Yosuke; Masago, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Daichi; Sakamori, Yuichi; Nagai, Hiroki; Kim, Young Hak; Togashi, Kaori; Mishima, Michiaki

    2012-12-01

    Mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR mutation) is a very important marker in the treatment for non-small cell lung cancer. Since signaling from this receptor induces tumor-associated angiogenesis, we hypothesized that lung cancers with EGFR mutations tend to develop locally with increased angiogenesis. Thus, the association between vascular-poor area of primary tumors and EGFR status was retrospectively investigated in advanced lung adenocarcinomas. To assess vascular-poor area, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans taken before initial treatment for lung cancer were analyzed, together with primary tumor location (peripheral or central) and size. We analyzed 178 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR mutations were detected in 95 of the 178 patients (53.4 %). EGFR mutation was found to be significantly related to women (P = 0.0070), never-smokers (P < 0.0001), and tumors without vascular-poor area (P < 0.0001). Based on a multivariate analysis, presence of EGFR mutations was independently associated with never-smokers (P = 0.0046), lack of vascular-poor area (P = 0.0001), and tumor size >30 mm (P = 0.0080). EGFR mutations were found in 41 of 51 never-smokers without vascular-poor area (80.4 %), 19 of 36 never-smokers with vascular-poor area (52.8 %), 19 of 37 current or former-smokers without vascular-poor area (51.4 %), and 16 of 54 current or former-smokers with vascular-poor area (29.6 %). This study showed an association between vascular-poor area of primary tumors and EGFR status. As a consequence, evaluation using a combination of smoking status and vascular-poor area allows us to predict presence of EGFR mutations at a high frequency. PMID:22492281

  10. Blocking HMGB1 signal pathway protects early radiation-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Baozhong; Wang, Guifu; Xu, Junlong

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that HMGB1 participated in various types of lung injury. In this study, we explored whether blocking HMGB1 has a preventive effect on the early radiation-induced lung injury and investigate the mechanism. Mice model of radiation-induced lung injury were accomplished by a single dose irradiation (15 Gy) to the whole thorax. Irradiated mice were treated with HMGB1-neutralizing antibody intraperitoneally dosed 10 μg, 50 μg, 100 μg/mouse respectively and were sacrificed after one week post-irradiation. Lung tissue slices were stained by H&E, and alveolitis was quantified by Szapiel scoring system. The level of cytokines TNF-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was detected by ELISA method. And p65NF-κB, p50NF-κB protein expression in mice lung tissues was detected by Western blot analysis. The results showed that blocking HMGB1 inhibited the inflammatory response, and thereby decreased the degree of alveolitis of irradiated lung tissue. In addition, HMGB1 antagonist can restrain the expression of type Th2 or Th17 derived inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17A, promote the expression of Th1 type cytokines INF-γ, and inhibit p65 NF-κB but promote p50 NF-κB activation, which promoted the resolution of the radiation-induced inflammatory response. In conclusion, blocking HMGB1 can reduce the degree of early radiation-induced lung injury, and its mechanism may be related to the promotion of p50NF-κB activation and its downstream molecules expression. Inhibiting HMGB1 may be a new target to deal with early radiation-induced lung injury. PMID:26191172

  11. Blocking HMGB1 signal pathway protects early radiation-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liping; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Baozhong; Wang, Guifu; Xu, Junlong

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that HMGB1 participated in various types of lung injury. In this study, we explored whether blocking HMGB1 has a preventive effect on the early radiation-induced lung injury and investigate the mechanism. Mice model of radiation-induced lung injury were accomplished by a single dose irradiation (15 Gy) to the whole thorax. Irradiated mice were treated with HMGB1-neutralizing antibody intraperitoneally dosed 10 μg, 50 μg, 100 μg/mouse respectively and were sacrificed after one week post-irradiation. Lung tissue slices were stained by H&E, and alveolitis was quantified by Szapiel scoring system. The level of cytokines TNF-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was detected by ELISA method. And p65NF-κB, p50NF-κB protein expression in mice lung tissues was detected by Western blot analysis. The results showed that blocking HMGB1 inhibited the inflammatory response, and thereby decreased the degree of alveolitis of irradiated lung tissue. In addition, HMGB1 antagonist can restrain the expression of type Th2 or Th17 derived inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17A, promote the expression of Th1 type cytokines INF-γ, and inhibit p65 NF-κB but promote p50 NF-κB activation, which promoted the resolution of the radiation-induced inflammatory response. In conclusion, blocking HMGB1 can reduce the degree of early radiation-induced lung injury, and its mechanism may be related to the promotion of p50NF-κB activation and its downstream molecules expression. Inhibiting HMGB1 may be a new target to deal with early radiation-induced lung injury. PMID:26191172

  12. Effects of thromboxane A2 analogue on vascular resistance distribution and permeability in isolated blood-perfused dog lungs.

    PubMed

    Shibamoto, T; Wang, H G; Yamaguchi, Y; Hayashi, T; Saeki, Y; Tanaka, S; Koyama, S

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) on the distribution of vascular resistance, lung weight, and microvascular permeability in isolated dog lungs perfused at a constant pressure with autologous blood. The stable TxA2 analogue (STA2; 30 micrograms, n = 5) caused an increase in pulmonary capillary pressure (Pc) assessed as double-occlusion pressure to 14.0 +/- 0.4 mmHg from the baseline of 7.9 +/- 0.3 mmHg with progressive lung weight gain. Pulmonary vascular resistance increased threefold exclusively due to pulmonary venoconstriction. Pulmonary venoconstriction was confirmed in lungs perfused in a reverse direction from the pulmonary vein to the artery (n = 5), as evidenced by marked precapillary vasoconstriction and a sustained lung weight loss. Furthermore, in lungs perfused at a constant blood flow (n = 5), STA2 also caused selective pulmonary venoconstriction. Vascular permeability measured by the capillary filtration coefficient and the isogravimetric Pc at 30 and 60 min after STA2 infusion did not change significantly from baseline in any lungs studied. Moreover, elevation of Pc by raising the venous reservoir of the intact lobes (n = 5) to the same level as the STA2 lungs caused a greater or similar weight gain compared with the STA2 lungs. Thus, we conclude that TxA2 constricts selectively the pulmonary vein resulting in an increase in Pc and lung weight gain without significant changes in vascular permeability in isolated blood-perfused dog lungs. PMID:7564480

  13. Correlations of lung morphology, pulmonary vascular resistance, and outcome in children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, A; Busst, C M; Haworth, S G; Hislop, A A; Knight, W B; Corrin, B; Shinebourne, E A

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular resistance was measured in air, oxygen, and after administration of vasodilators in 14 children with pulmonary hypertension and congenital heart disease. Lung morphology was examined by light microscopy and assessed quantitatively. In this selected group of patients (a) medial muscle thickness of greater than 20% in the intra-acinar arteries and Heath-Edwards changes of I or II were significantly associated with perioperative death from pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery; (b) children with lower percentage medial muscle thickness had a higher baseline resistance (r = -0.84) associated with Heath-Edwards grade III or higher changes (most of these patients were not offered corrective surgery); (c) when the lowest pulmonary vascular resistance was less than 3 units, Heath-Edwards grading was I or II (n = 4). When the pulmonary vascular resistance was greater than 6 units, however, there was no direct correlation with Heath-Edwards grading (n = 9). Four patients with a resistance of greater than 6 units had only grade I or II changes. Three had a medial muscle thickness above 20%, and were among those who died at or soon after operation. It is concluded that (a) patients with a lowest pulmonary vascular resistance of greater than 6 units have a bad prognosis whatever their lung morphology; and (b) some patients with Heath-Edwards grade I or II will have a high resistance (this group has a high medial muscle mass and a poor prognosis and would not be detected by Heath-Edwards grading alone). PMID:3370183

  14. Cytoskeletal mechanisms regulating vascular endothelial barrier function in response to acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Kása, Anita; Csortos, Csilla; Verin, Alexander D

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) form a semi-permeable barrier between the interior space of blood vessels and the underlying tissues. In acute lung injury (ALI) the EC barrier is weakened leading to increased vascular permeability. It is widely accepted that EC barrier integrity is critically dependent upon intact cytoskeletal structure and cell junctions. Edemagenic agonists, like thrombin or endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induced cytoskeletal rearrangement, and EC contractile responses leading to disruption of intercellular contacts and EC permeability increase. The highly clinically-relevant cytoskeletal mechanisms of EC barrier dysfunction are currently under intense investigation and will be described and discussed in the current review. PMID:25838980

  15. Cytoskeletal mechanisms regulating vascular endothelial barrier function in response to acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Kása, Anita; Csortos, Csilla; Verin, Alexander D

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) form a semi-permeable barrier between the interior space of blood vessels and the underlying tissues. In acute lung injury (ALI) the EC barrier is weakened leading to increased vascular permeability. It is widely accepted that EC barrier integrity is critically dependent upon intact cytoskeletal structure and cell junctions. Edemagenic agonists, like thrombin or endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induced cytoskeletal rearrangement, and EC contractile responses leading to disruption of intercellular contacts and EC permeability increase. The highly clinically-relevant cytoskeletal mechanisms of EC barrier dysfunction are currently under intense investigation and will be described and discussed in the current review. PMID:25838980

  16. Morelloflavone blocks injury-induced neointimal formation by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Pinkaew, Decha; Cho, Sung Gook; Hui, David Y.; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Tonganunt, Moltira; Stafford, Lewis J.; Phongdara, Amornrat; Liu, Mingyao; Fujise, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Background In-stent restenosis, or renarrowing within a coronary stent, is the most ominous complication of percutaneous coronary intervention, caused by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration into and proliferation in the intima. Although drug-eluting stents reduce restenosis, they delay the tissue healing of the injured arteries. No promising alternative anti-restenosis treatments are currently on the horizon. Methods & Results In endothelium-denudated mouse carotid arteries, oral morelloflavone—an active ingredient of the Thai medicinal plant Garcinia dulcis—significantly decreased the degree of neointimal hyperplasia, without affecting neointimal cell cycle progression or apoptosis as evaluated by Ki-67 and TUNEL staining, respectively. At the cellular level, morelloflavone robustly inhibited VSMC migration as shown by both scratch wound and invasion assays. In addition, morelloflavone prevented VSMCs from forming lamellipodia, a VSMC migration apparatus. Mechanistically, the inhibition by morelloflavone of VSMC migration was through its negative regulatory effects on several migration-related kinases, including FAK, Src, ERK, and RhoA. Consistently with the animal data, morelloflavone did not affect VSMC cell cycle progression or induce apoptosis. Conclusion These data suggest that morelloflavone blocks injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia via the inhibition of VSMC migration, without inducing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. General Significance We propose morelloflavone to be a viable oral agent for the prevention of restenosis, without compromising effects on the integrity and healing of the injured arteries. PMID:18930785

  17. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor is related to systemic oxidative stress in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Katsabeki-Katsafli, A; Kerenidi, T; Kostikas, K; Dalaveris, E; Kiropoulos, T S; Gogou, E; Papaioannou, A I; Gourgoulianis, K I

    2008-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play crucial role in tumour angiogenesis. It is demonstrated that VEGF can be up-regulated by oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine the serum VEGF levels and oxidative stress in patients with primary lung cancer and to investigate their association with clinicopathologic factors. We measured serum VEGF levels and oxidative stress in 63 patients (age 63.02+/-1.12 S.E.M.) with primary lung cancer before any treatment (39 NSCLC and 24 SCLC; 6 patients stage I, 3 stage II, 25 stage III and 29 stage IV) and 25 normal subjects. The serum VEGF levels were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Serum oxidative stress levels were detected by a commercially available assay (D-ROMs test, Diacron, Grossetto, Italy). The levels of oxidative stress in patients were higher than those in normal subjects (555.3+/-30.35 UCarr vs. 360.1+/-17.46 UCarr). Additionally, a significant difference was found in serum VEGF levels between lung cancer patients and healthy control subjects (428.1+/-38.42pg/ml vs. 298.8+/-19.89pg/ml, respectively, p=0.040). Interestingly, serum oxidative stress presented a significant correlation with serum VEGF levels in patients with lung cancer (r=0.542, p=0.002). Serum VEGF levels were significantly associated with the clinical staging (N-stage) of the patients (p=0.023), performance status (p=0.004) and age (p=0.004). In conclusion, oxidative stress and VEGF are significantly increased in patients with primary lung cancer. The correlation between them might implicate new aspects of the mechanisms controlling tumour angiogenesis and may present clinical interest in the future. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the role of oxidative stress and VEGF as possible biomarkers for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with lung cancer. PMID:18242763

  18. Asef controls vascular endothelial permeability and barrier recovery in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xinyong; Tian, Yufeng; Gawlak, Grzegorz; Meng, Fanyong; Kawasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Tetsu; Birukova, Anna A.

    2015-01-01

    Increased levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in injured lungs may reflect a compensatory response to diminish acute lung injury (ALI). HGF-induced activation of Rac1 GTPase stimulates endothelial barrier protective mechanisms. This study tested the involvement of Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Asef in HGF-induced endothelial cell (EC) cytoskeletal dynamics and barrier protection in vitro and in a two-hit model of ALI. HGF induced membrane translocation of Asef and stimulated Asef Rac1-specific nucleotide exchange activity. Expression of constitutively activated Asef mutant mimicked HGF-induced peripheral actin cytoskeleton enhancement. In contrast, siRNA-induced Asef knockdown or expression of dominant-negative Asef attenuated HGF-induced Rac1 activation evaluated by Rac-GTP pull down and FRET assay with Rac1 biosensor. Molecular inhibition of Asef attenuated HGF-induced peripheral accumulation of cortactin, formation of lamellipodia-like structures, and enhancement of VE-cadherin adherens junctions and compromised HGF-protective effect against thrombin-induced RhoA GTPase activation, Rho-dependent cytoskeleton remodeling, and EC permeability. Intravenous HGF injection attenuated lung inflammation and vascular leak in the two-hit model of ALI induced by excessive mechanical ventilation and thrombin signaling peptide TRAP6. This effect was lost in Asef−/− mice. This study shows for the first time the role of Asef in HGF-mediated protection against endothelial hyperpermeability and lung injury. PMID:25518936

  19. Dysregulation of Vascular Endothelial Progenitor Cells Lung-Homing in Subjects with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Brittany M.; Manzoor, Fizza; Beaudin, Suzanne; Kjarsgaard, Melanie; Nair, Parameswaran; Gauvreau, Gail M.; Sehmi, Roma

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by fixed airflow limitation and progressive decline of lung function and punctuated by occasional exacerbations. The disease pathogenesis may involve activation of the bone marrow stimulating mobilization and lung-homing of progenitor cells. We investigated the hypothesis that lower circulating numbers of vascular endothelial progenitor cells (VEPCs) are a consequence of increased lung-sequestration in COPD. Nonatopic, current or ex-smokers with diagnosed COPD and nonatopic, nonsmoking normal controls were enrolled. Blood and induced sputum extracted primitive hemopoietic progenitors (HPCs) and VEPC were enumerated by flow cytometry. Migration and adhesive responses to fibronectin were assessed. In sputum, VEPC numbers were significantly greater in COPD compared to normal controls. In blood, VEPCs were significantly lower in COPD versus normal controls. There were no differences in HPC levels between the two groups in either compartment. Functionally, there was a greater migrational responsiveness of progenitors from COPD subjects to stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1α) compared to normal controls. This was associated with greater numbers of CXCR4+ progenitors in sputum from COPD. Increased migrational responsiveness of progenitor cells may promote lung-homing of VEPC in COPD which may disrupt maintenance and repair of the airways and contribute to COPD disease pathogenesis. PMID:27445517

  20. Pulmonary Vascular Congestion: A Mechanism for Distal Lung Unit Dysfunction in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Beno W.; Berger, Kenneth I.; Ali, Saleem; Segal, Leopoldo N.; Donnino, Robert; Katz, Stuart; Parikh, Manish; Goldring, Roberta M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Obesity is characterized by increased systemic and pulmonary blood volumes (pulmonary vascular congestion). Concomitant abnormal alveolar membrane diffusion suggests subclinical interstitial edema. In this setting, functional abnormalities should encompass the entire distal lung including the airways. Objectives We hypothesize that in obesity: 1) pulmonary vascular congestion will affect the distal lung unit with concordant alveolar membrane and distal airway abnormalities; and 2) the degree of pulmonary congestion and membrane dysfunction will relate to the cardiac response. Methods 54 non-smoking obese subjects underwent spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), diffusion capacity (DLCO) with partition into membrane diffusion (DM) and capillary blood volume (VC), and cardiac MRI (n = 24). Alveolar-capillary membrane efficiency was assessed by calculation of DM/VC. Measurements and Main Results Mean age was 45±12 years; mean BMI was 44.8±7 kg/m2. Vital capacity was 88±13% predicted with reduction in functional residual capacity (58±12% predicted). Despite normal DLCO (98±18% predicted), VC was elevated (135±31% predicted) while DM averaged 94±22% predicted. DM/VC varied from 0.4 to 1.4 with high values reflecting recruitment of alveolar membrane and low values indicating alveolar membrane dysfunction. The most abnormal IOS (R5 and X5) occurred in subjects with lowest DM/VC (r2 = 0.31, p<0.001; r2 = 0.34, p<0.001). Cardiac output and index (cardiac output / body surface area) were directly related to DM/VC (r2 = 0.41, p<0.001; r2 = 0.19, p = 0.03). Subjects with lower DM/VC demonstrated a cardiac output that remained in the normal range despite presence of obesity. Conclusions Global dysfunction of the distal lung (alveolar membrane and distal airway) is associated with pulmonary vascular congestion and failure to achieve the high output state of obesity. Pulmonary vascular congestion and consequent fluid transudation and/or alterations in the

  1. Genetic Variation in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Custovic, Adnan; Tepper, Robert; Graves, Penelope; Stern, Debra A.; Jones, Marcus; Hankinson, Jenny; Curtin, John A.; Wu, Jiakai; Blekic, Mario; Bukvic, Blazenka Kljaic; Aberle, Neda; Marinho, Susana; Belgrave, Danielle; Morgan, Wayne J.; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Given the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in lung development, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in VEGF-A may be associated with lung function. Objectives: The current study was designed to assess the role of genetic variants in VEGF-A as determinants of airway function from infancy through early adulthood. Methods: Association between five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VEGF-A and lung function were assessed longitudinally in two unselected birth cohorts and cross-sectionally among infants. Replication with two SNPs was conducted in adults and children with asthma. We investigated the functionality of the SNP most consistently associated with lung function (rs3025028) using Western blotting to measure the ratio of plasma VEGF-A165b/panVEGF-A165 among homozygotes. Measurements and Main Results: In two populations in infancy, C-allele homozygotes of rs3025028 had significantly higher VmaxFRC, forced expiratory flow50, and forced expiratory flow25–75 compared with other genotype groups. Among preschool children (age 3 yr), C allele of rs3025028 was associated with significantly higher specific airway conductance, with similar findings observed for lung function in school-age children. For FEV1/FVC ratio similar findings were observed among adolescents and young adults (birth cohort), and then replicated in adults and schoolchildren with asthma (cross-sectional studies). For rs3025038, plasma VEGF-A165b/panVEGF-A165 was significantly higher among CC versus GG homozygotes (P ≤ 0.02) at birth, in school-age children, and in adults. Conclusions: We report significant associations between VEGF-A SNP rs3025028 and parameters of airway function measured throughout childhood, with the effect persisting into adulthood. We propose that the mechanism may be mediated through the ratios of active and inhibitory isoforms of VEGF-A165, which may be determined by alternative splicing. PMID:22461367

  2. Antithrombin Attenuates Vascular Leakage via Inhibiting Neutrophil Activation in Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Sousse, Linda E.; Jonkam, Collette; Zhu, Yong; Traber, Lillian D.; Cox, Robert A.; Prough, Donald S.; Traber, Daniel L.; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that restoration of antithrombin plasma concentrations attenuates vascular leakage by inhibiting neutrophil activation through syndecan-4 receptor inhibition in an established ovine model of acute lung injury. Design Randomized controlled laboratory experiment. Setting University animal research facility. Subjects Eighteen chronically instrumented sheep. Interventions Following combined burn and smoke inhalation injury (40% of total body surface area, third-degree flame burn; 4 × 12 breaths of cold cotton smoke), chronically instrumented sheep were randomly assigned to receive an IV infusion of 6 IU/kg/hr recombinant human antithrombin III or normal saline (n = 6 each) during the 48-hour study period. In addition, six sham animals (not injured, continuous infusion of vehicle) were used to obtain reference values for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Measurements and Main Results Compared to control animals, recombinant human antithrombin III reduced the number of neutrophils per hour in the pulmonary lymph (p < 0.01 at 24 and 48 hr), alveolar neutrophil infiltration (p = 0.04), and pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity (p = 0.026). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a significant reduction of syndecan-4-positive neutrophils (p = 0.002 vs control at 24 hr). Treatment with recombinant human antithrombin III resulted in a reduction of pulmonary nitrosative stress (p = 0.002), airway obstruction (bronchi: p = 0.001, bronchioli: p = 0.013), parenchymal edema (p = 0.044), and lung bloodless wet-to-dry-weight ratio (p = 0.015). Clinically, recombinant human antithrombin III attenuated the increased pulmonary transvascular fluid flux (12–48 hr: p ≤ 0.001 vs control each) and the deteriorated pulmonary gas exchange (12–48 hr: p < 0.05 vs control each) without increasing the risk of bleeding. Conclusions The present study provides evidence for the interaction between antithrombin and neutrophils in vivo, its pathophysiological

  3. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Regulates the Secretion of Different Angiogenic Factors in Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Frezzetti, Daniela; Gallo, Marianna; Roma, Cristin; D'Alessio, Amelia; Maiello, Monica R; Bevilacqua, Simona; Normanno, Nicola; De Luca, Antonella

    2016-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is one of the main mediators of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, it has been described an autocrine feed-forward loop in NSCLC cells in which tumor-derived VEGFA promoted the secretion of VEGFA itself, amplifying the proangiogenic signal. In order to investigate the role of VEGFA in lung cancer progression, we assessed the effects of recombinant VEGFA on proliferation, migration, and secretion of other angiogenic factors in A549, H1975, and HCC827 NSCLC cell lines. We found that VEGFA did not affect NSCLC cell proliferation and migration. On the other hand, we demonstrated that VEGFA not only produced a strong and persistent increase of VEGFA itself but also significantly induced the secretion of a variety of angiogenic factors, including follistatin (FST), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin (IL)-8, leptin (LEP), platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1), and platelet-derived growth factor bb (PDGF-BB). PI3K/AKT, RAS/ERK, and STAT3 signalling pathways were found to mediate the effects of VEGFA in NSCLC cell lines. We also observed that VEGFA regulation mainly occurred at post-transcriptional level and that NSCLC cells expressed different isoforms of VEGFA. Collectively, our data suggested that VEGFA contributes to lung cancer progression by inducing a network of angiogenic factors, which might offer potential for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26542886

  4. Imatinib attenuates inflammation and vascular leak in a clinically relevant two-hit model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Alicia N; Sammani, Saad; Esquinca, Adilene E; Jacobson, Jeffrey R; Garcia, Joe G N; Letsiou, Eleftheria; Dudek, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), an illness characterized by life-threatening vascular leak, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Recent preclinical studies and clinical observations have suggested a potential role for the chemotherapeutic agent imatinib in restoring vascular integrity. Our prior work demonstrates differential effects of imatinib in mouse models of ALI, namely attenuation of LPS-induced lung injury but exacerbation of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Because of the critical role of mechanical ventilation in the care of patients with ARDS, in the present study we pursued an assessment of the effectiveness of imatinib in a "two-hit" model of ALI caused by combined LPS and VILI. Imatinib significantly decreased bronchoalveolar lavage protein, total cells, neutrophils, and TNF-α levels in mice exposed to LPS plus VILI, indicating that it attenuates ALI in this clinically relevant model. In subsequent experiments focusing on its protective role in LPS-induced lung injury, imatinib attenuated ALI when given 4 h after LPS, suggesting potential therapeutic effectiveness when given after the onset of injury. Mechanistic studies in mouse lung tissue and human lung endothelial cells revealed that imatinib inhibits LPS-induced NF-κB expression and activation. Overall, these results further characterize the therapeutic potential of imatinib against inflammatory vascular leak. PMID:26432864

  5. CD47-blocking immunotherapies stimulate macrophage-mediated destruction of small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Weiskopf, Kipp; Jahchan, Nadine S; Schnorr, Peter J; Cristea, Sandra; Ring, Aaron M; Maute, Roy L; Volkmer, Anne K; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; Liu, Jie; Lim, Jing Shan; Yang, Dian; Seitz, Garrett; Nguyen, Thuyen; Wu, Di; Jude, Kevin; Guerston, Heather; Barkal, Amira; Trapani, Francesca; George, Julie; Poirier, John T; Gardner, Eric E; Miles, Linde A; de Stanchina, Elisa; Lofgren, Shane M; Vogel, Hannes; Winslow, Monte M; Dive, Caroline; Thomas, Roman K; Rudin, Charles M; van de Rijn, Matt; Majeti, Ravindra; Garcia, K Christopher; Weissman, Irving L; Sage, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive subtype of lung cancer with limited treatment options. CD47 is a cell-surface molecule that promotes immune evasion by engaging signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), which serves as an inhibitory receptor on macrophages. Here, we found that CD47 is highly expressed on the surface of human SCLC cells; therefore, we investigated CD47-blocking immunotherapies as a potential approach for SCLC treatment. Disruption of the interaction of CD47 with SIRPα using anti-CD47 antibodies induced macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of human SCLC patient cells in culture. In a murine model, administration of CD47-blocking antibodies or targeted inactivation of the Cd47 gene markedly inhibited SCLC tumor growth. Furthermore, using comprehensive antibody arrays, we identified several possible therapeutic targets on the surface of SCLC cells. Antibodies to these targets, including CD56/neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), promoted phagocytosis in human SCLC cell lines that was enhanced when combined with CD47-blocking therapies. In light of recent clinical trials for CD47-blocking therapies in cancer treatment, these findings identify disruption of the CD47/SIRPα axis as a potential immunotherapeutic strategy for SCLC. This approach could enable personalized immunotherapeutic regimens in patients with SCLC and other cancers. PMID:27294525

  6. CD147 deficiency blocks IL-8 secretion and inhibits lung cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongkai; Zhuo, Yunyun; Hu, Xu; Shen, Weiwei; Zhang, Ying; Chu, Tongwei

    2015-03-06

    Bone is a frequent target of lung cancer metastasis, which is associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis; however, the molecular basis of this process is still unknown. This study investigated the role of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (also known as cluster of differentiation (CD)147) in osteoclastogenesis resulting from bone metastasis, based on the enrichment of this glycoprotein on the surface of many malignant bone tumors. RNA interference was used to silence CD147 expression in A549 human lung cancer cells. Compared with conditioned medium (CM) from control cells (A549-CM), CM from CD147-deficient cells (A549-si-CM) suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. The mRNA levels of osteoclast-specific genes such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K were also reduced in the presence of A549-si-CM. CD147 knockdown in A549 cells decreased interleukin (IL)-8mRNA and protein expression. IL-8 is present in large amounts in A549-CM and mimicked its inductive effect on osteoclastogenesis; this was reversed by depletion of IL-8 from the medium. Taken together, these results indicate that CD147 promotes lung cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis by modulating IL-8 secretion, and suggest that CD147 is a potential therapeutic target for cancer-associated bone resorption in lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Bone loss frequently results from lung cancer metastasis. • Cluster of differentiation (CD)147 was depleted in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. • RAW 264.7 cell osteoclastogenesis was blocked by medium from CD147-deficient cells. • Interleukin (IL)-8 level was reduced in the conditioned medium. • Osteoclastogenesis induced by lung tumor cells requires CD147-mediated IL-8 release.

  7. A block matching-based registration algorithm for localization of locally advanced lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Scott P.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To implement and evaluate a block matching-based registration (BMR) algorithm for locally advanced lung tumor localization during image-guided radiotherapy. Methods: Small (1 cm3), nonoverlapping image subvolumes (“blocks”) were automatically identified on the planning image to cover the tumor surface using a measure of the local intensity gradient. Blocks were independently and automatically registered to the on-treatment image using a rigid transform. To improve speed and robustness, registrations were performed iteratively from coarse to fine image resolution. At each resolution, all block displacements having a near-maximum similarity score were stored. From this list, a single displacement vector for each block was iteratively selected which maximized the consistency of displacement vectors across immediately neighboring blocks. These selected displacements were regularized using a median filter before proceeding to registrations at finer image resolutions. After evaluating all image resolutions, the global rigid transform of the on-treatment image was computed using a Procrustes analysis, providing the couch shift for patient setup correction. This algorithm was evaluated for 18 locally advanced lung cancer patients, each with 4–7 weekly on-treatment computed tomography scans having physician-delineated gross tumor volumes. Volume overlap (VO) and border displacement errors (BDE) were calculated relative to the nominal physician-identified targets to establish residual error after registration. Results: Implementation of multiresolution registration improved block matching accuracy by 39% compared to registration using only the full resolution images. By also considering multiple potential displacements per block, initial errors were reduced by 65%. Using the final implementation of the BMR algorithm, VO was significantly improved from 77% ± 21% (range: 0%–100%) in the initial bony alignment to 91% ± 8% (range: 56%–100%; p < 0.001). Left

  8. A block matching-based registration algorithm for localization of locally advanced lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Scott P.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To implement and evaluate a block matching-based registration (BMR) algorithm for locally advanced lung tumor localization during image-guided radiotherapy. Methods: Small (1 cm{sup 3}), nonoverlapping image subvolumes (“blocks”) were automatically identified on the planning image to cover the tumor surface using a measure of the local intensity gradient. Blocks were independently and automatically registered to the on-treatment image using a rigid transform. To improve speed and robustness, registrations were performed iteratively from coarse to fine image resolution. At each resolution, all block displacements having a near-maximum similarity score were stored. From this list, a single displacement vector for each block was iteratively selected which maximized the consistency of displacement vectors across immediately neighboring blocks. These selected displacements were regularized using a median filter before proceeding to registrations at finer image resolutions. After evaluating all image resolutions, the global rigid transform of the on-treatment image was computed using a Procrustes analysis, providing the couch shift for patient setup correction. This algorithm was evaluated for 18 locally advanced lung cancer patients, each with 4–7 weekly on-treatment computed tomography scans having physician-delineated gross tumor volumes. Volume overlap (VO) and border displacement errors (BDE) were calculated relative to the nominal physician-identified targets to establish residual error after registration. Results: Implementation of multiresolution registration improved block matching accuracy by 39% compared to registration using only the full resolution images. By also considering multiple potential displacements per block, initial errors were reduced by 65%. Using the final implementation of the BMR algorithm, VO was significantly improved from 77% ± 21% (range: 0%–100%) in the initial bony alignment to 91% ± 8% (range: 56%–100%;p < 0

  9. Inactivation of CD11b in a mouse transgenic model protects against sepsis-induced lung PMN infiltration and vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Pei; Liu, Qinghui; Broman, Michael; Predescu, Dan; Frey, Randall S; Malik, Asrar B

    2005-04-14

    To inactivate chronically the beta2-integrin CD11b (Mac-1), we made a transgenic model in mice in which we expressed the CD11b antagonist polypeptide neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF). Using these mice, we determined the in vivo effects of CD11b inactivation on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function and acute lung injury (ALI) induced by Escherichia coli septicemia. In wild-type PMNs, CD11b expression was induced within 1 h after E. coli challenge, whereas this response was significantly reduced in NIF(+/+) PMNs. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that NIF associated with CD11b in NIF(+/+) PMNs. To validate the effectiveness of CD11b blockade, we compared PMN function in NIF(+/+) and Mac-1-deficient (Mac-1(-/-)) mice. Adhesion of both Mac-1(-/-) and NIF(+/+) PMNs to endothelial cells in response to LPS was reduced in both types of PMNs and fully blocked only by the addition of anti-CD11a monoclonal antibody. This finding is indicative of intact CD11a function in the NIF(+/+) PMNs but the blockade of CD11b function. CD11b inactivation in NIF(+/+) mice interfered with lung PMN infiltration induced by E. coli and prevented the increase in lung microvessel permeability and edema formation, with most of the protection seen in the 1-h period after the E. coli. Thus our results demonstrate that CD11b plays a crucial role in mediating lung PMN sequestration and vascular injury in the early phase of gram-negative septicemia. The NIF(+/+) mouse model, in which CD11b is inactivated by binding to NIF, is a potentially useful model for in vivo assessment of the role of PMN CD11b in the mechanism of vascular inflammation. PMID:15831844

  10. Obesity-induced adipokine imbalance impairs mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial function and primes the lung for injury

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Duong, Michelle; Wang, Nadan; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Suratt, Benjamin T.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Sun, Jianxin; Zhu, Ying; Walsh, Kenneth; Summer, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but mechanisms mediating this association are unknown. While obesity is known to impair systemic blood vessel function, and predisposes to systemic vascular diseases, its effects on the pulmonary circulation are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the chronic low grade inflammation of obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and primes the lung for acute injury. The lung endothelium from obese mice expressed higher levels of leukocyte adhesion markers and lower levels of cell-cell junctional proteins when compared to lean mice. We tested whether systemic factors are responsible for these alterations in the pulmonary endothelium; treatment of primary lung endothelial cells with obese serum enhanced the expression of adhesion proteins and reduced the expression of endothelial junctional proteins when compared to lean serum. Alterations in pulmonary endothelial cells observed in obese mice were associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced lung injury. Restoring serum adiponectin levels reversed the effects of obesity on the lung endothelium and attenuated susceptibility to acute injury. Our work indicates that obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and enhances susceptibility to acute injury and provides mechanistic insight into the increased prevalence of ARDS in obese humans. PMID:26068229

  11. Obesity-induced adipokine imbalance impairs mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial function and primes the lung for injury.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Duong, Michelle; Wang, Nadan; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Suratt, Benjamin T; Kallen, Caleb B; Sun, Jianxin; Zhu, Ying; Walsh, Kenneth; Summer, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but mechanisms mediating this association are unknown. While obesity is known to impair systemic blood vessel function, and predisposes to systemic vascular diseases, its effects on the pulmonary circulation are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the chronic low grade inflammation of obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and primes the lung for acute injury. The lung endothelium from obese mice expressed higher levels of leukocyte adhesion markers and lower levels of cell-cell junctional proteins when compared to lean mice. We tested whether systemic factors are responsible for these alterations in the pulmonary endothelium; treatment of primary lung endothelial cells with obese serum enhanced the expression of adhesion proteins and reduced the expression of endothelial junctional proteins when compared to lean serum. Alterations in pulmonary endothelial cells observed in obese mice were associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced lung injury. Restoring serum adiponectin levels reversed the effects of obesity on the lung endothelium and attenuated susceptibility to acute injury. Our work indicates that obesity impairs pulmonary vascular homeostasis and enhances susceptibility to acute injury and provides mechanistic insight into the increased prevalence of ARDS in obese humans. PMID:26068229

  12. Evaluation of tetrafunctional block copolymers as synthetic vectors for lung gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Richard-Fiardo, Peggy; Hervouet, Catherine; Marsault, Robert; Franken, Philippe R; Cambien, Béatrice; Guglielmi, Julien; Warnez-Soulie, Julie; Darcourt, Jacques; Pourcher, Thierry; Colombani, Thibault; Haudebourg, Thomas; Peuziat, Pauline; Pitard, Bruno; Vassaux, Georges

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we evaluated, in mice, the efficacy of the tetrafunctional block copolymer 704 as a nonviral gene delivery vector to the lungs. SPECT/CT molecular imaging of gene expression, biochemical assays, and immunohistochemistry were used. Our dataset shows that the formulation 704 resulted in higher levels of reporter gene expression than the GL67A formulation currently being used in a clinical trial in cystic fibrosis patients. The inflammatory response associated with this gene transfer was lower than that induced by the GL67A formulation, and the 704 formulation was amenable to repeated administrations. The cell types transfected by the 704 formulation were type I and type II pneumocytes, and transgene expression could not be detected in macrophages. These results emphasize the relevance of the 704 formulation as a nonviral gene delivery vector for lung gene therapy. Further studies will be required to validate this vector in larger animals, in which the lungs are more similar to human lungs. PMID:25662490

  13. Increased Lung Expression of Anti-Angiogenic Factors in Down Syndrome: Potential Role in Abnormal Lung Vascular Growth and the Risk for Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Galambos, Csaba; Minic, Angela D.; Bush, Douglas; Nguyen, Dominique; Dodson, Blair; Seedorf, Gregory; Abman, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Infants with Down syndrome (DS) or Trisomy 21, are at high risk for developing pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but mechanisms that increase susceptibility are poorly understood. Laboratory studies have shown that early disruption of angiogenesis during development impairs vascular and alveolar growth and causes PAH. Human chromosome 21 encodes known anti-angiogenic factors, including collagen18a1 (endostatin, ES), ß-amyloid peptide (BAP) and Down Syndrome Critical Region 1 (DSCR-1). Therefore, we hypothesized that fetal lungs from subjects with DS are characterized by early over-expression of anti-angiogenic factors and have abnormal lung vascular growth in utero. Methods Human fetal lung tissue from DS and non-DS subjects were obtained from a biorepository. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to assay 84 angiogenesis-associated genes and individual qRT-PCR was performed for ES, amyloid protein precursor (APP) and DSCR1. Western blot analysis (WBA) was used to assay lung ES, APP and DSCR-1 protein contents. Lung vessel density and wall thickness were determined by morphometric analysis. Results The angiogenesis array identified up-regulation of three anti-angiogenic genes: COL18A1 (ES), COL4A3 (tumstatin) and TIMP3 (tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3) in DS lungs. Single qRT-PCR and WBA showed striking elevations of ES and APP mRNA (p = 0.022 and p = 0.001) and protein (p = 0.040 and p = 0.002; respectively). Vessel density was reduced (p = 0.041) and vessel wall thickness was increased in DS lung tissue (p = 0.033) when compared to non-DS subjects. Conclusions We conclude that lung anti-angiogenic factors, including COL18A1 (ES), COL4A3, TIMP3 and APP are over-expressed and fetal lung vessel growth is decreased in subjects with DS. We speculate that increased fetal lung anti-angiogenic factor expression due to trisomy 21 impairs lung vascular growth and signaling, which impairs alveolarization and

  14. High glucose blocks the effects of estradiol on human vascular cell growth: differential interaction with estradiol and raloxifene

    PubMed Central

    Somjen, Dalia; Paller, Channing J.; Gayer, Batya; Kohen, Fortune; Knoll, Esther; Stern, Naftali

    2013-01-01

    Because diabetic women appear not to be protected by estrogen in terms of propensity to cardiovascular disease, we tested the possibility that chronic hyperglycemia modulates the effects of E2 on vascular cell growth in vitro. Human endothelial cells (E304) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were grown in normal glucose (5.5 mmol/l), high glucose (22 mmol/l) or high manitol (22 nmol/l; an osmotic control) for 7 days. In endothelial cells glucose per se stimulated DNA synthesis. However E2- (but not RAL-) stimulated [3H] thymidine incorporation was attenuated in the presence of high glucose. In parallel, E2-dependent MAP-kinase-kinase activity was blocked in the presence of high glucose. High glucose increased basal creatine kinase (CK) specific activity, but E2-stimulated CK was not significantly impaired in the presence of high glucose. In VSMC, high glucose prevented the inhibitory effect of high E2 (but not of high RAL) concentrations on DNA synthesis. High glucose also prevented E2-induced MAP-kinase-kinase activity. In contrast, while high glucose augmented basal CK, the relative E2-induced changes were roughly equal in normal and high high glucose media. Hence, high glucose blocks several effects of E2 on vascular cell growth, which are mediated, in part, via the MAP-kinase system and are likely contributors to E2’s anti-atherosclerotic properties. Since RAL’s estrogen-mimetic effects on human vascular cell growth were independent of MAP-kinase activation and were not affected by hyperglycemia, the potential use of RAL to circumvent the loss of estrogen function induced by hyperglycemia and diabetes in the human vasculature should be further explored. PMID:15026088

  15. Role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-gamma in mediating lung neutrophil sequestration and vascular injury induced by E. coli sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Evan; Gao, Xiao-Pei; Predescu, Dan; Broman, Michael; Malik, Asrar B

    2005-12-01

    We addressed the in vivo role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-gamma (PI3K-gamma) in signaling the sequestration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in lungs and in the mechanism of inflammatory lung vascular injury. We studied mice with deletion of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI3K-gamma (PI3K-gamma(-/-) mice). We measured lung tissue PMN sequestration, microvascular permeability, and edema formation after bacteremia induced by intraperitoneal Escherichia coli challenge. PMN infiltration into the lung interstitium in PI3K-gamma(-/-) mice as assessed morphometrically was increased 100% over that in control mice within 1 h after bacterial challenge. PI3K-gamma(-/-) mice also developed a greater increase in lung microvascular permeability after E. coli challenge, resulting in edema formation. The augmented lung tissue PMN sequestration in PI3K-gamma(-/-) mice was associated with increased expression of the PMN adhesive proteins CD47 and beta(3)-integrins. We observed increased association of CD47 and beta(3)-integrins with the extracellular matrix protein vitronectin in lungs of PI3K-gamma(-/-) mice after E. coli challenge. PMNs from these mice also showed increased beta(3)-integrin expression and augmented beta(3)-integrin-dependent PMN adhesion to vitronectin. These results point to a key role of PMN PI3K-gamma in negatively regulating CD47 and beta(3)-integrin expression in gram-negative sepsis. PI3K-gamma activation in PMNs induced by E. coli may modulate the extent of lung tissue PMN sequestration secondary to CD47 and beta(3)-integrin expression. Therefore, the level of PI3K-gamma activation may be an important determinant of PMN-dependent lung vascular injury. PMID:16183669

  16. Automatic block-matching registration to improve lung tumor localization during image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Scott Patrick

    To improve relatively poor outcomes for locally-advanced lung cancer patients, many current efforts are dedicated to minimizing uncertainties in radiotherapy. This enables the isotoxic delivery of escalated tumor doses, leading to better local tumor control. The current dissertation specifically addresses inter-fractional uncertainties resulting from patient setup variability. An automatic block-matching registration (BMR) algorithm is implemented and evaluated for the purpose of directly localizing advanced-stage lung tumors during image-guided radiation therapy. In this algorithm, small image sub-volumes, termed "blocks", are automatically identified on the tumor surface in an initial planning computed tomography (CT) image. Each block is independently and automatically registered to daily images acquired immediately prior to each treatment fraction. To improve the accuracy and robustness of BMR, this algorithm incorporates multi-resolution pyramid registration, regularization with a median filter, and a new multiple-candidate-registrations technique. The result of block-matching is a sparse displacement vector field that models local tissue deformations near the tumor surface. The distribution of displacement vectors is aggregated to obtain the final tumor registration, corresponding to the treatment couch shift for patient setup correction. Compared to existing rigid and deformable registration algorithms, the final BMR algorithm significantly improves the overlap between target volumes from the planning CT and registered daily images. Furthermore, BMR results in the smallest treatment margins for the given study population. However, despite these improvements, large residual target localization errors were noted, indicating that purely rigid couch shifts cannot correct for all sources of inter-fractional variability. Further reductions in treatment uncertainties may require the combination of high-quality target localization and adaptive radiotherapy.

  17. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 signaling in compensatory contralateral lung growth following unilateral pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshio; Amano, Hideki; Ito, Yoshiya; Eshima, Koji; Tamaki, Hideaki; Ogawa, Fumihiro; Iyoda, Akira; Shibuya, Masafumi; Kumagai, Yuji; Satoh, Yukitoshi; Majima, Masataka

    2015-05-01

    Compensatory lung growth models have been widely used to investigate alveolization because the remaining lung can be kept intact and volume loss can be controlled. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in blood formation during lung growth and repair, but the precise mechanisms involved are poorly understood; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of VEGF signaling in compensatory lung growth. After left pneumonectomy, the right lung weight was higher in VEGF transgenic mice than wild-type (WT) mice. Compensatory lung growth was suppressed significantly in mice injected with a VEGF neutralizing antibody and in VEGF receptor-1 tyrosine kinase-deficient mice (TK(-/-) mice). The mobilization of progenitor cells expressing VEGFR1(+) cells from bone marrow and the recruitment of these cells to lung tissue were also suppressed in the TK(-/-) mice. WT mice transplanted with bone marrow from TK(-/-)transgenic GFP(+) mice had significantly lower numbers of GFP(+)/aquaporin 5(+), GFP(+)/surfactant protein A(+), and GFP(+)/VEGFR1(+) cells than WT mice transplanted with bone marrow from WTGFP(+) mice. The GFP(+)/VEGFR1(+) cells also co-stained for aquaporin 5 and surfactant protein A. Overall, these results suggest that VEGF signaling contributes to compensatory lung growth by mobilizing VEGFR1(+) cells. PMID:25642830

  18. Endothelial Barrier and Metabolism: New Kids on the Block Regulating Bone Marrow Vascular Niches.

    PubMed

    Harjes, Ulrike; Verfaillie, Catherine; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The vasculature of the bone marrow remains poorly characterized, yet crucial to maintain hematopoiesis and retain stem cells in a quiescent state. A recent study by Itkin et al. (2016) in Nature reports how vascular barrier integrity and endothelial cell metabolism regulate hematopoietic stem cell quiescence and leukocyte trafficking. PMID:27165553

  19. Reduction in cellular and vascular rejection by blocking leukocyte adhesion molecule receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Sadahiro, M.; McDonald, T. O.; Allen, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    Whether antibody blockage of leukocyte receptors for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 would prevent cardiac graft rejection was studied in a rabbit heterotopic transplant model. Monoclonal antibody 60.3, anti-CD18 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 receptor, Group 1, n = 10) and monoclonal antibody HP1/2, anti-VLA-alpha 4 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 receptor, Group 2, n = 10) were administered to transplanted unimmunosuppressed animals. At 7 days, donor heart histology was compared to transplanted untreated controls (Group 3, n = 11). Peripheral white blood cell counts on postoperative day 2 were significantly higher in both treatment groups than controls. Significant increases in circulating neutrophils occurred in Group 1 (P < or = 0.05); lymphocytes predominated in Group 2 (P < or = 0.05). A significant reduction in cellular rejection was seen in Group 1 (P < or = 0.05) but not Group 2 hearts. Group 1 hearts demonstrated localization of lymphocytes to perivenular collections, whereas Group 2 hearts evidenced diffuse interstitial infiltration. Both treatment groups demonstrated a reduction in transplant arteritis compared to controls. Results suggest that monoclonal antibody 60.3 (anti-CD18) may hold promise as a therapeutic agent for both cellular and vascular rejection. Monoclonal antibody HP1/2 (anti-VLA-alpha 4) may reduce vascular rejection disproportionate to cellular rejection. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8096120

  20. Hypertensive Rat Lungs Retain Hallmarks of Vascular Disease upon Decellularization but Support the Growth of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Scarritt, Michelle E.; Bonvillain, Ryan W.; Burkett, Brian J.; Wang, Guangdi; Glotser, Elana Y.; Zhang, Qiang; Sammarco, Mimi C.; Betancourt, Aline M.; Sullivan, Deborah E.

    2014-01-01

    .79±2.03% vs. 1.05±1.02% of airway-seeded rASCs, and 4.47±1.21% vs. 2.66±0.10% of vascular seeded rASCs). The ECM of cell-seeded scaffolds showed no signs of degradation by the cells after 14 days in culture. These data suggest that diseased hypertensive lungs can be efficiently decellularized similar to control lungs and have the potential to be recellularized with mesenchymal stem cells with the ultimate goal of generating healthy, functional pulmonary tissue. PMID:24378017

  1. Inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 block breast cancer metastatic niche formation and lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carmen Chak-Lui; Zhang, Huafeng; Gilkes, Daniele M; Chen, Jasper; Wei, Hong; Chaturvedi, Pallavi; Hubbi, Maimon E; Semenza, Gregg L

    2012-07-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia, a frequent finding in metastatic cancer, results in the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs are implicated in many steps of breast cancer metastasis, including metastatic niche formation through increased expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) and lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) proteins, enzymes that remodel collagen at the metastatic site and recruit bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to the metastatic niche. We investigated the effect of two chemically and mechanistically distinct HIF inhibitors, digoxin and acriflavine, on breast cancer metastatic niche formation. Both drugs blocked the hypoxia-induced expression of LOX and LOXL proteins, collagen cross-linking, CD11b⁺ BMDC recruitment, and lung metastasis in an orthotopic breast cancer model. Patients with HIF-1 α-overexpressing breast cancers are at increased risk of metastasis and mortality and our results suggest that such patients may benefit from aggressive therapy that includes a HIF inhibitor. PMID:22231744

  2. Development of Non-Cell Adhesive Vascular Grafts Using Supramolecular Building Blocks.

    PubMed

    van Almen, Geert C; Talacua, Hanna; Ippel, Bastiaan D; Mollet, Björne B; Ramaekers, Mellany; Simonet, Marc; Smits, Anthal I P M; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Kluin, Jolanda; Dankers, Patricia Y W

    2016-03-01

    Cell-free approaches to in situ tissue engineering require materials that are mechanically stable and are able to control cell-adhesive behavior upon implantation. Here, the development of mechanically stable grafts with non-cell adhesive properties via a mix-and-match approach using ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy)-modified supramolecular polymers is reported. Cell adhesion is prevented in vitro through mixing of end-functionalized or chain-extended UPy-polycaprolactone (UPy-PCL or CE-UPy-PCL, respectively) with end-functionalized UPy-poly(ethylene glycol) (UPy-PEG) at a ratio of 90:10. Further characterization reveals intimate mixing behavior of UPy-PCL with UPy-PEG, but poor mechanical properties, whereas CE-UPy-PCL scaffolds are mechanically stable. As a proof-of-concept for the use of non-cell adhesive supramolecular materials in vivo, electrospun vascular scaffolds are applied in an aortic interposition rat model, showing reduced cell infiltration in the presence of only 10% of UPy-PEG. Together, these results provide the first steps toward advanced supramolecular biomaterials for in situ vascular tissue engineering with control over selective cell capturing. PMID:26611660

  3. Blocking interferon {beta} stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and arteriogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Stephan H; Bot, Pieter T; Fledderus, Joost O; van der Laan, A M; Volger, Oscar L; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael; de Vries, Carlie J M; Horrevoets, Anton J G; Piek, Jan J; Hoefer, Imo E; van Royen, Niels

    2010-11-01

    Increased interferon (IFN)-β signaling in patients with insufficient coronary collateralization and an inhibitory effect of IFNβ on collateral artery growth in mice have been reported. The mechanisms of IFNβ-induced inhibition of arteriogenesis are unknown. In stimulated monocytes from patients with chronic total coronary artery occlusion and decreased arteriogenic response, whole genome expression analysis showed increased expression of IFNβ-regulated genes. Immunohistochemically, the IFNβ receptor was localized in the vascular media of murine collateral arteries. Treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) with IFNβ resulted in an attenuated proliferation, cell-cycle arrest, and increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-1A (p21). The growth inhibitory effect of IFNβ was attenuated by inhibition of p21 by RNA interference. IFNβ-treated THP1 monocytes showed enhanced apoptosis. Subsequently, we tested if collateral artery growth can be stimulated by inhibition of IFNβ-signaling. RNA interference of the IFNβ receptor-1 (IFNAR1) increased VSMC proliferation, cell cycle progression, and reduced p21 gene expression. IFNβ signaling and FAS and TRAIL expression were attenuated in monocytes from IFNAR1(-/-) mice, indicating reduced monocyte apoptosis. Hindlimb perfusion restoration 1 week after femoral artery ligation was improved in IFNAR1(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice as assessed by infusion of fluorescent microspheres. These results demonstrate that IFNβ inhibits collateral artery growth and VSMC proliferation through p21-dependent cell cycle arrest and induction of monocyte apoptosis. Inhibition of IFNβ stimulates VSMC proliferation and collateral artery growth. PMID:20736166

  4. Accumulation of brown pigment-laden macrophages associated with vascular lesions in the lungs of cynomolgus monkeys(Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Yoshika; Ide, Tetsuya; Mitori, Hikaru; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    Accumulation of macrophages containing brown pigments in the lungs is a well-known spontaneous lesion found in cynomolgus monkey. However, its pathogenesis has not been clearly described. In our survey, brown pigment-laden macrophages were found in the lungs of 4 out of 43 cases. Brown pigments were mostly found in the macrophages of the perivascular interstitium, which proved to be hemosiderin. Some small- to medium-sized vessels that exhibited prominent accumulation of brown pigment-laden macrophages showed degeneration and necrosis of the smooth muscle cells of tunica media. Furthermore, ruptures of the internal and external elastic laminae were seen in some of the vessels. These findings suggested that partial fragmentation of the vascular elastic lamina followed by degeneration and necrosis of the tunica media caused blood leakage leading to the accumulation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages in the perivascular interstitium of the lungs. PMID:27559243

  5. Accumulation of brown pigment-laden macrophages associated with vascular lesions in the lungs of cynomolgus monkeys(Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Yoshika; Ide, Tetsuya; Mitori, Hikaru; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of macrophages containing brown pigments in the lungs is a well-known spontaneous lesion found in cynomolgus monkey. However, its pathogenesis has not been clearly described. In our survey, brown pigment-laden macrophages were found in the lungs of 4 out of 43 cases. Brown pigments were mostly found in the macrophages of the perivascular interstitium, which proved to be hemosiderin. Some small- to medium-sized vessels that exhibited prominent accumulation of brown pigment-laden macrophages showed degeneration and necrosis of the smooth muscle cells of tunica media. Furthermore, ruptures of the internal and external elastic laminae were seen in some of the vessels. These findings suggested that partial fragmentation of the vascular elastic lamina followed by degeneration and necrosis of the tunica media caused blood leakage leading to the accumulation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages in the perivascular interstitium of the lungs.

  6. Knockdown of versican 1 blocks cigarette-induced loss of insoluble elastin in human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu-lu; Lu, Yun-tao; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Lian; Merrilees, Mervyn J; Qu, Jie-ming

    2015-08-15

    COPD lung is characterized by loss of alveolar elastic fibers and an increase in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) matrix proteoglycan versican V1 (V1). V1 is a known inhibitor of elastic fiber deposition and this study investigates the effects of knockdown of V1, and add-back of CS, on CCL-210 lung fibroblasts treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) as a model for COPD. CSE inhibited fibroblast proliferation, viability, tropoelastin synthesis, and elastin deposition, and increased V1 synthesis and secretion. V1 siRNA decreased V1 and constituent CS, did not affect tropoelastin production, but blocked the CSE-induced loss in insoluble elastin. Exogenous CS reduced insoluble elastin, even in the presence of V1 siRNA. These findings confirm that V1 and CS impair the assembly of tropoelastin monomers into insoluble fibers, and further demonstrate that specific knockdown of V1 alleviates the impaired assembly of elastin seen in cultures of pulmonary fibroblasts exposed to CSE, indicating a regulatory role for this protein in the pathophysiology of COPD. PMID:25999281

  7. The selective V1a receptor agonist selepressin (FE 202158) blocks vascular leak in ovine severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wiśniewska, Halina; Traber, Lillian D.; Lin, ChiiDean; Fan, Juanjuan; Hawkins, Hal K.; Cox, Robert A.; Wiśniewski, Kazimierz; Schteingart, Claudio D.; Landry, Donald W.; Rivière, Pierre J.-M.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if the selective vasopressin type 1a receptor (V1aR) agonist selepressin (FE 202158) is as effective as the mixed V1a/V2 receptor (V1aR/V2R) agonist vasopressor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) when used as a titrated first-line vasopressor therapy in an ovine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia-induced severe sepsis. Design Prospective, randomized, controlled laboratory experiment. Setting University animal research facility. Subjects Forty-five chronically instrumented sheep. Interventions Sheep were anesthetized, insufflated with cooled cotton smoke via tracheostomy, and P. aeruginosa were instilled into their airways. They were then placed on assisted ventilation, awakened, and resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution titrated to maintain hematocrit ± 3% from baseline levels. If, despite fluid management, mean arterial pressure (MAP) fell by > 10 mm Hg from baseline levels, a continuous i.v. infusion of AVP or selepressin was titrated to raise and maintain MAP within 10 mm Hg of baseline. Effects of combination treatment of selepressin with the selective V2R agonist desmopressin were similarly investigated. Measurements and Main Results In septic sheep, MAP fell by ~30 mm Hg, systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) decreased by ~50%, and ~7 L of fluid were retained over 24 h; this fluid accumulation was partially reduced by AVP and almost completely blocked by selepressin; combined infusion of selepressin and desmopressin increased fluid accumulation to levels similar to AVP treatment. Conclusions Resuscitation with the selective V1aR agonist selepressin blocked vascular leak more effectively than the mixed V1aR/V2R agonist AVP because of its lack of agonist activity at the V2R. PMID:24674922

  8. Pulmonary vascular disease in different types of congenital heart disease. Implications for interpretation of lung biopsy findings in early childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, S G

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular structure was studied by analysing serial reconstructions of the arterial pathways and random sections of tissue in the lungs of 16 children who died with different types of congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. Cases of ventricular septal defect showed an appreciable increase in muscularity of both preacinar and intra-acinar (respiratory unit) arteries, and intimal proliferation was infrequent and mild. By contrast, cases of transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect and atrioventricular septal defect showed an increase in preacinar muscularity, a short heavily muscularised arterial segment containing intimal proliferation at the entrance to the acinus, whereas the intra-acinar arteries beyond showed only a moderate increase in muscularity. In these children who were less than 1 year of age an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance was due to strategically placed small areas of intimal proliferation and not to widespread obliterative pulmonary vascular disease. The study demonstrated and explained differences in the appearance of the peripheral pulmonary arteries in different types of congenital heart disease, which help interpret the findings of lung biopsies. Images PMID:6498033

  9. Activity of a new vascular targeting agent, ZD6126, in pulmonary metastases by human lung adenocarcinoma in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hisatsugu; Yano, Seiji; Zhang, Helong; Matsumori, Yuka; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Blakey, David C; Sone, Saburo

    2002-07-01

    ZD6126 (ANG453) is a novel vascular targeting agent that selectively disrupts the cytoskeleton of endothelial cells in tumor. In mouse s.c. xenograft models, ZD6126 was found to induce selective occlusion of tumor blood vessels, cessation of tumor blood flow, and death of tumor cells because of the starvation of oxygen and nutrition. Here, we investigated whether ZD6126 inhibited the metastatic formation of human non-small cell lung cancer cells. PC14PE6 (adenocarcinoma) and H226 (squamous cell carcinoma) cells were injected into the tail vein of nude mice, and lung metastases were estimated. ZD6126 treatment involved either a single dose on 24 h before killing or daily doses from day 14 until the end of the experiment. Single treatment with i.p. injection of 200 mg/kg ZD6126 caused bleeding and necrotic changes in the tumor by 24 h. Histological analysis revealed that apoptotic tumor cells were markedly increased in the ZD6126-treated group. Moreover, ZD6126 induced the apoptosis of CD31-positive vascular endothelial cells in tumors but not in the normal lung parenchyma. When mice were treated daily with 100 mg/kg ZD6126 from day 14 until the end of the experiment, the lung weight was significantly less in the ZD6126-treated group than that of the control group, despite no difference in the number of metastatic nodules. These data suggest that ZD6126 could demonstrate its antitumor activity against both already established and early phase of lung cancer metastasis by causing the selective apoptosis of tumor endothelial cells and destruction of the tumor vasculature. PMID:12097279

  10. Arginase inhibition prevents bleomycin-induced pulmonary hypertension, vascular remodeling, and collagen deposition in neonatal rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Grasemann, Hartmut; Dhaliwal, Rupinder; Ivanovska, Julijana; Kantores, Crystal; McNamara, Patrick J; Scott, Jeremy A; Belik, Jaques; Jankov, Robert P

    2015-03-15

    Arginase is an enzyme that limits substrate L-arginine bioavailability for the production of nitric oxide by the nitric oxide synthases and produces L-ornithine, which is a precursor for collagen formation and tissue remodeling. We studied the pulmonary vascular effects of arginase inhibition in an established model of repeated systemic bleomycin sulfate administration in neonatal rats that results in pulmonary hypertension and lung injury mimicking the characteristics typical of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We report that arginase expression is increased in the lungs of bleomycin-exposed neonatal rats and that treatment with the arginase inhibitor amino-2-borono-6-hexanoic acid prevented the bleomycin-induced development of pulmonary hypertension and deposition of collagen. Arginase inhibition resulted in increased L-arginine and L-arginine bioavailability and increased pulmonary nitric oxide production. Arginase inhibition also normalized the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and reduced bleomycin-induced nitrative stress while having no effect on bleomycin-induced inflammation. Our data suggest that arginase is a promising target for therapeutic interventions in neonates aimed at preventing lung vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25595650

  11. The Effects of Tumstatin on Vascularity, Airway Inflammation and Lung Function in an Experimental Sheep Model of Chronic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Van der Velden, Joanne; Harkness, Louise M.; Barker, Donna M.; Barcham, Garry J.; Ugalde, Cathryn L.; Koumoundouros, Emmanuel; Bao, Heidi; Organ, Louise A.; Tokanovic, Ana; Burgess, Janette K.; Snibson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Tumstatin, a protein fragment of the alpha-3 chain of Collagen IV, is known to be significantly reduced in the airways of asthmatics. Further, there is evidence that suggests a link between the relatively low level of tumstatin and the induction of angiogenesis and inflammation in allergic airway disease. Here, we show that the intra-segmental administration of tumstatin can impede the development of vascular remodelling and allergic inflammatory responses that are induced in a segmental challenge model of experimental asthma in sheep. In particular, the administration of tumstatin to lung segments chronically exposed to house dust mite (HDM) resulted in a significant reduction of airway small blood vessels in the diameter range 10+–20 μm compared to controls. In tumstatin treated lung segments after HDM challenge, the number of eosinophils was significantly reduced in parenchymal and airway wall tissues, as well as in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The expression of VEGF in airway smooth muscle was also significantly reduced in tumstatin-treated segments compared to control saline-treated segments. Allergic lung function responses were not attenuated by tumstatin administration in this model. The data are consistent with the concept that tumstatin can act to suppress vascular remodelling and inflammation in allergic airway disease. PMID:27199164

  12. The Effects of Tumstatin on Vascularity, Airway Inflammation and Lung Function in an Experimental Sheep Model of Chronic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Van der Velden, Joanne; Harkness, Louise M; Barker, Donna M; Barcham, Garry J; Ugalde, Cathryn L; Koumoundouros, Emmanuel; Bao, Heidi; Organ, Louise A; Tokanovic, Ana; Burgess, Janette K; Snibson, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Tumstatin, a protein fragment of the alpha-3 chain of Collagen IV, is known to be significantly reduced in the airways of asthmatics. Further, there is evidence that suggests a link between the relatively low level of tumstatin and the induction of angiogenesis and inflammation in allergic airway disease. Here, we show that the intra-segmental administration of tumstatin can impede the development of vascular remodelling and allergic inflammatory responses that are induced in a segmental challenge model of experimental asthma in sheep. In particular, the administration of tumstatin to lung segments chronically exposed to house dust mite (HDM) resulted in a significant reduction of airway small blood vessels in the diameter range 10(+)-20 μm compared to controls. In tumstatin treated lung segments after HDM challenge, the number of eosinophils was significantly reduced in parenchymal and airway wall tissues, as well as in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The expression of VEGF in airway smooth muscle was also significantly reduced in tumstatin-treated segments compared to control saline-treated segments. Allergic lung function responses were not attenuated by tumstatin administration in this model. The data are consistent with the concept that tumstatin can act to suppress vascular remodelling and inflammation in allergic airway disease. PMID:27199164

  13. Role of Krev Interaction Trapped-1 in Prostacyclin-Induced Protection against Lung Vascular Permeability Induced by Excessive Mechanical Forces and Thrombin Receptor Activating Peptide 6.

    PubMed

    Meliton, Angelo; Meng, Fanyong; Tian, Yufeng; Shah, Alok A; Birukova, Anna A; Birukov, Konstantin G

    2015-12-01

    Mechanisms of vascular endothelial cell (EC) barrier regulation during acute lung injury (ALI) or other pathologies associated with increased vascular leakiness are an active area of research. Adaptor protein krev interaction trapped-1 (KRIT1) participates in angiogenesis, lumen formation, and stabilization of EC adherens junctions (AJs) in mature vasculature. We tested a role of KRIT1 in the regulation of Rho-GTPase signaling induced by mechanical stimulation and barrier dysfunction relevant to ventilator-induced lung injury and investigated KRIT1 involvement in EC barrier protection by prostacyclin (PC). PC stimulated Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1)-dependent association of KRIT1 with vascular endothelial cadherin at AJs, with KRIT1-dependent cortical cytoskeletal remodeling leading to EC barrier enhancement. KRIT1 knockdown exacerbated Rho-GTPase activation and EC barrier disruption induced by pathologic 18% cyclic stretch and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) 6 and attenuated the protective effects of PC. In the two-hit model of ALI caused by high tidal volume (HTV) mechanical ventilation and TRAP6 injection, KRIT1 functional deficiency in KRIT1(+/-) mice increased basal lung vascular leak and augmented vascular leak and lung injury caused by exposure to HTV and TRAP6. Down-regulation of KRIT1 also diminished the protective effects of PC against TRAP6/HTV-induced lung injury. These results demonstrate a KRIT1-dependent mechanism of vascular EC barrier control in basal conditions and in the two-hit model of ALI caused by excessive mechanical forces and TRAP6 via negative regulation of Rho activity and enhancement of cell junctions. We also conclude that the stimulation of the Rap1-KRIT1 signaling module is a major mechanism of vascular endothelial barrier protection by PC in the injured lung. PMID:25923142

  14. Acute tumor vascular effects following fractionated radiotherapy in human lung cancer: In vivo whole tumor assessment using volumetric perfusion computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Q.-S.; Goh, Vicky; Milner, Jessica; Padhani, Anwar R.; Saunders, Michele I.; Hoskin, Peter J. . E-mail: peterhoskin@nhs.net

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the in vivo acute vascular effects of fractionated radiotherapy for human non-small-cell lung cancer using volumetric perfusion computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, undergoing palliative radiotherapy delivering 27 Gy in 6 fractions over 3 weeks, were scanned before treatment, and after the second (9 Gy), fourth (18 Gy), and sixth (27 Gy) radiation fraction. Using 16-detector CT, multiple sequential volumetric acquisitions were acquired after intravenous contrast agent injection. Measurements of vascular blood volume and permeability for the whole tumor volume were obtained. Vascular changes at the tumor periphery and center were also measured. Results: At baseline, lung tumor vascularity was spatially heterogeneous with the tumor rim showing a higher vascular blood volume and permeability than the center. After the second, fourth, and sixth fractions of radiotherapy, vascular blood volume increased by 31.6% (paired t test, p = 0.10), 49.3% (p = 0.034), and 44.6% (p = 0.0012) respectively at the tumor rim, and 16.4% (p = 0.29), 19.9% (p = 0.029), and 4.0% (p = 0.0050) respectively at the center of the tumor. After the second, fourth, and sixth fractions of radiotherapy, vessel permeability increased by 18.4% (p = 0.022), 44.8% (p = 0.0048), and 20.5% (p = 0.25) at the tumor rim. The increase in permeability at the tumor center was not significant after radiotherapy. Conclusion: Fractionated radiotherapy increases tumor vascular blood volume and permeability in human non-small-cell lung cancer. We have established the spatial distribution of vascular changes after radiotherapy; greater vascular changes were demonstrated at the tumor rim compared with the center.

  15. Lung matrix and vascular remodeling in mechanically ventilated elastin haploinsufficient newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Hilgendorff, Anne; Parai, Kakoli; Ertsey, Robert; Navarro, Edwin; Jain, Noopur; Carandang, Francis; Peterson, Joanna; Mokres, Lucia; Milla, Carlos; Preuss, Stefanie; Alcazar, Miguel Alejandre; Khan, Suleman; Masumi, Juliet; Ferreira-Tojais, Nancy; Mujahid, Sana; Starcher, Barry; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Bland, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Elastin plays a pivotal role in lung development. We therefore queried if elastin haploinsufficient newborn mice (Eln(+/-)) would exhibit abnormal lung structure and function related to modified extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Because mechanical ventilation (MV) has been linked to dysregulated elastic fiber formation in the newborn lung, we also asked if elastin haploinsufficiency would accentuate lung growth arrest seen after prolonged MV of neonatal mice. We studied 5-day-old wild-type (Eln(+/+)) and Eln(+/-) littermates at baseline and after MV with air for 8-24 h. Lungs of unventilated Eln(+/-) mice contained ∼50% less elastin and ∼100% more collagen-1 and lysyl oxidase compared with Eln(+/+) pups. Eln(+/-) lungs contained fewer capillaries than Eln(+/+) lungs, without discernible differences in alveolar structure. In response to MV, lung tropoelastin and elastase activity increased in Eln(+/+) neonates, whereas tropoelastin decreased and elastase activity was unchanged in Eln(+/-) mice. Fibrillin-1 protein increased in lungs of both groups during MV, more in Eln(+/-) than in Eln(+/+) pups. In both groups, MV caused capillary loss, with larger and fewer alveoli compared with unventilated controls. Respiratory system elastance, which was less in unventilated Eln(+/-) compared with Eln(+/+) mice, was similar in both groups after MV. These results suggest that elastin haploinsufficiency adversely impacts pulmonary angiogenesis and that MV dysregulates elastic fiber integrity, with further loss of lung capillaries, lung growth arrest, and impaired respiratory function in both Eln(+/+) and Eln(+/-) mice. Paucity of lung capillaries in Eln(+/-) newborns might help explain subsequent development of pulmonary hypertension previously reported in adult Eln(+/-) mice. PMID:25539853

  16. Lung matrix and vascular remodeling in mechanically ventilated elastin haploinsufficient newborn mice

    PubMed Central

    Hilgendorff, Anne; Parai, Kakoli; Ertsey, Robert; Navarro, Edwin; Jain, Noopur; Carandang, Francis; Peterson, Joanna; Mokres, Lucia; Milla, Carlos; Preuss, Stefanie; Alcazar, Miguel Alejandre; Khan, Suleman; Masumi, Juliet; Ferreira-Tojais, Nancy; Mujahid, Sana; Starcher, Barry; Rabinovitch, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Elastin plays a pivotal role in lung development. We therefore queried if elastin haploinsufficient newborn mice (Eln+/−) would exhibit abnormal lung structure and function related to modified extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Because mechanical ventilation (MV) has been linked to dysregulated elastic fiber formation in the newborn lung, we also asked if elastin haploinsufficiency would accentuate lung growth arrest seen after prolonged MV of neonatal mice. We studied 5-day-old wild-type (Eln+/+) and Eln+/− littermates at baseline and after MV with air for 8–24 h. Lungs of unventilated Eln+/− mice contained ∼50% less elastin and ∼100% more collagen-1 and lysyl oxidase compared with Eln+/+ pups. Eln+/− lungs contained fewer capillaries than Eln+/+ lungs, without discernible differences in alveolar structure. In response to MV, lung tropoelastin and elastase activity increased in Eln+/+ neonates, whereas tropoelastin decreased and elastase activity was unchanged in Eln+/− mice. Fibrillin-1 protein increased in lungs of both groups during MV, more in Eln+/− than in Eln+/+ pups. In both groups, MV caused capillary loss, with larger and fewer alveoli compared with unventilated controls. Respiratory system elastance, which was less in unventilated Eln+/− compared with Eln+/+ mice, was similar in both groups after MV. These results suggest that elastin haploinsufficiency adversely impacts pulmonary angiogenesis and that MV dysregulates elastic fiber integrity, with further loss of lung capillaries, lung growth arrest, and impaired respiratory function in both Eln+/+ and Eln+/− mice. Paucity of lung capillaries in Eln+/− newborns might help explain subsequent development of pulmonary hypertension previously reported in adult Eln+/− mice. PMID:25539853

  17. Blocking IL-22, a potential treatment strategy for adenomyosis by inhibiting crosstalk between vascular endothelial and endometrial stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Wen-Qing; Yu, Jia-Jun; Zhu, Lei; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Chang, Kai-Kai; Wang, Qing; Li, Ming-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that interleukin-22 (IL-22) enhances the invasiveness of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) of adenomyosis in an autocrine manner. In the present study, we further investigated whether IL-22 mediated crosstalk between vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and ESCs in vitro. Here we found that VECs in ectopic lesion from women with adenomyosis highly expressed IL-22 receptors IL-22R1 and IL-10R2. Both recombinant human IL-22 (rhIL-22) and IL-22 from ESCs increased IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 expression on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment with rhIL-22 led to an elevation of HUVECs viability, but did not influence HUVECs apoptosis. In contrast, anti-human IL-22 neutralizing antibody (α-IL-22) inhibited HUVECs viability induced by supernatants of ESCs. Stimulation with rhIL-22 or ESCs up-regulated CD105 expression on HUVECs and promoted angiogenesis, and α-IL-22 could reverse these effect induced by ESC. Compared to non-treated HUVECs, HUVECs educated by rh-IL-22 or ESCs could further up-regulate Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, and down-regulate Fas ligand (FasL) expression in ESCs. However, these effects induced by ESC-educated HUVECs were inhibited by α-IL-22. These results suggest that IL-22 derived from ESC promotes IL-22 receptors expression and enhances the viability, activation and angiogenesis of HUVEC. In turn, the educated HUVEC may further stimulate proliferation and restricts apoptosis of ESC. The integral effect may contribute to the progress of adenomyosis. Blocking IL-22 can disturb crosstalk between ESC and VEC mediated by IL-22, suggesting that blocking IL-22 may be a potential treatment strategy for adenomyosis. PMID:26692924

  18. Blocking Cyclic Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose-mediated Calcium Overload Attenuates Sepsis-induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qian-Yi; Zou, Yu; Zhang, Li-Na; Ai, Mei-Lin; Liu, Wei; Ai, Yu-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication of sepsis that is associated with high mortality. Intracellular Ca2+ overload plays an important role in the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced ALI, and cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR) is an important regulator of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. The cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38)/cADPR pathway has been found to play roles in multiple inflammatory processes but its role in sepsis-induced ALI is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether the CD38/cADPR signaling pathway is activated in sepsis-induced ALI and whether blocking cADPR-mediated calcium overload attenuates ALI. Methods: Septic rat models were established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Rats were divided into the sham group, the CLP group, and the CLP+ 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (8-Br-cADPR) group. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), cADPR, CD38, and intracellular Ca2+ levels in the lung tissues were measured at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after CLP surgery. Lung histologic injury, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured. Results: NAD+, cADPR, CD38, and intracellular Ca2+ levels in the lungs of septic rats increased significantly at 24 h after CLP surgery. Treatment with 8-Br-cADPR, a specific inhibitor of cADPR, significantly reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels (P = 0.007), attenuated lung histological injury (P = 0.023), reduced TNF-α and MDA levels (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) and recovered SOD activity (P = 0.031) in the lungs of septic rats. Conclusions: The CD38/cADPR pathway is activated in the lungs of septic rats, and blocking cADPR-mediated calcium overload with 8-Br-cADPR protects against sepsis-induced ALI. PMID:27411462

  19. Acute vascular response to cediranib treatment in human non-small-cell lung cancer xenografts with different tumour stromal architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanyan; Allen, Danny; Kersemans, Veerle; Devery, Aoife M.; Bokobza, Sivan M.; Smart, Sean; Ryan, Anderson J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tumours can be categorised based on their stromal architecture into tumour vessel and stromal vessel phenotypes, and the phenotypes have been suggested to define tumour response to chronic treatment with a VEGFR2 antibody. However, it is unclear whether the vascular phenotypes of tumours associate with acute vascular response to VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), or whether the early changes in vascular function are associated with subsequent changes in tumour size. This study was sought to address these questions by using xenograft models of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) representing stromal vessel phenotype (Calu-3) and tumour vessel phenotype (Calu-6), respectively. Methods For dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), nude mice bearing established Calu-3 or Calu-6 xenografts were treated with a potent pan-VEGFR TKI, cediranib (6 mg/kg), at 0 h and 22 h. DCE-MRI was performed 2 h before the first dose and 2 h after the second dose of cediranib to examine acute changes in tumour vessel perfusion. Tumours were harvested for hypoxia detection by CA9 immunohistochemistry. For tumour growth study, mice carrying established Calu-3 or Calu-6 tumours were treated with cediranib once daily for 5 days. Results Twenty-four hours after cediranib administration, the perfusion of Calu-3 tumours was markedly reduced, with a significant increase in hypoxia. In contrast, neither perfusion nor hypoxia was significantly affected in Calu-6 tumours. Tumour regressions were induced in Calu-3 xenografts, but not in Calu-6 xenografts, although there was a trend towards tumour growth inhibition after 5 days of cediranib treatment. Conclusion These findings suggest that tumour stromal architecture may associate with acute tumour vascular response to VEGFR TKI, and this acute tumour vascular response may be a promising early predictive marker of response to VEGFR TKI in NSCLC. PMID:26323213

  20. Preparation of cell blocks for lung cancer diagnosis and prediction: protocol and experience of a high-volume center.

    PubMed

    Kossakowski, Claudia A; Morresi-Hauf, Alicia; Schnabel, Philipp A; Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix J F; Warth, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive diagnostic techniques are increasingly being used to obtain specimens for pathological diagnosis and prediction. Referring to lung cancer, both endobronchial and endoesophageal ultrasound are used worldwide as diagnostic routine methods. Consequently, an increasing number of pathological samples are cytological and fewer are histological. On the other hand, the requirements for specific and sensitive tumor subtyping complemented by predictive analyses are steadily increasing and are an essential basis for evidence-based treatment decisions. In this article we focus on the cell block method as a helpful tool for diagnostic and predictive analyses in lung cancer and point out its advantages and disadvantages in comparison to conventional cytological and biopsy specimens. Furthermore, we retrospectively analyze the diagnostic results of the cell block method in a high-volume center over 5 years. The main advantages of cell blocks are the availability of established and validated protocols, archiving and the opportunity to have serial sections from the same specimens to provide or repeat molecular analyses. Actually, in case of tumor progression, even additional biomarkers can be tested using the original cell block when re-biopsies are not feasible. The cell block method should be considered as a reliable, complimentary approach to conventional cytological or biopsy procedures, which is helpful to fulfill the increasing requirements of high-quality diagnostics and prediction. PMID:24457174

  1. Unstructured hexahedral mesh generation of complex vascular trees using a multi-block grid-based approach.

    PubMed

    Bols, Joris; Taelman, L; De Santis, G; Degroote, J; Verhegghe, B; Segers, P; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The trend towards realistic numerical models of (pathologic) patient-specific vascular structures brings along larger computational domains and more complex geometries, increasing both the computation time and the operator time. Hexahedral grids effectively lower the computational run time and the required computational infrastructure, but at high cost in terms of operator time and minimal cell quality, especially when the computational analyses are targeting complex geometries such as aneurysm necks, severe stenoses and bifurcations. Moreover, such grids generally do not allow local refinements. As an attempt to overcome these limitations, a novel approach to hexahedral meshing is proposed in this paper, which combines the automated generation of multi-block structures with a grid-based method. The robustness of the novel approach is tested on common complex geometries, such as tree-like structures (including trifurcations), stenoses, and aneurysms. Additionally, the performance of the generated grid is assessed using two numerical examples. In the first example, a grid sensitivity analysis is performed for blood flow simulated in an abdominal mouse aorta and compared to tetrahedral grids with a prismatic boundary layer. In the second example, the fluid-structure interaction in a model of an aorta with aortic coarctation is simulated and the effect of local grid refinement is analyzed. PMID:26208183

  2. Sorafenib inhibits tumor growth and vascularization of rhabdomyosarcoma cells by blocking IGF-1R-mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Maruwge, Wessen; D’Arcy, Pádraig; Folin, Annika; Brnjic, Slavica; Wejde, Johan; Davis, Anthony; Erlandsson, Fredrik; Bergh, Jonas; Brodin, Bertha

    2008-01-01

    The growth of many soft tissue sarcomas is dependent on aberrant growth factor signaling, which promotes their proliferation and motility. With this in mind, we evaluated the effect of sorafenib, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on cell growth and apoptosis in sarcoma cell lines of various histological subtypes. We found that sorafenib effectively inhibited cell proliferation in rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma with IC50 values <5 μM. Sorafenib effectively induced growth arrest in rhabdomyosarcoma cells, which was concurrent with inhibition of Akt and Erk signaling. Studies of ligand-induced phosphorylation of Erk and Akt in rhabdomyosarcoma cells showed that insulin-like growth factor-1 is a potent activator, which can be blocked by treatment with sorafenib. In vivo sorafenib treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth, which was associated with inhibited vascularization and enhanced necrosis in the adjacent tumor stroma. Our results demonstrate that in vitro and in vivo growth of rhabdomyosarcoma can be suppressed by treatment with sorafenib, and suggests the possibilities of using sorafenib as a potential adjuvant therapy for the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:21127754

  3. Advanced glycosylation endproducts block the antiproliferative effect of nitric oxide. Role in the vascular and renal complications of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hogan, M; Cerami, A; Bucala, R

    1992-09-01

    Advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs) accumulate on long-lived tissue proteins such as basement membrane collagen and have been implicated in many of the long-term complications of diabetes mellitus. These products originate from glucose-derived Schiff base and Amadori products but undergo a series of complex rearrangement reactions to form ultimately protein-bound, fluorescent heterocycles. AGEs can react with and chemically inactivate nitric oxide (NO), a potent endothelial cell-derived vasodilator and antiproliferative factor. Since mesenchymal cell proliferation is an early and characteristic lesion of diabetic vasculopathy and glomerulopathy, we investigated the possibility that collagen-bound AGEs functionally inactivate the antiproliferative effect of NO. In model cell culture systems, AGEs were found to block the cytostatic effect of NO on aortic smooth muscle and renal mesangial cells. The inactivation of endothelial cell-derived NO by basement membrane AGEs may represent a common pathway in the development of the accelerated vascular and renal disease that accompany long-term diabetes mellitus. PMID:1522220

  4. Monoclonal Antibodies Inhibit the Adhesion of Mouse B 16 Melanoma Cells in vitro and Block Lung Metastasis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmers, H. Peter; Birchmeier, Walter

    1983-06-01

    Seven monoclonal antibodies against mouse B 16 melanoma cells (produced in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice) were selected that blocked the adhesion of melanoma cells to tissue culture dishes. These antibodies were found to be directed against antigens on the surface of mouse B 16 melanoma cells but not on normal mouse cells such as 3T3 fibroblasts. Similarly, the antigens could not be detected in normal mouse tissues (e.g., lung, kidney, liver) but were found in lungs colonized by B 16 melanoma cells. Significantly, three of these antibodies virtually abolished lung colonization of highly invasive B 16 sublines injected into the animals' bloodstream. They exerted their effect both when preabsorbed by the melanoma cell in vitro and when delivered to the animals prior to the tumor cells. It is suggested that monoclonal antibodies might be a promising tool for preventing metastasis.

  5. Crosstalk between ACE2 and PLGF regulates vascular permeability during acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lantao; Li, Yong; Qin, Hao; Xing, Dong; Su, Jie; Hu, Zhenjie

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) treatment suppresses the severity of acute lung injury (ALI), through antagonizing hydrolyzing angiotensin II (AngII) and the ALI-induced apoptosis of pulmonary endothelial cells. Nevertheless, the effects of ACE2 on vessel permeability and its relationship with placental growth factor (PLGF) remain ill-defined. In the current study, we examined the relationship between ACE2 and PLGF in ALI model in mice. We used a previously published bleomycin method to induce ALI in mice, and treated the mice with ACE2. We analyzed the levels of PLGF in these mice. The mouse lung vessel permeability was determined by a fluorescence pharmacokinetic assay following i.v. injection of 62.5 µg/kg Visudyne. PLGF pump or soluble Flt-1 (sFlt-1) pump was given to augment or suppress PLGF effects, respectively. The long-term effects on lung function were determined by measurement of lung resistance using methacholine. We found that ACE2 treatment did not alter PLGF levels in lung, but antagonized the effects of PLGF on increases of lung vessel permeability. Ectogenic PLGF abolished the antagonizing effects of ACE2 on the vessel permeability against PLGF. On the other hand, suppression of PLGF signaling mimicked the effects of ACE2 on the vessel permeability against PLGF. The suppression of vessel permeability resulted in improvement of lung function after ALI. Thus, ACE2 may antagonize the PLGF-mediated increases in lung vessel permeability during ALI, resulting in improvement of lung function after ALI. PMID:27158411

  6. Conditional deletion of FAK in mice endothelium disrupts lung vascular barrier function due to destabilization of RhoA and Rac1 activities

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Tracy Thennes; Tauseef, Mohammad; Yue, Lili; Bonini, Marcelo G.; Gothert, Joachim; Shen, Tang-Long; Guan, Jun-Lin; Predescu, Sanda; Sadikot, Ruxana

    2013-01-01

    Loss of lung-fluid homeostasis is the hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI). Association of catenins and actin cytoskeleton with vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is generally considered the main mechanism for stabilizing adherens junctions (AJs), thereby preventing disruption of lung vascular barrier function. The present study identifies endothelial focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that canonically regulates focal adhesion turnover, as a novel AJ-stabilizing mechanism. In wild-type mice, induction of ALI by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide or cecal ligation and puncture markedly decreased FAK expression in lungs. Using a mouse model in which FAK was conditionally deleted only in endothelial cells (ECs), we show that loss of EC-FAK mimicked key features of ALI (diffuse lung hemorrhage, increased transvascular albumin influx, edema, and neutrophil accumulation in the lung). EC-FAK deletion disrupted AJs due to impairment of the fine balance between the activities of RhoA and Rac1 GTPases. Deletion of EC-FAK facilitated RhoA's interaction with p115-RhoA guanine exchange factor, leading to activation of RhoA. Activated RhoA antagonized Rac1 activity, destabilizing AJs. Inhibition of Rho kinase, a downstream effector of RhoA, reinstated normal endothelial barrier function in FAK−/− ECs and lung vascular integrity in EC-FAK−/− mice. Our findings demonstrate that EC-FAK plays an essential role in maintaining AJs and thereby lung vascular barrier function by establishing the normal balance between RhoA and Rac1 activities. PMID:23771883

  7. Conditional deletion of FAK in mice endothelium disrupts lung vascular barrier function due to destabilization of RhoA and Rac1 activities.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Tracy Thennes; Tauseef, Mohammad; Yue, Lili; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gothert, Joachim; Shen, Tang-Long; Guan, Jun-Lin; Predescu, Sanda; Sadikot, Ruxana; Mehta, Dolly

    2013-08-15

    Loss of lung-fluid homeostasis is the hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI). Association of catenins and actin cytoskeleton with vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is generally considered the main mechanism for stabilizing adherens junctions (AJs), thereby preventing disruption of lung vascular barrier function. The present study identifies endothelial focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that canonically regulates focal adhesion turnover, as a novel AJ-stabilizing mechanism. In wild-type mice, induction of ALI by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide or cecal ligation and puncture markedly decreased FAK expression in lungs. Using a mouse model in which FAK was conditionally deleted only in endothelial cells (ECs), we show that loss of EC-FAK mimicked key features of ALI (diffuse lung hemorrhage, increased transvascular albumin influx, edema, and neutrophil accumulation in the lung). EC-FAK deletion disrupted AJs due to impairment of the fine balance between the activities of RhoA and Rac1 GTPases. Deletion of EC-FAK facilitated RhoA's interaction with p115-RhoA guanine exchange factor, leading to activation of RhoA. Activated RhoA antagonized Rac1 activity, destabilizing AJs. Inhibition of Rho kinase, a downstream effector of RhoA, reinstated normal endothelial barrier function in FAK-/- ECs and lung vascular integrity in EC-FAK-/- mice. Our findings demonstrate that EC-FAK plays an essential role in maintaining AJs and thereby lung vascular barrier function by establishing the normal balance between RhoA and Rac1 activities. PMID:23771883

  8. Production of experimental malignant pleural effusions is dependent on invasion of the pleura and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor by human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yano, S; Shinohara, H; Herbst, R S; Kuniyasu, H; Bucana, C D; Ellis, L M; Fidler, I J

    2000-12-01

    We determined the molecular mechanisms that regulate the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion (PE) associated with advanced stage of human, non-small-cell lung cancer. Intravenous injection of human PC14 and PC14PE6 (adenocarcinoma) or H226 (squamous cell carcinoma) cells into nude mice yielded numerous lung lesions. PC14 and PC14PE6 lung lesions invaded the pleura and produced PE containing a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-localized vascular hyperpermeability. Lung lesions produced by H226 cells were confined to the lung parenchyma with no PE. The level of expression of VEGF mRNA and protein by the cell lines directly correlated with extent of PE formation. Transfection of PC14PE6 cells with antisense VEGF165 gene did not inhibit invasion into the pleural space but reduced PE formation. H226 cells transfected with either sense VEGF 165 or sense VEGF 121 genes induced localized vascular hyperpermeability and produced PE only after direct implantation into the thoracic cavity. The production of PE was thus associated with the ability of tumor cells to invade the pleura, a property associated with expression of high levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and low levels of TIMP-2. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the production of malignant PE requires tumor cells to invade the pleura and express high levels of VEGF/VPF. PMID:11106562

  9. Production of Experimental Malignant Pleural Effusions Is Dependent on Invasion of the Pleura and Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/Vascular Permeability Factor by Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Seiji; Shinohara, Hisashi; Herbst, Roy S.; Kuniyasu, Hiroki; Bucana, Corazon D.; Ellis, Lee M.; Fidler, Isaiah J.

    2000-01-01

    We determined the molecular mechanisms that regulate the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion (PE) associated with advanced stage of human, non-small-cell lung cancer. Intravenous injection of human PC14 and PC14PE6 (adenocarcinoma) or H226 (squamous cell carcinoma) cells into nude mice yielded numerous lung lesions. PC14 and PC14PE6 lung lesions invaded the pleura and produced PE containing a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-localized vascular hyperpermeability. Lung lesions produced by H226 cells were confined to the lung parenchyma with no PE. The level of expression of VEGF mRNA and protein by the cell lines directly correlated with extent of PE formation. Transfection of PC14PE6 cells with antisense VEGF165 gene did not inhibit invasion into the pleural space but reduced PE formation. H226 cells transfected with either sense VEGF 165 or sense VEGF 121 genes induced localized vascular hyperpermeability and produced PE only after direct implantation into the thoracic cavity. The production of PE was thus associated with the ability of tumor cells to invade the pleura, a property associated with expression of high levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and low levels of TIMP-2. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the production of malignant PE requires tumor cells to invade the pleura and express high levels of VEGF/VPF. PMID:11106562

  10. Effects of N omega-nitro-L-arginine on total and segmental vascular resistances in developing lamb lungs.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J B; Tod, M L

    1993-07-01

    To determine whether endothelium-derived nitic oxide (EDNO), like dilator prostaglandins, attenuates pulmonary vasomotor tone more in younger than in older newborns, we examined the effects of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), on total and segmental pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in isolated blood-perfused cyclooxygenase-inhibited lungs of < 2-day-old (2D) and 1-mo-old (1M) lambs. Total PVR was determined both from steady-state pressure-flow curves and total pressure gradients (delta PT) measured at constant flow (100 ml.kg-1 x min-1). Pressure gradients across arterial (delta Pa), middle (delta Pm), and venous (delta Pv) segments were determined by inflow-outflow occlusion. In 1M lungs (n = 6), L-NA increased delta PT, delta Pa, and delta Pv during normoxia and hypoxia. However, delta Pm increased only during hypoxia, suggesting that EDNO attenuates resistance of small vessels more when tone is high. The response to L-NA in 2D lungs was variable. In four "responders" (2D"R"), normoxic and hypoxic delta PT and all segmental resistances increased markedly after L-NA, but in five "nonresponders" (2D"NR"), L-NA had an insignificant effect on delta PT. Moreover, control delta PT values were higher in 2D"NR" than in 2D"R" lungs, suggesting that basal EDNO activity was minimal in some young newborns. Nonetheless, EDNO appears to attenuate venous resistance in newborns, because L-NA increased delta Pv in all groups. The significance of and mechanism(s) responsible for lesser modulation of PVR by EDNO in some young newborns remain to be determined. PMID:8376304

  11. The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors-Expressing Character of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Plays a Positive Role in Treatment of Acute Lung Injury In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Hu, Shuling; Xu, Xiuping; Li, Jinze; Liu, Airan; Han, Jibin; Liu, Songqiao; Liu, Ling; Qiu, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been proved to be beneficial in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important angiogenesis factor that MSC release. However, the precise role of VEGF-expressing character of MSC in the MSC treatment for ARDS remains obscure. Here, we firstly knocked down the gene VEGF in MSC (MSC-ShVEGF) with lentiviral transduction. Then we injected the MSC-ShVEGF to rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury (ALI) via the tail vein. Data showed that MSC transplantation significantly increased VEGF levels in the lung, reduced lung permeability, protected lung endothelium from apoptosis, facilitated VE-cadherin recovery, controlled inflammation, and attenuated lung injury. However, VEGF gene knockdown in MSC led to relatively insufficient VEGF expression in the injured lung and significantly diminished the therapeutic effects of MSC on ALI, suggesting an important role of VEGF-expressing behavior of MSC in the maintenance of VEGF in the lung and the MSC treatment for ALI. Hence, we conclude that MSC restores the lung permeability and attenuates lung injury in rats with ALI in part by maintaining a “sufficient” VEGF level in the lung and the VEGF-expressing character of MSC plays a positive role in the therapeutic effects of MSC on ARDS. PMID:27313398

  12. The lung in sickle cell disease: a clinical overview of common vascular, infectious, and other problems.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Castro, O; Baxter, R P; Dunn, R; Armstrong, E M; Cook, F J; Sampson, C C

    1981-01-01

    Acute pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia are sickle cell lung disease and bacterial pneumonias. Chronic abnormalities in lung function include a restrictive ventilatory defect and perhaps increased venous admixture to the pulmonary circulation. Coexisting sarcoidosis may complicate sickle cell anemia and interact to potentiate sickling. Sickle cell lung disease, or acute "chest syndrome," occurs with greatest frequency in adults, is due primarily to pulmonary infarction, and may lead to cor pulmonale. On the other hand, bacterial pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae occurs with greater frequency in infancy and childhood. Mycoplasma and other organisms may also cause pneumonia with protracted illness and slow resolution. Bacteremia and meningitis may be further complications, particularly in children. Precise diagnosis of the acute febrile pulmonary episode is often difficult. In adults the illness is commonly self-limited. However, a vigorous diagnostic approach is warranted in all severely ill patients. PMID:7463492

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor and angiogenesis in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    O'Byrne, K J; Koukourakis, M I; Giatromanolaki, A; Cox, G; Turley, H; Steward, W P; Gatter, K; Harris, A L

    2000-01-01

    High microvessel density, an indirect measure of angiogenesis, has been shown to correlate with increased tumour size, lymph node involvement and poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tumour cell vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) expression correlate with angiogenesis and a poor outcome in this disease. In a retrospective study VEGF and PD-ECGF expression and microvessel density were evaluated immunohistochemically in surgically resected specimens (T1–3, N0–2) from 223 patients with operable NSCLC using the VG1, P-GF.44C and JC70 monoclonal antibodies respectively. High VEGF immunoreactivity was seen in 104 (46.6%) and PD-ECGF in 72 (32.3%) cases and both were associated with high vascular grade tumours (P = 0.009 and P = 0.05 respectively). Linear regression analysis revealed a weak positive correlation between VEGF and PD-ECGF expression in cancer cells (r = 0.21;P = 0.002). Co-expression of VEGF and PD-ECGF was not associated with a higher microvessel density than VEGF or PD-ECGF only expressing tumours. Furthermore a proportion of high vascular grade tumours expressed neither growth factor. Univariate analysis revealed tumour size, nodal status, microvessel density and VEGF and PD-ECGF expression as significant prognostic factors. Tumour size (P< 0.02) and microvessel density (P< 0.04) remained significant on multivariate analysis. In conclusion, VEGF and PD-ECGF are important angiogenic growth factors and have prognostic significance in NSCLC. Furthermore the study underlines the prognostic significance of microvessel density in operable NSCLC. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10780522

  14. The H2S-generating enzymes cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase play a role in vascular development during normal lung alveolarization.

    PubMed

    Madurga, Alicia; Golec, Anita; Pozarska, Agnieszka; Ishii, Isao; Mižíková, Ivana; Nardiello, Claudio; Vadász, István; Herold, Susanne; Mayer, Konstantin; Reichenberger, Frank; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Seeger, Werner; Morty, Rory E

    2015-10-01

    The gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emerging as a mediator of lung physiology and disease. Recent studies revealed that H2S administration limited perturbations to lung structure in experimental animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), partially restoring alveolarization, limiting pulmonary hypertension, limiting inflammation, and promoting epithelial repair. No studies have addressed roles for endogenous H2S in lung development. H2S is endogenously generated by cystathionine β-synthase (Cbs) and cystathionine γ-lyase (Cth). We demonstrate here that the expression of Cbs and Cth in mouse lungs is dynamically regulated during lung alveolarization and that alveolarization is blunted in Cbs(-/-) and Cth(-/-) mouse pups, where a 50% reduction in the total number of alveoli was observed, without any impact on septal thickness. Laser-capture microdissection and immunofluorescence staining indicated that Cbs and Cth were expressed in the airway epithelium and lung vessels. Loss of Cbs and Cth led to a 100-500% increase in the muscularization of small- and medium-sized lung vessels, which was accompanied by increased vessel wall thickness, and an apparent decrease in lung vascular supply. Ablation of Cbs expression using small interfering RNA or pharmacological inhibition of Cth using propargylglycine in lung endothelial cells limited angiogenic capacity, causing a 30-40% decrease in tube length and a 50% decrease in number of tubes formed. In contrast, exogenous administration of H2S with GYY4137 promoted endothelial tube formation. These data confirm a key role for the H2S-generating enzymes Cbs and Cth in pulmonary vascular development and homeostasis and in lung alveolarization. PMID:26232299

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor C complements the ability of positron emission tomography to predict nodal disease in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farjah, Farhood; Madtes, David K.; Wood, Douglas E.; Flum, David R.; Zadworny, Megan E.; Waworuntu, Rachel; Hwang, Billanna; Mulligan, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) C and D are biologically rational markers of nodal disease that could improve the accuracy of lung cancer staging. We hypothesized that these biomarkers would improve the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) to predict nodal disease among patients with suspected or confirmed non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods A cross-sectional study (2010–2013) was performed of patients prospectively enrolled in a lung nodule biorepository, staged by computed tomography (CT) and PET, and who underwent pathologic nodal evaluation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure biomarker levels in plasma from blood drawn before anesthesia. Likelihood ratio testing was used to compare the following logistic regression prediction models: ModelPET, ModelPET/VEGF-C, ModelPET/VEGF-D, and ModelPET/VEGF-C/VEGF-D. To account for 5 planned pairwise comparisons, P values<.01 were considered significant. Results Among 62 patients (median age, 67 years; 48% men; 87% white; and 84% NSCLC), 58% had fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in hilar and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. The prevalence of pathologically confirmed lymph node metastases was 40%. Comparisons of prediction models revealed the following: ModelPET/VEGF-C versus ModelPET (P = .0069), ModelPET/VEGF-D versus ModelPET (P = .1886), ModelPET/VEGF-C/VEGF-D versus ModelPET (P = .0146), ModelPET/VEGF-C/VEGF-D versus ModelPET/VEGF-C (P = .2818), and ModelPET/VEGF-C/VEGF-D versus ModelPET/VEGF-D (P = .0095). In ModelPET/VEGF-C, higher VEGF-C levels were associated with an increased risk of nodal disease (odds ratio, 2.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–6.90). Conclusions Plasma levels of VEGF-C complemented the ability of PET to predict nodal disease among patients with suspected or confirmed NSCLC. VEGF-D did not improve prediction. PMID:26320776

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor and nitric oxide synthase expression in human lung cancer and the relation to p53.

    PubMed Central

    Ambs, S.; Bennett, W. P.; Merriam, W. G.; Ogunfusika, M. O.; Oser, S. M.; Khan, M. A.; Jones, R. T.; Harris, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and mutations of cancer-related genes increase with cancer progression. This correlation suggests the hypothesis that oncogenes and tumour suppressors regulate VEGF, and a significant correlation between p53 alteration and increased VEGF expression in human lung cancer was reported recently. To further examine this hypothesis, we analysed VEGF protein expression and mutations in p53 and K-ras in 27 non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC): 16 squamous cell, six adenocarcinomas, one large cell, two carcinoids and two undifferentiated tumours. VEGF was expressed in 50% of the squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and carcinoids but none of the others. p53 mutations occurred in 14 tumours (52%), and K-ras mutations were found in two adenocarcinomas and one SCC; there was no correlation between the mutations and VEGF expression. As nitric oxide also regulates angiogenesis, we examined NOS expression in NSCLC. The Ca2+-dependent NOS activity, which indicates NOS1 and NOS3 expression, was significantly reduced in lung carcinomas compared with adjacent non-tumour tissue (P < 0.004). Although the Ca2+-independent NOS activity, which indicates NOS2 expression, was low or undetectable in non-tumour tissues and most carcinomas, significant activity occurred in three SCC. In summary, our data do not show a direct regulation of VEGF by p53 in NSCLC. Finally, we did not find the up-regulation of NOS isoforms during NSCLC progression that has been suggested for gynaecological and breast cancers. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9683299

  17. Nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the angiogenesis of non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marrogi, A J; Travis, W D; Welsh, J A; Khan, M A; Rahim, H; Tazelaar, H; Pairolero, P; Trastek, V; Jett, J; Caporaso, N E; Liotta, L A; Harris, C C

    2000-12-01

    We have investigated the hypothesis that nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels individually demonstrate a direct correlation with microvessel density (MVD) and clinical outcome in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Furthermore, we hypothesized that MVD may explain the propensity of certain histological lung cancer subtypes for early metastasis via a hematological route. Immunohistochemically, we studied the protein expression levels of NOS2, COX2, and VEGF and MVD by counting CD31-reactive blood vessels (BVs) in 106 surgically resected NSCLC specimens. NOS2, COX2, and VEGF immunoreactivity were observed in 48, 48, and 58%, respectively, of the study subjects, and their levels correlated with MVD at the tumor-stromal interphase (P < or = 0.001). More adenocarcindmas and large cell carcinomas displayed overexpression of NOS2 when compared with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; r = 0.44; P < 0.001). NOS2 and COX2 levels were found to correlate positively with VEGF status (r = 0.44; P < 0.001, 0.01, and 0.03, respectively). These results attest to the significant interaction of these factors in the angiogenesis of NSCLC. Although neither angiogenic factors nor MVD correlated with patient survival, the latter correlated with tumor clinical stage in both squamous (SCC; 73 BVs/mm2) and non-SCC (78 BVs/mm2) tumors. These results indicate that angiogenesis is a complex process that involves multiple factors including NOS2, COX2, and VEGF. Furthermore, the role of angiogenesis in the biology of various histological lung cancer types may be different. The complexity of angiogenesis may explain the modest results observed in antiangiogenesis therapy that target a single protein. PMID:11156228

  18. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme Y impairs endothelial cell proliferation and vascular repair following lung injury.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Trevor C; Ochoa, Cristhiaan D; Morrow, K Adam; Robson, Matthew J; Prasain, Nutan; Zhou, Chun; Alvarez, Diego F; Frank, Dara W; Balczon, Ron; Stevens, Troy

    2014-05-15

    Exoenzyme Y (ExoY) is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin that is introduced into host cells through the type 3 secretion system (T3SS). Once inside the host cell cytoplasm, ExoY generates cyclic nucleotides that cause tau phosphorylation and microtubule breakdown. Microtubule breakdown causes interendothelial cell gap formation and tissue edema. Although ExoY transiently induces interendothelial cell gap formation, it remains unclear whether ExoY prevents repair of the endothelial cell barrier. Here, we test the hypothesis that ExoY intoxication impairs recovery of the endothelial cell barrier following gap formation, decreasing migration, proliferation, and lung repair. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) were infected with P. aeruginosa strains for 6 h, including one possessing an active ExoY (PA103 exoUexoT::Tc pUCPexoY; ExoY(+)), one with an inactive ExoY (PA103ΔexoUexoT::Tc pUCPexoY(K81M); ExoY(K81M)), and one that lacks PcrV required for a functional T3SS (ΔPcrV). ExoY(+) induced interendothelial cell gaps, whereas ExoY(K81M) and ΔPcrV did not promote gap formation. Following gap formation, bacteria were removed and endothelial cell repair was examined. PMVECs were unable to repair gaps even 3-5 days after infection. Serum-stimulated growth was greatly diminished following ExoY intoxication. Intratracheal inoculation of ExoY(+) and ExoY(K81M) caused severe pneumonia and acute lung injury. However, whereas the pulmonary endothelial cell barrier was functionally improved 1 wk following ExoY(K81M) infection, pulmonary endothelium was unable to restrict the hyperpermeability response to elevated hydrostatic pressure following ExoY(+) infection. In conclusion, ExoY is an edema factor that chronically impairs endothelial cell barrier integrity following lung injury. PMID:24705722

  19. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Antibody Suppresses ERK and NF-κB Activation in Ischemia-Reperfusion Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Lan, Chou-Chin; Peng, Chung-Kan; Tang, Shih-En; Wu, Shu-Yu; Huang, Kun-Lun; Wu, Chin-Pyng

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is implicated in several clinical conditions like lung transplantation, acute pulmonary embolism after thrombolytic therapy, re-expansion of collapsed lung from pneumothorax or pleural effusion, cardiopulmonary bypass and etc. Because mortality remains high despite advanced medical care, prevention and treatment are important clinical issues for IR-induced ALI. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has a controversial role in ALI. We therefore conducted this study to determine the effects of anti-VEGF antibody in IR-induced ALI. In the current study, the IR-induced ALI was conducted in a rat model of isolated-perfused lung in situ in the chest. The animals were divided into the control, control + preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab, 5mg/kg), IR, IR + preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody (1mg/kg), IR+ preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody (5mg/kg) and IR+ post-IR anti-VEGF antibody (5mg/kg) group. There were eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in each group. The IR caused significant pulmonary micro-vascular hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, neutrophilic infiltration in lung tissues, increased tumor necrosis factor-α, and total protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. VEGF and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were increased in IR-induced ALI. Administration of preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody significantly suppressed the VEGF and ERK expressions and attenuated the IR-induced lung injury. This study demonstrates the important role of VEGF in early IR-induced ALI. The beneficial effects of preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody in IR-induced ALI include the attenuation of lung injury, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and neutrophilic infiltration into the lung tissues. PMID:27513332

  20. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Antibody Suppresses ERK and NF-κB Activation in Ischemia-Reperfusion Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chou-Chin; Peng, Chung-Kan; Tang, Shih-En; Wu, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is implicated in several clinical conditions like lung transplantation, acute pulmonary embolism after thrombolytic therapy, re-expansion of collapsed lung from pneumothorax or pleural effusion, cardiopulmonary bypass and etc. Because mortality remains high despite advanced medical care, prevention and treatment are important clinical issues for IR-induced ALI. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has a controversial role in ALI. We therefore conducted this study to determine the effects of anti-VEGF antibody in IR-induced ALI. In the current study, the IR-induced ALI was conducted in a rat model of isolated-perfused lung in situ in the chest. The animals were divided into the control, control + preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab, 5mg/kg), IR, IR + preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody (1mg/kg), IR+ preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody (5mg/kg) and IR+ post-IR anti-VEGF antibody (5mg/kg) group. There were eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in each group. The IR caused significant pulmonary micro-vascular hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, neutrophilic infiltration in lung tissues, increased tumor necrosis factor-α, and total protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. VEGF and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were increased in IR-induced ALI. Administration of preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody significantly suppressed the VEGF and ERK expressions and attenuated the IR-induced lung injury. This study demonstrates the important role of VEGF in early IR-induced ALI. The beneficial effects of preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody in IR-induced ALI include the attenuation of lung injury, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and neutrophilic infiltration into the lung tissues. PMID:27513332

  1. Effects of autocrine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Huang, Lu; Yang, Yunmei; Xu, Liqian; Yang, Ji; Wu, Yue

    2013-04-01

    It is reported that the autocrine loop of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is crucial for the survival and proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors. In this study we aimed to systematically investigate the role of autocrine vascular VEGF in NSCLC cell line A549 through inhibition of endogenous VEGF. A549 cells were transfected with florescence-labeled VEGF oligodeoxynucleotide with lipofectamine. For the experimental group, cells were transfected with VEGF anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN), sense oligodeoxynucleotide (SODN) and mutant oligodeoxynuleotide (MODN) respectively. For the control group cells were mock transfected with lipofectamine or culture medium. At indicated time point after transfection, the expression levels of VEGF mRNA and protein in A549 cells were analyzed by RT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry. As revealed by RT-PCR assay, the mRNA level of VEGF in cells transfected with ASDON was significantly lower than the other four groups (P < 0.05) at 24 and 48 h after transfection. ELISA assay yielded similar result with significantly decreased level of VEGF protein expression (P < 0.05). The survival fraction of A549 cells transfected with ASDON was significantly lower than the other four groups (P < 0.05) at 24 h after transfection. Also the percentage of G2 phase cells of ASODN group was significantly lower than other four groups. Our data indicate that VEGF expression is efficiently inhibited in A549 cells by ASODN transfection and this inhibition leads to inhibited cell growth and impaired cell cycle distribution. PMID:23459872

  2. Improved tumor vascularization after anti-VEGF therapy with carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel associates with survival in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heist, Rebecca S.; Duda, Dan G.; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Fidias, Panos; Sequist, Lecia V.; Temel, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Alice T.; Pennell, Nathan A.; Neal, Joel W.; Gandhi, Leena; Lynch, Thomas J.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Addition of anti-VEGF antibody therapy to standard chemotherapies has improved survival and is an accepted standard of care for advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the mechanisms by which anti-VEGF therapy increases survival remain unclear. We evaluated dynamic CT-based vascular parameters and plasma cytokines after bevacizumab alone and after bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with carboplatin and nab-paclitaxel in advanced NSCLC patients to explore potential biomarkers of treatment response and resistance to this regimen. Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this study. The primary end point was 6-mo progression-free survival rate, which was 74% (95% CI: 57, 97). This regimen has a promising overall response rate of 36% and median time to progression of 8.5 (6.0, 38.7) mo and overall survival of 12.2 (9.6, 44.1) mo. We found that anti-VEGF therapy led to a sustained increase in plasma PlGF, a potential pharmacodynamic marker. We also found that higher levels of soluble VEGFR1 measured before starting bevacizumab with chemotherapy were associated with worse survival, supporting its potential role as biomarker of treatment resistance. Our imaging biomarker studies indicate that bevacizumab-based treatment—while reducing blood flow, volume, and permeability in the overall population—may be associated with improved survival in patients with improved tumor vasculature and blood perfusion after treatment. This hypothesis-generating study supports the notion that excessively decreasing vascular permeability and pruning/rarefaction after bevacizumab therapy may negatively impact the outcome of combination therapy in NSCLC patients. This hypothesis warrants further dose-titration studies of bevacizumab to examine the dose effect on tumor vasculature and treatment efficacy. PMID:25605928

  3. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B and its receptor (VEGFR1) in murine heart, lung and kidney.

    PubMed

    Muhl, Lars; Moessinger, Christine; Adzemovic, Milena Z; Dijkstra, Marike H; Nilsson, Ingrid; Zeitelhofer, Manuel; Hagberg, Carolina E; Huusko, Jenni; Falkevall, Annelie; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Eriksson, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, are a serious burden for the health system. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B has been shown to regulate tissue uptake and accumulation of fatty acids and is thus involved in these metabolic diseases. However, the cell-type-specific expression pattern of Vegfb and its receptor (VEGFR1, gene Flt1) remains unclear. We explore the expression of Vegfb and Flt1 in the murine heart, lung and kidney by utilizing β-galactosidase knock-in mouse models and combining the analysis of reporter gene expression and immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, Flt1 heterozygous mice were analyzed with regard to muscular fatty acid accumulation and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Throughout the heart, Vegfb expression was found in cardiomyocytes with a postnatal ventricular shift corresponding to known changes in energy requirements. Vegfb expression was also found in the pulmonary myocardium of the lung and in renal epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, the connecting tubule and the collecting duct. In all analyzed organs, VEGFR1 expression was restricted to endothelial cells. We also show that reduced expression of VEGFR1 resulted in decreased cardiac fatty acid accumulation and increased peripheral insulin sensitivity, possibly as a result of attenuated VEGF-B/VEGFR1 signaling. Our data therefore support a tightly controlled, paracrine signaling mechanism of VEGF-B to VEGFR1. The identified cell-specific expression pattern of Vegfb and Flt1 might form the basis for the development of cell-type-targeted research models and contributes to the understanding of the physiological and pathological role of VEGF-B/VEGFR1 signaling. PMID:26928042

  4. The effect of insulin-loaded linear poly(ethylene glycol)-brush-like poly(l-lysine) block copolymer on renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury through downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fei; Tang, Xiangyuan; Li, Xin; Xia, Wenquan; Liu, Daojun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the therapeutic effect of insulin-loaded linear poly(ethylene glycol)-brush-like poly(l-lysine) block copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-(poly(ethylenediamine l-glutamate)-g-poly(l-lysine)) (PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) on renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury through downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) as compared to free insulin. Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 30 U/kg insulin or insulin/PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) complex, and then subjected to 45 minutes of ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion. The blood and lungs were collected, the level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were measured, and the dry/wet lung ratios, the activity of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase, the content of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the expression of HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in pulmonary tissues. Both insulin and insulin/PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) preconditioning improved the recovery of renal function, reduced pulmonary oxidative stress injury, restrained inflammatory damage, and downregulated the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF as compared to ischemia/reperfusion group, while insulin/PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) significantly improved this effect. PMID:27175073

  5. MECHANISM BY WHICH AVENANTHRAMIDE-C, A POLYPHENOL OF OATS, BLOCKS CELL CYCLE PROGRESSION IN VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avenanthramides (Avn) are unique polyphenols present in oats. We have reported that Avn-c, one of the major forms of Avn with the most antioxidant activity, inhibited the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), an important process in the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis fo...

  6. Plumericin inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by blocking STAT3 signaling via S-glutathionylation

    PubMed Central

    Heiss, Elke H; Liu, Rongxia; Waltenberger, Birgit; Khan, Shafaat; Schachner, Daniel; Kollmann, Paul; Zimmermann, Kristin; Cabaravdic, Muris; Uhrin, Pavel; Stuppner, Hermann; Breuss, Johannes M; Atanasov, Atanas G; Dirsch, Verena M

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of atherosclerosis and restenosis involves aberrant inflammation and proliferation, rendering compounds with both anti-inflammatory and anti-mitogenic properties as promising candidates for combatting vascular diseases. A recent study identified the iridoid plumericin as a new scaffold inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway in endothelial cells. We here examined the impact of plumericin on the proliferation of primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Plumericin inhibited serum-stimulated proliferation of rat VSMC. It arrested VSMC in the G1/G0-phase of the cell cycle accompanied by abrogated cyclin D1 expression and hindered Ser 807/811-phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Transient depletion of glutathione by the electrophilic plumericin led to S-glutathionylation as well as hampered Tyr705-phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). Exogenous addition of glutathione markedly prevented this inhibitory effect of plumericin on Stat3. It also overcame downregulation of cyclin D1 expression and the reduction of biomass increase upon serum exposure. This study revealed an anti-proliferative property of plumericin towards VSMC which depends on plumericin’s thiol reactivity and S-glutathionylation of Stat3. Hence, plumericin, by targeting at least two culprits of vascular dysfunction –inflammation and smooth muscle cell proliferation -might become a promising electrophilic lead compound for vascular disease therapy. PMID:26858089

  7. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Downregulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-D Expression in Human Lung Fibroblasts via the Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ye; Osorio, Juan C; Risquez, Cristobal; Wang, Hao; Shi, Ying; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Morse, Danielle; Rosas, Ivan O; El-Chemaly, Souheil

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D, a member of the VEGF family, induces both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis by activating VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and VEGFR-3 on the surface of endothelial cells. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has been shown to stimulate VEGF-A expression in human lung fibroblast via the Smad3 signaling pathway and to induce VEGF-C in human proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, the effects of TGF-β1 on VEGF-D regulation are unknown. To investigate the regulation of VEGF-D, human lung fibroblasts were studied under pro-fibrotic conditions in vitro and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue. We demonstrate that TGF-β1 downregulates VEGF-D expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human lung fibroblasts. This TGF-β1 effect can be abolished by inhibitors of TGF-β type I receptor kinase and Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), but not by Smad3 knockdown. In addition, VEGF-D knockdown in human lung fibroblasts induces G1/S transition and promotes cell proliferation. Importantly, VEGF-D protein expression is decreased in lung homogenates from IPF patients compared with control lung. In IPF lung sections, fibroblastic foci show very weak VEGF-D immunoreactivity, whereas VEGF-D is abundantly expressed within alveolar interstitial cells in control lung. Taken together, our data identify a novel mechanism for downstream signal transduction induced by TGF-β1 in lung fibroblasts, through which they may mediate tissue remodeling in IPF. PMID:24515257

  8. ZD6474, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, inhibits growth of experimental lung metastasis and production of malignant pleural effusions in a non-small cell lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Matsumori, Yuka; Yano, Seiji; Goto, Hisatsugu; Nakataki, Emiko; Wedge, Stephen R; Ryan, Anderson J; Sone, Saburo

    2006-01-01

    ZD6474 is a novel, orally active inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase, with some additional activity against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of ZD6474 in the control of established experimental lung metastasis and pleural effusions produced by human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. PC14PE6 (adenocarcinoma) and H226 (squamous cell carcinoma) cells express high levels of EGFR and only PC14PE6 cells overexpress VEGF. Neither ZD6474 nor the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib inhibit proliferation of PC14PE6 or H226 cells in vitro. Both PC14PE6 and H226 cells inoculated intravenously into nude mice induced multiple lung nodules after 5-7 weeks. In addition, PC14PE6 cells produced bloody pleural effusions. Daily oral treatment with ZD6474 did not reduce the number of lung nodules produced by PC14PE6 or H226 cells, but did reduce the lung weight and the size of lung nodules. ZD6474 also inhibited the production of pleural effusions by PC14PE6 cells. Histological analyses of lung lesions revealed that ZD6474 treatment inhibited activation of VEGFR-2 and reduced tumor vascularization and tumor cell proliferation. Therapeutic effects of ZD6474 were considered likely to be due to inhibition of VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase because gefitinib was inactive in this model. These results indicate that ZD6474, an inhibitor of VEGFR-2, may be useful in controlling the growth of established lung metastasis and pleural effusions by NSCLC. PMID:16783964

  9. Hepatocyte growth factor as a downstream mediator of vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent preservation of growth in the developing lung.

    PubMed

    Seedorf, Gregory; Metoxen, Alexander J; Rock, Robert; Markham, Neil; Ryan, Sharon; Vu, Thiennu; Abman, Steven H

    2016-06-01

    Impaired vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We hypothesized that the effects of VEGF on lung structure during development may be mediated through its downstream effects on both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activity, and that, in the absence of eNOS, trophic effects of VEGF would be mediated through HGF signaling. To test this hypothesis, we performed an integrative series of in vitro (fetal rat lung explants and isolated fetal alveolar and endothelial cells) and in vivo studies with normal rat pups and eNOS(-/-) mice. Compared with controls, fetal lung explants from eNOS(-/-) mice had decreased terminal lung bud formation, which was restored with recombinant human VEGF (rhVEGF) treatment. Neonatal eNOS(-/-) mice were more susceptible to hyperoxia-induced inhibition of lung growth than controls, which was prevented with rhVEGF treatment. Fetal alveolar type II (AT2) cell proliferation was increased with rhVEGF treatment only with mesenchymal cell (MC) coculture, and these effects were attenuated with anti-HGF antibody treatment. Unlike VEGF, HGF directly stimulated isolated AT2 cells even without MC coculture. HGF directly stimulates fetal pulmonary artery endothelial cell growth and tube formation, which is attenuated by treatment with JNJ-38877605, a c-Met inhibitor. rHGF treatment preserves alveolar and vascular growth after postnatal exposure to SU-5416, a VEGF receptor inhibitor. We conclude that the effects of VEGF on AT2 and endothelial cells during lung development are partly mediated through HGF-c-Met signaling and speculate that reciprocal VEGF-HGF signaling between epithelia and endothelia is disrupted in infants who develop BPD. PMID:27036872

  10. Ability of plasmid DNA complexed with histidinylated lPEI and lPEI to cross in vitro lung and muscle vascular endothelial barriers.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Jean-Pierre; Pichon, Chantal; Midoux, Patrick

    2013-08-10

    DNA complexes made with cationic polymers (polyplexes) developed as nonviral vectors for gene therapy must be enabled to cross through vascular endothelium to transfect underlying tissues upon their administration in the blood circulation. Here, we evaluated the transendothelial passage (TEP) of DNA complexes made with histidinylated linear polyethylenimine (His-lPEI) or linear polyethylenimine (lPEI). In vitro studies were performed by using established transwell lung and skeletal muscle vascular endothelial barriers. The models were composed of a monolayer of human lung microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-L) cells and mouse cardiac endothelial (MCEC) cells formed on a PET insert and immortalized human tracheal epithelial (ΣCFTE29o-) cells and mouse myoblasts (C2C12) as target cells cultured in the lower chamber, respectively. When the vascular endothelium monolayer was established and characterized, the transfection efficiency of target (ΣCFTE29o- and C2C12) cells with plasmid DNA encoding luciferase was used to evaluate TEP of polyplexes. The luciferase activities with His-lPEI and lPEI polyplexes compared to those obtained in the absence of endothelial cell monolayer were 6.5% and 4.3% into ΣCFTE29o- cells, and 18.5% and 0.23% into C2C12 cells, respectively. The estimated rate for His-lPEI polyplexes was 0.135 μg/cm(2).h and 0.385 μg/cm(2).h through the HMVEC-L and MCEC monolayers, respectively. These results indicate that His-lPEI polyplexes can pass through the lung and skeletal muscle vascular endothelium and can transfect underlying cells. PMID:23562720

  11. Proteasome Inhibitors Block DNA Repair and Radiosensitize Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Deepa S.; Hsieh, Grace; Merzon, Dmitry; Rameseder, Jonathan; Chen, Clark C.; D’Andrea, Alan D.; Kozono, David

    2013-01-01

    Despite optimal radiation therapy (RT), chemotherapy and/or surgery, a majority of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) fail treatment. To identify novel gene targets for improved tumor control, we performed whole genome RNAi screens to identify knockdowns that most reproducibly increase NSCLC cytotoxicity. These screens identified several proteasome subunits among top hits, including the topmost hit PSMA1, a component of the core 20 S proteasome. Radiation and proteasome inhibition showed synergistic effects. Proteasome inhibition resulted in an 80–90% decrease in homologous recombination (HR), a 50% decrease in expression of NF-κB-inducible HR genes BRCA1 and FANCD2, and a reduction of BRCA1, FANCD2 and RAD51 ionizing radiation-induced foci. IκBα RNAi knockdown rescued NSCLC radioresistance. Irradiation of mice with NCI-H460 xenografts after inducible PSMA1 shRNA knockdown markedly increased murine survival compared to either treatment alone. Proteasome inhibition is a promising strategy for NSCLC radiosensitization via inhibition of NF-κB-mediated expression of Fanconi Anemia/HR DNA repair genes. PMID:24040035

  12. Targeted Disruption of Heparan Sulfate Interaction with Hepatocyte and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors Blocks Normal and Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, Fabiola; Pajalunga, Deborah; Fowler, C. Andrew; Uren, Aykut; Rabe, Daniel C.; Peruzzi, Benedetta; MacDonald, Nicholas J.; Blackman, Davida K.; Stahl, Stephen J.; Byrd, R. Andrew; Bottaro, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) regulate normal development and homeostasis, and drive disease progression in many forms of cancer. Both proteins signal by binding to receptor tyrosine kinases and heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans on target cell surfaces. Basic residues comprising the primary HS binding sites on HGF and VEGF provide similar surface charge distributions without underlying structural similarity. Combining three acidic amino acid substitutions in these sites in the HGF isoform NK1 or the VEGF isoform VEGF165 transformed each into potent, selective competitive antagonists of their respective normal and oncogenic signaling pathways. Our findings illustrate the importance of HS in growth factor driven cancer progression and reveal an efficient strategy for therapeutic antagonist development. PMID:22897854

  13. Enhanced Pulmonary Vascular and Alveolar Development via Prenatal Administration of a Slow-Release Synthetic Prostacyclin Agonist in Rat Fetal Lung Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Satoshi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Oda, Noriko; Saito, Atsuhiro; Sakai, Yoshiki; Sawa, Yoshiki; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2016-01-01

    Lung hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension are the major causes of mortality in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Although the prostaglandin pathway plays a pivotal role in lung development, the reported efficacy of postnatal prostaglandin agonist treatment is suboptimal. We hypothesized that prenatal treatment with ONO-1301SR, a slow-release form of a novel synthetic prostacyclin agonist with thromboxane inhibitory activity, might enhance the development of lungs exhibiting hypoplasia in the fetal period. On embryonic day (E) 9.5, nitrofen was given to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to establish a CDH-related lung hypoplasia model, whereas normal rats received the vehicle only. The same day, either ONO-1301SR or a placebo was also randomly administered. On E21.5, the fetuses of the normal group and those exhibiting CDH were analyzed. Prenatal ONO-1301SR administration had no influence on the incidence of nitrofen-induced CDH. The lung-to-body weight ratio in the CDH+ONO group was greater than that in the CDH group. Histologically, the medial wall in the CDH+ONO group was two-thirds thinner than that in the CDH group. In addition, the number of Ttf-1-positive cells and the capillary density were ≥1.5 times greater in the CDH+ONO group than in the CDH group, and this increase was associated with higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and stromal cell-derived factor in the CDH+ONO group, suggesting enhanced development of the alveolar and capillary networks. Thus, prenatal ONO-1301SR was protective against the progression of lung hypoplasia associated with CDH in a nitrofen-induced rat model, indicating the potential of this treatment for pathologies exhibiting lung hypoplasia. PMID:27529478

  14. Enhanced Pulmonary Vascular and Alveolar Development via Prenatal Administration of a Slow-Release Synthetic Prostacyclin Agonist in Rat Fetal Lung Hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Oda, Noriko; Saito, Atsuhiro; Sakai, Yoshiki; Sawa, Yoshiki; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2016-01-01

    Lung hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension are the major causes of mortality in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Although the prostaglandin pathway plays a pivotal role in lung development, the reported efficacy of postnatal prostaglandin agonist treatment is suboptimal. We hypothesized that prenatal treatment with ONO-1301SR, a slow-release form of a novel synthetic prostacyclin agonist with thromboxane inhibitory activity, might enhance the development of lungs exhibiting hypoplasia in the fetal period. On embryonic day (E) 9.5, nitrofen was given to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to establish a CDH-related lung hypoplasia model, whereas normal rats received the vehicle only. The same day, either ONO-1301SR or a placebo was also randomly administered. On E21.5, the fetuses of the normal group and those exhibiting CDH were analyzed. Prenatal ONO-1301SR administration had no influence on the incidence of nitrofen-induced CDH. The lung-to-body weight ratio in the CDH+ONO group was greater than that in the CDH group. Histologically, the medial wall in the CDH+ONO group was two-thirds thinner than that in the CDH group. In addition, the number of Ttf-1-positive cells and the capillary density were ≥1.5 times greater in the CDH+ONO group than in the CDH group, and this increase was associated with higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and stromal cell-derived factor in the CDH+ONO group, suggesting enhanced development of the alveolar and capillary networks. Thus, prenatal ONO-1301SR was protective against the progression of lung hypoplasia associated with CDH in a nitrofen-induced rat model, indicating the potential of this treatment for pathologies exhibiting lung hypoplasia. PMID:27529478

  15. Combined MET inhibition and topoisomerase I inhibition block cell growth of small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rolle, Cleo E; Kanteti, Rajani; Surati, Mosmi; Nandi, Suvobroto; Dhanasingh, Immanuel; Yala, Soheil; Tretiakova, Maria; Arif, Qudsia; Hembrough, Todd; Brand, Toni M; Wheeler, Deric L; Husain, Aliya N; Vokes, Everett E; Bharti, Ajit; Salgia, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a devastating disease, and current therapies have not greatly improved the 5-year survival rates. Topoisomerase (Top) inhibition is a treatment modality for SCLC; however, the response is short lived. Consequently, our research has focused on improving SCLC therapeutics through the identification of novel targets. Previously, we identified MNNG HOS transforming gene (MET) to be overexpressed and functional in SCLC. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic potential of combinatorial targeting of MET using SU11274 and Top1 using 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38). MET and TOP1 gene copy numbers and protein expression were determined in 29 patients with limited (n = 11) and extensive (n = 18) disease. MET gene copy number was significantly increased (>6 copies) in extensive disease compared with limited disease (P = 0.015). Similar TOP1 gene copy numbers were detected in limited and extensive disease. Immunohistochemical staining revealed a significantly higher Top1 nuclear expression in extensive (0.93) versus limited (0.15) disease (P = 0.04). Interestingly, a significant positive correlation was detected between MET gene copy number and Top1 nuclear expression (r = 0.5). In vitro stimulation of H82 cells revealed hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced nuclear colocalization of p-MET and Top1. Furthermore, activation of the HGF/MET axis enhanced Top1 activity, which was abrogated by SU11274. Combination of SN-38 with SU11274 dramatically decreased SCLC growth as compared with either drug alone. Collectively, these findings suggest that the combinatorial inhibition of MET and Top1 is a potentially efficacious treatment strategy for SCLC. PMID:24327519

  16. A protocol for phenotypic detection and characterization of vascular cells of different origins in a lung neovascularization model in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rosemary C; Capen, Diane E; Cohen, Kenneth S; Munn, Lance L; Jain, Rakesh K; Duda, Dan G

    2009-01-01

    The goal of many current studies of neovascularization is to define the phenotype of vascular cell populations of different origins and to determine how such cells promote assembly of vascular channel. Here, we describe a protocol to immunophenotype vascular cells by high-resolution imaging and by fluorescence-activated flow cytometry in an in vivo rodent model of pulmonary microvascular remodeling. Analysis of cells by this combined approach will characterize their phenotype, quantify their number and identify their role in the assembly of vascular channels. PMID:18323810

  17. Mononuclear phagocyte system depletion blocks interstitial tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C expression and induces salt-sensitive hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Machnik, Agnes; Dahlmann, Anke; Kopp, Christoph; Goss, Jennifer; Wagner, Hubertus; van Rooijen, Nico; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Müller, Dominik N; Park, Joon-Keun; Luft, Friedrich C; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Titze, Jens

    2010-03-01

    We showed recently that mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells provide a buffering mechanism for salt-sensitive hypertension by driving interstitial lymphangiogenesis, modulating interstitial Na(+) clearance, and increasing endothelial NO synthase protein expression in response to very high dietary salt via a tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C regulatory mechanism. We now tested whether isotonic saline and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt treatment leads to a similar regulatory response in Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were fed a low-salt diet and received tap water (low-salt diet LSD), 1.0% saline (high-salt diet HSD), or DOCA+1.0% saline (DOCA-HSD). To test the regulatory role of interstitial MPS cells, we further depleted MPS cells with clodronate liposomes. HSD and DOCA-HSD led to Na(+) accumulation in the skin, MPS-driven tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C-mediated hyperplasia of interstitial lymph capillaries, and increased endothelial NO synthase protein expression in skin interstitium. Clodronate liposome MPS cell depletion blocked MPS infiltration in the skin interstitium, resulting in unchanged tonicity-responsive enhance binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C levels and absent hyperplasia of the lymph capillary network. Moreover, no increased skin endothelial NO synthase protein expression occurred in either clodronate liposome-treated HSD or DOCA-salt rats. Thus, absence of the MPS-cell regulatory response converted a salt-resistant blood-pressure state to a salt-sensitive state in HSD rats. Furthermore, salt-sensitive hypertension in DOCA-salt rats was aggravated. We conclude that MPS cells act as onsite controllers of interstitial volume and blood pressure homeostasis, providing a local regulatory salt-sensitive tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C-mediated mechanism in the skin to maintain

  18. Blocking M2 muscarinic receptor signaling inhibits tumor growth and reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qingnan; Gu, Xiajing; Zhang, Chun; Lu, Qin; Chen, Hongzhuan; Xu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancers express non-neuronal, cholinergic autoparacrine loop, which facilitates tumor growth. Interruption of M3 muscarinic cholinergic signaling has been reported to inhibit small cell lung cancer (SCLC) growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate if blocking autoparacrine muscarinic cholinergic signaling could inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) growth and possible underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that PC9 and A549 cells expressed all 5 subtypes of muscarinic receptor (mAChR) and blocking M2 mAChR (M2R) signaling using selective antagonist methoctramine or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with AChR agonists stimulating p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) and Akt phosphorylation, blocking M2R signaling decreased MAPK and Akt phosphorylation, indicating that non-neuronal ACh functions as an autoparacrine growth factor signaling in part through activation of M2R and downstream MAPK and Akt pathways. Importantly, further studies revealed that blocking M2R signaling also reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and in vivo, indicating that non-neuronal ACh promotes EMT partially through activation of M2R. These findings demonstrate that M2R plays a role in the growth and progression of NSCLC and suggest M2R antagonists may be an efficacious adjuvant therapy for NSCLC. PMID:25778781

  19. Use of the Cytokinesis-Blocked Micronucleus Assay (CBMN) to Detect Gender Differences and Genetic Instability in a Lung Cancer Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Michelle K.; Lopez, Mirtha S.; Ho, Chung-Han; Spitz, Margaret R.; Etzel, Carol J.; El-Zein, Randa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although tobacco exposure is the predominant risk factor for lung cancer, other environmental agents are established lung carcinogens. Measuring the genotoxic effect of environmental exposures remains equivocal as increases in morbidity and mortality may be attributed to co-exposures such as smoking. Methods We evaluated genetic instability and risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to environmental agents (e.g., exhaust) and smoking among 500 lung cancer cases and 500 controls using the Cytokinesis-Blocked Micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Linear regression was applied to estimate the adjusted means of the CBMN endpoints (micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges). Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate lung cancer risk and to control for potential confounding by age, gender, and smoking. Results Cases showed significantly higher levels of micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges as compared to controls (mean ± SEM=3.54±0.04 vs.1.81 ±0.04 and mean ± SEM=4.26±0.03 vs. 0.99±0.03, respectively; p <0.001) with no differences among participants with or without reported environmental exposure. No differences were observed when stratified by smoking or environmental exposure among cases or controls. A difference in lung cancer risk was observed between non-exposed male and female heavy smokers, although it was not statistically significant (I2=64.9%; P-value for Q statistic=0.09). Conclusions Our study confirms that the CBMN assay is an accurate predictor of lung cancer and supports the premise that heavy smoking may have an effect on DNA repair capacity and in turn modulate the risk of lung cancer. Impact Identifying factors that increase lung cancer risk may lead to more effective prevention measures. PMID:23195992

  20. CCL21/CCR7 up-regulate vascular endothelial growth factor-D expression via ERK pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Limei; Zhang, Qingfu; Li, Yang; Tang, Na; Qiu, Xueshan

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangiogenesis has received considerable attention and become a new research hotspot of tumor metastasis. Recently, C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is known to promote metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells into lymph nodes. In this study, we investigated the relationship between CCL21/CCR7 and the lymphangiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D in human lung cancer cells and its impact on patients’ prognosis. We found that CCL21/CCR7 increase the expression of VEGF-D in NSCLC Cell Lines through induced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. In addition, our study found that the expression levels of CCR7 and CCL21 were correlated with VEGF-D, lymphatic vessels density (LVD), clinical stages, lymph node metastasis, and patient Survival in 90 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens. Taken together, our results provide evidence that CCL21/CCR7 induce VEGF-D up-regulation and promote lymphangiogenesis via ERK/Akt pathway in lung cancer. PMID:26884842

  1. Prostaglandin E2 possesses different potencies in inducing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Interleukin-8 production in COPD human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Anna; Albano, Giusy Daniela; Siena, Liboria; Montalbano, Angela Marina; Riccobono, Loredana; Anzalone, Giulia; Chiappara, Giuseppina; Gagliardo, Rosalia; Profita, Mirella; Sala, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    We studied the role of PGE2, its biosynthetic enzymes and its receptors, in regulating the functions of lung fibroblasts through the production of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) in COPD subjects. Lung fibroblasts from Control (C) (n=6), Smoker (HS) (n=6) and COPD patients (n=8) were cultured, and basal PGE2, VEGF, and IL-8 measured in supernatants by ELISA. COX-1/COX-2 and EP receptors expression were assessed by western blot and by RT-PCR. Release of VEGF and IL-8 by human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1; lung, diploid, human) was evaluated under different conditions. PGE2, VEGF, and IL-8 levels, COX-2, EP2, and EP4 protein expression and mRNA were increased in COPD when compared to Controls. Low concentrations of synthetic PGE2 increased the release of VEGF in HFL-1, but higher concentrations were needed to induce the release of IL-8. This effect was mimicked by an EP2 agonist and modulated by an EP4 antagonist. In the airways of COPD subjects, fibroblast-derived PGE2 may regulate angiogenesis and inflammation through the production of VEGF and IL-8 respectively, suggesting that the increase in expression of COX-2, EP2 and EP4 observed in COPD fibroblasts may contribute to steering the role of PGE2 from homeostatic to pro-inflammatory. PMID:26926362

  2. Hemoglobin induced lung vascular oxidation, inflammation, and remodeling contributes to the progression of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and is attenuated in rats with repeat dose haptoglobin administration

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jin Hyen; Hassell, Kathryn; Nuss, Rachelle; Eigenberger, Paul; Lisk, Christina; Loomis, Zoe; Maltzahn, Joanne; Stenmark, Kurt R; Nozik-Grayck, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objective Haptoglobin (Hp) is an approved treatment in Japan with indications for trauma, burns and massive transfusion related hemolysis. Additional case reports suggest uses in other acute hemolytic events that lead to acute kidney injury. However, Hp's protective effects on the pulmonary vasculature have not been evaluated within the context of mitigating the consequences of chronic hemoglobin (Hb) exposure in the progression of pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to hemolytic diseases. This study was performed to assess the utility of chronic Hp therapy in a preclinical model of Hb and hypoxia mediated PH. Approach and results Rats were simultaneously exposed to chronic Hb-infusion (35 mg per day) and hypobaric hypoxia for five weeks in the presence or absence of Hp treatment (90 mg/kg twice a week). Hp inhibited the Hb plus hypoxia-mediated non-heme iron accumulation in lung and heart tissue, pulmonary vascular inflammation and resistance, and right ventricular hypertrophy, which suggest a positive impact on impeding the progression of PH. In addition, Hp therapy was associated with a reduction in critical mediators of PH, including lung adventitial macrophage population and endothelial ICAM-1 expression. Conclusions By preventing Hb-mediated pathology, Hp infusions: (1) demonstrate a critical role for Hb in vascular remodeling associated with hypoxia; and (2) suggest a novel therapy for chronic hemolysis associated PH. PMID:25656991

  3. Hemoglobin-induced lung vascular oxidation, inflammation, and remodeling contribute to the progression of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and is attenuated in rats with repeated-dose haptoglobin administration.

    PubMed

    Irwin, David C; Baek, Jin Hyen; Hassell, Kathryn; Nuss, Rachelle; Eigenberger, Paul; Lisk, Christina; Loomis, Zoe; Maltzahn, Joanne; Stenmark, Kurt R; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Buehler, Paul W

    2015-05-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) is an approved treatment in Japan for trauma, burns, and massive transfusion-related hemolysis. Additional case reports suggest uses in other acute hemolytic events that lead to acute kidney injury. However, Hp's protective effects on the pulmonary vasculature have not been evaluated within the context of mitigating the consequences of chronic hemoglobin (Hb) exposure in the progression of pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to hemolytic diseases. This study was performed to assess the utility of chronic Hp therapy in a preclinical model of Hb and hypoxia-mediated PH. Rats were simultaneously exposed to chronic Hb infusion (35 mg per day) and hypobaric hypoxia for 5 weeks in the presence or absence of Hp treatment (90 mg/kg twice a week). Hp inhibited the Hb plus hypoxia-mediated nonheme iron accumulation in lung and heart tissue, pulmonary vascular inflammation and resistance, and right-ventricular hypertrophy, which suggests a positive impact on impeding the progression of PH. In addition, Hp therapy was associated with a reduction in critical mediators of PH, including lung adventitial macrophage population and endothelial ICAM-1 expression. By preventing Hb-mediated pathology, Hp infusions: (1) demonstrate a critical role for Hb in vascular remodeling associated with hypoxia and (2) suggest a novel therapy for chronic hemolysis-associated PH. PMID:25656991

  4. Lung tumorigenesis induced by human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF)-A165 overexpression in transgenic mice and amelioration of tumor formation by miR-16

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Yu-Ching; Lai, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Ho, Heng-Chien; Yen, Chih-Ching; Tu, Chih-Yen; Tsai, Tung-Chou; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Wang, Jiun-Long; Chong, Kowit-Yu; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), especially the human VEGF-A165 (hVEGF-A165) isoform, is a key proangiogenic factor that is overexpressed in lung cancer. We generated transgenic mice that overexpresses hVEGF-A165 in lung-specific Clara cells to investigate the development of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. In this study, three transgenic mouse strains were produced by pronuclear microinjection, and Southern blot analysis indicated similar patterns of the foreign gene within the genomes of the transgenic founder mice and their offspring. Accordingly, hVegf-A165 mRNA was expressed specifically in the lung tissue of the transgenic mice. Histopathological examination of the lung tissues of the transgenic mice showed that hVEGF-A165 overexpression induced bronchial inflammation, fibrosis, cysts, and adenoma. Pathological section and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyses demonstrated a positive correlation between the development of pulmonary cancer and hVEGF expression levels, which were determined by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and western blot analyses. Gene expression profiling by cDNA microarray revealed a set of up-regulated genes (hvegf-A165, cyclin b1, cdc2, egfr, mmp9, nrp-1, and kdr) in VEGF tumors compared with wild-type lung tissues. In addition, overexpressing hVEGF-A165 in Clara cells increases CD105, fibrogenic genes (collagen α1, α-SMA, TGF-β1, and TIMP1), and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α) in the lungs of hVEGF-A165-overexpressing transgenic mice as compared to wild-type mice. We further demonstrated that the intranasal administration of microRNA-16 (miR-16) inhibited lung tumor growth by suppressing VEGF expression via the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. In conclusion, hVEGF-A165 transgenic mice exhibited complex alterations in gene expression and tumorigenesis and may be a relevant model for studying VEGF-targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:25912305

  5. Release of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Nuclear Import Block Enhances Host Transcription in Human Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tilton, Susan C.; Menachery, Vineet D.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Schäfer, Alexandra; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Chang, Jean; Luna, Maria L.; Long, Casey E.; Shukla, Anil K.; Bankhead, Armand R.; Burkett, Susan E.; Zornetzer, Gregory; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent; Metz, Thomas O.; Pickles, Raymond; McWeeney, Shannon; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus accessory protein ORF6 antagonizes interferon signaling by blocking karyopherin-mediated nuclear import processes. Viral nuclear import antagonists, expressed by several highly pathogenic RNA viruses, likely mediate pleiotropic effects on host gene expression, presumably interfering with transcription factors, cytokines, hormones, and/or signaling cascades that occur in response to infection. By bioinformatic and systems biology approaches, we evaluated the impact of nuclear import antagonism on host expression networks by using human lung epithelial cells infected with either wild-type virus or a mutant that does not express ORF6 protein. Microarray analysis revealed significant changes in differential gene expression, with approximately twice as many upregulated genes in the mutant virus samples by 48 h postinfection, despite identical viral titers. Our data demonstrated that ORF6 protein expression attenuates the activity of numerous karyopherin-dependent host transcription factors (VDR, CREB1, SMAD4, p53, EpasI, and Oct3/4) that are critical for establishing antiviral responses and regulating key host responses during virus infection. Results were confirmed by proteomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay analyses and in parallel microarray studies using infected primary human airway epithelial cell cultures. The data strongly support the hypothesis that viral antagonists of nuclear import actively manipulate host responses in specific hierarchical patterns, contributing to the viral pathogenic potential in vivo. Importantly, these studies and modeling approaches not only provide templates for evaluating virus antagonism of nuclear import processes but also can reveal candidate cellular genes and pathways that may significantly influence disease outcomes following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in vivo. PMID:23365422

  6. A Lindera obtusiloba Extract Blocks Calcium-/Phosphate-Induced Transdifferentiation and Calcification of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Interferes with Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and Metalloproteinase-9 and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Freise, Christian; Kim, Ki Young; Querfeld, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Vascular calcifications bear the risk for cardiovascular complications and have a high prevalence among patients with chronic kidney disease. Central mediators of vascular calcifications are vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). They transdifferentiate into a synthetic/osteoblast-like phenotype, which is induced, for example, by elevated levels of calcium and phosphate (Ca/P) due to a disturbed mineral balance. An aqueous extract from Lindera obtusiloba (LOE) is known to exert antifibrotic and antitumor effects or to interfere with the differentiation of preadipocytes. Using murine and rat VSMC cell lines, we here investigated whether LOE also protects VSMC from Ca/P-induced calcification. Indeed, LOE effectively blocked Ca/P-induced calcification of VSMC as shown by decreased VSMC mineralization and secretion of alkaline phosphatase. In parallel, mRNA expression of the calcification markers osterix and osteocalcin was reduced. Vice versa, the Ca/P-induced loss of the VSMC differentiation markers alpha smooth muscle actin and smooth muscle protein 22-alpha was rescued by LOE. Further, LOE blocked Ca/P-induced mRNA expressions and secretions of matrix metalloproteinases-2/-9 and activation of NF-κB, which are known contributors to vascular calcification. In conclusion, LOE interferes with the Ca/P-induced transdifferentiation/calcification of VSMC. Thus, LOE should be further analysed regarding a potential complementary treatment option for cardiovascular diseases including vascular calcifications. PMID:26294927

  7. Mulberry leaf extract inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration involving a block of small GTPase and Akt/NF-kappaB signals.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Ho, Hsieh-Hsun; Huang, Chien-Ning; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Hsiang-Mei; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2009-10-14

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba, is commonly used in Chinese medicines because of its many pharmacologic effects. Mulberry leaves contain many phenolic antioxidants that can reduce cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis involves proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). Thus, we investigated the mechanisms by which mulberry leaf extract (MLE) might inhibit migration of VSMC. MLE was rich in polyphenols (44.82%), including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, gallocatechin gallate, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin. MLE could inhibit the migration of A7r5 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MLE also inhibited the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2 and MMP-9, protein expressions, and phosphorylation of FAK and Akt, and protein expressions of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases: c-Raf, Ras, Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA) in a dose-dependent manner. NF-kappaB expression was also inhibited by MLE. MLE could effectively inhibit the migration of VSMC by blocking small GTPase and Akt/NF-kappaB signals. PMID:19761240

  8. Chromogenic in situ hybridization to detect EGFR gene copy number in cell blocks from fine-needle aspirates of non small cell lung carcinomas and lung metastases from colo-rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) correlates to the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In the presence of lung nodules, cytology is often the only possible diagnostic approach. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is an alternative technique to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), but its feasibility in detecting EGFR GCN in cell blocks from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of lung nodules has not yet been established. Methods We evaluated the feasibility of CISH on 33 FNAC from 20 primary NSCLC (5 squamous carcinomas, 8 large cell carcinomas and 7 adenocarcinomas) and 13 lung metastases from CRC. Results Of the 33 FNAC analyzed by CISH, 27 (82%) presented a balanced increase in EGFR gene and chromosome 7 number: 10 cases (30%) showed a low polysomy, 15 (45%) a high polysomy and 2 (6%) NSCLC were amplified. No significant differences between NSCLC and CRC lung metastases were found in relation to disomic or polysomic status. In addition, no correlation between EGFR GCN and EGFR immunohistochemical overexpression was found. Furthermore, we compared CISH results with those obtained by FISH on the same samples and we found 97% overall agreement between the two assays (k = 0.78, p < 0.0001). Two cases were amplified with both assays, whereas 1 case of NSCLC was amplified by FISH only. CISH sensitivity was 67%, the specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) was 100%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%. Conclusions Our study shows that CISH is a valid method to detect EGFR GCN in cell blocks from FNAC of primary NSCLC or metastatic CRC to the lung. PMID:20843314

  9. Expression of Tumor-Derived Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Its Receptors Is Associated With Outcome in Early Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Pajares, María J.; Agorreta, Jackeline; Larrayoz, Marta; Vesin, Aurélien; Ezponda, Teresa; Zudaire, Isabel; Torre, Wenceslao; Lozano, María D.; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Brambilla, Christian; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Behrens, Carmen; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Pio, Ruben; Field, John K.; Montuenga, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Antiangiogenic therapies targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway have yielded more modest clinical benefit to patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than initially expected. Clinical data suggest a distinct biologic role of the VEGF pathway in the different histologic subtypes of lung cancer. To clarify the influence of histologic differentiation in the prognostic relevance of VEGF-mediated signaling in NSCLC, we performed a concomitant analysis of the expression of three key elements of the VEGF pathway in the earliest stages of the following two principal histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC). Patients and Methods We evaluated tumor cell expression of VEGF, VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 1, and VEGFR2 using automatic immunostaining in a series of 298 patients with early-stage NSCLC recruited as part of the multicenter European Early Lung Cancer Detection Group project. A score measuring the VEGF signaling pathway was calculated by adding the tumor cell expression value of VEGF and its two receptors. The results were validated in two additional independent cohorts of patients with NSCLC. Results The combination of high VEGF, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2 protein expression was associated with lower risk of disease progression in early SCC (univariate analysis, P = .008; multivariate analysis, hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.92; P = .02). The results were validated in two independent patient cohorts, confirming the favorable prognostic value of high VEGF signaling score in early lung SCC. Conclusion Our results clearly indicate that the combination of high expression of the three key elements in the VEGF pathway is associated with a good prognosis in patients with early SCC but not in patients with ADC. PMID:22355056

  10. Computational Modeling of Airway and Pulmonary Vascular Structure and Function: Development of a “Lung Physiome”

    PubMed Central

    Tawhai, M. H.; Clark, A. R.; Donovan, G. M.; Burrowes, K. S.

    2011-01-01

    Computational models of lung structure and function necessarily span multiple spatial and temporal scales, i.e., dynamic molecular interactions give rise to whole organ function, and the link between these scales cannot be fully understood if only molecular or organ-level function is considered. Here, we review progress in constructing multiscale finite element models of lung structure and function that are aimed at providing a computational framework for bridging the spatial scales from molecular to whole organ. These include structural models of the intact lung, embedded models of the pulmonary airways that couple to model lung tissue, and models of the pulmonary vasculature that account for distinct structural differences at the extra- and intra-acinar levels. Biophysically based functional models for tissue deformation, pulmonary blood flow, and airway bronchoconstriction are also described. The development of these advanced multiscale models has led to a better understanding of complex physiological mechanisms that govern regional lung perfusion and emergent heterogeneity during bronchoconstriction. PMID:22011236

  11. Primary breast cancer induces pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability and promotes metastasis via the VEGF-PKC pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Man; Qin, Chengyong; Han, Mingyong

    2016-06-01

    The lung is one of the most frequent target organs for breast cancer metastasis. When breast cancer cells from a primary tumor do not colonize the lung, which we named the premetastatic phase, the microenvironment of the lung has already been influenced by the primary tumor. However, little is known about the exact premetastatic alteration and regulatory mechanisms of the lung. Here, we used 4T1 cells (a mouse breast cancer cell line which can specifically metastasize to the lung) to build a mouse breast cancer model. We found that primary breast tumor induced increased pulmonary vascular permeability in the premetastatic phase, which facilitated the leakage of rhodamine-dextran and the extravasation of intravenous therapy injected cancer cells. Furthermore, tight junctions (TJs) were disrupted, and the expression of zonula occludens-1(ZO-1), one of the most important components of tight junctions, was decreased in the premetastatic lung. In addition, elevated serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was involved in the destabilization of tight junctions and the VEGF antagonist bevacizumab reversed the primary tumor-induced vascular hyperpermeability. Moreover, activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway disrupted the integrity of TJs and accordingly, the disruption could be alleviated by blocking VEGF. Taken together, these data demonstrate that primary breast cancer may induce tight junction disruptions in the premetastatic lung via the VEGF-PKC pathway and promote pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability before metastasis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26152457

  12. Blocking the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway by Lentivirus-Mediated Short Hairpin RNA Targeting β-Catenin Gene Suppresses Silica-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Dai, Wujing; Wang, Yanrang; Gu, Qing; Yang, Deyi; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Silicosis is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust. While the pathogenesis of silicosis is not clearly understood, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is thought to play a major role in lung fibrosis. To explore the role of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in silicosis, we blocked Wnt/β-catenin pathway both in silica-treated MLE-12 cells (a mouse pulmonary epithelial cell line) and in a mouse silicosis model by using a lentiviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA silencing β-catenin (Lv-shβ-catenin). In vitro, Lv-shβ-catenin significantly decreased the expression of β-catenin, MMP2 and MMP9, and secretion of TGF-β1. In vivo, intratracheal treatment with Lv-shβ-catenin significantly reduced expression of β-catenin in the lung and levels of TGF-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and notably attenuated pulmonary fibrosis as evidenced by hydroxyproline content and collagen I\\III synthesis in silica-administered mice. These results indicate that blockade of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway can prevent the development of silica-induced lung fibrosis. Thus Wnt/β-catenin pathway may be a target in prevention and treatment of silicosis. PMID:26340635

  13. Blocking the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway by Lentivirus-Mediated Short Hairpin RNA Targeting β-Catenin Gene Suppresses Silica-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dai, Wujing; Wang, Yanrang; Gu, Qing; Yang, Deyi; Zhang, Ming

    2015-09-01

    Silicosis is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust. While the pathogenesis of silicosis is not clearly understood, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is thought to play a major role in lung fibrosis. To explore the role of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in silicosis, we blocked Wnt/β-catenin pathway both in silica-treated MLE-12 cells (a mouse pulmonary epithelial cell line) and in a mouse silicosis model by using a lentiviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA silencing β-catenin (Lv-shβ-catenin). In vitro, Lv-shβ-catenin significantly decreased the expression of β-catenin, MMP2 and MMP9, and secretion of TGF-β1. In vivo, intratracheal treatment with Lv-shβ-catenin significantly reduced expression of β-catenin in the lung and levels of TGF-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and notably attenuated pulmonary fibrosis as evidenced by hydroxyproline content and collagen I\\III synthesis in silica-administered mice. These results indicate that blockade of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway can prevent the development of silica-induced lung fibrosis. Thus Wnt/β-catenin pathway may be a target in prevention and treatment of silicosis. PMID:26340635

  14. Tumor-specific targeting by Bavituximab, a phosphatidylserine-targeting monoclonal antibody with vascular targeting and immune modulating properties, in lung cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Gerber, David E; Hao, Guiyang; Watkins, Linda; Stafford, Jason H; Anderson, Jon; Holbein, Blair; Öz, Orhan K; Mathews, Dana; Thorpe, Philip E; Hassan, Gedaa; Kumar, Amit; Brekken, Rolf A; Sun, Xiankai

    2015-01-01

    Bavituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody with immune modulating and tumor-associated vascular disrupting properties demonstrated in models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The molecular target of Bavituximab, phosphatidylserine (PS), is exposed on the outer leaflet of the membrane bi-layer of malignant vascular endothelial cells and tumor cells to a greater extent than on normal tissues. We evaluated the tumor-targeting properties of Bavituximab for imaging of NSCLC xenografts when radiolabeled with (111)In through conjugation with a bifunctional chelating agent, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). In vitro binding of (111)In-DOTA-Bavituximab to PS was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Biodistribution of (111)In-DOTA-Bavituximab was conducted in normal rats, which provided data for dosimetry calculation. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging was performed in athymic nude rats bearing A549 NSCLC xenografts. At the molar conjugation ratio of 0.54 DOTA per Bavituximab, the PS binding affinity of (111)In-DOTA-Bavituximab was comparable to that of unmodified Bavituximab. Based on the quantitative SPECT/CT imaging data analysis, (111)In-DOTA-Bavituximab demonstrated tumor-specific uptake as measured by the tumor-tomuscle ratio, which peaked at 5.2 at 72 hr post-injection. In contrast, the control antibody only presented a contrast of 1.2 at the same time point.These findings may underlie the diagnostic efficacy and relative low rates of systemic vascular and immune-related toxicities of this immunoconjugate. Future applications of (111)In-DOTA-bavituximab may include prediction of efficacy, indication of tumor immunologic status, or characterization of radiographic findings. PMID:26550540

  15. Tumor-specific targeting by Bavituximab, a phosphatidylserine-targeting monoclonal antibody with vascular targeting and immune modulating properties, in lung cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, David E; Hao, Guiyang; Watkins, Linda; Stafford, Jason H; Anderson, Jon; Holbein, Blair; Öz, Orhan K; Mathews, Dana; Thorpe, Philip E; Hassan, Gedaa; Kumar, Amit; Brekken, Rolf A; Sun, Xiankai

    2015-01-01

    Bavituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody with immune modulating and tumor-associated vascular disrupting properties demonstrated in models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The molecular target of Bavituximab, phosphatidylserine (PS), is exposed on the outer leaflet of the membrane bi-layer of malignant vascular endothelial cells and tumor cells to a greater extent than on normal tissues. We evaluated the tumor-targeting properties of Bavituximab for imaging of NSCLC xenografts when radiolabeled with 111In through conjugation with a bifunctional chelating agent, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). In vitro binding of 111In-DOTA-Bavituximab to PS was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Biodistribution of 111In-DOTA-Bavituximab was conducted in normal rats, which provided data for dosimetry calculation. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging was performed in athymic nude rats bearing A549 NSCLC xenografts. At the molar conjugation ratio of 0.54 DOTA per Bavituximab, the PS binding affinity of 111In-DOTA-Bavituximab was comparable to that of unmodified Bavituximab. Based on the quantitative SPECT/CT imaging data analysis, 111In-DOTA-Bavituximab demonstrated tumor-specific uptake as measured by the tumor-tomuscle ratio, which peaked at 5.2 at 72 hr post-injection. In contrast, the control antibody only presented a contrast of 1.2 at the same time point.These findings may underlie the diagnostic efficacy and relative low rates of systemic vascular and immune-related toxicities of this immunoconjugate. Future applications of 111In-DOTA-bavituximab may include prediction of efficacy, indication of tumor immunologic status, or characterization of radiographic findings. PMID:26550540

  16. Neoangiogenesis and p53 protein in lung cancer: their prognostic role and their relation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression.

    PubMed Central

    Fontanini, G.; Vignati, S.; Lucchi, M.; Mussi, A.; Calcinai, A.; Boldrini, L.; Chiné, S.; Silvestri, V.; Angeletti, C. A.; Basolo, F.; Bevilacqua, G.

    1997-01-01

    Following up-regulation of an angiogenesis inhibitor by the wild-type p53 protein proven recently, we have analysed on the one hand the prognostic impact of microvessel count (MC) and p53 protein overexpression in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) progression and, on the other hand, the inter-relation between the microvascular pattern and the p53 protein expression. Moreover, we assessed the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the pivotal mediators of tumour angiogenesis, in order to investigate its relation to p53 protein expression and MC. Tumours from 73 patients resected for NSCLC between March 1991 and April 1992 (median follow-up 47 months, range 32-51 months) were analysed using an immunohistochemical method. In univariate analysis, MC and p53 accumulation were shown to affect metastatic nodal involvement, recurrence and death significantly. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an important prognostic influence of MC and nodal status on overall (P = 0.0009; P = 0.01) and disease-free survival (P = 0.0001; P = 0.03). Interestingly, a strong statistical association was observed between p53 nuclear accumulation and MC (P = 0.0003). The same inter-relationship was found in non-squamous histotype (P = 0.002). When we analysed the concomitant influence of MC and p53 expression on overall survival, we were able to confirm a real predominant role of MC in comparison with p53. With regard to VEGF expression, p53-negative and lowly vascularized tumours showed a mean VEGF expression significantly lower than p53-positive and highly vascularized cancers (P = 0.02). These results underline the prognostic impact of MC and p53 protein accumulation in NSCLC and their reciprocal inter-relationship, supporting the hypothesis of a wild-type p53 regulation on the angiogenetic process through a VEGF up-regulation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 8 PMID:9155049

  17. ROI for outlining an entire tumor is a reliable approach for quantification of lung cancer tumor vascular parameters using CT perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ensen; Ren, An; Gao, Baoxiang; Yang, Minxing; Zhao, Qichao; Wang, Wu; Li, Kefeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of position and size of tumor region of interest (ROI) on the estimation of lung cancer vascular parameters using 256-slice computed tomography (CT) perfusion. Methods After institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 16 men and 11 women with lung cancer were enrolled in this CT perfusion study. Perfusion, blood volume, and peak enhancement were determined for 60 or 120 mm2 circular ROIs placed at the edge, center, and around (outlining) the visible tumor. Average values were obtained by performing ROI analysis twice by the same observers without any procedural changes. Results Perfusion, blood volume, and peak enhancement measurements were substantially higher at the edge than at the center for both 60 and 120 mm2 ROIs (all P<0.05). Measurements varied substantially depending on the ROI size. Perfusion, blood volume, and peak enhancement for the ROIs outlining tumor were intermediate between those at the tumor edge and center. There were significant correlations between median values and interquartile ranges as follows; perfusion (12.51 [7.91–28.10] mL⋅min−1⋅100 mL−1), blood volume (29.31 [21.82–37.65] mL⋅100 g−1), peak enhancement (12.93 [2.42–22.50]) for the ROIs outlining the tumor, and microvascular density ([19.43±8.78] vessels/0.74 mm2), respectively (r values were 0.732, 0.590, and 0.544 respectively, all P<0.05). Conclusion Spatial and size selection of ROI significantly affects CT perfusion analysis. ROI outlining of entire tumor provides efficient and reliable measurements for clinical assessment of lung cancer using CT perfusion. PMID:27175083

  18. The vascular surgeon-scientist: a 15-year report of the Society for Vascular Surgery Foundation/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-mentored Career Development Award Program.

    PubMed

    Kibbe, Melina R; Dardik, Alan; Velazquez, Omaida C; Conte, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Foundation partnered with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1999 to initiate a competitive career development program that provides a financial supplement to surgeon-scientists receiving NIH K08 or K23 career development awards. Because the program has been in existence for 15 years, a review of the program's success has been performed. Between 1999 and 2013, 41 faculty members applied to the SVS Foundation program, and 29 from 21 different institutions were selected as awardees, resulting in a 71% success rate. Three women (10%) were among the 29 awardees. Nine awardees (31%) were supported by prior NIH F32 or T32 training grants. Awardees received their K award at an average of 3.5 years from the start of their faculty position, at the average age of 39.8 years. Thirteen awardees (45%) have subsequently received NIH R01 awards and five (17%) have received Veterans Affairs Merit Awards. Awardees received their first R01 at an average of 5.8 years after the start of their K award at the average age of 45.2 years. The SVS Foundation committed $9,350,000 to the Career Development Award Program. Awardees subsequently secured $45,108,174 in NIH and Veterans Affairs funds, resulting in a 4.8-fold financial return on investment for the SVS Foundation program. Overall, 23 awardees (79%) were promoted from assistant to associate professor in an average of 5.9 years, and 10 (34%) were promoted from associate professor to professor in an average of 5.2 years. Six awardees (21%) hold endowed professorships and four (14%) have secured tenure. Many of the awardees hold positions of leadership, including 12 (41%) as division chief and two (7%) as vice chair within a department of surgery. Eight (28%) awardees have served as president of a regional or national society. Lastly, 47 postdoctoral trainees have been mentored by recipients of the SVS Foundation Career Development

  19. Enlarged pulmonary artery is predicted by vascular injury biomarkers and is associated with WTC-Lung Injury in exposed fire fighters: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Edward J; Echevarria, Ghislaine C; Girvin, Francis G; Kwon, Sophia; Comfort, Ashley L; Rom, William N; Prezant, David J; Weiden, Michael D; Nolan, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We hypothesise that there is an association between an elevated pulmonary artery/aorta (PA/A) and World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI). We assessed if serum vascular disease biomarkers were predictive of an elevated PA/A. Design Retrospective case-cohort analysis of thoracic CT scans of WTC-exposed firefighters who were symptomatic between 9/12/2001 and 3/10/2008. Quantification of vascular-associated biomarkers from serum collected within 200 days of exposure. Setting Urban tertiary care centre and occupational healthcare centre. Participants Male never-smoking firefighters with accurate pre-9/11 forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥75%, serum sampled ≤200 days of exposure was the baseline cohort (n=801). A subcohort (n=97) with available CT scans and serum biomarkers was identified. WTC-LI was defined as FEV1≤77% at the subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (n=34) and compared with controls (n=63) to determine the associated PA/A ratio. The subcohort was restratified based on PA/A≥0.92 (n=38) and PA/A<0.92(n=59) to determine serum vascular biomarkers that were predictive of this vasculopathy. Outcome measures The primary outcome of this study was to identify a PA/A ratio in a cohort of individuals exposed to WTC dust that was associated with WTC-LI. The secondary outcome was to identify serum biomarkers predictive of the PA/A ratio using logistic regression. Results PA/A≥0.92 was associated with WTC-LI, OR of 4.02 (95% CI 1.21 to 13.41; p=0.023) when adjusted for exposure, body mass index and age at CT. Elevated macrophage derived chemokine and soluble endothelial selectin were predictive of PA/A≥0.92, (OR, 95% CI 2.08, 1.05 to 4.11, p=0.036; 1.33, 1.06 to 1.68, p=0.016, respectively), while the increased total plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 was predictive of not having PA/A≥0.92 (OR 0.88, 0.79 to 0.98; p=0.024). Conclusions Elevated PA/A was associated with WTC-LI. Development of an elevated PA/A was predicted by biomarkers of

  20. H460 non-small cell lung cancer stem-like holoclones yield tumors with increased vascularity

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Eugene; Waxman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells were isolated from several human tumor cell lines by limiting dilution assays and holoclone morphology, followed by assessment of self-renewal capacity, tumor growth, vascularity, and blood perfusion. H460 holoclone-derived tumors grew slower than parental H460 tumors, but displayed significantly increased microvessel density and tumor blood perfusion. Microarray analysis identified 177 differentially regulated genes in the holoclone-derived tumors, of which 47 were associated with angiogenesis. The dysregulated genes include several small leucine-rich proteoglycans that may modulate angiogenesis and serve as novel therapeutic targets for inhibiting cancer stem cell-driven angiogenesis. PMID:24334139

  1. Clinical Utility of Echocardiography for the Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Vascular Disease in Young Children With Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mourani, Peter M.; Sontag, Marci K.; Younoszai, Adel; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Abman, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal was to determine the clinical utility of Doppler echocardiography in predicting the presence and severity of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic lung disease who subsequently underwent cardiac catheterization. Methods A retrospective review of data for all patients <2 years of age with a diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or lung hypoplasia who underwent echocardiography and subsequently underwent cardiac catheterization for evaluation of pulmonary hypertension was performed. The accuracy of echocardiography in diagnosing pulmonary hypertension, on the basis of estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure, was compared with the detection of pulmonary hypertension with the standard method of cardiac catheterization. Results Thirty-one linked measurements for 25 children were analyzed. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure could be estimated in 61% of studies, but there was poor correlation between echocardiography and cardiac catheterization measures of systolic pulmonary artery pressure in these infants. Compared with cardiac catheterization measurements, echocardiographic estimates of systolic pulmonary artery pressure diagnosed correctly the presence or absence of pulmonary hypertension in 79% of the studies in which systolic pulmonary artery pressure was estimated but determined the severity of pulmonary hypertension (severe pulmonary hypertension was defined as pulmonary/systemic pressure ratio of ≥0.67) correctly in only 47% of those studies. Seven (58%) of 12 children without estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure demonstrated pulmonary hypertension during subsequent cardiac catheterization. In the absence of estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure, qualitative echocardiographic findings, either alone or in combination, had worse predictive value for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion As used in clinical practice, echocardiography often identifies pulmonary

  2. The Role of Anion Exchanger on Pulmonary Vascular Response to Sustained Alveolar Hypoxia in the Isolated Perfused Rabbit Lung

    PubMed Central

    Ketabchi, Farzaneh; Mansoori, Somayeh; Moosavi, Seyed Mostafa Shid

    2015-01-01

    Background Some respiratory diseases may induce alveolar hypoxia thereby hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). However, the mechanisms of this physiologic phenomenon are not fully understood. This study was the first to investigate the role of anion exchanger in sustained HPV. Methods Experiments were performed in the isolated perfused rabbit lung. After preparation, the lungs were divided into six groups: two DIDS (4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene 2,2-disulfonic acid, anion exchanger inhibitor)-treated [200 µM (n=5) or 400 µM (n=3)] hypoxic groups, two HCO3- free hypoxic groups, one control hypoxic group (n=7) and one control normoxic group (n=4). DIDS were added to the perfusate at 10 minutes before starting the experiments. In the HCO3- free groups, HEPES (4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid) were added to the perfusate instead of bicarbonate. Furthermore, in the HEPES1 (n=4) and HEPES2 (n=4) groups, the lungs were ventilated with hypoxic gas with or without CO2, respectively. Results Ventilation of the lungs with hypoxic gas resulted in biphasic HPV, the acute (0-20 minutes) and sustained (20-60 minutes) phases. No alteration in both phases of HPV was detected by DIDS (200 µM). However, DIDS (400 µM), extended the ascending part of acute HPV until min 24. Both phases of HPV were decreased in the HEPES1 group. However, in the HEPES 2 group, HPV tended to increase during the rising part of the acute phase of HPV. Conclusions Since DIDS (400 µM) extended acute phase of HPV, and HCO3- free perfusate buffer enhanced rising phase of it, therefore it can be suggested that anion exchanger may modulate HPV especially during the acute phase. The abstract of this article was presented as a poster in the congress of European Respiratory Society (ERS) on Monday, 08 September 2014, Munich, Germany and was published in the ERJ September 1, 2014 vol. 44 no. Suppl 58 P2343. PMID:25999626

  3. A High-Affinity Protein Binder that Blocks the IL-6/STAT3 Signaling Pathway Effectively Suppresses Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joong-jae; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Chul-Su; Kyeong, Hyun-Ho; Choi, Jung-Min; Hwang, Da-Eun; Yuk, Jae-Min; Park, Keunwan; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Seung-Goo; Kim, Dongsup; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates immune responses for host defense and tumorigenic process. Upregulation of IL-6 is known to constitutively phosphorylate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), leading to activation of multiple oncogene pathways and inflammatory cascade. Here, we present the development of a high-affinity protein binder, termed repebody, which effectively suppresses non–small cell lung cancer in vivo by blocking the IL-6/STAT3 signaling. We selected a repebody that prevents human IL-6 (hIL-6) from binding to its receptor by a competitive immunoassay, and modulated its binding affinity for hIL-6 up to a picomolar range by a modular approach that mimics the combinatorial assembly of diverse modules to form antigen-specific receptors in nature. The resulting repebody was highly specific for hIL-6, effectively inhibiting the STAT3 phosphorylation in a dose- and binding affinity-response manner in vitro. The repebody was shown to have a remarkable suppression effect on the growth of tumors and STAT3 phosphorylation in xenograft mice with non–small cell lung cancer by blocking the hIL-6/STAT3 signaling. Structural analysis of the repebody and IL-6 complex revealed that the repebody binds the site 2a of hIL-6, overlapping a number of epitope residues at site 2a with gp130, and consequently causes a steric hindrance to the formation of IL-6/IL-6Rα complex. Our results suggest that high-affinity repebody targeting the IL-6/STAT3 pathway can be developed as therapeutics for non–small cell lung cancer. PMID:24682171

  4. BIBF 1120 (Nintedanib), a triple angiokinase inhibitor, induces hypoxia but not EMT and blocks progression of preclinical models of lung and pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cenik, Bercin Kutluk; Ostapoff, Katherine T.; Gerber, David E.; Brekken, Rolf A.

    2013-01-01

    Signaling from other angiokinases may underlie resistance to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-directed therapy. We evaluated the anti-tumor and biological effects of BIBF 1120 (nintedanib), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets VEGF receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), in preclinical models of lung and pancreatic cancer, including models resistant to VEGF-targeted treatments. In vitro, BIBF 1120 did not show anti-proliferative effects; nor did it sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapy. However, in vivo BIBF 1120 inhibited primary tumor growth in all models as a single agent and in combination with standard chemotherapy. Analysis of tumor tissue post treatment revealed that BIBF 1120 reduced proliferation (phospho-histone 3) and elevated apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3) to a greater extent than chemotherapy alone. Furthermore, BIBF 1120 showed potent anti-angiogenic effects, including decreases in microvessel density (CD31), pericyte coverage (NG2), vessel permeability and perfusion, while increasing hypoxia. Despite the induction of hypoxia, markers of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) were not elevated in BIBF 1120-treated tumors. In summary, BIBF 1120 demonstrated potent anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activity in preclinical models of lung and pancreatic cancer where it induced hypoxia but not EMT. The absence of EMT induction, which has been implicated in resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies, is noteworthy. Together, these results warrant further clinical studies of BIBF 1120. PMID:23729403

  5. Role of type II pneumocytes in pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis: dose response of radiation-induced lung changes in the transient high vascular permeability period.

    PubMed

    Osterreicher, Jan; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Skopek, Jirí; Mokrỳ, Jaroslav; Vilasová, Zdena; Psutka, Jan; Vávrová, Jirina; Mazurová, Yvona

    2004-12-01

    We studied the dose response of pulmonary changes at 3 weeks after 1-25 Gy irradiation and we investigated the effects of an anti-inflammatory drug. Wistar rats were given a single dose of 1-25Gy irradiation to the thorax. Group one was treated with saline only, while group two was administered subcutaneously a combination of pentoxifylline (35 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) twice per week. Lungs were examined histochemically and number of neutrophile granulocytes, alveolar septal thickness, air/tissue ratio, number of alveoli per field, number of type II pneumocytes per alveolus, and occludin 1 expression were measured. A significant dose-dependent depletion of type II pneumocytes was found after irradiation with a dose of 1 Gy and higher. Alveolar neutrophils increased after 1 Gy with a dose dependency noted after 10-25Gy and alveolar septa thickening followed 5-25 Gy. A lower occludin 1 expression was observed in animals irradiated with the doses of 5 20 Gy, indicating an effect on vascular permeability. Anti-inflammatory therapy partially inhibited the increase of neutrophils at all radiation doses and the depletion of type II pneumocytes after doses of 1, 10, and 15 Gy. Occludin 1 did not decrease in the lungs of rats treated with the anti-inflammatory drugs as it did in most rats treated only with saline. Our results suggest that pneumocytes depletion is a major factor responsible for radiation pneumonitis development and that these changes may be compensated for provided radiation doses are below the threshold. PMID:15625787

  6. Control of HIF-1{alpha} and vascular signaling in fetal lung involves cross talk between mTORC1 and the FGF-10/FGFR2b/Spry2 airway branching periodicity clock.

    PubMed

    Scott, C L; Walker, D J; Cwiklinski, E; Tait, C; Tee, A R; Land, S C

    2010-10-01

    Lung development requires coordinated signaling between airway and vascular growth, but the link between these processes remains unclear. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) can amplify hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) vasculogenic activity through an NH(2)-terminal mTOR binding (TOS) motif. We hypothesized that this mechanism coordinates vasculogenesis with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-10/FGF-receptor2b/Spry2 regulator of airway branching. First, we tested if the HIF-1α TOS motif participated in epithelial-mesenchymal vascular signaling. mTORC1 activation by insulin significantly amplified HIF-1α activity at fetal Po(2) (23 mmHg) in human bronchial epithelium (16HBE14o-) and induced vascular traits (Flk1, sprouting) in cocultured human embryonic lung mesenchyme (HEL-12469). This enhanced activation of HIF-1α by mTORC1 was abolished on expression of a HIF-1α (F99A) TOS-mutant and also suppressed vascular differentiation of HEL-12469 cocultures. Next, we determined if vasculogenesis in fetal lung involved regulation of mTORC1 by the FGF-10/FGFR2b/Spry2 pathway. Fetal airway epithelium displayed distinct mTORC1 activity in situ, and its hyperactivation by TSC1(-/-) knockout induced widespread VEGF expression and disaggregation of Tie2-positive vascular bundles. FGF-10-coated beads grafted into fetal lung explants from Tie2-LacZ transgenic mice induced localized vascular differentiation in the peripheral mesenchyme. In rat fetal distal lung epithelial (FDLE) cells cultured at fetal Po(2), FGF-10 induced mTORC1 and amplified HIF-1α activity and VEGF secretion without induction of ERK1/2. This was accompanied by the formation of a complex between Spry2, the cCBL ubiquitin ligase, and the mTOR repressor, TSC2, which abolished GTPase activity directed against Rheb, the G protein inducer of mTORC1. Thus, mTORC1 links HIF-1α-driven vasculogenesis with the FGF-10/FGFR2b/Spry2 airway branching periodicity regulator. PMID:20622121

  7. Atorvastatin reduces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) via inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Liu, Bing; Yuan, Jiayi; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Jingjie; An, Yu; Tie, Lu; Pan, Yan; Li, Xuejun

    2012-02-01

    The high metastatic potential of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) is closely correlated with the elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and resultant tumor angiogenesis. However, no effective strategies against VEGF expression have been available in NSCLCs therapy. This study demonstrated that elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels derived from both mitochondria and NADPH oxidase were required for VEGF expression in NSCLC cells. Atorvastatin administration could significantly inhibit VEGF expression both in vitro and in vivo via inhibition of ROS production. Atorvastatin inhibited ROS generation partly through suppression of Rac1/NADPH oxidase activity. Specifically, atorvastatin could upregulate the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase, which are responsible for elimination of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the mitochondria and peroxisomes, respectively. Thus, inhibition of ROS production by concomitant suppression of Rac1/NADPH oxidase activity and upregulation of the activity of GPx and catalase contributes critically to atorvastatin-reduced VEGF expression in NSCLCs. Atorvastatin may be a potential alternative against VEGF expression and angiogenesis in NSCLCs therapy. PMID:22153388

  8. Decreased maspin combined with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor C is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Yang; Li, Shaolei; Dong, Bin; Zheng, Qingfeng; Yan, Shi; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jianzhi; Fang, Jian; Wu, Nan; Wu, Huijuan; Yang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of the combination of maspin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed to assay the expression of maspin and VEGF-C in primary tumor tissues, metastatic, and non-metastatic lymph nodes in 98 NSCLC patients. Survival analysis was determined by Kaplan-Meier curves. Results The positive expression rate of maspin was 26.5% (26/98) in NSCLC primary tumor tissues, significantly associated with histological type (P = 0.005) and the absence of nodal metastasis (P < 0.001). The expression of maspin in primary tumor tissues was stronger than metastatic lymph nodes of the N1 group (P = 0.048), while the metastatic lymph nodes of the N1 group had a stronger maspin expression than the N2 group (P = 0.008). In survival analysis, a positive expression of maspin of the N1 lymph node was also found to be an independent positive prognostic factor in overall survival (P = 0.003). We also found that decreased maspin combined with elevated VEGF-C is associated with a poor prognosis for disease-free survival (P = 0.019). Conclusion Our results suggest that positive expression of maspin might significantly inhibit nodal metastasis in NSCLC. Decreased maspin combined with elevated VEGF-C might be associated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC. PMID:26767029

  9. Lung Cancer Lymph Node Micrometastasis Detection Using RT-PCR – Correlation with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) expression

    PubMed Central

    Nwogu, Chukwumere E.; Yendamuri, Sai; Tan, Wei; Kannisto, Eric; Bogner, Paul; Morrison, Carl; Cheney, Richard; Dexter, Elisabeth; Picone, Anthony; Hennon, Mark; Hutson, Alan; Reid, Mary; Adjei, Alex; Demmy, Todd L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Lymph node (LN) staging provides critical information in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Lymphangiogenesis may be an important contributor to the pathophysiology of lymphatic metastases. We hypothesized that the presence of lymph node micrometastases positively correlates with VEGF-A/C/D and VEGF-receptor-3 (lymphangiogenic factors) expression in lymph nodes. Methods Forty NSCLC patients had pre-operative PET-CT and mediastinoscopy. RT-PCR assays for mRNA expression of epithelial markers (CK-7, CEACAM-5 and PLUNC) were performed in selected fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes. VEGF-A/C/D and VEGF-receptor-3 expression levels were measured in primary tumors and lymph nodes. Wilcoxon rank sum test was run for the association between the RT-PCR epithelial marker levels and VEGF expression levels in the LNs. Results RT-PCR for CK-7, CEACAM5 or PLUNC indicated lymph node micrometastatic disease in 19 of 35 patients (54%). There was a high correlation between detection of micrometastases and VEGF-A/C/D or VEGF-receptor-3 expression levels in lymph nodes. Median follow-up was 12.6 months. Conclusions RT-PCR analysis of FDG-avid lymph nodes results in up-staging of patients. Micrometastases correlate with the expression of VEGF in lymph nodes in NSCLC patients. This may reflect the role of lymphangiogenesis in promoting metastases. PMID:23414988

  10. Inhibition of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type II Suppresses Lung Carcinogenesis by Blocking Tumor COX-2 Expression as Well as the ERK and mTOR Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shilin; Yao, Bing; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiaoping; Pozzi, Ambra; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer death. Early diagnosis and prevention remain the best approach to reduce the overall morbidity and mortality. Experimental and clinical evidence have shown that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contributes to lung tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors suppress the development and progression of lung cancer. However, increased cardiovascular risks of COX-2 inhibitors limit their use in chemoprevention of lung cancers. Glucocorticoids are endogenous and potent COX-2 inhibitors, and their local actions are down-regulated by 11β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (11ßHSD2)-mediated metabolism. We found that 11βHSD2 expression was increased in human lung cancers and experimental lung tumors. Inhibition of 11βHSD2 activity enhanced glucocorticoid-mediated COX-2 inhibition in human lung carcinoma cells. Furthermore, 11βHSD2 inhibition suppressed lung tumor growth and invasion in association with increased tissue active glucocorticoid levels, decreased COX-2 expression, inhibition of ERK and mTOR signaling pathways, increased tumor endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as increased lifespan. Therefore, 11βHSD2 inhibition represents a novel approach for lung cancer chemoprevention and therapy by increasing tumor glucocorticoid activity, which in turn selectively blocks local COX-2 activity and/or inhibits the ERK and mTOR signaling pathways. PMID:26011146

  11. Fangchinoline inhibits the proliferation of SPC-A-1 lung cancer cells by blocking cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    LUO, XUE; PENG, JIAN-MING; SU, LAN-DI; WANG, DONG-YAN; YU, YOU-JIANG

    2016-01-01

    Fangchinoline (Fan) is a bioactive compound isolated from the Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra S. Moore (Fen Fang Ji). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Fan on the proliferation of SPC-A-1 lung cancer cells, and to define the associated molecular mechanisms. Following treatment with Fan, Cell Counting Kit-8, phase contrast imaging and Giemsa staining assays were used to detect cell viability; flow cytometry was performed to analyze the cell cycle distribution; and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays were used to investigate changes in the expression levels of cell cycle-associated genes and proteins. In the present study, treatment with Fan markedly inhibited the proliferation of SPC-A-1 lung cancer cells and significantly increased the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05 for 2.5–5 µm; P<0.01 for 10 µm), whereas the percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phases were significantly reduced following treatment (P<0.05 for 5 µm; P<0.01 for 10 µm). Mechanistically, Fan significantly reduced the mRNA expression levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 (P<0.05 for 2.5–5 µm; P<0.01 for 10 µm), which are key genes in the regulation of the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, treatment with Fan also decreased the expression of phosphorylated retinoblastoma (Rb) and E2F transcription factor-1 (E2F-1) proteins (P<0.05 for 5 µm; P<0.01 for 10 µm). In summary, the present study demonstrated that Fan inhibited the proliferation of SPC-A-1 lung cancer cells and induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. These effects may be mediated by the downregulation of cellular CDK4, CDK6 and cyclin D1 levels, thus leading to hypophosphorylation of Rb and subsequent suppression of E2F-1 activity. Therefore, the present results suggest that Fan may be a potential drug candidate for the prevention of lung cancer. PMID

  12. Role of FNAC, fluid specimens, and cell blocks for cytological diagnosis of lung cancer in the present era

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nalini; Sekar, Aravind; Rajwanshi, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Cytoblocks prepared from residual tissue fluids and fine-needle aspirations can be useful adjuncts to smears for establishing a more definitive cytopathologic diagnosis. These paraffin embedded cytoblocks have been popular since these can be handled like any other histologic specimen. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) can help in attaining adequate material in the cytoblock, which is a major concern to the cytopathologists. Ancillary studies can be done using cytoblocks including IHC and various molecular techniques. The opportunities for cytopathologists to influence therapy, and uncover strategies in the complex field of lung cancer are exciting and limitless especially in the presence of an adequate cytoblock PMID:26811567

  13. [Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells via blocking JAK1/STAT3 pathway].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuntao; Zhang, Jinji; Liu, Tienan; Jiao, Guimei; Li, Changzai; Hu, Baoshan

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-tumor effects of astaxanthin on A549 lung cancer cells and the related mechanisms. Methods A549 cells were cultured with various concentrations of astaxanthin (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μmol/L), and DMSO at the same concentrations served as vehicle controls. The viability of A549 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay; cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by flow cytometry; and the expressions of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) were evaluated by Western blotting. Results CCK-8 assay showed that astaxanthin decreased the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Western blotting showed that astaxanthin up-regulated the expression of Bax and down-regulated the expressions of Bcl-2, STAT3 and JAK1. Conclusion Astaxanthin functions as a potent inhibitor of A549 lung cancer cell growth by targeting JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:27371847

  14. Blocking the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition pathway abrogates resistance to anti-folate chemotherapy in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liang, S-Q; Marti, T M; Dorn, P; Froment, L; Hall, S R R; Berezowska, S; Kocher, G; Schmid, R A; Peng, R-W

    2015-01-01

    Anticancer therapies currently used in the clinic often can neither eradicate the tumor nor prevent disease recurrence due to tumor resistance. In this study, we showed that chemoresistance to pemetrexed, a multi-target anti-folate (MTA) chemotherapeutic agent for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is associated with a stem cell-like phenotype characterized by an enriched stem cell gene signature, augmented aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and greater clonogenic potential. Mechanistically, chemoresistance to MTA requires activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway in that an experimentally induced EMT per se promotes chemoresistance in NSCLC and inhibition of EMT signaling by kaempferol renders the otherwise chemoresistant cancer cells susceptible to MTA. Relevant to the clinical setting, human primary NSCLC cells with an elevated EMT signaling feature a significantly enhanced potential to resist MTA, whereas concomitant administration of kaempferol abrogates MTA chemoresistance, regardless of whether it is due to an intrinsic or induced activation of the EMT pathway. Collectively, our findings reveal that a bona fide activation of EMT pathway is required and sufficient for chemoresistance to MTA and that kaempferol potently regresses this chemotherapy refractory phenotype, highlighting the potential of EMT pathway inhibition to enhance chemotherapeutic response of lung cancer. PMID:26181204

  15. Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marla N

    2016-08-01

    Vascular lesions in childhood are comprised of vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors encompass neoplasms of the vascular system, of which infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common. Vascular malformations, on the other hand, consist of lesions due to anomalous development of the vascular system, including the capillary, venous, arterial, and lymphatic systems. Capillary malformations represent the most frequent type of vascular malformation. IHs and vascular malformations tend to follow relatively predictable growth patterns in that IHs grow then involute during early childhood, whereas vascular malformations tend to exhibit little change. Both vascular tumors and vascular malformations can demonstrate a wide range of severity and potential associated complications necessitating specialist intervention when appropriate. Evaluation and treatment of the most common types of vascular lesions are discussed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e299-e305.]. PMID:27517358

  16. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression in human vascular endothelial and lung epithelial cells: modulation by tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Burke-Gaffney, A.; Hellewell, P. G.

    1996-01-01

    1. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) increases the expression of the adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on cultured endothelial and epithelial cells and modulation of this may be important in controlling inflammation. Activation of tyrosine kinase(s) is known to be involved in the signal transduction pathways of many cytokines. In this study we have investigated the effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, ST638, tyrphostin AG 1288 and genistein, on TNF alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression in human alveolar epithelial (A549) and vascular endothelial (EAhy926) cell lines and also normal human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC). 2. ICAM-1 expression on cultured cells was determined by a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Endothelial or epithelial monolayers were exposed to increasing doses of TNF-alpha (0.01-10 ng ml-1), in the presence or absence of either ST638 (3-100 microM), AG 1288 (3-100 microM) or genistein (100 microM) and ICAM-1 expression was measured at 4 and 24 h. Control experiments examined the effect of ST638 on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 20 ng ml-1, 4 h)-stimulated ICAM-1 and compared it to that of a specific protein kinase C inhibitor, R031-8220 (10 microM). Also, functional consequences of changes in ICAM-1 expression were assessed by measuring adhesion of 111 In-labelled human neutrophils to EAhy926 endothelial and A549 epithelial monolayers treated with TNF alpha, in the presence or absence of ST638. 3. ST638 caused a concentration-dependent reduction in TNF alpha- (0.1-10 ng ml-1)-induced ICAM-1 on EAhy926 endothelial (at 4 h) and A549 epithelial monolayers (at 4 and 24 h). In contrast, ST638 caused a concentration-dependent increase in TNF alpha- (0.1-10 ng ml-1)-induced ICAM-1 on EAhy926 endothelial cells at 24 h. Similar effects were seen with AG 1288 or genistein. ST638 (100 microM) significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited ICAM-1 expression on HLMVEC endothelial cells induced by

  17. Effects of Feijining Decoction on vascular endothelial growth factor protein expression and changes of T cell subsets in Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, LIJIANG; PAN, YUZHEN; XING, YUQING; GAO, HONG; XIE, XIAODONG; YIN, DONGFENG

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is crucial for cancer growth and metastasis. T cells are also key members of the adaptive immunity against tumorigenesis. The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of Feijining Decoction (FJND) on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression and T cell subsets [cluster of differentiation 4+(CD4+) and CD8+ T lymphocyte] in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-bearing mice. C57BL/6J mice were subcutaneously implanted with LLC cells. Forty carcinoma-bearing mice were randomly assigned to four groups (10 animals/group). The control group (CG) were the untreated group, the cisplatinum (DDP) group (DG) mice were treated with DDP, the FJND group (FG) were treated with FJND and the FJND + DDP group (FDG) were treated with FJND and DDP. Western blot and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the VEGF protein expression of tumor tissue and T cell subsets of the spleen. Spontaneous activity in 5 min was observed by the photoelectric counting method. DDP + FJND (FDG group) markedly inhibited tumor growth compared to the DG mice. The protein expression of VEGF was significantly downregulated in the carcinoma of FG mice compared to CG mice. VEGF protein expression was significantly reduced in FDG compared to DG mice. In the FG mice, the splenic CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ cells were significantly increased compared to the CG mice, and the splenic CD4+ cells in the FDG mice were significantly increased compared to the DG group. In conclusion, FJND can inhibit tumor growth by downregulating VEGF protein expression and improving the immune function. PMID:26137245

  18. Novel functional germline variants in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 gene and their effect on gene expression and microvessel density in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glubb, Dylan M; Cerri, Elisa; Giese, Alexandra; Zhang, Wei; Mirza, Osman; Thompson, Emma E.; Chen, Peixian; Das, Soma; Jassem, Jacek; Rzyman, Witold; Lingen, Mark W.; Salgia, Ravi; Hirsch, Fred R.; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Ballmer-Hofer, Kurt; Innocenti, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Purpose VEGFR-2 plays a crucial role in mediating angiogenic endothelial cell responses via the VEGF pathway and angiogenesis inhibitors targeting VEGFR-2 are in clinical use. As angiogenesis is a host-driven process, functional heritable variation in KDR, the gene encoding VEGFR-2, may affect VEGFR-2 function, and ultimately, the extent of tumor angiogenesis. Experimental Design We resequenced KDR using 24 DNAs each from healthy Caucasian, African American and Asian groups. Non-synonymous genetic variants were assessed for function using phosphorylation assays. Luciferase reporter gene assays were used to examine effects of variants on gene expression. KDR mRNA and protein expression, and microvessel density (MVD) were measured in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor samples and matching patient DNA samples were genotyped to test for associations with variants of interest. Results KDR resequencing led to the discovery of 120 genetic variants, of which 25 had not been previously reported. Q472H had increased VEGFR-2 protein phosphorylation and associated with increased MVD in NSCLC tumor samples. −2854C and −2455A increased luciferase expression and associated with higher KDR mRNA levels in NSCLC samples. −271A reduced luciferase expression and associated with lower VEGFR-2 levels in NSCLC samples. −906C and 23408G, associated with higher KDR mRNA levels in NSCLC samples. Conclusions This study has defined KDR genetic variation in three populations and identified common variants that impact on tumoral KDR expression and vascularization. These findings may have important implications for understanding the molecular basis of genetic associations between KDR variation and clinical phenotypes related to VEGFR-2 function. PMID:21712447

  19. Analysis of Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha in Patients Operated on Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Arnau Obrer, Antonio; Figueroa Almánzar, Santiago; León Atance, Pablo; Guijarro Jorge, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recent studies show that expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) favours expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and these biomarkers are linked to cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in different cancers. We analyze expression of HIF-1α and VEGF-A to clinicopathologic features and survival of patients operated on stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Methodology. Prospective study of 52 patients operated on with stage I. Expression of VEGF-A and HIF-1α was performed through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results. Mean age was 64.7 and 86.5% of patients were male. Stage IA represented 23.1% and stage IB 76.9%. Histology classification was 42.3% adenocarcinoma, 34.6% squamous cell carcinoma, and 23.1% others. Median survival was 81.0 months and 5-year survival 67.2%. There was correlation between HIF-1α and VEGF-A (P = 0.016). Patients with overexpression of HIF-1α had a tendency to better survival with marginal statistical significance (P = 0.062). Patients with overexpression of VEGF-A had worse survival, but not statistically significant (P = 0.133). Conclusion. The present study revealed that VEGF-A showed correlation with HIF-1α. HIF-1α had a tendency to protective effect with a P value close to statistical significance. VEGF-A showed a contrary effect but without statistical significance. PMID:26316946

  20. The relationship between microvessel count and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, p53, and K-ras in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Y. H.; Kim, K. S.; Yu, Y. K.; Lim, S. C.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, K. O.

    2001-01-01

    Using immunohistochemical staining, we studied the relationship between the microvessel count (MC) and the expression of K-ras, mutant p53 protein, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 61 surgically resected non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) (42 squamous cell carcinoma, 14 adenocarcinoma, 2 large cell carcinoma, 2 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 1 mucoepidermoid carcinoma). MC of the tumors with lymph node (LN) metastasis was significantly higher than that of tumors without LN metastasis (66.1+/-23.1 vs. 33.8+/-13.1, p<0.05). VEGF was positive in 54 patients (88.5%). MC was 58.1+/-25.2 (mean+/-S.D.) in a x200 field, and it was significantly higher in VEGF(+) tumors than in VEGF(-) tumors (61.4+/-23.7 vs. 32.9+/-23.8, p<0.05). VEGF expression was higher in K-ras-positive or mutant p53-positive tumors than in negative tumors (p<0.05). MC was significantly higher in K-ras(+) tumors than in K-ras(-) tumors, although it did not differ according to the level of mutant p53 protein expression. Survival did not differ with VEGF, mutant p53, or K-ras expression, or the level of MC. In conclusion, there is a flow of molecular alterations from K-ras and p53, to VEGF expression, leading to angiogenesis and ultimately lymph node metastasis. Correlations between variables in close approximation and the lack of prognostic significance of individual molecular alterations suggest that tumorigenesis and metastasis are multifactorial processes. PMID:11511786

  1. [The measurement of extra vascular lung water using a thermal-sodium double indicator dilution technique in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Kusajima, K; Kawaharada, N; Komatsu, K; Sugimoto, S; Doi, H; Tanaka, A; Takeda, H; Mishina, H; Komatsu, S

    1990-11-01

    The Extra Vascular Lung Water (EVLW) was measured using the thermal sodium double indicator dilution technique in 21 patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer. This measurement is an important parameter in the control of the respiratory function. In the 16 cases without pulmonary complications, the preoperative EVLW was 5.3 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- SEM) ml/kg and the immediate postoperative EVLW was 4.8 +/- 0.4 ml/kg. This change was significant (p less than 0.05), but within 24 hours the EVLW returned to almost the same levels as those recorded before surgery. In only 3 cases, the EVLW were elevated beyond 7.5 ml/kg, but these high EVLW levels did not continue for more than 12 hours. Of the 5 patients with pulmonary complications, only two experienced pulmonary edema. Their preoperative EVLW levels were normal, but the immediate postoperative EVLW levels were significantly elevated beyond 10 ml/kg. These elevated levels were observed before the PaO2, the portable chest roentgenograms and the other test results changed following surgery. The high EVLW levels beyond 7.5 ml/kg continued for 72 hours after surgery. We found no correlation between the EVLW and measureable hemodynamic parameters (Cardiac Index, Pulmonary Wedge Pressure, Colloid Osmotic Pressure-Pulmonary Wedge Pressure gradient) during the observation period. In the other cases with pulmonary complications (2 cases were pneumonia, one was atelectasis with pneumonia), the changes in the EVLW levels were the same as for the cases without pulmonary complications. These results indicate that the EVLW is the optimum parameter for the control of the respiratory function and early diagnosis of pulmonary edema after surgery for esophageal cancer. PMID:2280095

  2. Vaccination with a mutated variant of human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) blocks VEGF-induced retinal neovascularization in a rabbit experimental model.

    PubMed

    Morera, Yanelys; González, Rafael; Lamdan, Humberto; Pérez, Lincidio; González, Yorlandis; Agüero, Judith; Castro, Jorge; Romero, Juan C; Etchegoyen, Ana Yansy; Ayala, Marta; Gavilondo, Jorge V

    2014-05-01

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a key driver of the neovascularization and vascular permeability that leads to the loss of visual acuity of eye diseases like wet age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema, and retinopathy of premature. Among the several anti-VEGF therapies under investigation for the treatment of neovascular eye diseases, our group has developed the vaccine candidate CIGB-247-V that uses a mutated form of human VEGF as antigen. In this work we evaluated if the vaccine could prevent or attenuate VEGF-induced retinal neovascularization in the course of a rabbit eye neovascularization model, based on direct intravitreal injection of human VEGF. Our experimental findings have shown that anti-VEGF IgG antibodies induced by the vaccine were available in the retina blood circulation, and could neutralize in situ the neovascularization effect of VEGF. CIGB-247-V vaccination proved to effectively reduce retinal neovascularization caused by intravitreal VEGF injection. Altogether, these results open the way for human studies of the vaccine in neovascular eye syndromes, and inform on the potential mechanisms involved in its effect. PMID:24675387

  3. Utility of Cell-Block of Bronchial Washings in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer- A Comparative Analysis with Conventional Smear Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Vadala, Rohit; Mandrekar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bronchoscopy is a safe & effective means of diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma with a varying diagnostic yield of different bronchoscopic procedures. Cell-Block (CB) preparation of cytology specimen has been shown to increase the diagnostic yield further. To the authors’ knowledge, the diagnostic value of CB as an adjunct to conventional smear cytology (CS) of bronchial washing specimens in the detection of bronchogenic carcinoma has not been well evaluated. Aim The present study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of CB of bronchial washings when compared with CS. Materials and Methods A total of 104 patients of suspected bronchogenic carcinoma were subjected to bronchoscopy as per British Thoracic Society (BTS) protocol. Bronchial biopsy, brushings and washings were collected. Smears were prepared immediately of bronchial washings and another aliquot was subjected to CB preparation and further processing by paraffin embedding and H&E staining. Results Out of 104 patients, 92 were diagnosed by bronchoscopy with a cumulative diagnostic yield of all sampling techniques being 88.46%. Yield of CB of bronchial washings (44.23%) was higher than Bronchial washings – conventional smears (36.53%). CB detected additional 8 cases of malignancy where corresponding bronchial washings-conventional smears were negative. Exclusive diagnosis by CB was obtained in 2 cases. Brushings and biopsy confirmed malignancy in 49.03% and 57.69% cases. Conclusion CB of bronchial washings had a higher yield as compared to corresponding conventional smears. Increase in yield was also noted when CB of bronchial washings was combined with biopsy and compared to bronchial washings- conventional smears combined with biopsy. In limited resource settings, CB preparation is a simple method that increases diagnostic yield of flexible bronchoscopy, is cost effective & hence can be routinely used. The immunohistochemical and molecular studies are possible with CB only, which is a

  4. [Extended hypothermic heart-lung preservation system for cardiopulmonary preservation with retrograde coronary sinus perfusion and lung immersion].

    PubMed

    Senoo, Y; Bando, K; Tago, M; Seno, S; Teraoka, H; Teramoto, S

    1990-09-01

    One major restriction of clinical heart-lung transplantation has been the inability to provide extended hypothermic organ preservation. We examined whether core-cooling, retrograde heart perfusion and lung immersion could provide adequate cardiopulmonary preservation. Hence, donor dogs were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass, and rapidly cooled to 15 degrees C. Then heterotopic heart unilateral left lung transplantations were performed. In control group I (n = 5), hearts and lungs were harvested following core-cooling and cardioplegic arrest, and transplanted immediately. In experimental group II (n = 5), heart-lung blocks were similarly excised but stored at 4 degrees C for 12 hours and then transplanted. During preservation, the lungs were immersed in the extracellular solution. For the heart, non-recirculating retrograde coronary sinus perfusion was performed with oxygenated intracellular solution containing perfluorochemicals. Myocardial function determined by the ratio of end-systolic pressure to end-systolic dimension in the experimental group was similar to that in controls. Although pulmonary vascular resistance and extravascular lung water of the experimental group was higher than those in control group, arterial oxygenation was similar in both groups. Thus, extended heart-lung preservation with core-cooling, retrograde heart perfusion and lung immersion technique could be achieved for heart-lung transplantation. PMID:2246529

  5. Study of Stress Induced Failure of the Blood-gas Barrier and the Epithelial-epithelial Cells Connections of the Lung of the Domestic Fowl, Gallus gallus Variant Domesticus after Vascular Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Maina, John N; Jimoh, Sikiru A

    2013-01-01

    Complete blood-gas barrier breaks (BGBBs) and epithelial-epithelial cells connections breaks (E-ECCBs) were enumerated in the lungs of free range chickens, Gallus gallus variant domesticus after vascular perfusion at different pressures. The E-ECCBs surpassed the BGBBs by a factor of ~2. This showed that the former parts of the gas exchange tissue were structurally weaker or more vulnerable to failure than the latter. The differences in the numbers of BGBBs and E-ECCBs in the different regions of the lung supplied with blood by the 4 main branches of the pulmonary artery (PA) corresponded with the diameters of the blood vessels, the angles at which they bifurcated from the PA, and the positions along the PA where they branched off. Most of the BGBBs and the E-ECCBs occurred in the regions supplied by the accessory- and the caudomedial branches: the former is the narrowest branch and the first blood vessel to separate from the PA while the latter is the most direct extension of the PA and is the widest. The E-ECCBs appeared to separate and fail from tensing of the blood capillary walls, as the perfusion- and intramural pressures increased. Compared to the mammalian lungs on which data are available, i.e., those of the rabbit, the dog, and the horse, the blood-gas barrier of the lung of free range chickens appears to be substantially stronger for its thinness. PMID:25288905

  6. Inhibition of multiple vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) blocks lymph node metastases but inhibition of VEGFR-2 is sufficient to sensitize tumor cells to platinum-based chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sini, Patrizia; Samarzija, Ivana; Baffert, Fabienne; Littlewood-Evans, Amanda; Schnell, Christian; Theuer, Andreas; Christian, Sven; Boos, Anja; Hess-Stumpp, Holger; Foekens, John A; Setyono-Han, Buddy; Wood, Jeanette; Hynes, Nancy E

    2008-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) have important roles in cancer, affecting blood and lymphatic vessel functionality as well as tumor cells themselves. We compared the efficacy of a VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PTK787/ZK222584 (PTK/ZK), which targets the three VEGFRs, with blocking antibodies directed against VEGFR-2 (DC101) or VEGF-A (Pab85618) in a metastatic melanoma model. Although all inhibitors exerted comparable effects on primary tumor growth, only PTK/ZK significantly reduced lymph node metastasis formation. A comparable decrease in lymphatic vessel density following blockade of VEGFR-2 (DC101) or the three VEGFRs (PTK/ZK) was observed in the metastases. However, the functionality of lymphatics surrounding the primary tumor was more significantly disrupted by PTK/ZK, indicating the importance of multiple VEGFRs in the metastatic process. The antimetastatic properties of PTK/ZK were confirmed in a breast carcinoma model. B16/BL6 tumor cells express VEGF ligands and their receptors. Blockade of a VEGFR-1 autocrine loop with PTK/ZK inhibited tumor cell migration. Furthermore, the tumor cells also showed enhanced sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy in combination with PTK/ZK, indicating that autocrine VEGFRs are promoting tumor cell migration and survival. In summary, our results suggest that, in addition to blocking angiogenesis, combined inhibition of the three VEGFRs may more efficiently target other aspects of tumor pathophysiology, including lymphatic vessel functionality, tumor cell dissemination, survival pathways, and response to chemotherapeutic compounds. PMID:18316624

  7. α4-Integrin Antibody Treatment Blocks Monocyte/Macrophage Traffic to, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression in, and Pathology of the Dorsal Root Ganglia in an SIV Macaque Model of HIV-Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lakritz, Jessica R; Thibault, Derek M; Robinson, Jake A; Campbell, Jennifer H; Miller, Andrew D; Williams, Kenneth C; Burdo, Tricia H

    2016-07-01

    Traffic of activated monocytes into the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is critical for pathology in HIV peripheral neuropathy. We have shown that accumulation of recently recruited (bromodeoxyuridine(+) MAC387(+)) monocytes is associated with severe DRG pathology and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in SIV-infected macaques. Herein, we blocked leukocyte traffic by treating animals with natalizumab, which binds to α4-integrins. SIV-infected CD8-depleted macaques treated with natalizumab either early (the day of infection) or late (28 days after infection) were compared with untreated SIV-infected animals sacrificed at similar times. Histopathology showed diminished DRG pathology with natalizumab treatment, including decreased inflammation, neuronophagia, and Nageotte nodules. Natalizumab treatment resulted in a decrease in the number of bromodeoxyuridine(+) (early), MAC387(+) (late), CD68(+) (early and late), and SIVp28(+) (late) macrophages in DRG tissues. The number of CD3(+) T lymphocytes in DRGs was not affected by natalizumab treatment. Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, an adhesion molecule that mediates leukocyte traffic, was diminished in DRGs of all natalizumab-treated animals. These data show that blocking monocyte, but not T lymphocyte, traffic to the DRG results in decreased inflammation and pathology, supporting a role for monocyte traffic and activation in HIV peripheral neuropathy. PMID:27157989

  8. BET Bromodomain Suppression Inhibits VEGF-induced Angiogenesis and Vascular Permeability by Blocking VEGFR2-mediated Activation of PAK1 and eNOS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mingcheng; Qiu, Qian; Xiao, Youjun; Zeng, Shan; Zhan, Mingying; Shi, Maohua; Zou, Yaoyao; Ye, Yujin; Liang, Liuqin; Yang, Xiuyan; Xu, Hanshi

    2016-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a critical modulator of angiogenesis. Increasing evidence indicate the important role of bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) of chromatin adaptors in regulating tumor growth and inflammatory response. However, whether BET proteins have a role in angiogenesis and endothelial permeability is unclear. In this study, we observed that treatment with JQ1, a specific BET inhibitor, suppressed in vitro tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo angiogenesis in a Matrigel plug and oxygen-induced retinopathy neovascularization. JQ1 attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER in HUVECs and prevented Evans blue dye leakage in the VEGF-induced Miles assay in athymic Balb/c nude mice. BET inhibition with JQ1 or shRNA for Brd2 or Brd4 suppressed VEGF-induced migration, proliferation, and stress fiber formation of HUVECs. Furthermore, BET inhibition suppressed phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and PAK1, as well as eNOS activation in VEGF-stimulated HUVECs. Inhibition with VEGFR2 and PAK1 also reduced migration and proliferation, and attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER. Thus, our observations suggest the important role of BET bromodomain in regulating VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Strategies that target the BET bromodomain may provide a new therapeutic approach for angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:27044328

  9. Factor VIIa binding to endothelial cell protein C receptor protects vascular barrier integrity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    SUNDARAM, J.; KESHAVA, S.; GOPALAKRISHNAN, R.; ESMON, C. T.; PENDURTHI, U. R.; RAO, L . V. M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Recent studies have shown that factor VIIa binds to endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR), a cellular receptor for protein C and activated protein C. At present, the physiologic significance of FVIIa interaction with EPCR in vivo remains unclear. Objective: To investigate whether exogenously administered FVIIa, by binding to EPCR, induces a barrier protective effect in vivo. Methods Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced vascular leakage in the lung and kidney, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular leakage in the skin, were used to evaluate the FVIIa-induced barrier protective effect. Wild-type, EPCR-deficient, EPCR-overexpressing and hemophilia A mice were used in the studies. Results Administration of FVIIa reduced LPS-induced vascular leakage in the lung and kidney; the FVIIa-induced barrier protective effect was attenuated in EPCR-deficient mice. The extent of VEGF-induced vascular leakage in the skin was highly dependent on EPCR expression levels. Therapeutic concentrations of FVIIa attenuated VEGF-induced vascular leakage in control mice but not in EPCR-deficient mice. Blockade of FVIIa binding to EPCR with a blocking mAb completely attenuated the FVIIa-induced barrier protective effect. Similarly, administration of protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist blocked the FVIIa-induced barrier protective effect. Hemophilic mice showed increased vascular permeability, and administration of therapeutic concentrations of FVIIa improved barrier integrity in these mice. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that FVIIa binding to EPCR leads to a barrier protective effect in vivo. This finding may have clinical relevance, as it indicates additional advantages of using FVIIa in treating hemophilic patients. PMID:24977291

  10. Dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, blocks differentiation of normal fibroblasts to a myofibroblast phenotype and demonstrates anti-fibrotic effects on scleroderma lung fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bogatkevich, Galina S.; Ludwicka-Bradley, Anna; Silver, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Myofibroblasts are the principal mesenchymal cells responsible for tissue remodeling, collagen deposition, and the restrictive nature of lung parenchyma associated with pulmonary fibrosis. We previously reported that thrombin activates protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 thereby inducing normal lung fibroblasts to differentiate to a myofibroblast phenotype resembling scleroderma lung myofibroblasts. Here we demonstrate that the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran inhibits in a dose-dependant manner thrombin's induction of myofibroblasts. Dabigatran inhibits thrombin-induced cell proliferation, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and organization, and the production of collagen and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Moreover, when treated with dabigatran scleroderma lung myofibroblasts produce less CTGF, α-SMA, and collagen type I. We conclude that dabigatran restrains important profibrotic events in lung fibroblasts and that this oral direct thrombin inhibitor warrants study as a potential anti-fibrotic drug for the treatment of fibrosing lung diseases, e.g. scleroderma lung disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:19877031

  11. Blocking SDF-1α/CXCR4 downregulates PDGF-B and inhibits bone marrow-derived pericyte differentiation and tumor vascular expansion in Ewing tumors.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Randala; Zhou, Zhichao; Kleinerman, Eugenie S

    2014-02-01

    Bone marrow cells (BMC) are critical to the expansion of the tumor vessel network that supports Ewing sarcoma growth. BMCs migrate to the tumor and differentiate into endothelial cells and pericytes. We recently demonstrated that stromal-derived growth factor 1α (SDF-1α) regulates platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) and that this pathway plays a critical role in bone marrow-derived pericyte differentiation in vitro. We investigated the role of SDF-1α/PDGF-B in the tumor microenvironment in vivo in promoting bone marrow-derived pericyte differentiation in Ewing tumors. The CXCR4 antagonist AMD 3100 was used to disrupt the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis in vivo in two xenograft Ewing tumor models. BMCs from GFP(+) transgenic mice were transplanted into lethally irradiated nude mice to track BMC migration to the tumor site. Following BMC engraftment, tumor-bearing mice received daily subcutaneous injections of either PBS or AMD 3100 for 3 weeks. Tumors were resected and tumor sections were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. AMD 3100 inhibited BMC differentiation into desmin(+) and NG2(+) pericytes, affected the morphology of the tumor vasculature, decreased perfusion, and increased tumor cell apoptosis. We observed smaller vessels with tiny lumens and a decrease in the microvessel density. AMD 3100 also inhibited PDGF-B protein expression in vitro and in vivo. SDF-1α in the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in promoting pericyte formation and Ewing sarcoma tumor neovascularization by regulating PDGF-B expression. Interfering with this pathway affects tumor vascular morphology and expansion. PMID:24282276

  12. Vascular ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... with aberrant subclavian and left ligamentum ateriosus; Congenital heart defect - vascular ring; Birth defect heart - vascular ring ... accounts for less than 1% of all congenital heart problems. The condition occurs as often in males ...

  13. Vascular L-type Ca²⁺ channel blocking activity of sulfur-containing indole alkaloids from Glycosmis petelotii.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Khanh, Pham Ngoc; Huyen, Pham Thu; Duc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Ha, Vu Thi; Durante, Miriam; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Fusi, Fabio

    2014-07-25

    In the search for novel natural compounds endowed with potential antihypertensive activity, a new sulfur-containing indole alkaloid, N-demethylglypetelotine (2), and its known analogue glypetelotine (1), were isolated from the leaves of Glycosmis petelotii. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The two alkaloids were assessed for vasorelaxing activity on rat aorta rings and for L-type Ba(2+) current [I(Ba(L))] blocking activity on single myocytes isolated from rat tail artery. Both glypetelotine and N-demethylglypetelotine inhibited phenylephrine-induced contraction with IC50 values of 20 and 50 μM, respectively. The presence of endothelium did not modify their spasmolytic effect. Neither glypetelotine nor N-demethylglypetelotine affected Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum induced by phenylephrine. The spasmolytic effect of glypetelotine increased with membrane depolarization. In the presence of 60 mM K(+), both compounds inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the contraction induced by cumulative addition of Ca(2+), this inhibition being inversely related to Ca(2+) concentration. Glypetelotine and, less efficiently N-demethylglypetelotine, inhibited I(Ba(L)), the former compound also affecting I(Ba(L)) kinetics. In conclusion, glypetelotine is a novel vasorelaxing agent which antagonizes L-type Ca(2+) channels. PMID:24949913

  14. GRP78 is a novel receptor initiating a vascular barrier protective response to oxidized phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Birukova, Anna A; Singleton, Patrick A; Gawlak, Grzegorz; Tian, Xinyong; Mirzapoiazova, Tamara; Mambetsariev, Bolot; Dubrovskyi, Oleksii; Oskolkova, Olga V; Bochkov, Valery N; Birukov, Konstantin G

    2014-07-01

    Vascular integrity and the maintenance of blood vessel continuity are fundamental features of the circulatory system maintained through endothelial cell-cell junctions. Defects in the endothelial barrier become an initiating factor in several pathologies, including ischemia/reperfusion, tumor angiogenesis, pulmonary edema, sepsis, and acute lung injury. Better understanding of mechanisms stimulating endothelial barrier enhancement may provide novel therapeutic strategies. We previously reported that oxidized phospholipids (oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [OxPAPC]) promote endothelial cell (EC) barrier enhancement both in vitro and in vivo. This study examines the initiating mechanistic events triggered by OxPAPC to increase vascular integrity. Our data demonstrate that OxPAPC directly binds the cell membrane-localized chaperone protein, GRP78, associated with its cofactor, HTJ-1. OxPAPC binding to plasma membrane-localized GRP78 leads to GRP78 trafficking to caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs) on the cell surface and consequent activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1, Src and Fyn tyrosine kinases, and Rac1 GTPase, processes essential for cytoskeletal reorganization and EC barrier enhancement. Using animal models of acute lung injury with vascular hyperpermeability, we observed that HTJ-1 knockdown blocked OxPAPC protection from interleukin-6 and ventilator-induced lung injury. Our data indicate for the first time an essential role of GRP78 and HTJ-1 in OxPAPC-mediated CEM dynamics and enhancement of vascular integrity. PMID:24829380

  15. GRP78 is a novel receptor initiating a vascular barrier protective response to oxidized phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Birukova, Anna A.; Singleton, Patrick A.; Gawlak, Grzegorz; Tian, Xinyong; Mirzapoiazova, Tamara; Mambetsariev, Bolot; Dubrovskyi, Oleksii; Oskolkova, Olga V.; Bochkov, Valery N.; Birukov, Konstantin G.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular integrity and the maintenance of blood vessel continuity are fundamental features of the circulatory system maintained through endothelial cell–cell junctions. Defects in the endothelial barrier become an initiating factor in several pathologies, including ischemia/reperfusion, tumor angiogenesis, pulmonary edema, sepsis, and acute lung injury. Better understanding of mechanisms stimulating endothelial barrier enhancement may provide novel therapeutic strategies. We previously reported that oxidized phospholipids (oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [OxPAPC]) promote endothelial cell (EC) barrier enhancement both in vitro and in vivo. This study examines the initiating mechanistic events triggered by OxPAPC to increase vascular integrity. Our data demonstrate that OxPAPC directly binds the cell membrane–localized chaperone protein, GRP78, associated with its cofactor, HTJ-1. OxPAPC binding to plasma membrane–localized GRP78 leads to GRP78 trafficking to caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs) on the cell surface and consequent activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1, Src and Fyn tyrosine kinases, and Rac1 GTPase, processes essential for cytoskeletal reorganization and EC barrier enhancement. Using animal models of acute lung injury with vascular hyperpermeability, we observed that HTJ-1 knockdown blocked OxPAPC protection from interleukin-6 and ventilator-induced lung injury. Our data indicate for the first time an essential role of GRP78 and HTJ-1 in OxPAPC-mediated CEM dynamics and enhancement of vascular integrity. PMID:24829380

  16. Effects of alveolar and perfusion hypoxia and hypercapnia on pulmonary vascular resistance in the lamb.

    PubMed

    Hyman, A L; Kadowitz, P J

    1975-02-01

    The effects of ventilatory hypoxia and hypercapnia and perfusion hypoxia and hypercapnia on pulmonary vascular resistance were studied in the intact lamb using right heart techniques to isolate and perfuse the left lower lobe. Ventilatory hypoxia increased vascular resistance in the left lower lobe by constricting predominantly vessels upstream from small lobar veins, presumably small arteries. The response to hypoxia was not blocked by phentolamine and diphenhydramine in doses that markedly decreased pressor responses to norepinephrine and histamine in the lung. Perfusion hypoxia did not alter vascular resistance in the perfused lobe. Ventilatory hypercapnia increased vascular resistance in the lung by constricting mainly upstream vessels, whereas perfusion hypercapnia decreased resistance by dilating upstream vessels. These data indicate that histamine and catecholamines are not involved in the response to alveolar hypoxia. These results suggest that the sensor site for ventilatory hypoxia is close to the alveolus since the response is unrelated to lobar arterial Po2. It is concluded that systemic reflexes are not necessarily involved in the response of the pulmonary vascular bed to ventilatory hypoxia or hypercapnia and that the magnitude and rapidity of this response suggest that it may represent an important local mechanism for the control of ventilation-perfusion relationships in this species. PMID:235217

  17. Social defeat stress promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis by upregulating vascular endothelial growth factor/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/matrix metalloproteinase signaling in a mouse model of lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Liu, Bao-Jun; Ji, Shumeng; Wu, Jing-Feng; Xu, Chang-Qing; Du, Yi-Jie; You, Xiao-Fang; Li, Bei; Le, Jing-Jing; Xu, Hai-Lin; Duan, Xiao-Hong; Dong, Jing-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Numerous epidemiological and experimental animal studies have indicated that chronic psychological stress may promote tumor development. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which chronic stress promotes tumorigenesis remain to be fully elucidated and animal models have not yet been well established. In the present study, an established mouse model of repeated social defeat stress (RSDS), was generated and used to investigate the effect of stress on tumor growth and metastasis. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to RSDS for 10 days, followed by subcutaneousl inoculation with Lewis lung carcinoma cells for seven days. The tumor weight and volume as well as the number of the lung metastatic nodules were then determined. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serum levels were measured using ELISAs. In addition, expression levels of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) and L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) messenger (m)RNA were confirmed using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, protein expression levels of phosphorlyated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were examined using western blot analysis. The results showed that RSDS significantly increased the weight and the volume of the primary tumor as well as the number of the lung metastatic nodules. Serum VEGF levels were significantly higher in the tumor-stress group compared with those of the unstressed tumor mice. In addition, tumors in stressed animals demonstrated markedly enhanced expression of VEGFR-2 and L1CAM mRNA as well as pERK, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression. In conclusion, these results suggested that RSDS contributed to lung cancer progression, angiogenesis and metastasis, which was partially associated with increased VEGF secretion and therefore the activation of the ERK signaling pathway, resulting in the induction of MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression. PMID:25824133

  18. Lung Circulation.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Karthik; Shimoda, Larissa A

    2016-01-01

    The circulation of the lung is unique both in volume and function. For example, it is the only organ with two circulations: the pulmonary circulation, the main function of which is gas exchange, and the bronchial circulation, a systemic vascular supply that provides oxygenated blood to the walls of the conducting airways, pulmonary arteries and veins. The pulmonary circulation accommodates the entire cardiac output, maintaining high blood flow at low intravascular arterial pressure. As compared with the systemic circulation, pulmonary arteries have thinner walls with much less vascular smooth muscle and a relative lack of basal tone. Factors controlling pulmonary blood flow include vascular structure, gravity, mechanical effects of breathing, and the influence of neural and humoral factors. Pulmonary vascular tone is also altered by hypoxia, which causes pulmonary vasoconstriction. If the hypoxic stimulus persists for a prolonged period, contraction is accompanied by remodeling of the vasculature, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. In addition, genetic and environmental factors can also confer susceptibility to development of pulmonary hypertension. Under normal conditions, the endothelium forms a tight barrier, actively regulating interstitial fluid homeostasis. Infection and inflammation compromise normal barrier homeostasis, resulting in increased permeability and edema formation. This article focuses on reviewing the basics of the lung circulation (pulmonary and bronchial), normal development and transition at birth and vasoregulation. Mechanisms contributing to pathological conditions in the pulmonary circulation, in particular when barrier function is disrupted and during development of pulmonary hypertension, will also be discussed. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:897-943, 2016. PMID:27065170

  19. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... heart block. Doctors use a test called an EKG (electrocardiogram) to help diagnose heart block. This test ...

  20. 5-(Bis(3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1H-indol-2-yl)methyl)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHIMHA): showing a strategy of designing drug to block lung metastasis of tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Taiping; Wang, Yuji; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Jianhui; Yang, Jian; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    Early metastasis is still the most recalcitrant factor in the treatment of lung cancer patients. By analyzing the structures and comparing the docking scores of the known pharmacophores, the authors of this paper designed 5-(bis(3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1H-indol-2-yl)methyl)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHIMHA) as a promising lead compound to develop metastasis inhibitors. In vitro 5, 10, and 20 µM of BHIMHA concentration dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells. In vivo 0.4, 2.0, and 8.9 µmol/kg of BHIMHA dose dependently inhibited the metastasis of LLC (Lewis Lung Carcinoma) toward lung. In vivo, 2 µmol/kg of BHIMHA showed additional actions of slowing the growth of the primary tumor of C57BL/6 mice and S180 mice as well as inhibiting xylene-induced ear edema of the mice. Therefore, BHIMHA simultaneously blocked tumor metastasis toward lung, slowed the primary tumor growth, and limited the inflammation. These pharmacological actions were correlated with the inhibition of PKCα and NF-κB expression. PMID:26937173

  1. Effect of Melilotus suaveolens extract on pulmonary microvascular permeability by downregulating vascular endothelial growth factor expression in rats with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Wei; Su, Mei-Xian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yun Hui; Qin, Lan-Fang; Liu, Xu; Tian, Mao-Li; Qian, Chuan-Yun

    2015-05-01

    A typical indicator of sepsis is the development of progressive subcutaneous and body‑cavity edema, which is caused by the breakdown of endothelial barrier function, leading to a marked increase in vascular permeability. Microvascular leakage predisposes to microvascular thrombosis, breakdown of microcirculatory flow and organ failure, which are common events preceding mortality in patients with severe sepsis. Melilotus suaveolens (M. suaveolens) is a Traditional Tibetan Medicine. Previous pharmacological studies have demonstrated that an ethanolic extract of M. suaveolens has powerful anti‑inflammatory activity and leads to an improvement in capillary permeability. However, the mechanisms underlying its pharmacological activity remain elusive. The present study aimed to assess the impact of M. suaveolens extract tablets on pulmonary vascular permeability, and their effect on regulating lung inflammation and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the lung tissue of rats with sepsis. A cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis model was established for both the control and treatment groups. ~2 h prior to surgery, 25 mg/kg of M. suaveolens extract tablet was administered to the treatment group. Polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used to assess the expression of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and VEGF in the lung tissue, and ELISA was applied to detect changes in serum tumor necrosis factor‑α as well as interleukins (IL) ‑1, ‑4, ‑6, and ‑10. The lung permeability, wet/dry weight ratio and lung pathology were determined. The results demonstrated that in the lung tissue of CLP‑rats with sepsis, M. suaveolens extract inhibited the expression of NF‑κB, reduced the inflammatory response and blocked the expression of VEGF, and thus significantly decreased lung microvascular permeability. The effects of M. Suaveolens extract may be of potential use in the treatment of CLP‑mediated lung microvascular permeability

  2. Caffeine's Vascular Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Echeverri, Darío; Montes, Félix R.; Cabrera, Mariana; Galán, Angélica; Prieto, Angélica

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulating substance in the world. It is found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and many medications. Caffeine is a xanthine with various effects and mechanisms of action in vascular tissue. In endothelial cells, it increases intracellular calcium stimulating the production of nitric oxide through the expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme. Nitric oxide is diffused to the vascular smooth muscle cell to produce vasodilation. In vascular smooth muscle cells its effect is predominantly a competitive inhibition of phosphodiesterase, producing an accumulation of cAMP and vasodilation. In addition, it blocks the adenosine receptors present in the vascular tissue to produce vasoconstriction. In this paper the main mechanisms of action of caffeine on the vascular tissue are described, in which it is shown that caffeine has some cardiovascular properties and effects which could be considered beneficial. PMID:21188209

  3. Vascular rings.

    PubMed

    Backer, Carl L; Mongé, Michael C; Popescu, Andrada R; Eltayeb, Osama M; Rastatter, Jeffrey C; Rigsby, Cynthia K

    2016-06-01

    The term vascular ring refers to congenital vascular anomalies of the aortic arch system that compress the esophagus and trachea, causing symptoms related to those two structures. The most common vascular rings are double aortic arch and right aortic arch with left ligamentum. Pulmonary artery sling is rare and these patients need to be carefully evaluated for frequently associated tracheal stenosis. Another cause of tracheal compression occurring only in infants is the innominate artery compression syndrome. In the current era, the diagnosis of a vascular ring is best established by CT imaging that can accurately delineate the anatomy of the vascular ring and associated tracheal pathology. For patients with a right aortic arch there recently has been an increased recognition of a structure called a Kommerell diverticulum which may require resection and transfer of the left subclavian artery to the left carotid artery. A very rare vascular ring is the circumflex aorta that is now treated with the aortic uncrossing operation. Patients with vascular rings should all have an echocardiogram because of the incidence of associated congenital heart disease. We also recommend bronchoscopy to assess for additional tracheal pathology and provide an assessment of the degree of tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia. The outcomes of surgical intervention are excellent and most patients have complete resolution of symptoms over a period of time. PMID:27301603

  4. Vascular Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Abel; Buchanan, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are divided into two main groups: tumors and malformations. Vascular tumors are a large and complex group of lesions, especially for clinicians with none or little experience in this field. In the past, these lesions caused a great deal of confusion because many appear analogous to the naked eye. Thankfully, recent advances in diagnostic techniques have helped the medical community to enhance our comprehension, accurately label, diagnose, and treat these lesions. In this article, we will review the most frequent vascular tumors and provide the reader with the tools to properly label, diagnose, and manage these complex lesions. PMID:25045329

  5. Vascular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart and blood vessels, such as diabetes or high cholesterol Smoking Obesity Losing weight, eating healthy foods, being active and not smoking can help vascular disease. Other treatments include medicines and surgery.

  6. Lentiviral vector-mediated shRNA against AIMP2-DX2 suppresses lung cancer cell growth through blocking glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seung-Hee; Chung, Youn-Sun; Hwang, Soon-Kyung; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Kim, Sunghoon; Park, Seung Bum; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2012-06-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases [ARS]-interacting multifunctional protein 2 (AIMP2) has been implicated in the control of cell fate and lung cell differentiation. A variant of AIMP2 lacking exon 2 (AIMP2-DX2) is expressed in different cancer cells. We previously studied the expression level of AIMP2-DX2 in several lung cell lines and reported elevated expression levels of AIMP2-DX2 in NCI-H460 and NCI-H520. Here, we report that the suppression of AIMP2-DX2 by lentivirus mediated short hairpin (sh)RNA (sh-DX2) decreased the rate of glucose uptake and glucose transporters (Gluts) in NCI-H460 cells. Down-regulation of AIMP2-DX2 reduced glycosyltransferase (GnT)-V in the Golgi apparatus, while inducing the GnT-V antagonist GnT-III. Down-regulation of AIMP2-DX2 also suppressed the epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen activated protein kinase (EGFR/MAPK) signaling pathway, leading to the decrease of the proliferation marker Ki-67 expression in nuclei. Furthermore, dual luciferase activity reduced capdependent protein translation in cells infected with sh-DX2. These results suggest that AIMP2-DX2 may be a relevant therapeutic target for lung cancer, and that the sh-DX2 lentiviral system can be an appropriate method for lung cancer therapy. PMID:22562359

  7. Pulmonary blood volume indexed to lung volume is reduced in newly diagnosed systemic sclerosis compared to normals – a prospective clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance study addressing pulmonary vascular changes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary involvement, manifested as pulmonary arterial hypertension or pulmonary fibrosis, is the most common cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We aimed to explore the feasibility of detecting early pulmonary involvement in SSc using recently developed non-invasive quantitative measures of pulmonary physiology using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods Twenty-seven SSc patients (9 men, 57 ± 13 years) and 10 healthy controls (3 men, 54 ± 9 years) underwent CMR to determine the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and the PBV variation (PBVV) throughout the cardiac cycle. Patients underwent Doppler echocardiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and pulmonary function testing by spirometry. Comparisons were performed using the unpaired t-test and linear regression analysis was performed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r). Results Compared to healthy controls, the PBV indexed to lung volume (PBVI) was lower in patients (16 ± 4 vs 20 ± 5%, p < 0.05). There was no difference in PBV (466 ± 87 vs 471 ± 122 mL, p = 0.91) or PBVV/stroke volume (45 ± 10 vs 40 ± 6%, p = 0.09). There were no significant correlations between PBVI and pulmonary artery pressure estimated by Doppler (p = 0.08) the lung’s diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (p = 0.09), vital capacity (p = 0.45), or pulmonary fibrosis by HRCT (p = 0.74). Conclusions This study is the first to measure the PBV in humans using CMR. Compared to healthy controls, newly diagnosed SSc patients have a reduced amount of blood in the pulmonary vasculature (PBVI) but unchanged pulmonary vascular distensibility (PBVV/stroke volume). PBVI is unrelated to DLCO, pulmonary artery pressure, vital capacity, and the presence of pulmonary fibrosis. PBVI may be a novel parameter reflecting vascular lung involvement in early-stage SSc, and these findings may be consistent with pathophysiological changes of

  8. Lung tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hoganson, David M; Bassett, Erik K; Vacanti, Joseph P

    2014-01-01

    Lung tissue engineering is an emerging field focused on the development of lung replacement devices and tissue to treat patients with end stage lung disease. Microfluidic based lung assist devices have been developed that have biomimetically designed vascular networks that achieve physiologic blood flow. Gas exchange in these devices occurs across a thin respiratory membrane. Designed for intrathoracic implantation as a bridge to transplant or destination therapy, these lung assist devices will allow ambulation and hospital discharge for patients with end stage lung disease. Decellularized lungs subsequently recellularized with epithelial and endothelial cells have been implanted in small animal models with demonstration of initial gas exchange. Further development of these tissues and scaling to large animal models will validate this approach and may be an organ source for lung transplantation. Initial clinical success has been achieved with decellularized tracheal implants using autologous stem cells. Development of microfluidic lung models using similar architecture to the lung assist device technology allows study of lung biology and diseases with manipulation of lung cells and respiratory membrane strain. PMID:24896347

  9. Prevention of vascular inflammation by nanoparticle targeting of adherent neutrophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenjia; Li, Jing; Cho, Jaehyung; Malik, Asrar B.

    2014-03-01

    Inflammatory diseases such as acute lung injury and ischaemic tissue injury are caused by the adhesion of a type of white blood cell--polymorphonuclear neutrophils--to the lining of the circulatory system or vascular endothelium and unchecked neutrophil transmigration. Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of activated neutrophils on vascular endothelial cells at the site of injury may be a useful means of directly inactivating neutrophil transmigration and hence mitigating vascular inflammation. Here, we report a method employing drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles, which efficiently deliver drugs into neutrophils adherent to the surface of the inflamed endothelium. Using intravital microscopy of tumour necrosis factor-α-challenged mouse cremaster post-capillary venules, we demonstrate that fluorescently tagged albumin nanoparticles are largely internalized by neutrophils adherent to the activated endothelium via cell surface Fcɣ receptors. Administration of albumin nanoparticles loaded with the spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, piceatannol, which blocks `outside-in' β2 integrin signalling in leukocytes, detached the adherent neutrophils and elicited their release into the circulation. Thus, internalization of drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles into neutrophils inactivates the pro-inflammatory function of activated neutrophils, thereby offering a promising approach for treating inflammatory diseases resulting from inappropriate neutrophil sequestration and activation.

  10. Platelet-activating factor mediates hemodynamic changes and lung injury in endotoxin-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S W; Feddersen, C O; Henson, P M; Voelkel, N F

    1987-01-01

    Within 20 min after intraperitoneal injection of Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin in rats, blood platelet-activating factor (PAF) increased from 4.3 +/- 1.3 to 13.7 +/- 2.0 ng/ml (P less than 0.01) and lung PAF from 32.3 +/- 4.9 to 312.3 +/- 19.6 ng (P less than 0.01), but not lung lavage PAF. We tested the effect of PAF receptor antagonists, CV 3988 and SRI 63-441, on endotoxin-induced hemodynamic changes and lung vascular injury. Pretreatment with CV 3988 attenuated systemic hypotension, preserved hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, and prolonged survival of awake catheter-implanted endotoxin-treated (20 mg/kg) rats. Pretreatment with SRI 63-441 prevented the depressed hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction after low dose (2 mg/kg) endotoxin. Both CV 3988 and SRI 63-441 blocked the increased extravascular accumulation of 125I-albumin and water in perfused lungs isolated from endotoxin-treated rats. We conclude that PAF is produced in the lung during endotoxemia and may be an important mediator of the systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic changes as well as the acute lung vascular injury after endotoxemia. PMID:3553241

  11. DMXAA causes tumor site-specific vascular disruption in murine non-small cell lung cancer, and like the endogenous non-canonical cyclic dinucleotide STING agonist, 2'3'-cGAMP, induces M2 macrophage repolarization.

    PubMed

    Downey, Charlene M; Aghaei, Mehrnoosh; Schwendener, Reto A; Jirik, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    The vascular disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), a murine agonist of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING), appears to target the tumor vasculature primarily as a result of stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production from tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Since there were relatively few reports of DMXAA effects in genetically-engineered mutant mice (GEMM), and models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in particular, we examined both the effectiveness and macrophage dependence of DMXAA in various NSCLC models. The DMXAA responses of primary adenocarcinomas in K-rasLA1/+ transgenic mice, as well as syngeneic subcutaneous and metastatic tumors, generated by a p53R172HΔg/+; K-rasLA1/+ NSCLC line (344SQ-ELuc), were assessed both by in vivo bioluminescence imaging as well as by histopathology. Macrophage-dependence of DMXAA effects was explored by clodronate liposome-mediated TAM depletion. Furthermore, a comparison of the vascular structure between subcutaneous tumors and metastases was carried out using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Interestingly, in contrast to the characteristic hemorrhagic necrosis produced by DMXAA in 344SQ-ELuc subcutaneous tumors, this agent failed to cause hemorrhagic necrosis of either 344SQ-ELuc-derived metastases or autochthonous K-rasLA1/+ NSCLCs. In addition, we found that clodronate liposome-mediated depletion of TAMs in 344SQ-ELuc subcutaneous tumors led to non-hemorrhagic necrosis due to tumor feeding-vessel occlusion. Since NSCLC were comprised exclusively of TAMs with anti-inflammatory M2-like phenotype, the ability of DMXAA to re-educate M2-polarized macrophages was examined. Using various macrophage phenotypic markers, we found that the STING agonists, DMXAA and the non-canonical endogenous cyclic dinucleotide, 2'3'-cGAMP, were both capable of re-educating M2 cells towards an M1 phenotype. Our findings demonstrate that the choice of preclinical model and the anatomical site of a

  12. DMXAA Causes Tumor Site-Specific Vascular Disruption in Murine Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, and like the Endogenous Non-Canonical Cyclic Dinucleotide STING Agonist, 2′3′-cGAMP, Induces M2 Macrophage Repolarization

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Charlene M.; Aghaei, Mehrnoosh; Schwendener, Reto A.; Jirik, Frank R.

    2014-01-01

    The vascular disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), a murine agonist of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING), appears to target the tumor vasculature primarily as a result of stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production from tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Since there were relatively few reports of DMXAA effects in genetically-engineered mutant mice (GEMM), and models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in particular, we examined both the effectiveness and macrophage dependence of DMXAA in various NSCLC models. The DMXAA responses of primary adenocarcinomas in K-rasLA1/+ transgenic mice, as well as syngeneic subcutaneous and metastatic tumors, generated by a p53R172HΔg/+; K-rasLA1/+ NSCLC line (344SQ-ELuc), were assessed both by in vivo bioluminescence imaging as well as by histopathology. Macrophage-dependence of DMXAA effects was explored by clodronate liposome-mediated TAM depletion. Furthermore, a comparison of the vascular structure between subcutaneous tumors and metastases was carried out using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Interestingly, in contrast to the characteristic hemorrhagic necrosis produced by DMXAA in 344SQ-ELuc subcutaneous tumors, this agent failed to cause hemorrhagic necrosis of either 344SQ-ELuc-derived metastases or autochthonous K-rasLA1/+ NSCLCs. In addition, we found that clodronate liposome-mediated depletion of TAMs in 344SQ-ELuc subcutaneous tumors led to non-hemorrhagic necrosis due to tumor feeding-vessel occlusion. Since NSCLC were comprised exclusively of TAMs with anti-inflammatory M2-like phenotype, the ability of DMXAA to re-educate M2-polarized macrophages was examined. Using various macrophage phenotypic markers, we found that the STING agonists, DMXAA and the non-canonical endogenous cyclic dinucleotide, 2′3′-cGAMP, were both capable of re-educating M2 cells towards an M1 phenotype. Our findings demonstrate that the choice of preclinical model and the anatomical site of a

  13. Elevated SP-1 transcription factor expression and activity drives basal and hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Karl; Onion, David; Kumari, Rajendra; Watson, Susan A; Knox, Alan J

    2012-11-16

    VEGF plays a central role in angiogenesis in cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors have increased microvascular density, localized hypoxia, and high VEGF expression levels; however, there is a lack of understanding of how oncogenic and tumor microenvironment changes such as hypoxia lead to greater VEGF expression in lung and other cancers. We show that NSCLC cells secreted higher levels of VEGF than normal airway epithelial cells. Actinomycin D inhibited all NSCLC VEGF secretion, and VEGF minimal promoter-luciferase reporter constructs were constitutively active until the last 85 base pairs before the transcription start site containing three SP-1 transcription factor-binding sites; mutation of these VEGF promoter SP-1-binding sites eliminated VEGF promoter activity. Furthermore, dominant negative SP-1, mithramycin A, and SP-1 shRNA decreased VEGF promoter activity, whereas overexpression of SP-1 increased VEGF promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated SP-1, p300, and PCA/F histone acetyltransferase binding and histone H4 hyperacetylation at the VEGF promoter in NSCLC cells. Cultured NSCLC cells expressed higher levels of SP-1 protein than normal airway epithelial cells, and double-fluorescence immunohistochemistry showed a strong correlation between SP-1 and VEGF in human NSCLC tumors. In addition, hypoxia-driven VEGF expression in NSCLC cells was SP-1-dependent, with hypoxia increasing SP-1 activity and binding to the VEGF promoter. These studies are the first to demonstrate that overexpression of SP-1 plays a central role in hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion. PMID:22992725

  14. APS8, a Polymeric Alkylpyridinium Salt Blocks α7 nAChR and Induces Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zovko, Ana; Viktorsson, Kristina; Lewensohn, Rolf; Kološa, Katja; Filipič, Metka; Xing, Hong; Kem, William R.; Paleari, Laura; Turk, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring 3-alkylpyridinium polymers (poly-APS) from the marine sponge Reniera sarai, consisting of monomers containing polar pyridinium and nonpolar alkyl chain moieties, have been demonstrated to exert a wide range of biological activities, including a selective cytotoxicity against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. APS8, an analog of poly-APS with defined alkyl chain length and molecular size, non-competitively inhibits α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at nanomolar concentrations that are too low to be acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory or generally cytotoxic. In the present study we show that APS8 inhibits NSCLC tumor cell growth and activates apoptotic pathways. APS8 was not toxic for normal lung fibroblasts. Furthermore, in NSCLC cells, APS8 reduced the adverse anti-apoptotic, proliferative effects of nicotine. Our results suggest that APS8 or similar compounds might be considered as lead compounds to develop antitumor therapeutic agents for at least certain types of lung cancer. PMID:23880932

  15. Simultaneous targeting of 5-LOX-COX and ODC block NNK-induced lung adenoma progression to adenocarcinoma in A/J mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gaurav; Patlolla, Jagan Mohan R; Madka, Venkateshwar; Mohammed, Altaf; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yuting; Biddick, Laura; Singh, Anil; Gillaspy, Allison; Lightfoot, Stanley; Steele, Vernon E; Kopelovich, Levy; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Targeting complementary pathways will achieve better treatment efficacy than a single agent high-dose strategy that could increase risk of side effects and tumor resistance. To target COX-2, 5-LOX, and ODC simultaneously, we tested the effects of a dual 5-LOX-COX inhibitor, licofelone, and an ODC inhibitor, DFMO, alone and in combination, on NNK-induced lung tumors in female A/J mice. Seven-week-old mice were treated with NNK (10 μmol/mouse, single dose, i.p.) and randomized to different treatment groups. Three weeks after injection, mice were fed control or experimental diets (DFMO 1500/3000 ppm, licofelone 200/400 ppm, or a low-dose combination of 1500 ppm DFMO and 200 ppm licofelone) for 17 or 34 weeks. Both agents significantly inhibited tumor formation in a dose-dependent manner. As anticipated more adenomas and adenocarcinomas were observed at 17 and 34 weeks, respectively. Importantly, low dose combination of DFMO and licofelone showed more pronounced effects at 17 or 34 weeks in inhibiting the total tumor formation (~60%, p < 0.0001) and adenocarcinoma (~65%, p < 0.0001) compared to individual high dose of DFMO (~44% and 46%, p < 0.0001) and licofelone (~48% and 55%, p < 0.0001). DFMO and combination-treated mice lung tumors exhibited modulated ODC pathway components (Oat, Oaz, SRM, SMS, and SAT, p < 0.05) along with decreased proliferation (PCNA, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin A) and increased expression of p53, p21 and p27 compared to mice fed control diet. Both DFMO and licofelone significantly inhibited tumor inflammatory markers. Our findings suggest that a low-dose combined treatment targeting inflammation and polyamine synthesis may provide effective chemoprevention. PMID:27293987

  16. Simultaneous targeting of 5-LOX-COX and ODC block NNK-induced lung adenoma progression to adenocarcinoma in A/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gaurav; Patlolla, Jagan Mohan R; Madka, Venkateshwar; Mohammed, Altaf; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yuting; Biddick, Laura; Singh, Anil; Gillaspy, Allison; Lightfoot, Stanley; Steele, Vernon E; Kopelovich, Levy; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Targeting complementary pathways will achieve better treatment efficacy than a single agent high-dose strategy that could increase risk of side effects and tumor resistance. To target COX-2, 5-LOX, and ODC simultaneously, we tested the effects of a dual 5-LOX-COX inhibitor, licofelone, and an ODC inhibitor, DFMO, alone and in combination, on NNK-induced lung tumors in female A/J mice. Seven-week-old mice were treated with NNK (10 μmol/mouse, single dose, i.p.) and randomized to different treatment groups. Three weeks after injection, mice were fed control or experimental diets (DFMO 1500/3000 ppm, licofelone 200/400 ppm, or a low-dose combination of 1500 ppm DFMO and 200 ppm licofelone) for 17 or 34 weeks. Both agents significantly inhibited tumor formation in a dose-dependent manner. As anticipated more adenomas and adenocarcinomas were observed at 17 and 34 weeks, respectively. Importantly, low dose combination of DFMO and licofelone showed more pronounced effects at 17 or 34 weeks in inhibiting the total tumor formation (~60%, p < 0.0001) and adenocarcinoma (~65%, p < 0.0001) compared to individual high dose of DFMO (~44% and 46%, p < 0.0001) and licofelone (~48% and 55%, p < 0.0001). DFMO and combination-treated mice lung tumors exhibited modulated ODC pathway components (Oat, Oaz, SRM, SMS, and SAT, p < 0.05) along with decreased proliferation (PCNA, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin A) and increased expression of p53, p21 and p27 compared to mice fed control diet. Both DFMO and licofelone significantly inhibited tumor inflammatory markers. Our findings suggest that a low-dose combined treatment targeting inflammation and polyamine synthesis may provide effective chemoprevention. PMID:27293987

  17. The new InsP3Kinase inhibitor BIP-4 is competitive to InsP3 and blocks proliferation and adhesion of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Dominik; Tödter, Klaus; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Franco-Echevarría, Elsa; Rohaly, Gabor; Blecher, Christine; Lin, Hong-Ying; Mayr, Georg W; Windhorst, Sabine

    2015-07-15

    As ectopic expression of the neuronal inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-3-kinase A (InsP3Kinase) in tumor cells increases the metastatic potential, InsP3Kinase is an interesting target for tumor therapy. Recently, we have identified a membrane-permeable InsP3Kinase inhibitor (BAMB-4) exhibiting an IC50-value of 20 μM. Here we characterized a new InsP3Kinase inhibitor which shows a 130-fold lower IC50 value (157 ± 57 nM) as compared to BAMB-4. We demonstrate that this nitrophenolic compound, BIP-4, is non-competitive to ATP but competitive to InsP3, thus exhibits a high selectivity for inhibition of InsP3Kinase activity. Docking analysis suggested a putative binding mode of this molecule into the InsP3Kinase active site. Determination of cellular uptake in lung cancer cells (H1299) revealed that 6% of extracellular BIP-4 is internalized by non-endosomal uptake, showing that BIP-4 is not trapped inside endo/lysosomes but is available to inhibit cellular InsP3Kinase activity. Interestingly, we found that BIP-4 mediated inhibition of InsP3Kinase activity in the two lung cancer cell lines H1299 and LN4323 inhibited proliferation and adhesion at IC50 values of 3 μM or 2 μM, respectively. InsP3Kinase inhibition did not alter ATP-induced calcium signals but significantly reduced the level of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5. From these data we conclude that the inhibitory effect of BIP-4 on proliferation and adhesion of lung cancer cells does not result from alterations of calcium but from alterations of inositol phosphate signals. In summary, we reveal that inhibition of cellular InsP3Kinase by BIP-4 impairs proliferation and adhesion and therefore BIP-4 might be a promising compound to reduce the metastatic potential of lung carcinoma cells. PMID:25986882

  18. 17-Allylamino-17-Demethoxygeldanamycin and the Enhancement of PS-341-Induced Lung Cancer Cell Death by Blocking the NF-κB and PI3K/Akt Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Jang, An-Hee; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    PS-341 is a highly selective and potent proteasome inhibitor that is cytotoxic to various types of cancer. However, no objective response was seen in a clinical trial with PS-341 as a single agent in non-small cell lung cancer. Its antitumor activity is limited by the simultaneously activated antiapoptosis pathway. Recently, PS-341-induced NF-κB activation via IκBα degradation has been suggested to be one of its antiapoptotic effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of a combined application of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) with PS-341 in lung cancer cells. Hsp90 inhibition with 17-AAG was effective in enhancing PS-341-induced lung cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo. 17-AAG pretreatment induced the degradation of upstream regulators of IκB, IL-1R-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1), and IκB kinases (IKKs), dose and time dependently, which resulted in blocking of PS-341-induced IκBα degradation, p65 nuclear translocation, transcriptional activity, and NF-κB-regulated antiapoptotic gene expressions such as COX-2. The concentrations of 17-AAG used for combinatorial treatment with PS-341 did not change cell viability or the activity of proteasome complex. Moreover, 17-AAG pretreatment decreased the level of phsophorylated Akt at serine 473 residue and suppressed active Akt-dependent inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β. 17-AAG mediated the dissociation of its client proteins (IRAK-1, IKKs, and Akt) from the Hsp90 complex. As a result, it induced degradation of target proteins. Our results suggest that the combination of 17-AAG and PS-341 could be an effective anticancer therapy that overcomes the limited effects of PS-341. PMID:25633180

  19. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1–Dependent Neutrophil Adhesion to Endothelial Cells Induces Caveolae-Mediated Pulmonary Vascular Hyperpermeability

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guochang; Vogel, Stephen M.; Schwartz, David E.; Malik, Asrar B.; Minshall, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of caveolae in the mechanism of increased pulmonary vascular permeability and edema formation induced by the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). We observed that the increase in lung vascular permeability induced by the activation of PMNs required caveolin-1, the caveolae scaffold protein. The permeability increase induced by PMN activation was blocked in caveolin-1 knockout mice and by suppressing caveolin-1 expression in rats. The response was also dependent on Src phosphorylation of caveolin-1 known to activate caveolae-mediated endocytosis in endothelial cells. To address the role of PMN interaction with endothelial cells, we used an intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 blocking monoclonal antibody. Preventing the ICAM-1–mediated PMN binding to endothelial cells abrogated Src phosphorylation of caveolin-1, as well as the increase in endothelial permeability. Direct ICAM-1 activation by crosslinking recapitulated these responses, suggesting that ICAM-1 activates caveolin-1 signaling responsible for caveolae-mediated endothelial hyperpermeability. Our results provide support for the novel concept that a large component of pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability induced by activation of PMNs adherent to the vessel wall is dependent on signaling via caveolin-1 and increased caveolae-mediated transcytosis. Thus, it is important to consider the role of the transendothelial vesicular permeability pathway that contributes to edema formation in developing therapeutic interventions against PMN-mediated inflammatory diseases such as acute lung injury. PMID:18511851

  20. Bigelovii A Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Blocking NF-κB and CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein δ Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chunguang; Guan, Fuqin; Shen, Yanfei; Tang, Huifang; Yuan, Dong; Gao, Hongwei; Feng, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Optimal methods are applied to acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the mortality rate is still high. Accordingly, further studies dedicated to identify novel therapeutic approaches to ALI are urgently needed. Bigelovii A is a new natural product and may exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, we sought to investigate its effect on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced ALI and the underlying mechanisms. We found that LPS-induced ALI was significantly alleviated by Bigelovii A treatment, characterized by reduction of proinflammatory mediator production, neutrophil infiltration, and lung permeability. Furthermore, Bigelovii A also downregulated LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediator expressions in vitro. Moreover, both NF-κB and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ (C/EBPδ) activation were obviously attenuated by Bigelovii A treatment. Additionally, phosphorylation of both p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 (upstream signals of C/EBPδ activation) in response to LPS challenge was also inhibited by Bigelovii A. Therefore, Bigelovii A could attenuate LPS-induced inflammation by suppression of NF-κB, inflammatory mediators, and p38 MAPK/ERK1/2—C/EBPδ, inflammatory mediators signaling pathways, which provide a novel theoretical basis for the possible application of Bigelovii A in clinic. PMID:27194827

  1. Bigelovii A Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Blocking NF-κB and CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein δ Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chunguang; Guan, Fuqin; Shen, Yanfei; Tang, Huifang; Yuan, Dong; Gao, Hongwei; Feng, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Optimal methods are applied to acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the mortality rate is still high. Accordingly, further studies dedicated to identify novel therapeutic approaches to ALI are urgently needed. Bigelovii A is a new natural product and may exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, we sought to investigate its effect on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced ALI and the underlying mechanisms. We found that LPS-induced ALI was significantly alleviated by Bigelovii A treatment, characterized by reduction of proinflammatory mediator production, neutrophil infiltration, and lung permeability. Furthermore, Bigelovii A also downregulated LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediator expressions in vitro. Moreover, both NF-κB and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ (C/EBPδ) activation were obviously attenuated by Bigelovii A treatment. Additionally, phosphorylation of both p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 (upstream signals of C/EBPδ activation) in response to LPS challenge was also inhibited by Bigelovii A. Therefore, Bigelovii A could attenuate LPS-induced inflammation by suppression of NF-κB, inflammatory mediators, and p38 MAPK/ERK1/2-C/EBPδ, inflammatory mediators signaling pathways, which provide a novel theoretical basis for the possible application of Bigelovii A in clinic. PMID:27194827

  2. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung diseases: novel vasoconstrictor pathways.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Simon C; Keane, Michael P; Gaine, Seán; McLoughlin, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a well recognised complication of chronic hypoxic lung diseases, which are among the most common causes of death and disability worldwide. Development of pulmonary hypertension independently predicts reduced life expectancy. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, long-term oxygen therapy ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and greatly improves survival, although the correction of alveolar hypoxia and pulmonary hypertension is only partial. Advances in understanding of the regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone show that chronic vasoconstriction plays a more important part in the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension than previously thought, and that structural vascular changes contribute less. Trials of existing vasodilators show that pulmonary hypertension can be ameliorated and systemic oxygen delivery improved in carefully selected patients, although systemic hypotensive effects limit the doses used. Vasoconstrictor pathways that are selective for the pulmonary circulation can be blocked to reduce hypoxic pulmonary hypertension without causing systemic hypotension, and thus provide potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26895650

  3. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  4. [Vascular parkinsonism].

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, H

    1997-01-01

    Critchley speculated that multiple vascular lesions of the basal ganglia must have an etiological connection to the symptoms of so-called vascular parkinsonism (VP), but without neuropathological confirmation. Some had doubts about its existence because of the lack of the pathologically confirmed case with adequate clinical correlation. At present, VP is characterized clinically by the short-stepped or frozen gait, lead-pipe rigidity, the symmetry of findings, absence of resting tremor, and negative response to levodopa in elderly patients with cerebrovascular lesions on CT/MRI. Pseudobulbar palsies, pyramidal tract findings, and/or multi-infarct dementia coexist in some of the cases. Most of clinically suspected VP patients have cerebral white matter lesions as well as basal ganglia lesions. PMID:9014431

  5. Regulatory effects of interleukin-6 in immunoglobulin G immune-complex-induced lung injury.

    PubMed Central

    Shanley, T. P.; Foreback, J. L.; Remick, D. G.; Ulich, T. R.; Kunkel, S. L.; Ward, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine produced in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli. Although IL-6 is often observed in increased amounts in acute respiratory distress syndrome, its role in the development of lung injury is unclear. The role of IL-6 was studied in the rat model of lung injury induced by the intra-alveolar deposition of IgG immune complexes. IL-6 induction, as determined by Northern blot analysis and bioactivity, was found as a function of time during the course of development of injury. Recombinant IL-6 instilled intratracheally at commencement of injury led to substantial reductions in lung vascular permeability, neutrophil accumulation, and levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Conversely, blocking of intrinsic IL-6 by a neutralizing antibody resulted in increases in lung vascular permeability, neutrophil content, and TNF-alpha levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Rat alveolar macrophages stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide in the presence of IL-6 showed a significant reduction in TNF-alpha expression. Together, these findings suggest that IL-6 acts as an intrinsic regulator of lung inflammatory injury after deposition of IgG immune complexes and that the protective effects of exogenously administered IL-6 may be in part linked to suppressed TNF-alpha production. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:9212745

  6. Slug Is Increased in Vascular Remodeling and Induces a Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferative Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Coll-Bonfill, Núria; Peinado, Victor I.; Pisano, María V.; Párrizas, Marcelina; Blanco, Isabel; Evers, Maurits; Engelmann, Julia C.; García-Lucio, Jessica; Tura-Ceide, Olga; Meister, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have confirmed Slug as a key player in regulating phenotypic changes in several cell models, however, its role in smooth muscle cells (SMC) has never been assessed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of Slug during the phenotypic switch of SMC in vitro and throughout the development of vascular remodeling. Methods and Results Slug expression was decreased during both cell-to-cell contact and TGFβ1 induced SMC differentiation. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a known inductor of a proliferative/dedifferentiated SMC phenotype, induces the expression of Slug in SMC. Slug knockdown blocked TNFα-induced SMC phenotypic change and significantly reduced both SMC proliferation and migration, while its overexpression blocked the TGFβ1-induced SMC differentiation and induced proliferation and migration. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis showed that in SMC, Slug knockdown induced changes mainly in genes related to proliferation and migration, indicating that Slug controls these processes in SMC. Notably, Slug expression was significantly up-regulated in lungs of mice using a model of pulmonary hypertension-related vascular remodeling. Highly remodeled human pulmonary arteries also showed an increase of Slug expression compared to less remodeled arteries. Conclusions Slug emerges as a key transcription factor driving SMC towards a proliferative phenotype. The increased Slug expression observed in vivo in highly remodeled arteries of mice and human suggests a role of Slug in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular diseases. PMID:27441378

  7. Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Transplant? A lung transplant is surgery to remove a person's diseased lung ... a healthy lung from a deceased donor. Lung transplants are used for people who are likely to ...

  8. Curcumin Blocks Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Migration, Invasion, Angiogenesis, Cell Cycle and Neoplasia through Janus Kinase-STAT3 Signalling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheng-Liang; Liu, Yong-Yu; Ma, Ye-Gang; Xue, Yi-Xue; Liu, De-Gui; Ren, Yi; Liu, Xiao-Bai; Li, Yao; Li, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin, the active component of turmeric, has been shown to protect against carcinogenesis and prevent tumor development. However, little is known about its anti-tumor mechanism in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this study, we found that curcumin can inhibit SCLC cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration, invasion and angiogenesis through suppression of the STAT3. SCLC cells were treated with curcumin (15 µmol/L) and the results showed that curcumin was effective in inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation to downregulate of an array of STAT3 downstream targets ,which contributed to suppression of cell proliferation, loss of colony formation, depression of cell migration and invasion. Curcumin also suppressed the expression of proliferative proteins (Survivin, Bcl-XL and Cyclin B1), and invasive proteins (VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-7 and ICAM-1).Knockdown of STAT3 expression by siRNA was able to induce anti-invasive effects in vitro. In contrast, activation of STAT3 upstream of interleukin 6 (IL-6) leads to the increased cell proliferation ,cell survival, angiogenesis, invasion, migration and tumor growth. Our findings illustrate the biologic significance of IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling in SCLC progression and providenovel evidence that the pathway may be a new potential target for therapy of SCLC. It was concluded that curcumin is a potent agent in the inhibition of STAT3 with favorable pharmacological activity,and curcumin may have translational potential as an effective cancer therapeutic or preventive agent for SCLC. PMID:22662257

  9. Functionalized Fullerene Increases NF-κB Activity and Blocks Genotoxic Effect of Oxidative Stress in Serum-Starving Human Embryo Lung Diploid Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ershova, E. S.; Sergeeva, V. A.; Tabakov, V. J.; Kameneva, L. A.; Voronov, I. I.; Khakina, E. A.; Troshin, P. A.; Kutsev, S. I.; Veiko, N. N.; Kostyuk, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of a water-soluble [60] fullerene derivative containing five residues of 3-phenylpropionic acid and a chlorine addend appended to the carbon cage (F-828) on serum-starving human embryo lung diploid fibroblasts (HELFs) was studied. Serum deprivation evokes oxidative stress in HELFs. Cultivation of serum-starving HELFs in the presence of 0.1–1 µM F-828 significantly decreases the level of free radicals, inhibits autophagy, and represses expression of NOX4 and NRF2 proteins. The activity of NF-κB substantially grows up in contrast to the suppressed NRF2 activity. In the presence of 0.2–0.25 µM F-828, the DSB rate and apoptosis level dramatically decrease. The maximum increase of proliferative activity of the HELFs and maximum activity of NF-κB are observed at these concentration values. Conclusion. Under the conditions of oxidative stress evoked by serum deprivation the water-soluble fullerene derivative F-828 used in concentrations of 0.1 to 1 µM strongly stimulates the NF-κB activity and represses the NRF2 activity in HELFs.

  10. Blocking the L-type Ca2+ channel (Cav 1.2) is the key mechanism for the vascular relaxing effect of Pterodon spp. and its isolated diterpene methyl-6α-acetoxy-7β-hydroxyvouacapan-17β-oate.

    PubMed

    de Fátima Reis, Carolina; de Andrade, Daniela Medeiros Lobo; Junior Neves, Bruno; de Almeida Ribeiro Oliveira, Leandra; Pinho, José Felippe; da Silva, Leidiane Pinha; Dos Santos Cruz, Jader; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas; Andrade, Carolina Horta; Rocha, Matheus Lavorenti

    2015-10-01

    Pterodon spp. Vogel (Fabaceae), popularly known as "sucupira", has ethnopharmacological application which is described as having antispasmodic and relaxant effects. Hence, it was hypothesized that sucupira oil-resin (SOR) could induce smooth muscle relaxation. So, this study investigated the mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effect of SOR and its isolated diterpene (methyl-6α-acetoxy-7β-hydroxyvouacapan-17β-oate). Vascular reactivity experiments were performed using rat aortic rings (n=5-8) with (E+) or without endothelium (E-) in an isolated bath organ. The SOR (0-56 μg/mL) relaxed phenylephrine (E+: 86.7±7.1%; E-: 92.3±4.7%) and KCl contracted rings (E-: 97.1±2.8%). In the same way, diterpene (0-48 μg/mL) also relaxed phenylephrine (E+: 94.5±3.6%; E-: 92.2±3.4%) and KCl contracted rings (E-: 99.7±0.2%). The pre-incubation of arterial rings with cyclopiazonic acid (reticular Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor), tetraethylammonium (K+ channels blocker) or MDL-12,330A (adenylyl cyclesinhibitor) did not modify either SOR- or diterpeneinduced vasorelaxation. However, ODQ (guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) impaired only diterpene-induced vasorelaxation. SOR and diterpene significantly reduced CaCl2-induced contraction stimulated by Bay K8644 (1 μM), phenylephrine (0.1 μM) or KCl solution (40 mM). Computational molecular docking studies demonstrated that the vasodilator effect of diterpene relies on blocking the Cav 1.2 channel, and patch clamp results showed that diterpene substantially decreased the ionic current through Cav 1.2 in freshly dissociated vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings suggest that SOR and its isolated diterpene induce endothelium-independent vascular relaxation by blocking the L-type Ca2+ channel (Cav 1.2). PMID:26296533

  11. Mitochondrial H2O2 in Lung Antigen-Presenting Cells Blocks NF-κB Activation to Prevent Unwarranted Immune Activation.

    PubMed

    Khare, Anupriya; Raundhal, Mahesh; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Das, Sudipta; Corey, Catherine; Kamga, Christelle K; Quesnelle, Kelly; St Croix, Claudette; Watkins, Simon C; Morse, Christina; Oriss, Timothy B; Huff, Rachael; Hannum, Rachel; Ray, Prabir; Shiva, Sruti; Ray, Anuradha

    2016-05-24

    Inhalation of environmental antigens such as allergens does not always induce inflammation in the respiratory tract. While antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells and macrophages, take up inhaled antigens, the cell-intrinsic molecular mechanisms that prevent an inflammatory response during this process, such as activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, are not well understood. Here, we show that the nuclear receptor PPARγ plays a critical role in blocking NF-κB activation in response to inhaled antigens to preserve immune tolerance. Tolerance induction promoted mitochondrial respiration, generation of H2O2, and suppression of NF-κB activation in WT, but not PPARγ-deficient, APCs. Forced restoration of H2O2 in PPARγ-deficient cells suppressed IκBα degradation and NF-κB activation. Conversely, scavenging reactive oxygen species from mitochondria promoted IκBα degradation with loss of regulatory and promotion of inflammatory T cell responses in vivo. Thus, communication between PPARγ and the mitochondria maintains immune quiescence in the airways. PMID:27184852

  12. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  13. Vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    Korczyn, Amos D; Vakhapova, Veronika; Grinberg, Lea T

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic grow of dementia causes great concern for the society. It is customary to consider Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as the most common cause of dementia, followed by vascular dementia (VaD). This dichotomous view of a neurodegenerative disease as opposed to brain damage caused by extrinsic factors led to separate lines of research in these two entities. Indeed, accumulated data suggest that the two disorders have additive effects and probably interact; however it is still unknown to what degree. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown “vascular” risk factors to be associated with AD. Therefore, a clear distinction between AD and VaD cannot be made in most cases, and is furthermore unhelpful. In the absence of efficacious treatment for the neurodegenerative process, special attention must be given to vascular component, even in patients with presumed mixed pathology. Symptomatic treatment of VaD and AD are similar, although the former is less effective. For prevention of dementia it is important to treat aggressively all factors, even in stroke survivors who do not show evidence of cognitive decline,. In this review, we will give a clinical and pathological picture of the processes leading to VaD and discuss it interaction with AD. PMID:22575403

  14. Autophagy in vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ryter, Stefan W; Lee, Seon-Jin; Smith, Akaya; Choi, Augustine M K

    2010-02-01

    Autophagy, or "self eating," refers to a regulated cellular process for the lysosomal-dependent turnover of organelles and proteins. During starvation or nutrient deficiency, autophagy promotes survival through the replenishment of metabolic precursors derived from the degradation of endogenous cellular components. Autophagy represents a general homeostatic and inducible adaptive response to environmental stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, hypoxia, oxidative stress, and exposure to pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics. Whereas elevated autophagy can be observed in dying cells, the functional relationships between autophagy and programmed cell death pathways remain incompletely understood. Preclinical studies have identified autophagy as a process that can be activated during vascular disorders, including ischemia-reperfusion injury of the heart and other organs, cardiomyopathy, myocardial injury, and atherosclerosis. The functional significance of autophagy in human cardiovascular disease pathogenesis remains incompletely understood, and potentially involves both adaptive and maladaptive outcomes, depending on model system. Although relatively few studies have been performed in the lung, our recent studies also implicate a role for autophagy in chronic lung disease. Manipulation of the signaling pathways that regulate autophagy could potentially provide a novel therapeutic strategy in the prevention or treatment of human disease. PMID:20160147

  15. Transport of nitrated albumin across continuous vascular endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Predescu, Dan; Predescu, Sanda; Malik, Asrar B.

    2002-01-01

    Because modification of plasma albumin on tyrosine residues generates nitrated albumin (NOA) that may function as a mechanism of nitrogen monoxide clearance from microcirculation, we investigated biochemicaly and morphologically the cell surface binding and the transendothelial transport of NOA. An electron microscopic study was carried out with mouse lungs and hearts perfused in situ with NOA and NOA-Au complexes. The results indicate that NOA-Au can bind to the endothelial cell surface, and its binding can be blocked by albumin plus nitrotyrosine (NO-tyrosine) or abolished by excess NOA. We detected NOA-Au into perivascular spaces as early as 30 sec after the beginning of its perfusion. NOA, unlike native albumin, leaves the vascular lumina via both endothelial caveolae and open junctions. By cross-linking and ligand blotting analysis, we showed that NOA interacted with the same albumin binding proteins of 16–18, 30–32, 60, and 74 kDa as native albumin. ELISA performed on tissue homogenates obtained from the same specimens showed that NOA transport was 2- to 4-fold greater than native albumin. The augmented transendothelial transport of NOA reflects its transcytosis as well as its exit from the microcirculation via open junctions. The increased transport of NOA may serve as an important mechanism that protects a vascular bed against the damaging effects of nitrogen monoxide and peroxynitrite. PMID:12370442

  16. Stellettin B Induces G1 Arrest, Apoptosis and Autophagy in Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells via Blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ran; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Xin; Zhou, Chang; Zhong, Yuxu; Chen, Xi; Qiu, Yuling; Jin, Meihua; Gong, Min; Kong, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Until now, there is not yet antitumor drug with dramatically improved efficacy on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Marine organisms are rich source of novel compounds with various activities. We isolated stellettin B (Stel B) from marine sponge Jaspis stellifera, and demonstrated that it induced G1 arrest, apoptosis and autophagy at low concentrations in human NSCLC A549 cells. G1 arrest by Stel B might be attributed to the reduction of cyclin D1 and enhancement of p27 expression. The apoptosis induction might be related to the cleavage of PARP and increase of ROS generation. Moreover, we demonstrated that Stel B induced autophagy in A549 cells by use of various assays including monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tandem mRFP-GFP-LC3 fluorescence microscopy, and western blot detection of the autophagy markers of LC3B, p62 and Atg5. Meanwhile, Stel B inhibited the expression of PI3K-p110, and the phosphorylation of PDK1, Akt, mTOR, p70S6K as well as GSK-3β, suggesting the correlation of blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway with the above antitumor activities. Together, our findings indicate the antitumor potential of Stel B for NSCLC by targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. PMID:27243769

  17. Extended cardiopulmonary preservation for heart-lung transplantation: a comparative study of superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Bando, K; Tago, M; Teraoka, H; Seno, S; Senoo, Y; Teramoto, S

    1989-01-01

    We examined an 8-hour cardiopulmonary preservation technique and the role of free radical-induced injury during cardiopulmonary preservation and transplantation. Hence, donor dogs were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass, rapidly cooled to 15 degrees C, and heterotopic heart-unilateral left lung transplantations were performed. In group 1 (n = 5), hearts and lungs were transplanted immediately after core-cooling and cardioplegic arrest. In groups 2 to 5 (n = 5 in each group), heart-lung blocks were excised and stored at 4 degrees C for 8 hours before transplantation. During preservation hearts were perfused (20 mm Hg) with oxygenated extracellular solution (pH 7.4, 410 m0sm/L) and the lungs immersed in the same solution. In groups 3 through 5 recombinant human superoxide distumase (r,h-SOD, total 40 mg/kg) was administered during either donor cooling, donor preservation, or just before and during reperfusion, respectively. Load independent analysis of myocardial function was assessed by determining the ratio of the end-systolic pressure to end-systolic dimension. Pulmonary preservation was evaluated by determination of extravascular lung water of the implanted left lung, arterial oxygenation on 40% inspired oxygen, and pulmonary vascular resistance. Although arterial oxygenation was similar in each group, pulmonary vascular resistance was increased in groups 2 through 4 after implantation. Furthermore, in groups 2 and 4 impaired myocardial function and increased extravascular lung water were observed. Administration of r,h-SOD, however, just before and during reperfusion significantly enhanced cardiopulmonary preservation. These results indicate that free radical-induced injury is primarily the result of reperfusion. Thus the best time for administration of r,h-SOD is before and during reperfusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2494311

  18. Platelets in Lung Biology

    PubMed Central

    Weyrich, Andrew S.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets and the lungs have an intimate relationship. Platelets are anucleate mammalian blood cells that continuously circulate through pulmonary vessels and that have major effector activities in hemostasis and inflammation. The lungs are reservoirs for megakaryocytes, the requisite precursor cell in thrombopoiesis, which is the intricate process by which platelets are generated. Platelets contribute to basal barrier integrity of the alveolar capillaries, which selectively restricts the transfer of water, proteins, and red blood cells out of the vessels. Platelets also contribute to pulmonary vascular repair. Although platelets bolster hemostatic and inflammatory defense of the healthy lung, experimental evidence and clinical evidence indicate that these blood cells are effectors of injury in a variety of pulmonary disorders and syndromes. Newly discovered biological capacities of platelets are being explored in the context of lung defense, disease, and remodeling. PMID:23043249

  19. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  20. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  1. Lung metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the lung; Metastatic cancer to the lung ... Metastatic tumors in the lungs are cancers that developed at other places in the body (or other parts of the lungs) and spread through the ...

  2. Vascular permeability, vascular hyperpermeability and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Janice A.; Benjamin, Laura; Zeng, Huiyan; Dvorak, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The vascular system has the critical function of supplying tissues with nutrients and clearing waste products. To accomplish these goals, the vasculature must be sufficiently permeable to allow the free, bidirectional passage of small molecules and gases and, to a lesser extent, of plasma proteins. Physiologists and many vascular biologists differ as to the definition of vascular permeability and the proper methodology for its measurement. We review these conflicting views, finding that both provide useful but complementary information. Vascular permeability by any measure is dramatically increased in acute and chronic inflammation, cancer, and wound healing. This hyperpermeability is mediated by acute or chronic exposure to vascular permeabilizing agents, particularly vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF, VEGF-A). We demonstrate that three distinctly different types of vascular permeability can be distinguished, based on the different types of microvessels involved, the composition of the extravasate, and the anatomic pathways by which molecules of different size cross-vascular endothelium. These are the basal vascular permeability (BVP) of normal tissues, the acute vascular hyperpermeability (AVH) that occurs in response to a single, brief exposure to VEGF-A or other vascular permeabilizing agents, and the chronic vascular hyperpermeability (CVH) that characterizes pathological angiogenesis. Finally, we list the numerous (at least 25) gene products that different authors have found to affect vascular permeability in variously engineered mice and classify them with respect to their participation, as far as possible, in BVP, AVH and CVH. Further work will be required to elucidate the signaling pathways by which each of these molecules, and others likely to be discovered, mediate the different types of vascular permeability. PMID:18293091

  3. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  4. Perfusion and ventilation of isolated canine lungs

    PubMed Central

    Otto, T. J.; Trenkner, M.; Stopczyk, A.; Gawdziński, M.; Chełstowska, B.

    1968-01-01

    In order to evaluate methods of preserving lungs for use in transplantation, experiments on 28 mongrel dogs were carried out. Two methods were tried—first, mechanical respiration of isolated lungs under deep hypothermia, with the vascular bed filled with blood; and, secondly, the perfusion of isolated lungs with the aid of a modified DeWall's apparatus. Allogenic transplantations of lungs preserved in both ways were carried out. Gasometric and histological examinations of preserved lungs, before and after transplantation, were performed. The best results were obtained with perfusion under hypothermic conditions; ventilation without perfusion resulted in failure. Lung transplantation was successful when, after being preserved, the lung remained unchanged. Major discrepancies between the macroscopic and microscopic findings in preserved lungs were observed. An original classification of the changes occurring in preserved lungs is proposed. PMID:4886091

  5. Vascular Biomarkers in Asthma and COPD.

    PubMed

    Bakakos, Petros; Patentalakis, George; Papi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain a global health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. The changes in bronchial microvasculature that occurin asthma and COPD contribute to airway wall remodeling. Angiogenesis seems to be more prevalent in asthma and vasodilatation seemsmore relevant in COPD while vascular leak is present in both diseases. Recently, there has been increased interest in the vascular component of airway remodeling in chronic bronchial inflammation of asthma and COPD although its role in the progression of the diseases has not been fully elucidated. Various cells andmediators are involved in the vascular remodeling in asthma and COPD while proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors exert angiogenic and antiangiogenic effects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of blood vessel growth mainly in asthma but also in COPD. In asthmatic airways VEGF promotes proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and induces vascular leakage and permeability. It has also been involved in enhanced allergic sensitization, upregulated subsequent T-helper-2 type inflammatory responses, chemotaxis for monocytes and eosinophils, and airway oedema. Impaired VEGF signaling has been associated with emphysema in animal models. Studies on lung biopsies have shown a decreasing effect of anti-asthma drugs to the vascular component of airway remodeling. There is less available evidence on the effect of the currently used drugs on airway microvascular network in COPD. This review article explores the current knowledge regarding vascular biomarkers in asthma and COPD as well as the therapeutic implications of these mediators. PMID:26420364

  6. Angiosarcoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Grafino, Mónica; Alves, Paula; de Almeida, Margarida Mendes; Garrido, Patrícia; Hasmucrai, Direndra; Teixeira, Encarnação; Sotto-Mayor, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Pulmonary involvement is usually attributable to metastasis from other primary sites, primary pulmonary angiosarcoma therefore being quite uncommon. We report a case of angiosarcoma with pulmonary involvement, probably primary to the lung, which had gone untreated for more than two years. We describe this rare neoplasm and its growth, as well as the extensive local invasion and hematogenous metastasis at presentation. We also discuss its poor prognosis. PMID:26982044

  7. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor promotes vascular adhesion molecule-1 expression via the PI-3K/Akt-NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qiangsong; Zheng, Liduan; Lin, Li; Li, Bo; Wang, Danming; Li, Dechun

    2006-10-01

    Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF), also known as FIZZ1 (found in inflammatory zone 1), is an important player in lung inflammation. However, the effects of HIMF on cell adhesion molecules involved in lung inflammation remain largely unknown. In the present work, we tested whether HIMF modulates vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression, and dissected the possible signaling pathways that link HIMF to VCAM-1 upregulation. Recombinant HIMF protein, instilled intratracheally into adult mouse lungs, results in a significant increase of VCAM-1 production in vascular endothelial, alveolar type II, and airway epithelial cells. In cultured mouse endothelial SVEC 4-10 and lung epithelial MLE-12 cells, we demonstrated that HIMF induces VCAM-1 expression via the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K)/Akt-nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway. Knockdown of HIMF expression by small interference RNA attenuated LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression in vitro. We showed that HIMF induced phosphorylation of the IkappaB kinase signalsome and, subsequently, IkappaBalpha, leading to activation of NF-kappaB. Meanwhile, VCAM-1 production was correspondingly upregulated. Blocking NF-kappaB signaling pathway by expression of dominant-negative mutants of IkappaB kinase and IkappaBalpha suppressed HIMF-induced VCAM-1 upregulation. HIMF also strongly induced phosphorylation of Akt. A dominant-negative mutant of PI-3K, Deltap85, as well as PI-3K inhibitor, LY294002, also blocked HIMF-induced NF-kappaB activation and attenuated VCAM-1 production. Furthermore, LY294002 pretreatment abolished HIMF-enhanced mononuclear cells adhesion to endothelial and epithelial cells. Our findings connect HIMF to signaling pathways that regulate inflammation, and thus reveal the critical roles that HIMF plays in lung inflammation. PMID:16709959

  8. Successful extended hypothermic cardiopulmonary preservation for heart-lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bando, K; Teramoto, S; Tago, M; Teraoka, H; Seno, S; Senoo, Y

    1989-07-01

    The inability to obtain sufficiently extended hypothermic organ preservation is a major restriction on clinical heart-lung transplantation. We used core cooling, nonrecirculating retrograde heart perfusion, and lung immersion with liposomal recombinant human superoxide dismutase in an attempt to provide effective 12-hour cardiopulmonary preservation. Donor dogs supported by cardiopulmonary bypass were rapidly cooled to 15 degrees C with cardioplegic arrest, and heterotopic heart and unilateral left lung transplantations were performed. In control dogs (n = 7), hearts and lungs, harvested after core cooling and cardioplegic arrest, were transplanted with a total mean ischemic time of 88 +/- 5 minutes. In group II (n = 7), heart-lung blocks were similarly excised but preserved at 4 degrees C for 12 hours (756 +/- 30 minutes) and then transplanted. During preservation, the lungs were immersed in hyperosmolar extracellular solution. For the heart, retrograde coronary sinus perfusion was performed with intracellular solution containing perfluorochemicals at a temperature of 4 degrees C and a rate of 30 ml/hr for 12 hours. In group III (n = 7), donor organs were similarly excised and preserved for 12 hours (726 +/- 39 minutes), except that liposomal recombinant human superoxide dismutase was administered during harvest, preservation, and reperfusion. Myocardial function, assessed by the ratio of end-systolic pressure to end-systolic dimension, after the 12-hour preservation period in both experimental groups was similar to that of the control group 4 and 6 hours after transplantation. The mean arterial oxygen capacity of the transplanted left lung during ventilation with an inspired oxygen concentration of 40% was also similar in each group. In contrast, the 12-hour preservation of pulmonary function assessed by pulmonary vascular resistance, the accumulation of extravascular lung water, and histologic evidence of alveolar wall injury, interstitial edema, and

  9. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... many disorders affecting the lungs, such as asthma, COPD, infections like influenza, pneumonia and tuberculosis, lung cancer, and many other breathing problems. Some lung diseases can lead to respiratory failure. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health

  10. Collapsed Lung

    MedlinePlus

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a ... is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, it is called atelectasis. Causes of ...