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Sample records for blood bactericidal activity

  1. Bactericidal activity of black silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Elena P.; Hasan, Jafar; Webb, Hayden K.; Gervinskas, Gediminas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Truong Khanh, Vi; Wu, Alex H. F.; Lamb, Robert N.; Baulin, Vladimir A.; Watson, Gregory S.; Watson, Jolanta A.; Mainwaring, David E.; Crawford, Russell J.

    2013-11-01

    Black silicon is a synthetic nanomaterial that contains high aspect ratio nanoprotrusions on its surface, produced through a simple reactive-ion etching technique for use in photovoltaic applications. Surfaces with high aspect-ratio nanofeatures are also common in the natural world, for example, the wings of the dragonfly Diplacodes bipunctata. Here we show that the nanoprotrusions on the surfaces of both black silicon and D. bipunctata wings form hierarchical structures through the formation of clusters of adjacent nanoprotrusions. These structures generate a mechanical bactericidal effect, independent of chemical composition. Both surfaces are highly bactericidal against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and endospores, and exhibit estimated average killing rates of up to ~450,000 cells min-1 cm-2. This represents the first reported physical bactericidal activity of black silicon or indeed for any hydrophilic surface. This biomimetic analogue represents an excellent prospect for the development of a new generation of mechano-responsive, antibacterial nanomaterials.

  2. Bactericidal Activities of Milk Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Sprong, R. Corinne; Hulstein, Marco F. E.; Van der Meer, Roelof

    2001-01-01

    The bactericidal capacity of digestion products of bovine milk triglycerides and membrane lipids was tested in vitro using Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, and Clostridium perfringens. C10:0 and C12:0 fatty acids and digestion products of sphingolipids appeared to be effective bactericidal agents, whereas digestion products of phosphoglycerides were moderately bactericidal. Thus, milk fat sphingolipids and triglycerides, particularly those containing C10:0 and C12:0 fatty acids, may protect against food-borne gastroenteritis. PMID:11257052

  3. Bactericidal activity of biomimetic diamond nanocone surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Leanne E; Yang, Yang; Yuen, Muk-Fung; Zhang, Wenjun; Nobbs, Angela H; Su, Bo

    2016-03-01

    The formation of biofilms on implant surfaces and the subsequent development of medical device-associated infections are difficult to resolve and can cause considerable morbidity to the patient. Over the past decade, there has been growing recognition that physical cues, such as surface topography, can regulate biological responses and possess bactericidal activity. In this study, diamond nanocone-patterned surfaces, representing biomimetic analogs of the naturally bactericidal cicada fly wing, were fabricated using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition, followed by bias-assisted reactive ion etching. Two structurally distinct nanocone surfaces were produced, characterized, and the bactericidal ability examined. The sharp diamond nanocone features were found to have bactericidal capabilities with the surface possessing the more varying cone dimension, nonuniform array, and decreased density, showing enhanced bactericidal ability over the more uniform, highly dense nanocone surface. Future research will focus on using the fabrication process to tailor surface nanotopographies on clinically relevant materials that promote both effective killing of a broader range of microorganisms and the desired mammalian cell response. This study serves to introduce a technology that may launch a new and innovative direction in the design of biomaterials with capacity to reduce the risk of medical device-associated infections. PMID:26992656

  4. [The mechanism of bactericidal activity in phagosomes of neutrophils].

    PubMed

    Murav'ev, R A; But, P G; Fomina, V A; Rogovin, V V

    2002-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase plays the key role in antimicrobial of phagocytes. This enzyme uses hydrogen peroxide and chloride to catalyze hypochlorous acid formation. HOCl is the most probable agent in the oxygen-dependent bactericidal activity in the phagocyte phagosome. Chlorination markers indicate HOCl generation in the quantities lethal for bacteria. Enzymatic assay for myeloperoxidase indicates proceeding of other reactions involved in bactericidal activity. Superoxide integrates many activities of this kind and is important for physiological function of myeloperoxidase. Elucidation of phagosomes biochemistry can help us to understand why certain pathogens survive in such unfavorable environment. PMID:12180008

  5. Nonionic surfactants enhancing bactericidal activity at their critical micelle concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Seiichi; Majima, Toshiaki; Tadenuma, Hirohiko; Suekuni, Tomonari; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Bactericidal activities of benzalkonium chloride [also known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC)] containing nonionic surfactants such as methyl ester ethoxylates (MEE) with the alkyl group C8-C14 and oxyethylene (EO) group of average adduct number 3-15 were measured against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Sample solutions containing MEE in the vicinity of the critical micelle concentration exhibited a dramatic decrease in viable bacterial counts. MEE with an alkyl group of C12 and an oxyethylene group of lower adduct number exhibited little viable bacterial counts than those having higher EO adduct numbers. MEE with reduced EO adduct numbers increased fluorescence intensity in E. coli using the viability stain SYTO 9. Our results show that MEE molecules with low EO adduct numbers exhibited bactericidal activity by increasing the permeability of the E. coli cell membrane. Sample solution containing ADBAC and MEE molecules with lower EO adduct numbers also displayed higher zeta potentials. Moreover, ADBAC molecules incorporated into micelles of MEE with lower EO adduct numbers were adsorbed onto the surface of E. coli, which augmented bactericidal activity. PMID:25492231

  6. Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Analysis of the Bactericidal Activities of Sutezolid (PNU-100480) and Its Major Metabolite against Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ex Vivo Whole-Blood Cultures of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tong; Friedrich, Sven O.; Diacon, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Sutezolid (PNU-100480 [U-480]) is an oxazolidinone antimicrobial being developed for the treatment of tuberculosis. An active sulfoxide metabolite (PNU-101603 [U-603]), which reaches concentrations in plasma several times those of the parent, has been reported to drive the killing of extracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis by sutezolid in hollow-fiber culture. However, the relative contributions of the parent and metabolite against intracellular M. tuberculosis in vivo are not fully understood. The relationships between the plasma concentrations of U-480 and U-603 and intracellular whole-blood bactericidal activity (WBA) in ex vivo cultures were examined using a direct competitive population pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic 4-parameter sigmoid model. The data set included 690 PK determinations and 345 WBA determinations from 50 tuberculosis patients enrolled in a phase 2a sutezolid trial. The model parameters were solved iteratively. The median U-603/U-480 concentration ratio was 7.1 (range, 1 to 28). The apparent 50% inhibitory concentration of U-603 for intracellular M. tuberculosis was 17-fold greater than that of U-480 (90% confidence interval [CI], 9.9- to 53-fold). Model parameters were used to simulate in vivo activity after oral dosing with sutezolid at 600 mg twice a day (BID) and 1,200 mg once a day (QD). Divided dosing resulted in greater cumulative activity (−0.269 log10 per day; 90% CI, −0.237 to −0.293 log10 per day) than single daily dosing (−0.186 log10 per day; 90% CI, −0.160 to −0.208 log10 per day). U-480 accounted for 84% and 78% of the activity for BID and QD dosing, respectively, despite the higher concentrations of U-603. Killing of intracellular M. tuberculosis by orally administered sutezolid is mainly due to the activity of the parent compound. Taken together with the findings of other studies in the hollow-fiber model, these findings suggest that sutezolid and its metabolite act on different mycobacterial subpopulations

  7. Bactericidal Activity of Mammalian Cathelicidin-Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Sue M.; Anderson, Norma N.; Forsyth, William R.; Espiritu, Cesar; Conway, Barbara D.; Greenberg, E. P.; McCray, Paul B.; Lehrer, Robert I.; Welsh, Michael J.; Tack, Brian F.

    2000-01-01

    Endogenous antimicrobial peptides of the cathelicidin family contribute to innate immunity. The emergence of widespread antibiotic resistance in many commonly encountered bacteria requires the search for new bactericidal agents with therapeutic potential. Solid-phase synthesis was employed to prepare linear antimicrobial peptides found in cathelicidins of five mammals: human (FALL39/LL37), rabbit (CAP18), mouse (mCRAMP), rat (rCRAMP), and sheep (SMAP29 and SMAP34). These peptides were tested at ionic strengths of 25 and 175 mM against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Each peptide manifested activity against P. aeruginosa irrespective of the NaCl concentration. CAP18 and SMAP29 were the most effective peptides of the group against all test organisms under both low- and high-salt conditions. Select peptides of 15 to 21 residues, modeled on CAP18 (37 residues), retained activity against the gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, although the bactericidal activity was reduced compared to that of the parent peptide. In accordance with the behavior of the parent molecule, the truncated peptides adopted an α-helical structure in the presence of trifluoroethanol or lipopolysaccharide. The relationship between the bactericidal activity and several physiochemical properties of the cathelicidins was examined. The activities of the full-length peptides correlated positively with a predicted gradient of hydrophobicity along the peptide backbone and with net positive charge; they correlated inversely with relative abundance of anionic residues. The salt-resistant, antimicrobial properties of CAP18 and SMAP29 suggest that these peptides or congeneric structures have potential for the treatment of bacterial infections in normal and immunocompromised persons and individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:10768969

  8. Bactericidal activity of mammalian cathelicidin-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Travis, S M; Anderson, N N; Forsyth, W R; Espiritu, C; Conway, B D; Greenberg, E P; McCray, P B; Lehrer, R I; Welsh, M J; Tack, B F

    2000-05-01

    Endogenous antimicrobial peptides of the cathelicidin family contribute to innate immunity. The emergence of widespread antibiotic resistance in many commonly encountered bacteria requires the search for new bactericidal agents with therapeutic potential. Solid-phase synthesis was employed to prepare linear antimicrobial peptides found in cathelicidins of five mammals: human (FALL39/LL37), rabbit (CAP18), mouse (mCRAMP), rat (rCRAMP), and sheep (SMAP29 and SMAP34). These peptides were tested at ionic strengths of 25 and 175 mM against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Each peptide manifested activity against P. aeruginosa irrespective of the NaCl concentration. CAP18 and SMAP29 were the most effective peptides of the group against all test organisms under both low- and high-salt conditions. Select peptides of 15 to 21 residues, modeled on CAP18 (37 residues), retained activity against the gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, although the bactericidal activity was reduced compared to that of the parent peptide. In accordance with the behavior of the parent molecule, the truncated peptides adopted an alpha-helical structure in the presence of trifluoroethanol or lipopolysaccharide. The relationship between the bactericidal activity and several physiochemical properties of the cathelicidins was examined. The activities of the full-length peptides correlated positively with a predicted gradient of hydrophobicity along the peptide backbone and with net positive charge; they correlated inversely with relative abundance of anionic residues. The salt-resistant, antimicrobial properties of CAP18 and SMAP29 suggest that these peptides or congeneric structures have potential for the treatment of bacterial infections in normal and immunocompromised persons and individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:10768969

  9. Bactericidal activity of metal-mediated peroxide-ascorbate systems.

    PubMed

    Drath, D B; Karnovsky, M L

    1974-11-01

    Model systems containing ascorbate, hydrogen peroxide, and divalent copper or cobalt have been shown to possess marked bactericidal activity. At equivalent concentrations, copper-containing systems were more bactericidal than the corresponding mixtures containing cobalt. Cobalt at concentrations below 10(-4) M did not appreciably augment microbicidal activity, whereas systems containing copper at concentrations as low as 5 x 10(-6) M were still capable of causing some bacterial death. Manganese was inactive. None of these systems was as potent as the well known myeloperoxidase-peroxide-halide system. The mechanisms of action of these systems are not as yet clear. The possibility that they function through the generation of superoxide (O(2) (-)), hydroxyl radical (OH.), or other free radicals was explored through the use of superoxide dismutase and several free radical scavengers. It seems likely at present that the two active metal-mediated systems function via separate mechanisms. The copper system acts with dehydroascorbate, whereas the cobalt system does not. Activity in the cobalt system appears to depend upon the generation of free radicals. PMID:16558093

  10. Resistance of Gardnerella vaginalis to bactericidal activity of human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Boustouller, Y L; Johnson, A P

    1986-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity of Gardnerella vaginalis to the complement mediated bactericidal activity of serum, six laboratory strains were incubated with normal human serum and two strains freshly isolated from women with non-specific vaginitis (NSV) were each incubated with homologous patient serum. There was no significant difference between the number of organisms recovered from unheated or heat inactivated serum after incubation at 37 degrees C for one hour with any of the strains tested. A suspension of G vaginalis incubated at 37 degrees C for one hour in heat inactivated homologous mouse antiserum with unheated normal human serum as a source of complement did not show any less viability than the control mixture using heat inactivated human serum. In contrast, a serum resistant strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae incubated in heat inactivated homologous mouse antiserum with unheated normal human serum showed noticeably less viability than the control. G vaginalis therefore seems to be resistant to the bactericidal activity of both normal and immune serum. PMID:3493201

  11. Bactericidal activity of Musca domestica cecropin (Mdc) on multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lu, X; Shen, J; Jin, X; Ma, Y; Huang, Y; Mei, H; Chu, F; Zhu, J

    2012-08-01

    The housefly (Musca domestica) larvae have been used clinically to cure osteomyelitis, decubital necrosis, lip boil, ecthyma and malnutritional stagnation ever since the Ming/Qing Dynasty (1368 Anno Domini) till now, in China. In prior research, we have cloned and characterized a new gene of antimicrobial peptide cecropin from M. domestica larvae. This peptide was potently active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria standard strain. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of Mdc to be a potential bactericidal agent against clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and to elucidate the related antimicrobial mechanisms. Antimicrobial activity assays indicated a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.56 μM. Bactericidal kinetics at MIC showed that Mdc rapid killing of MDR E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose-dependently suppressed Mdc antibacterial potency indicates that LPS is the initial binding site of Mdc in E. coli. Propidium iodide-based flow cytometry revealed that Mdc causes E. coli membrane permeabilization. Transmission electron micrographs further indicated that a remarkable damage in the bacteria's outer and inner membrane, even the leakage of cytoplasmic contents induced by Mdc. DNA binding experimental result implies that DNA is one of the possible intracellular targets of Mdc. Of note, Mdc did not show a perceptible cytotoxic effect on human red blood cells. Altogether, these results suggest that Mdc could be an excellent candidate for the development of more efficacious bactericidal agents. PMID:22202966

  12. Bactericidal activities of selected organic N-halamines.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D E; Worley, S D; Barnela, S B; Swango, L J

    1987-01-01

    The bactericidal efficacies of three organic N,N'-dihalamine disinfectants in the class of compounds termed imidazolidinones were determined for combinations of pH, temperature, and water quality treatments by using Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella boydii as test organisms. The compound 1,3-dibromo-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-imidazolidinone was found to be the most rapidly acting bactericide, especially under halogen-demand-free conditions. The mixed N,N'-dihalamine 1-bromo-3-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-imidazolidinone was found to be intermediate in terms of rate of disinfection, while the compound 1,3-dichloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-imidazolidinone was observed to be the slowest acting bactericide. When overall effectiveness was judged on the basis of stability of the disinfectants along with rates of disinfection, the mixed halamine was considered to exhibit great potential for use as a disinfectant in an aqueous solution. PMID:3314705

  13. Retinoid agonist Am80-enhanced neutrophil bactericidal activity arising from granulopoiesis in vitro and in a neutropenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wanjing; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Li, Lin; Mittal, Rahul; Zhang, Xiaokun; Shudo, Koichi; He, Qiaojun; Prasadarao, Nemani V; Wu, Lingtao

    2013-02-01

    Despite advances in the therapeutic use of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to promote granulopoiesis of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), neutropenia remains one of the most serious complications of cancer chemotherapy. We discovered that retinoid agonist Am80 (tamibarotene) is more potent than G-CSF in coordinating neutrophil differentiation and immunity development. Am80-induced neutrophils (AINs) either in vitro or in neutropenic mouse model displayed strong bactericidal activities, similar to those of human peripheral blood neutrophils (PBNs) or mouse peripheral blood neutrophils (MPBNs) but markedly greater than did G-CSF–induced neutrophils (GINs). In contrast to GINs but similar to PBNs, the enhanced bacterial killing by AINs accompanied both better granule maturation and greater coexpression of CD66 antigen with the integrin β2 subunit CD18. Consistently, anti-CD18 antibody neutralized Am80-induced bactericidal activities of AINs. These studies demonstrate that Am80 is more effective than G-CSF in promoting neutrophil differentiation and bactericidal activities, probably through coordinating the functional interaction of CD66 with CD18 to enhance the development of neutrophil immunity during granulopoiesis. Our findings herein suggest a molecular rationale for developing new therapy against neutropenia using Am80 as a cost-effective treatment option. PMID:23243275

  14. Retinoid agonist Am80-enhanced neutrophil bactericidal activity arising from granulopoiesis in vitro and in a neutropenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wanjing; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Li, Lin; Mittal, Rahul; Zhang, Xiaokun; Shudo, Koichi; He, Qiaojun; Prasadarao, Nemani V.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in the therapeutic use of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to promote granulopoiesis of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), neutropenia remains one of the most serious complications of cancer chemotherapy. We discovered that retinoid agonist Am80 (tamibarotene) is more potent than G-CSF in coordinating neutrophil differentiation and immunity development. Am80-induced neutrophils (AINs) either in vitro or in neutropenic mouse model displayed strong bactericidal activities, similar to those of human peripheral blood neutrophils (PBNs) or mouse peripheral blood neutrophils (MPBNs) but markedly greater than did G-CSF–induced neutrophils (GINs). In contrast to GINs but similar to PBNs, the enhanced bacterial killing by AINs accompanied both better granule maturation and greater coexpression of CD66 antigen with the integrin β2 subunit CD18. Consistently, anti-CD18 antibody neutralized Am80-induced bactericidal activities of AINs. These studies demonstrate that Am80 is more effective than G-CSF in promoting neutrophil differentiation and bactericidal activities, probably through coordinating the functional interaction of CD66 with CD18 to enhance the development of neutrophil immunity during granulopoiesis. Our findings herein suggest a molecular rationale for developing new therapy against neutropenia using Am80 as a cost-effective treatment option. PMID:23243275

  15. Visible-Light-Activated Bactericidal Functions of Carbon "Quantum" Dots.

    PubMed

    Meziani, Mohammed J; Dong, Xiuli; Zhu, Lu; Jones, Les P; LeCroy, Gregory E; Yang, Fan; Wang, Shengyuan; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Yiping; Yang, Liju; Tripp, Ralph A; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Carbon dots, generally defined as small carbon nanoparticles with various surface passivation schemes, have emerged as a new class of quantum-dot-like nanomaterials, with their optical properties and photocatalytic functions resembling those typically found in conventional nanoscale semiconductors. In this work, carbon dots were evaluated for their photoinduced bactericidal functions, with the results suggesting that the dots were highly effective in bacteria-killing with visible-light illumination. In fact, the inhibition effect could be observed even simply under ambient room lighting conditions. Mechanistic implications of the results are discussed and so are opportunities in the further development of carbon dots into a new class of effective visible/natural light-responsible bactericidal agents for a variety of bacteria control applications. PMID:27064729

  16. Beta-hydroxybutyrate abrogates formation of bovine neutrophil extracellular traps and bactericidal activity against mammary pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Navit; Elazar, Sharon; Rosenshine, Ilan; Shpigel, Nahum Y

    2008-06-01

    Escherichia coli is an important bacterial species isolated from bovine mastitis. The rate of neutrophil recruitment into the mammary gland and their bactericidal activity largely affect the severity and outcome of the disease. Ketosis is a common metabolic disease, and affected dairy cows are known to have increased risk for mastitis and other infectious conditions. The disease is associated with high blood and milk levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), previously shown to negatively affect neutrophil function by unknown mechanisms. We show here that the mammary pathogenic E. coli strain P4 activates normal bovine neutrophils to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are highly bactericidal against this organism. Preincubation of these neutrophils with increasing concentrations (0.1 to 8 mmol/liter) of BHBA caused a fivefold decrease of E. coli P4 phagocytosis, though intracellular killing was unaffected. Furthermore, BHBA caused a 10-fold decrease in the NETs formed by E. coli P4-activated neutrophils and a similar decrease in NET bactericidal activity against this organism. These negative effects of BHBA on bovine neutrophils might explain the increased susceptibility of ketotic cows to mastitis and other infectious conditions. PMID:18411287

  17. [Comparative urinary bactericidal activity of oral antibiotics against gram-positive pathogens].

    PubMed

    Bedenić, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Gverić, Ana; Plecko, Vanda; Vranes, Jasmina; Bubonja-Sonje, Marina; Kalenić, Smilja

    2012-01-01

    In routine bacteriological laboratories the antibacterial activity of antibiotics is determined by in vitro testing, usually by disk-diffusion test. However, in vitro testing does not always reflect antibacterial efficiency of antibiotics in vivo. In this investigation, the urine samples obtained in a single oral dose pharmacokinetic study were examined for their bactericidal activity against a range of relevant Gram-positive urinary tract pathogens. Urinary bactericidal activity of linezolid had been previously compared with ciprofloxacin but not with other oral antibiotics such as beta-lactams. Linezolid showed satisfactory urinary bactericidal titres throughout the whole testing period against all Gram-positive cocci. Fluoroquinolones displayed high and persisting levels of urinary bactericidal activity against staphylococci, but their activity against enterococci was weaker. According to the results of ex-vivo testing amoxycillin could be recommended only for infections caused by E. faecalis. Amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid can be considered as a therapeutic option for infections caused by S. saprophyticus and E. faecalis. Older cephalosporins had high titres only against S. saprophyticus. Their drawback is a short elimination half-time in urine resulting in rapid decrease of urinary bactericidal titers during dosing interval. Furthermore, they do not show activity against enterococci due to their intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. PMID:22930932

  18. Dissociation of bactericidal activity from other functions of activated macrophages in exudates induced by thioglycolate medium.

    PubMed Central

    Spitalny, G L

    1981-01-01

    Macrophages displayed increased spreading, increased Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis, and increased secretion of plasminogen activator when collected from the peritoneal cavities of either Listeria-immune mice challenged intraperitoneally 3 days earlier with Listeria or nonimmune mice injected intraperitoneally 3 days earlier with fluid thioglycolate medium. In contrast, macrophages from the thioglycolate-induced peritoneal exudates were severely impaired in vitro in their ability to destroy Listeria. Injection of thioglycolate markedly interfered with the destruction of sublethal intraperitoneal challenge of Listeria, which resulted in nonimmune animals dying of an overwhelming systemic infection. In animals immune to Listeria, injection of thioglycolate delayed the onset of the expression of immunity to an intraperitoneal challenge of bacteria. The thioglycolate-induced suppression of bactericidal activity was determined to be confined to the site of injection. Results of experiments indicated that the colloidal agar in thioglycolate medium was the cause of the impairment of macrophage bactericidal activity. In addition to the impairment of bactericidal activity induced by agar, additional studies showed that an intraperitoneal injection of colloidal agar (0.075% wt/vol) by itself was a sufficient inflammatory stimulus for the accumulation of a large number of host phagocytic cells. Images PMID:6795125

  19. The behavior of active bactericidal and antifungal coating under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yan; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-02-01

    In the present paper, the novel active bactericidal and antifungal coatings (ABAC) have been prepared through the immobilization of Fe-doped TiO2 (anatase) with chitosan. The characterization of ABAC using optical microscope imaging, SEM, AFM and FTIR shows that the Fe doped TiO2 is embedded into the chitosan coating with favorable dispersion through the hydrogen bonds interaction between chitosan molecules and TiO2. The contact angle measurement demonstrated the hydrophilicity of ABAC (θ = 34.5 ± 4.1°). The bactericidal activity of ABAC has been evaluated by inactivating three different test strains: Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger which illustrates the apparently higher bactericidal ability than chitosan, Fe-TiO2 and chitosan/TiO2 (pure) under visible light irradiation and its bactericidal activity is lasting for at least 24 h. ABAC showed rapid and efficient antibacterial ability for the three tested strains and its antibacterial ratio in 2 h for E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger was 99.9%, 97.0% and 95.0%, respectively. The prepared chitosan/TiO2 composite emulsion shows favorable storage stability and can be stored up to 1 year without losing its bactericidal activity. ABAC is a low-cost and eco-friendly antibacterial coating products and promising for domestic, medical and industrial applications.

  20. Role of capsule and O antigen in resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae to serum bactericidal activity.

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, J M; Benedí, V J; Ciurana, B; Jofre, J

    1986-01-01

    The ability of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains to resist the bactericidal activity of serum was quantitated. The K. pneumoniae strains tested included mutants lacking the capsular polysaccharide and mutants having a modified lipopolysaccharide structure. The last mutants were obtained as phage-resistant mutants, and their lipopolysaccharide was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and chemical analysis. Serum-resistant mutants derived from phage-resistant mutants (lipopolysaccharide mutants) were also characterized. Resistance to the bactericidal activity of complement was mediated by the lipopolysaccharide, especially by the O-antigen polysaccharide chains. The capsular polysaccharide seemed not to play any important role in resistance to serum bactericidal activity in this bacterium. Images PMID:3531020

  1. Effects of cytochalasin B on the intrcellular bactericidal activity of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Okuda, K

    1975-06-01

    Cytochalasin B (CB) is known to have some inhibitory effects on cytokinesis, single-cell movement, bacterial uptake by phagocytes, and many other processes. The effects of CB on intraleukocytic bactericidal activities in human leukocytes were studied, and the results were summarized as follows. (i) CB inhibited the early stage of the intracellular bactericidal activity of human leukocytes against Streptococcus pyogenes D58 (group A). The effect was rapidly eliminated by rinsing the CB solution. (ii) In the late stage of the intracellular bactericidal process, however, CB possessed no effect against S. pyogenes D58 (group A) and Staphylococcus aureus 209P. (iii) CB also inhibited the translocation of myeloperoxidase granules to the phagosomes of human neutrophils. PMID:1155917

  2. Morphology-dependent bactericidal activities of Ag/CeO2 catalysts against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian; He, Hong; Yu, Yunbo; Sun, Li; Liu, Sijin; Zhang, Changbin; He, Lian

    2014-06-01

    Silver-loaded CeO2 nanomaterials (Ag/CeO2) including Ag/CeO2 nanorods, nanocubes, nanoparticles were prepared with hydrothermal and impregnation methods. Catalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli with Ag/CeO2 catalysts through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated. For comparison purposes, the bactericidal activities of CeO2 nanorods, nanocubes and nanoparticles were also studied. There was a 3-4 log order improvement in the inactivation of E. coli with Ag/CeO2 catalysts compared with CeO2 catalysts. Temperature-programmed reduction of H2 showed that Ag/CeO2 catalysts had higher catalytic oxidation ability than CeO2 catalysts, which was the reason for that Ag/CeO2 catalysts exhibited stronger bactericidal activities than CeO2 catalysts. Further, the bactericidal activities of CeO2 and Ag/CeO2 depend on their shapes. Results of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin-trapping measurements by electron spin resonance and addition of catalase as a scavenger indicated the formation of OH, O2(-), and H2O2, which caused the obvious bactericidal activity of catalysts. The stronger chemical bond between Ag and CeO2 nanorods led to lower Ag(+) elution concentrations. The toxicity of Ag(+) eluted from the catalysts did not play an important role during the bactericidal process. Experimental results also indicated that Ag/CeO2 induced the production of intracellular ROS and disruption of the cell wall and cell membrane. A possible production mechanism of ROS and bactericidal mechanism of catalytic oxidation were proposed. PMID:24662462

  3. The nature of inherent bactericidal activity: insights from the nanotopology of three species of dragonfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainwaring, David E.; Nguyen, Song Ha; Webb, Hayden; Jakubov, Timur; Tobin, Mark; Lamb, Robert N.; Wu, Alex H.-F.; Marchant, Richard; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2016-03-01

    While insect wings are widely recognised as multi-functional, recent work showed that this extends to extensive bactericidal activity brought about by cell deformation and lysis on the wing nanotopology. We now quantitatively show that subtle changes to this topography result in substantial changes in bactericidal activity that are able to span an order of magnitude. Notably, the chemical composition of the lipid nanopillars was seen by XPS and synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy to be similar across these activity differences. Modelling the interaction between bacterial cells and the wing surface lipids of 3 species of dragonflies, that inhabit similar environments, but with distinctly different behavioural repertoires, provided the relationship between surface structure and antibacterial functionality. In doing so, these principal behavioural patterns correlated with the demands for antimicrobial efficiency dictated by differences in their foraging strategies. This work now reveals a new feature in the design elegance of natural multi-functional surfaces as well providing insights into the bactericidal mechanism underlying inherently antimicrobial materials, while suggesting that nanotopology is related to the evolutionary development of a species through the demands of its behavioural repertoire. The underlying relationship between the processes of wetting, adhesion and capillarity of the lipid nanopillars and bactericidal efficiency suggests new prospects for purely mechano-responsive antibacterial surfaces.While insect wings are widely recognised as multi-functional, recent work showed that this extends to extensive bactericidal activity brought about by cell deformation and lysis on the wing nanotopology. We now quantitatively show that subtle changes to this topography result in substantial changes in bactericidal activity that are able to span an order of magnitude. Notably, the chemical composition of the lipid nanopillars was seen by XPS and synchrotron

  4. A complex of equine lysozyme and oleic acid with bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Emily A; Wilhelm, Kristina R; Schleucher, Jürgen; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A; Hakansson, Anders P

    2013-01-01

    HAMLET and ELOA are complexes consisting of oleic acid and two homologous, yet functionally different, proteins with cytotoxic activities against mammalian cells, with HAMLET showing higher tumor cells specificity, possibly due to the difference in propensity for oleic acid binding, as HAMLET binds 5-8 oleic acid molecules per protein molecule and ELOA binds 11-48 oleic acids. HAMLET has been shown to possess bactericidal activity against a number of bacterial species, particularly those with a respiratory tropism, with Streptococcus pneumoniae displaying the greatest degree of sensitivity. We show here that ELOA also displays bactericidal activity against pneumococci, which at lower concentrations shows mechanistic similarities to HAMLET's bactericidal activity. ELOA binds to S. pneumoniae and causes perturbations of the plasma membrane, including depolarization and subsequent rupture, and activates an influx of calcium into the cells. Selective inhibition of calcium channels and sodium/calcium exchange activity significantly diminished ELOA's bactericidal activity, similar to what we have observed with HAMLET. Finally, ELOA-induced death was also accompanied by DNA fragmentation into high molecular weight fragments - an apoptosis-like morphological phenotype that is seen during HAMLET-induced death. Thus, in contrast to different mechanisms of eukaryote cell death induced by ELOA and HAMLET, these complexes are characterized by rather similar activities towards bacteria. Although the majority of these events could be mimicked using oleic acid alone, the concentrations of oleic acid required were significantly higher than those present in the ELOA complex, and for some assays, the results were not identical between oleic acid alone and the ELOA complex. This indicates that the lipid, as a common denominator in both complexes, is an important component for the complexes' bactericidal activities, while the proteins are required both to solubilize and/or present the

  5. In vitro bactericidal activity of cefepime and cefpirome against clinical isolates at Karachi.

    PubMed

    Arsalan, Adeel; Naqvi, Syed Baqar Shayam; Ali, Syed Abid; Ahmed, Sadia; Shakeel, Osama

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotics not only support to alleviate the infections but also facilitate to avert the multiplication of microbes. Due to the irrational use of antibiotics, the resistance of antibiotics has been augmented which results may increase in morbidity and mortality with the span of time. World renowned regulatory bodies like Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO) vigorously advocate the surveillance of the resistance of antibiotics. During the present study by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method 141 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (n=47, 33.34%), Escherichia coli (n=54, 38.3%), Proteus species (n=26, 18.4%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=14, 9.92%) are evaluated against cefepime and cefpirome which comes of fourth generation cephalosporin. It has been found that cefpirome has better bactericidal activity than cefepime against E. coli and K. pneumoniae while cefepime has been possessed better antibacterial activity against S. aureus and Proteus species which were isolated from respiratory tract infections, blood stream infection, intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections. K. pneumoniae, E. coli, Proteus species, and S. aureus were 34.8%, 26.3%, 11.3%, and 37.7% resistance against cefepime respectively. S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Proteus species has shown 41.4%, 21.7%, 17.6%, and 8.9% resistance against cefpirome correspondingly. PMID:26004702

  6. Inhibition of cell-free oxidative bactericidal activity by erythrocytes and hemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Hand, W L

    1984-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia and other chronic hemolytic anemias are associated with an increased frequency of bacterial infections. There is evidence to suggest that in hemolytic states massive erythrocyte (RBC) ingestion by macrophages interferes with their antibacterial function, thereby predisposing infection. Stimulated by this possibility, we recently demonstrated that erythrophagocytosis by macrophages markedly inhibited intracellular killing of bacteria, and that zymosan-stimulated superoxide generation and chemiluminescence were also suppressed by RBC ingestion. We examined the effects of RBC components on generation of chemiluminescence, superoxide, and bactericidal activity by cell-free oxidative systems. Generation of chemiluminescence by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase was depressed in the presence of human RBC lysate or column-fractionated hemoglobin but not crystallized human hemoglobin (methemoglobin) (peak cpms of 15,522 [P = 0.00024], 28,360 [P = 0.0088], and 50,041 [P = 0.37], respectively, compared with 59,898 for positive controls). Similarly, hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase production of superoxide was inhibited in the presence of column-fractionated human hemoglobin (43.8 versus 17.4 nmol per tube, P = 0.000001). A cell-free bactericidal system, acetaldehyde and xanthine oxidase with or without myeloperoxidase and Cl-, was markedly inhibited by column-purified hemoglobin. For example, after 2 h of incubation, surviving numbers of Staphylococcus aureus were: control (buffer only), 2.5 X 10(6)/ml; bactericidal system, none; bactericidal system plus hemoglobin, 2.2 X 10(6)/ml (P less than or equal to 0.03, bactericidal system versus other systems). Our studies have documented that interactions between RBC (hemoglobin) and reactive products of oxygen metabolism inhibit oxidative bactericidal mechanisms in cell-free systems as well as in macrophages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6325349

  7. Sequestration of nanoparticles by an EPS matrix reduces the particle-specific bactericidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Kang, Fuxing; Gao, Yanzheng; Mao, Xuewei; Hu, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    Most artificial nanomaterials are known to exhibit broad-spectrum bactericidal activity; however, the defence mechanisms that bacteria use based on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to detoxify nanoparticles (NPs) are not well known. We ruled out the possibility of ion-specific bactericidal activity by showing the lack of equivalent dissolved zinc and silicon toxicity and determined the particle-specific toxicity of ZnO and SiO2 nanoparticles (ZnONPs/SiO2NPs) through dialysis isolation experiments. Surprisingly, the manipulation of the E. coli EPS (i.e., no EPS manipulation or EPS removal by sonication/centrifugation) showed that their particle-specific bactericidal activity could be antagonized by NP-EPS sequestration. The survival rates of pristine E. coli (no EPS manipulation) reached 65% (ZnONPs, 500 mg L−1) and 79% (SiO2NPs, 500 mg L−1), whereas survival rates following EPS removal by sonication/centrifugation were 11% and 63%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with fluorescence micro-titration analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that protein-like substances (N-H and C-N in amide II) and secondary carbonyl groups (C=O) in the carboxylic acids of EPS acted as important binding sites that were involved in NP sequestration. Accordingly, the amount and composition of EPS produced by bacteria have important implications for the bactericidal efficacy and potential environmental effects of NPs. PMID:26856606

  8. Sequestration of nanoparticles by an EPS matrix reduces the particle-specific bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Kang, Fuxing; Gao, Yanzheng; Mao, Xuewei; Hu, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    Most artificial nanomaterials are known to exhibit broad-spectrum bactericidal activity; however, the defence mechanisms that bacteria use based on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to detoxify nanoparticles (NPs) are not well known. We ruled out the possibility of ion-specific bactericidal activity by showing the lack of equivalent dissolved zinc and silicon toxicity and determined the particle-specific toxicity of ZnO and SiO2 nanoparticles (ZnONPs/SiO2NPs) through dialysis isolation experiments. Surprisingly, the manipulation of the E. coli EPS (i.e., no EPS manipulation or EPS removal by sonication/centrifugation) showed that their particle-specific bactericidal activity could be antagonized by NP-EPS sequestration. The survival rates of pristine E. coli (no EPS manipulation) reached 65% (ZnONPs, 500 mg L(-1)) and 79% (SiO2NPs, 500 mg L(-1)), whereas survival rates following EPS removal by sonication/centrifugation were 11% and 63%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with fluorescence micro-titration analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that protein-like substances (N-H and C-N in amide II) and secondary carbonyl groups (C=O) in the carboxylic acids of EPS acted as important binding sites that were involved in NP sequestration. Accordingly, the amount and composition of EPS produced by bacteria have important implications for the bactericidal efficacy and potential environmental effects of NPs. PMID:26856606

  9. The nature of inherent bactericidal activity: insights from the nanotopology of three species of dragonfly.

    PubMed

    Mainwaring, David E; Nguyen, Song Ha; Webb, Hayden; Jakubov, Timur; Tobin, Mark; Lamb, Robert N; Wu, Alex H-F; Marchant, Richard; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2016-03-28

    While insect wings are widely recognised as multi-functional, recent work showed that this extends to extensive bactericidal activity brought about by cell deformation and lysis on the wing nanotopology. We now quantitatively show that subtle changes to this topography result in substantial changes in bactericidal activity that are able to span an order of magnitude. Notably, the chemical composition of the lipid nanopillars was seen by XPS and synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy to be similar across these activity differences. Modelling the interaction between bacterial cells and the wing surface lipids of 3 species of dragonflies, that inhabit similar environments, but with distinctly different behavioural repertoires, provided the relationship between surface structure and antibacterial functionality. In doing so, these principal behavioural patterns correlated with the demands for antimicrobial efficiency dictated by differences in their foraging strategies. This work now reveals a new feature in the design elegance of natural multi-functional surfaces as well providing insights into the bactericidal mechanism underlying inherently antimicrobial materials, while suggesting that nanotopology is related to the evolutionary development of a species through the demands of its behavioural repertoire. The underlying relationship between the processes of wetting, adhesion and capillarity of the lipid nanopillars and bactericidal efficiency suggests new prospects for purely mechano-responsive antibacterial surfaces. PMID:26935293

  10. The bactericidal activity of a teat dip containing chlorhexidine and cetrimide.

    PubMed

    King, J S; Morant, S V; Bramley, A J

    1977-11-19

    Using an in vivo test on teat skin the disinfectant activity of a teat dip containing chlorhexidine and cetrimide was compared with two iodophor solutions, one containing the recommended concentration of 0.5 per cent available iodine and the other a 10-fold dilution of this (0.05 per cent iodine). The test organisms used were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and for both species the 0.5 per cent iodophor was significantly more bactericidal than either the diluted iodophor or the chlorhexidine/cetrimide teat dip (P less than 0.01). In the test against S aureus, chlorhexidine/cetrimide and the 0.05 per cent iodophor showed similar bactericidal activity, but the iodophor was significantly more bactericidal against E coli (P less than 0.01). It is argued that due to its low bactericidal activity this formulation of chlorhexidine/cetrimide is likely to be inferior to 0.5 per cent iodophor solution as a disinfectant teat dip. PMID:339477

  11. The effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin on the bactericidal activity and specific antibody activity of bovine colostrum.

    PubMed Central

    Brock, J H; Arzabe, R; Piñeiro, A; Olivito, A M

    1977-01-01

    Digestion of bovine colostral whey with trypsin or chymotrypsin caused a progressive loss of the complement-mediated bactericidal activity of naturally-occurring colostral antibodies of E. coli 0111. Bactericidal activity was associated primarily with IgG1 immunoglobulin and to a lesser extent with IgM. Chymotrypsin preferentially attacked IgM, destroying its antibacterial activity and producing an apparent decrease in its mol wt. Trypsin preferentially attacked IgG1, but loss of antibacterial activity was in this case not accompanied by a decrease in molecular weight. Using colostral whey with antiperoxidase activity it was shown that the kinetics of loss of specific antibody activity were similar to those of loss of bactericidal activity. It is therefore suggested that trypsin may cause a loss of specific antibody activity of colostral IgG1 without cleaving the immunoglobulin molecule. PMID:321342

  12. Active site mutants of human secreted Group IIA Phospholipase A2 lacking hydrolytic activity retain their bactericidal effect.

    PubMed

    Chioato, Lucimara; Aragão, Elisangela Aparecida; Ferreira, Tatiana Lopes; Ward, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The Human Secreted Group IIA Phospholipase A(2) (hsPLA2GIIA) presents potent bactericidal activity, and is considered to contribute to the acute-phase immune response. Hydrolysis of inner membrane phospholipids is suggested to underlie the bactericidal activity, and we have evaluated this proposal by comparing catalytic activity with bactericidal and liposome membrane damaging effects of the G30S, H48Q and D49K hsPLA2GIIA mutants. All mutants showed severely impaired hydrolytic activities against mixed DOPC:DOPG liposome membranes, however the bactericidal effect against Micrococcus luteus was less affected, with 50% killing at concentrations of 1, 3, 7 and 9 μg/mL for the wild-type, D49K, H48Q and G30S mutants respectively. Furthermore, all proteins showed Ca(2+)-independent damaging activity against liposome membranes demonstrating that in addition to the hydrolysis-dependent membrane damage, the hsPLA2GIIA presents a mechanism for permeabilization of phospholipid bilayers that is independent of catalytic activity, which may play a role in the bactericidal function of the protein. PMID:21986368

  13. Bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400, and polyethylene glycol 1000 against selected microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Bhat, Kishore; Sogi, Suma H. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) against selected microorganisms in vitro. Materials and Methods: Five vehicles, namely propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG 400, PEG 1000, and combination of propylene glycol with PEG 400, were tested for their bactericidal activity. The minimum bactericidal concentration was noted against four standard strains of organisms, i.e. Streptococcus mutans American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 12598, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 35550, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, using broth dilution assay. Successful endodontic therapy depends upon thorough disinfection of root canals. In some refractory cases, routine endodontic therapy is not sufficient, so intracanal medicaments are used for proper disinfection of canals. Intracanal medicaments are dispensed with vehicles which aid in increased diffusion through the dentinal tubules and improve their efficacy. Among the various vehicles used, glycerine is easily available, whereas others like propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol have to be procured from appropriate sources. Also, these vehicles, being viscous, aid in sustained release of the medicaments and improve their handling properties. The most commonly used intracanal medicaments like calcium hydroxide are ineffective on many microorganisms, while most of the other medicaments like MTAD (Mixture of Tetracycline, an Acid, and a Detergent) and Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP) consist of antibiotics which can lead to development of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms. Thus, in order to use safer and equally effective intracanal medicaments, newer alternatives like chlorhexidine gluconate, ozonized water, etc., are being explored. Similarly, the five vehicles mentioned above are being tested for their antimicrobial activity in this study. Results: All vehicles

  14. [In vitro bactericidal activities of new oral penem, faropenem against the various clinical isolates].

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, K; Nishiyama, T; Hasegawa, M; Kobayashi, I; Kaneko, A; Sasaki, J

    1999-05-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of faropenem (FRPM) more compared with those of various oral beta-lactams against 15 isolates each of 6 species of microorganism. FRPM possessed potent in vitro antibacterial activity against both aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria tested. FRPM showed the same activity as new oral cephems such as cefdinir, cefditoren and cefcapene against all Gram-negative bacteria, but K. pneumoniae strains were less susceptible. The MBC of FRPM against S. pneumoniae and the other strains tested equal and were within 1 dilution the MIC of that, respectively. These results suggest that FRPM has excellent in vitro bactericidal activity against clinical isolates and is a clinically useful for the chemotherapy of bacterial infections. PMID:10480050

  15. Characterization of bactericidal activity of clindamycin against Bacteroides fragilis via kill curve methods.

    PubMed Central

    Klepser, M E; Banevicius, M A; Quintiliani, R; Nightingale, C H

    1996-01-01

    Kill curves were determined for five isolates of Bacteroides fragilis with clindamycin at concentrations equal to the MIC or to 4, 16, and 64 times the MIC. Examination of plots of log CFU per milliliter versus time revealed no association between the clindamycin concentration and the rate and extent of the bactericidal activity against B. fragilis at or below 64 times the MIC. PMID:8843310

  16. Correlation of Daptomycin Bactericidal Activity and Membrane Depolarization in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Jared A.; Perlmutter, Nancy G.; Shapiro, Howard M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to further elucidate the role of membrane potential in the mechanism of action of daptomycin, a novel lipopeptide antibiotic. Membrane depolarization was measured by both fluorimetric and flow cytometric assays. Adding daptomycin (5 μg/ml) to Staphylococcus aureus gradually dissipated membrane potential. In both assays, cell viability was reduced by >99% and membrane potential was reduced by >90% within 30 min of adding daptomycin. Cell viability decreased in parallel with changes in membrane potential, demonstrating a temporal correlation between bactericidal activity and membrane depolarization. Decreases in viability and potential also showed a dose-dependent correlation. Depolarization is indicative of ion movement across the cytoplasmic membrane. Fluorescent probes were used to demonstrate Ca2+-dependent, daptomycin-triggered potassium release from S. aureus. Potassium release was also correlated with bactericidal activity. This study demonstrates a clear correlation between dissipation of membrane potential and the bactericidal activity of daptomycin. A multistep model for daptomycin's mechanism of action is proposed. PMID:12878516

  17. Interaction of human defensins with Escherichia coli. Mechanism of bactericidal activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, R I; Barton, A; Daher, K A; Harwig, S S; Ganz, T; Selsted, M E

    1989-01-01

    Defensins are small, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides that are abundant in human, rabbit, and guinea pig neutrophils (PMN). Three defensins (human neutrophil peptide defensin [HNP]-1, HNP-2, and HNP-3) constitute between 30 and 50% of the total protein in azurophil granules of human PMN. We examined the mechanism of HNP-mediated bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli ML-35 (i-, y-, z+) and its pBR322-transformed derivative, E. coli ML-35p. Under conditions that supported bactericidal activity, HNP-1 sequentially permeabilized the outer membrane (OM) and inner membrane (IM) of E. coli. Coincident with these events, bacterial synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein ceased and the colony count fell. Although these events were closely coupled under standard assay conditions, OM permeabilization was partially dissociated from IM permeabilization when experiments were performed with E. coli that had been plasmolyzed by mannitol. Under such conditions, the rate and extent of bacterial death more closely paralled loss of IM integrity than OM permeabilization. Electron microscopy of E. coli that had been killed by defensins revealed the presence of striking electron-dense deposits in the periplasmic space and affixed to the OM. Overall, these studies show that HNP-mediated bactericidal activity against E. coli ML-35 is associated with sequential permeabilization of the OM and IM, and that inner membrane permeabilization appears to be the lethal event. Images PMID:2668334

  18. Increased bactericidal activity of colistin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kolpen, Mette; Appeldorff, Cecilie F; Brandt, Sarah; Mousavi, Nabi; Kragh, Kasper N; Aydogan, Sevtap; Uppal, Haleema A; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Ciofu, Oana; Høiby, Niels; Jensen, Peter Ø

    2016-02-01

    Tolerance towards antibiotics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is recognized as a major cause of therapeutic failure of chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This lung infection is characterized by antibiotic-tolerant biofilms in mucus with zones of O2 depletion mainly due to polymorphonuclear leukocytic activity. In contrast to the main types of bactericidal antibiotics, it has not been possible to establish an association between the bactericidal effects of colistin and the production of detectable levels of OH ˙ on several strains of planktonic P. aeruginosa. Therefore, we propose that production of OH ˙ may not contribute significantly to the bactericidal activity of colistin on P. aeruginosa biofilm. Thus, we investigated the effect of colistin treatment on biofilm of wild-type PAO1, a catalase-deficient mutant (ΔkatA) and a colistin-resistant CF isolate cultured in microtiter plates in normoxic- or anoxic atmosphere with 1 mM nitrate. The killing of bacteria during colistin treatment was measured by CFU counts, and the OH⋅ formation was measured by 3(')-(p-hydroxylphenyl fluorescein) fluorescein (HPF) fluorescence. Validation of the assay was done by hydrogen peroxide treatment. OH⋅ formation was undetectable in aerobic PAO1 biofilms during 3 h of colistin treatment. Interestingly, we demonstrate increased susceptibility of P. aeruginosa biofilms towards colistin during anaerobic conditions. In fact, the maximum enhancement of killing by anaerobic conditions exceeded 2 logs using 4 mg L(-1) of colistin compared to killing at aerobic conditions. PMID:26458402

  19. Cationic Lipid Content in Liposome-Encapsulated Nisin Improves Sustainable Bactericidal Activity against Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Yamakami, Kazuo; Tsumori, Hideaki; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Yutaka; Nagatoshi, Kohei; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    An oral infectious disease, dental caries, is caused by the cariogenic streptococci Streptococcus mutans. The expected preventive efficiency for prophylactics against dental caries is not yet completely observed. Nisin, a bacteriocin, has been demonstrated to be microbicidal against S. mutans, and liposome-encapsulated nisin improves preventive features that may be exploited for human oral health. Here we examined the bactericidal effect of charged lipids on nisin-loaded liposomes against S. mutans and inhibitory efficiency for insoluble glucan synthesis by the streptococci for prevention of dental caries. Cationic liposome, nisin-loaded dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/phytosphingosine, exhibited higher bactericidal activities than those of electroneutral liposome and anionic liposome. Bactericidal efficiency of the cationic liposome revealed that the vesicles exhibited sustained inhibition of glucan synthesis and the lowest rate of release of nisin from the vesicles. The optimizing ability of cationic liposome-encapsulated nisin that exploit the sustained preventive features of an anti-streptococcal strategy may improve prevention of dental caries. PMID:27583045

  20. Cationic Lipid Content in Liposome-Encapsulated Nisin Improves Sustainable Bactericidal Activity against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Yamakami, Kazuo; Tsumori, Hideaki; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Yutaka; Nagatoshi, Kohei; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    An oral infectious disease, dental caries, is caused by the cariogenic streptococci Streptococcus mutans. The expected preventive efficiency for prophylactics against dental caries is not yet completely observed. Nisin, a bacteriocin, has been demonstrated to be microbicidal against S. mutans, and liposome-encapsulated nisin improves preventive features that may be exploited for human oral health. Here we examined the bactericidal effect of charged lipids on nisin-loaded liposomes against S. mutans and inhibitory efficiency for insoluble glucan synthesis by the streptococci for prevention of dental caries. Cationic liposome, nisin-loaded dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/phytosphingosine, exhibited higher bactericidal activities than those of electroneutral liposome and anionic liposome. Bactericidal efficiency of the cationic liposome revealed that the vesicles exhibited sustained inhibition of glucan synthesis and the lowest rate of release of nisin from the vesicles. The optimizing ability of cationic liposome-encapsulated nisin that exploit the sustained preventive features of an anti-streptococcal strategy may improve prevention of dental caries. PMID:27583045

  1. Daptomycin exerts rapid bactericidal activity against Bacillus anthracis without disrupting membrane integrity

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yu-hua; Wang, Wei; Dai, Su-qin; Liu, Ti-yan; Tan, Jun-jie; Qu, Guo-long; Li, Yu-xia; Ling, Yan; Liu, Gang; Fu, Xue-qi; Chen, Hui-peng

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine whether the novel cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin could be used to treat anthrax and to study the mechanisms underlying its bactericidal action against Bacillus anthracis. Methods: Spore-forming B anthracis AP422 was tested. MIC values of antibiotics were determined. Cell membrane potential was measured using flow cytometric assays with membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent dyes. Cell membrane integrity was detected using To-Pro-3 iodide staining and transmission electron microscopy. K+ efflux and Na+ influx were measured using the fluorescent probes PBFI and SBFI-AM, respectively. Results: Daptomycin exhibited rapid bactericidal activity against vegetative B anthracis with a MIC value of 0.78 μg/mL, which was comparable to those of ciprofloxacin and penicillin G. Furthermore, daptomycin prevented the germinated spores from growing into vegetative bacteria. Daptomycin concentration-dependently dissipated the membrane potential of B anthracis and caused K+ efflux and Na+ influx without disrupting membrane integrity. In contrast, both ciprofloxacin and penicillin G did not change the membrane potential of vegetative bacteria or spores. Penicillin G disrupted membrane integrity of B anthracis, whereas ciprofloxacin had no such effect. Conclusion: Daptomycin exerts rapid bactericidal action against B anthracis via reducing membrane potential without disrupting membrane integrity. This antibiotic can be used as an alternate therapy for B anthracis infections. PMID:24362329

  2. Bactericidal Effects against S. aureus and Physicochemical Properties of Plasma Activated Water stored at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jin; Tian, Ying; Li, Yinglong; Ma, Ruonan; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Water activated by non-thermal plasma creates an acidified solution containing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, known as plasma-activated water (PAW). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different storage temperatures (25 °C, 4 °C, ‑20 °C, ‑80 °C) on bactericidal activities against S. aureus and physicochemical properties of PAW up to 30 days. Interestingly, PAW stored at ‑80 °C yielded the best antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, 3~4 log reduction over a 30-day period after PAW generation; meanwhile, PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, and ‑20 °C, respectively, yielded 0.2~2 log decrease in cell viability after the same exposure and storage time. These results were verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties of PAW stored at different temperatures were evaluated, including pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, nitrite anion and NO radical levels. These findings suggested that bacterial activity of PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, ‑20 °C decreased over time, and depended on three germicidal factors, specifically ORP, H2O2, and NO3‑. Moreover, PAW stored at ‑80 °C retained bactericidal activity, with NO2‑ contributing to bactericidal ability in association with H2O2. Our findings provide a basis for PAW storage and practical applications in disinfection and food preservation.

  3. Bactericidal Effects against S. aureus and Physicochemical Properties of Plasma Activated Water stored at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jin; Tian, Ying; Li, Yinglong; Ma, Ruonan; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Water activated by non-thermal plasma creates an acidified solution containing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, known as plasma-activated water (PAW). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different storage temperatures (25 °C, 4 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C) on bactericidal activities against S. aureus and physicochemical properties of PAW up to 30 days. Interestingly, PAW stored at -80 °C yielded the best antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, 3~4 log reduction over a 30-day period after PAW generation; meanwhile, PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, and -20 °C, respectively, yielded 0.2~2 log decrease in cell viability after the same exposure and storage time. These results were verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties of PAW stored at different temperatures were evaluated, including pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, nitrite anion and NO radical levels. These findings suggested that bacterial activity of PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, -20 °C decreased over time, and depended on three germicidal factors, specifically ORP, H2O2, and NO3(-). Moreover, PAW stored at -80 °C retained bactericidal activity, with NO2(-) contributing to bactericidal ability in association with H2O2. Our findings provide a basis for PAW storage and practical applications in disinfection and food preservation. PMID:27346695

  4. Bactericidal Effects against S. aureus and Physicochemical Properties of Plasma Activated Water stored at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jin; Tian, Ying; Li, Yinglong; Ma, Ruonan; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Water activated by non-thermal plasma creates an acidified solution containing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, known as plasma-activated water (PAW). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different storage temperatures (25 °C, 4 °C, −20 °C, −80 °C) on bactericidal activities against S. aureus and physicochemical properties of PAW up to 30 days. Interestingly, PAW stored at −80 °C yielded the best antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, 3~4 log reduction over a 30-day period after PAW generation; meanwhile, PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, and −20 °C, respectively, yielded 0.2~2 log decrease in cell viability after the same exposure and storage time. These results were verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties of PAW stored at different temperatures were evaluated, including pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, nitrite anion and NO radical levels. These findings suggested that bacterial activity of PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, −20 °C decreased over time, and depended on three germicidal factors, specifically ORP, H2O2, and NO3−. Moreover, PAW stored at −80 °C retained bactericidal activity, with NO2− contributing to bactericidal ability in association with H2O2. Our findings provide a basis for PAW storage and practical applications in disinfection and food preservation. PMID:27346695

  5. Enteric pathogens deploy cell cycle inhibiting factors to block the bactericidal activity of Perforin-2

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Ryan M; Lyapichev, Kirill; Olsson, Melissa L; Podack, Eckhard R; Munson, George P

    2015-01-01

    Perforin-2 (MPEG1) is an effector of the innate immune system that limits the proliferation and spread of medically relevant Gram-negative, -positive, and acid fast bacteria. We show here that a cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complex containing cullin-1 and βTrCP monoubiquitylates Perforin-2 in response to pathogen associated molecular patterns such as LPS. Ubiquitylation triggers a rapid redistribution of Perforin-2 and is essential for its bactericidal activity. Enteric pathogens such as Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli disarm host cells by injecting cell cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) into mammalian cells to deamidate the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8. Because CRL activity is dependent upon NEDD8, Cif blocks ubiquitin dependent trafficking of Perforin-2 and thus, its bactericidal activity. Collectively, these studies further underscore the biological significance of Perforin-2 and elucidate critical molecular events that culminate in Perforin-2-dependent killing of both intracellular and extracellular, cell-adherent bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06505.001 PMID:26418746

  6. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein promotes complement activation for neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis on bacterial surface

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, H; Gogami, A; Miyagawa, Y; Nanbo, A; Murakami, Y; Baba, T; Nagasawa, S

    2001-01-01

    The neutrophil bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) has both bactericidal and lipopolysaccharide-neutralizing activities. The present study suggests that BPI also plays an important role in phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by neutrophils through promotion of complement activation on the bacterial surface. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that fluorescein-labelled E. coli treated with BPI were phagocytosed in the presence of serum at two- to five-fold higher levels than phagocytosis of the bacteria without the treatment. In contrast, phagocytosis of the fluoresceined bacteria with or without treatment by BPI did not occur at all in the absence of serum. The phagocytosis stimulated by BPI and serum was dose-dependent. The effect of BPI on phagocytosis in the presence of serum was not observed on Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). Interestingly, the complement C3b/iC3b fragments were deposited onto the bacterial surface also as a function of the BPI concentration under conditions similar to those for phagocytosis. Furthermore, the BPI-promoted phagocytosis was blocked completely by anti-C3 F(ab′)2 and partially by anti-complement receptor (CR) type 1 and/or anti-CR type 3. These findings suggest that BPI accelerates complement activation to opsonize bacteria with complement-derived fragments, leading to stimulation of phagocytosis by neutrophils via CR(s). PMID:11529944

  7. Potential role of autophagy in the bactericidal activity of human PMNs for Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Girish; Gade, Padmaja; Tsai, Pei; Lu, Wuyuan; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V; Rosen, Gerald M; Cross, Alan S

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is acquired by mammalian hosts from the environment, as quiescent endospores. These endospores must germinate inside host cells, forming vegetative bacilli, before they can express the virulence factors that enable them to evade host defenses and disseminate throughout the body. While the role of macrophages and dendritic cells in this initial interaction has been established, the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has not been adequately defined. We discovered that while B. anthracis 34F2 Sterne endospores germinate poorly within non-activated human PMNs, these phagocytes exhibit rapid microbicidal activity toward the outgrown vegetative bacilli, independent of superoxide and nitric oxide. These findings suggest that a non-free radical pathway kills B. anthracis bacilli. We also find in PMNs an autophagic mechanism of bacterial killing based on the rapid induction of LC-3 conversion, beclin-1 expression, sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) degradation and inhibition of bactericidal activity by the inhibitor, 3-methyladenine. These findings extend to PMNs an autophagic bactericidal mechanism previously described for other phagocytes. PMID:26424808

  8. Pharmacokinetics, Serum Inhibitory and Bactericidal Activity, and Safety of Telavancin in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, J. P.; Seroogy, J.; Kaniga, K.; Higgins, D. L.; Kitt, M.; Barriere, S.

    2005-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and serum inhibitory and bactericidal titers of telavancin, a new rapidly bactericidal lipoglycopeptide with multiple mechanisms of action against gram-positive pathogens, were assessed in a two-part, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose study with 54 healthy men. In part 1, single ascending intravenous doses of 0.25 to 15 mg/kg of body weight were studied. In part 2, multiple ascending doses (30-min infusions of 7.5 to 15 mg/kg/day) were studied over 7 days. Following the administration of multiple doses, steady state was achieved by days 3 to 4. At day 7 after the administration of telavancin at 7.5, 12.5, and 15 mg/kg/day, peak concentrations in plasma were 96.7, 151.3, and 202.5 μg/ml, respectively, and steady-state area-under-the-curve values were 700, 1,033, and 1,165 μg · h/ml, respectively. The elimination half-life ranged from 6.9 to 9.1 h following the administration of doses ≥5 mg/kg. Most adverse events were mild in severity. At 24 h postinfusion, serum from subjects given telavancin demonstrated potent bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. The results suggest that telavancin may be an effective once-daily therapy for serious bacterial infections caused by these pathogens. PMID:15616296

  9. Helicobacter pylori urease suppresses bactericidal activity of peroxynitrite via carbon dioxide production.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, H; Miyamoto, Y; Akaike, T; Kubota, T; Sawa, T; Okamoto, S; Maeda, H

    2000-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori can produce a persistent infection in the human stomach, where chronic and active inflammation, including the infiltration of phagocytes such as neutrophils and monocytes, is induced. H. pylori may have a defense system against the antimicrobial actions of phagocytes. We studied the defense mechanism of H. pylori against host-derived peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), a bactericidal metabolite of nitric oxide, focusing on the role of H. pylori urease, which produces CO(2) and NH(3) from urea and is known to be an essential factor for colonization. The viability of H. pylori decreased in a time-dependent manner with continuous exposure to 1 microM ONOO(-), i.e., 0.2% of the initial bacteria remained after a 5-min treatment without urea. The bactericidal action of ONOO(-) against H. pylori was significantly attenuated by the addition of 10 mM urea, the substrate for urease, whereas ONOO(-)-induced killing of a urease-deficient mutant of H. pylori or Campylobacter jejuni, another microaerophilic bacterium lacking urease, was not affected by the addition of urea. Such a protective effect of urea was potentiated by supplementation with exogenous urease, and it was almost completely nullified by 10 microM flurofamide, a specific inhibitor of urease. The bactericidal action of ONOO(-) was also suppressed by the addition of 20 mM NaHCO(3) but not by the addition of 20 mM NH(3). In addition, the nitration of L-tyrosine of H. pylori after treatment with ONOO(-) was significantly reduced by the addition of urea or NaHCO(3), as assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. These results suggest that H. pylori-associated urease functions to produce a potent ONOO(-) scavenger, CO(2)/HCO(3)(-), that defends the bacteria from ONOO(-) cytotoxicity. The protective effect of urease may thus facilitate sustained bacterial colonization in the infected gastric mucosa. PMID:10899833

  10. Visible-Light-Induced Bactericidal Activity of Titanium Dioxide Co-doped with Nitrogen and Silver

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pinggui; Xie, Rongcai; Imlay, Kari; Shang, Jian-Ku

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles co-doped with nitrogen and silver (Ag2O/TiON) were synthesized by the sol-gel process and found to be an effective visible light driven photocatalyst. The catalyst showed strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) under visible light irradiation (λ> 400 nm). In x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction characterization of the samples, the as-added Ag species mainly exist as Ag2O. Spin trapping EPR study showed Ag addition greatly enhanced the production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) under visible light irradiation. The results indicate that the Ag2O species trapped eCB− in the process of Ag2O/TiON photocatalytic reaction, thus inhibiting the recombination of eCB− and hVB+ in agreement with the stronger photocatalytic bactericidal activity of Ag2O/TiON. The killing mechanism of Ag2O/TiON under visible light irradiation is shown to be related to oxidative damages in the forms of cell wall thinning and cell disconfiguration. PMID:20726520

  11. A series of cationic sterol lipids with gene transfer and bactericidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Randazzo, R. A. S.; Bucki, R.; Janmey, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    A family of cationic lipids was synthesized via direct amide coupling of spermine to the C-24 position of cholic acid analogs. Four monosubstituted spermines and a bis-substituted spermine were evaluated as plasmid transfection reagents, as bacteriostatic agents, and as bactericidal agents. The incorporation of a double bond in the sterol moiety enhanced transfection efficiency significantly and produced two compounds with little cytotoxicity and transfection potency comparable to Lipofectamine2000. Inclusion of the double bond had no effect on the general trend of increasing bactericidal activity with increasing sterol hydrophobicity. Co-formulation of the most hydrophilic of the compounds with its bis-substituted analogue led to enhancement in transfection activity. The bis-substituted compound, when tested alone, emerged as the most bacteriostatic compound in the family with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 4 μM against B. subtilis and 16 μM against E. coli and therapeutic indexes (minimum hemolytic concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration) of 61 and 15, respectively. Cationic lipids can be optimized for both gene delivery and antibacterial applications by similar modifications. PMID:19364656

  12. Auranofin exerts broad-spectrum bactericidal activities by targeting thiol-redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Harbut, Michael B.; Vilchèze, Catherine; Luo, Xiaozhou; Hensler, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Yang, Baiyuan; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; Nizet, Victor; Jacobs, William R.; Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a rising public health threat and make the identification of new antibiotics a priority. From a cell-based screen for bactericidal compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis under nutrient-deprivation conditions we identified auranofin, an orally bioavailable FDA-approved antirheumatic drug, as having potent bactericidal activities against both replicating and nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. We also found that auranofin is active against other Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis, and drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus. Our biochemical studies showed that auranofin inhibits the bacterial thioredoxin reductase, a protein essential in many Gram-positive bacteria for maintaining the thiol-redox balance and protecting against reactive oxidative species. Auranofin decreases the reducing capacity of target bacteria, thereby sensitizing them to oxidative stress. Finally, auranofin was efficacious in a murine model of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection. These results suggest that the thioredoxin-mediated redox cascade of Gram-positive pathogens is a valid target for the development of antibacterial drugs, and that the existing clinical agent auranofin may be repurposed to aid in the treatment of several important antibiotic-resistant pathogens. PMID:25831516

  13. Understanding bactericidal performance on ambient light activated TiO2-InVO4 nanostructured films.

    PubMed

    He, Ziming; Xu, Qingchi; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2011-12-01

    TiO(2)-InVO(4) nanostructured films were coated onto glass substrates and systematically investigated for their bactericidal activities using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the model bacterium under ambient light illumination. The uniform TiO(2)-InVO(4) nanostructured films were prepared using titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor via a simple sol-gel approach. Polyethylenimine (PEI) was used as a surfactant to ensure uniform dispersion of InVO(4) and a sacrificial pore-inducing agent, generating nanostructured films. Compared to unmodified TiO(2) film, the current TiO(2)-InVO(4) films exhibited enhanced bactericidal activities under ambient light illumination. Bacterial cell "photo-fixation" was demonstrated to be crucial in enhancing the bactericidal activity. A bacterial-nanostructured surface interaction mechanism was proposed for the current ambient-light activated nanostructured film. PMID:22012408

  14. A Simple, Reproducible, Inexpensive, Yet Old-Fashioned Method for Determining Phagocytic and Bactericidal Activities of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Masakazu; Emoto, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages (Mϕ) play a pivotal role in the protection system by recognizing and eliminating invading pathogenic bacteria. Phagocytosis and the killing of invading bacteria are major effector functions of Mϕ. Although the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of Mϕ have been analyzed via several methods using a light microscope, a fluorescence microscope, or a fluorescence-activated cell sorter, expensive materials and equipment are usually required, and the methods are rather complicated. Moreover, it is impossible to determine both the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of Mϕ simultaneously using these methods. In this review, we describe a simple, reproducible, inexpensive, yet old-fashioned method (antibiotic protection assay) for determining the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of Mϕ. PMID:26847277

  15. Understanding bactericidal performance on ambient light activated TiO2-InVO4 nanostructured films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ziming; Xu, Qingchi; Yang Tan, Timothy Thatt

    2011-12-01

    TiO2-InVO4 nanostructured films were coated onto glass substrates and systematically investigated for their bactericidal activities using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the model bacterium under ambient light illumination. The uniform TiO2-InVO4 nanostructured films were prepared using titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor via a simple sol-gel approach. Polyethylenimine (PEI) was used as a surfactant to ensure uniform dispersion of InVO4 and a sacrificial pore-inducing agent, generating nanostructured films. Compared to unmodified TiO2 film, the current TiO2-InVO4 films exhibited enhanced bactericidal activities under ambient light illumination. Bacterial cell ``photo-fixation'' was demonstrated to be crucial in enhancing the bactericidal activity. A bacterial-nanostructured surface interaction mechanism was proposed for the current ambient-light activated nanostructured film.TiO2-InVO4 nanostructured films were coated onto glass substrates and systematically investigated for their bactericidal activities using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the model bacterium under ambient light illumination. The uniform TiO2-InVO4 nanostructured films were prepared using titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor via a simple sol-gel approach. Polyethylenimine (PEI) was used as a surfactant to ensure uniform dispersion of InVO4 and a sacrificial pore-inducing agent, generating nanostructured films. Compared to unmodified TiO2 film, the current TiO2-InVO4 films exhibited enhanced bactericidal activities under ambient light illumination. Bacterial cell ``photo-fixation'' was demonstrated to be crucial in enhancing the bactericidal activity. A bacterial-nanostructured surface interaction mechanism was proposed for the current ambient-light activated nanostructured film. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Photocatalytic activity test procedure and results, AFM images, EDX results, LSCM images, and wettability results. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr11126d

  16. Postantibiotic Effects and Bactericidal Activities of Clarithromycin–14-Hydroxy-Clarithromycin, versus Those of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate, against Anaerobes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Rose; Messick, Chad R.; Pendland, Susan L.; Tesoro, Eljim P.; Losendahl, Karen J.; Schriever, Christopher A.; Danziger, Larry H.

    2000-01-01

    The bactericidal activities and postantibiotic effects (PAE) of clarithromycin–14-hydroxy-clarithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against Bacteroides fragilis and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius were determined. A concentration of twice the MIC resulted in bactericidal activity against four of four and three of four organisms at 24 h with clarithromycin–14-hydroxy-clarithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. The PAE of clarithromycin–14-hydroxy-clarithromycin was 1.44 to 3.20 h, compared to the less than 1 h of amoxicillin-clavulanate. Clarithromycin–14-hydroxy-clarithromycin possesses good activity against susceptible anaerobes. PMID:10681358

  17. TRAP-positive osteoclast precursors mediate ROS/NO-dependent bactericidal activity via TLR4.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kazuaki; Shindo, Satoru; Movila, Alexandru; Kayal, Rayyan; Abdullah, Albassam; Savitri, Irma Josefina; Ikeda, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Tsuguno; Howait, Mohammed; Al-Dharrab, Ayman; Mira, Abdulghani; Han, Xiaozhe; Kawai, Toshihisa

    2016-08-01

    Osteoclastogenesis was induced by RANKL stimulation in mouse monocytes to examine the possible bactericidal function of osteoclast precursors (OCp) and mature osteoclasts (OCm) relative to their production of NO and ROS. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive OCp, but few or no OCm, phagocytized and killed Escherichia coli in association with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Phagocytosis of E. coli and production of ROS and NO were significantly lower in TRAP+ OCp derived from Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 KO mice than that derived from wild-type (WT) or TLR2-KO mice. Interestingly, after phagocytosis, TRAP+ OCp derived from wild-type and TLR2-KO mice did not differentiate into OCm, even with continuous exposure to RANKL. In contrast, E. coli-phagocytized TRAP+ OCp from TLR4-KO mice could differentiate into OCm. Importantly, neither NO nor ROS produced by TRAP+ OCp appeared to be engaged in phagocytosis-induced suppression of osteoclastogenesis. These results suggested that TLR4 signaling not only induces ROS and NO production to kill phagocytized bacteria, but also interrupts OCm differentiation. Thus, it can be concluded that TRAP+ OCp, but not OCm, can mediate bactericidal activity via phagocytosis accompanied by the production of ROS and NO via TLR4-associated reprograming toward phagocytic cell type. PMID:27343691

  18. Bactericidal Activity of the Human Skin Fatty Acid cis-6-Hexadecanoic Acid on Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Cartron, Michaël L.; England, Simon R.; Chiriac, Alina Iulia; Josten, Michaele; Turner, Robert; Rauter, Yvonne; Hurd, Alexander; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Human skin fatty acids are a potent aspect of our innate defenses, giving surface protection against potentially invasive organisms. They provide an important parameter in determining the ecology of the skin microflora, and alterations can lead to increased colonization by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Harnessing skin fatty acids may also give a new avenue of exploration in the generation of control measures against drug-resistant organisms. Despite their importance, the mechanism(s) whereby skin fatty acids kill bacteria has remained largely elusive. Here, we describe an analysis of the bactericidal effects of the major human skin fatty acid cis-6-hexadecenoic acid (C6H) on the human commensal and pathogen S. aureus. Several C6H concentration-dependent mechanisms were found. At high concentrations, C6H swiftly kills cells associated with a general loss of membrane integrity. However, C6H still kills at lower concentrations, acting through disruption of the proton motive force, an increase in membrane fluidity, and its effects on electron transfer. The design of analogues with altered bactericidal effects has begun to determine the structural constraints on activity and paves the way for the rational design of new antistaphylococcal agents. PMID:24709265

  19. Natural Product Anacardic Acid from Cashew Nut Shells Stimulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Production and Bactericidal Activity.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Andrew; Corriden, Ross; Gysler, Gabriela; Dahesh, Samira; Olson, Joshua; Raza Ali, Syed; Kunkel, Maya T; Lin, Ann E; Forli, Stefano; Newton, Alexandra C; Kumar, Geetha B; Nair, Bipin G; Perry, J Jefferson P; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is an issue of great clinical importance, and new approaches to therapy are urgently needed. Anacardic acid, the primary active component of cashew nut shell extract, is a natural product used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including infectious abscesses. Here, we investigate the effects of this natural product on the function of human neutrophils. We find that anacardic acid stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil extracellular traps, two mechanisms utilized by neutrophils to kill invading bacteria. Molecular modeling and pharmacological inhibitor studies suggest anacardic acid stimulation of neutrophils occurs in a PI3K-dependent manner through activation of surface-expressed G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Neutrophil extracellular traps produced in response to anacardic acid are bactericidal and complement select direct antimicrobial activities of the compound. PMID:27226531

  20. The kinases Mst1 and Mst2 positively regulate phagocyte ROS induction and bactericidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jing; Sun, Xiufeng; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Shihao; Wang, Xiaozhen; Wu, Hongtan; Hong, Lixin; Xie, Changchuan; Li, Xun; Zhao, Hao; Liu, Qingxu; Jiang, Mingting; Chen, Qinghua; Zhang, Jinjia; Li, Yang; Song, Siyang; Wang, Hong-Rui; Zhou, Rongbin; Johnson, Randy L.; Chien, Kun-Yi; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Han, Jiahuai; Avruch, Joseph; Chen, Lanfen; Zhou, Dawang

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria need to be juxtaposted to phagosomes to synergistically produce ample reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytes for pathogens killing. However, how phagosomes transmit signal to recruit mitochondria remains unclear. Here, we report that the kinases Mst1 and Mst2 function to control ROS production by regulating mitochondrial trafficking and mitochondrion-phagosome juxtaposition. Mst1 and Mst2 activate Rac GTPase to promote Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered assembly of the TRAF6-ECSIT complex that is required for mitochondrial recruitment to phagosomes. Inactive forms of Rac, including the human Rac2D57N mutant, disrupt the TRAF6-ECSIT complex by sequestering TRAF6, and severely dampen ROS production and greatly increase susceptibility to bacterial infection. These findings demonstrate the TLR-Mst1-Mst2-Rac signalling axis to be critical for effective phagosome-mitochondrion function and bactericidal activity. PMID:26414765

  1. Coleus aromaticus leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its bactericidal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanaja, Mahendran; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2013-06-01

    The utilization of various plant resources for the biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles is called green nanotechnology, and it does not utilize any harmful chemical protocols. The present study reports the plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the plant leaf extract of Coleus aromaticus, which acts as a reducing and capping agent. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the size of the silver nanoparticles is 44 nm. The bactericidal activity of the silver nanoparticles was carried out by disc diffusion method that showed high toxicity against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella planticola. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by using plant resources is an eco-friendly, reliable process and suitable for large-scale production. Moreover, it is easy to handle and a rapid process when compared to chemical, physical, and microbe-mediated synthesis process.

  2. The bactericidal activities of HMR 3004, HMR 3647 and erythromycin against gram-positive bacilli and development of resistance.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roblas, R; Calvo, R; Esteban, J; Bryskier, A; Soriano, F

    1999-02-01

    The bactericidal activities of two new ketolides, HMR 3004 and HMR 3647, and the potential to develop resistance to these two antibiotics were studied in Gram-positive bacilli. As judged by time-kill kinetics both ketolides were mostly bacteriostatic, being bactericidal against only highly susceptible isolates of Corynebacterium striatum (two isolates) and Corynebacterium minutissimum (one isolate). Spontaneous resistant mutants were detected in seven of 30 strains tested, mainly in Rhodococcus equi, C. minutissimum and C. striatum, with a very low frequency of mutation (10(-12)-10(-15)). PMID:11252337

  3. Estradiol protects female rats against sepsis induced by Enterococcus faecalis improving leukocyte bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Saia, Rafael Simone; Garcia, Fabíola Morales; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari

    2015-10-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive bacteria described as an important causative agent of sepsis. The contact between host leukocytes and bacteria activates the innate immunity, participating as the first defense mechanism against infection. Pro-inflammatory cytokines [including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-1β] and nitric oxide (NO) are essential to recruitment of leukocytes into the infectious focus as well as their activation for phagocytosis. Beyond the bacteria species, gender has been considered another factor to predict outcome in septic patients. Studies suggest that females exhibit a protective advantage during sepsis models, being gonadal hormones possible modulators of functions of immune cells. Nevertheless, the role of estradiol during Gram-positive infection remains a literature gap. Our aims were to investigate whether estradiol protects rats against bacterial dissemination during E. faecalis-induced sepsis. We determined whether estradiol modulates the local and systemic inflammatory response, as well as the cell migration into the infectious focus and the bactericidal capacity of leukocytes. Our findings demonstrated that estradiol pre-treated rats showed a dose-dependent reduction in bacterial counts in peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF) and in liver. Moreover, TNF-α and nitrate levels were increased in plasma, while only TNF-α was increased in the PLF in estradiol-treated rats. The prevention of bacterial dissemination may be related to the enhanced neutrophil and macrophage migration into the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, estradiol improved the phagocytic and bactericidal ability of these both inflammatory cells. Taken together, the present study clearly demonstrates an important protective role of estradiol against sepsis induced by E. faecalis in female rats. PMID:26143494

  4. The Effect of Long-Term Storage on the Physiochemical and Bactericidal Properties of Electrochemically Activated Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Gareth; Thorn, Robin; Reynolds, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS) are generated by electrolysis of NaCl solutions, and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and high environmental compatibility. The biocidal efficacy of ECAS at the point of production is widely reported in the literature, as are its credentials as a “green biocide.” Acidic ECAS are considered most effective as biocides at the point of production and ill suited for extended storage. Acidic ECAS samples were stored at 4 °C and 20 °C in glass and polystyrene containers for 398 days, and tested for free chlorine, pH, ORP and bactericidal activity throughout. ORP and free chlorine (mg/L) in stored ECAS declined over time, declining at the fastest rate when stored at 20 °C in polystyrene and at the slowest rate when stored at 4 °C in glass. Bactericidal efficacy was also affected by storage and ECAS failed to produce a 5 log10 reduction on five occasions when stored at 20 °C. pH remained stable throughout the storage period. This study represents the longest storage evaluation of the physiochemical parameters and bactericidal efficacy of acidic ECAS within the published literature and reveals that acidic ECAS retain useful bactericidal activity for in excess of 12 months, widening potential applications. PMID:23263673

  5. Triggering through NOD-2 Differentiates Bone Marrow Precursors to Dendritic Cells with Potent Bactericidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nargis; Aqdas, Mohammad; Vidyarthi, Aurobind; Negi, Shikha; Pahari, Susanta; Agnihotri, Tapan; Agrewala, Javed N.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by activating naïve T cells. The role of pattern recognition receptors like Toll-Like Receptors and Nod-Like Receptors expressed on DCs is well-defined in the recognition of the pathogens. However, nothing is precisely studied regarding the impact of NOD-2 signaling during the differentiation of DCs. Consequently, we explored the role of NOD-2 signaling in the differentiation of DCs and therefore their capability to activate innate and adaptive immunity. Intriguingly, we observed that NOD-2 stimulated DCs (nDCs) acquired highly activated and matured phenotype and exhibited substantially greater bactericidal activity by robust production of nitric oxide. The mechanism involved in improving the functionality of nDCs was dependent on IFN-αβ signaling, leading to the activation of STAT pathways. Furthermore, we also observed that STAT-1 and STAT-4 dependent maturation and activation of DCs was under the feedback mechanism of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 proteins. nDCs acquired enhanced potential to activate chiefly Th1 and Th17 immunity. Taken together, these results suggest that nDCs can be exploited as an immunotherapeutic agent in bolstering host immunity and imparting protection against the pathogens. PMID:27265209

  6. Shape-dependent bactericidal activity of copper oxide nanoparticle mediated by DNA and membrane damage

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, Dipranjan; Pramanik, Arindam; Laskar, Aparna; Jana, Madhurya; Pramanik, Panchanan; Karmakar, Parimal

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • Physical characterizations of these nanoparticles were done by TEM, DLS, XRD, FTIR. • They showed shape dependent antibacterial activity on different bacterial strain. • They induced both membrane damage and ROS mediated DNA damage in bacteria. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles and their physical characterizations were done by the X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles was determined on both gram positive and gram negative bacterial. Spherical shaped copper oxide nanoparticles showed more antibacterial property on gram positive bacteria where as sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles are more active on gram negative bacteria. We also demonstrated that copper oxide nanoparticles produced reactive oxygen species in both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Furthermore, they induced membrane damage as determined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thus production of and membrane damage are major mechanisms of the bactericidal activity of these copper oxide nanoparticles. Finally it was concluded that antibacterial activity of nanoparticles depend on physicochemical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles and bacterial strain.

  7. [Bactericide activity of cefadroxil comparated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefaclor and josamycin].

    PubMed

    Etesse-Carsenti, H; Caillon, J; Mondain, V; Durant, J; Bernard, E; Dellamonica, P; Drugeon, H B

    1991-09-01

    Betalactamase-producing organisms are responsible for an increasing number of ENT and lower respiratory tract infections. Or cephalosporins and the combination of amoxicillin with the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid are alternatives to ampicillin therapy. The killing activity of cefadroxil on the organisms most often responsible for ENT and respiratory infections was evaluated in vitro using a viable bacteria count method, comparatively with cefaclor, josamycin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Killing activity was found to be time-dependent for all the antimicrobial agents studied. Cefadroxil exhibited the same bactericidal effect on Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae than the other agents. Haemophilus influenzae and an increasing number of Pneumococcus strains were resistant to josamycin which is therefore not appropriate for first-line therapy. As compared with amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefadroxil was less active on H. influenzae and more active on Staphylococcus aureus. Production of beta-lactamase failed to influence the killing activity of cefadroxil. These bacteriologic data, together with results of pharmacologic studies (long half-life and good penetration within tissues) can explain the clinical successes obtained with cefadroxil in ENT and lower respiratory tract infections. PMID:1758716

  8. Bactericidal Activity of Photocatalytic TiO2 Reaction: toward an Understanding of Its Killing Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Maness, Pin-Ching; Smolinski, Sharon; Blake, Daniel M.; Huang, Zheng; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Jacoby, William A.

    1999-01-01

    When titanium dioxide (TiO2) is irradiated with near-UV light, this semiconductor exhibits strong bactericidal activity. In this paper, we present the first evidence that the lipid peroxidation reaction is the underlying mechanism of death of Escherichia coli K-12 cells that are irradiated in the presence of the TiO2 photocatalyst. Using production of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index to assess cell membrane damage by lipid peroxidation, we observed that there was an exponential increase in the production of MDA, whose concentration reached 1.1 to 2.4 nmol · mg (dry weight) of cells−1 after 30 min of illumination, and that the kinetics of this process paralleled cell death. Under these conditions, concomitant losses of 77 to 93% of the cell respiratory activity were also detected, as measured by both oxygen uptake and reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride from succinate as the electron donor. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation and the simultaneous losses of both membrane-dependent respiratory activity and cell viability depended strictly on the presence of both light and TiO2. We concluded that TiO2 photocatalysis promoted peroxidation of the polyunsaturated phospholipid component of the lipid membrane initially and induced major disorder in the E. coli cell membrane. Subsequently, essential functions that rely on intact cell membrane architecture, such as respiratory activity, were lost, and cell death was inevitable. PMID:10473421

  9. Expression, secretion and bactericidal activity of type VI secretion system in Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lei; Yue, Shu; Li, Gui-Yang; Li, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Ran; Li, Shu-Fang; Mo, Zhao-Lan

    2016-10-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) was recently shown to modulate quorum sensing and the stress response in Vibrio anguillarum serotype O1 strain NB10. It is not known whether there is a functionally active T6SS in other serotypes of V. anguillarum. Here, homologues to T6SS cluster VtsEFGH and hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp)-encoding genes were found to be prevalent and conserved in clinical isolates of V. anguillarum from fish, including four O1 and five non-O1 serotype strains. Unexpectedly, only the non-O1 serotype strains expressed VtsEFGH and Hcp under laboratory and marine-like conditions, in contrast to the serotype O1 strains. This suggested that the V. anguillarum non-O1 serotype strains tested have constitutive expression of T6SS. Examination of a representative non-O1 strain, MHK3, showed that Hcp production was growth phase dependent and that maximum Hcp production was observed in the exponential growth phase. Moreover, Hcp production by MHK3 was most active under warm marine-like conditions. Further examination revealed a correlation of the constitutive expression of T6SS with bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Edwardsiella tarda. The work presented here suggests that the constitutive expression of T6SS provides V. anguillarum with advantage in microbial competition in marine environments. PMID:27172981

  10. Bacilysin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 Has Specific Bactericidal Activity against Harmful Algal Bloom Species

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Xie, Shanshan; Zang, Haoyu; Borriss, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms, caused by massive and exceptional overgrowth of microalgae and cyanobacteria, are a serious environmental problem worldwide. In the present study, we looked for Bacillus strains with sufficiently strong anticyanobacterial activity to be used as biocontrol agents. Among 24 strains, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 showed the strongest bactericidal activity against Microcystis aeruginosa, with a kill rate of 98.78%. The synthesis of the anticyanobacterial substance did not depend on Sfp, an enzyme that catalyzes a necessary processing step in the nonribosomal synthesis of lipopeptides and polyketides, but was associated with the aro gene cluster that is involved in the synthesis of the sfp-independent antibiotic bacilysin. Disruption of bacB, the gene in the cluster responsible for synthesizing bacilysin, or supplementation with the antagonist N-acetylglucosamine abolished the inhibitory effect, but this was restored when bacilysin synthesis was complemented. Bacilysin caused apparent changes in the algal cell wall and cell organelle membranes, and this resulted in cell lysis. Meanwhile, there was downregulated expression of glmS, psbA1, mcyB, and ftsZ—genes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis, photosynthesis, microcystin synthesis, and cell division, respectively. In addition, bacilysin suppressed the growth of other harmful algal species. In summary, bacilysin produced by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 has anticyanobacterial activity and thus could be developed as a biocontrol agent to mitigate the effects of harmful algal blooms. PMID:25261512

  11. Detection and characterisation of Complement protein activity in bovine milk by bactericidal sequestration assay.

    PubMed

    Maye, Susan; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Kelly, Philip M

    2015-08-01

    While the Complement protein system in human milk is well characterised, there is little information on its presence and activity in bovine milk. Complement forms part of the innate immune system, hence the importance of its contribution during milk ingestion to the overall defences of the neonate. A bactericidal sequestration assay, featuring a Complement sensitive strain, Escherichia coli 0111, originally used to characterise Complement activity in human milk was successfully applied to freshly drawn bovine milk samples, thus, providing an opportunity to compare Complement activities in both human and bovine milks. Although not identical in response, the levels of Complement activity in bovine milk were found to be closely comparable with that of human milk. Differential counts of Esch. coli 0111 after 2 h incubation were 6.20 and 6.06 log CFU/ml, for raw bovine and human milks, respectively - the lower value representing a stronger Complement response. Exposing bovine milk to a range of thermal treatments e.g. 42, 45, 65, 72, 85 or 95 °C for 10 min, progressively inhibited Complement activity by increasing temperature, thus confirming the heat labile nature of this immune protein system. Low level Complement activity was found, however, in 65 and 72 °C heat treated samples and in retailed pasteurised milk which highlights the outer limit to which high temperature, short time (HTST) industrial thermal processes should be applied if retention of activity is a priority. Concentration of Complement in the fat phase was evident following cream separation, and this was also reflected in the further loss of activity recorded in low fat variants of retailed pasteurised milk. Laboratory-based churning of the cream during simulated buttermaking generated an aqueous (buttermilk) phase with higher levels of Complement activity than the fat phase, thus pointing to a likely association with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) layer. PMID:26119290

  12. Hypoxia-Mediated Impairment of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Inhibits the Bactericidal Activity of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Melanie; Gerlach, Roman G.; Popp, Isabel; Matuszak, Jasmin; Mahapatro, Mousumi; Castiglione, Kirstin; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Willam, Carsten; Hensel, Michael; Bogdan, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In infected tissues oxygen tensions are low. As innate immune cells have to operate under these conditions, we analyzed the ability of macrophages (Mϕ) to kill Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus in a hypoxic microenvironment. Oxygen restriction did not promote intracellular bacterial growth but did impair the bactericidal activity of the host cells against both pathogens. This correlated with a decreased production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates. Experiments with phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX) and inducible NO synthase (NOS2) double-deficient Mϕ revealed that in E. coli- or S. aureus-infected cells the reduced antibacterial activity during hypoxia was either entirely or partially independent of the diminished PHOX and NOS2 activity. Hypoxia impaired the mitochondrial activity of infected Mϕ. Inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain activity during normoxia (using rotenone or antimycin A) completely or partially mimicked the defective antibacterial activity observed in hypoxic E. coli- or S. aureus-infected wild-type Mϕ, respectively. Accordingly, inhibition of the respiratory chain of S. aureus-infected, normoxic PHOX−/− NOS2−/− Mϕ further raised the bacterial burden of the cells, which reached the level measured in hypoxic PHOX−/− NOS2−/− Mϕ cultures. Our data demonstrate that the reduced killing of S. aureus or E. coli during hypoxia is not simply due to a lack of PHOX and NOS2 activity but partially or completely results from an impaired mitochondrial antibacterial effector function. Since pharmacological inhibition of the respiratory chain raised the generation of ROI but nevertheless phenocopied the effect of hypoxia, ROI can be excluded as the mechanism underlying the antimicrobial activity of mitochondria. PMID:22252868

  13. Antibiotic Bactericidal Activity Is Countered by Maintaining pH Homeostasis in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Bartek, I. L.; Reichlen, M. J.; Honaker, R. W.; Leistikow, R. L.; Clambey, E. T.; Scobey, M. S.; Hinds, A. B.; Born, S. E.; Covey, C. R.; Schurr, M. J.; Lenaerts, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibiotics target specific biosynthetic processes essential for bacterial growth. It is intriguing that several commonalities connect the bactericidal activity of seemingly disparate antibiotics, such as the numerous conditions that confer broad-spectrum antibiotic tolerance. Whether antibiotics kill in a manner unique to their specific targets or by a universal mechanism is a critical and contested subject. Herein, we demonstrate that the bactericidal activity of diverse antibiotics against Mycobacterium smegmatis and four evolutionarily divergent bacterial pathogens was blocked by conditions that worked to maintain intracellular pH homeostasis. Single-cell pH analysis demonstrated that antibiotics increased the cytosolic pH of M. smegmatis, while conditions that promoted proton entry into the cytosol prevented intracellular alkalization and antibiotic killing. These findings led to a hypothesis that posits antibiotic lethality occurs when antibiotics obstruct ATP-consuming biosynthetic processes while metabolically driven proton efflux is sustained despite the loss of proton influx via ATP synthase. Consequently, without a concomitant reduction in respiratory proton efflux, cell death occurs due to intracellular alkalization. Our findings indicate the effects of antibiotics on pH homeostasis should be considered a potential mechanism contributing to antibiotic lethality. IMPORTANCE Since the discovery of antibiotics, mortality due to bacterial infection has decreased dramatically. However, infections from difficult to treat bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant pathogens have been on the rise. An understanding of the cascade of events that leads to cell death downstream of specific drug-target interactions is not well understood. We have discovered that killing by several classes of antibiotics was stopped by maintaining pH balance within the bacterial cell, consistent with a shared mechanism of antibiotic killing. Our

  14. Antibiotic Bactericidal Activity Is Countered by Maintaining pH Homeostasis in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Bartek, I L; Reichlen, M J; Honaker, R W; Leistikow, R L; Clambey, E T; Scobey, M S; Hinds, A B; Born, S E; Covey, C R; Schurr, M J; Lenaerts, A J; Voskuil, M I

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics target specific biosynthetic processes essential for bacterial growth. It is intriguing that several commonalities connect the bactericidal activity of seemingly disparate antibiotics, such as the numerous conditions that confer broad-spectrum antibiotic tolerance. Whether antibiotics kill in a manner unique to their specific targets or by a universal mechanism is a critical and contested subject. Herein, we demonstrate that the bactericidal activity of diverse antibiotics against Mycobacterium smegmatis and four evolutionarily divergent bacterial pathogens was blocked by conditions that worked to maintain intracellular pH homeostasis. Single-cell pH analysis demonstrated that antibiotics increased the cytosolic pH of M. smegmatis, while conditions that promoted proton entry into the cytosol prevented intracellular alkalization and antibiotic killing. These findings led to a hypothesis that posits antibiotic lethality occurs when antibiotics obstruct ATP-consuming biosynthetic processes while metabolically driven proton efflux is sustained despite the loss of proton influx via ATP synthase. Consequently, without a concomitant reduction in respiratory proton efflux, cell death occurs due to intracellular alkalization. Our findings indicate the effects of antibiotics on pH homeostasis should be considered a potential mechanism contributing to antibiotic lethality. IMPORTANCE Since the discovery of antibiotics, mortality due to bacterial infection has decreased dramatically. However, infections from difficult to treat bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant pathogens have been on the rise. An understanding of the cascade of events that leads to cell death downstream of specific drug-target interactions is not well understood. We have discovered that killing by several classes of antibiotics was stopped by maintaining pH balance within the bacterial cell, consistent with a shared mechanism of antibiotic killing. Our findings

  15. Biosynthesis and recovery of rod-shaped tellurium nanoparticles and their bactericidal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Zare, Bijan; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Rezaie, Sassan; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Biosynthesis of rod shape tellurium nanoparticles with a hexagonal crystal structure. ► Extraction procedure for isolation of tellurium nanoparticles from Bacillus sp. BZ. ► Extracted tellurium nanoparticles have good bactericidal activity against some bacteria. -- Abstract: In this study, a tellurium-transforming Bacillus sp. BZ was isolated from the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. The isolate was identified by various tests and 16S rDNA analysis, and then used to prepare elemental tellurium nanoparticles. The isolate was subsequently used for the intracellular biosynthesis of elemental tellurium nanoparticles. The biogenic nanoparticles were released by liquid nitrogen and purified by an n-octyl alcohol water extraction system. The shape, size, and composition of the extracted nanoparticles were characterized. The transmission electron micrograph showed rod-shaped nanoparticles with dimensions of about 20 nm × 180 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction spectra respectively demonstrated that the extracted nanoparticles consisted of only tellurium and have a hexagonal crystal structure. This is the first study to demonstrate a biological method for synthesizing rod-shaped elemental tellurium by a Bacillus sp., its extraction and its antibacterial activity against different clinical isolates.

  16. Biofunctionalization of microgroove titanium surfaces with an antimicrobial peptide to enhance their bactericidal activity and cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Lai, Yingzhen; Huang, Wenxiu; Huang, Sijia; Xu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jiang; Wu, Dong

    2015-04-01

    A firm peri-implant soft tissue seal is important for the long-term survival of dental implants, which demands the properties of antibacterial and cytocompatibility of the implant surfaces. In this study, GL13K, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, was immobilized onto microgroove surfaces which were 60 μm in width and 10 μm in depth, and the modified surfaces improved both the properties of antibacterial and cytocompatibility. The method of silanization was used to immobilize the antimicrobial peptide GL13K, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle measurement. Then the mechanical stability of the coatings was confirmed by ultrasonication. In vitro antibacterial tests confirmed bactericidal activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis without inhibiting its adhesion. In vitro cytocompatibility tests also confirmed that adhesion at later phase and proliferation of HGFs were greater (P<0.01) on the GL13K-modified microgroove surfaces than on the non-treated microgroove surfaces, and both of them were greater than on the smooth surfaces. The phenomenon of the contact guidance, which is cell growth aligned along the microgrooves, was maintained. Overall, this study developed a promising bi-functional surface that combined the physical and chemical properties to promote cytocompatibility and antibacterial activity simultaneously. PMID:25800357

  17. Resistance of spheroplasts and whole cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to bactericidal activity of various biocides: evidence of the membrane implication.

    PubMed

    Guérin-Méchin, Laurence; Leveau, Jean-Yves; Dubois-Brissonnet, Florence

    2004-01-01

    To emphasise the role of outer and inner membranes in the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to bactericidal activity of various disinfectants, spheroplasts and whole cells were compared. Spheroplasts are more sensitive than whole cells to quaternary ammonium compounds such as didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) and C16-benzalkonium chloride. The outer membrane acts as a barrier to prevent these disinfectants from entering the cell. It seems to have no influence on activities of smaller molecules such as C12, C14-benzalkonium chlorides and sodium dichloroisocyanurate. For tri-sodium phosphate, the presence of outer membrane emphasized the action of the molecule. Moreover, resistance of DDAB-adapted spheroplasts to bactericidal activity of DDAB is higher than the resistance of non-adapted spheroplasts. This suggests that the inner membrane could also play a role in resistance to DDAB. PMID:15160607

  18. Microbial extracellular polymeric substances reduce Ag+ to silver nanoparticles and antagonize bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Fuxing; Alvarez, Pedro J; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the antimicrobial mechanisms of silver have been extensively studied and exploited for numerous applications, little is known about the associated bacterial adaptation and defense mechanisms that could hinder disinfection efficacy or mitigate unintended impacts to microbial ecosystem services associated with silver release to the environment. Here, we demonstrate that extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by bacteria constitute a permeability barrier with reducing constituents that mitigate the antibacterial activity of silver ions (Ag(+)). Specifically, manipulation of EPS in Escherichia coli suspensions (e.g., removal of EPS attached to cells by sonication/centrifugation or addition of EPS at 200 mg L(-1)) demonstrated its critical role in hindering intracellular silver penetration and enhancing cell growth in the presence of Ag(+) (up to 0.19 mg L(-1)). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analyses showed that Ag(+) was reduced to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs; 10-30 nm in diameter) that were immobilized within the EPS matrix. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra suggest that Ag(+) reduction to AgNPs by the hemiacetal groups of sugars in EPS contributed to immobilization. Accordingly, the amount and composition of EPS produced have important implications on the bactericidal efficacy and potential environmental impacts of Ag(+). PMID:24328348

  19. Delayed bactericidal activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against Listeria monocytogenes: antagonism of chloramphenicol and rifampin.

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, D L; Damme, J; Dieckman, E

    1983-01-01

    Penicillins are considered to be the drugs of choice for the treatment of listeric meningitis, and relapse of infection is rare when treatment is given in appropriate doses for at least 14 days. Despite this, in vitro studies by others have shown that penicillins are bacteriostatic against Listeria spp. We have shown that thienamycin, penicillin G, and ampicillin are the most active beta-lactam antibiotics against Listeria spp. Of 10 strains tested, 9 were killed by less than or equal to 8 micrograms of beta-lactam antibiotics (greater than or equal to 99.9% killing) when subcultures were performed after 48, rather than 24, h of incubation. In contrast, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, doxycycline, and rifampin were bacteriostatic after 48 h of incubation. In time-kill curves, these last drugs antagonized the bactericidal action of penicillins. In view of the inefficiency of opsonization in the cerebrospinal fluid, these antagonistic combinations should probably be avoided in documented or suspected listeric meningitis. PMID:6407393

  20. Extent of shielding by counterions determines the bactericidal activity of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan salts.

    PubMed

    Follmann, Heveline D M; Martins, Alessandro F; Nobre, Thatyane M; Bresolin, Joana D; Cellet, Thelma S P; Valderrama, Patrícia; Correa, Daniel S; Muniz, Edvani C; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2016-02-10

    In this study, we show that the bactericidal activity of quaternized chitosans (TMCs) with sulfate, acetate, and halide counterions against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) correlates with the "availability" of N-quaternized groups [-(+)N(CH3)3] in the TMCs backbones. N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan sulfate (TMCS) and N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan acetate (TMCAc) displayed the highest activities, probably due to their delocalized π system. Among TMCs with halide counterions, activity was higher for N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMCCl), whereas N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan iodide (TMCI) and N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan bromide (TMCBr) exhibited lower, similar values to each other. This is consistent with the shielding of -(+)N(CH3)3 groups inferred from chemical shifts for halide counterions in (1)HNMR spectra. We also demonstrate that TMCs with distinct bactericidal activities can be classified according to their vibrational spectra using principal component analysis. Taken together, these physicochemical characterization approaches represent a predictive tool for the bactericidal activity of chitosan derivatives. PMID:26686146

  1. Phagocytosis Enhances Lysosomal and Bactericidal Properties by Activating the Transcription Factor TFEB.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew A; Choy, Christopher H; Dayam, Roya M; Ospina-Escobar, Erika; Somerville, Alexander; Xiao, Xuan; Ferguson, Shawn M; Botelho, Roberto J

    2016-08-01

    Macrophages internalize pathogens through phagocytosis, entrapping them into organelles called phagosomes. Phagosomes then fuse with lysosomes to mature into phagolysosomes, acquiring an acidic and hydrolytic lumen that kills the pathogens. During an ongoing infection, macrophages can internalize dozens of bacteria. Thus, we hypothesized that an initial round of phagocytosis might boost lysosome function and bactericidal ability to cope with subsequent rounds of phagocytosis. To test this hypothesis, we employed Fcγ-receptor-mediated phagocytosis and endocytosis, which internalize immunoglobulin G (IgG)-opsonized particles and polyvalent IgG immune complexes, respectively. We report that Fcγ receptor activation in macrophages enhances lysosome-based proteolysis and killing of subsequently phagocytosed E. coli compared to naive macrophages. Importantly, we show that Fcγ receptor activation causes nuclear translocation of TFEB, a transcription factor that boosts expression of lysosome genes. Indeed, Fc receptor activation is accompanied by increased expression of specific lysosomal proteins. Remarkably, TFEB silencing represses the Fcγ-receptor-mediated enhancements in degradation and bacterial killing. In addition, nuclear translocation of TFEB requires phagosome completion and fails to occur in cells silenced for MCOLN1, a lysosomal Ca(2+) channel, suggesting that lysosomal Ca(2+) released during phagosome maturation activates TFEB. Finally, we demonstrate that non-opsonic phagocytosis of E. coli also enhances lysosomal degradation in a TFEB-dependent manner, suggesting that this phenomenon is not limited to Fcγ receptors. Overall, we show that macrophages become better killers after one round of phagocytosis and suggest that phagosomes and lysosomes are capable of bi-directional signaling. PMID:27397893

  2. Copper and Quaternary Ammonium Cations Exert Synergistic Bactericidal and Antibiofilm Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Joe J.; Turner, Raymond J.; Joo, Daniel A.; Stan, Michelle A.; Chan, Catherine S.; Allan, Nick D.; Vrionis, Helen A.; Olson, Merle E.; Ceri, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms are slimy aggregates of microbes that are likely responsible for many chronic infections as well as for contamination of clinical and industrial environments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a prevalent hospital pathogen that is well known for its ability to form biofilms that are recalcitrant to many different antimicrobial treatments. We have devised a high-throughput method for testing combinations of antimicrobials for synergistic activity against biofilms, including those formed by P. aeruginosa. This approach was used to look for changes in biofilm susceptibility to various biocides when these agents were combined with metal ions. This process identified that Cu2+ works synergistically with quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs; specifically benzalkonium chloride, cetalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, myristalkonium chloride, and Polycide) to kill P. aeruginosa biofilms. In some cases, adding Cu2+ to QACs resulted in a 128-fold decrease in the biofilm minimum bactericidal concentration compared to that for single-agent treatments. In combination, these agents retained broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that also eradicated biofilms of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica serovar Cholerasuis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. To investigate the mechanism of action, isothermal titration calorimetry was used to show that Cu2+ and QACs do not interact in aqueous solutions, suggesting that each agent exerts microbiological toxicity through independent biochemical routes. Additionally, Cu2+ and QACs, both alone and in combination, reduced the activity of nitrate reductases, which are enzymes that are important for normal biofilm growth. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that Cu2+ and QACs are effective combinations of antimicrobials that may be used to kill bacterial biofilms. PMID:18519726

  3. Radioiodinated DPA-713 Imaging Correlates with Bactericidal Activity of Tuberculosis Treatments in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Alvaro A.; Pokkali, Supriya; DeMarco, Vincent P.; Klunk, Mariah; Mease, Ronnie C.; Foss, Catherine A.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2014-01-01

    Current tools for monitoring response to tuberculosis treatments have several limitations. Noninvasive biomarkers could accelerate tuberculosis drug development and clinical studies, but to date little progress has been made in developing new imaging technologies for this application. In this study, we developed pulmonary single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioiodinated DPA-713 to serially monitor the activity of tuberculosis treatments in live mice, which develop necrotic granulomas and cavitary lesions. C3HeB/FeJ mice were aerosol infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and administered either a standard or a highly active bedaquiline-containing drug regimen. Serial 125I-DPA-713 SPECT imaging was compared with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and standard microbiology. Ex vivo studies were performed to characterize and correlate DPA-713 imaging with cellular and cytokine responses. Pulmonary 125I-DPA-713 SPECT, but not 18F-FDG PET, was able to correctly identify the bactericidal activities of the two tuberculosis treatments as early as 4 weeks after the start of treatment (P < 0.03). DPA-713 readily penetrated the fibrotic rims of necrotic and cavitary lesions. A time-dependent decrease in both tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels was observed with treatments, with 125I-DPA-713 SPECT correlating best with tissue TNF-α levels (ρ = 0.94; P < 0.01). 124I-DPA-713 was also evaluated as a PET probe and demonstrated a 4.0-fold-higher signal intensity in the infected tuberculous lesions than uninfected controls (P = 0.03). These studies provide proof of concept for application of a novel noninvasive imaging biomarker to monitor tuberculosis treatments, with the potential for application for humans. PMID:25403669

  4. Radioiodinated DPA-713 imaging correlates with bactericidal activity of tuberculosis treatments in mice.

    PubMed

    Ordonez, Alvaro A; Pokkali, Supriya; DeMarco, Vincent P; Klunk, Mariah; Mease, Ronnie C; Foss, Catherine A; Pomper, Martin G; Jain, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Current tools for monitoring response to tuberculosis treatments have several limitations. Noninvasive biomarkers could accelerate tuberculosis drug development and clinical studies, but to date little progress has been made in developing new imaging technologies for this application. In this study, we developed pulmonary single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioiodinated DPA-713 to serially monitor the activity of tuberculosis treatments in live mice, which develop necrotic granulomas and cavitary lesions. C3HeB/FeJ mice were aerosol infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and administered either a standard or a highly active bedaquiline-containing drug regimen. Serial (125)I-DPA-713 SPECT imaging was compared with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and standard microbiology. Ex vivo studies were performed to characterize and correlate DPA-713 imaging with cellular and cytokine responses. Pulmonary (125)I-DPA-713 SPECT, but not (18)F-FDG PET, was able to correctly identify the bactericidal activities of the two tuberculosis treatments as early as 4 weeks after the start of treatment (P < 0.03). DPA-713 readily penetrated the fibrotic rims of necrotic and cavitary lesions. A time-dependent decrease in both tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels was observed with treatments, with (125)I-DPA-713 SPECT correlating best with tissue TNF-α levels (ρ = 0.94; P < 0.01). (124)I-DPA-713 was also evaluated as a PET probe and demonstrated a 4.0-fold-higher signal intensity in the infected tuberculous lesions than uninfected controls (P = 0.03). These studies provide proof of concept for application of a novel noninvasive imaging biomarker to monitor tuberculosis treatments, with the potential for application for humans. PMID:25403669

  5. A comparative study of the bactericidal activity and daily disinfection housekeeping surfaces by a new portable pulsed UV radiation device.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Kazuo; Asai, Satomi; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Miyachi, Hayato

    2012-06-01

    Daily cleaning and disinfecting of non-critical surfaces in the patient-care areas are known to reduce the occurrence of health care-associated infections. However, the conventional means for decontamination of housekeeping surfaces of sites of frequent hand contact such as manual disinfection using ethanol wipes are laborious and time-consuming in daily practice. This study evaluated a newly developed portable pulsed ultraviolet (UV) radiation device for its bactericidal activity in comparison with continuous UV-C, and investigated its effect on the labor burden when implemented in a hospital ward. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin-resistant A. baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus were irradiated with pulsed UV or continuous UV-C. Pulsed UV and continuous UV-C required 5 and 30 s of irradiation, respectively, to attain bactericidal activity with more than 2Log growth inhibition of all the species. The use of pulsed UV in daily disinfection of housekeeping surfaces reduced the working hours by half in comparison to manual disinfection using ethanol wipes. The new portable pulsed UV radiation device was proven to have a bactericidal activity against critical nosocomial bacteria, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria after short irradiation, and was thus found to be practical as a method for disinfecting housekeeping surfaces and decreasing the labor burden. PMID:22447288

  6. Bactericidal Dendritic Polycation Cloaked with Stealth Material via Lipase-Sensitive Intersegment Acquires Neutral Surface Charge without Losing Membrane-Disruptive Activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lulu; He, Chen; Hui, Liwei; Xie, Yuntao; Li, Jia-Min; He, Wei-Dong; Yang, Lihua

    2015-12-23

    Net cationicity of membrane-disruptive antimicrobials is necessary for their activity but may elicit immune attack when administered intravenously. By cloaking a dendritic polycation (G2) with poly(caprolactone-b-ethylene glycol) (PCL-b-PEG), we obtain a nanoparticle antimicrobial, G2-g-(PCL-b-PEG), which exhibits neutral surface charge but kills >99.9% of inoculated bacterial cells at ≤8 μg/mL. The observed activity may be attributed PCL's responsive degradation by bacterial lipase and the consequent exposure of the membrane-disruptive, bactericidal G2 core. Moreover, G2-g-(PCL-b-PEG) exhibits good colloidal stability in the presence of serum and insignificant hemolytic toxicity even at ≥2048 μg/mL. suggesting good blood compatibility required for intravenous administration. PMID:26632646

  7. Evaluation of bactericidal activity of Hannon honey on slowly growing bacteria in the chemostat

    PubMed Central

    Sufya, Najib; Matar, Noora; Kaddura, Rawanda; Zorgani, Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the therapeutic use of honey, including use in the treatment of infected wounds and burn patients. In this study, we have assessed the antibacterial activity of Libyan floral Hannon honey on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, both known to infect wounds. The effects of four concentrations (5%–30%) of honey were compared with that of four antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, polymyxin, and ciprofloxacin) on the growth of these bacteria at early log, mid log, and late log phases. It has been shown that E. coli and S. aureus are to some degree susceptible during mid log phase compared with late log phase, demonstrated by their complete resistance to antibiotics. Chemostat culture was used to investigate the effect of honey on E. coli grown at a steady state with specific growth rates between 0.1 to 0.5 hour−1. The rate of killing was distinctively clear during the two stages of growth monitored: there was a relatively moderate reduction at the slow growth phase (0.1 to 0.3 hour−1), while a dramatic reduction was obtained at the fast growth phase (0.3 to 0.5 hour−1), reaching a complete reduction at 0.5 hour−1. These results complement data using the cup-cut technique. The antibacterial effect of honey was concentration and time dependent, the bactericidal effect was indeed observed at low concentrations, it demonstrates that the honey has more impact on slow growing bacteria than antibiotics have. We suggest that more reduction could be achieved at higher concentrations of honey. These results may have important clinical implications, such as for the management of wound and burn patients. PMID:25342919

  8. Evaluation of bactericidal activity of Hannon honey on slowly growing bacteria in the chemostat.

    PubMed

    Sufya, Najib; Matar, Noora; Kaddura, Rawanda; Zorgani, Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the therapeutic use of honey, including use in the treatment of infected wounds and burn patients. In this study, we have assessed the antibacterial activity of Libyan floral Hannon honey on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, both known to infect wounds. The effects of four concentrations (5%-30%) of honey were compared with that of four antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, polymyxin, and ciprofloxacin) on the growth of these bacteria at early log, mid log, and late log phases. It has been shown that E. coli and S. aureus are to some degree susceptible during mid log phase compared with late log phase, demonstrated by their complete resistance to antibiotics. Chemostat culture was used to investigate the effect of honey on E. coli grown at a steady state with specific growth rates between 0.1 to 0.5 hour(-1). The rate of killing was distinctively clear during the two stages of growth monitored: there was a relatively moderate reduction at the slow growth phase (0.1 to 0.3 hour(-1)), while a dramatic reduction was obtained at the fast growth phase (0.3 to 0.5 hour(-1)), reaching a complete reduction at 0.5 hour(-1). These results complement data using the cup-cut technique. The antibacterial effect of honey was concentration and time dependent, the bactericidal effect was indeed observed at low concentrations, it demonstrates that the honey has more impact on slow growing bacteria than antibiotics have. We suggest that more reduction could be achieved at higher concentrations of honey. These results may have important clinical implications, such as for the management of wound and burn patients. PMID:25342919

  9. Insulin Treatment Directly Restores Neutrophil Phagocytosis and Bactericidal Activity in Diabetic Mice and Thereby Improves Surgical Site Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Hidekazu; Fujino, Keiichi; Nakashima, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Yoritsuna; Miyazaki, Hiromi; Hamada, Koji; Ono, Satoshi; Iwaya, Keiichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Tanaka, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infections, including surgical site infections (SSI), are a common and serious complication of diabetes. Staphylococcus aureus, which is eliminated mainly by neutrophils, is a major cause of SSI in diabetic patients. However, the precise mechanisms by which diabetes predisposes to staphylococcal infection are not fully elucidated. The effect of insulin on this infection is also not well understood. We therefore investigated the effect of insulin treatment on SSI and neutrophil function in diabetic mice. S. aureus was inoculated into the abdominal muscle in diabetic db/db and high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice with or without insulin treatment. Although the diabetic db/db mice developed SSI, insulin treatment ameliorated the infection. db/db mice had neutrophil dysfunction, such as decreased phagocytosis, superoxide production, and killing activity of S. aureus; however, insulin treatment restored these functions. Ex vivo treatment (coincubation) of neutrophils with insulin and euglycemic control by phlorizin suggest that insulin may directly activate neutrophil phagocytic and bactericidal activity independently of its euglycemic effect. However, insulin may indirectly restore superoxide production by neutrophils through its euglycemic effect. HFD-fed mice with mild hyperglycemia also developed more severe SSI by S. aureus than control mice and had impaired neutrophil phagocytic and bactericidal activity, which was improved by insulin treatment. Unlike db/db mice, in HFD mice, superoxide production was increased in neutrophils and subsequently suppressed by insulin treatment. Glycemic control by insulin also normalized the neutrophil superoxide-producing capability in HFD mice. Thus, insulin may restore neutrophil phagocytosis and bactericidal activity, thereby ameliorating SSI. PMID:23027538

  10. Influence of Scaffold Size on Bactericidal Activity of Nitric Oxide Releasing Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Alexis W.; Slomberg, Danielle L.; Rao, Kavitha S.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    A reverse microemulsion synthesis was used to prepare amine functionalized silica nanoparticles of three distinct sizes (i.e., 50, 100, and 200 nm) with identical amine concentrations. The resulting hybrid nanoparticles, consisting of N-(6 aminohexyl) aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane, were highly monodisperse in size. N-diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide (NO) donors were subsequently formed on secondary amines while controlling reaction conditions to keep the total amount of nitric oxide (NO) released constant for each particle size. The bactericidal efficacy of the NO releasing nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa increased with decreasing particle size. Additionally, smaller diameter nanoparticles were found to associate with the bacteria at a faster rate and to a greater extent than larger particles. Neither control (non-NO-releasing) nor NO releasing particles exhibited toxicity towards L929 mouse fibroblasts at concentrations above their respective minimum bactericidal concentrations. This study represents the first investigation of the bactericidal efficacy of NO-releasing silica nanoparticles as a function of particle size. PMID:21842899

  11. Bactericidal Activity of Ceragenin CSA-13 in Cell Culture and in an Animal Model of Peritoneal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wnorowska, Urszula; Byfield, Fitzroy J.; Piktel, Ewelina; Wątek, Marzena; Janmey, Paul A.; Savage, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Ceragenins constitute a novel family of cationic antibiotics characterized by a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities, which have mostly been assessed in vitro. Using a polarized human lung epithelial cell culture system, we evaluated the antibacterial activities of the ceragenin CSA-13 against two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1 and Xen5). Additionally, the biodistribution and bactericidal activity of a CSA-13–IRDye 800CW derivate were assessed using an animal model of peritoneal infection after PAO1 challenge. In cell culture, CSA-13 bactericidal activities against PAO1 and Xen5 were higher than the activities of the human cathelicidin peptide LL-37. Increased CSA-13 activity was observed in polarized human lung epithelial cell cultures subjected to butyric acid treatment, which is known to increase endogenous LL-37 production. Eight hours after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection, the greatest CSA-13–IRDye 800CW accumulation was observed in mouse liver and kidneys. CSA-13–IRDye 800CW administration resulted in decreased bacterial outgrowth from abdominal fluid collected from animals subjected to intraperitoneal PAO1 infection. These observations indicate that CSA-13 may synergistically interact with antibacterial factors that are naturally present at mucosal surfaces and it maintains its antibacterial activity in the infected abdominal cavity. Cationic lipids such as CSA-13 represent excellent candidates for the development of new antibacterial compounds. PMID:26248361

  12. Inhibition of bactericidal and bacteriolytic activities of poly-D-lysine and lysozyme by chitotriose and ferric iron.

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, G R; O'Neill, M M; Cafarella, T G; Germaine, G R

    1991-01-01

    In a previous report from this laboratory (N. J. Laible and G. R. Germaine, Infect. Immun. 48:720-728, 1985), evidence was presented to suggest that the bactericidal actions of both reduced (i.e., muramidase-inactive) human placental lysozyme and the synthetic cationic homopolymer poly-D-lysine involved the activation of a bacterial endogenous activity that was inhibitable by N,N',N"-triacetylchitotriose (chitotriose). In the present investigation however, we found that the bactericidal and bacteriolytic action of poly-D-lysine could be prevented only by some commercially available chitotriose preparations and not by others. Analysis by physical and chemical methods failed to distinguish protective chitotriose (CTa) and nonprotective chitotriose (CTi) preparations. CTi and CTa preparations displayed equal capacities to competitively inhibit binding of [3H]chitotriose by immobilized lysozyme and were indistinguishable in their abilities to block the lytic activity of lysozyme against Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells. Elemental analysis revealed significantly higher levels of phosphorus, calcium, iron, sodium, manganese, and copper in CTa. Removal of metals from CTa by chelate chromatography completely abolished the poly-D-lysine-protective capacity. Of the metals detected, only ferric iron (5 to 10 microM) mimicked the protective action of CTa. A Fe(III) concentration of 50 microM was required to inhibit lysozyme (5 micrograms/ml). Both Fe(III) and CTa (but not CTi) quantitatively blocked the labeling of poly-D-lysine by fluorescamine, suggesting that the primary amino groups of the lysine residues participate in iron binding. Thus, it appears that the poly-D-lysine-protective capacity of certain chitotriose preparations was due not to the chitotriose itself but to contaminating metal ions which interact directly with the polycationic agent. In contrast, Fe(III) cannot account for inhibition of either the bactericidal or bacteriolytic activity of lysozyme by

  13. Inhibition of bactericidal and bacteriolytic activities of poly-D-lysine and lysozyme by chitotriose and ferric iron.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, G R; O'Neill, M M; Cafarella, T G; Germaine, G R

    1991-02-01

    In a previous report from this laboratory (N. J. Laible and G. R. Germaine, Infect. Immun. 48:720-728, 1985), evidence was presented to suggest that the bactericidal actions of both reduced (i.e., muramidase-inactive) human placental lysozyme and the synthetic cationic homopolymer poly-D-lysine involved the activation of a bacterial endogenous activity that was inhibitable by N,N',N"-triacetylchitotriose (chitotriose). In the present investigation however, we found that the bactericidal and bacteriolytic action of poly-D-lysine could be prevented only by some commercially available chitotriose preparations and not by others. Analysis by physical and chemical methods failed to distinguish protective chitotriose (CTa) and nonprotective chitotriose (CTi) preparations. CTi and CTa preparations displayed equal capacities to competitively inhibit binding of [3H]chitotriose by immobilized lysozyme and were indistinguishable in their abilities to block the lytic activity of lysozyme against Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells. Elemental analysis revealed significantly higher levels of phosphorus, calcium, iron, sodium, manganese, and copper in CTa. Removal of metals from CTa by chelate chromatography completely abolished the poly-D-lysine-protective capacity. Of the metals detected, only ferric iron (5 to 10 microM) mimicked the protective action of CTa. A Fe(III) concentration of 50 microM was required to inhibit lysozyme (5 micrograms/ml). Both Fe(III) and CTa (but not CTi) quantitatively blocked the labeling of poly-D-lysine by fluorescamine, suggesting that the primary amino groups of the lysine residues participate in iron binding. Thus, it appears that the poly-D-lysine-protective capacity of certain chitotriose preparations was due not to the chitotriose itself but to contaminating metal ions which interact directly with the polycationic agent. In contrast, Fe(III) cannot account for inhibition of either the bactericidal or bacteriolytic activity of lysozyme by

  14. Bactericidal activities of cathelicidin LL-37 and select cationic lipids against the hypervirulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain LESB58.

    PubMed

    Wnorowska, Urszula; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Myint, Melissa; Diamond, Scott L; Wróblewska, Marta; Savage, Paul B; Janmey, Paul A; Bucki, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa Liverpool epidemic strain (LES) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are associated with transmissibility and increased patient morbidity. This study was designed to assess the in vitro activities of cathelicidin LL-37 peptide (LL-37) and select cationic lipids against Pseudomonas aeruginosa LESB58 in CF sputum and in a setting mimicking the CF airway. We found that LL-37 naturally present in airway surface fluid and some nonpeptide cationic lipid molecules such as CSA-13, CSA-90, CSA-131, and D2S have significant, but broadly differing, bactericidal activities against P. aeruginosa LESB58. We observed strong inhibition of LL-37 bactericidal activity in the presence of purified bacteriophage Pf1, which is highly expressed by P. aeruginosa LES, but the activities of the cationic lipids CSA-13 and CSA-131 were not affected by this polyanionic virus. Additionally, CSA-13 and CSA-131 effectively prevent LESB58 biofilm formation, which is stimulated by Pf1 bacteriophage, DNA, or F-actin. CSA-13 and CSA-131 display strong antibacterial activities against different clinical strains of P. aeruginosa, and their activities against P. aeruginosa LESB58 and Xen5 strains were maintained in CF sputum. These data indicate that synthetic cationic lipids (mimics of natural antimicrobial peptides) are suitable for developing an effective treatment against CF lung P. aeruginosa infections, including those caused by LES strains. PMID:25870055

  15. Bactericidal Activities of Cathelicidin LL-37 and Select Cationic Lipids against the Hypervirulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain LESB58

    PubMed Central

    Wnorowska, Urszula; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Myint, Melissa; Diamond, Scott L.; Wróblewska, Marta; Savage, Paul B.; Janmey, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa Liverpool epidemic strain (LES) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are associated with transmissibility and increased patient morbidity. This study was designed to assess the in vitro activities of cathelicidin LL-37 peptide (LL-37) and select cationic lipids against Pseudomonas aeruginosa LESB58 in CF sputum and in a setting mimicking the CF airway. We found that LL-37 naturally present in airway surface fluid and some nonpeptide cationic lipid molecules such as CSA-13, CSA-90, CSA-131, and D2S have significant, but broadly differing, bactericidal activities against P. aeruginosa LESB58. We observed strong inhibition of LL-37 bactericidal activity in the presence of purified bacteriophage Pf1, which is highly expressed by P. aeruginosa LES, but the activities of the cationic lipids CSA-13 and CSA-131 were not affected by this polyanionic virus. Additionally, CSA-13 and CSA-131 effectively prevent LESB58 biofilm formation, which is stimulated by Pf1 bacteriophage, DNA, or F-actin. CSA-13 and CSA-131 display strong antibacterial activities against different clinical strains of P. aeruginosa, and their activities against P. aeruginosa LESB58 and Xen5 strains were maintained in CF sputum. These data indicate that synthetic cationic lipids (mimics of natural antimicrobial peptides) are suitable for developing an effective treatment against CF lung P. aeruginosa infections, including those caused by LES strains. PMID:25870055

  16. Immunoregulation by macrophages II. Separation of mouse peritoneal macrophages having tumoricidal and bactericidal activities and those secreting PGE and interleukin I

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, K.E.; Cahill, J.M.

    1983-06-01

    Macrophage subpopulations having bactericidal or tumoricidal activities and secreting interleukin I (IL1) or prostaglandin E (PGE) were identified through primary or secondary infection with Salmonella enteritidis and separated by sedimentation velocity. Bactericidal activity was measured by (3H)-thymidine release from Listeria monocytogenes and tumoricidal activity by 51Cr-release from C-4 fibrosarcoma or P815 mastocytoma cells. Macrophages with bactericidal activity were distinguished from those with tumoricidal activity a) during secondary infection when cytolytic activity occurred only at days 1-4 post injection and bactericidal activity remained high throughout and b) after sedimentation velocity separation. Cytolysis was consistently greatest among adherent cells of low sedimentation velocity, whereas cells with bactericidal activity increased in size during the infection. Tumour cytostasis (inhibition and promotion of (3H)-thymidine uptake) differed from cytolysis in that the former was more prolonged during infection and was also detected among large cells. Secretion of immunoregulatory molecules PGE and IL1 occurred maximally among different macrophage subpopulations separated by sedimentation velocity and depending on the type of stimulus used in vitro. There was an inverse correlation between IL1 production and PGE production after stimulation with C3-zymosan or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The development of immunity during infection may therefore be dependent upon the relative proportions of effector and regulatory macrophage subpopulations and the selective effects of environmental stimuli on these functions.

  17. Effect of food processing organic matter on photocatalytic bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2).

    PubMed

    Yemmireddy, Veerachandra K; Hung, Yen-Con

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of food processing organic matter on photocatalytic bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs). Produce and meat processing wash solutions were prepared using romaine lettuce and ground beef samples. Physico-chemical properties such as pH, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenolics (for produce) and protein (for meat) content of the extracts were determined using standard procedures. The photocatalytic bactericidal activity of TiO2 (1 mg/mL) in suspension with or without organic matter against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (5-strain) was determined over a period of 3h. Increasing the concentration of organic matter (either produce or meat) from 0% to 100% resulted in 85% decrease in TiO2 microbicidal efficacy. 'Turbidity, total phenolics, and protein contents in wash solutions had significant effect on the log reduction. Increasing the total phenolics content in produce washes from 20 to 114 mg/L decreased the log reduction from 2.7 to 0.38 CFU/mL, whereas increasing the protein content in meat washes from 0.12 to 1.61 mg/L decreased the log reduction from and 5.74 to 0.87 CFU/mL. Also, a linear correlation was observed between COD and total phenolics as well as COD and protein contents. While classical disinfection kinetic models failed to predict, an empirical equation in the form of "Y=me(nX)" (where Y is log reduction, X is COD, and m and n are reaction rate constants) predicted the disinfection kinetics of TiO2 in the presence of organic matter (R(2)=94.4). This study successfully identified an empirical model with COD as a predictor variable to predict the bactericidal efficacy of TiO2 when used in food processing environment. PMID:25863338

  18. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Starliper, Clifford E; Ketola, Henry G; Noyes, Andrew D; Schill, William B; Henson, Fred G; Chalupnicki, Marc A; Dittman, Dawn E

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC's) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02-0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

  19. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketola, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

  20. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketolab, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments for captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine if selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBC’s (0.02 to 0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBC’s for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14 to 0.30% and 0.10 to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11 and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBC’s to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBC’s for all but one isolate

  1. The Lipopeptide Antibiotic Paenibacterin Binds to the Bacterial Outer Membrane and Exerts Bactericidal Activity through Cytoplasmic Membrane Damage

    PubMed Central

    Huang, En

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacterin is a broad-spectrum lipopeptide antimicrobial agent produced by Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus OSY-SE. The compound consists of a cyclic 13-residue peptide and an N-terminal C15 fatty acyl chain. The mechanism of action of paenibacterin against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in this study. The cationic lipopeptide paenibacterin showed a strong affinity for the negatively charged lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Addition of LPS (100 μg/ml) completely eliminated the antimicrobial activity of paenibacterin against E. coli. The electrostatic interaction between paenibacterin and LPS may have displaced the divalent cations on the LPS network and thus facilitated the uptake of antibiotic into Gram-negative cells. Paenibacterin also damaged the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, as evidenced by the depolarization of membrane potential and leakage of intracellular potassium ions from cells of E. coli and S. aureus. Therefore, the bactericidal activity of paenibacterin is attributed to disruption of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and damage of the cytoplasmic membrane of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Despite the evidence of membrane damage, this study does not rule out additional bactericidal mechanisms potentially exerted by paenibacterin. PMID:24561581

  2. Effect of aerosol immunization with RE 595 Salmonella minnesota on lung bactericidal activity against Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    LaForce, F M

    1977-08-01

    Intrapulmonary bactericidal activity was measured after mice were given 3 weekly aerosol exposures to acid-hydrolyzed Re 595 Salmonella minnesota. Ten days after their last immunization, mice were challenged with aerolized Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Quantitative bacterial counts in ground lung were obtained immediately after exposure and again 4 hours later. Enhanced bactericidal activity against Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae was seen in immunized animals, whereas no difference with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was noted. In separate studies, immunization with Serratia marcescens yielded a similar enhancement of lung bactericidal activity. Mucociliary transport, as measured by disappearance of aerosolized Serratia marcescens labeled with phosphorus-32, was identical for both immunized and control animals. Using a standardized in vitro mouse alveolar macrophage phagocytic system, lung washes from animals immunized with Re 595 Salmonella minnesota had significant opsonic activity for Serratia marcescens but not for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:407823

  3. Determination of serum bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli by an automated photometric method.

    PubMed Central

    Crokaert, F; Lismont, M J; van der Linden, M P; Yourassowsky, E

    1988-01-01

    The resistance of gram-negative bacteria to complement-mediated serum activity is supposedly an important virulence factor. However, the lack of standardization in the methods used to determine serum activity and the many definitions applied make the comparisons between studies very difficult. We developed a rapid photometric method that we compared with a classical killing one. Escherichia coli in the exponential phase of growth in brain heart infusion broth (final inoculum, 10(7) CFU/ml) at 35 degrees C was added to 50% human serum in Veronal buffer. Viable counts and automatic recording of the variations in the optical densities were obtained for 40 E. coli strains isolated from the stools of healthy adults. With the viable count method, 17 (42.5%) were susceptible (at least a 1 log CFU/ml decrease), 17 (42.5%) were resistant (a 0.6 log CFU/ml increase), 4 (10%) were intermediate (poorly growing inoculum or a decrease of less than 1 log CFU/ml), and 2 could not be classified (nonreproducible results). Agreement between both methods was observed for 87.5% of the stool strains. Eight reference strains of known susceptibilities were classified identically by both methods, leading to a final concordance rate of 89.6%. A total of 129 blood isolates were tested by the photometric method: 64 (49.6%) were resistant, 50 (38.8%) were susceptible 5 (3.9%) showed early regrowth, and 10 (7.7%) were not perfectly reproducible. Of these 129 blood isolates, 5 were also tested by the killing method: 37 (49%) were resistant, 32 (43%) were susceptible, and 6 (8%) were intermediate. The concordance rate between both assays was 89% for the blood isolates; when the minor discordances were ruled out, it was 97%. This automated method could be a useful screening tool for detecting resistance to serum in clinical trials and for studying the in vitro variations of this property. PMID:3053761

  4. In Vitro Bactericidal and Bacteriolytic Activity of Ceragenin CSA-13 against Planktonic Cultures and Biofilms of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Other Pathogenic Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez, Margarita; García, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Ceragenin CSA-13, a cationic steroid, is here reported to show a concentration-dependent bactericidal/bacteriolytic activity against pathogenic streptococci, including multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. The autolysis promoted by CSA-13 in pneumococcal cultures appears to be due to the triggering of the major S. pneumoniae autolysin LytA, an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase. CSA-13 also disintegrated pneumococcal biofilms in a very efficient manner, although at concentrations slightly higher than those required for bactericidal activity on planktonic bacteria. CSA-13 has little hemolytic activity which should allow testing its antibacterial efficacy in animal models. PMID:25006964

  5. Bactericidal activity of moxifloxacin against multidrug-resistant Streptoccocus pneumoniae at clinically achievable serum and epithelial lining fluid concentrations compared with three other antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Cafini, Fabio; Alou, Luis; Sevillano, David; Valero, Eva; Prieto, José

    2004-10-01

    Time-kill studies compared the activities of moxifloxacin with those of levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against 10 pneumococcal strains with various drug susceptibilities. Three Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were resistant to moxifloxacin: 6, 7 and 2 strains were resistant to levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. Of these, 1 strain was resistant to all antimicrobial agents studied. Moxifloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were bactericidal after 24h at serum Cmax levels against 9 and 8 strains, respectively, while levofloxacin and azithromycin were bactericidal against 3 and 2 strains, respectively. A higher activity was only observed for amoxicillin-clavulanate for logarithmic phase cultures at 1, 4 and 8h compared with stationary phase organisms. Amoxicillin-clavulanate and moxifloxacin were bactericidal at free serum levels (protein unbound) after 24h against 8 and 3 strains, respectively. Moxifloxacin was bactericidal at epithelial lining fluid levels against all strains at 24h, including one moxifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and azithromycin-resistant strain; lower levels of bactericidal activity was observed for levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against 7, 2 and 4 strains, respectively. This demonstrated the importance of moxifloxacin tissue levels. PMID:15380257

  6. Macrophage Bactericidal Activities against Staphylococcus aureus Are Enhanced In Vivo by Selenium Supplementation in a Dose-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Aribi, Mourad; Meziane, Warda; Habi, Salim; Boulatika, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary selenium is of fundamental importance to maintain optimal immune function and enhance immunity during infection. To this end, we examined the effect of selenium on macrophage bactericidal activities against Staphylococcus aureus. Methods Assays were performed in golden Syrian hamsters and peritoneal macrophages cultured with S. aureus and different concentrations of selenium. Results Infected and selenium-supplemented animals have significantly decreased levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) production when compared with infected but non-selenium-supplemented animals at day 7 post-infection (p < 0.05). A low dose of 5 ng/mL selenium induced a significant decrease in macrophage NO production, but significant increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels (respectively, p = 0.009, p < 0.001). The NO production and H2O2 levels were significantly increased with increasing concentrations of selenium; the optimal macrophage activity levels were reached at 20 ng/mL. The concentration of 5 ng/mL of selenium induced a significant decrease in the bacterial arginase activity but a significant increase in the macrophage arginase activity. The dose of 20 ng/mL selenium induced a significant decrease of bacterial growth (p < 0.0001) and a significant increase in macrophage phagocytic activity, NO production/arginase balance and S. aureus killing (for all comparisons, p < 0.001). Conclusions Selenium acts in a dose-dependent manner on macrophage activation, phagocytosis and bacterial killing suggesting that inadequate doses may cause a loss of macrophage bactericidal activities and that selenium supplementation could enhance the in vivo control of immune response to S. aureus. PMID:26340099

  7. Bactericidal activity of DU-6859a compared to activities of three quinolones, three beta-lactams, clindamycin, and metronidazole against anaerobes as determined by time-kill methodology.

    PubMed

    Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1997-04-01

    The activities of DU-6859a, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 11 anaerobes were tested by the broth microdilution and time-kill methods. DU-6859a was the most active drug tested (broth microdilution MICs, 0.06 to 0.5 microg/ml), followed by imipenem (MICs, 0.002 to 4.0 microg/ml). Broth macrodilution MICs were within 3 (but usually 1) dilutions of the broth microdilution MICs. All compounds were bactericidal at the MIC after 48 h; after 24 h, 90% killing was shown for all strains when the compounds were used at four times the MIC. DU-6859a at < or = 0.5 microg/ml was bactericidal after 48 h. PMID:9087503

  8. Human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and a recombinant NH2-terminal fragment cause killing of serum-resistant gram-negative bacteria in whole blood and inhibit tumor necrosis factor release induced by the bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, J; Elsbach, P; Shu, C; Castillo, J; Grinna, L; Horwitz, A; Theofan, G

    1992-01-01

    The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) of neutrophils and BPI fragments neutralize the effects of isolated Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides both in vitro and in vivo. Since endotoxin most commonly enters the host as constituents of invading Gram-negative bacteria, we raised the question: Can BPI and its bioactive fragments also protect against whole bacteria? To determine whether the bactericidal and endotoxin-neutralizing activities of BPI/fragments are expressed when Gram-negative bacteria are introduced to the complex environment of whole blood we examined the effects of added BPI and proteolytically prepared and recombinant NH2-terminal fragments on: (a) the fate of serum-resistant encapsulated Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that survive the antibacterial actions of whole blood and (b) the ability of these bacteria to trigger cytokine release. Added BPI in nanomolar concentrations killed each of three encapsulated strains of E. coli and in closely parallel fashion inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release. Holo-BPI and its NH2-terminal fragment were equipotent toward a rough LPS chemotype K1-encapsulated strain, but the fragment was substantially more potent than holo-BPI toward two encapsulated smooth LPS chemotype strains. TNF release induced by K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa was also inhibited by both holo-BPI and fragment but, at the protein concentrations tested, P. aeruginosa was killed only by the fragment and K. pneumoniae was not killed by either protein. The bactericidal action of BPI/fragment toward E. coli is inhibited by C7-depleted serum, but accelerated by normal serum, indicating that BPI, acting in synergy with late complement components, enhances extracellular killing of serum-resistant bacteria. Thus, BPI and an even more potent NH2-terminal fragment may protect against Gram-negative bacteria in the host by blocking bacterial proliferation as well as endotoxin

  9. Mycobacterial Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases A and B Inhibitors Augment the Bactericidal Activity of the Standard Anti-tuberculosis Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Noton K.; He, Rongjun; Pinn, Michael L.; He, Yantao; Burrows, Francis; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Karakousis, Petros C.

    2016-01-01

    Novel drugs are required to shorten the duration of treatment for tuberculosis (TB) and to combat the emergence of drug resistance. One approach has been to identify and target Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) virulence factors, which promote the establishment of TB infection and pathogenesis. Mtb produces a number of virulence factors, including two protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), mPTPA and mPTPB, to evade the antimicrobial functions of host macrophages. To assess the therapeutic potential of targeting the virulent Mtb PTPs, we developed highly potent and selective inhibitors of mPTPA (L335-M34) and mPTPB (L01-Z08) with drug-like properties. We tested the bactericidal activity of L335-M34 and L01-Z08 alone or together in combination with the standard antitubercular regimen of isoniazid-rifampicin-pyrazinamide (HRZ) in the guinea pig model of chronic TB infection, which faithfully recapitulates some of the key histological features of human TB lesions. Following a single dose of L335-M34 50mg/kg and L01-Z08 20 mg/kg, plasma levels were maintained at levels 10-fold greater than the biochemical IC50 for 12–24 hours. Although neither PTP inhibitor alone significantly enhanced the antibacterial activity of HRZ, dual inhibition of mPTPA and mPTPB in combination with HRZ showed modest synergy, even after 2 weeks of treatment. After 6 weeks of treatment, the degree of lung inflammation correlated with the bactericidal activity of each drug regimen. This study highlights the potential utility of targeting Mtb virulence factors, and specifically the Mtb PTPs, as a strategy for enhancing the activity of standard anti-TB treatment. PMID:27478867

  10. Binding of Complement Factor H to PorB3 and NspA Enhances Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to Anti-Factor H Binding Protein Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  11. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  12. Enhanced bactericidal potency of nanoliposomes by modification of the fusion activity between liposomes and bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yufan; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Wen; Lu, Tingli; Wang, Rutao; Mei, Qibing; Chen, Tao

    2013-01-01

    . Furthermore, the fluid liposomal encapsulated tobramycin was prepared, and the bactericidal effect occurred more quickly when bacteria were cultured with liposomal encapsulated tobramycin. Conclusion The bactericidal potency of fluid liposomes is dramatically enhanced with respect to fusion ability when the fusogenic lipid, DOPE, is included. Regardless of changes in liposome composition, fluid liposomes-bacterium fusion is universally enhanced by calcium ions. The information obtained in this study will increase our understanding of fluid liposomal action mechanisms, and help in optimizing the new generation of fluid liposomal formulations for the treatment of pulmonary bacterial infections. PMID:23847417

  13. Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Bactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Upregulating Classical Activation Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, Heather S.; López-Ferrer, Daniel; Squier, Thomas C.

    2011-10-07

    Maintenance of macrophages in their basal state and their rapid activation in response to pathogen detection are central to the innate immune system, acting to limit nonspecific oxidative damage and promote pathogen killing following infection. To identify possible age-related alterations in macrophage function, we have assayed the function of peritoneal macrophages from young (3–4 months) and aged (14–15 months) Balb/c mice. In agreement with prior suggestions, we observe age-dependent increases in the extent of recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneum, as well as ex vivo functional changes involving enhanced nitric oxide production under resting conditions that contribute to a reduction in the time needed for full activation of senescent macrophages following exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Further, we observe enhanced bactericidal activity following Salmonella uptake by macrophages isolated from aged Balb/c mice in comparison with those isolated from young animals. Pathways responsible for observed phenotypic changes were interrogated using tandem mass spectrometry, which identified age-dependent increases in levels of proteins linked to immune cell pathways under basal conditions and following LPS activation. Immune pathways upregulated in macrophages isolated from aged mice include proteins critical to the formation of the immunoproteasome. Detection of these latter proteins is dramatically enhanced following LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from aged animals; in comparison, the identification of immunoproteasome subunits is insensitive to LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from young animals. Consistent with observed global changes in the proteome, quantitative proteomic measurements indicate that there are age-dependent abundance changes involving specific proteins linked to immune cell function under basal conditions. LPS exposure selectively increases the levels of many proteins involved in immune cell function in aged Balb/c mice

  14. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature’s nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts. PMID:26818408

  15. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature's nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts. PMID:26818408

  16. Comparison of bactericidal activity of six lysozymes at atmospheric pressure and under high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Masschalck, Barbara; Atanassova, Miroslava; Zewdie-Bosüner, Abebetch; Michiels, Chris W

    2006-05-01

    The antibacterial working range of six lysozymes was tested under ambient and high pressure, on a panel of five gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus lysodeikticus) and five gram-negative bacteria (Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium). The lysozymes included two that are commercially available (hen egg white lysozyme or HEWL, and mutanolysin from Streptomyces globisporus or M1L), and four that were chromatographically purified (bacteriophage lambda lysozyme or LaL, bacteriophage T4 lysozyme or T4L, goose egg white lysozyme or GEWL, and cauliflower lysozyme or CFL). T4L, LaL and GEWL were highly pure as evaluated by silver staining of SDS-PAGE gels and zymogram analysis while CFL was only partially pure. At ambient pressure each gram-positive test organism displayed a specific pattern of sensitivity to the six lysozymes, but none of the gram-negative bacteria was sensitive to any of the lysozymes. High pressure treatment (130-300 MPa, 25 degrees C, 15 min) sensitised several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria for one or more lysozymes. M. lysodeikticus and P. aeruginosa became sensitive to all lysozymes under high pressure, S. typhimurium remained completely insensitive to all lysozymes, and the other bacteria showed sensitisation to some of the lysozymes. The possible applications of the different lysozymes as biopreservatives, and the possible reasons for the observed differences in bactericidal specificity are discussed. PMID:16487612

  17. Comparison of Methods for Evaluation of the Bactericidal Activity of Copper-Sputtered Surfaces against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Rio, Laura; Kusiak-Nejman, Ewelina; Kiwi, John; Bétrisey, Bertrand; Pulgarin, César; Trampuz, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria can survive on hospital textiles and surfaces, from which they can be disseminated, representing a source of health care-associated infections (HCAIs). Surfaces containing copper (Cu), which is known for its bactericidal properties, could be an efficient way to lower the burden of potential pathogens. The antimicrobial activity of Cu-sputtered polyester surfaces, obtained by direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS), against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was tested. The Cu-polyester microstructure was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to determine the microstructure of the Cu nanoparticles and by profilometry to assess the thickness of the layers. Sputtering at 300 mA for 160 s led to a Cu film thickness of 20 nm (100 Cu layers) containing 0.209% (wt/wt) polyester. The viability of MRSA strain ATCC 43300 on Cu-sputtered polyester was evaluated by four methods: (i) mechanical detachment, (ii) microcalorimetry, (iii) direct transfer onto plates, and (iv) stereomicroscopy. The low efficacy of mechanical detachment impeded bacterial viability estimations. Microcalorimetry provided only semiquantitative results. Direct transfer onto plates and stereomicroscopy seemed to be the most suitable methods to evaluate the bacterial inactivation potential of Cu-sputtered polyester surfaces, since they presented the least experimental bias. Cu-polyester samples sputtered for 160 s by DCMS were further tested against 10 clinical MRSA isolates and showed a high level of bactericidal activity, with a 4-log10 reduction in the initial MRSA load (106 CFU) within 1 h. Cu-sputtered polyester surfaces might be of use to prevent the transmission of HCAI pathogens. PMID:22983970

  18. Structure-function relationships in novel peptide dodecamerswith broad-spectrum bactericidal and endotoxin-neutralizing activities.

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, K H; Haseman, J; Young, H C; Mayo, J W

    2000-01-01

    A series of designed peptide 33-mers (betapep peptides) areknown to be bactericidal [Mayo, Haseman, Ilyina and Gray (1998)Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1425, 81-92]. Here dodecapeptides (SC-1-SC-8), which 'walk through' the sequence ofbetapep-25, were investigated for their ability to kill Gram-negativeand -positive bacteria and to neutralize endotoxin. SC-4 (KLFKRHLKWKI I-NH(2); the -NH(2) at the right of each sequenceindicates amidation of the C-terminal carboxylate group) is the mosteffective, more so than betapep-25, at killing Gram-negative bacteriawith nanomolar LD(50) values. Against Gram-positive bacteria,SC-4 also shows good activity with submicromolar LD(50)values. Leakage studies indicate rapid bacterial membrane permeability,with t(1/2) valuesof 10-15 min. SC-4 in the micromolar range also effectivelyneutralizes endotoxin and is not haemolytic below 10(-4)M. For all SC peptides, CD and NMR data indicate the presence of both 3(10)- and alpha-helix. For SC-4, nuclear-Overhauser-effect-based computational modelling yields an amphipathic helix with K1, K4,R5, and K8 arrayed on the same face (K is lysine, R is arginine).Activity differences among SC peptides and single-site variants of SC-4allow some structure-function relationships to be deduced.Relative to other known bactericidal peptides in the linear peptide,helix-forming category, SC-4 is the most potent broad-spectrumantibacterial identified to date. The present study contributes to thedevelopment of agents involved in combating the ever-recurring problemof drug-resistant micro-organisms. PMID:10903132

  19. Bactericidal activities of health-promoting,food-derived powders against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli,listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica,and staphylococcus aureus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the relative bactericidal activities of 10 presumed health-promoting food-based powders (nutraceuticals) and for comparison, several selected known components of such powders against the following foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes...

  20. The bactericidal activity of β-lactam antibiotics is increased by metabolizable sugar species

    PubMed Central

    Thorsing, Mette; Bentin, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Here, the influence of metabolizable sugars on the susceptibility of Escherichia coli to β-lactam antibiotics was investigated. Notably, monitoring growth and survival of mono- and combination-treated planktonic cultures showed a 1000- to 10 000-fold higher antibacterial efficacy of carbenicillin and cefuroxime in the presence of certain sugars, whereas other metabolites had no effect on β-lactam sensitivity. This effect was unrelated to changes in growth rate. Light microscopy and flow cytometry profiling revealed that bacterial filaments, formed due to β-lactam-mediated inhibition of cell division, rapidly appeared upon β-lactam mono-treatment and remained stable for up to 18 h. The presence of metabolizable sugars in the medium did not change the rate of filamentation, but led to lysis of the filaments within a few hours. No lysis occurred in E. coli mutants unable to metabolize the sugars, thus establishing sugar metabolism as an important factor influencing the bactericidal outcome of β-lactam treatment. Interestingly, the effect of sugar on β-lactam susceptibility was suppressed in a strain unable to synthesize the nutrient stress alarmone (p)ppGpp. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time a specific and significant increase in β-lactam sensitivity due to sugar metabolism in planktonic, exponentially growing bacteria, unrelated to general nutrient availability or growth rate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the nutritional influences on antibiotic sensitivity is likely to reveal new proteins or pathways that can be targeted by novel compounds, adding to the list of pharmacodynamic adjuvants that increase the efficiency and lifespan of conventional antibiotics. PMID:26243263

  1. Antimicrobial activity of human α-defensin 6 analogs: insights into the physico-chemical reasons behind weak bactericidal activity of HD6 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Basil; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2015-11-01

    Human α-defensin 6 (HD6), unlike other mammalian defensins, does not exhibit bactericidal activity, particularly against aerobic bacteria. Monomeric HD6 has a tertiary structure similar to other α-defensins in the crystalline state. However, the physico-chemical reasons behind the lack of antibacterial activity of HD6 are yet to be established unequivocally. In this study, we have investigated the antimicrobial activity of HD6 analogs. A linear analog of HD6, in which the distribution of arginine residues was similar to active α-defensins, shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, indicating that atypical distribution of arginine residues contributes to the inactivity of HD6. Peptides spanning the N-terminal cationic segment were active against a wide range of organisms. Antimicrobial potency of these shorter analogs was further enhanced when myristic acid was conjugated at the N-terminus. Cytoplasmic localization of the analogs without fatty acylation was observed to be necessary for bacterial killing, while they exhibited fungicidal activity by permeabilizing Candida albicans membranes. Myristoylated analogs and the linear full-length arginine analog exhibited activity by permeabilizing bacterial and fungal membranes. Our study provides insights into the lack of bactericidal activity of HD6 against aerobic bacteria. PMID:26400692

  2. The Role of Protegrins and Other Elastase-Activated Polypeptides in the Bactericidal Properties of Porcine Inflammatory Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jishu; Ganz, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    The mammalian host response to infection includes the production and secretion of antimicrobial peptides from phagocytes and epithelial cells. Protegrins, a group of broadly microbicidal peptides isolated originally from porcine neutrophil lysates, were found to be stored as inactive proforms in porcine neutrophil granules but could be activated extracellularly by neutrophil elastase. We assessed the biological role of protegrins and other elastase-activated polypeptides in the microbicidal activity of neutrophil secretions and inflammatory fluids. When stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), neutrophils generated stable microbicidal activity against both Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes under normal-salt conditions and in the presence of 0 to 10% serum. The generation of these antimicrobial substances was dependent on neutrophil elastase, since it was inhibited by 1 mM N-methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val chloromethyl ketone when it was present during activation, but not when this inhibitor was added afterwards. However, elastase-dependent activation of proprotegrins to protegrins in PMA-stimulated neutrophils was not inhibited by the presence of 1 to 2% serum. Porcine neutrophils also released antibacterial activity during phagocytosis of latex beads, and this too was dependent in large part on elastase-activated polypeptides, including protegrins. Moreover, protegrins were found at bactericidal concentrations in cell-free abscess fluid from naturally infected pigs. Taken together, these studies show that protegrins and other elastase-activated polypeptides are important stable antibacterial factors in porcine neutrophil secretions. The potential host defense role of elastase as an activating enzyme for the precursors of microbicidal peptides must be taken into account when therapeutic inhibitors of neutrophil elastase are evaluated for clinical use as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:9673240

  3. Bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of copper-sputtered flexible surfaces against multidrug-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ballo, Myriam K S; Rtimi, Sami; Mancini, Stefano; Kiwi, John; Pulgarin, César; Entenza, José M; Bizzini, Alain

    2016-07-01

    Using direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS), we generated flexible copper polyester surfaces (Cu-PES) and investigated their antimicrobial activity against a range of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens including eight Gram-positive isolates (three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA], four vancomycin-resistant enterococci, one methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis) and four Gram-negative strains (one extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing [ESBL] Escherichia coli, one ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae, one imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and one ciprofloxacin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii). Bactericidal activity (≥3 log10 CFU reduction of the starting inoculum) was reached within 15-30 min exposure to Cu-PES. Antimicrobial activity of Cu-PES persisted in the absence of oxygen and against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria containing elevated levels of catalases, indicating that reactive oxygen species (ROS) do not play a primary role in the killing process. The decrease in cell viability of MRSA ATCC 43300 and Enterococcus faecalis V583 correlated with the progressive loss of cytoplasmic membrane integrity both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, suggesting that Cu-PES mediated killing is primarily induced by disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane function. Overall, we here present novel antimicrobial copper surfaces with improved stability and sustainability and provide further insights into their mechanism of killing. PMID:27020284

  4. Purification, characterization and bactericidal activities of basic phospholipase A2 from the venom of Agkistrodon halys (Chinese pallas).

    PubMed

    Perumal Samy, R; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Ho, Bow; Chow, Vincent T K

    2008-09-01

    Agkistrodon snake venoms contain a variety of phospholipases (PLA2), some of which are myotoxic. In this study, we used reverse-phase HPLC to purify PLA2 from the venom of Agkistrodon halys. The enzyme named as AgkTx-II, a basic Asp49 PLA2, has a molecular masses of 13,869.05. The amino acid sequence and molecular mass of AgkTx-II was identical to those of an Asp49 basic myotoxic PLA2 previously isolated from this venom. Antibacterial activities were tested by susceptibility and broth-dilution assays. AgkTx-II exerted a potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. The MIC values of AgkTx-II ranged between 85 and 2.76microM and was most effective against S. aureus, P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis (MIC of 21.25microM) and B. pseudomallei (MIC of 10.25microM). This AgkTx-II rapidly killed S. aureus, P. vulgaris and B. pseudomallei in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of the AgkTx-II on bacterial membranes was evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. AgkTx-II caused morphological alterations apparent on their cellular surfaces, suggesting a killing mechanism based on membrane permeabilization and damage. Cytotoxicity was measured by XTT tetrazolium (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays using U-937 cells (monocytes). The AgkTx-II did not affect cell viability up to 500microM concentrations but cell death was evident at 1000microM concentration after 24 and 48h. Furthermore, the repeated exposure of AgkTx-II (2-14microM) treated mice showed different tissue alterations, mainly at the brain and kidney; the toxicological potential of AgkTx-II remains to be elucidated. The AgkTx-II exhibits no hemolytic action even at high doses (10-100microM) in human erythrocytes. However, the AgkTx-II is believed to exert its bactericidal effect by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane by forming pores. In addition

  5. Serum bactericidal test.

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, C W

    1988-01-01

    The serum bactericidal test represents one of the few in vitro tests performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory that combines the interaction of the pathogen, the antimicrobial agent, and the patient. Although the use of such a test antedates the antimicrobial era, its performance, results, and interpretation have been subject to question and controversy. Much of the confusion concerning the serum bactericidal test can be avoided by an understanding of the various factors which influence bactericidal testing. In addition, the methodologic aspects of the serum bactericidal test have recently been addressed and should place this test on firmer ground. New information on the clinical utility of this test is becoming available; additional data are needed to establish more clearly the usefulness of the serum bactericidal test in specific infections. Such clinical trials from multiple centers will enable firmer recommendations for the future use of the serum bactericidal test. PMID:3060242

  6. Expression of the K54 and O4 specific antigen has opposite effects on the bactericidal activity of squalamine against an extraintestinal isolate of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Russo, T A; Mylotte, D

    1998-05-15

    Squalamine is a novel cationic steroid that possesses potent, broad spectrum, antimicrobial activity. Recent data suggests that squalamine or related compounds may be present and important in host resistance to infection in the urinary tract. Therefore, the role of the K54 capsule and the O4 specific antigen moiety of the lipopolysaccharide in protecting an extraintestinal isolate of Escherichia coli against the bactericidal activity of this novel antimicrobial compound was studied. The O4 specific antigen was important for protection against squalamine. Surprisingly, in contrast, the presence of the K54 antigen enhanced the bactericidal activity of squalamine. This is the first example, to our knowledge, in which an established virulence trait, the K54 capsule, may be detrimental to an infecting pathogen under certain circumstances. PMID:9627966

  7. A Bayesian Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Regression Model for the Characterization of Early Bactericidal Activity of Tuberculosis Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Divan Aristo; Schall, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Trials of the early bactericidal activity (EBA) of tuberculosis (TB) treatments assess the decline, during the first few days to weeks of treatment, in colony forming unit (CFU) count of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum of patients with smear-microscopy-positive pulmonary TB. Profiles over time of CFU data have conventionally been modeled using linear, bilinear, or bi-exponential regression. We propose a new biphasic nonlinear regression model for CFU data that comprises linear and bilinear regression models as special cases and is more flexible than bi-exponential regression models. A Bayesian nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) regression model is fitted jointly to the data of all patients from a trial, and statistical inference about the mean EBA of TB treatments is based on the Bayesian NLME regression model. The posterior predictive distribution of relevant slope parameters of the Bayesian NLME regression model provides insight into the nature of the EBA of TB treatments; specifically, the posterior predictive distribution allows one to judge whether treatments are associated with monolinear or bilinear decline of log(CFU) count, and whether CFU count initially decreases fast, followed by a slower rate of decrease, or vice versa. PMID:25322214

  8. Antibodies recognizing a variety of different structural motifs on meningococcal Lip antigen fail to demonstrate bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, C R; Virji, M; Heckels, J E

    1992-11-01

    The neisserial Lip antigen is a conserved antigen associated with the pathogenic Neisseria species, and is composed of multiple repeats of a consensus pentapeptide. A series of monoclonal antibodies reacting with meningococcal Lip antigen were subjected to epitope mapping, using solid-phase synthetic peptides based on the consensus repeat sequence. The antibodies were found to recognize different continuous epitopes based on the consensus sequence. One monoclonal antibody was utilized in affinity chromatography to obtain purified Lip antigen and the antigen was used for immunization of mice. The resulting antisera did not recognize Lip antigen on Western blots but reacted specifically with Lip antigen in immune precipitation experiments, indicating that the predominant polyclonal immune response was directed against conformational epitopes. Despite the diversity of both continuous and conformational epitopes recognized by the antibodies produced, none of the antibodies demonstrated the ability to promote complement-mediated bactericidal activity. Thus despite its initial apparent promise as a potential vaccine candidate the case for the inclusion of Lip antigen in vaccine formulation cannot be supported at present. PMID:1282535

  9. Ambroxol inhibits mucoid conversion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and contributes to the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenlei; Yu, Jialin; He, Yu; Wang, Zhengli; Li, Fang

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that can cause severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. Because it forms biofilms, which protect against host immune attack and increase resistance to conventional antibiotics, mucoid P. aeruginosa is nearly impossible to eradicate. Moreover, mucoid conversion of P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients leads to poor outcomes. This conversion is mainly due to mucA gene mutation, which is thought to be induced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and the reactive oxygen species they release. Ambroxol, a mucolytic agent with antioxidant characteristics, is used clinically, and this compound has recently been demonstrated to possess anti-biofilm properties. In this study, we found that ambroxol inhibits the H2 O2 -mediated conversion of P. aeruginosa from a non-mucoid to a mucoid phenotype, an effect that is due to its antioxidant property against H2 O2 . Furthermore, the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms was increased in vitro when used in combination with ambroxol. PMID:27102839

  10. Bactericidal Activity, Absence of Serum Effect, and Time-Kill Kinetics of Ceftazidime-Avibactam against β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Marcela; Celeri, Chris; Nichols, Wright W.; Krause, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Avibactam, a non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor with activity against extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), KPC, AmpC, and some OXA enzymes, extends the antibacterial activity of ceftazidime against most ceftazidime-resistant organisms producing these enzymes. In this study, the bactericidal activity of ceftazidime-avibactam against 18 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and 15 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, including wild-type isolates and ESBL, KPC, and/or AmpC producers, was evaluated. Ceftazidime-avibactam MICs (0.016 to 32 μg/ml) were lower than those for ceftazidime alone (0.06 to ≥256 μg/ml) against all isolates except for 2 P. aeruginosa isolates (1 blaVIM-positive isolate and 1 blaOXA-23-positive isolate). The minimum bactericidal concentration/MIC ratios of ceftazidime-avibactam were ≤4 for all isolates, indicating bactericidal activity. Human serum and human serum albumin had a minimal effect on ceftazidime-avibactam MICs. Ceftazidime-avibactam time-kill kinetics were evaluated at low MIC multiples and showed time-dependent reductions in the number of CFU/ml from 0 to 6 h for all strains tested. A ≥3-log10 decrease in the number of CFU/ml was observed at 6 h for all Enterobacteriaceae, and a 2-log10 reduction in the number of CFU/ml was observed at 6 h for 3 of the 6 P. aeruginosa isolates. Regrowth was noted at 24 h for some of the isolates tested in time-kill assays. These data demonstrate the potent bactericidal activity of ceftazidime-avibactam and support the continued clinical development of ceftazidime-avibactam as a new treatment option for infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, including isolates resistant to ceftazidime by mechanisms dependent on avibactam-sensitive β-lactamases. PMID:24957838

  11. Complement-mediated bactericidal activity of human antibodies to poly alpha 2-->8 N-acetylneuraminic acid, the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B.

    PubMed

    Mandrell, R E; Azmi, F H; Granoff, D M

    1995-11-01

    Serum antibodies to Neisseria meningitidis group B (MenB) polysaccharide are reported not to elicit bacteriolysis in the presence of human complement. To reexamine this question, we evaluated the ability of two human IgM anti-MenB polysaccharide monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and seven human MenB polysaccharide-reactive human IgM paraproteins to elicit bacteriolysis. In the presence of human complement, both MAbs and five of the seven paraproteins were bactericidal at antibody concentrations of 0.25-9.6 micrograms/mL (50% killing). Activity of the respective antibodies was enhanced 200- to > 10,000-fold when rabbit complement was used instead of human complement. With rabbit complement, the bactericidal activity of human IgM polyclonal antibody or MAb to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide but not human IgG polyclonal antibody or MAb to Hib polysaccharide was similarly augmented. Thus, for both MenB and Hib, IgM antipolysaccharide antibodies elicit complement-mediated bactericidal activity in the presence of human complement, and the use of rabbit complement yields spuriously high activity. PMID:7594665

  12. Destabilization of α-Helical Structure in Solution Improves Bactericidal Activity of Antimicrobial Peptides: Opposite Effects on Bacterial and Viral Targets

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher J.; Fox, Marc A.; Gumbleton, Mark; Beck, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    We have previously examined the mechanism of antimicrobial peptides on the outer membrane of vaccinia virus. We show here that the formulation of peptides LL37 and magainin-2B amide in polysorbate 20 (Tween 20) results in greater reductions in virus titer than formulation without detergent, and the effect is replicated by substitution of polysorbate 20 with high-ionic-strength buffer. In contrast, formulation with polysorbate 20 or high-ionic-strength buffer has the opposite effect on bactericidal activity of both peptides, resulting in lesser reductions in titer for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that the differential action of polysorbate 20 and salt on the virucidal and bactericidal activities correlates with the α-helical content of peptide secondary structure in solution, suggesting that the virucidal and bactericidal activities are mediated through distinct mechanisms. The correlation of a defined structural feature with differential activity against a host-derived viral membrane and the membranes of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria suggests that the overall helical content in solution under physiological conditions is an important feature for consideration in the design and development of candidate peptide-based antimicrobial compounds. PMID:26824944

  13. Destabilization of α-Helical Structure in Solution Improves Bactericidal Activity of Antimicrobial Peptides: Opposite Effects on Bacterial and Viral Targets.

    PubMed

    Ulaeto, David O; Morris, Christopher J; Fox, Marc A; Gumbleton, Mark; Beck, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    We have previously examined the mechanism of antimicrobial peptides on the outer membrane of vaccinia virus. We show here that the formulation of peptides LL37 and magainin-2B amide in polysorbate 20 (Tween 20) results in greater reductions in virus titer than formulation without detergent, and the effect is replicated by substitution of polysorbate 20 with high-ionic-strength buffer. In contrast, formulation with polysorbate 20 or high-ionic-strength buffer has the opposite effect on bactericidal activity of both peptides, resulting in lesser reductions in titer for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that the differential action of polysorbate 20 and salt on the virucidal and bactericidal activities correlates with the α-helical content of peptide secondary structure in solution, suggesting that the virucidal and bactericidal activities are mediated through distinct mechanisms. The correlation of a defined structural feature with differential activity against a host-derived viral membrane and the membranes of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria suggests that the overall helical content in solution under physiological conditions is an important feature for consideration in the design and development of candidate peptide-based antimicrobial compounds. PMID:26824944

  14. Urine bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli isolates exhibiting different resistance phenotypes/genotypes in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model simulating urine concentrations obtained after oral administration of a 400-milligram single dose of cefditoren-pivoxil.

    PubMed

    Sevillano, David; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Alou, Luis; Giménez, María-José; Torrico, Martha; González, Natalia; Cafini, Fabio; Relaño, María-Teresa; Coronel, Pilar; Prieto, José

    2008-03-01

    Activity of simulated cefditoren urinary concentrations was determined against seven Escherichia coli isolates. Bactericidal activity was obtained from 4 to 24 h against TEM-1 (penicillinase production/hyperproduction), TEM-34 (IRT-6), and TEM-116 (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL]) and from 6 to 8 h against SHV/TEM-116 (ESBL) but never against SHV/TEM-1 (ESBL). Extension of bactericidal activity depended on the resistance genotype/phenotype tested. PMID:18160517

  15. Urine Bactericidal Activity against Escherichia coli Isolates Exhibiting Different Resistance Phenotypes/Genotypes in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model Simulating Urine Concentrations Obtained after Oral Administration of a 400-Milligram Single Dose of Cefditoren-Pivoxil▿

    PubMed Central

    Sevillano, David; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Alou, Luis; Giménez, María-José; Torrico, Martha; González, Natalia; Cafini, Fabio; Relaño, María-Teresa; Coronel, Pilar; Prieto, José

    2008-01-01

    Activity of simulated cefditoren urinary concentrations was determined against seven Escherichia coli isolates. Bactericidal activity was obtained from 4 to 24 h against TEM-1 (penicillinase production/hyperproduction), TEM-34 (IRT-6), and TEM-116 (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL]) and from 6 to 8 h against SHV/TEM-116 (ESBL) but never against SHV/TEM-1 (ESBL). Extension of bactericidal activity depended on the resistance genotype/phenotype tested. PMID:18160517

  16. Specific variations of fatty acid composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 induced by quaternary ammonium compounds and relation with resistance to bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Guérin-Méchin, L; Dubois-Brissonnet, F; Heyd, B; Leveau, J Y

    1999-11-01

    The role of membrane fatty acid composition in the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 to the bactericidal activity of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) was investigated. The strain was grown in a medium with increasing concentrations of a QAC, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (C14) and two non-QACs, sodium dichloroisocyanurate and tri-sodium phosphate. In the presence of C14 only, the strain was able to grow in concentrations higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration. As the strain adapted to C14, resistance to bactericidal activity of the same biocide increased. For the non-QACs, no change was noted when cells were grown in the presence of biocides. The C14-adapted cells showed variations in membrane fatty acid composition. A hierarchical clustering analysis was used to compare all fatty acid compositions of cultures in the presence, or not, of the three biocides used here and another QAC studied previously. The clusters obtained underlined specific variations of membrane fatty acids in response to the presence of QACs. Furthermore, with a simple linear regression analysis, a relationship was shown between the membrane fatty acids and the resistance developed by the strain against the bactericidal activity of C14. PMID:10594715

  17. Characterization of the bactericidal activity of the natural diterpene kaurenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Wilkens, Marcela; Alarcón, Carolina; Urzúa, Alejandro; Mendoza, Leonora

    2002-05-01

    Kaurenoic acid is a diterpene with selective antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The compound is bacteriolytic for Bacillus cereus. This activity was only partially affected by the composition and pH of the culture medium. Loss of the ability to retain the Gram stain and morphological alterations were produced in B. cereus cells exposed to kaurenoic acid. On the other hand, LPS mutants of Salmonella typhi were resistant to the compound, but spheroplasts of Escherichia coli became more sensitive to kaurenoic acid. PMID:12058325

  18. Silver nanoparticles strongly enhance and restore bactericidal activity of inactive antibiotics against multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Panáček, Aleš; Smékalová, Monika; Večeřová, Renata; Bogdanová, Kateřina; Röderová, Magdaléna; Kolář, Milan; Kilianová, Martina; Hradilová, Šárka; Froning, Jens P; Havrdová, Markéta; Prucek, Robert; Zbořil, Radek; Kvítek, Libor

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is currently one of the most important healthcare issues, and has serious negative impacts on medical practice. This study presents a potential solution to this problem, using the strong synergistic effects of antibiotics combined with silver nanoparticles (NPs). Silver NPs inhibit bacterial growth via a multilevel mode of antibacterial action at concentrations ranging from a few ppm to tens of ppm. Silver NPs strongly enhanced antibacterial activity against multiresistant, β-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae when combined with the following antibiotics: cefotaxime, ceftazidime, meropenem, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. All the antibiotics, when combined with silver NPs, showed enhanced antibacterial activity at concentrations far below the minimum inhibitory concentrations (tenths to hundredths of one ppm) of individual antibiotics and silver NPs. The enhanced activity of antibiotics combined with silver NPs, especially meropenem, was weaker against non-resistant bacteria than against resistant bacteria. The double disk synergy test showed that bacteria produced no β-lactamase when treated with antibiotics combined with silver NPs. Low silver concentrations were required for effective enhancement of antibacterial activity against multiresistant bacteria. These low silver concentrations showed no cytotoxic effect towards mammalian cells, an important feature for potential medical applications. PMID:26970828

  19. Bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids towards bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids were determined using the agar diffusion assay. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid (FA) was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric aci...

  20. Inhibition of human monocyte respiratory burst, degranulation, phospholipid methylation and bactericidal activity by pneumolysin.

    PubMed Central

    Nandoskar, M; Ferrante, A; Bates, E J; Hurst, N; Paton, J C

    1986-01-01

    The interaction between the pneumococcal toxin pneumolysin and human monocytes was examined. At non-cytotoxic concentrations (0.5-2.5 HU/10(6) cells) pneumolysin depressed the oxygen-dependent respiratory burst in monocytes, induced by opsonized zymosan or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). This included depressed hexose-monophosphate shunt activity and hydrogen peroxide production. The toxin also depressed the ability of monocytes to degranulate (measured by release of lysozyme) in response to the above stimuli. Phospholipid transmethylation was also markedly decreased by pretreating monocytes with pneumolysin. These effects on monocyte functions were accompanied by a decreased ability of pneumolysin-treated monocytes to kill Streptococcus pneumoniae, the organism that produces the toxin. Cholesterol, which inhibits the haemolytic activity of the toxin, was shown to abrogate the effects of pneumolysin on monocytes. PMID:3804376

  1. Bactericidal Activity of N-Chlorotaurine against Biofilm-Forming Bacteria Grown on Metal Disks

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Christoph G.; Fille, Manfred; Hausdorfer, Johann; Nogler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many orthopedic surgeons consider surgical irrigation and debridement with prosthesis retention as a treatment option for postoperative infections. Usually, saline solution with no added antimicrobial agent is used for irrigation. We investigated the activity of N-chlorotaurine (NCT) against various biofilm-forming bacteria in vitro and thereby gained significant information on its usability as a soluble and well-tolerated active chlorine compound in orthopedic surgery. Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus were grown on metal alloy disks and in polystyrene dishes for 48 h. Subsequently, they were incubated for 15 min to 7 h in buffered solutions containing therapeutically applicable concentrations of NCT (1%, 0.5%, and 0.1%; 5.5 to 55 mM) at 37°C. NCT inactivated the biofilm in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy revealed disturbance of the biofilm architecture by rupture of the extracellular matrix. Assays with reduction of carboxanilide (XTT) showed inhibition of the metabolism of the bacteria in biofilms. Quantitative cultures confirmed killing of S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on metal alloy disks by NCT. Clinical isolates were slightly more resistant than ATCC type strains, but counts of CFU were reduced at least 10-fold by 1% NCT within 15 min in all cases. NCT showed microbicidal activity against various bacterial strains in biofilms. Whether this can be transferred to the clinical situation should be the aim of future studies. PMID:24492358

  2. Delayed cerebrospinal fluid sterilization, in vitro bactericidal activities, and side effects of selected beta-lactams.

    PubMed

    Dajani, A S; Pokowski, L H

    1990-01-01

    Ampicillin (or penicillin G) plus chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime have been used in the treatment of bacterial meningitis beyond the neonatal period. Review of recent data from the USA and Europe indicates that delayed CSF sterilization occurs significantly more often with ampicillin/chloramphenicol and cefuroxime than with ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Delayed CSF sterilization is associated with an increased morbidity and neurological complications. Previously reported in vitro interactions between chloramphenicol and various beta-lactam antibiotics indicate that for bacteria where chloramphenicol is only bacteriostatic, the combination of chloramphenicol with beta-lactams is antagonistic. Killing rates of various beta-lactams were compared against a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cidal activity of some beta-lactams was inoculum dependent. There was a good correlation between in vitro activity and ability to sterilize CSF. Ceftriaxone is highly protein bound and its use in newborns is discouraged. Diarrhea occurs significantly more often after cefriaxone use than after the use of other agents. Ceftriaxone is uniquely associated with a high frequency of biliary pseudolithiasis which may be symptomatic and can cause measureable morbidity. In selecting the "proper" antimicrobial agent for the treatment of bacterial meningitis considerations should be given to proven clinical efficacy, prompt CSF sterilization, rapid in vitro cidal activity, safety and cost. We recommend cefotaxime as the agent of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis. PMID:2091255

  3. Enhanced Bactericidal Activity of Silver Thin Films Deposited via Aerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Ponja, Sapna D; Sehmi, Sandeep K; Allan, Elaine; MacRobert, Alexander J; Parkin, Ivan P; Carmalt, Claire J

    2015-12-30

    Silver thin films were deposited on SiO2-barrier-coated float glass, fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass, Activ glass, and TiO2-coated float glass via AACVD using silver nitrate at 350 °C. The films were annealed at 600 °C and analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV/vis/near-IR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. All the films were crystalline, and the silver was present in its elemental form and of nanometer dimension. The antibacterial activity of these samples was tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the dark and under UV light (365 nm). All Ag-deposited films reduced the numbers of E. coli by 99.9% within 6 h and the numbers of S. aureus by 99.9% within only 2 h. FTO/Ag reduced bacterial numbers of E. coli to below the detection limit after 60 min and caused a 99.9% reduction of S. aureus within only 15 min of UV irradiation. Activ/Ag reduced the numbers of S. aureus by 66.6% after 60 min and TiO2/Ag killed 99.9% of S. aureus within 60 min of UV exposure. More remarkably, we observed a 99.9% reduction in the numbers of E. coli within 6 h and the numbers of S. aureus within 4 h in the dark using our novel TiO2/Ag system. PMID:26632854

  4. Bactericidal, virucidal, and mycobactericidal activities of reused alkaline glutaraldehyde in an endoscopy unit.

    PubMed Central

    Mbithi, J N; Springthorpe, V S; Sattar, S A; Pacquette, M

    1993-01-01

    Baths with 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde are often reused for 14 days to decontaminate flexible fiberoptic endoscopes (FFEs) between patients, but the effect of such reuse on the disinfectant's activity has not been known. Many busy endoscopy units also disinfect FFEs with contact times shorter than those recommended by the disinfectant manufacturer. We therefore collected samples of the disinfectant over the 14-day reuse period from two manual and one automatic bath used for bronchoscopes and gastroscopes at a local hospital. Control samples were also collected from a manual bath of 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde which did not receive any endoscopes. The germicidal activities of the samples were assessed in a carrier test against a mixture of hepatitis A virus, poliovirus 1 (Sabin), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; the mixture also contained either Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium gordonae. Bovine serum (5%) was the organic load. The criterion of efficacy was a minimum of a 3-log10-unit reduction in the infectivity titers of the organisms tested. The initial disinfectant concentration in all the baths was nearly 2.25%; it became about 1.8% in the control bath and fell to approximately 1% in the three test baths after 14 days. No protein was detected in the control bath, while its concentration rose gradually in the test baths to a maximum of 1,267 micrograms/ml after 14 days. With a contact time of 10 min at 20 +/- 2 degrees C, all the samples from the control bath were effective against all the test organisms and all the samples from all the test baths were also effective against P. aeruginosa. With a contact time of 10 or 20 min at 20+/-2 degrees C, the virucidal and mycobactericidal activities of the samples from the test baths showed broad-spectrum germicidal activity when the contact time was increased to 45 min and the temperature was raised to 25 degrees C. These findings emphasize the care needed in the disinfection of FFEs, especially in view of the increasing

  5. Bactericidal activities of GM flax seedcake extract on pathogenic bacteria clinical strains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic microorganisms is a worldwide problem. Each year several million people across the world acquire infections with bacteria that are antibiotic-resistant, which is costly in terms of human health. New antibiotics are extremely needed to overcome the current resistance problem. Results Transgenic flax plants overproducing compounds from phenylpropanoid pathway accumulate phenolic derivatives of potential antioxidative, and thus, antimicrobial activity. Alkali hydrolyzed seedcake extract containing coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and lignan in high quantities was used as an assayed against pathogenic bacteria (commonly used model organisms and clinical strains). It was shown that the extract components had antibacterial activity, which might be useful as a prophylactic against bacterial infection. Bacteria topoisomerase II (gyrase) inhibition and genomic DNA disintegration are suggested to be the main reason for rendering antibacterial action. Conclusions The data obtained strongly suggest that the seedcake extract preparation is a suitable candidate for antimicrobial action with a broad spectrum and partial selectivity. Such preparation can be applied in cases where there is a risk of multibacterial infection and excellent answer on global increase in multidrug resistance in pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25073883

  6. 11. Bactericidal Activity of Photocatalytic TiO2 Excited by Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS): An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Chieko; Koseki, Hironobu

    2016-08-01

    Photocatalysis with anatase-type titanium dioxide (TiO2) under ultraviolet has a well-recognized bactericidal effect. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the photocatalytic bactericidal effects of TiO2 on Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC35984) caused by Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) associated with bio-implant-related infections. The photocatalytic properties of the TiO2 films were confirmed by the degradation of an aqueous solution of methylene blue. The disks were seeded with cultured Staphylococcus epidermidis and irradiated by LIPUS. The bactericidal effect of the TiO2 films was evaluated by counting the surviving colonies. The viability of the bacteria on the photocatalytic TiO2 film coated titanium was suppressed significantly to 63% after 2 hours of LIPUS treatment (P < 0.05). The photocatalytic bactericidal effect of TiO2 under LIPUS is useful for sterilizing the contaminated and infected surfaces of metal bio-implants. PMID:27441772

  7. Periowave demonstrates bactericidal activity against periopathogens and leads to improved clinical outcomes in the treatment of adult periodontitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Cale N.; Andersen, Roger; Loebel, Nicolas G.

    2009-02-01

    Periodontitis affects half of the U.S. population over 50, and is the leading cause of tooth loss after 35. It is believed to be caused by growth of complex bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface below the gumline. Photodynamic therapy, a technology used commonly in antitumor applications, has more recently been shown to exhibit antimicrobial efficacy. We have demonstrated eradication of the periopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in vitro using PeriowaveTM; a commercial photodisinfection system. In addition, several clinical studies have now demonstrated the efficacy of this treatment. A pilot study in the U.S. showed that 68% of patients treated with PeriowaveTM adjunctively to scaling and root planing (SRP) showed clinical attachment level increase of >1 mm, as opposed to 30% with SRP alone. In a subsequent larger study, a second PeriowaveTM treatment 6 weeks after initial treatment led to pocket depth improvements of >1.5 mm in 89% of patients. Finally, in the most recent multicenter, randomized, examiner-blinded study conducted on 121 subjects in Canada, PeriowaveTM treatment produced highly significant gains in attachment level (0.88 mm vs. 0.57 mm; p=0.003) and pocket depth (0.87 mm vs. 0.63 mm; p=0.01) as compared to SRP alone. In summary, PeriowaveTM demonstrated strong bactericidal activity against known periopathogens, and treatment of periodontitis using this system produced significantly better clinical outcomes than SRP alone. This, along with the absence of any adverse events in patients treated to date demonstrates that PDT is a safe and effective treatment for adult chronic periodontitis.

  8. First-in-Class Inhibitors of Sulfur Metabolism with Bactericidal Activity against Non-Replicating M. tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Palde, Prakash B; Bhaskar, Ashima; Pedró Rosa, Laura E; Madoux, Franck; Chase, Peter; Gupta, Vinayak; Spicer, Timothy; Scampavia, Louis; Singh, Amit; Carroll, Kate S

    2016-01-15

    Development of effective therapies to eradicate persistent, slowly replicating M. tuberculosis (Mtb) represents a significant challenge to controlling the global TB epidemic. To develop such therapies, it is imperative to translate information from metabolome and proteome adaptations of persistent Mtb into the drug discovery screening platforms. To this end, reductive sulfur metabolism is genetically and pharmacologically implicated in survival, pathogenesis, and redox homeostasis of persistent Mtb. Therefore, inhibitors of this pathway are expected to serve as powerful tools in its preclinical and clinical validation as a therapeutic target for eradicating persisters. Here, we establish a first functional HTS platform for identification of APS reductase (APSR) inhibitors, a critical enzyme in the assimilation of sulfate for the biosynthesis of cysteine and other essential sulfur-containing molecules. Our HTS campaign involving 38 350 compounds led to the discovery of three distinct structural classes of APSR inhibitors. A class of bioactive compounds with known pharmacology displayed potent bactericidal activity in wild-type Mtb as well as MDR and XDR clinical isolates. Top compounds showed markedly diminished potency in a conditional ΔAPSR mutant, which could be restored by complementation with Mtb APSR. Furthermore, ITC studies on representative compounds provided evidence for direct engagement of the APSR target. Finally, potent APSR inhibitors significantly decreased the cellular levels of key reduced sulfur-containing metabolites and also induced an oxidative shift in mycothiol redox potential of live Mtb, thus providing functional validation of our screening data. In summary, we have identified first-in-class inhibitors of APSR that can serve as molecular probes in unraveling the links between Mtb persistence, antibiotic tolerance, and sulfate assimilation, in addition to their potential therapeutic value. PMID:26524379

  9. Plant-mediated synthesis of biosilver nanoparticles using Pandanus amaryllifolius extract and its bactericidal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Akhir, Rabiatuladawiyah Md.; Fairuzi, Afiza Ahmad; Ismail, Nur Hilwani

    2015-08-28

    In this work, we describe a cost effective, easily scaled up and environmental friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from 5 mM AgNO{sub 3} solution using aqueous extract of Pandanus amaryllifolius (P. amaryllifolius) leaves as reducing agent. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by sampling the reaction mixture at regular intervals and the absorption maxima was scanned by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy at wavelength of 200-500 nm. Images from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) have shown that the silver nanoparticles are 17-30 nm in range and assembled in mostly spherical shape. Elemental composition analysis by using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirmed the presence of silver. Low concentration of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles have been found to exhibit good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria with average mean diameter of zone of inhibition (ZOI) of 16 mm.

  10. Ultrasonic emulsification of food-grade nanoemulsion formulation and evaluation of its bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Vijayalakshmi; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    Basil oil (Ocimum basilicum) nanoemulsion was formulated using non-ionic surfactant Tween80 and water by ultrasonic emulsification method. Process of nanoemulsion development was optimized for parameters such as surfactant concentration and emulsification time to achieve minimum droplet diameter with high physical stability. Surfactant concentration was found to have a negative correlation with droplet diameter, whereas emulsification time had a positive correlation with droplet diameter and also with intrinsic stability of the emulsion. Stable basil oil nanoemulsion with droplet diameter 29.3 nm was formulated by ultrasonic emulsification for 15 min. Formulated nanoemulsion was evaluated for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli by kinetics of killing experiment. Fluorescence microscopy and FT-IR results showed that nanoemulsion treatment resulted alteration in permeability and surface features of bacterial cell membrane. PMID:22954686

  11. Glyceryl monooleate-based otic delivery system of ofloxacin: release profile and bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Adwan, Samer; Abu-Dahab, Rana; Al-Bakri, Amal G; Sallam, Alsayyed

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the preparation and characterization of glyceryl monooleate- (GMO) based drug delivery system containing ofloxacin for the treatment of otitis externa. Acetate buffer (pH 4.5) containing dissolved ofloxacin was added to molten GMO as an aqueous phase, this resulted in the formation of a cubic and a reverse hexagonal phases. The release behavior of ofloxacin from the drug delivery system was studied using three different methods. The mechanism of drug release using paddles/dissolution apparatus and Franz diffusion cells followed Higuchi and Fickian diffusion models; whereas intrinsic release rate method showed zero-order kinetics. The intrinsic release rate was estimated and found to be 187.2 µg/cm(2)/h. The release mechanisms were similar irrespective of the loaded ofloxacin amount, however, the higher drug load displayed higher release rate. The drug delivery system was proven to be microbiologically effective by using agar diffusion method, against Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The GMO/ofloxacin formulation was stable for 6 months after preparation at room temperature as measured with respect to phase stability and antibacterial activity. PMID:24392877

  12. Bactericidal and Fungicidal Activity in the Gas Phase of Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC).

    PubMed

    Proto, Antonio; Zarrella, Ilaria; Cucciniello, Raffaele; Pironti, Concetta; De Caro, Francesco; Motta, Oriana

    2016-08-01

    Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) is usually employed as a disinfectant for the treatment of water, environmental surfaces and medical equipment principally for its effectiveness as a microbicide agent. In this study, we explore the possibility of a new use for NaDCC by investigating the microbicidal activity of chlorine, which derives from the hydrolysis of NaDCC mediated by air humidity, and by testing its effect on the neutralization of microbes present in domestic waste. NaDCC was inserted in a plastic garbage can where LB agar plates, with different dilutions of a known title of four different microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Debaryomyces hansenii and Aspergillus brasiliensis), were weakly inserted. The molecular chlorine (Cl2) levels present in the garbage can were quantified using an iodometric titration. The gas emitted in the garbage can presented a strong microbicide effect, inhibiting the proliferation of all four microorganisms and for four consecutive weeks, thus showing that NaDCC hydrolysis, mediated by air humidity, is able to ensure the decontamination of restricted environments, avoiding the proliferation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. PMID:27086304

  13. Bactericidal activity of copper and niobium-alloyed austenitic stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Baena, M I; Márquez, M C; Matres, V; Botella, J; Ventosa, A

    2006-12-01

    Biofouling and microbiologically influenced corrosion are processes of material deterioration that originate from the attachment of microorganisms as quickly as the material is immersed in a nonsterile environment. Stainless steels, despite their wide use in different industries and as appliances and implant materials, do not possess inherent antimicrobial properties. Changes in hygiene legislation and increased public awareness of product quality makes it necessary to devise control methods that inhibit biofilm formation or to act at an early stage of the biofouling process and provide the release of antimicrobial compounds on a sustainable basis and at effective level. These antibacterial stainless steels may find a wide range of applications in fields, such as kitchen appliances, medical equipment, home electronics, and tools and hardware. The purpose of this study was to obtain antibacterial stainless steel and thus mitigate the microbial colonization and bacterial infection. Copper is known as an antibacterial agent; in contrast, niobium has been demonstrated to improve the antimicrobial effect of copper by stimulating the formation of precipitated copper particles and its distribution in the matrix of the stainless steel. Thus, we obtained slides of 3.8% copper and 0.1% niobium alloyed stainless steel; subjected them to three different heat treatment protocols (550 degrees C, 700 degrees C, and 800 degrees C for 100, 200, 300, and 400 hours); and determined their antimicrobial activities by using different initial bacterial cell densities and suspending solutions to apply the bacteria to the stainless steels. The bacterial strain used in these experiments was Escherichia coli CCM 4517. The best antimicrobial effects were observed in the slides of stainless steel treated at 700 degrees C and 800 degrees C using an initial cell density of approximately 10(5) cells ml(-1) and phosphate-buffered saline as the solution in which the bacteria came into contact with

  14. Decreased Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling, Interferon-Signature, and Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein Gene Expression in Cord Blood of Term Low Birth Weight Human Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikas Vikram; Chauhan, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Richa; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Shiva M.; Rai, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Background Morbidity and mortality rates of low birth weight (LBW) newborns at term are higher than rates in normal birth weight (NBW) newborns. LBW newborns are at greater risk to acquire recurrent bacterial and viral infections during their first few weeks of life possibly as an outcome of compromised innate immune functions. As adaptive immunity is in a naive state, increased risk of infection of LBW as compared to NBW newborns may reflect impairments in innate immunity. Methodology To characterize the increased susceptibility to infections in LBW newborns we used microarray technology to identify differences in gene expression in LBW newborns (n = 8) compared to NBW newborns (n = 4) using cord blood. The results obtained from the microarray study were validated on a larger number of samples using real time RT-PCR (LBW = 22, NBW = 18) and western blotting (LBW = 12, NBW = 12). The Interferome database was used to identify interferon (IFN) signature genes and ingenuity pathway analysis identified canonical pathways and biological functions associated with the differentially expressed genes in LBW newborns. ELISAs for IFNs and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein were performed in both LBW and NBW newborns and in adults (LBW = 18, NBW = 18, Adults  = 8). Principal Findings Upon microarray analysis, we identified 1,391 differentially expressed genes, of which, 1,065 genes were down-regulated and 326 genes were up-regulated in the LBW compared to NBW newborns. Of note, 70 IFN-signature genes were found to be significantly down-regulated in LBW compared to NBW newborns. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed pattern recognition receptors signaling including Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) -1, -5, and -8 genes and IFN signaling as the most significantly impacted pathways. Respiratory infectious diseases were the most significantly affected bio-functions in LBW newborns. Conclusion and Significance Diminished PRRs, IFN-signature, and

  15. Frequency of Factor H-binding Protein Modular Groups and Susceptibility to Cross-reactive Bactericidal Activity in Invasive Meningococcal Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pajon, Rolando; Beernink, Peter T.; Harrison, Lee H.; Granoff, Dan M.

    2010-01-01

    Meningococcal factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a promising vaccine candidate that elicits serum bactericidal antibodies in humans. Based on sequence variability of the entire protein, fHbp has been divided into three variant groups or two sub-families. We recently reported that the fHbp architecture was modular, consisting of five variable segments, each encoded by genes from one of two lineages. Based on combinations of segments from different lineages, all 70 known fHbp sequence variants could be classified into one of six modular groups. In this study, we analyzed sequences of 172 new fHbp variants that were available from public databases. All but three variants could be classified into one of the six previously described modular groups. Among systematically collected invasive group B isolates from the U.S. and Europe, modular group I overall was most common (60%) but group IV (natural chimeras) accounted for 23% of UK isolates and <1% of U.S. isolates (P<0.0001). Mouse antisera to recombinant fHbp from each of the modular groups showed modular group-specific bactericidal activity against strains with low fHbp expression but had broader activity against strains with higher fHbp expression. Thus both modular group and relative expression of fHbp affected strain susceptibility to anti-fHbp bactericidal activity. The results confirmed the modular architecture of fHbp and underscored its importance for the design of broadly protective group B vaccines in different regions. PMID:20044056

  16. Susceptibility of Meningococcal Strains Responsible for Two Serogroup B Outbreaks on U.S. University Campuses to Serum Bactericidal Activity Elicited by the MenB-4C Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Raffaella; Beernink, Peter T.; Giuntini, Serena

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 and 2014, two U.S. universities had meningococcal serogroup B outbreaks (a total of 14 cases) caused by strains from two different clonal complexes. To control the outbreaks, students were immunized with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (Novartis) that was not yet licensed in the United States. The vaccine (referred to as MenB-4C) contains four components capable of eliciting bactericidal activity. Both outbreak strains had high expression levels of two of the vaccine antigens (subfamily B factor H binding protein [FHbp] and neisserial heparin binding antigen [NHba]); the university B outbreak strain also had moderate expression of a third antigen, NadA. We investigated the bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with FHbp, NHba, or NadA and sera from MenB-4C-immunized infant macaques and an adult human. The postimmunization bactericidal activity of the macaque or human serum against isolates from university B with FHbp identification (ID) 1 that exactly matched the vaccine FHbp sequence variant was 8- to 21-fold higher than that against isolates from university A with FHbp ID 276 (96% identity to the vaccine antigen). Based on the bactericidal activity of mouse antisera to FHbp, NadA, or NHba and macaque or human postimmunization serum that had been depleted of anti-FHbp antibody, the bactericidal activity against both outbreak strains largely or entirely resulted from antibodies to FHbp. Thus, despite the high level of strain expression of FHbp from a subfamily that matched the vaccine antigen, there can be large differences in anti-FHbp bactericidal activity induced by MenB-4C vaccination. Further, strains with moderate to high NadA and/or NHba expression can be resistant to anti-NadA or anti-NHba bactericidal activity elicited by MenB-4C vaccination. PMID:26424832

  17. Susceptibility of Meningococcal Strains Responsible for Two Serogroup B Outbreaks on U.S. University Campuses to Serum Bactericidal Activity Elicited by the MenB-4C Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Raffaella; Beernink, Peter T; Giuntini, Serena; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-12-01

    In 2013 and 2014, two U.S. universities had meningococcal serogroup B outbreaks (a total of 14 cases) caused by strains from two different clonal complexes. To control the outbreaks, students were immunized with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (Novartis) that was not yet licensed in the United States. The vaccine (referred to as MenB-4C) contains four components capable of eliciting bactericidal activity. Both outbreak strains had high expression levels of two of the vaccine antigens (subfamily B factor H binding protein [FHbp] and neisserial heparin binding antigen [NHba]); the university B outbreak strain also had moderate expression of a third antigen, NadA. We investigated the bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with FHbp, NHba, or NadA and sera from MenB-4C-immunized infant macaques and an adult human. The postimmunization bactericidal activity of the macaque or human serum against isolates from university B with FHbp identification (ID) 1 that exactly matched the vaccine FHbp sequence variant was 8- to 21-fold higher than that against isolates from university A with FHbp ID 276 (96% identity to the vaccine antigen). Based on the bactericidal activity of mouse antisera to FHbp, NadA, or NHba and macaque or human postimmunization serum that had been depleted of anti-FHbp antibody, the bactericidal activity against both outbreak strains largely or entirely resulted from antibodies to FHbp. Thus, despite the high level of strain expression of FHbp from a subfamily that matched the vaccine antigen, there can be large differences in anti-FHbp bactericidal activity induced by MenB-4C vaccination. Further, strains with moderate to high NadA and/or NHba expression can be resistant to anti-NadA or anti-NHba bactericidal activity elicited by MenB-4C vaccination. PMID:26424832

  18. Randomized dose-ranging study of the 14-day early bactericidal activity of bedaquiline (TMC207) in patients with sputum microscopy smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Diacon, Andreas H; Dawson, Rodney; Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Symons, Gregory; Venter, Amour; Donald, Peter R; Conradie, Almari; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann M; Egizi, Erica; Winter, Helen; Becker, Piet; Mendel, Carl M

    2013-05-01

    Bedaquiline is a new antituberculosis agent targeting ATP synthase. This randomized, double-blinded study enrolling 68 sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients evaluated the 14-day early bactericidal activity of daily doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, and 400 mg bedaquiline, preceded by loading doses of 200 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg, and 700 mg, respectively, on the first treatment day and 100 mg, 300 mg, 400 mg, and 500 mg on the second treatment day. All groups showed activity with a mean (standard deviation) daily fall in log10 CFU over 14 days of 0.040 (0.068), 0.056 (0.051), 0.077 (0.064), and 0.104 (0.077) in the 100-mg, 200-mg, 300-mg, and 400-mg groups, respectively. The linear trend for dose was significant (P = 0.001), and activity in the 400-mg dose group was greater than that in the 100-mg group (P = 0.014). All of the bedaquiline groups showed significant bactericidal activity that was continued to the end of the 14-day evaluation period. The finding of a linear trend for dose suggests that the highest dose compatible with safety considerations should be taken forward to longer-term clinical studies. PMID:23459487

  19. Randomized Dose-Ranging Study of the 14-Day Early Bactericidal Activity of Bedaquiline (TMC207) in Patients with Sputum Microscopy Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Rodney; Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Symons, Gregory; Venter, Amour; Donald, Peter R.; Conradie, Almari; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann M.; Egizi, Erica; Winter, Helen; Becker, Piet; Mendel, Carl M.

    2013-01-01

    Bedaquiline is a new antituberculosis agent targeting ATP synthase. This randomized, double-blinded study enrolling 68 sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients evaluated the 14-day early bactericidal activity of daily doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, and 400 mg bedaquiline, preceded by loading doses of 200 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg, and 700 mg, respectively, on the first treatment day and 100 mg, 300 mg, 400 mg, and 500 mg on the second treatment day. All groups showed activity with a mean (standard deviation) daily fall in log10 CFU over 14 days of 0.040 (0.068), 0.056 (0.051), 0.077 (0.064), and 0.104 (0.077) in the 100-mg, 200-mg, 300-mg, and 400-mg groups, respectively. The linear trend for dose was significant (P = 0.001), and activity in the 400-mg dose group was greater than that in the 100-mg group (P = 0.014). All of the bedaquiline groups showed significant bactericidal activity that was continued to the end of the 14-day evaluation period. The finding of a linear trend for dose suggests that the highest dose compatible with safety considerations should be taken forward to longer-term clinical studies. PMID:23459487

  20. Bactericidal activity and mechanism of AgI/AgBr/BiOBr(0.75)I(0.25) under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jialiang; Deng, Jun; Li, Mian; Tong, Meiping

    2016-02-01

    The AgI/AgBr/BiOBr0.75I0.25 nanocomposites were synthesized by a solvothermal process, followed by an in-situ ion exchange reaction. The disinfection activities of the as-synthesized photocatalyst to model cell type, Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), were investigated under visible light irradiation condition (λ≥400 nm). Results showed that 80 mg/L AgI/AgBr/BiOBr0.75I0.25 could completely inactivate 3×10(7) CFU mL(-1)E. coli cells within 30 min under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the bactericidal mechanisms involved in the photocatalytic disinfection process were systematically investigated. Ag(+) ions released from the nanocomposites negligibly contributed to the bactericidal activity, while active species including h(+), e(-) and ·O2(-) played important roles in the disinfection system. Direct contact of bacterial cells and nanoparticles was found to be the prerequisite for both the generation of ·O2(-) and the disinfection processes. The disruption of cell membrane and emission of cytoplasm directly inactivated E. coli cells. In addition, AgI/AgBr/BiOBr0.75I0.25 exhibited strong antibacterial activity toward E. coli even in four consecutive reused cycles. PMID:26674838

  1. Bactericidal activity and silver release of porous ceramic candle filter prepared by sintering silica with silver nanoparticles/zeolite for water disinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh Nguyen, Thuy Ai; Phu Dang, Van; Duy Nguyen, Ngoc; Le, Anh Quoc; Thanh Nguyen, Duc; Hien Nguyen, Quoc

    2014-09-01

    Porous ceramic candle filters (PCCF) were prepared by sintering silica from rice husk with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/zeolite A at about 1050 °C to create bactericidal PCCF/AgNPs for water disinfection. The silver content in PCCF/AgNPs was of 300-350 mg kg-1 determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and the average pore size of PCCF/AgNPs was of 50-70 Å measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The bactericidal activity and silver release of PCCF/AgNPs have been investigated by flow test with water flow rate of 5 L h-1 and initial inoculation of E. coli in inlet water of 106 CFU/100 mL. The volume of filtrated water was collected up to 500 L. Results showed that the contamination of E. coli in filtrated water was <1 CFU/100 mL and the content of silver released from PCCF/AgNPs into filtrated water was <1 μg L-1, it is low, far under the WHO guideline of 100 μg L-1 at maximum for drinking water. Based on the content of silver in PCCF/AgNPs and in filtrated water, it was estimated that one PCCF/AgNPs could be used to filtrate of ˜100 m3 water. Thus, as-prepared PCCF/AgNPs releases low content of silver into water and shows effectively bactericidal activity that is promising to apply as point-of-use water treatment technology for drinking water disinfection.

  2. Bovine natural antibodies in antibody-dependent bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium and risk of mastitis.

    PubMed

    van Altena, S E C; Peen, M A; van der Linden, F H; Parmentier, H K; Savelkoul, H F J; Tijhaar, E J

    2016-03-01

    Natural antibodies (NAbs) are mostly IgM antibodies produced without antigenic stimulation and serve as a first line of defence of the immune system. As both natural and specific antibodies are present in animals, NAbs are studied by determining the IgM response to naïve antigens like keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). In this study, we selected cows based on high and low anti-KLH IgM titers, reflecting high and low NAb titers, and determined if the anti-KLH IgM titers were indicative for the recognition of common microbial structures (lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan) and intact bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium). Sera with high NAbs titers showed more IgM and IgG binding to common microbial structures and S. Typhimurium bacteria than sera with low NAbs titers. The same association was observed for IgM binding to E. coli, but not for IgG binding to E. coli. Antibody-mediated complement killing of E. coli and S. Typhimurium in a newly developed bactericidal test was equal between high and low NAb cows. However, relating the outcome of the bactericidal test to the development of mastitis within one and even four years after sampling showed a significant negative correlation implying cows that were less potent in bacterial killing had a higher chance on developing mastitis. In conclusion, sera with high NAbs titers had more antibodies binding to common microbial structures and intact bacteria. Furthermore, the bactericidal test might provide a useful prognostic tool for the development of mastitis. PMID:26964714

  3. Identification and characterization of a phospholipase A2 from the venom of the Saw-scaled viper: Novel bactericidal and membrane damaging activities.

    PubMed

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Bow, Ho; Puspharaj, Peter N; Chow, Vincent T K

    2010-12-01

    Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), a common toxic component of snake venom, has been implicated in various pharmacological effects. In this study, a basic myotoxic PLA(2), named EcTx-I was isolated from Echis carinatus snake venom by using gel filtration on Superdex G-75, and reverse phase HPLC on C18 and C8 Sepharose columns. PLA(2), EcTx-I was 13,861.72 molecular weight as estimated by MALDI-TOF (15 kD by SDS-PAGE), and consisted of 121 amino acid residues cross-linked by seven disulfide bonds. The N-terminal sequences revealed significant homology with basic myotoxic PLA(2)s from other snake venoms. The purified PLA(2) EcTx-I was evaluated (250 μg/ml) for bactericidal activity of a wide variety of human pathogens against Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW&TES), Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. EcTx-I showed strong antibacterial activity against B. pseudomallei (KHW) and E. aerogenes among the tested bacteria. Other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria showed only a moderate effect. However, the Gram-positive bacterium E. aerogenes failed to show any effect on EcTx-I protein at tested doses. The most significant bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect of EcTx-I was observed at MICs of >15 μg/ml against (B. pseudomallei, KHW) and MICs >30 μg/ml against E. aerogenes. Mechanisms of bactericidal and membrane damaging effects were proved by ultra-structural analysis. EcTx-I was able to induce cytotoxicity on THP-1 cells in vitro as well as lethality in BALB/c mice. EcTx-I also induced mild myotoxic effects on mouse skin, but was devoid of hemolytic effects on human erythrocytes up to 500 μg/ml. It is shown that the toxic effect induced by E. carinatus venom is due to the presence of myotoxic PLA(2) (EcTx-I). The result also corroborates the hypothesis of an association between toxic and enzymatic domains. In conclusion, EcTx-I displays a heparin binding C-terminal region

  4. Bactericidal block copolymer micelles.

    PubMed

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo

    2011-05-12

    Block copolymer micelles with bactericidal properties were designed to deactivate pathogens such as E. coli bacteria. The micelles of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP block copolymers were loaded with biocides TCMTB or TCN up to 20 or 30 wt.-%, depending on the type of antibacterial agent. Bacteria were exposed to loaded micelles and bacterial deactivation was evaluated. The micelles loaded with TCN are bactericidal; bacteria are killed in less than two minutes of exposure. The most likely interpretation of the data is that the biocide is transferred to the bacteria by repeated micelle/bacteria contacts, and not via the solution. PMID:21275041

  5. Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, D.C.; Congleton, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

  6. Influence of the surface properties on bactericidal and fungicidal activity of magnetron sputtered Ti-Ag and Nb-Ag thin films.

    PubMed

    Wojcieszak, D; Mazur, M; Kaczmarek, D; Mazur, P; Szponar, B; Domaradzki, J; Kepinski, L

    2016-05-01

    In this study the comparative investigations of structural, surface and bactericidal properties of Ti-Ag and Nb-Ag thin films have been carried out. Ti-Ag and Nb-Ag coatings were deposited on silicon and fused silica substrates by magnetron co-sputtering method using innovative multi-target apparatus. The physicochemical properties of prepared thin films were examined with the aid of X-ray diffraction, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy methods. Moreover, the wettability of the surface was determined. It was found that both, Ti-Ag and Nb-Ag thin films were nanocrystalline. In the case of Ag-Ti film presence of AgTi3 and Ag phases was identified, while in the structure of Nb-Ag only silver occurred in a crystal form. In both cases the average size of crystallites was ca. 11 nm. Moreover, according to scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations the surface of Nb-Ag thin films was covered with Ag-agglomerates, while Ti-Ag surface was smooth and devoid of silver particles. Studies of biological activity of deposited coatings in contact with Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus hirae, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were performed. It was found that prepared coatings were bactericidal and fungicidal even in a short term-contact, i.e. after 2 h. PMID:26952401

  7. An Inactivated Antibiotic-Exposed Whole-Cell Vaccine Enhances Bactericidal Activities Against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Meng-Hooi; MatRahim, NorAziyah; NorAmdan, NurAsyura; Pang, Sui-Ping; Hashim, Sharina H.; Phoon, Wai-Hong; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination may be an alternative treatment for infection with multidrug-resistance (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. The study reported here evaluated the bactericidal antibody responses following immunization of mice using an inactivated whole-cell vaccine derived from antibiotic-exposed MDR A. baumannii (I-M28-47-114). Mice inoculated with I-M28-47 (non-antibiotic-exposed control) and I-M28-47-114 showed a high IgG antibody response by day 5 post-inoculation. Sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47-114 collected on day 30 resulted in 80.7 ± 12.0% complement-mediated bacteriolysis in vitro of the test MDR A. baumannii treated with imipenem, which was a higher level of bacteriolysis over sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47. Macrophage-like U937 cells eliminated 49.3 ± 11.6% of the test MDR A. baumannii treated with imipenem when opsonized with sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47-114, which was a higher level of elimination than observed for test MDR A. baumannii opsonized with sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47. These results suggest that vaccination with I-M28-47-114 stimulated antibody responses capable of mounting high bactericidal killing of MDR A. baumannii. Therefore, the inactivated antibiotic-exposed whole-cell vaccine (I-M28-47-114) has potential for development as a candidate vaccine for broad clearance and protection against MDR A. baumannii infections. PMID:26923424

  8. An Inactivated Antibiotic-Exposed Whole-Cell Vaccine Enhances Bactericidal Activities Against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Shu, Meng-Hooi; MatRahim, NorAziyah; NorAmdan, NurAsyura; Pang, Sui-Ping; Hashim, Sharina H; Phoon, Wai-Hong; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination may be an alternative treatment for infection with multidrug-resistance (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. The study reported here evaluated the bactericidal antibody responses following immunization of mice using an inactivated whole-cell vaccine derived from antibiotic-exposed MDR A. baumannii (I-M28-47-114). Mice inoculated with I-M28-47 (non-antibiotic-exposed control) and I-M28-47-114 showed a high IgG antibody response by day 5 post-inoculation. Sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47-114 collected on day 30 resulted in 80.7 ± 12.0% complement-mediated bacteriolysis in vitro of the test MDR A. baumannii treated with imipenem, which was a higher level of bacteriolysis over sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47. Macrophage-like U937 cells eliminated 49.3 ± 11.6% of the test MDR A. baumannii treated with imipenem when opsonized with sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47-114, which was a higher level of elimination than observed for test MDR A. baumannii opsonized with sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47. These results suggest that vaccination with I-M28-47-114 stimulated antibody responses capable of mounting high bactericidal killing of MDR A. baumannii. Therefore, the inactivated antibiotic-exposed whole-cell vaccine (I-M28-47-114) has potential for development as a candidate vaccine for broad clearance and protection against MDR A. baumannii infections. PMID:26923424

  9. Honey Glycoproteins Containing Antimicrobial Peptides, Jelleins of the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1, Are Responsible for the Cell Wall Lytic and Bactericidal Activities of Honey

    PubMed Central

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin

    2015-01-01

    We have recently identified the bacterial cell wall as the cellular target for honey antibacterial compounds; however, the chemical nature of these compounds remained to be elucidated. Using Concavalin A- affinity chromatography, we found that isolated glycoprotein fractions (glps), but not flow-through fractions, exhibited strong growth inhibitory and bactericidal properties. The glps possessed two distinct functionalities: (a) specific binding and agglutination of bacterial cells, but not rat erythrocytes and (b) non-specific membrane permeabilization of both bacterial cells and erythrocytes. The isolated glps induced concentration- and time-dependent changes in the cell shape of both E. coli and B. subtilis as visualized by light and SEM microscopy. The appearance of filaments and spheroplasts correlated with growth inhibition and bactericidal effects, respectively. The time-kill kinetics showed a rapid, >5-log10 reduction of viable cells within 15 min incubation at 1xMBC, indicating that the glps-induced damage of the cell wall was lethal. Unexpectedly, MALDI-TOF and electrospray quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry, (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) analysis of glps showed sequence identity with the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) precursor that harbors three antimicrobial peptides: Jelleins 1, 2, and 4. The presence of high-mannose structures explained the lectin-like activity of MRJP1, while the presence of Jelleins in MRJP1 may explain cell wall disruptions. Thus, the observed damages induced by the MRJP1 to the bacterial cell wall constitute the mechanism by which the antibacterial effects were produced. Antibacterial activity of MRJP1 glps directly correlated with the overall antibacterial activity of honey, suggesting that it is honey’s active principle responsible for this activity. PMID:25830314

  10. Honey glycoproteins containing antimicrobial peptides, Jelleins of the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1, are responsible for the cell wall lytic and bactericidal activities of honey.

    PubMed

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin

    2015-01-01

    We have recently identified the bacterial cell wall as the cellular target for honey antibacterial compounds; however, the chemical nature of these compounds remained to be elucidated. Using Concavalin A-affinity chromatography, we found that isolated glycoprotein fractions (glps), but not flow-through fractions, exhibited strong growth inhibitory and bactericidal properties. The glps possessed two distinct functionalities: (a) specific binding and agglutination of bacterial cells, but not rat erythrocytes and (b) non-specific membrane permeabilization of both bacterial cells and erythrocytes. The isolated glps induced concentration- and time-dependent changes in the cell shape of both E. coli and B. subtilis as visualized by light and SEM microscopy. The appearance of filaments and spheroplasts correlated with growth inhibition and bactericidal effects, respectively. The time-kill kinetics showed a rapid, >5-log10 reduction of viable cells within 15 min incubation at 1xMBC, indicating that the glps-induced damage of the cell wall was lethal. Unexpectedly, MALDI-TOF and electrospray quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry, (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) analysis of glps showed sequence identity with the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) precursor that harbors three antimicrobial peptides: Jelleins 1, 2, and 4. The presence of high-mannose structures explained the lectin-like activity of MRJP1, while the presence of Jelleins in MRJP1 may explain cell wall disruptions. Thus, the observed damages induced by the MRJP1 to the bacterial cell wall constitute the mechanism by which the antibacterial effects were produced. Antibacterial activity of MRJP1 glps directly correlated with the overall antibacterial activity of honey, suggesting that it is honey's active principle responsible for this activity. PMID:25830314

  11. Microbial and chemical origins of the bactericidal activity of thermally treated yellow mustard powder toward Escherichia coli O157:H7 during dry sausage ripening.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Fernando B; Belland, Julie; Holley, Richard A

    2011-01-31

    Work examines the origin of bactericidal activity in mustard flour and explores the relative contribution from starter cultures, E. coli O157:H7 itself and other sources. Bacteria can degrade naturally occurring glucosinolates in mustard and form isothiocyanates with antimicrobial activity. In the present work, 24 starter cultures (mostly from commercial mixtures) were screened for their capacity to decompose the glucosinolate, sinalbin. The most active pair, Pediococcus pentosaceus UM 121P and Staphylococcus carnosus UM 123 M, were used together for the production of dry fermented sausage contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (~6.5 log CFU/g). They were compared to industrial starters used previously (P. pentosaceus UM 116P and S. carnosus UM 109 M) for their reduction of E. coli O157:H7 viability. Sausage batches containing hot mustard powder (active myrosinase), cold mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase), autoclaved mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase) and no mustard flour (control) were prepared. Interestingly, both pairs of starter cultures yielded similar results. Elimination of E. coli O157:H7 (>5 log CFU/g) occurred after 31 days in the presence of hot flour and in 38 days when the cold flour was added. Reductions >5 log CFU/g of the pathogen did not occur (up to 38 days) in the control group. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 itself had a greater effect on sinalbin conversion than either pair of starter cultures, and glucosinolate degradation by the starter cultures was less important in determining E. coli survival. The autoclaved powder caused more rapid bactericidal action against E. coli O157:H7, yielding a >5 log CFU/g reduction in 18 days. This may have been a result of the formation and/or release of antimicrobial substances by the autoclave treatment. Autoclaved mustard powder could potentially solve an important challenge facing the meat industry as it strives to manufacture safe dry fermented sausages. PMID:21146240

  12. In vitro spectrum of pexiganan activity; bactericidal action and resistance selection tested against pathogens with elevated MIC values to topical agents.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Rhomberg, Paul R; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-09-01

    Pexiganan, in Phase 3 clinical development for topical use, exhibited bactericidal activity in vitro against Gram-positive and -negative isolates and was also shown to have a low potential for resistance development in broth serial passage experiments. Susceptibility studies were performed against bacterial isolates (110 total from 2004 to 2013; primarily from skin and soft tissue infections) selected for elevated MIC values (non-wildtype [WT] distributions) to bacitracin, polymyxin B, neomycin, mupirocin, retapamulin, fusidic acid, or gentamicin. A narrow range of pexiganan MIC values (4-32 μg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus was observed (MIC50 and MIC90 values, 16 μg/mL) with a pexiganan mode and MIC50 value for the subsets of isolates with non-WT MIC values to bacitracin and neomycin (n = 14), fusidic acid (n = 11), mupirocin (n = 12) and retapamulin (n = 11) at 16 μg/mL. For coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), the pexiganan mode and MIC50 values were 4 μg/mL. The pexiganan mode and MIC50 for each non-WT CoNS subset was also 4 μg/mL. Pexiganan MIC values for Enterococcus faecium was 8 μg/mL, but E. faecalis isolates exhibited MIC values that ranged from 128-256 μg/mL. Pexiganan was active against β-hemolytic streptococci including non-WT subsets (MIC range, 4-64 μg/mL). MIC values for pexiganan varied by species for viridans group streptococci, with highest values occurring for Streptococcus oralis. The broad bactericidal spectrum of pexiganan activity and low potential for resistance selection offers the possibility that this experimental agent may be able to play an important role in the current environment of emerging multi-drug resistant pathogens. PMID:27352729

  13. The influence of isoleucine and arginine on biological activity and peptide-membrane interactions of antimicrobial peptides from the bactericidal domain of AvBD4.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wan-Ning; Jiao, Wen-Jing; Ma, Zhi; Dong, Na; Ma, Qing-Quan; Shao, Chang-Xuan; Shan, An-Shan

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the influence of isoleucine and arginine on the biological activity and peptide-membrane interactions of linear avian β-defensin-4 (RL38) analogs was investigated. Results of biological activities showed that the antimicrobial activities of AvBD-4 analogs were closely related to hydrophobicity and amphipathicity. The peptide GLI19 with high hydrophobicity value and amphipathicity displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive, whereas GLR19 with increasing multiple charges only exhibited activity against gram-negative. The interaction between peptides and the liposome membrane demonstrated that the peptides preferentially bound to negatively charged phospholipids over zwitterionic phospholipids, which supported the antimicrobial activity data. The outer membranes assay further demonstrated that GLI19 had a greater capacity than the other tested peptides to penetrate the cell membrane at a low concentration. Collectively, the peptides derived from the bactericidal domain of linear β- defensins by truncation and hydrophobic amino acid substitution may be effective high-potential antibacterial agents. PMID:23746111

  14. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    PubMed Central

    Njume, Collise; Jide, Afolayan A.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:22016616

  15. The absorbed dose to blood from blood-borne activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Lassmann, M.

    2015-01-01

    The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10-11 Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1-1.2·10-11 Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m.

  16. Enhanced bactericidal activity of enterocin AS-48 in combination with essential oils, natural bioactive compounds and chemical preservatives against Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat salad.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Cobo Molinos; Abriouel, Hikmate; López, Rosario Lucas; Omar, Nabil Ben; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    Enterocin AS-48 (30-60 microg/g) significantly reduced viable counts of Listeria monocytogenes in Russian-type salad during one week storage at 10 degrees C. Antilisterial activity of AS-48 (30 microg/g) in salad was strongly enhanced by essential oils (thyme verbena, thyme red, Spanish oregano, ajowan, tea tree, clove, and sage oils tested at 1%, as well as with 2% rosemary oil). Antilisterial activity also increased in combination with bioactive components from essential oils and plant extracts, with other related antimicrobials of natural origin or derived from chemical synthesis (carvacrol, eugenol, thymol, terpineol, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic, ferulic and vanillic acid, luteolin, geranyl butyrate, geranyl phenylacetate, pyrocatechol, hydrocinnamic acid, tert butylhydroquinone, phenylphosphate, isopropyl methyl phenol, coumaric acid, and 2-nitropropanol), and with food preservatives (citric and lactic acid, sucrose palmitate, sucrose stearate, p-hydroxybenzoic methylester acid -- PHBME, and Nisaplin). AS-48 acted synergistically with citric, lactic acid, and PHBME. A mixed population of two L. monocytogenes strains was markedly reduced for one week in salads treated with AS-48 (30 microg/g) in combination with lactic acid, PHBME or Nisaplin. The increased bactericidal activity of these combinations is interesting to improve protection against L. monocytogenes during salad storage. PMID:19520136

  17. Bactericidal properties of pradofloxacin against veterinary pathogens.

    PubMed

    Silley, Peter; Stephan, Bernd; Greife, Heinrich A; Pridmore, Andrew

    2012-05-25

    Pradofloxacin is a new veterinary 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone developed for use against bacterial infections in dogs and cats involving both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The minimal bactericidal concentrations have been determined against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus canis, Proteus spp., Fusobacterium spp., Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella species. A subset of these species was selected, and the in vitro rate of kill by pradofloxacin was determined. For 27 of the 30 tested aerobic strains the pradofloxacin MBC was within two doubling dilutions of the MIC. For the remaining strains, the MIC and MBC were within three to four doubling dilutions. Pradofloxacin also demonstrated bactericidal activity against all anaerobic strains, and the MBC was equal to the MIC for four of the strains, within 1 doubling dilution for three strains, within 2 dilutions for a further 3 strains and within 3 dilutions for the remaining five strains. As pradofloxacin concentration was increased, a faster rate of killing was observed; bactericidal effects were seen in all cases at concentrations ≤ 0.25 μg/mL. The bactericidal activity against the anaerobic strains was marked, of particular relevance was the complete absence of regrowth even at 48 h at concentrations as low as 0.125 μg/mL. In conclusion, pradofloxacin exhibits clear bactericidal activity in terms of MBC and kill kinetics against aerobic and anaerobic clinical isolates from dogs and cats at concentrations that are greatly exceeded within the systemic circulation after administration of the recommended therapeutic doses to the target animals. It is expected that such a rapid rate of kill will play a significant role in clinical efficacy. These data demonstrate the complete and rapid killing of anaerobic bacteria by a veterinary 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone. PMID:22209121

  18. Azithromycin Synergizes with Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides to Exert Bactericidal and Therapeutic Activity Against Highly Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Leo; Nonejuie, Poochit; Munguia, Jason; Hollands, Andrew; Olson, Joshua; Dam, Quang; Kumaraswamy, Monika; Rivera, Heriberto; Corriden, Ross; Rohde, Manfred; Hensler, Mary E.; Burkart, Michael D.; Pogliano, Joe; Sakoulas, George; Nizet, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance poses an increasingly grave threat to the public health. Of pressing concern, rapid spread of carbapenem-resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative rods (GNR) is associated with few treatment options and high mortality rates. Current antibiotic susceptibility testing guiding patient management is performed in a standardized manner, identifying minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in bacteriologic media, but ignoring host immune factors. Lacking activity in standard MIC testing, azithromycin (AZM), the most commonly prescribed antibiotic in the U.S., is never recommended for MDR GNR infection. Here we report a potent bactericidal action of AZM against MDR carbapenem-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. This pharmaceutical activity is associated with enhanced AZM cell penetration in eukaryotic tissue culture media and striking multi-log-fold synergies with host cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 or the last line antibiotic colistin. Finally, AZM monotherapy exerts clear therapeutic effects in murine models of MDR GNR infection. Our results suggest that AZM, currently ignored as a treatment option, could benefit patients with MDR GNR infections, especially in combination with colistin. PMID:26288841

  19. Azithromycin Synergizes with Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides to Exert Bactericidal and Therapeutic Activity Against Highly Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Leo; Nonejuie, Poochit; Munguia, Jason; Hollands, Andrew; Olson, Joshua; Dam, Quang; Kumaraswamy, Monika; Rivera, Heriberto; Corriden, Ross; Rohde, Manfred; Hensler, Mary E; Burkart, Michael D; Pogliano, Joe; Sakoulas, George; Nizet, Victor

    2015-07-01

    Antibiotic resistance poses an increasingly grave threat to the public health. Of pressing concern, rapid spread of carbapenem-resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative rods (GNR) is associated with few treatment options and high mortality rates. Current antibiotic susceptibility testing guiding patient management is performed in a standardized manner, identifying minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in bacteriologic media, but ignoring host immune factors. Lacking activity in standard MIC testing, azithromycin (AZM), the most commonly prescribed antibiotic in the U.S., is never recommended for MDR GNR infection. Here we report a potent bactericidal action of AZM against MDR carbapenem-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. This pharmaceutical activity is associated with enhanced AZM cell penetration in eukaryotic tissue culture media and striking multi-log-fold synergies with host cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 or the last line antibiotic colistin. Finally, AZM monotherapy exerts clear therapeutic effects in murine models of MDR GNR infection. Our results suggest that AZM, currently ignored as a treatment option, could benefit patients with MDR GNR infections, especially in combination with colistin. PMID:26288841

  20. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic assessment of the effects of parenteral administration of a fluoroquinolone on the intestinal microbiota: comparison of bactericidal activity at the gut versus the systemic level in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Ferran, Aude A; Bibbal, Delphine; Pellet, Terence; Laurentie, Michel; Gicquel-Bruneau, Mireille; Sanders, Pascal; Schneider, Marc; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Melou, Alain

    2013-11-01

    Classical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies of antimicrobial agents performed by combining plasma concentrations and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) are often predictive of the activity of a drug against targeted pathogens located at infectious sites closely connected to circulating blood. However, these studies do not predict the impact of parenteral antimicrobial treatment on intestinal bacteria, which could be responsible for transmission of resistance between species or in the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the differential antibacterial activity of a fluoroquinolone against lung and gut bacteria. Plasma and intestinal concentrations of marbofloxacin were assessed in pigs following intramuscular administration, and the in vitro relationship between marbofloxacin concentrations and mean bacterial inoculum growth in standard broth and in sterilised intestinal contents was modelled. It was shown that the increased intestinal exposure to marbofloxacin compared with plasma in pigs was compensated by reduced marbofloxacin activity against Escherichia coli in the contents of the digestive tract compared with in broth. These results showed that marbofloxacin doses used to target pathogens at the lung level would similarly affect the bacterial population of the same size and with a similar MIC located in the small intestine. However, it was shown that the bactericidal activity of marbofloxacin was increased 4- to 7-fold with low (10(5)CFU/mL) compared with high (10(8)CFU/mL) inoculum sizes. This result suggests that much lower marbofloxacin doses than those classically used would potentially eradicate low pulmonary pathogenic inocula while having a minimal impact on the large gut microbiota. PMID:24021905

  1. Chitotriosidase activity in goat blood and colostrum.

    PubMed

    Argüello, A; Castro, N; Batista, M; Moreno-Indias, I; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sanchez-Macias, D; Quesada, E; Capote, J

    2008-05-01

    Chitotriosidase (ChT) activity has not been investigated in ruminants, and therefore, we studied this activity in blood and colostrum of 25 pregnant goats and 60 goat kids. Blood samples were taken from pregnant goats at 3, 2, and 1 d prepartum; at partum; and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Colostrum samples were obtained by machine-milking at partum and 1, 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Goat kid blood was collected at birth and every 7 d thereafter until goats kids were 56 d old. The ChT activity ranged from 2,368 to 3,350 nmol/ mL per hour in goat blood serum, and no statistical differences were detected through time. However, activity tended to decrease from 3 d prepartum to 2 d post-partum. Colostrum ChT activity was 3,912 nmol/mL per hour and 465 nmol/mL per hour on the day of delivery and 4 d postpartum, respectively. Colostrum ChT activity was significantly higher at partum than at any other time. The ChT activity in colostrum was significantly greater at 1 d postpartum than at 2, 3, and 4 d postpartum. Chitotriosidase activity did not differ in colostrum collected on d 2, 3, and 4 postpartum. Chitotriosidase activity in goat kid blood serum ranged from 2,664 to 9,231 nmol/mL per hour at birth and 49 d of life, respectively. Chitotriosidase activity in the blood serum increased with age: at birth, activity was significantly less than at 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 d postpartum. The maximum ChT activity in blood serum was observed at 49 d postpartum. Activity in 49-d-old kids was significantly greater than that observed in kids at 0, 7, and 14 d postpartum. PMID:18420635

  2. Eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles with enhanced bactericidal activity and study of silver catalyzed reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Sivakumar, A.

    2014-07-01

    The present study reports a simple and robust method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. Stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanopoarticles (AuNPs) were formed on treatment of an aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solutions with the root extract. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). UV-Vis and TEM analysis indicate that with higher quantities of root extract, the interaction is enhanced leading to size reduction of spherical metal nanoparticles. XRD confirms face-centered cubic phase and the diffraction peaks can be attributed to (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 2) and (3 1 1) planes for these nanoparticles. These synthesized Ag and Au nanoparticles were found to exhibit excellent bactericidal activity against clinically isolated selected pathogens such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The synthesized AgNPs were also found to function as an efficient green catalyst in the reduction of anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by sodium borohydride, which was apparent from the periodical color change from bright yellow to colorless, after the addition of AgNPs.

  3. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results. PMID:25558854

  4. Facile synthesis of gold nanoparticles on propylamine functionalized SBA-15 and effect of surface functionality of its enhanced bactericidal activity against gram positive bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Diganta; Gogoi, Animesh; Saikia, Mrinal; Saikia, Ratul; Saikia, Lakshi

    2015-07-01

    The facile synthesis of an SBA-15-pr-+NH3.Au0 nano-hybrid material by spontaneous autoreduction of aqueous chloroaurate anions on propylamine functionalized SBA-15 was successfully demonstrated. The as-synthesized SBA-15-pr-+NH3.Au0 nano-hybrid material was well characterized using low and wide angle x-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Visible spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The activity of the nano-hybrid material as a potent bactericidal agent was successfully tested against Gram positive/negative bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The colony killing percentage of Gram positive bacteria was found to be higher than Gram negative bacteria due to the stronger electrostatic interaction between the positively-charged amine functionality of SBA-15 and the negatively charged functionality of the bacterial cell wall.

  5. Preparation of bio-deep eutectic solvent triggered cephalopod shaped silver chloride-DNA hybrid material having antibacterial and bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Jitkumar; Mondal, Dibyendu; Bhojani, Gopal; Chatterjee, Shruti; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2015-11-01

    2.5% w/w DNA (Salmon testes) was solubilized in a bio-deep eutectic solvent [(bio-DES), obtained by the complexation of choline chloride and ethylene glycol at 1:2 molar ratio] containing 1% w/w of silver chloride (AgCl) to yield a AgCl decorated DNA based hybrid material. Concentration dependent formation of AgCl crystals in the DES was observed and upon interaction with DNA it gave formation of a cephalopod shaped hybrid material. DNA was found to maintain its chemical and structural stability in the material. Further, AgCl microstructures were found to have orderly self assembled on the DNA helices indicating the electrostatic interaction between Ag(+) and phosphate side chain of DNA as a driving force for the formation of the material with ordered microstructural distribution of AgCl. Furthermore, the functionalized material exhibited excellent antibacterial and bactericidal activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26249573

  6. GREATER HEMOCYTE BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY IN OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) FROM A RELATIVELY CONTAMINATED SITE IN PENSACOLA BAY, FLORIDA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bivalve mollusks such as Crassostrea virginica inhabiting polluted estuaries and coastal areas may bioaccumulate high concentrations of contaminants without apparent ill effects. However, changes in putative internal defense activities have been associated with contaminant accumu...

  7. Bactericidal activity of the food color additive Phloxine B against Staphylococcus aureus and other food borne microbial pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus strains requires the development of new anti S. aureus agents. The objective of this study was evaluating the antimicrobial activity of the food color additive Phloxine B against S. aureus and other food microbial pathogens. Our result ...

  8. Influence of ethylenediamine-n,n’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) concentration on the bactericidal activity of fatty acids in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibacterial activity of mixtures of ethylenediamine-N,N’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) and antibacterial fatty acids (FA) was examined using the agar diffusion assay. Solutions of caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids dissolved in potassium hydroxide (KOH) were supplemented with 0, 5, or 10 mM ...

  9. In vitro bactericidal activity of recombinant human beta-defensin-3 against pathogenic bacterial strains in human tooth root canal.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Shi, Yong; Xiao, Mingzhen; Lu, Hong; Qu, Tiejun; Li, Ping; Wu, Gang; Tian, Yu

    2009-03-01

    Human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3), an endogenous antimicrobial peptide, has strong broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This study aimed to obtain recombinant HBD3 (rHBD3) and to test the hypothesis that the antimicrobial characteristics of HBD3 may offer an advantage over conventional medicine in reducing intracanal bacteria. Genetic engineering was used to obtain active rHBD3 and analysis revealed that it exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity at low micromolar concentrations against not only Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli but also against some critical pathogenic microbes in infected root canals, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella melaninogenica, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. In an in vitro antibacterial experiment, rHBD3 significantly eliminated pathogenic bacteria in root canals. The ratio of bacterial death was up to 98%. We conclude that HBD3 has the potential to eliminate bacteria effectively and rapidly in the local microenvironment of the root canal system and that it may contribute to successful endodontic treatment. PMID:18775647

  10. Visible light induced bactericidal and photocatalytic activity of hydrothermally synthesized BiVO4 nano-octahedrals.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rishabh; Uma; Singh, Sonal; Verma, Ajit; Khanuja, Manika

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, monoclinic bismuth vanadate (m-BiVO4) nanostructures have been synthesized via simple hydrothermal method and employed for visible light driven antimicrobial and photocatalytic activity. Morphology (octahedral) and size (200-300nm) of the m-BiVO4 are studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystal structure of m-BiVO4 (monoclinic scheelite structure) is confirmed by high resolution-TEM (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The band gap of m-BiVO4 was estimated to be ca. 2.42eV through Kubelka-Munk function F(R∞) using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Antimicrobial action of m-BiVO4 is anticipated by (i) shake flask method, (ii) MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] assay for cytotoxicity. SEM analysis has been carried on Escherichia coli (E.coli) before and after treatment with nanostructure materials to reveal the mechanism underlying the antimicrobial action. Antimicrobial activity is studied as a function of m-BiVO4 concentration viz. 20, 40, 60 and 80ppm. The bacterial growth is decreased 80% to 96%, with the increase in m-BiVO4 concentration from 20ppm to 80ppm, respectively, in 2h. Photocatalytic activity and rate kinetics of m-BiVO4 nanostructures have been studied as a function of time on methylene blue (MB) dye degradation which is one of the waste products of textile industries and responsible for water pollution. PMID:27394009

  11. Correlation between serum bactericidal activity against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y measured using human versus rabbit serum as the complement source.

    PubMed

    Gill, C J; Ram, S; Welsch, J A; Detora, L; Anemona, A

    2011-12-01

    The surrogate of protection against invasive meningococcal disease is the presence of serum bactericidal activity (SBA) at a titer ≥4 in an assay using human serum as the complement source (hSBA). However, for various practical and logistical reasons, many meningococcal vaccines in use today were licensed based on a modified SBA assay that used baby rabbit serum as the complement source (rSBA). To assess the strength of correlation between the two assay systems for serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y, we analyzed a subset of samples from adolescent subjects enrolled in a Phase II study of Novartis' MenACWY-CRM conjugate vaccine vs. an ACWY polysaccharide vaccine; samples were analyzed in parallel using hSBA and rSBA. We compared geometric mean titers (GMTs), calculated Pearson correlation coefficients between paired hSBA and rSBA results, and calculated sensitivity/specificity and likelihood ratios for an rSBA ≥8 or ≥128 for classifying hSBA ≥4, taking hSBA as the 'gold standard'. Correlations between hSBA and rSBA ranged from 0.46 to 0.78 for serogroup C, but were weaker for serogroups A, W-135 and Y (range -0.15 to 0.57). In post vaccination samples, nearly all subjects had rSBA titers ≥8, though up to 15% remained seronegative by hSBA. In post vaccination settings, rSBA titers at ≥8 or ≥128 was highly sensitive for an hSBA titer ≥4, but non-specific. In conclusion, results generated by rSBA did not accurately classify serostatus according to hSBA for serogroups A, W-135 and Y. PMID:22075087

  12. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by novel Pseudomonas veronii AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. and their bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Syed; Mohan Kumar, K; Santosh, P; Rakshith, D; Satish, S

    2015-02-01

    In present investigation extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles were synthesized using cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii AS41G isolated from Annona squamosa L. The bacterium significantly reduced silver nitrate to generate silver nanoparticles which was characterized with hyphenated techniques. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles preliminary confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry with the intense peak at 410nm, Further FTIR analysis revealed the possible role of biomolecules in the supernatant responsible for mediating the nanoparticles formation. The XRD spectra exhibited the characteristic Bragg peaks of 100, 111, 200, and 220 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. TEM microgram showed polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 5 to 50nm. Synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against human and environmental pathogens including MRSA. The study enlightens the role of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as an emerging alternative for drug resistant microorganisms. The obtained results are promising enough to pave the environmentally benign nanoparticle synthesis processes without use of any toxic chemicals and also envision the emerging role of endophytes towards synthesis of nanoparticles. With scanty reports available on P.veronii species, a new role has been reported in this study which will be very valuable for future researchers working on it. PMID:25459703

  13. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by novel Pseudomonas veronii AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. and their bactericidal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Syed; Mohan Kumar, K.; Santosh, P.; Rakshith, D.; Satish, S.

    2015-02-01

    In present investigation extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles were synthesized using cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii AS41G isolated from Annona squamosa L. The bacterium significantly reduced silver nitrate to generate silver nanoparticles which was characterized with hyphenated techniques. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles preliminary confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry with the intense peak at 410 nm, Further FTIR analysis revealed the possible role of biomolecules in the supernatant responsible for mediating the nanoparticles formation. The XRD spectra exhibited the characteristic Bragg peaks of 1 0 0, 1 1 1, 2 0 0, and 2 2 0 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. TEM microgram showed polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 5 to 50 nm. Synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against human and environmental pathogens including MRSA. The study enlightens the role of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as an emerging alternative for drug resistant microorganisms. The obtained results are promising enough to pave the environmentally benign nanoparticle synthesis processes without use of any toxic chemicals and also envision the emerging role of endophytes towards synthesis of nanoparticles. With scanty reports available on P.veronii species, a new role has been reported in this study which will be very valuable for future researchers working on it.

  14. Preliminary flight prototype potable water bactericide system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasionowski, W. J.; Allen, E. T.

    1973-01-01

    The development, design, and testing of a preliminary flight prototype potable water bactericide system are described. The system is an assembly of upgraded canisters composed of: (1) A biological filter; (2) an activated charcoal and ion exchange resin canister; (3) a silver chloride canister, (4) a deionizer, (5) a silver bromide canister with a partial bypass, and (6) mock-up instrumentation and circuitry. The system exhibited bactericidal activity against 10 to the 9th power Pseudomonas aeruginosa and/or Type IIIa, and reduced Bacillus subtilis by up to 5 orders of magnitude in 24 hours at ambient temperatures with a 1 ppm silver ion dose. Four efficacy tests were performed with a AgBr canister dosing anticipated fuel cell water. Tests show that a 0.05 ppm silver ion dose was bactericidal against 3 plus or minus 1 x 10 to the 9th power (5 plus or minus 1 x 10,000/ml Pseudomonas aeruginosa and/or Type IIIa in 15 minutes or less.

  15. Contact Activation of Blood Plasma Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Erwin A.; Siedlecki, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    This opinion identifies inconsistencies in the generally-accepted surface biophysics involved in contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation, reviews recent experimental work aimed at resolving inconsistencies, and concludes that this standard paradigm requires substantial revision to accommodate new experimental observations. Foremost among these new findings is that surface-catalyzed conversion of the blood zymogen factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) to the enzyme FXIIa ( FXII→surfaceFXIIa, a.k.a. autoactivation) is not specific for anionic surfaces, as proposed by the standard paradigm. Furthermore, it is found that surface activation is moderated by the protein composition of the fluid phase in which FXII autoactivation occurs by what appears to be a protein adsorption-competition effect. Both of these findings argue against the standard view that contact activation of plasma coagulation is potentiated by assembly of activation-complex proteins (FXII, FXI, prekallikrein, and high-molecular-weight kininogen) directly onto activating surfaces (procoagulants) through specific protein/surface interactions. These new findings supplement the observation that adsorption behavior of FXII and FXIIa is not remarkably different from a wide variety of other blood proteins surveyed. Similarity in adsorption properties further undermines the idea that FXII and/or FXIIa are distinguished from other blood proteins by unusual adsorption properties resulting in chemically-specific interactions with activating anionic surfaces. PMID:19168215

  16. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 < t°a < 72 dyne/cm (O° ≤ theta < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20 < t°a < 40 dyne/cm (55° < theta < 75°). Furthermore, contact activation of FXII in buffer solution produces an ensemble of protein fragments exhibiting either procoagulant properties in plasma (proteolysis of blood factor XI or prekallikrein), amidolytic properties (cleavage of s-2302 chromogen), or the ability to suppress autoactivation through currently unknown biochemistry. The relative proportions of these fragments depend on activator surface chemistry/energy. We have also discovered that contact activation is moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an

  17. Mechanisms of α-defensin bactericidal action

    PubMed Central

    Hadjicharalambous, Chrystalleni; Sheynis, Tanya; Jelinek, Raz; Shanahan, Michael T.; Ouellette, Andre J.; Gizeli, Electra

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian α-defensins all have a conserved triple-stranded β-sheet structure that is constrained by an invariant tridisulfide array, and the peptides exert bactericidal effects by permeabilizing the target cell envelope. Curiously, the disordered, disulfide-null variant of mouse α-defensin cryptdin-4 (Crp4), termed (6C/A)-Crp4, has equal or greater bactericidal activity than the native peptide, providing rationale for comparing the mechanisms by which the peptides interact with and disrupt phospholipid vesicles of defined composition. For both live E. coli ML35 cells and model membranes, disordered (6C/A)-Crp4 induced leakage similar to Crp4 but had less overall membrane-permeabilizing activity. Crp4 induction of fluorophore leakage from electronegative liposomes was strongly dependent on vesicle lipid charge and composition, and the incorporation of cardiolipin into liposomes of low electronegative charge to mimic bacterial membrane composition conferred sensitivity to Crp4- and (6C/A)-Crp4-mediated vesicle lysis. Membrane perturbation studies using biomimetic lipid/polydiacetylene vesicles showed that Crp4 had more pronounced bilayer surface interactions than (6C/A)-Crp4 in low rather than high negatively charged liposomes, correlating directly with measurements of induced leakage. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments provided evidence that Crp4 translocates across highly charged or cardiolipin-containing membranes, in a process coupled with membrane permeabilization, but (6C/A)-Crp4 did not translocate across lipid bilayers and consistently displayed membrane surface association. Thus, despite the greater in vitro bactericidal activity of (6C/A)-Crp4, native, β-sheet containing Crp4 induces membrane permeabilization more effectively than disulfide-null Crp4 by translocating and forming transient membrane defects. (6C/A)-Crp4, on the other hand, appears to induce greater membrane disintegration. PMID:18973303

  18. Acorus calamus Linn.: phytoconstituents and bactericidal property.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2016-10-01

    Acorus calamus Linn. of the family Araceae (Acoraceae), commonly known as Sweet Flag and Vacha. The rhizome of this plant has medicinal properties against bugs, moths, lice and emetic stomach in dyspepsia. Chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil obtained from the rhizomes of A. calamus was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The essential oil of A. calamus and its major compound β-asarone were tested against five Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration rang of 5.0-0.009 mg/mL. Forty constituents were identified which comprised 98.3 % of the total oil. The major compound β-asarone (80.6 %) was identified and confirm by NMR ((1)H- & (13)C-) in rhizome oil of A. calamus. The organism Micrococcus luteus was found to be more susceptible to the oil with minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value of 0.032 ± 0.004 mg/mL, followed by Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Micrococcus flavus with MBC values of 0.104 ± 0.016, 0.117 ± 0.017 and 0.143 ± 0.013 mg/mL, respectively. The compound β-asarone was susceptible to the microorganism A. niger with MBC value 0.416 ± 0.065 mg/mL. The present study revealed that tetraploid variety of A. calamus is growing in this region with substantial amount of β-asarone. The oil showed bactericidal property against tested bacteria and fungi. The β-asarone exhibited poorer bactericidal activity against test microorganisms. PMID:27562598

  19. Quantifying of bactericide properties of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Ács, András; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Barabás, Anikó

    2011-01-01

    Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defense, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. Several members of the family Labiatae are known to have strong antimicrobial capacity. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used, assessing inhibitory activity on a selected strain. In this study, the applicability of a microbial ecotoxtest was evaluated to quantify the aggregate bactericide capacity of Labiatae species, based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Striking differences were found amongst herbs, reaching even 10-fold toxicity. Glechoma hederacea L. proved to be the most toxic, with the EC50 of 0.4073 g dried plant/l. LC50 values generated by the standard bioassay seem to be a good indicator of the bactericide property of herbs. Traditional use of the selected herbs shows a good correlation with bioactivity expressed as bioluminescence inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the Vibrio fischeri bioassay can be a good indicator of the overall antibacterial capacity of herbs, at least on a screening level. PMID:21502819

  20. Synergistic action of photosensitizers and normal human serum in a bactericidal process. I. Effect of chlorophylls.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Andrzej; Jankowski, Stanisław; Mirończyk, Agnieszka

    2003-01-01

    Susceptibility of some Gram-negative strains against the bactericidal action of normal human serum (NHS) and of chlorophyll, which induces production of reactive oxygen species by light, was studied. A synergistic bactericidal activity of NHS and chlorophyll against E. coli K1 and Shigella flexneri strains was observed. PMID:15095924

  1. A Novel Approach Utilizing Biofilm Time-Kill Curves To Assess the Bactericidal Activity of Ceftaroline Combinations against Biofilm-Producing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Katie E.; Werth, Brian J.; McRoberts, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Medical device infections frequently require combination therapy. Beta-lactams combined with glycopeptides/lipopeptides are bactericidal against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Novel macrowell kill-curve methods tested synergy between ceftaroline or cefazolin plus daptomycin, vancomycin, or rifampin against biofilm-producing MRSA. Ceftaroline combinations demonstrated the most pronounced bacterial reductions. Ceftaroline demonstrated greatest kill with daptomycin (4.02 ± 0.59 log10 CFU/cm2), compared to combination with vancomycin (3.36 ± 0.35 log10 CFU/cm2) or rifampin (2.68 ± 0.61 log10 CFU/cm2). These data suggest that beta-lactam combinations are useful against MRSA biofilms. PMID:24614378

  2. Bacteria survival probability in bactericidal filter paper.

    PubMed

    Mansur-Azzam, Nura; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Woo, Su Gyeong; Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2014-05-01

    Bactericidal filter papers offer the simplicity of gravity filtration to simultaneously eradicate microbial contaminants and particulates. We previously detailed the development of biocidal block copolymer micelles that could be immobilized on a filter paper to actively eradicate bacteria. Despite the many advantages offered by this system, its widespread use is hindered by its unknown mechanism of action which can result in non-reproducible outcomes. In this work, we sought to investigate the mechanism by which a certain percentage of Escherichia coli cells survived when passing through the bactericidal filter paper. Through the process of elimination, the possibility that the bacterial survival probability was controlled by the initial bacterial load or the existence of resistant sub-populations of E. coli was dismissed. It was observed that increasing the thickness or the number of layers of the filter significantly decreased bacterial survival probability for the biocidal filter paper but did not affect the efficiency of the blank filter paper (no biocide). The survival probability of bacteria passing through the antibacterial filter paper appeared to depend strongly on the number of collision between each bacterium and the biocide-loaded micelles. It was thus hypothesized that during each collision a certain number of biocide molecules were directly transferred from the hydrophobic core of the micelle to the bacterial lipid bilayer membrane. Therefore, each bacterium must encounter a certain number of collisions to take up enough biocide to kill the cell and cells that do not undergo the threshold number of collisions are expected to survive. PMID:24681395

  3. Systemic hypoxia enhances exercise-mediated bactericidal and subsequent apoptotic responses in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jong-Shyan; Chiu, Ya-Ting

    2009-10-01

    Phagocytosis and oxidative burst are critical host defense mechanisms in which neutrophils clear invading pathogens. Clearing phagocytic neutrophils by triggering apoptosis is an essential process for controlling inflammation. This study elucidates how various exercise bouts with/without hypoxia affected neutrophil bactericidal activity and subsequent apoptosis in humans. Fifteen sedentary males performed six distinct experimental tests in an air-conditioned normobaric hypoxia chamber: two normoxic exercises [strenuous exercise (SE; up to maximal O2 consumption) and moderate exercise (ME; 50% maximal O2 consumption for 30 min) while exposed to 21% O2], two hypoxic exercises (ME for 30 min while exposed to 12% and 15% O2), and two hypoxic exposures (resting for 30 min while exposed to 12% and 15% O2). The results showed that 1) plasma complement-C3a desArg/C4a desArg/C5a concentrations were increased, 2) expressions of L-selectin/lymphocyte functin-associated antigen-1/Mac-1/C5aR on neutrophils were enhanced, 3) phagocytosis of neutrophils to Esherichia coli and release of neutrophil oxidant products by E. coli were elevated, and 4) E. coli-induced phosphotidylserine exposure or caspase-3 activation of neutrophils were promoted immediately and 2 h after both 12% O2 exposure at rest and with ME as well as normoxic SE. Although neither normoxic ME nor breathing 15% O2 at rest influenced these complement- and neutrophil-related immune responses, ME at both 12% and 15% O2 resulted in enhanced complement activation in the blood, expressions of opsonic/complement receptors on neutrophils, or the bactericidal activity and apoptosis of neutrophils. Moreover, the increased neutrophil oxidant production and apoptosis by normoxic SE and hypoxic ME were ameliorated by treating neutrophils with diphenylene iodonium (a NADPH oxidase inhibitor). Therefore, we conclude that ME at 12-15% O2 enhances bactericidal capacity and facilitates the subsequent apoptosis of neutrophils. PMID

  4. Parenteral Nutrition Suppresses the Bactericidal Response of the Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Omata, Jiro; Pierre, Joseph F; Heneghan, Aaron F; Tsao, Francis HC; Sano, Yoshifumi; Jonker, Mark A; Kudsk, Kenneth A

    2012-01-01

    Background Parenteral nutrition (PN) increases infectious risk in critically ill patients compared with enteral feeding. Previously, we demonstrated that PN feeding suppresses the concentration of the Paneth cell antimicrobial protein secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in the gut lumen. sPLA2 and other Paneth cell proteins are released in response to bacterial components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and they modulate the intestinal microbiome. Since the Paneth cell protein sPLA2 was suppressed with PN feeding, we hypothesized PN would diminish the responsiveness of the small bowel to LPS through reduced secretions and as a result exhibit less bactericidal activity. Methods The distal ileum was harvested from ICR mice, washed, and randomized for incubation with LPS (0, 1, or 10 μg/mL). Culture supernatant was collected and sPLA2 Activity was measured. Bactericidal activity of the ileum segment secretions was assessed against P. aeruginosa with and without a sPLA2 inhibitor at two concentrations, 100nM and 1μM. ICR mice were randomized to Chow or PN for 5 days. Tissue was collected for immunohistochemistry (IHC) and ileal segments were incubated with LPS (0 or 10 μg/mL). sPLA2 activity and bactericidal activity were measured in secretions from ileal segments. Results The ileal segments responded to 10 ug/mL LPS with significantly greater sPLA2 activity and bactericidal activity. The bactericidal activity of secretions from LPS stimulated tissue was suppressed 50% and 70%, respectively, with the addition of the sPLA2-inhibitor. Chow displayed greater sPLA2 in the Paneth cell granules and secreted higher levels of sPLA2 than PN before and after LPS. Accordingly, media collected from Chow was more bactericidal than PN. IHC confirmed a reduction in Paneth cell granules after PN. Conclusions This work demonstrates that ileal segments secrete bactericidal secretions after LPS exposure and the inhibition of the Paneth cell antimicrobial protein sPLA2 significantly

  5. Staying Active and Healthy: Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Referenced Links: Review the following links for additional information on this topic: • Blood Thinner Pills: Your Guide to Using Them Safely ... the following related programs are offered for your review: Preventing Blood Clots After Hip or Knee Surgery ...

  6. Biosynthesis of Antitumoral and Bactericidal Sanguinarine

    PubMed Central

    García, Víctor P.; Valdés, F.; Martín, R.; Luis, J. C.; Afonso, A. M.; Ayala, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and reliable TLC method for the separation and determination of sanguinarine has been established. This intensively studied biologically active alkaloid has a wide range of potentially useful medicinal properties, such as antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and antitumoral activities. Sanguinarine has also been incorporated into expectorant mixtures and has a strong bactericidal effect upon gram-positive bacteria, particularly Bacillus anthracis and staphylococci. These medicinal properties are due to the interaction of sanguinarine with DNA. A fibre-optic-based fluorescence instrument for in situ scanning was used for quantitative measurements. The sanguinarine was determined over the range 5–40 ng and a detection limit of 1.60 ng. The method was applied to the quantification of sanguinarine in tissue culture extracts of Chelidonium majus L. PMID:16883053

  7. Cerebral blood volume changes during brain activation

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Steffen Norbert; Streicher, Markus Nikolar; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes significantly with brain activation, whether measured using positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), or optical microscopy. If cerebral vessels are considered to be impermeable, the contents of the skull incompressible, and the skull itself inextensible, task- and hypercapnia-related changes of CBV could produce intolerable changes of intracranial pressure. Because it is becoming clear that CBV may be useful as a well-localized marker of neural activity changes, a resolution of this apparent paradox is needed. We have explored the idea that much of the change in CBV is facilitated by exchange of water between capillaries and surrounding tissue. To this end, we developed a novel hemodynamic boundary-value model and found approximate solutions using a numerical algorithm. We also constructed a macroscopic experimental model of a single capillary to provide biophysical insight. Both experiment and theory model capillary membranes as elastic and permeable. For a realistic change of input pressure, a relative pipe volume change of 21±5% was observed when using the experimental setup, compared with the value of approximately 17±1% when this quantity was calculated from the mathematical model. Volume, axial flow, and pressure changes are in the expected range. PMID:22569192

  8. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine blood is an excellent flocculating agent, faster acting and as effective on a mass basis as polyacrylamide, the most widely utilized polymeric flocculant. To determine the molecular basis of flocculation activity, whole bovine blood (BB) and BB plasma were fractionated by size exclusion chro...

  9. Palmitoleic acid calcium salt: a lubricant and bactericidal powder from natural lipids.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Kawamura, Yuki; Yamazaki, Yuki; Kijima, Tatsuro; Morikawa, Toshiya; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoleic acid is a promising bactericidal agent for cleansing products with alternative bactericidal abilities. In this study, we focus on the physical and biological activity of palmitoleic acid calcium salt (C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt) because it forms via an ion-exchange reaction between palmitoleic acid and Ca ions in tap water, and remains on the skin surface during the cleansing process. Here, we prepared C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt to investigate its crystal structure and physical and bactericidal properties. The Ca salt was a plate-shaped lamellar crystalline powder with a particle diameter of several micrometers to several tens of micrometers; it exhibited significant lubricity and alternative bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). We also examined other fatty acid Ca salts prepared from lauric acid (C12:0 fatty acid), palmitic acid (C16:0 fatty acid), and oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid). The bactericidal activities and lubricity of the fatty acid Ca salts changed with the alkyl chain length and the degree of unsaturation. The C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt exhibited the strongest selective bactericidal ability among the four investigated fatty acid Ca salts. These findings suggest that C16:1 fatty acid and its Ca salt have potential applications in cleansing and cosmetic products. PMID:25757432

  10. Whole Blood Cholinesterase Activity in 20 Species of Wild Birds.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Igal H; Yanco, Esty G; Landau, Shmulik; Nadler-Valency, Rona; Anglister, Nili; Bueller-Rosenzweig, Ariela; Apelbom-Halbersberg, Tal; Cuneah, Olga; Hanji, Vera; Bellaiche, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Clinical signs of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication in wild birds can be mistaken for those of other diseases, thus potentially delaying diagnosis and implementation of life-saving treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the reference interval for blood cholinesterase activity in 20 different wild avian species from 7 different orders, thereby compiling a reference database for wildlife veterinarians. Blood was collected from birds not suspected of having organophosphate or carbamate toxicosis, and the modified Michel method, which determines the change in blood pH that directly correlates with cholinesterase activity, was used to measure blood cholinesterase levels. Results of change in blood pH values ranged from 0.11 for the white-tailed eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla ) to 0.90 for the honey buzzard ( Pernis apivorus ). The results showed that even within the same family, interspecies differences in normal cholinesterase blood activity were not uncommon. The findings emphasized the importance of determining reference intervals for avian blood cholinesterase activity at the species level. PMID:27315378

  11. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  12. Cicada Wing Surface Topography: An Investigation into the Bactericidal Properties of Nanostructural Features.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, S M; Habimana, O; Lawler, J; O' Reilly, B; Daniels, S; Casey, E; Cowley, A

    2016-06-22

    Recently, the surface of the wings of the Psaltoda claripennis cicada species has been shown to possess bactericidal properties and it has been suggested that the nanostructure present on the wings was responsible for the bacterial death. We have studied the surface-based nanostructure and bactericidal activity of the wings of three different cicadas (Megapomponia intermedia, Ayuthia spectabile and Cryptotympana aguila) in order to correlate the relationship between the observed surface topographical features and their bactericidal properties. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy performed in this study revealed that the tested wing species contained a highly uniform, nanopillar structure on the surface. The bactericidal properties of the cicada wings were investigated by assessing the viability of autofluorescent Pseudomonas fluorescens cells following static adhesion assays and targeted dead/live fluorescence staining through direct microscopic counting methods. These experiments revealed a 20-25% bacterial surface coverage on all tested wing species; however, significant bactericidal properties were observed in the M. intermedia and C. aguila species as revealed by the high dead:live cell ratio on their surfaces. The combined results suggest a strong correlation between the bactericidal properties of the wings and the scale of the nanotopography present on the different wing surfaces. PMID:26551558

  13. Use of agar diffusion assay to measure bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric acid. Solu...

  14. Improving the Lethal Effect of Cpl-7, a Pneumococcal Phage Lysozyme with Broad Bactericidal Activity, by Inverting the Net Charge of Its Cell Wall-Binding Module

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Martínez, Roberto; de Paz, Héctor; Bustamante, Noemí; García, Ernesto; Menéndez, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Phage endolysins are murein hydrolases that break the bacterial cell wall to provoke lysis and release of phage progeny. Recently, these enzymes have also been recognized as powerful and specific antibacterial agents when added exogenously. In the pneumococcal system, most cell wall associated murein hydrolases reported so far depend on choline for activity, and Cpl-7 lysozyme constitutes a remarkable exception. Here, we report the improvement of the killing activity of the Cpl-7 endolysin by inversion of the sign of the charge of the cell wall-binding module (from −14.93 to +3.0 at neutral pH). The engineered variant, Cpl-7S, has 15 amino acid substitutions and an improved lytic activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multiresistant strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, and other pathogens. Moreover, we have demonstrated that a single 25-μg dose of Cpl-7S significantly increased the survival rate of zebrafish embryos infected with S. pneumoniae or S. pyogenes, confirming the killing effect of Cpl-7S in vivo. Interestingly, Cpl-7S, in combination with 0.01% carvacrol (an essential oil), was also found to efficiently kill Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida, an effect not described previously. Our findings provide a strategy to improve the lytic activity of phage endolysins based on facilitating their pass through the negatively charged bacterial envelope, and thereby their interaction with the cell wall target, by modulating the net charge of the cell wall-binding modules. PMID:23959317

  15. Use of agar diffusion assay to evaluate bactericidal activity of formulations of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids (FA). Wells in agar media seeded with bacteria were filled with FA-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions, plates were incubated, and zones of inhibition were measured. The relationship between bacteric...

  16. Improving the lethal effect of cpl-7, a pneumococcal phage lysozyme with broad bactericidal activity, by inverting the net charge of its cell wall-binding module.

    PubMed

    Díez-Martínez, Roberto; de Paz, Héctor D; de Paz, Héctor; Bustamante, Noemí; García, Ernesto; Menéndez, Margarita; García, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    Phage endolysins are murein hydrolases that break the bacterial cell wall to provoke lysis and release of phage progeny. Recently, these enzymes have also been recognized as powerful and specific antibacterial agents when added exogenously. In the pneumococcal system, most cell wall associated murein hydrolases reported so far depend on choline for activity, and Cpl-7 lysozyme constitutes a remarkable exception. Here, we report the improvement of the killing activity of the Cpl-7 endolysin by inversion of the sign of the charge of the cell wall-binding module (from -14.93 to +3.0 at neutral pH). The engineered variant, Cpl-7S, has 15 amino acid substitutions and an improved lytic activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multiresistant strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, and other pathogens. Moreover, we have demonstrated that a single 25-μg dose of Cpl-7S significantly increased the survival rate of zebrafish embryos infected with S. pneumoniae or S. pyogenes, confirming the killing effect of Cpl-7S in vivo. Interestingly, Cpl-7S, in combination with 0.01% carvacrol (an essential oil), was also found to efficiently kill Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida, an effect not described previously. Our findings provide a strategy to improve the lytic activity of phage endolysins based on facilitating their pass through the negatively charged bacterial envelope, and thereby their interaction with the cell wall target, by modulating the net charge of the cell wall-binding modules. PMID:23959317

  17. Transformation of cinnamic acid from trans- to cis-form raises a notable bactericidal and synergistic activity against multiple-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ling; Huang, Shao-Tsung; Sun, Fang-Ming; Chiang, Yu-Ling; Chiang, Chia-Jung; Tsai, Chiung-Man; Weng, Chia-Jui

    2011-06-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The long course of treatments on TB with a combination of antibiotics leads unfavorable side effects and poor patient compliance which contributes to sustaining multiple-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Therefore, the development of a new effective drug or synergist to reduce the prevalence of MDR-TB is urgent to date. Cinnamic acid (CA) is a natural occurring phenolic compound with anti-microbial activity. Both trans- and cis-isoforms of CA exist in planta, and cis-cinnamic acid (c-CA) can be transformed from trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA) under sunlight. Due to the unavailability of c-CA, the literature regarding the biological functions of c-CA is still limited. We had previously developed a practicable method for the transformation of c-CA from t-CA and the isolation of c-CA. Using the techniques, sufficient c-CA was obtained to evaluate its antituberculosis activity against a MDR M. tuberculosis strain. Moreover, the synergistic effects of c-CA and t-CA with two first-line anti-TB antibiotics, isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), were also determined. Although both of c-CA and t-CA decreased the viability of MDR-TB bacilli in a dose-dependent manner, the antituberculosis activity of c-CA was approximately 120-fold of t-CA. Furthermore, the c-CA exhibited higher synergistic effect with INH or RIF against tuberculosis than t-CA. The micrographs of scanning electron microscope (SEM) display that c-CA caused an injury on the out-layer of MDR-TB bacilli. The c-CA might be a potential anti-mycobacterial or synergistic agent that can be developed to against tuberculosis. PMID:21536127

  18. Spectral Studies and Bactericidal, Fungicidal, Insecticidal and Parasitological Activities of Organotin(IV) Complexes of Thio Schiff Bases Having no Donor Atoms

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Savita

    1995-01-01

    Twelve new organotin(IV) complexes of the type RnSnLm [where n = 3, m = 1, R = CH3 or C6H5; n = 2, m = 2, R = C6H5 or C4H9 ; L = anion of Schiff bases derived from the condensation of 2-amino-5-(o-anisyl)-l,3,4-thiadiazole with salicylaldehyde (HL-1), 2- hydroxynaphthaldehyde (HL-2) and 2-hydroxyacetophenone (HL-3)] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductances, electronic, infrared, far-infrared, 1H NMR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectral studies. Thermal studies of two complexes, viz., Ph3Sn (L-1) and Ph2Sn(L-2)2 have been carried out in the temperature range 25-1000∘C using TG, DTG and DTA techniques. All these complexes decompose gradually with the formation of SnO2 as an end product. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the Schiff bases and their complexes has also been determined against Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus Penicillin resistance (2500 units), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Sporotrichum schenckii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Aspergillus fumigatus. The Schiff bases (HL-1), (HL-2) and the organotin(IV) compounds have also been tested against various important herbicidal, fungicidal, insecticidal species and also for parasitological activity against freeliving nematode. PMID:18472781

  19. [Detection of bactericidal antibody in the breast milk of a mother infected with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7].

    PubMed

    Adachi, E; Tanaka, H; Toyoda, N; Takeda, T

    1999-05-01

    A 21 years-old pregnant woman developed diarrhea, fresh bloody stools and abdominal pain on April 6th 1997 at 32 weeks of gestation, and was admitted to the hospital on April 11th. The stool culture on admission was positive for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 (Stx1 and 2). Clinical laboratory data during admission showed only slight elevation of beta-microglobulin and N-acetyl glucosaminidase in the urine, and no neurological or hemolytic symptoms were seen. After the antibiotic and lactobacillus administration, all her symptoms were relieved and no abnormal findings in pregnancy were observed. She delivered a baby girl normally on May 30th. Serum (between 41 and 120 days from the onset) and milk (between 4 and 64 days post partum) samples from the mother, and serum (64 days of age) from a baby and cord blood were obtained to monitor the immune status against EHEC O157:H7 and against Shiga toxins (Stx). Anti-E. coli O157 LPS antibodies (IgA, G and M) were assayed by the ELISA method. Neutralizing anti-Stx antibodies were measured by using ACHN cell cytotoxicity assay. In the colostrum and mature milk, high levels of IgA and IgM, and no IgG antibodies against EHEC O157 LPS were detected. In one of the control colostrum samples obtained from 4 healthy mothers IgA antibody against EHEC O157 LPS was detected. To assess the potency of protection against EHEC O157:H7 by the breast milk, we monitored it by the bactericidal activity for the organism under complement-coincubation experiment, and by the neutralization test for the Stx cytotoxicity. As a result, breast milk samples (both colostrum and mature milk) from a patient were demonstrated to kill the organisms. One of 4 healthy milk samples, showed bactericidal activity though it was negative in O157-LPS antibody. This bactericidal activity seen in one healthy colostrum is possibly due to a nonspecific reaction caused by non-O157 E. coli infection. From these observations, it was suggested that the

  20. Effects of pH and oil-in-water emulsions on growth and physicochemical cell surface properties of Listeria monocytogenes: Impact on tolerance to the bactericidal activity of disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Naïtali, Murielle; Dubois-Brissonnet, Florence; Cuvelier, Gérard; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noëlle

    2009-03-31

    This study characterizes the effects of an acidic pH and an emulsified oil-in-water phase in a culture medium on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes. Two strains were tested, Scott A and CIP 78.39, and exhibited similar responses to growth media. First of all, the results showed that the emulsified oil phase had no effect on growth kinetics, whereas acidification of the initial pH (from 7.2 to 5.2) reduced both growth rates and growth yields. Secondly, physicochemical cell surface properties were evaluated. Growth in an emulsion resulted in a more marked increase in hydrophobicity in neutral than in acidic media, whereas the electrical charge remained unchanged. Furthermore, growth in acidic media - emulsified or not - induced a reduction in hydrophobicity as well as in the negative charge of cell surfaces. Thirdly, the results showed that tolerance to the bactericidal activity of didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) and sodium dichloroisocyanuric acid (NaDCC) was strongly dependent on the pH of the growth phase. Acidic stress during growth increased tolerance to both disinfectants, but to a greater extent with DDAB than with NaDCC. Moreover, the presence of an emulsion during growth at an acidic pH had no effect on subsequent strain tolerance to disinfectants. By contrast, when the pH of the emulsion was neutral, the oil phase induced a more marked reduction in the tolerance of both strains to DDAB, but the reverse applied with NaDCC. Taken together, these results indicate a clear link between modifications to cell surface properties and tolerance to disinfectants, related to the hydrophobicity and electrical charges of both bacterial cells and disinfectants. PMID:19203811

  1. Exploring a new phenomenon in the bactericidal response of TiO2 thin films by Fe doping: Exerting the antimicrobial activity even after stoppage of illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibi, Sanaz; Vahed, Shohreh; Torabi, Omid; Jamshidi, Amin; Golabgir, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-02-01

    Antibacterial properties of Fe-doped TiO2 thin films prepared on glass by the sol-gel hot-dipping technique were studied. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue under ultra violet and visible light. The antibacterial properties of the coatings were investigated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisia and Aspergillus niger. The principle of incubation methods was also discussed. The results indicated that Fe doping of thin films eventuated in high antibacterial properties under visible light and this performance remained even after stoppage of illumination. This article tries to provide some explanation for this fact.

  2. Effect of bromidehypochlorite bactericides on microorganisms.

    PubMed

    SHERE, L; KELLEY, M J; RICHARDSON, J H

    1962-11-01

    A new principle in compounding stable, granular bactericidal products led to unique combinations of a water-soluble inorganic bromide salt with a hypochlorite-type disinfectant of either inorganic or organic type. Microbiological results are shown for an inorganic bactericide composed of chlorinated trisodium phosphate containing 3.1% "available chlorine" and 2% potassium bromide, and for an organic bactericide formulated from sodium dichloroisocyanurate so as to contain 13.4% "available chlorine" and 8% potassium bromide. Comparison of these products with their nonbromide counterparts are reported for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus lactis, Aerobacter aerogenes, and Proteus vulgaris. Test methods employed were the Chambers test, the A.O.A.C. Germicidal and Detergent Sanitizer-Official test, and the Available Chlorine Germicidal Equivalent Concentration test. The minimal killing concentrations for the bromide-hypochlorite bactericides against this variety of organisms were reduced by a factor 2 to 24 times those required for similar hypochlorite-type disinfectants not containing the bromide. PMID:13977149

  3. Subcellular location and properties of bactericidal factors from human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gabay, J E; Heiple, J M; Cohn, Z A; Nathan, C F

    1986-11-01

    We examined the subcellular location of bactericidal factors (BF) in human neutrophils, using an efficient fractionation scheme. Nitrogen bomb cavitates of DIFP-treated PMN were centrifuged through discontinuous Percoll gradients, each fraction extracted with 0.05 M glycine, pH 2.0, and tested for the killing of Escherichia coli. greater than 90% of BF coisolated with the azurophil granules. After lysis of azurophils, 98% of azurophil-derived BF (ADBF) sedimented with the membrane. ADBF activity was solubilized from azurophil membrane with either acid or nonionic detergent (Triton X-100, Triton X-114). Bactericidal activity was linear with respect to protein concentration over the range 0.3-30 micrograms/ml. 0.1-0.3 microgram/ml ADBF killed 10(5) E. coli within 30 min at 37 degrees C. At 1.4 micrograms/ml, 50% of 2 X 10(5) bacteria were killed within 5 min. ADBF was effective between pH 5-8, with peak activity at pH 5.5. Glucose (20 mM), EDTA (1-25 mM), and physiologic concentrations of NaCl or KCl had little or no inhibitory effect on ADBF. ADBF killed both Gram-positive and Gram-negative virulent clinical isolates, including listeria, staphylococci, beta-hemolytic streptococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, under these conditions of cell disruption, fractionation, extraction, and assay, almost all BF in human PMN appeared to be localized to the membrane of azurophilic granules as a highly potent, broad-spectrum, rapidly acting protein(s) effective in physiologic medium. Some of these properties appear to distinguish ADBF from previously described PMN bactericidal proteins. PMID:3772295

  4. Surface-Energy Dependent Contact Activation of Blood Factor XII

    PubMed Central

    Golas, Avantika; Parhi, Purnendu; Dimachkie, Ziad O.; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2009-01-01

    Contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension τao=γlvocosθ in dyne/cm, where γlvo is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and θ is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties −36<τao<72 dyne/cm (0° ≤ θ < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20<τao<40 dyne/cm (55° < θ < 75°) range over which activation yield (putatively FXIIa) rises just above detection limits. Activation is very rapid upon contact with all activators tested and did not significantly vary over 30 minutes of continuous FXII-procoagulant contact. Results suggest that materials falling within the 20<τao<40 dyne/cm surface-energy range should exhibit minimal activation of blood-plasma coagulation through the intrinsic pathway. Surface chemistries falling within this range are, however, a perplexingly difficult target for surface engineering because of the critical balance that must be struck between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity. Results are interpreted within the context of blood plasma coagulation and the role of water and proteins at procoagulant surfaces. PMID:19892397

  5. Functional Nanoparticles Activate a Decellularized Liver Scaffold for Blood Detoxification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fen; Kang, Tianyi; Deng, Jie; Liu, Junli; Chen, Xiaolei; Wang, Yuan; Ouyang, Liang; Du, Ting; Tang, Hong; Xu, Xiaoping; Chen, Shaochen; Du, Yanan; Shi, Yujun; Qian, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuquan; Deng, Hongxin; Gou, Maling

    2016-04-01

    Extracorporeal devices have great promise for cleansing the body of virulence factors that are caused by venomous injuries, bacterial infections, and biological weaponry. The clinically used extracorporeal devices, such as artificial liver-support systems that are mainly based on dialysis or electrostatic interaction, are limited to remove a target toxin. Here, a liver-mimetic device is shown that consists of decellularized liver scaffold (DLS) populated with polydiacetylene (PDA) nanoparticles. DLS has the gross shape and 3D architecture of a liver, and the PDA nanoparticles selectively capture and neutralize the pore-forming toxins (PFTs). This device can efficiently and target-orientedly remove PFTs in human blood ex vivo without changing blood components or activating complement factors, showing potential application in antidotal therapy. This work provides a proof-of-principle for blood detoxification by a nanoparticle-activated DLS, and can lead to the development of future medical devices for antidotal therapy. PMID:26914158

  6. Bactericidal effects of antimicrobial agents on epithelial cell-associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hirakata, Yoichi; Yano, Hisakazu; Arai, Kazuaki; Kitagawa, Miho; Hatta, Masumitsu; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2012-06-01

    It is not clear whether antipseudomonal agents can kill cell-associated bacteria within a short time. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and A549 cells were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and PAO1 and the bactericidal activity of ceftazidime, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin against the organisms was investigated. In both MDCK and A549 cells, β-lactams could not kill epithelial cell-associated bacteria within 2 h. Gentamicin at concentrations ≤32 μg/ml killed more than 99% of epithelial cell-associated bacteria. Ciprofloxacin at 0.5 μg/ml killed more than 99.9% of MDCK cell-associated bacteria. Ciprofloxacin has the strongest and most rapid bactericidal activity against epithelial cell-associated bacteria, which may be explained by the combination of potent in-vitro bactericidal activity and high penetration ability into epithelial cells. PMID:22116462

  7. Effects of cream on bactericidal and metabolic functions of bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Eshelman, J E; Eberhart, R J; Scholz, R W

    1981-05-01

    The effects of cream on the bactericidal capacity and on selected metabolic characteristics of bovine blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were examined in vitro. These properties were also compared in blood PMN and PMN isolated from milk. Addition of 4% cream to the incubation medium reduced killing of Staphylococcus aureus by blood PMN. The PMN from milk were as bactericidal as blood PMN when incubated in a synthetic medium without cream. Cream reduced the phagocytosis-induced increment in O2 uptake in blood PMN. Compared to blood PMN in the absence of cream, PMN isolated from milk had reduced O2 uptake during phagocytosis. In all PMN preparations [14C]CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose and [6-14C]glucose was increased during phagocytosis. Rates of [14C]CO2 conversion from [1-C14]glucose were not significantly different among blood PMN, blood PMN plus cream, and milk PMN. Cream reduced [14C]CO2 conversion from [6-14C]glucose by blood PMN; milk PMN converted even less [6-14C]glucose to [14C]CO2 than did blood PMN in the presence of cream. Cream added to blood PMN preparations in the absence of other phagocytizable particles increased O2 uptake, increased (nonsignificantly) [14C]CO2 conversion from [1-14C]glucose, and reduced conversion from [6-14C]glucose. These studies confirm that cream reduces the bactericidal capacity of bovine PMN and reveal cream-induced alterations in selected metabolic pathways during phagocytosis. They show also that cream itself, in the absence of bacteria, alters PMN metabolism. PMID:7258794

  8. Performance of a coincidence based blood activity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.

    1989-12-01

    A new device has been constructed that measures the positron emitting radio-tracer concentration in arterial blood by extracting blood with a peristaltic pump, then measuring the activity concentration by detecting coincident pairs of 511 keV photons with a pair of heavy inorganic scintillators attached to photomultiplier tubes. The sensitivity of this device is experimentally determined to be 610 counts/second per {mu}Ci/ml, and has a paralyzing dead time of 1.2 {mu}s, so is capable of measuring blood activity concentration as high as 1 mCi/ml. Its performance is compared to two other blood monitoring methods: discrete blood samples counted with a well counter and device that uses a plastic scintillator to directly detect positrons. The positron detection efficiency of this device for {sup 18}F is greater than the plastic scintillation counter, and also eliminates the radioisotope dependent correction factors necessary to convert count rate to absolute concentration. Coincident photon detection also has the potential of reducing the background compared to direct positron detection, thereby increasing the minimum detectable isotope concentration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride shows bactericidal advantages over chlorhexidine digluconate against ESKAPE bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongxin; Wei, Dafu; Lu, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    More information regarding the bactericidal properties of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) against clinically important antibiotic-resistant ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens needs to be provided for its uses in infection control. The bactericidal properties of PHMG and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) were compared based on their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations, and time-course-killing curves against clinically important antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant ESKAPE pathogens. Results showed that PHMG exhibited significantly higher bactericidal activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacter spp. than CHG. A slight bactericidal advantage over CHG was obtained against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, ciprofloxacin- and levofloxacin-resistant Acinetobacter spp., and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In previous reports, PHMG had higher antimicrobial activity against almost all tested Gram-negative bacteria and several Gram-positive bacteria than CHG using MIC test. These studies support the further development of covalently bound PHMG in sterile-surface materials and the incorporation of PHMG in novel disinfectant formulas. PMID:24888899

  10. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight infection and are part of your body's defense system. Platelets help blood to clot when you have a cut or wound. Bone marrow, the spongy material inside your bones, makes new blood cells. Blood cells ...

  11. Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to bactericidal properties of medium-chain monoglycerides and free fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Petschow, B W; Batema, R P; Ford, L L

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that various short- and medium-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) and their corresponding monoacylglycerol esters (MGs) have antibacterial activity in vitro against primarily gram-positive bacteria. More recent studies have also shown that the growth of Helicobacter spp. is inhibited by linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to the in vitro bactericidal properties of medium-chain MGs and FFAs. Incubation of H. pylori with saturated MGs, ranging in carbon chain length from C10:0 to C14:0, at 1 mM caused a 4-log-unit or greater reduction in the number of viable bacteria after exposure for 1 h. Lower levels of bactericidal activity were observed with C9:0, C15:0, and C16:0 MGs. In contrast, lauric acid (C12:0) was the only medium-chain saturated FFA with bactericidal activity against H. pylori. The MGs and FFAs were bactericidal after incubation for as little as 15 min at neutral or acidic pHs. Higher levels of MGs and FFAs were required for bactericidal activity in the presence of higher amounts of protein in liquid diets. We also found that the frequency of spontaneous development of resistance by H. pylori was higher for metronidazole and tetracycline (10(-5) to 10(-6)) than for C10:0 MG, C12:0 MG, and C12:0 FFA (< 10(-8)). Collectively, our data demonstrate that H. pylori is rapidly inactivated by medium-chain MGs and lauric acid and exhibits a relatively low frequency of spontaneous development of resistance to the bactericidal activity of MGs. Further studies are needed to establish whether MGs may be useful either alone or with other known therapeutic agents in the management of H. pylori infections in humans. PMID:8834870

  12. Systemic blood coagulation activation in acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Undas, Anetta; Szułdrzyński, Konstanty; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E.; Tracz, Wiesława; Zmudka, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated systemic alterations to the blood coagulation system that occur during a coronary thrombotic event. Peripheral blood coagulation in patients with acute coronary thrombosis was compared with that in people with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Blood coagulation and platelet activation at the microvascular injury site were assessed using immunochemistry in 28 non-anticoagulated patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus 28 stable CAD patients matched for age, sex, risk factors, and medications. AMI was associated with increased maximum rates of thrombin-antithrombin complex generation (by 93.8%; P < .001), thrombin B-chain formation (by 57.1%; P < .001), prothrombin consumption (by 27.9%; P = .012), fibrinogen consumption (by 27.0%; P = .02), factor (f) Va light chain generation (by 44.2%; P = .003), and accelerated fVa inactivation (by 76.1%; P < .001), and with enhanced release of platelet-derived soluble CD40 ligand (by 44.4%; P < .001). FVa heavy chain availability was similar in both groups because of enhanced formation and activated protein C (APC)–mediated destruction. The velocity of coagulant reactions in AMI patients showed positive correlations with interleukin-6. Heparin treatment led to dampening of coagulant reactions with profiles similar to those for stable CAD. AMI-induced systemic activation of blood coagulation markedly modifies the pattern of coagulant reactions at the site of injury in peripheral vessels compared with that in stable CAD patients. PMID:18931343

  13. Strongly Accelerated Margination of Active Particles in Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Gekle, Stephan

    2016-01-19

    Synthetic nanoparticles and other stiff objects injected into a blood vessel filled with red blood cells are known to marginate toward the vessel walls. By means of hydrodynamic lattice-Boltzmann simulations, we show that active particles can strongly accelerate their margination by moving against the flow direction: particles located initially in the channel center migrate much faster to their final position near the wall than in the nonactive case. We explain our findings by an enhanced rate of collisions between the stiff particles and the deformable red blood cells. Our results imply that a significantly faster margination can be achieved either technically by the application of an external magnetic field (if the particles are magnetic) or biologically by self-propulsion (if the particles are, e.g., swimming bacteria). PMID:26789773

  14. Bactericidal Effects and Mechanism of Action of Olanexidine Gluconate, a New Antiseptic.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Akifumi; Iwata, Koushi; Nii, Takuya; Nakata, Hikaru; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Inoue, Yasuhide

    2015-08-01

    Olanexidine gluconate [1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate] (development code OPB-2045G) is a new monobiguanide compound with bactericidal activity. In this study, we assessed its spectrum of bactericidal activity and mechanism of action. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of the compound for 30-, 60-, and 180-s exposures were determined with the microdilution method using a neutralizer against 320 bacterial strains from culture collections and clinical isolates. Based on the results, the estimated bactericidal olanexidine concentrations with 180-s exposures were 869 μg/ml for Gram-positive cocci (155 strains), 109 μg/ml for Gram-positive bacilli (29 strains), and 434 μg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria (136 strains). Olanexidine was active against a wide range of bacteria, especially Gram-positive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and had a spectrum of bactericidal activity comparable to that of commercial antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine. In vitro experiments exploring its mechanism of action indicated that olanexidine (i) interacts with the bacterial surface molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid, (ii) disrupts the cell membranes of liposomes, which are artificial bacterial membrane models, (iii) enhances the membrane permeability of Escherichia coli, (iv) disrupts the membrane integrity of S. aureus, and (v) denatures proteins at relatively high concentrations (≥160 μg/ml). These results indicate that olanexidine probably binds to the cell membrane, disrupts membrane integrity, and its bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects are caused by irreversible leakage of intracellular components. At relatively high concentrations, olanexidine aggregates cells by denaturing proteins. This mechanism differs slightly from that of a similar biguanide compound, chlorhexidine. PMID:25987609

  15. Bactericidal Effects and Mechanism of Action of Olanexidine Gluconate, a New Antiseptic

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Koushi; Nii, Takuya; Nakata, Hikaru; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Inoue, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Olanexidine gluconate [1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate] (development code OPB-2045G) is a new monobiguanide compound with bactericidal activity. In this study, we assessed its spectrum of bactericidal activity and mechanism of action. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of the compound for 30-, 60-, and 180-s exposures were determined with the microdilution method using a neutralizer against 320 bacterial strains from culture collections and clinical isolates. Based on the results, the estimated bactericidal olanexidine concentrations with 180-s exposures were 869 μg/ml for Gram-positive cocci (155 strains), 109 μg/ml for Gram-positive bacilli (29 strains), and 434 μg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria (136 strains). Olanexidine was active against a wide range of bacteria, especially Gram-positive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and had a spectrum of bactericidal activity comparable to that of commercial antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine. In vitro experiments exploring its mechanism of action indicated that olanexidine (i) interacts with the bacterial surface molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid, (ii) disrupts the cell membranes of liposomes, which are artificial bacterial membrane models, (iii) enhances the membrane permeability of Escherichia coli, (iv) disrupts the membrane integrity of S. aureus, and (v) denatures proteins at relatively high concentrations (≥160 μg/ml). These results indicate that olanexidine probably binds to the cell membrane, disrupts membrane integrity, and its bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects are caused by irreversible leakage of intracellular components. At relatively high concentrations, olanexidine aggregates cells by denaturing proteins. This mechanism differs slightly from that of a similar biguanide compound, chlorhexidine. PMID:25987609

  16. Following the mechanisms of bacteriostatic versus bactericidal action using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bernatová, Silvie; Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdeněk; Serý, Mojmír; Ježek, Jan; Jákl, Petr; Siler, Martin; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, Veronika; Dvořáčková, Milada; Růžička, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics cure infections by influencing bacterial growth or viability. Antibiotics can be divided to two groups on the basis of their effect on microbial cells through two main mechanisms, which are either bactericidal or bacteriostatic. Bactericidal antibiotics kill the bacteria and bacteriostatic antibiotics suppress the growth of bacteria (keep them in the stationary phase of growth). One of many factors to predict a favorable clinical outcome of the potential action of antimicrobial chemicals may be provided using in vitro bactericidal/bacteriostatic data (e.g., minimum inhibitory concentrations-MICs). Consequently, MICs are used in clinical situations mainly to confirm resistance, and to determine the in vitro activities of new antimicrobials. We report on the combination of data obtained from MICs with information on microorganisms' "fingerprint" (e.g., DNA/RNA, and proteins) provided by Raman spectroscopy. Thus, we could follow mechanisms of the bacteriostatic versus bactericidal action simply by detecting the Raman bands corresponding to DNA. The Raman spectra of Staphylococcus epidermidis treated with clindamycin (a bacteriostatic agent) indeed show little effect on DNA which is in contrast with the action of ciprofloxacin (a bactericidal agent), where the Raman spectra show a decrease in strength of the signal assigned to DNA, suggesting DNA fragmentation. PMID:24284484

  17. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. Bactericidal behavior of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Ma, Yong; Lin, Naiming; Fan, Ailan; Tang, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Stainless steels are one of the most common materials used in health care environments. However, the lack of antibacterial advantage has limited their use in practical application. In this paper, antibacterial stainless steel surfaces with different Cu contents have been prepared by plasma surface alloying technology (PSAT). The steel surface with Cu content 90 wt.% (Cu-SS) exhibits strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) within 3 h. Although the Cu-containing surface with Cu content 2.5 wt.% (CuNi-SS) can also kill all tested bacteria, this process needs 12 h. SEM observation of the bacterial morphology and an agarose gel electrophoresis were performed to study the antibacterial mechanism of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces against E. coli. The results indicated that Cu ions are released when the Cu-containing surfaces are in contact with bacterial and disrupt the cell membranes, killing the bacteria. The toxicity of Cu-alloyed surfaces does not cause damage to the bacterial DNA. These results provide a scientific explanation for the antimicrobial applications of Cu-containing stainless steel. The surfaces with different antibacterial abilities could be used as hygienic surfaces in healthcare-associated settings according to the diverse requirement of bactericidal activities.

  1. Histidine-rich glycoprotein inhibits contact activation of blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, A B; Andersen, H F; Magnusson, S; Halkier, T

    1990-12-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein has been purified from bovine plasma employing two different purification procedures. The first procedure was one-step ion-exchange chromatography using phosphocellulose, while the second procedure involved fractionation using polyethyleneglycol 6000 followed by column chromatography employing CM-Sepharose and heparin-Sepharose. The effect of purified bovine histidine-rich glycoprotein on the contact activation of blood coagulation was studied in human plasma by using as activating surface either an ellagic acid-phospholipid suspension (Cephotest) or sulfatide. Contact activation was monitored by the generation of amidolytic activity towards a synthetic chromogenic substrate (S-2302) for factor XIIa and plasma kallikrein. Bovine histidine-rich glycoprotein inhibits the contact activation induced by both of these activating surfaces. PMID:2084959

  2. Morphine treatment alters nucleotidase activities in rat blood serum

    PubMed Central

    Rozisky, Joanna Ripoll; Nonose, Yasmine; Laste, Gabriela; dos Santos, Vinicius Souza; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci LS

    2012-01-01

    Morphine has been widely used in neonatal pain management. However, this treatment may produce adaptive changes in several physiologic systems. Our laboratory has demonstrated that morphine treatment in neonate rats alters nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity and gene expression in central nervous system structures. Considering the relationship between the opioid and purinergic systems, our aim was to verify whether treatment with morphine from postnatal days 8 (P8) through 14 (P14) at a dose of 5 µg per day alters NTPDase and 5′-nucleotidase activities in rat serum over the short, medium, and long terms. After the in vivo assay, the morphine group showed increased hydrolysis of all nucleotides at P30, and a decrease in adenosine 5′-diphosphate hydrolysis at P60. Moreover, we found that nucleotidase activities change with age; adenosine 5′-triphosphate hydrolysis activity was lower at P16, and adenosine 5′-monophosphate hydrolysis activity was higher at P60. These changes are very important because these enzymes are the main regulators of blood nucleotide levels and, consequently, nucleotide signaling. Our findings showed that in vivo morphine treatment alters nucleotide hydrolysis in rat blood serum, suggesting that purine homeostasis can be influenced by opioid treatment during the neonatal period.

  3. Procoagulant activity in stored units of red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Aleshnick, Maya; Foley, Jonathan H; Keating, Friederike K; Butenas, Saulius

    2016-06-10

    The procoagulant activity (PA) of stored units of red blood cells (RBC) increases over time, which is related to the expression/exposure of tissue factor (TF). However, there is a discrepancy between the TF measured and changes in PA observed, suggesting that other blood components contribute to this activity. Our goal was to evaluate changes in PA of stored RBCs and to determine possible contributors to it. RBC units from 4 healthy donors were prepared and stored at 4 °C. On selected days, RBC aliquots were reconstituted with autologous plasma and tested in the thromboelastography assay. Corresponding supernatants were tested in a clotting assay. For all donors, the clotting time (CT) of reconstituted RBC units decreased from ∼3000-4000s on day 1 to ∼1000-1600s on day 30, with the most dramatic changes occurring between days 1 and 5. Anti-TF antibody slightly prolonged the CT. The concentration of TF did not change significantly over time and was within the range of 0.3-2.3 pM. Bovine lactadherin (LTD) prolonged the CT of the RBC (by 2.4-3.4-fold in days 3-5 and by 1.3-1.8-fold at day 30). Anti-TF antibody together with LTD had a cumulative effect on the CT prolongation. CT of supernatants responded to both anti-TF and anti-FXIa antibodies. Three contributors to the PA of stored RBC were identified, i.e. FXIa in solution and phosphatidylserine and TF exposed on blood cells and microparticles. Failure of LTD and antibodies to completely eliminate PA suggests that other components of blood could contribute to it. PMID:27150627

  4. Bactericidal antibody responses of juvenile rhesus monkeys immunized with group B Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zollinger, W D; Moran, E E; Devi, S J; Frasch, C E

    1997-03-01

    Reports on the bactericidal activities of antibodies to group B Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide (B PS) are conflicting. Using three different complement sources, we analyzed the bactericidal activities of sera of juvenile rhesus monkeys immunized with five conjugate vaccines of B PS synthesized by different schemes, an Escherichia coli K92 conjugate, and a noncovalent complex of B PS with group B meningococcal outer membrane vesicles (B+OMV) (S. J. N. Devi, W. D. Zollinger, P. J. Snoy, J. Y. Tai, P. Costantini, F. Norelli, R. Rappuoli, and C. E. Frasch, Infect. Immun. 65:1045-1052, 1997). With rabbit complement, nearly all preimmune sera showed relatively high bactericidal titers, and all vaccines, except the K92 conjugate, induced a fourfold or greater increase in bactericidal titers in most of the monkeys vaccinated. In contrast, with human complement, most prevaccination sera showed no bactericidal activity and in most of the vaccine groups, little or no increase in bactericidal titer was observed. However, the covalent conjugation of P BS and OMV (B-OMV) administered with and without the Ribi adjuvant induced relatively high bactericidal titers which persisted up to 30 weeks. An analysis of the specificities of bactericidal antibodies revealed that absorption with E. coli K1 cells did not change the bactericidal titer with human complement but reduced the titers observed with the rabbit and monkey complements. A significant increase in anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies was elicited by the B-OMV conjugates, and nearly all of the bactericidal activity with human complement could be inhibited with the purified group B meningococcal L3,7,8 LPS. B-OMV covalently coupled via adipic acid dihydrazide elicited significantly elevated levels (P < or = 0.02) of anti-OMV antibodies compared to those of the noncovalently complexed B+OMV. An initial small-scale evaluation of B PS conjugates in adult human males appears feasible, with careful monitoring

  5. Bactericidal Action of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts from the Residue of Crushed Grapes from Winemaking.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Mana; Sheng, Hong; Tada, Mika; Mokudai, Takayuki; Oizumi, Satomi; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that photo-irradiation of polyphenols could exert bactericidal action via reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, the photo-irradiation-induced bactericidal activity of the aqueous extract from the residue of crushed grapes from winemaking was investigated in relation to ROS formation. Staphylococcus aureus suspended in the extract was irradiated with LED light at 400 nm. This solution killed the bacteria, and a 3-4 log and a >5-log reduction of the viable counts were observed within 10 and 20 min, respectively. LED light irradiation alone also killed the bacteria, but the viable counts were 2-4 log higher than those of the photo-irradiated extract. In contrast, almost no change occurred in the suspension without LED irradiation. When hydroxyl radical scavengers were added to the suspension, the bactericidal effect of the photo-irradiated extract was attenuated. Furthermore, electron spin resonance analysis demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals were generated by the photo-irradiation of the extract. The present study suggests that polyphenolic compounds in the extract exert bactericidal activity via hydroxyl radical formation upon photo-irradiation. PMID:27350429

  6. In vivo analysis of impaired macrophage bactericidal capacity during experimental African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Glick, D L; Jones, J F

    1984-01-01

    Since innate resistance of mice to Salmonella typhimurium depends on an intact macrophage system, we have used this bacterium to investigate the effect of Trypanosoma brucei subsp. rhodesiense infection on macrophage phagocytic and cytolytic function. CBA/CaJ mice infected with T. brucei subsp. rhodesiense have decreased resistance to S. typhimurium, since doubly infected mice rapidly succumb to sublethal doses of S. typhimurium. Although trypanosomiasis is known to suppress antibody formation, such a suppression of antibody does not seem to play a role in trypanosome-induced sensitivity to S. typhimurium. A trypanosome-induced blockade of the reticuloendothelial system also does not occur, since parasitized and control mice clear S. typhimurium from the blood equally well. Early killing (0 to 48 h) of S. typhimurium in the liver and spleen is mainly macrophage mediated, and mice infected with trypanosomes kill S. typhimurium in the liver and spleen very poorly. Apparently trypanosomiasis inhibits macrophage bactericidal activity, but has no effect on phagocytosis. PMID:6389356

  7. Adrenergic and non-adrenergic control of active skeletal muscle blood flow: implications for blood pressure regulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Holwerda, Seth W; Restaino, Robert M; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Blood flow to active skeletal muscle increases markedly during dynamic exercise. However, despite the massive capacity of skeletal muscle vasculature to dilate, arterial blood pressure is well maintained. Sympathetic nerve activity is elevated with increased intensity of dynamic exercise, and is essential for redistribution of cardiac output to active skeletal muscle and maintenance of arterial blood pressure. In addition, aside from the sympathetic nervous system, evidence from human studies is now emerging that supports roles for non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor pathways that become active during exercise and contribute to vasoconstriction in active skeletal muscle. Neuropeptide Y and adenosine triphosphate are neurotransmitters that are co-released with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals capable of producing vasoconstriction. Likewise, plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) increase during dynamic exercise, particularly at higher intensities. Ang II and ET-1 have both been shown to be important vasoconstrictor pathways for restraint of blood flow in active skeletal muscle and the maintenance of arterial blood pressure during exercise. Indeed, although both adrenergic and non-adrenergic vasoconstriction can be attenuated in exercising muscle with greater intensity of exercise, with the higher volume of blood flow, the active skeletal muscle vasculature remains capable of contributing importantly to the maintenance of blood pressure. In this brief review we provide an update on skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during exercise with an emphasis on adrenergic and non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor pathways and their potential capacity to offset vasodilation and aid in the regulation of blood pressure. PMID:25467222

  8. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianghong; Yuan, Shuaishuai; Shi, Dean; Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao; Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-07-01

    Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  9. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  10. Lipid Peroxidation by Human Blood Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stossel, Thomas P.; Mason, Robert J.; Smith, Arnold L.

    1974-01-01

    Cell suspensions enriched in human blood monocytes, obtained from normal peripheral blood by sedimentation on sodium diatrizoate-Ficoll gradients or from the blood of patients with neutropenia and monocytosis, accumulated malonyldialdehyde, a labile catabolite of lipid peroxidation, during incubations with polystyrene beads or heat-killed Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mixed blood leukocytes principally composed of granulocytes or granulocytes purified by density gradient sedimentation did not accumulate malonyldialdehyde during incubations with these particles, but did when ingesting particles containing linolenate. The phospholipid fatty acid composition of monocyte-enriched and purified granulocyte preparations from the same donors were compared. The molar fraction of arachidonate (20:4) in phospholipids from monocyte-rich preparations was 62% greater than that of purified granulocytes. The findings indicate that human monocytes, possibly because of a greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in their membranes, peroxidize a greater quantity of endogenous lipids than granulocytes during endocytosis. Normal human granulocytes have the capacity to peroxidize ingested lipids. However, mixed leukocytes from two patients with chronic granulomatous disease produced little malonyldialdehyde when engulfing linolenate-containing particles. Therefore the capacity to peroxidize lipid is related to cellular oxygen metabolism, a function in which chronic granulomatous disease granulocytes are dificient. Malonyldialdehyde chemically prepared by hydrolysis of tetramethoxypropane, by extraction from peroxidized linolenic acid, or purified from extracts of phagocytizing rabbit alveolar macrophages had bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and S. epidermidis. Therefore, toxic catabolites of lipid hydroperoxides may potentiate the bactericidal activity of hydrogen peroxide in mononuclear phagocytes. PMID:4853010

  11. Hierarchical Polymer Brushes with Dominant Antibacterial Mechanisms Switching from Bactericidal to Bacteria Repellent.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shunjie; Luan, Shifang; Shi, Hengchong; Xu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jidong; Yuan, Shuaishuai; Yang, Yuming; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-05-01

    Although polycationic surfaces have high antimicrobial efficacies, they suffer from high toxicity to mammalian cells and severe surface accumulation of dead bacteria. For the first time, we propose a surface-initiated photoiniferter-mediated polymerization (SI-PIMP) strategy of constructing a "cleaning" zwitterionic outer layer on a polycationic bactericidal background layer to physically hinder the availability of polycationic moieties for mammalian cells in aqueous service. In dry conditions, the polycationic layer exerts the contact-active bactericidal property toward the adherent bacteria, as the zwitterionic layer collapses. In aqueous environment, the zwitterionic layer forms a hydration layer to significantly inhibit the attachment of planktonic bacteria and the accumulation of dead bacteria, while the polycationic layer kills bacteria occasionally deposited on the surface, thus preserving the antibacterial capability for a long period. More importantly, the zwitterionic hydrated layer protects the mammalian cells from toxicity induced by the bactericidal background layer, and therefore hierarchical antibacterial surfaces present much better biocompatibility than that of the naked cationic references. The dominant antibacterial mechanism of the hierarchical surfaces can switch from the bactericidal efficacy in dry storage to the bacteria repellent capability in aqueous service, showing great advantages in the infection-resistant applications. PMID:27049327

  12. Autonomic Nerve Activity and Blood Pressure in Ambulatory Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hellyer, Jessica; Akingba, A. George; Rhee, Kyoung-Suk; Tan, Alex Y.; Lane, Kathleen A.; Shen, Changyu; Patel, Jheel; Fishbein, Michael C; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between cardiac autonomic nerve activity and blood pressure (BP) changes in ambulatory dogs is unclear. Objective To test the hypotheses that simultaneous termination of stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA) and vagal nerve activity (VNA) predisposes to spontaneous orthostatic hypotension and that specific β2 adrenoceptor blockade prevents the hypotensive episodes. Methods We used a radiotransmitter to record SGNA, VNA and blood pressure (BP) in 8 ambulatory dogs. Video imaging was used to document postural changes. Results Out of these 8 dogs, 5 showed simultaneous sympathovagal discharges in which the minute by minute integrated SGNA correlated with integrated VNA in a linear pattern (“Group 1”). In these dogs abrupt termination of simultaneous SGNA-VNA at the time of postural changes (as documented by video imaging) was followed by abrupt (>20 mmHg over 4 beats) drops in BP. Dogs without simultaneous on/off firing (“Group 2”) did not have drastic drops in pressure. ICI 118,551 (ICI, a specific β2-blocker) infused at 3.1 µg/kg/hr for 7 days significantly increased BP from 126 (95% confidence interval, CI: 118 to 133) mmHg to 133 (95% CI 125 to141) mmHg (p=0.0001). The duration of hypotension (mean systolic BP < 100 mmHg) during baseline accounted for 7.1% of the recording. The percentage was reduced by ICI to 1.3% (p = 0.01). Conclusions Abrupt simultaneous termination of SGNA-VNA was observed at the time of orthostatic hypotension in ambulatory dogs. Selective β2 adrenoceptor blockade increased BP and reduced the duration of hypotension in this model. PMID:24275433

  13. Tolerance of staphylococci to bactericidal antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Vaudaux, Pierre; Lew, Daniel P

    2006-05-01

    Antibiotic therapy for deep-seated staphylococcal infections, especially when they are associated with artificial devices used for orthopedic surgery is often associated with failure. Standard anti-staphylococcal bactericidal antibiotics, such as semi-synthetic penicillins, cephalosporins, or glycopeptides, are effective when given prophylactically in clinical conditions or experimental trials of implant-related infections. However, the efficacy of all anti-staphylococcal agents is seriously diminished on already established implant-related deep-seated infections, which then frequently require surgical implant removal to obtain a cure. The failure of antibiotic therapy to cure established staphylococcal foreign-body infections may arise in part from a broad-spectrum phenotypic tolerance expressed in vivo to different classes of antimicrobial agents. The molecular and physiological mechanisms of this in vivo tolerance remain poorly understood. PMID:16651066

  14. Residual water bactericide monitor development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A silver-ion bactericidal monitor is considered for the Space Shuttle Potable Water System. Potentiometric measurement using an ion-selective electrode is concluded to be the most feasible of available techniques. Four commercially available electrodes and a specially designed, solid-state, silver-sulfide electrode were evaluated for their response characteristics and suitability for space use. The configuration of the solid-state electrode with its Nernstian response of 10 to 10,000 ppb silver shows promise for use in space. A pressurized double-junction reference electrode with a quartz-fiber junction and a replaceable bellows electrolyte reservoir was designed verification-tested, and paired with a solid-state silver-sulfide electrode in a test fixture.

  15. Bactericidal properties of a new water disinfectant.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D E; Worley, S D; Wheatley, W B; Swango, L J

    1985-01-01

    The N-chloramine compound 3-chloro-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolidinone (agent I) has been compared with calcium hypochlorite as to its efficacy as a bactericide for the treatment of water. The study included concentration, contact time, pH, temperature, and water quality as controlled variables. The species of bacteria tested were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Shigella boydii. In general, for highly pure, demand-free water, calcium hypochlorite was the more rapid disinfectant at a given total chlorine concentration, although for water containing a controlled amount of organic load, agent I was the better disinfectant. The differences in efficacy of each of the two disinfectants can be attributed primarily to their different stabilities in water at various controlled conditions. PMID:3922300

  16. Determination of phosphodiesterase I activity in human blood serum.

    PubMed

    Hynie, I; Meuffels, M; Poznanski, W J

    1975-09-01

    Phosphodiesterase I (EC 3.1.4.1) activity was detected in normal human blood serum. The enzyme is stable at laboratory temperature for three days, but is inactivated at pH less than 7. The pH for optimum activity increases with the substrate concentration (under the conditions used, from pH 9.0 to 10.2) and, conversely, the Km increases with pH and buffer concentration. The enzyme is inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate but not by phosphate (0.1 mol/liter). We developed a simple quantitative method for its determination, based on hydrolysis of the p-nitrophenyl ester of thymidine 5'-monophosphate and subsequent measurement of the liberated p-nitrophenol at 400 nm in NaOH (0.1 mol/liter). Normal values (mean +/- 2 SD) were determined to be 33 +/- 6.4 U/liter. Preliminary studies indicate that phosphodiesterase I activity is greater than normal in serum of patients with necrotic changes in the liver or kidney or in cases of breast cancer, but not in that of patients with myocardial infarction, bone cancer, lung cancer, or chronic liver cirrhosis. PMID:168991

  17. Characterization of the extracellular bactericidal factors of rat alveolar lining material.

    PubMed Central

    Coonrod, J D; Lester, R L; Hsu, L C

    1984-01-01

    The surfactant fraction (55,000-g pellet) of leukocyte-free rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid contains factors that rapidly kill and lyse pneumococci. These factors were purified and identified biochemically by using a quantitative bactericidal test to monitor fractionation procedures. 91% of the antipneumococcal activity of rat surfactant was recovered in chloroform after extraction of rat surfactant with chloroform-methanol (Bligh-Dyer procedure). After chromatography on silicic acid with chloroform, acetone, and methanol, all detectable antibacterial activity (approximately 80% of the initial activity) eluted with the neutral lipids in chloroform. When rechromatographed on silicic acid with hexane, hexane-chloroform, and chloroform, the antibacterial activity eluted with FFA. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) established that the antibacterial activity was confined to the FFA fraction. Gas-liquid chromatography showed that the fatty acid fraction contained a mixture of long-chain FFA (C12 to C22) of which 66.7% were saturated and 32.4% were unsaturated. The quantity of TLC-purified FFA needed to kill 50% of 10(8) pneumococci under standardized conditions (one bactericidal unit) was 10.6 +/- 0.5 micrograms. Purified FFA acted as detergents, causing release of [3H]choline from pneumococcal cell walls and increased bacterial cell membrane permeability, evidenced by rapid unloading of 3-O-[3H]methyl-D-glucose. FFA acting as detergents appear to account for the bactericidal and bacteriolytic activity of rat pulmonary surfactant for pneumococci. PMID:6548228

  18. Silver ion bactericide system. [for Space Shuttle Orbiter potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasionowski, W. J.; Allen, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    Description of a preliminary flight prototype system which uses silver ions as the bactericide to preserve sterility of the water used for human consumption and hygiene in the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The performance of silver halide columns for passively dosing fuel cell water with silver ions is evaluated. Tests under simulated Orbiter mission conditions show that silver ion doses of 0.05 ppm are bactericidal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Type IIIa, the two bacteria found in Apollo potable water systems. The design of the Advance Prototype Silver Ion Water Bactericide System now under development is discussed.

  19. Platelet Activation Test in Unprocessed Blood (Pac-t-UB) to Monitor Platelet Concentrates and Whole Blood of Thrombocytopenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Roest, Mark; van Holten, Thijs C.; Fleurke, Ger-Jan; Remijn, Jasper A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Platelet concentrate transfusion is the standard treatment for hemato-oncology patients to compensate for thrombocytopenia. We have developed a novel platelet activation test in anticoagulated unprocessed blood (pac-t-UB) to determine platelet function in platelet concentrates and in blood of thrombocytopenic patients. Methods We have measured platelet activity in a platelet concentrate and in anticoagulated unprocessed blood of a post-transfusion thrombocytopenic patient. Results Our data show time-dependent platelet activation by GPVI agonist (collagen related peptide; CRP), PAR-1 agonist (SFLLRN), P2Y12 agonist (ADP), and thromboxane receptor agonist (U46619) in a platelet concentrate. Furthermore, pac-t-UB showed time-dependent platelet activation in unprocessed blood of a post-transfusion patient with thrombocytopenia. Testing platelet function by different agonists in relation to storage show that 3-day-old platelet concentrates are still reactive to the studied agonists. This reactivity rapidly drops for each agonists during longer storage. Discussion Pac-t-UB is a novel tool to estimate platelet function by different agonists in platelet concentrates and in unprocessed blood of thrombocytopenic patients. In the near future, we will validate whether pac-t-UB is an adequate test to monitor the quality of platelet concentrates and whether pac-t-UB predicts the bleeding risk of transfused thrombocytopenic patients. PMID:23652405

  20. Effect of helium neon laser irradiation on the bactericidal and digestive function of macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Mingji; Yuan, Weizhong; Hong, Zheng; Lan, Xin

    1996-09-01

    The effect of He-Ne laser on the intracellular bactericidal and digestive function to C albicans of mice peritoneal M(theta) has been studied with the fluorescence microscope after acridine organge staining. The results indicated that the bactericidal and digestive function of M(theta) in irradiated groups, expressed more active than that in the non-irradiated group, and showed significant difference. The comparison between the different irradiated groups also showed marked difference. Ultrastructure changes of M(theta) were observed under the E/M and the content of a-Acetate Naphthy esterase in lysosome were measured by image analysis, the results demonstrated that M(theta) in the irradiated groups present marked change in ultrastructure and the GN, GA, GA/CA, IOD of esterase increased significantly. The results suggested that the He-Ne laser with appropriate dosage could activate M(theta) , and enhance anti-infection immunity.

  1. ABO/Rh Blood-Typing Model: A Problem-Solving Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Carol

    2005-01-01

    An ARO/Rh Blood-Typing kit useful for students to visualize blood-typing activities and practice problem-solving skills with transfusion reactions is presented. The model also enables students to identify relationships between A, B, and Rh antigens and antibodies in blood and to understand molecular mechanisms involved in transfusion agglutination…

  2. Acylation of SC4 dodecapeptide increases bactericidal potency against Gram-positive bacteria, including drug-resistant strains.

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Nathan A; Haseman, Judith R; Tirrell, Matthew V; Mayo, Kevin H

    2004-01-01

    We have conjugated dodecyl and octadecyl fatty acids to the N-terminus of SC4, a potently bactericidal, helix-forming peptide 12-mer (KLFKRHLKWKII), and examined the bactericidal activities of the resultant SC4 'peptide-amphiphile' molecules. SC4 peptide-amphiphiles showed up to a 30-fold increase in bactericidal activity against Gram-positive strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus anthracis), including S. aureus strains resistant to conventional antibiotics, but little or no increase in bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Fatty acid conjugation improved endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) neutralization by 3- to 6-fold. Although acylation somewhat increased lysis of human erythrocytes, it did not increase lysis of endothelial cells, and the haemolytic effects occurred at concentrations 10- to 100-fold higher than those required for bacterial cell lysis. For insight into the mechanism of action of SC4 peptide-amphiphiles, CD, NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy studies were performed in micelle and liposome models of eukaryotic and bacterial cell membranes. CD indicated that SC4 peptide-amphiphiles had the strongest helical tendencies in liposomes mimicking bacterial membranes, and strong membrane integration of the SC4 peptide-amphiphiles was observed using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy under these conditions; results that correlated with the increased bactericidal activities of SC4 peptide-amphiphiles. NMR structural analysis in micelles demonstrated that the two-thirds of the peptide closest to the fatty acid tail exhibited a helical conformation, with the positively-charged side of the amphipathic helix interacting more with the model membrane surface. These results indicate that conjugation of a fatty acid chain to the SC4 peptide enhances membrane interactions, stabilizes helical structure in the membrane-bound state and increases bactericidal potency. PMID:14609430

  3. Hierarchical polymer coating for optimizing the antifouling and bactericidal efficacies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shunjie; Song, Lingjie; Li, Zhihong; Luan, Shifang; Shi, Hengchong; Xin, Zhirong; Li, Shenghai; Yang, Yuming; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-10-01

    The bacteria-repellent and bactericidal functionalities in a single system are generally need to be carefully optimized in order to obtain the highest antibacterial performance. In this study, the controlled SI-PIMP strategy was developed for creating hierarchical polymer brushes possessing the bacteria-repellent and bactericidal functionalities. To obtain a bactericidal surface with minimal interference to its nonfouling property, optimization studies were conducted by facilely tailoring the surface density of the quaternary ammonium compound moieties through control over the monomer concentration. An optimal hierarchical polymer coating showed potent protein and bacteria repellence as well as certain bactericidal property. The longlasting antibacterial performance was also achieved due to the good balance between the dual functionalities. The tenability of the hierarchical polymer coating is applicable to surface chemistries for biosensors, molecular imaging, and biomedical applications. PMID:27363527

  4. Evaluation of bactericidal effects of low-temperature nitrogen gas plasma towards application to short-time sterilization.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kumiko; Sakuma, Ayaka; Nakamura, Yuka; Oguri, Tomoko; Sato, Natsumi; Kido, Nobuo

    2012-07-01

    To develop a novel low-temperature plasma sterilizer using pure N(2) gas as a plasma source, we evaluated bactericidal ability of a prototype apparatus provided by NGK Insulators. After determination of the sterilizing conditions without the cold spots, the D value of the BI of Geobacillus stearothermophilus endospores on the filter paper was determined as 1.9 min. However, the inactivation efficiency of BI carrying the same endospores on SUS varied to some extent, suggesting that the bactericidal effect might vary by materials of sterilized instruments. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were also exposed to the N(2) gas plasma and confirmed to be inactivated within 30 min. Through the evaluation of bactericidal efficiency in a sterilization bag, we concluded that the UV photons in the plasma and the high-voltage pulse to generate the gas plasma were not concerned with the bactericidal effect of the N(2) gas plasma. Bactericidal effect might be exhibited by activated nitrogen atoms or molecular radicals. PMID:22469251

  5. 2-Phenylindole and Arylsulphonamide: Novel Scaffolds Bactericidal against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A cellular activity-based screen on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv using a focused library from the AstraZeneca corporate collection led to the identification of 2-phenylindoles and arylsulphonamides, novel antimycobacterial scaffolds. Both the series were bactericidal in vitro and in an intracellular macrophage infection model, active against drug sensitive and drug resistant Mtb clinical isolates, and specific to mycobacteria. The scaffolds showed promising structure–activity relationships; compounds with submicromolar cellular potency were identified during the hit to lead exploration. Furthermore, compounds from both scaffolds were tested for inhibition of known target enzymes or pathways of antimycobacterial drugs including InhA, RNA polymerase, DprE1, topoisomerases, protein synthesis, and oxidative-phosphorylation. Compounds did not inhibit any of the targets suggesting the potential of a possible novel mode of action(s). Hence, both scaffolds provide the opportunity to be developed further as leads and tool compounds to uncover novel mechanisms for tuberculosis drug discovery. PMID:25221657

  6. Kibdelomycin Is a Bactericidal Broad-Spectrum Aerobic Antibacterial Agent

    PubMed Central

    Dayananth, Priya; Balibar, Carl J.; Garlisi, Charles G.; Lu, Jun; Kishii, Ryuta; Takei, Masaya; Fukuda, Yasumichi; Ha, Sookhee; Young, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to grow and pose serious challenges, while the discovery rate for new antibiotics declines. Kibdelomycin is a recently discovered natural-product antibiotic that inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting the bacterial DNA replication enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. It was reported to be a broad-spectrum aerobic Gram-positive agent with selective inhibition of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile. We have extended the profiling of kibdelomycin by using over 196 strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic pathogens recovered from worldwide patient populations. We report the MIC50s, MIC90s, and bactericidal activities of kibdelomycin. We confirm the Gram-positive spectrum and report for the first time that kibdelomycin shows strong activity (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) against clinical strains of the Gram-negative nonfermenter Acinetobacter baumannii but only weak activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We confirm that well-characterized resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae show no cross-resistance to kibdelomycin and quinolones and coumarin antibiotics. We also show that kibdelomycin is not subject to efflux in Pseudomonas, though it is in Escherichia coli, and it is generally affected by the outer membrane permeability entry barrier in the nonfermenters P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, which may be addressable by structure-based chemical modification. PMID:25845866

  7. Pro blood clotting activity of Scoparia dulcis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Jayakody, J R A C; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2011-04-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn (Family: Scrophulariaceae, Sinhala: WalKoththamalli) is a perennial herb growing in many tropical countries including Sri Lanka. Traditional Physicians in rural down south areas apply crushed S. dulcis plant on cuts and bruises to stop bleeding. S. dulcis may also have Rakta Sthambhana property. The study on effect of decoction (water extract) of S. dulcis on blood clotting time in rats was carried out to investigate this. Two groups of rats, 12 males and 42 females were used in this experimental study. Forty-two female rats were assigned into seven equal groups (n = 6/gp). Different doses of DE (25, 50, 100, 1000, 1500 mg/kg) (group 1-5) or 2 ml of distilled water (DW) (group 6) were orally administered. 0.1 ml of vitamin K was injected intramuscularly (group 7) as reference drug to seventh the group. Twelve male rats were assigned into two equal groups (n = 6/gp), 2 ml of distilled water (DW) and doses of DE (1500 mg/kg) were orally administered. Clotting time was determined on the Days 1, 2, and 7 using Lee and White method. In the DE treated groups with all doses, there was no reduction in clotting time on the Day 1 but a significant reduction of clotting time (P < 0.05) was observed on the Days 2 and 7. In the group treated with vitamin K, there was no significant reduction in clotting time on Day 1 or 2, but there was a significant reduction in clotting time on Day 7. It is concluded that S. dulcis has proclotting activity (rakthasthambhana property) and this was faster than vitamin K. PMID:22408315

  8. Blood biochemical and cellular changes during decompression and simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.; Waligora, J. M.; Johnson, P. C. Jr

    1990-01-01

    Blood biochemical and cellular parameters were measured in human subjects before and after exposure to a decompression schedule involving 6 h of oxygen prebreathing. The exposure was designed to simulate extravehicular activity for 6 h (subjects performed exercise while exposed to 29.6 kPa). There were no significant differences between blood samples from subjects who were susceptible (n = 11) versus those who were resistant (n = 27) to formation of venous gas emboli. Although several statistically significant (P less than 0.05) changes in blood parameters were observed following the exposure (increases in white blood cell count, prothrombin time, and total bilirubin, and decreases in triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood urea nitrogen), the changes were small in magnitude and blood factor levels remained within normal clinical ranges. Thus, the decompression schedule used in this study is not likely to result in blood changes that would pose a threat to astronauts during extravehicular activity.

  9. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864.7140 Section 864.7140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests....

  10. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864.7140 Section 864.7140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests....

  11. Smooth muscle BK channel activity influences blood pressure independent of vascular tone in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, Gregor; Faulhaber, Jörg; Seniuk, Anika; Ehmke, Heimo; Pongs, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    The large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel is an important determinant of vascular tone and contributes to blood pressure regulation. Both activities depend on the ancillary BKβ1 subunit. To determine the significance of smooth muscle BK channel activity for blood pressure regulation, we investigated the potential link between changes in arterial tone and altered blood pressure in BKβ1 knockout (BKβ1−/−) mice from three different genetically defined strains. While vascular tone was consistently increased in all BKβ1−/− mice independent of genetic background, BKβ1−/− strains exhibited increased (strain A), unaltered (strain B) or decreased (strain C) mean arterial blood pressures compared to their corresponding BKβ1+/+ controls. In agreement with previous data on aldosterone regulation by renal/adrenal BK channel function, BKβ1−/− strain A mice have increased plasma aldosterone and increased blood pressure. Consistently, blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors by spironolactone treatment reversibly restored the elevated blood pressure to the BKβ1+/+ strain A level. In contrast, loss of BKβ1 did not affect plasma aldosterone in strain C mice. Smooth muscle-restricted restoration of BKβ1 expression increased blood pressure in BKβ1−/− strain C mice, implying that impaired smooth muscle BK channel activity lowers blood pressure in these animals. We conclude that BK channel activity directly affects vascular tone but influences blood pressure independent of this effect via different pathways. PMID:24687584

  12. Blood flow changes in arteriovenous malformation during behavioral activation.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, G

    1983-01-01

    Striking task-dependent fluctuations were observed in the cerebral blood flow pattern of a patient with a left posterior hemispheric arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Two-dimensional measures of regional cerebral flow in the resting state, using the xenon 133 inhalation technique, revealed a region of high flow coincident with the AVM seen on the patient's arteriograms. In subsequent studies, the AVM stood out as a region of high blood flow during a relaxed state, while it approached normal levels of flow when there was attentional demand. These observations suggest that focal regulatory mechanisms exist at the AVM or else that very substantial redistributions of blood flow are taking place which the flow rate in the AVM reflects only passively. Patients considered for embolic treatment of an AVM would benefit from an assessment of behavioral influences on flow in the AVM. PMID:6830163

  13. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Revealed the Bactericidal Mechanism of Sodium New Houttuyfonate against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Shi, Tianyuan; Du, Gaofei; Liu, Wanting; Yin, Xing-Feng; Sun, Xuesong; Pan, Yunlong; He, Qing-Yu

    2016-08-17

    Sodium new houttuyfonate (SNH), an addition product of active ingredient houttuynin from the plant Houttuynia cordata Thunb., inhibits a variety of bacteria, yet the mechanism by which it induces cell death has not been fully understood. In the present study, we utilized iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to analyze the protein alterations in Streptococcus pneumoniae in response to SNH treatment. Numerous proteins related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were found to be up-regulated by SNH, suggesting that ROS pathways may be involved as analyzed via bioinformatics. As reported recently, cellular reactions stimulated by ROS including superoxide anion (O2(•-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (OH(•)) have been implicated as mechanisms whereby bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria. We then validated that SNH killed S. pneumoniae in a dose-dependent manner accompanied by the increasing level of H2O2. On the other hand, the addition of catalase, which can neutralize H2O2 in cells, showed a significant recovery in bacterial survival. These results indicate that SNH indeed induced H2O2 formation to contribute to the cell lethality, providing new insights into the bactericidal mechanism of SNH and expanding our understanding of the common mechanism of killing induced by bactericidal agents. PMID:27458754

  14. Silver nanoparticles influence on the blood activation process and their release to blood plasma from synthetic polymer scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, R.; Lackner, J. M.; Sanak, M.; Major, B.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, blood and blood plasma interaction to silver stabilised polyelectrolytes was investigated in vitro. The designed materials are dedicated for regeneration of the cardiovascular system. Silver nanoparticles were introduced into the polyelectrolyte structure in order to reduce the risk of bacterial biofilm formation. The introduction of Ag nanoparticles occurred by deposition at high vacuum by magnetron sputtering. The analysis of blood-materials interactions were performed by using commercially available tester, Impact-R (Diamed). The assessment of silver ion nanoparticles release into the plasma consisted in determining the Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT). Unmodified surface of polyelectrolytes is a strong activator for blood elements. The introduction of silver nanoparticles resulted in a significant reduction in the probability of clotting. The extrinsic pathway of coagulation determined on the basis of the PT and the intrinsic and common pathways of coagulation measured by the APTT did not indicate the danger out of range. Microstructure was studied using TEM on thin foils prepared from the cross-section of samples subjected to biomedical treatments. The observations revealed hetero- interface between two different crystalline solids.

  15. Biomaterials trigger endothelial cell activation when co-incubated with human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Herklotz, Manuela; Hanke, Jasmin; Hänsel, Stefanie; Drichel, Juliane; Marx, Monique; Maitz, Manfred F; Werner, Carsten

    2016-10-01

    Endothelial cell activation resulting from biomaterial contact or biomaterial-induced blood activation may in turn also affect hemostasis and inflammatory processes in the blood. Current in vitro hemocompatibility assays typically ignore these modulating effects of the endothelium. This study describes a co-incubation system of human whole blood, biomaterial and endothelial cells (ECs) that was developed to overcome this limitation. First, human endothelial cells were characterized in terms of their expression of coagulation- and inflammation-relevant markers in response to various activators. Subsequently, their capacity to regulate hemostasis as well as complement and granulocyte activation was monitored in a hemocompatibility assay. After blood contact, quiescent ECs exhibited anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. When they were co-incubated with surfaces exhibiting pro-coagulant or pro-inflammatory characteristics, the ECs down-regulated coagulation but not complement or leukocyte activation. Analysis of intracellular levels of the endothelial activation markers E-selectin and tissue factor showed that co-incubation with model surfaces and blood significantly increased the activation state of ECs. Finally, the coagulation- and inflammation-modulating properties of the ECs were tested after blood/biomaterial exposure. Pre-activation of ECs by biomaterials in the blood induced a pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory state of the ECs, wherein the pro-coagulant response was higher for biomaterial/blood pre-activated ECs than for TNF-α-pre-activated cells. This work provides evidence that biomaterials, even without directly contacting the endothelium, affect the endothelial activation state with and have consequences for plasmatic and cellular reactions in the blood. PMID:27472163

  16. Endothelial Dysfunction and Blood Viscosity Inpatients with Unstable Angina in Different Periods of a Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshina, S. S.; Tokaeva, L. K.; Dolgova, E. M.; Afanas'yeva, T. N.; Strelnikova, O. A.

    The origin of hemorheologic and endothelial defects in patients with unstable angina (comparing with healthy persons) is determined by a solar activity period: the blood viscosity increases in a period of high solar activity in the vessels of small, medium and macro diameters, a local decompensate dysfunction of small vessels endothelium had been fixed (microcirculation area). In the period of a low solar activity there is an increase of a blood viscosity in vessels of all diameters, generalized subcompensated endothelial dysfunction is developed (on the background of the III phase blood clotting activating). In the period of a high solar activity a higher blood viscosity had been fixed, comparing with the period of a low solar activity.

  17. Alpha-Amylase Activity in Blood Increases after Pharmacological, But Not Psychological, Activation of the Adrenergic System

    PubMed Central

    Nater, Urs M.; La Marca, Roberto; Erni, Katja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aim Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separate studies. Methods In study 1, healthy subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind paradigm using yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. In study 2, subjects were examined in a standardized rest-controlled psychosocial stress protocol. Alpha-amylase activity in blood was repeatedly measured in both studies. Results Results of study 1 showed that alpha-amylase in blood is subject to stronger increases after injection of yohimbine compared to placebo. In study 2, results showed that there was no significant effect of psychological stress compared to rest. Conclusions Alpha-amylase in blood increases after pharmacological activation of the adrenergic pathways suggesting that sympathetic receptors are responsible for these changes. Psychological stress, however, does not seem to have an impact on alpha-amylase in blood. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying activity changes in alpha-amylase in blood in healthy individuals. PMID:26110636

  18. Thermal activation of catalytic microjets in blood samples using microfluidic chips†

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Lluís; Martínez-Cisneros, Cynthia; Swiersy, Anka; Sánchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that catalytic microjet engines can out-swim high complex media composed of red blood cells and serum. Despite the challenge presented by the high viscosity of the solution at room temperature, the catalytic microjets can be activated at physiological temperature and, consequently, self-propel in diluted solutions of blood samples. We prove that these microjets self-propel in 10× diluted blood samples using microfluidic chips. PMID:24089195

  19. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathera??molting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  20. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  1. Human blood group activity of human and canine intestinal glycolipids containing fucose

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E. L.; Bowdler, A. J.; Bull, R. W.; McKibbin, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    A number of fucose-containing glycolipids (fuco-lipids), which are similar in composition to those of human normal and malignant gastrointestinal tissue, have been isolated from whole small intestines of individual dogs. Dogs from which these fuco-lipids were isolated fell into two types according to the qualitative sugar composition of their fuco-lipids. Glycolipids from type I dogs contained glucose, galactose, glucosamine, galactosamine and fucose, while those from type II dogs contained the same sugars but lacked galactosamine. Fucolipids isolated from type I and II dogs were tested for both canine blood group and human A, B, H and Lea and Leb blood group activity. At the concentrations tested, only human blood group A activity was found in significant amounts, and only in those fuco-lipids which contained galactosamine (type I dogs). Of the fuco-lipids with human blood group A activity, some had activity comparable to that of glycoprotein blood group substances, while others had lower, but significant, activity. These latter fuco-lipids also had marked chromatographic differences, indicating that they are of several different structural types, a finding similar to the A active glycolipids of human red cell stroma. None of the isolated intestinal fuco-lipids had canine blood group activity. A fuco-lipid with Lea activity was also isolated in relatively large amounts from a normal human whole small intestine. PMID:4753403

  2. Bactericidal Effect of Photolysis of H2O2 in Combination with Sonolysis of Water via Hydroxyl Radical Generation

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Hong; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    The bactericidal effect of hydroxyl radical (·OH) generated by combination of photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sonolysis of water was examined under the condition in which the yield of ·OH increased additively when H2O2 aqueous solution was concomitantly irradiated with laser and ultrasound. The suspension of Staphylococcus aureus mixed with the different concentrations of H2O2 was irradiated simultaneously with a laser light (wavelength: 405 nm, irradiance: 46 and 91 mW/cm2) and ultrasound (power: 30 w, frequency: 1.65 MHz) at 20 ± 1°C of the water bulk temperature for 2 min. The combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly reduced the viable bacterial count in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone. By contrast, the ultrasound irradiation alone exerted almost no bactericidal effect. These results suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity was synergistic. A multi-way analysis of variance also revealed that the interaction of H2O2 concentration, laser power and ultrasound irradiation significantly affected the bactericidal activity. Since the result of oxidative DNA damage evaluation demonstrated that the combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly induced oxidative damage of bacterial DNA in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone, it was suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity would be exerted via oxidative damage of cellular components such as DNA. PMID:26148024

  3. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Albino, Flávia Barbizan; de Moura, Karen Fernandes; Maftum, Gustavo Jorge; dos Santos, Mauro de Castro; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino

    2015-01-01

    Background High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objective Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from several health sciences databases. Seven studies with 493 participants were included. The analysis included parallel studies of physical activity interventions in adult populations in Brazil with a description of blood pressure (mmHg) before and after the intervention in the control and intervention groups. Results Of 390 retrieved studies, eight matched the proposed inclusion criteria for the systematic review and seven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions included aerobic and resistance exercises. There was a reduction of -10.09 (95% CI: -18.76 to -1.43 mmHg) in the systolic and -7.47 (95% CI: -11.30 to -3.63 mmHg) in the diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions Available evidence on the effects of physical activity on blood pressure in the Brazilian population shows a homogeneous and significant effect at both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. However, the strength of the included studies was low and the methodological quality was also low and/or regular. Larger studies with more rigorous methodology are necessary to build robust evidence. PMID:26016783

  4. Overweight, physical activity and high blood pressure in children: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Torrance, Brian; McGuire, K Ashlee; Lewanczuk, Richard; McGavock, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in developed countries and is likely a major cause of the increased prevalence of high blood pressure in children. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians and clinical scientists with an overview of the current state of the literature describing the negative influence of obesity on blood pressure and it’s determinants in children. In short, we discuss the array of vascular abnormalities seen in overweight children and adolescents, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and insulin resistance. We also discuss the potential role of an increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system in the development of high blood pressure and vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. As there is little consensus regarding the methods to prevent or treat high blood pressure in children, we also provide a summary of the evidence supporting relationship between physical activity and blood pressure in children and adolescents. After reviewing a number of physical activity intervention studies performed in children, it appears as though 40 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic-based physical activity 3–5 days/week is required to improve vascular function and reduce blood pressure in obese children. Future studies should focus on describing the influence of physical activity on blood pressure control in overweight children. PMID:17583184

  5. Personality traits of aggression-submissiveness and perfectionism associate with ABO blood groups through catecholamine activities.

    PubMed

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2011-08-01

    Personality trait research has shown associations with many genes, prominently those of the catecholamine metabolism such as dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). Because DBH gene is in linkage disequilibrium with ABO gene, there is reason to think that other catecholamine genes using the same substrate as DBH may also have associations with ABO blood groups, and this paper demonstrates how this may be so. Reasons include similarities in hapmap population frequency distributions, similarities in illness risks between ABO blood groups and DBH activities as well as between ABO blood groups and COMT activities and between ABO blood groups and MAOA activities. If ABO blood groups can be demonstrated to associate with all these catecholamine genes, then the catecholamine personality trait research can be applied to ABO blood groups and tested for confirmation. ABO blood typing is widely available and affords ability to test this hypothesis and thus confirm the possible joint association of personality traits of aggression-submissiveness and perfectionism to catecholamine genes and to ABO blood groups. Clinical applications and implications are discussed. PMID:21601990

  6. Keeping the blood flowing—plasminogen activator genes and feeding behavior in vampire bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellgren-Roth, Åsa; Dittmar, Katharina; Massey, Steven E.; Kemi, Cecilia; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Savolainen, Peter; Lyons, Leslie A.; Liberles, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The blood feeding vampire bats emerged from New World leaf-nosed bats that fed on fruit and insects. Plasminogen activator, a serine protease that regulates blood coagulation, is known to be expressed in the saliva of Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat) and is thought to be a key enzyme for the emergence of blood feeding in vampire bats. To better understand the evolution of this biological function, we studied the plasminogen activator (PA) genes from all vampire bat species in light of their feeding transition to bird and subsequently mammalian blood. We include the rare species Diphylla ecaudata and Diaemus youngi, where plasminogen activator had not previously been studied and demonstrate that PA gene duplication observed in Desmodus is not essential to the vampire phenotype, but relates to the emergence of predominant mammalian blood feeding in this species. Plasminogen activator has evolved through gene duplication, domain loss, and sequence evolution leading to change in fibrin-specificity and susceptibility to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Before undertaking this study, only the four plasminogen activator isoforms from Desmodus were known. The evolution of vampire bat plasminogen activators can now be linked phylogenetically to the transition in feeding behavior among vampire bat species from bird to mammalian blood.

  7. The bactericidal action on Escherichia coli of ZF-RNase-3 is triggered by the suicidal action of the bacterium OmpT protease.

    PubMed

    Zanfardino, Anna; Pizzo, Elio; Di Maro, Antimo; Varcamonti, Mario; D'Alessio, Giuseppe

    2010-04-01

    ZF-RNase-3 is one of the RNases from zebrafish (Danio rerio) with special (i.e. noncatalytic) properties. These include angiogenic and bactericidal activities. Given the interest of fish RNases as host-defense effectors, we studied the mechanism of the bactericidal action of ZF-RNase-3 on Escherichia coli as a model Gram-negative bacterium. The results obtained indicate that the bactericidal activity of ZF-RNase-3 is not lost when its catalytic RNase activity is obliterated. On the other hand, fully denatured ZF-RNase-3 conserves its bactericidal activity. When ZF-RNase-3 is added to E. coli cultures, it is cleaved at a specific Arg-Arg peptide bond, thus engendering two peptide fragments. The larger fragment (residues 31-124), produced by proteolysis and reduction of a disulfide, is recognized as the actual bactericidal agent. The protease responsible for the proteolytic attack has been identified with OmpT, an outer membrane E. coli omptin protease. However, the most remarkable result obtained in the present study is the finding that the microbicidal action of ZF-RNase-3 can be achieved only with the suicidal cooperation of the bacterium itself. PMID:20214681

  8. 21 CFR 1240.10 - Effective bactericidal treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... equipment for at least 2 minutes in a lukewarm chlorine bath containing at least 50 ppm of available chlorine if hypochlorites are used or a concentration of equal bactericidal strength if chloramines are... the temperatures or with chlorine solutions as specified above, (1) with live steam from a hose if...

  9. 21 CFR 1240.10 - Effective bactericidal treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... equipment for at least 2 minutes in a lukewarm chlorine bath containing at least 50 ppm of available chlorine if hypochlorites are used or a concentration of equal bactericidal strength if chloramines are... the temperatures or with chlorine solutions as specified above, (1) with live steam from a hose if...

  10. 21 CFR 1240.10 - Effective bactericidal treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... equipment for at least 2 minutes in a lukewarm chlorine bath containing at least 50 ppm of available chlorine if hypochlorites are used or a concentration of equal bactericidal strength if chloramines are... the temperatures or with chlorine solutions as specified above, (1) with live steam from a hose if...

  11. 21 CFR 1240.10 - Effective bactericidal treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... equipment for at least 2 minutes in a lukewarm chlorine bath containing at least 50 ppm of available chlorine if hypochlorites are used or a concentration of equal bactericidal strength if chloramines are... the temperatures or with chlorine solutions as specified above, (1) with live steam from a hose if...

  12. 21 CFR 1240.10 - Effective bactericidal treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... equipment for at least 2 minutes in a lukewarm chlorine bath containing at least 50 ppm of available chlorine if hypochlorites are used or a concentration of equal bactericidal strength if chloramines are... the temperatures or with chlorine solutions as specified above, (1) with live steam from a hose if...

  13. Effect of Bromide-Hypochlorite Bactericides on Microorganisms1

    PubMed Central

    Shere, Lewis; Kelley, Maurice J.; Richardson, J. Harold

    1962-01-01

    A new principle in compounding stable, granular bactericidal products led to unique combinations of a water-soluble inorganic bromide salt with a hypochlorite-type disinfectant of either inorganic or organic type. Microbiological results are shown for an inorganic bactericide composed of chlorinated trisodium phosphate containing 3.1% “available chlorine” and 2% potassium bromide, and for an organic bactericide formulated from sodium dichloroisocyanurate so as to contain 13.4% “available chlorine” and 8% potassium bromide. Comparison of these products with their nonbromide counterparts are reported for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus lactis, Aerobacter aerogenes, and Proteus vulgaris. Test methods employed were the Chambers test, the A.O.A.C. Germicidal and Detergent Sanitizer-Official test, and the Available Chlorine Germicidal Equivalent Concentration test. The minimal killing concentrations for the bromide-hypochlorite bactericides against this variety of organisms were reduced by a factor 2 to 24 times those required for similar hypochlorite-type disinfectants not containing the bromide. PMID:13977149

  14. Serum bactericidal assays to evaluate typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella vaccines.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Mary Adetinuke; Tennant, Sharon M; Saague, Venant A; Simon, Raphael; Muhsen, Khitam; Ramachandran, Girish; Cross, Alan S; Galen, James E; Pasetti, Marcela F; Levine, Myron M

    2014-05-01

    Invasive Salmonella infections for which improved or new vaccines are being developed include enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B and sepsis and meningitis in young children in sub-Saharan Africa caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars, particularly S. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Assays are needed to measure functional antibodies elicited by the new vaccines to assess their immunogenicities and potential protective capacities. We developed in vitro assays to quantify serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) activity induced by S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A, S. Typhimurium, and S. Enteritidis vaccines in preclinical studies. Complement from various sources was tested in assays designed to measure antibody-dependent complement-mediated killing. Serum from rabbits 3 to 4 weeks of age provided the best complement source compared to serum from pigs, goats, horses, bovine calves, or rabbits 8 to 12 weeks of age. For S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Typhi SBA assays to be effective, bacteria had to be harvested at log phase. In contrast, S. Paratyphi A was equally susceptible to killing whether it was grown to the stationary or log phase. The typhoidal serovars were more susceptible to complement-mediated killing than were the nontyphoidal serovars. Lastly, the SBA endpoint titers correlated with serum IgG anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) titers in mice immunized with mucosally administered S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, and S. Paratyphi A but not S. Typhi live attenuated vaccines. The SBA assay described here is a useful tool for measuring functional antibodies elicited by Salmonella vaccine candidates. PMID:24623629

  15. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade

    PubMed Central

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Materials and Methods: Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Results: Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. Conclusions: These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing. PMID:22224061

  16. Bactericidal effects of plasma-modified surface chemistry of silicon nanograss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrikov, Kola; Macgregor-Ramiasa, Melanie; Cavallaro, Alex; (Ken Ostrikov, Kostya; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2016-08-01

    The surface chemistry and topography of biomaterials regulate the adhesion and growth of microorganisms in ways that are still poorly understood. Silicon nanograss structures prepared via inductively coupled plasma etching were coated with plasma deposited nanometer-thin polymeric films to produce substrates with controlled topography and defined surface chemistry. The influence of surface properties on Staphylococcus aureus proliferation is demonstrated and explained in terms of nanograss substrate wetting behaviour. With the combination of the nanograss topography; hydrophilic plasma polymer coatings enhanced antimicrobial activity while hydrophobic coatings reduced it. This study advances the understanding of the effects of surface wettability on the bactericidal properties of reactive nano-engineered surfaces.

  17. Characterizing biological variability in livestock blood cholinesterase activity for biomonitoring organophosphate nerve agent exposure.

    PubMed

    Halbrook, R S; Shugart, L R; Watson, A P; Munro, N B; Linnabary, R D

    1992-09-01

    A biomonitoring protocol, using blood cholinesterase (ChE) activity in livestock as a monitor of potential organophosphate nerve agent exposure during the planned destruction of US unitary chemical warfare agent stockpiles, is described. The experimental design included analysis of blood ChE activity in individual healthy sheep, horses, and dairy and beef cattle during a 10- to 12-month period. Castrated and sexually intact males, pregnant and lactating females, and adult and immature animals were examined through at least one reproductive cycle. The same animals were used throughout the period of observation and were not exposed to ChE-inhibiting organophosphate or carbamate compounds. A framework for an effective biomonitoring protocol within a monitoring area includes establishing individual baseline blood ChE activity for a sentinel group of 6 animals on the bases of blood samples collected over a 6-month period, monthly collection of blood samples for ChE-activity determination during monitoring, and selection of adult animals as sentinels. Exposure to ChE-inhibiting compounds would be suspected when all blood ChE activity of all animals within the sentinel group are decreased greater than 20% from their own baseline value. Sentinel species selection is primarily a logistical and operational concern; however, sheep appear to be the species of choice because within-individual baseline ChE activity and among age and gender group ChE activity in sheep had the least variability, compared with data from other species. This protocol provides an effective and efficient means for detecting abnormal depressions in blood ChE activity in livestock and can serve as a valuable indicator of the extent of actual plume movement and/or deposition in the event of organophosphate nerve agent release. PMID:1399773

  18. Characterizing biological variability in livestock blood cholinesterase activity for biomonitoring organophosphate nerve agent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.; Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B.; Linnabary, R.D. )

    1992-09-01

    A biomonitoring protocol, using blood cholinesterase (ChE) activity in livestock as a monitor of potential organophosphate nerve agent exposure during the planned destruction of US unitary chemical warfare agent stockpiles, is described. The experimental design included analysis of blood ChE activity in individual healthy sheep, horses, and dairy and beef cattle during a 10- to 12-month period. Castrated and sexually intact males, pregnant and lactating females, and adult and immature animals were examined through at least one reproductive cycle. The same animals were used throughout the period of observation and were not exposed to ChE-inhibiting organophosphate or carbamate compounds. A framework for an effective biomonitoring protocol within a monitoring area includes establishing individual baseline blood ChE activity for a sentinel group of 6 animals on the bases of blood samples collected over a 6-month period, monthly collection of blood samples for ChE-activity determination during monitoring, and selection of adult animals as sentinels. Exposure to ChE-inhibiting compounds would be suspected when all blood ChE activity of all animals within the sentinel group are decreased greater than 20% from their own baseline value. Sentinel species selection is primarily a logistical and operational concern; however, sheep appear to be the species of choice because within-individual baseline ChE activity and among age and gender group ChE activity in sheep had the least variability, compared with data from other species. This protocol provides an effective and efficient means for detecting abnormal depressions in blood ChE activity in livestock and can serve as a valuable indicator of the extent of actual plume movement and/or deposition in the event of organophosphate nerve agent release.

  19. Storage of Heparinised Canine Whole Blood for the Measurement of Glutathione Peroxidase Activity.

    PubMed

    van Zelst, Mariëlle; Hesta, Myriam; Gray, Kerry; Janssens, Geert P J

    2016-08-01

    Glutathione peroxidase activity is used as a biomarker of selenium status in dogs. Freshly collected blood samples are usually measured, due to the lack of knowledge on the effect of storing the samples. This study investigated if the analysis of glutathione peroxidase activity in whole blood collected from dogs was affected by storage of between 5 and 164 days. Results indicated that glutathione peroxidase activity was more variable in the freshly analysed samples compared to the stored samples. Although the mean differences between fresh and stored samples were not always equal to zero, this is thought to be caused by the variability of reagent preparation rather than by storage, as no consistent increase or decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity was found. Therefore, it can be concluded that heparinised dog blood samples can be successfully stored up to 164 days before analysis of glutathione peroxidase activity. PMID:26701335

  20. Clostridium perfringens alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase blood group A2-degrading activity.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Smith, Daniel

    2003-04-01

    Enzymic modification of type A(2) erythrocyte membranes with Clostridium perfringens alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase was investigated. An ELISA demonstrated hydrolysis of type A(2) epitopes under conditions of red-blood-cell collection and storage. The enzyme hydrolysed the terminal N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine from the blood type A(2) antigen, producing H antigen, blood group O, which is universally compatible in the ABO system. The enzyme was active in common red-cell preservative solutions at pH 6.4-7.0, at 4 degrees C, at ionic strengths found in stored red cell units and in the presence of type A plasma. These data imply that the C. perfringens alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase might be added directly to packed A(2) red-blood-cell units for enzymic conversion to blood type O. Further studies are warranted. PMID:12630904

  1. Antibacterial properties and mechanism of graphene oxide-silver nanocomposites as bactericidal agents for water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Song, Biao; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Gong, Jilai; Chang, Yingna; Jiang, Yan

    2016-08-15

    Providing clean and affordable drinking water without harmful disinfection byproducts generated by conventional chemical disinfectants gives rise to the need for technological innovation. Nanotechnology has great potential in purifying water and wastewater treatment. A graphene oxide-silver (GO-Ag) nanocomposite with excellent antibacterial activity was prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The tests were carried out using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as model strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. The effect of bactericide dosage and pH on antibacterial activity of GO-Ag was examined. Morphological observation of bacterial cells by scanning electron microscope showed that GO-Ag was much more destructive to cell membrane of Escherichia coli than that of Staphylococcus aureus. Experiments were carried out using catalase, superoxide dismutase and sodium thioglycollate to investigate the formation of reactive oxygen species and free silver ions in the bactericidal process. The activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes was measured to investigate the potential role of oxidative stress. According to the consequence, synergetic mechanism including destruction of cell membranes and oxidative stress accounted for the antibacterial activity of GO-Ag nanocomposites. All the results suggested that GO-Ag nanocomposites displayed a good potential for application in water disinfection. PMID:27170600

  2. Cytotoxicity of Rabbit Blood for Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Leonard D.; Wilder, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Our studies reveal that normal rabbit blood contains a potent bactericidin active against Listeria monocytogenes. The factor is present in greatest amounts in fresh undiluted serum but is absent in platelet extracts. A correlation was observed between the virulence of Listeria strains and their relative ability to survive in serum. The bactericidal titers obtained for plasma and plasma serum indicate that clotting must occur for optimum expression of antilisterial activity. The lethal action is not elevated after immunization with viable Listeria nor does it appear to depend on heat-labile components of complement. The active factor was removed from serum by filtration through a cellulose asbestos filter pad and further purified by carboxymethyl cellulose chromatography. Iron significantly diminishes serum lethality and completely abolishes the action of the purified component. The listericidal factor resembles β-lysin but may be a distinct part of a multiple system of similar bactericidins. PMID:5005312

  3. Reduced cerebral blood flow with orthostasis precedes hypocapnic hyperpnea, sympathetic activation, and postural tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Del Pozzi, Andrew T; Schwartz, Christopher E; Tewari, Deepali; Medow, Marvin S; Stewart, Julian M

    2014-06-01

    Hyperventilation and reduced cerebral blood flow velocity can occur in postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). We studied orthostatically intolerant patients, with suspected POTS, with a chief complaint of upright dyspnea. On the basis of our observations of an immediate reduction of cerebral blood flow velocity with orthostasis, we hypothesize that the resulting ischemic hypoxia of the carotid body causes chemoreflex activation, hypocapnic hyperpnea, sympathetic activation, and increased heart rate and blood pressure in this subset of POTS. We compared 11 dyspneic POTS subjects with 10 healthy controls during a 70° head-up tilt. In POTS subjects during initial orthostasis before blood pressure recovery; central blood volume and mean arterial pressure were reduced (P<0.025), resulting in a significant (P<0.001) decrease in cerebral blood flow velocity, which temporally preceded (17±6 s; P<0.025) a progressive increase in minute ventilation and decrease in end tidal CO2 (P<0.05) when compared with controls. Sympathoexcitation, measured by muscle sympathetic nerve activity, was increased in POTS (P<0.01) and inversely proportional to end tidal CO2 and resulted in an increase in heart rate (P<0.001), total peripheral resistance (P<0.025), and a decrease in cardiac output (P<0.025). The decrease in cerebral blood flow velocity and mean arterial pressure during initial orthostasis was greater (P<0.025) in POTS. Our data suggest that exaggerated initial central hypovolemia during initial orthostatic hypotension in POTS results in reduced cerebral blood flow velocity and postural hypocapnic hyperpnea that perpetuates cerebral ischemia. We hypothesize that sustained hypocapnia and cerebral ischemia produce sympathoexcitation, tachycardia, and a statistically significant increase in blood pressure. PMID:24711524

  4. An investigation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from blood components of Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis).

    PubMed

    Phosri, Santi; Mahakunakorn, Pramote; Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Swatsitang, Prasan; Daduang, Sakda; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found from Crocodylus siamensis (C. siamensis) blood. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and linoleic peroxidation assays were used to investigate the antioxidant activities of the crocodile blood. Results show that crocodile blood components had antioxidant activity, especially hemoglobin (40.58 % nitric oxide radical inhibition), crude leukocyte extract (78 % linoleic peroxidation inhibition) and plasma (57.27 % hydroxyl radical inhibition). Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of the crocodile blood was studied using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) as a model. The results show that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. Also they showed anti-inflammatory activity by reduced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) productions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The NO inhibition percentages of hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were 31.9, 48.24 and 44.27 %, respectively. However, only crude leukocyte extract could inhibit IL-6 production. So, the results of this research directly indicate that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma of C. siamensis blood provide both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be used as a supplementary agent in pharmaceutical products. PMID:25216803

  5. [Microbiological assesssment of efficiency chemothermal disinfection of blood contaminated hospital textiles].

    PubMed

    Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Jakimiak, Bozenna; Podgórska, Marta; Chojecka, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Thermal disinfection should be applied to laundering procedures of hospital textiles contaminated with blood. Currently, there is an increasing number of hospital textiles composed of cotton-polyester blends that cannot endure high temperatures of thermal disinfection. Besides, decreasing the temperature of chemothermal disinfection enhances the possibility of micro-organisms to survive the laundering procedure. The aim of this study was to prepare a new method for the microbiological evaluation of disinfecting laundering procedures for hospital textiles contaminated with blood. The bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants for chemothermal disinfection was determined by simulating a laundering procedure for hospital textiles in the laboratory according to procedure of National Institute of Hygiene - DF/05/03. Bioindicators cotton carriers inoculated with Enterococcus faecium were used for determinating the antibacterial effects for hospital textiles contaminated with blood. High concentrations of bovine albumin and/or sheep erythrocytes were used as substrate for simulating human blood. The results showed that the bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants for chemothermal disinfection hospital textiles in the event of massive organic contamination--heavily soiled with blood, shall be evaluated using carrier test in following conditions: test organism- Enterococcus faecium, interfering substances--6 g/l bovine albumin solution added to preparation. PMID:21365871

  6. Interaction Of ZnO Nanoparticles With Food Borne Pathogens Escherichia coli DH5α and Staphylococcus aureus 5021 & Their Bactericidal Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Pawan; Thakur, Rajesh; Kumar, Sandeep; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2011-12-01

    Bactericidal activity of ZnO nanoparticles (np) against the food borne pathogens E. coli DH5α (Gram-ve) and & S. aureus 5021 (Gram+ve), and the mechanism of their interaction with target microbes was studied. Bactericidal activity of ZnO np was attributed to disruption of cell membrane causing cytoplasmic leakage, which was measured by quantifying the leakage of nucleic acids, proteins and K+ ions from the cells using UV-VIS Spectrophotometry and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, respectively. Cell membrane disruption was observed through TEM. It is proposed that both the abrasiveness and the surface oxygen species of ZnO np are responsible for their biocidal properties.

  7. [State of the nonspecific humoral factors of the body's natural resistance in patients with suppurative and septic infections having various ABO system blood groups].

    PubMed

    Romanov, V A; Malafeeva, E V; Belokurov, Iu N; Gramenitskii, A B

    1979-12-01

    The results of surveying 140 patients with severe purulent and septic infections of staphylococcal etiology, when compared with the distribution of the blood groups (as classified according to the ABO system) in 180 healthy donors, revealed that generalized purulent infections occurred most frequently in patients with blood groups A (II) and AB (IV), and more seldom in patients with blood groups O (I) and B (III). The average content of lysozyme, complement and normal antibodies to E. coli, as well as the average level of general bactericidal activity in the blood sera of the patients were considerably lower than in the blood sera of healthy donors; at the same time content of lysozyme, complement and normal antibodies in the blood sera of patients having different groups of blood did not reflect the degree of their predisposition or resistance to staphylococcal infections. The general bactericidal activity of the blood serum was found to correlate with the degree of predisposition or resistance to purulent septic infections of staphylococcal etiology to a greater extent than other characteristics. PMID:390943

  8. Evaluation of endotoxin (LPS) activity in bovine blood using neutrophil dependent chemiluminescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a neutrophil chemiluminescence-based assay for the measurement of LPS stimulatory activity in bovine whole blood. The assay is based on the capacity for LPS to trigger the respiratory oxidative burst activity (RBA) of autologous neutroph...

  9. Walking Activity, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…

  10. Degranulation and abnormal bactericidal function of granulocytes procured by reversible adhesion to nylon wool.

    PubMed

    Klock, J C; Bainton, D F

    1976-07-01

    Granylocyte bactericidal capacity, chemotaxis, hexose monophosphate shung activity (before and after phagocytic stimulus), and quantitative nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and enzyme content were examined in cells obtained by filtration leukaphresis (FL) and continuous-flow centrifugation (CFC). A decrease in the bactericidal efficiency of FL-produced cells compared to that of both normal and CFC-procured granulocytes was found; the decrease was 17% with a cell-to-bacteria ratio of 5:1, and 55% with a 1:1 ratio. Moreover, FL-acquired cells were often vacuolated and consistently contained less acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase than did normal granulocytes. When normal cells were incubated for 1-2 hr with nylon wool, 30% of the total acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase was released, with no evidence of cell death, thus suggesting degranulation. Similar results were obtained with glass, cotton, or polysulfone plastic fibers. Electron microscopic and peroxidase cytochemical studies of the adherence of normal granulocytes to nylon fibers were also carried out. After 30 min of incubation, cell-to-fiber attachment and cellular aggregation had occurred, although the cells per se appeared normal. After 60 and 120 min, other changes became apparent: (1) a decrease in the amount of cytoplasmic granules; (2) large, intracytoplasmic vaculoles; and (3) extracellular peroxidase on fiber surfaces. We conclude that granulocytes obtained by adherence to nylon fibers show both morphological and biochemical evidence of degranulation and diminished bactericidal capacity, and that these abnormalities may be causally related to decreased granulocyte survival in transfusion recipients. PMID:947403

  11. Stability of cytokines, chemokines and soluble activation markers in unprocessed blood stored under different conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Najib; Detels, Roger; Quint, Joshua J.; Li, Qian; Gjertson, David; Butch, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Biomarkers such as cytokines, chemokines, and soluble activation markers can be unstable when processing of blood is delayed. The stability of various biomarkers in serum and plasma was investigated when unprocessed blood samples were stored for up to 24 h at room and refrigerator temperature. Methods Blood was collected from 16 healthy volunteers. Unprocessed serum, EDTA and heparinized blood was stored at room (20–25 °C) and refrigerator temperature (4–8 °C) for 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h after collection before centrifugation and separation of serum and plasma. Samples were batch tested for various biomarkers using commercially available immunoassays. Statistically significant changes were determined using the generalized estimating equation. Results IFN-γ, sIL-2Rα, sTNF-RII and β2-microglobulin were stable in unprocessed serum, EDTA and heparinized blood samples stored at either room or refrigerator temperature for up to 24 h. IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1β and RANTES were unstable in heparinized blood at room temperature; TNF-α, and MIP-1β were unstable in unprocessed serum at room temperature; IL-12 was unstable in unprocessed serum at refrigerator temperature; and neopterin was unstable in unprocessed EDTA blood at room temperature. IL-1ra was stable only in unprocessed serum at room temperature. Conclusion All the biomarkers studied, with the exception of IL-1ra, were stable in unprocessed EDTA blood stored at refrigerator temperature for 24 h. This indicates that blood for these biomarkers should be collected in EDTA and if delays in processing are anticipated the unseparated blood should be stored at refrigerator temperature until processing. PMID:27208752

  12. Synergistic bactericidal effects of acrinol and tetracycline against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Saji, M; Fujii, K; Ohkuni, H; Irie, N; Osono, E; Kato, F

    2000-06-01

    Combined treatment of acrinol (Ac) and tetracycline hydrochloride (Tc) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical specimens synergistically increased the bactericidal effect. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Ac against P. aeruginosa strain no. 985 was 200 microg/ml, while the MBC of Ac against strains no. 47 and no. 783 was above 800 microg/ml for each. The MBC of Tc was above 400 microg/ml against each of the tested strains. However, simultaneous treatment with 25 microg/ml Ac and 200 microg/ml Tc against P. aeruginosa strain no. 985 decreased the viable cell number from 107 cfu/ml to <10 cfu/ml within 24 h, while a higher concentration of Tc (400 microg/ml) with Ac (25 microg/ml) reduced the viable cell number to <10 cfu/ml within 8 h. A similar synergistic bactericidal effect of Ac and Tc was observed in strains no. 47 and no. 783 by treatment with 200 microg/ml Ac and 200 microg/ml or 400 microg/ml Tc. The degree of bactericidal effect against P. aeruginosa was proportional to the concentration of Tc under the condition of a constant concentration of Ac. Furthermore, Ac-treated cells of strain no. 47 were killed by a following Tc treatment, but cells pretreated with Tc did not show such a sensitivity to Ac. To induce the synergistic effect of Ac and Tc, Ac must be applied to P. aeruginosa before or at the same time as Tc. PMID:11810541

  13. REDUCED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW WITH ORTHOSTASIS PRECEDES HYPOCAPNIC HYPERPNEA, SYMPATHETIC ACTIVATION AND POTS

    PubMed Central

    Del Pozzi, Andrew T.; Schwartz, Christopher E.; Tewari, Deepali; Medow, Marvin S.; Stewart, Julian M.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperventilation, and reduced cerebral blood flow velocity can occur in postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). We studied orthostatically intolerant patients, with suspected POTS, with a chief complaint of upright dyspnea. Based on our observations of an immediate reduction of cerebral blood flow velocity with orthostasis, we hypothesize that the resulting ischemic hypoxia of the carotid body causes chemoreflex activation, hypocapnic hyperpnea, sympathetic activation, and increased heart rate and blood pressure in this subset of POTS. We compared 11 dyspneic POTS subjects to 10 healthy controls during a 70° head-up tilt. In POTS subjects during initial orthostasis prior to BP recovery; central blood volume and mean arterial pressure were reduced (P<0.025) resulting in a significant (P<0.001) decrease in cerebral blood flow velocity, which temporally preceded (17±6 s; P<0.025) a progressive increase in minute ventilation and decrease in end tidal CO2 (P<0.05), compared to controls. Sympathoexcitation, measured by muscle sympathetic nerve activity, was increased in POTS, (P<0.01), and inversely proportional to end tidal CO2 and resulted in an increase in heart rate, (P<0.001), total peripheral resistance (P<0.025), and a decrease in cardiac output (P<0.025). The decrease in cerebral blood flow velocity and mean arterial pressure during initial orthostasis was greater (P<0.025) in POTS. Our data suggest that exaggerated initial central hypovolemia during initial orthostatic hypotension in POTS results in reduced cerebral blood flow velocity and postural hypocapnic hyperpnea that perpetuates cerebral ischemia. We hypothesize that sustained hypocapnia and cerebral ischemia produce sympathoexcitation, tachycardia and a statistically significant increase in blood pressure. PMID:24711524

  14. Age composition and antioxidant enzyme activities in blood of Black Sea teleosts.

    PubMed

    Rudneva, Irina I; Skuratovskaya, Ekaterina N; Kuzminova, Natalya S; Kovyrshina, Tatyana B

    2010-03-01

    Age composition and age-related trends of antioxidant enzyme activities superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (PER), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the blood of seven Black Sea teleosts (Carangidae, Centracanthidae, Gadidae, Mullidae, Gobiidae and Scorpaenidae) collected in marine coastal area of Sevastopol (Ukraine) were studied. In the catches the animals of 1-2 years of age dominated while in the Scorpaena porcus population the number of relatively elder individuals belonging to classes of 3-4 years was the highest. The trends of antioxidant enzyme activities in blood were not uniform. Three types of age-dependent responses were indicated in fish blood: 1. enzymatic activity did not change with age; 2. enzymatic activity decreased with age and 3. enzyme activity increased with age or varied unclearly. The interspecies differences of age-related enzymatic activities associated with the specificity of fish biology and ecology were indicated. Despite no clear evidence of age-related differences between fish species belonging to different ecological groups both benthic forms exhibited similar age-dependent trends of SOD and PER. The correlations between blood antioxidant enzyme activities in fish belonging to suprabenthic and benthic/pelagic groups demonstrated the intermediate values as compared to the benthic and pelagic forms. The results suggest the importance of age trends for biomarkers in fish monitoring studies. PMID:19897051

  15. Mitigation of bactericidal effect of carbon nanotubes by cell entrapment.

    PubMed

    Le, Tu Thi Anh; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak

    2016-09-15

    This study investigated the effects of the alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) entrapment on the viability of Escherichia coli cells exposed to single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a diameter of 1-2nm. Viability was examined using a galactosidase enzyme assay, LIVE/DEAD BacLight assay, and total ribonucleic acid quantity. Variables studied included SWCNT concentration (5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000μg/ml), SWCNT length (0.5-2μm for short SWCNTs and 5-30μm for long SWCNTs), and initial bacterial concentration (6.5 log10 CFU and 9 log10 CFU per test). Results showed that both alginate and PVA entrapments mitigate the bactericidal effect of SWCNTs. At the highest SWCNT concentration tested (1000μg/ml), the viability of the cells relative to controls (systems with only E. coli, no SWCNTs), was 0-60% for free cells and 60-90% for alginate and PVA entrapped cells. The bactericidal effect depended on SWCNT type and concentration, and bacterial concentration. In general, long SWCNTs (5-30μm) caused significantly greater reductions in the viability of entrapped cells than the short SWCNTs except for the two highest SWCNT concentrations studied, 500 and 1000μg/ml. Microscopy showed that the entrapment matrices prevented SWCNTs from entering the beads. This study shows that bacterial entrapment is effective at limiting the bactericidal effect of SWCNTs. PMID:27178755

  16. Rapid infrared determination of the potency of chlorinated bactericides.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, F; Cestaro, J P

    1971-06-01

    A rapid infrared reflectance method for evaluating the germicidal potency of synthetic materials containing various amounts of two chlorinated bactericides was developed. The dimeric product 2,2'-methylenebis (4,6-dichlorophenol) exhibited a characteristic C=C skeletal inplane stretching infrared absorption band at 1,640 cm(-1). The monomeric 2,4-dichlorophenol precursor showed a characteristic absorption band at 1,579 cm(-1). These characteristic infrared absorptions may be used for analysis of the potency of the manufactured chlorinated bactericide. For a series of samples known to vary in dimer content, the micrograms per milliliter required for a 100% bacterial kill is first determined by a standard American Petroleum Institute method. Then the area ratio of the infrared absorption bands characteristic of the chlorinated bactericides is measured for each sample and plotted versus the microgram per milliliter required for 100% bacterial kill. The potency of subsequent samples is simply and rapidly determined by measuring this ratio from the infrared absorption curve and calculating micrograms per milliliter required for 100% kill from the calibration curve. Analysis time is approximately 1 hr compared to biocidal tests in current use requiring approximately a 1-month incubation period. PMID:5564677

  17. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  18. Heightened Functional Neural Activation to Psychological Stress Covaries With Exaggerated Blood Pressure Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Jennings, J. Richard; Sheu, Lei K.; Derbyshire, Stuart W.G.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who show exaggerated blood pressure reactions to psychological stressors are at increased risk for hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. We tested whether individuals who show exaggerated stressor-induced blood pressure reactivity also show heightened stressor-induced neural activation in brain areas involved in controlling the cardiovascular system. In a functional MRI study, 46 postmenopausal women (mean age: 68.04; SD: 1.35 years) performed a standardized Stroop color-word interference task that served as a stressor to increase blood pressure. Across individuals, a larger task-induced rise in blood pressure covaried with heightened and correlated patterns of activation in brain areas implicated previously in stress-related cardiovascular control: the perigenual and posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, and cerebellum. Entered as a set in hierarchical regression analyses, activation values in these brain areas uniquely predicted the magnitude of task-induced changes in systolic (ΔR2=0.54; P<0.001) and diastolic (ΔR2=0.27; P<0.05) blood pressure after statistical control for task accuracy and subjective reports of task stress. Heightened stressor-induced activation of cingulate, prefrontal, insular, and cerebellar brain areas may represent a functional neural phenotype that characterizes individuals who are prone to show exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity. PMID:17101844

  19. Assessment of the site of ventricular activation by Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool studies

    SciTech Connect

    Links, J.M.; Raichlen, J.S.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Reid, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied the use of first-harmonic Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool images to assess the site of ventricular activation in a group of 12 patients undergoing electrophysiologic pacing studies. They acquired gated blood-pool studies during pacing at up to four sites at each of two different rates. A total of 50 studies were made. At a pacing rate of 100 beats/min, when the pacing electrode was the right-ventricular outflow tract, 7/8; at the anterolateral left-ventricular wall, 4/4. When the Fourier activation site was at the right-ventricular apex, 9/9 times the pacing electrode was there; at the right-ventricular outflow tract, 7/10; in the left ventricle, 4/4. Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool studies can help identify the site of ventricular activation but is not sufficiently accurate to fully replace endocardial mapping.

  20. Reinforcement of the bactericidal effect of ciprofloxacin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm by hyperbaric oxygen treatment.

    PubMed

    Kolpen, Mette; Mousavi, Nabi; Sams, Thomas; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Ciofu, Oana; Moser, Claus; Kühl, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2016-02-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the most severe complication in cystic fibrosis patients. It is characterised by antibiotic-tolerant biofilms in the endobronchial mucus with zones of oxygen (O2) depletion mainly due to polymorphonuclear leucocyte activity. Whilst the exact mechanisms affecting antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms remain unclear, accumulating evidence suggests that the efficacy of several bactericidal antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin is enhanced by stimulation of the aerobic respiration of pathogens, and that lack of O2 increases their tolerance. Reoxygenation of O2-depleted biofilms may thus improve susceptibility to ciprofloxacin possibly by restoring aerobic respiration. We tested such a strategy using reoxygenation of O2-depleted P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 agarose-embedded biofilms by hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) (100% O2, 2.8bar), enhancing the diffusive supply for aerobic respiration during ciprofloxacin treatment. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that biofilm reoxygenation by HBOT can significantly enhance the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin on P. aeruginosa. Combining ciprofloxacin treatment with HBOT thus clearly has potential to improve the treatment of P. aeruginosa biofilm infections. PMID:26774522

  1. Ramoplanin at bactericidal concentrations induces bacterial membrane depolarization in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mu; Huang, Johnny X; Ramu, Soumya; Butler, Mark S; Cooper, Matthew A

    2014-11-01

    Ramoplanin is an actinomycetes-derived antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria that has been evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of gastrointestinal vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Clostridium difficile infections. Recent studies have proposed that ramoplanin binds to bacterial membranes as a C2 symmetrical dimer that can sequester Lipid II, which causes inhibition of cell wall peptidoglycan biosynthesis and cell death. In this study, ramoplanin was shown to bind to anionic and zwitterionic membrane mimetics with a higher affinity for anionic membranes and to induce membrane depolarization of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) ATCC 25923 at concentrations at or above the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The ultrastructural effects of ramoplanin on S. aureus were also examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and this showed dramatic changes to bacterial cell morphology. The correlation observed between membrane depolarization and bacterial cell viability suggests that this mechanism may contribute to the bactericidal activity of ramoplanin. PMID:25182650

  2. A Bactericidal Guanidinomethyl Biaryl That Alters the Dynamics of Bacterial FtsZ Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Malvika; Parhi, Ajit K.; Zhang, Yongzheng; LaVoie, Edmond J.; Tuske, Steve; Arnold, Eddy; Kerrigan, John E.; Pilch, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of multidrug resistance among clinically significant bacterial pathogens underscores a critical need for the development of new classes of antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action. Here we describe the synthesis and evaluation of a guanidinomethyl biaryl compound {1-((4′-(tert-butyl)-[1,1′-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl)guanidine} that targets the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ. In vitro studies with various bacterial FtsZ proteins reveal that the compound alters the dynamics of FtsZ self-polymerization via a stimulatory mechanism, while minimally impacting the polymerization of tubulin, the closest mammalian homologue of FtsZ. The FtsZ binding site of the compound is identified through a combination of computational and mutational approaches. The compound exhibits a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity, including activity against the multidrug-resistant pathogens methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), while also exhibiting a minimal potential to induce resistance. Taken together, our results highlight the compound as a promising new FtsZ-targeting bactericidal agent. PMID:23050700

  3. Ramoplanin at Bactericidal Concentrations Induces Bacterial Membrane Depolarization in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Mu; Huang, Johnny X.; Ramu, Soumya; Butler, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Ramoplanin is an actinomycetes-derived antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria that has been evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of gastrointestinal vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Clostridium difficile infections. Recent studies have proposed that ramoplanin binds to bacterial membranes as a C2 symmetrical dimer that can sequester Lipid II, which causes inhibition of cell wall peptidoglycan biosynthesis and cell death. In this study, ramoplanin was shown to bind to anionic and zwitterionic membrane mimetics with a higher affinity for anionic membranes and to induce membrane depolarization of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) ATCC 25923 at concentrations at or above the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The ultrastructural effects of ramoplanin on S. aureus were also examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and this showed dramatic changes to bacterial cell morphology. The correlation observed between membrane depolarization and bacterial cell viability suggests that this mechanism may contribute to the bactericidal activity of ramoplanin. PMID:25182650

  4. Whole-body vibration alters blood flow velocity and neuromuscular activity in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Azael J; Martín, Juan; Martín, Teresa; García-López, David; Garatachea, Nuria; Jiménez, Beatriz; Marín, Pedro J

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on blood flow velocity and muscular activity after different vibration protocols in Friedreich's ataxia (FA) patients. After two familiarization sessions ten patients received six 3 min WBV treatments depending on a combination of frequency (10, 20 or 30 Hz) and protocol (constant or fragmented). Femoral artery blood flow velocity, vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) electromyography (EMG), and rate of perceived exertion were registered. Peak blood velocity was increased with respect to basal values after 1, 2 and 3 min of WBV (14·8%, 18·8% and 19·7%, respectively, P<0·001). Likewise, mean blood velocity was increased with respect to basal values after 1, 2 and 3 min of WBV (17·3%, 19·4% and 16·6%, respectively, P<0·001). EMG amplitude of VL and VM was increased (39% and 23%, respectively, P<0·05) and EMG frequencies decreased during the application of WBV. The results of this study suggest that higher frequencies (30 Hz) produce a greater increase in blood flow velocity and rate of perceived exertion. WBV is an effective method to increase blood flow and to activate muscle mass in patients with Friedreich's ataxia, and could therefore be considered to be incorporated in rehabilitation programs of this collective. PMID:21078065

  5. Diffuse elevated MIBG activity in the renal parenchyma caused by compromised renal blood flow.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Codreanu, Ion; Yang, Jigang; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

    2014-11-01

    Increased metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) activity in the kidneys is usually focal and commonly attributed to radioactive urine accumulation in the renal pelvis. Hereby, we present 2 cases of abnormal diffuse MIBG activity in the kidneys caused by compromised renal blood flow. The patterns should be differentiated from physiologic renal MIBG activity, especially when the uptake is relatively symmetric as well as from regional MIBG-avid disease. PMID:24999702

  6. Cholesterol lipids of Borrelia burgdorferi form lipid rafts and are required for the bactericidal mechanism of a complement-independent antibody

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Timothy J; Crowley, Jameson T; Cusack, Brian J; Pathak, Priyadarshini; Benach, Jordi; London, Erwin; Garcia-Monco, Juan C; Benach, Jorge L

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Borrelia burgdorferi (the agent of Lyme disease) is unusual in that it contains free cholesterol and cholesterol glycolipids. It is also susceptible to complement-independent bactericidal antibodies, such as CB2, a monoclonal IgG1 against outer surface protein B (OspB). The bactericidal action of CB2 requires the presence of cholesterol glycolipids and cholesterol. Through ultrastructural, biochemical and biophysical approaches, we show that these cholesterol glycolipids exist as lipid raft-like microdomains in the outer membrane of cultured and mouse-derived B. burgdorferi, and in model membranes from B. burgdorferi lipids. The order and size of the microdomains of intact cells and model membranes are temperature sensitive and correlate with the bactericidal activity of CB2. Here we demonstrate the existence of cholesterol-containing lipid raft-like microdomains in a prokaryote. PMID:20951967

  7. "Blood Stains" on Tethys: Evidence for Recent Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, P.

    2015-12-01

    Distinctive set of arcuate, reddish-colored lineaments has been identified on Tethys. These markings are slightly darker than adjacent cratered terrains but have a flatter green-IR spectral slope. There are at least three prominent sets in the northern hemisphere centered on the anti-Saturn meridian. Each set consists of ~5-10 parallel lineations a few kilometers across and 50-250 km long. The lineations are remarkably curvilinear (i.e., non-sinuous) and not deflected by major impact structures: they cross uninterrupted the floor of 400-km-diameter, 10-km-deep Odysseus impact basin. In one area (~25° N, 185°W), high-resolution mapping at ~90-125 m/pixel shows no discrete scarp, ridge, or other tectonic manifestation along the feature. Instead, only a faint discoloration and ~25 small dark spots 200-800 m in diameter have been identified. These spots are characterized by very low albedos, sharp boundaries, and no evidence of raised rims expected with impact origin. Of these, ~60% (15) are at the bottom of small craters. The IR lineaments show remarkable symmetry centered on the tidal axis with Saturn. Exogenic mechansims are ruled out by geometry and geology, hence we explore possible endogenic origins. Stress mechanisms being tested include non-synchronous rotation (considered unlikely for a cold, triaxial body like Tethys), tidal recession and true polar wander. The lack of obvious tectonic deformation despite the strong color signature is unusual (although structures may exist below the current resolution limit). Though unlikely, the lineaments could be reactivated ancient fractures, producing a temporal discoloration. If tectonic, the lineaments might be still forming, with deformation only on a scale below that which we can resolve. The coloration, global pattern and collocated dark spots are consistent with recent/active alteration of the surface, given that E-ring accumulation is expected to remove intrinsic color signatures in a geologically short time

  8. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  9. Protein corona over silver nanoparticles triggers conformational change of proteins and drop in bactericidal potential of nanoparticles: Polyethylene glycol capping as preventive strategy.

    PubMed

    Ban, Deependra Kumar; Paul, Subhankar

    2016-10-01

    Here, we demonstrated that starch-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPST) with a size range of 10-15nm could readily interact with a small protein bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA) through the formation of protein corona. We further observed that such phenomena not only caused structural change of BLA but drastic drop in the bactericidal potential of AgNP. To design a strategy towards minimizing protein adsorption and maximizing the retention of bactericidal potential of AgNP, we developed stable polyethylene glycol (PEG)-capped AgNP (AgNPPEG) that clearly demonstrated reduced conformational changes of protein and retention of substantial bactericidal potential of AgNPPEG, compared to AgNPST. Moreover, AgNPPEG also showed excellent hemocompatibility. A relatively larger protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human blood serum solution containing serum proteins were also used in this study to validate our hypotheses. Overall, our study established that protein coated AgNP losses its inherent bactericidal potential substantially; however, when functionalized with a suitable material such as PEG, it could reduce such drop in substantial amount. Moreover, it achieved improved biocompatibility in actual physiological condition that might find a better therapeutic avenue in many bacteria-mediated disorders. PMID:27424088

  10. Molecular genetics of blood-fleshed peach reveals activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by NAC transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Wang, Huiliang; Gu, Chao; Dare, Andrew P; Espley, Richard V; He, Huaping; Allan, Andrew C; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin pigmentation is an important consumer trait in peach (Prunus persica). In this study, the genetic basis of the blood-flesh trait was investigated using the cultivar Dahongpao, which shows high levels of cyanidin-3-glucoside in the mesocarp. Elevation of anthocyanin levels in the flesh was correlated with the expression of an R2R3 MYB transcription factor, PpMYB10.1. However, PpMYB10.1 did not co-segregate with the blood-flesh trait. The blood-flesh trait was mapped to a 200-kb interval on peach linkage group (LG) 5. Within this interval, a gene encoding a NAC domain transcription factor (TF) was found to be highly up-regulated in blood-fleshed peaches when compared with non-red-fleshed peaches. This NAC TF, designated blood (BL), acts as a heterodimer with PpNAC1 which shows high levels of expression in fruit at late developmental stages. We show that the heterodimer of BL and PpNAC1 can activate the transcription of PpMYB10.1, resulting in anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco. Furthermore, silencing the BL gene reduces anthocyanin pigmentation in blood-fleshed peaches. The transactivation activity of the BL-PpNAC1 heterodimer is repressed by a SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like TF, PpSPL1. Low levels of PpMYB10.1 expression in fruit at early developmental stages is probably attributable to lower levels of expression of PpNAC1 plus the presence of high levels of repressors such as PpSPL1. We present a mechanism whereby BL is the key gene for the blood-flesh trait in peach via its activation of PpMYB10.1 in maturing fruit. Partner TFs such as basic helix-loop-helix proteins and NAC1 are required, as is the removal of transcriptional repressors. PMID:25688923

  11. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity. PMID:23664016

  12. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  13. The effect of age and frailty upon blood esterase activities and their response to dietary supplementation.

    PubMed Central

    Summerbell, J; Wynne, H; Hankey, C R; Williams, F M

    1993-01-01

    1. The aims of this study were two-fold. First, to define ranges of blood esterase activities in three groups, namely young subjects, fit community dwelling elderly and frail, chronically hospitalised elderly subjects, and second, to determine whether low blood esterase activities in the frail patients could be altered by increasing their nutritional intake. 2. Plasma cholinesterase, aspirin esterase, paraoxonase and phenylacetate esterase activities were all significantly lower in the frail elderly compared with the young and fit elderly volunteers. The activity of red blood cell esterase was not different in the frail elderly. 3. Fourteen frail elderly patients were randomly assigned to receive either hospital meal provision plus supplemental feeding with Build-up (Nestle) and Maxijul (SHS Ltd) or hospital provision alone for 8 weeks. Dietary intake was measured for all patients at the start of the study and at week 8. Measurements of blood esterase (cholinesterase, phenylacetate esterase, paraoxonase, aspirin esterase and red blood cell esterase), albumin and anthropometric indices (weight, triceps skinfold thickness and mid arm circumference) were made before the study and repeated at week 4 and 8. 4. There was a significant increase in plasma cholinesterase at week 4 (P < 0.05) but this was not statistically significant at week 8. There were no significant changes in any of the other esterase activities or anthropometric measurements. 5. We conclude that the lower esterase activities of the frail chronically hospitalised elderly do not respond to dietary supplementation for a period of 8 weeks with routinely available products. The hypothesis that lower esterase activities are the direct result of undernutrition which would be corrected by dietary supplementation has not been supported by this study. PMID:12959286

  14. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  15. Equilibrium physics breakdown reveals the active nature of red blood cell flickering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turlier, Herve; Fedosov, Dmitry; Auth, Thorsten; Gov, Nir S.; Sykes, Cecile; Joanny, Jean-Francois; Gompper, Gerhard; Betz, Timo

    2015-03-01

    Red blood cell membrane flickering stimulated an abundant biological, biophysical and biochemical literature over the past 50 years. While the phenomenon has been interpreted as thermal fluctuations of the cell membrane, recent results suggest the involvement of metabolic processes. However, to date there is no direct and conclusive evidence that an active force drives membrane flickering. By comparing membrane undulations and active microrheology measurements on single human erythrocytes, we show that flickering is partly driven by an active metabolic process, as it does not satisfy the equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation on timescales slower than 100ms. Analytical and numerical models of the red blood cell reproduce experimental results. The analytical model assumes that membrane activity results from reversible binding of the elastic spectrin network to the lipid bilayer and predicts active fluctuations to increase with local curvature and extensional prestress in the cytoskeleton. Our mean-field calculation shows that the strength and kinetics of the binding activity regulates thereupon both passive and active mechanical properties of the red blood cell. Numerical simulations explore other possible origins of active forces on the membrane and predict coherent timescales for the molecular underlying metabolic processes.

  16. Evidence of a bactericidal permeability increasing protein in an invertebrate, the Crassostrea gigas Cg-BPI

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Marcelo; Gueguen, Yannick; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Romestand, Bernard; Fievet, Julie; Pugnière, Martine; Roquet, Françoise; Escoubas, Jean-Michel; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Levy, Ofer; Sauné, Laure; Bulet, Philippe; Bachère, Evelyne

    2007-01-01

    A cDNA sequence with homologies to members of the LPS-binding protein and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) family was identified in the oyster Crassostrea gigas. The recombinant protein was found to bind LPS, to display bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli, and to increase the permeability of the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. This indicated that it is a BPI rather than an LPS-binding protein. By in situ hybridization, the expression of the C. gigas BPI (Cg-bpi) was found to be induced in hemocytes after oyster bacterial challenge and to be constitutive in various epithelia of unchallenged oysters. Thus, Cg-bpi transcripts were detected in the epithelial cells of tissues/organs in contact with the external environment (mantle, gills, digestive tract, digestive gland diverticula, and gonad follicles). Therefore, Cg-BPI, whose expression profile and biological properties are reminiscent of mammalian BPIs, may provide a first line of defense against potential bacterial invasion. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of a BPI in an invertebrate. PMID:17965238

  17. Reactive oxygen species and the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of isoconazole nitrate.

    PubMed

    Czaika, Viktor A; Siebenbrock, Jan; Czekalla, Frank; Zuberbier, Torsten; Sieber, Martin A

    2013-05-01

    Bacterial superinfections often occur in dermatomycoses, resulting in greatly inflamed or eczematous skin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of isoconazole nitrate (ISN), a broad-spectrum antimicrobial imidazole, commonly used to treat dermatomycoses. Several gram-positive bacteria minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ISN (ISN solution or ISN-containing creams: Travogen or corticosteroid-containing Travocort) and ampicillin were obtained using the broth-dilution method. Speed of onset of the bactericidal effect was determined with bacterial killing curves. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were visualised by staining cells with singlet oxygen detector stain. Compared with ampicillin MICs, ISN MICs for Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus hominis were lower and ISN MICs for Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum and Streptococcus salivarius were similar. Incubation with ISN led to a 50% kill rate for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA). Post-ISN incubation, 36% (30 min) and 90% (60 min) of S. aureus cells were positive for ROS. Isoconazole nitrate has a broad bacteriostatic and bactericidal action, also against a MRSA strain that was not reduced by the corticosteroid in the Travocort cream. Data suggest that the antibacterial effect of ISN may be ROS dependent. An antifungal agent with robust antibacterial activity can provide a therapeutic advantage in treating dermatomycoses with suspected bacterial superinfections. PMID:23574020

  18. Bactericidal efficacy of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (APNTP) against the ESKAPE pathogens.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Padrig B; Higginbotham, Sarah; Alshraiedeh, Nid'a H; Gorman, Sean P; Graham, William G; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens within the clinical environment is presenting a mounting problem in hospitals worldwide. The 'ESKAPE' pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp.) have been highlighted as a group of causative organisms in a majority of nosocomial infections, presenting a serious health risk due to widespread antimicrobial resistance. The stagnating pipeline of new antibiotics requires alternative approaches to the control and treatment of nosocomial infections. Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (APNTP) is attracting growing interest as an alternative infection control approach within the clinical setting. This study presents a comprehensive bactericidal assessment of an in-house-designed APNTP jet both against biofilms and planktonic bacteria of the ESKAPE pathogens. Standard plate counts and the XTT metabolic assay were used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of APNTP, with both methods demonstrating comparable eradication times. APNTP exhibited rapid antimicrobial activity against all of the ESKAPE pathogens in the planktonic mode of growth and provided efficient and complete eradication of ESKAPE pathogens in the biofilm mode of growth within 360s, with the exception of A. baumannii where a >4log reduction in biofilm viability was observed. This demonstrates its effectiveness as a bactericidal treatment against these pathogens and further highlights its potential application in the clinical environment for the control of highly antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. PMID:25963338

  19. [Effects of thymectomy on the natural bactericidal power of thymectomized mice].

    PubMed

    Moroni, M; Medina, F; Lazzarin, A; Montinari, F

    1975-11-20

    T and B-dependent systems are correlated between themselves and with the macrophage system in eliciting the immune humoral response. Not all immunogens require T-B interactions to elicit the antibody response: consequently, the problem of the limits of T-dependence, with regard to different immunogen stimulations, remains open. The comparative study of the serum antibody response in mice, thymectomized at birth and in the normal ones, inferred from the values of bactericidal activity (b.a.), detected versus E. coli, S. typhi and S. albus strains did point out evident variation. Thymectomy has impaired b.a. against E. coli; it seems to have no consequence on b.a. against S. typhi; is not possible to the results of our investigation, it seems that the response to the immunogens, responsible for the so-called natural antibodies does require T-B cooperation only for some bacterial species and not for others. A higher bactericidal capacity of normal serum with regard to Gram positive as compared with Gram negative bacteria, is confirmed. PMID:1106729

  20. Comparative bactericidal activities of lasers operating at seven different wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Ian A.; Ward, Glenn D.; Wang, RuiKang K.; Sharp, James H.; Budgett, David M.; Stewart-Tull, Duncan E.; Wardlaw, Alastair C.; Chatwin, Christopher R.

    1996-10-01

    Seven laser instruments, delivering radiation at a selection of wavelengths in the range of 0.355 to 118 micrometers , we investigated for their ability to kill Escherichia coli as a lawn of the bacteria on nutrient agar culture plates. Easily the most effective was a 600-W CO2 laser operating at 10.6 micrometers , which produced 1.2-cm2 circular zones of sterilization at energy densities of around 8 J cm-2 in a 30-msec exposure. Circular zones with an area of 0.7 cm2 were achieved with 200 W from a Nd:YAG laser delivering 8-ms, 10-J pulses of 1.06 micrometers radiation at 20 Hz. The exposure time, however, was 16 s and the energy density was more than 240 times higher than with the CO2 laser. This difference is believed to be partly due to the much higher absorption of radiation at 10.6 micrometers , by water in the bacterial cells and the surrounding medium. Sterilization was observed after exposure to frequency- tripled Nd:YAG laser radiation at 355 nm. Lasers that were totally ineffective in killing Escherichia coli were the far infrared laser, the laser diode array, and the argon ion laser. The speed at which laser sterilization can be achieved is particularly attractive to the medical and food industries.

  1. Micrococcin P1 - A bactericidal thiopeptide active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Degiacomi, Giulia; Personne, Yoann; Mondésert, Guillaume; Ge, Xueliang; Mandava, Chandra Sekhar; Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Boldrin, Francesca; Goel, Pavitra; Peisker, Kristin; Benjak, Andrej; Barrio, Maria Belén; Ventura, Marcello; Brown, Amanda C; Leblanc, Véronique; Bauer, Armin; Sanyal, Suparna; Cole, Stewart T; Lagrange, Sophie; Parish, Tanya; Manganelli, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    The lack of proper treatment for serious infectious diseases due to the emergence of multidrug resistance reinforces the need for the discovery of novel antibiotics. This is particularly true for tuberculosis (TB) for which 3.7% of new cases and 20% of previously treated cases are estimated to be caused by multi-drug resistant strains. In addition, in the case of TB, which claimed 1.5 million lives in 2014, the treatment of the least complicated, drug sensitive cases is lengthy and disagreeable. Therefore, new drugs with novel targets are urgently needed to control resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. In this manuscript we report the characterization of the thiopeptide micrococcin P1 as an anti-tubercular agent. Our biochemical experiments show that this antibiotic inhibits the elongation step of protein synthesis in mycobacteria. We have further identified micrococcin resistant mutations in the ribosomal protein L11 (RplK); the mutations were located in the proline loop at the N-terminus. Reintroduction of the mutations into a clean genetic background, confirmed that they conferred resistance, while introduction of the wild type RplK allele into resistant strains re-established sensitivity. We also identified a mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. These data, in good agreement with previous structural studies suggest that also in M. tuberculosis micrococcin P1 functions by binding to the cleft between the 23S rRNA and the L11 protein loop, thus interfering with the binding of elongation factors Tu and G (EF-Tu and EF-G) and inhibiting protein translocation. PMID:27553416

  2. [Oxidative modification of proteins and antioxidative blood activity of ground squirrels during induced awakening from winter sleep].

    PubMed

    Astaeva, M D; Klichkhanov, N K

    2009-01-01

    The intensity of oxidative modification of plasma proteins and activity of the antioxidative system of the blood of the ground squirrels during awakening from winter sleep is studied. During waking of animals, processes of oxidative modification of proteins in the blood plasma intensify. While the body temperature rises, the antioxidative activity of hydrophylic components of the blood plasma grows essentially, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase too. Activity of erythrocyte catalase at all stages of waking is definitely higher than in the control. The received results evidence that the high activity of various links of antioxidative blood protection provides stability to oxidative stress during waking of animals from deep sleep. PMID:20143625

  3. John Henry Active Coping, education, and blood pressure among urban blacks.

    PubMed Central

    Fernander, Anita F.; Durán, Ron E. F.; Saab, Patrice G.; Schneiderman, Neil

    2004-01-01

    The John Henryism hypothesis posits that individuals who actively cope with psychosocial stressors in the face of low socioeconomic resources are more likely to exhibit higher blood pressure levels than those with greater socioeconomic resources. It has been proposed that John Henryism may contribute to the disproportionately high rates of hypertension among blacks. Previous studies which support the John Henryism hypothesis have been conducted among blacks who reside in primarily southern rural settings. However, more recent studies conducted among urban blacks, have yielded contrasting results. This study examined the John Henryism hypothesis in a middle-aged urban sample of blacks in south Florida. The results of the study confirmed that there is indeed a relationship among John Henry Active Coping, years of education, and blood pressure among urban blacks in south Florida. Upon closer examination, higher John Henry Active Coping scores were associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure among higher educated men, and John Henry Active Coping scores were associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure among women with lower levels of education. The findings are discussed in terms of sociocultural factors that may influence the coping styles of black men and women in different communities and environments. PMID:14977286

  4. A Kinesthetic Activity Using LEGO Bricks and Buckets for Illustrating the Regulation of Blood Sugar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urschler, Margaret; Meidl, Katherine; Browning, Samantha; Khan, Basima; Milanick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how, when first faced with understanding blood sugar regulation, students often resort to simple memorization.Many students would like to get more involved with the conceptual framework but do not know how to start. The authors have developed an activity based on the Modell approach, a "view from the inside." This…

  5. Circulating plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity and blood pressure tracking in the community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical trials using cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations reported an 'off-target' blood pressure (BP) raising effect. We evaluated the relations of baseline plasma CETP activity and longitudinal BP change. One tho...

  6. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls

    PubMed Central

    Millar, J. A.; Thompson, G. G.; Goldberg, A.; Barry, P. S. I.; Lowe, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Millar, J. A., Thompson, G. G., Goldberg, A., Barry, P. S. I., and Lowe, E. H. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 317-320. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls. The activity of erythrocyte ALA1-dehydrase is inhibited in vivo at blood lead (Pb2+) levels within the upper range of normal (20-40 μg/100 ml) and in vitro at lead concentrations greater than 10-7 M. In view of the high sensitivity of the enzyme to Pb2+, the levels of enzyme activity in the blood of men occupationally exposed to lead alkyls, particularly tetraethyllead, were measured. It was found that the enzyme activity in an exposed group of men was significantly less (P<0·001) than in a control group, the respective mean values being 220 and 677 units of enzyme activity. Tetraethyllead is metabolized in the body via triethyllead and diethyllead ions. As the latter compound possesses properties similar to Pb2+, it was synthesized in the laboratory and its effect on ALA-dehydrase was studied. Diethyllead ion was found to inhibit ALA-dehydrase activity at concentrations greater than 5 x 10-5 M, although the degree of inhibition was less than that obtained with Pb2+. These results suggest that exposure to tetraethyllead can cause a decrease in erythrocyte ALA-dehydrase activity. PMID:5044603

  7. An Engineered R-Type Pyocin Is a Highly Specific and Sensitive Bactericidal Agent for the Food-Borne Pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produce R-type pyocins, which are high molecular weight phage tail-like protein complexes that have bactericidal activity against other Pseudomonas strains. These particles recognize and bind to bacterial surface structures via tail fibers; their primary spectr...

  8. Sensitivity of K1-Encapsulated Escherichia coli to Killing by the Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein of Rabbit and Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jerrold; Victor, Michael; Cross, Alan S.; Elsbach, Peter

    1982-01-01

    The presence of K1 capsular polysaccharides increases the resistance of Escherichia coli to killing by serum and phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). To determine whether K1 capsule impedes the action of intracellular bactericidal systems of PMNs, we compared the sensitivity of several K1-encapsulated and non-encapsulated strains of E. coli to killing by the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) isolated from rabbit and human PMNs. BPI appears to be the principal bactericidal agent of PMNs toward E. coli and other gram-negative bacteria (Weiss et al., J. Clin. Invest. 69:959-970, 1982). The presence of K1 capsule was monitored by sensitivity to K1-specific bacteriophages. The non-encapsulated strains used represent both random bacteremic isolates and non-encapsulated derivatives of K1-encapsulated strains obtained by selection for resistance to K1-specific phages. We found little or no difference in the sensitivity of K1-encapsulated and non-encapsulated E. coli to killing by neutralized acid extracts of rabbit PMNs. Bacterial killing by these crude fractions can be attributed to the action of BPI because: (i) bacterial killing was blocked by immune (anti-BPI) immunoglobulin but not by preimmune immunoglobulin and (ii) comparison of the dose-response curves of bacterial killing by crude extracts and by purified BPI showed that the bactericidal activity of crude fractions corresponded closely to the BPI content. Human and rabbit BPIs exhibited similar bactericidal potency toward K1-encapsulated E. coli; i.e., <5 μg of either protein killed >90% of 2.5 × 107 bacteria. Thus, the potent bactericidal action of BPI toward E. coli is not impeded by K1 capsule, suggesting that the virulence of K1-encapsulated E. coli is a consequence of extracellular survival but not of resistance to intracellular killing. PMID:6759406

  9. Mechanism of the Bactericidal Action Produced by Electrohydraulic Shock1

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, S. E.; Speck, M. L.

    1967-01-01

    Electrohydraulic shock was shown to produce oxidation reactions which inactivated certain compounds important in cellular metabolism. Enzymes that were inactivated included lactic dehydrogenase, trypsin, and proteinases of Bacillus subtilis. Free sulfhydryl groups and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were oxidized. Adenosine triphosphate was destroyed, but deoxyribonucleic acid was not affected. Intracellular material of Escherichia coli lost its ability to absorb at 260 mμ after electrohydraulic shock. The bactericidal mechanism involved appeared to be due to nonselective oxidation reactions produced by high-voltage discharges in water. These oxidation reactions were probably mediated by free radicals produced in the water. PMID:4294820

  10. Active Hemovigilance Significantly Improves Reporting of Acute Non-infectious Adverse Reactions to Blood Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Naveen; Agnihotri, Ajju

    2016-09-01

    One of the key purposes of a hemovigilance program is to improve reporting of transfusion related adverse events and subsequent data-driven improvement in blood transfusion (BT) practices. We conducted a study over 3 years to assess the impact of healthcare worker training and an active feedback programme on reporting of adverse reactions to BTs. All hospitalized patients who required a BT were included in the study. Healthcare workers involved in BT to patients were sensitized and trained in adverse reaction reporting by conducting training sessions and meetings. All the transfused patients were 'actively' monitored for any acute adverse reaction by using a uniquely coded blood issue form. A total of 18,914 blood components transfused to 5785 different patients resulted in 61 adverse reaction episodes. This incidence of 0.32 % in our study was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.005) than that reported from the same region in the past. Red blood cell units were the most frequently transfused component and thus most commonly involved in an adverse reaction (42.6 %), however apheresis platelets had the highest chance of reaction per unit transfused (0.66 %). There was no mortality associated with the BT during the study period. An active surveillance program significantly improves reporting and management of adverse reactions to BTs. PMID:27429527

  11. Results from field applications of controlled release bactericides on toxic mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shellhorn, M.A.; Sobek, A.A.; Rastogi, V.

    1985-12-09

    Controlled release system employing batericides inhibitory to iron oxidizing bacteria (acidophilic Thiobacillus) can reduce acid generation in toxic mine waste for prolonged period of time. Designing systems to remain active for a number of years can allow the development of beneficial heterotrophic bacteria, enzymes, and mycorrhizae to establish a natural cycle mitigating acid generation. Field sites have been installed in Ohio and West Virginia using controlled release systems as part of reclamation. Refuse water quality, bacterial enumerations, and vegetation have been continuously monitored to establish time spans necessary for a natural cycle to take over. Described are the methods used and results obtained so far on the two oldest sites. Comparisons of various bactericides and their site-specific character are presented for use in reclamation projects and active mining operations. 7 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  12. The combined actions of chloramphenicol and of bactericidal antibody plus complement on Salmonella typhosa.

    PubMed

    TREFFERS, H P; MUSCHEL, L H

    1954-02-01

    Quantitative determinations, employing turbidimetric growth assays, have been made of the inhibitory actions of choramphenicol, and of specific antibody plus complement, separately, and in combination. In experiments with the Ty2 strain of S. typhosa the combined activities of the two groups of reagents have been predicted, within 3 per cent, from the activities of the separate components, on the hypothesis of joint, independent action (additive inhibitions). A fourfold increase in resistance to chloramphenicol of the 0901 strain of S. typhosa has been shown to have little, if any, effect on its susceptibility to the bactericidal action of anti-O antibody and complement. Indirect evidence indicates that the latter may not be a general effect but may vary with the particular strain. PMID:13130791

  13. The Potential Use of Radio Frequency Identification Devices for Active Monitoring of Blood Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Bert

    2009-01-01

    Imagine a diabetes patient receiving a text message on his mobile phone warning him that his blood glucose level is too low or a patient's mobile phone calling an emergency number when the patient goes into diabetic shock. Both scenarios depend on automatic, continuous monitoring of blood glucose levels and transmission of that information to a phone. The development of advanced biological sensors and integration with passive radio frequency identification technologies are the key to this. These hold the promise of being able to free patients from finger stick sampling or externally worn devices while providing continuous blood glucose monitoring that allows patients to manage their health more actively. To achieve this promise, however, a number of technical issues need to be addressed. PMID:20046663

  14. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  15. Blood acylpeptide hydrolase activity is a sensitive marker for exposure to some organophosphate toxicants.

    PubMed

    Quistad, Gary B; Klintenberg, Rebecka; Casida, John E

    2005-08-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) unblocks N-acetyl peptides. It is a major serine hydrolase in rat blood, brain, and liver detected by derivatization with (3)H-diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) or a biotinylated fluorophosphonate. Although APH does not appear to be a primary target of acute poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) compounds, the inhibitor specificity of this secondary target is largely unknown. This study fills the gap and emphasizes blood APH as a potential marker of OP exposure. The most potent in vitro inhibitors for human erythrocyte and mouse brain APH are DFP (IC(50) 11-17 nM), chlorpyrifos oxon (IC(50) 21-71 nM), dichlorvos (IC(50) 230-560 nM), naled (IC(50) 370-870 nM), and their analogs with modified alkyl substituents. (3)H-diisopropyl fluorophosphate is a potent inhibitor of mouse blood and brain APH in vivo (ED(50) 0.09-0.2 mg/kg and 0.02-0.03 mg/l for ip and vapor exposure, respectively). Mouse blood and brain APH and blood butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are of similar sensitivity to DFP in vitro and in vivo (ip and vapor exposure), but APH inhibition is much more persistent in vivo (still >80% inhibition after 4 days). The inhibitory potency of OP pesticides in vivo in mice varies from APH selective (dichlorvos, naled, and trichlorfon), to APH and BChE selective (profenofos and tribufos), to ChE selective or nonselective (many commercial insecticides). Sarin administered ip at a lethal dose to guinea pigs inhibits blood acetylcholinesterase and BChE completely but erythrocyte APH only partially. Blood APH activity is therefore a sensitive marker for exposure to some but not all OP pesticides and chemical warfare agents. PMID:15888665

  16. The Rap1-RIAM-talin axis of integrin activation and blood cell function.

    PubMed

    Lagarrigue, Frederic; Kim, Chungho; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2016-07-28

    Integrin adhesion receptors mediate the adhesion of blood cells, such as leukocytes, to other cells, such as endothelial cells. Integrins also are critical for anchorage of hematopoietic precursors to the extracellular matrix. Blood cells can dynamically regulate the affinities of integrins for their ligands ("activation"), an event central to their functions. Here we review recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of integrin activation with a focus on the functions of blood cells. We discuss how talin binding to the integrin β cytoplasmic domain, in conjunction with the plasma membrane, induces long-range allosteric rearrangements that lead to integrin activation. Second, we review our understanding of how signaling events, particularly those involving Rap1 small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)hydrolases, can regulate the talin-integrin interaction and resulting activation. Third, we review recent findings that highlight the role of the Rap1-GTP-interacting adapter molecule (RIAM), encoded by the APBB1IP gene, in leukocyte integrin activation and consequently in leukocyte trafficking. PMID:27207789

  17. Blood feeding induces hemocyte proliferation and activation in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae Giles

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, William B.; Michel, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a global public health problem, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where the mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles serves as the major vector for the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum Welch. One determinant of malaria vector competence is the mosquito's immune system. Hemocytes are a critical component as they produce soluble immune factors that either support or prevent malaria parasite development. However, despite their importance in vector competence, understanding of their basic biology is just developing. Applying novel technologies to the study of mosquito hemocytes, we investigated the effect of blood meal on hemocyte population dynamics, DNA replication and cell cycle progression. In contrast to prevailing published work, the data presented here demonstrate that hemocytes in adult mosquitoes continue to undergo low basal levels of replication. In addition, blood ingestion caused significant changes in hemocytes within 24 h. Hemocytes displayed an increase in cell number, size, granularity and Ras-MAPK signaling as well as altered cell surface moieties. As these changes are well-known markers of immune cell activation in mammals and Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, we further investigated whether a blood meal changes the expression of hemocyte-derived immune factors. Indeed, hemocytes 24 h post-blood meal displayed higher levels of critical components of the complement and melanization immune reactions in mosquitoes. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the normal physiological process of a blood meal activates the innate immune response in mosquitoes. This process is likely in part regulated by Ras-MAPK signaling, highlighting a novel mechanistic link between blood feeding and immunity. PMID:24363411

  18. Plasminogen Activator of the Blood Vessels in Tumours and in Carrageenin-induced Granulomas

    PubMed Central

    Pick, C. R.; Cater, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrinolytic activity in tumours was studied by the fibrin slide technique. The tumour cells were inactive and fibrinolysis was seen only in areas with young blood vessels. In carrageenin-induced granulomas at 6 days the fibrinolytic activity was small and confined to mature veins, but from 7-14 days activity was high in zones containing young vessels supplying the terminal capillary buds; these latter showed no activity. In old fibrosed granulomas there was no fibrinolytic activity. The vascular permeability changes of inflammation (detected by the colloidal carbon technique) showed no correlation with fibrinolytic activity, and systemic injection of inflammatory agents had no effect on the fibrinolytic activity of the vessels. These findings are discussed in relationship to tumour vascularization. ImagesFigs. 5-8Figs. 1-4 PMID:5547651

  19. [Analysis of bactericidal material generated by electrical devices advertising bactericidal ability against bacteria on the agar gel plates].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2012-11-01

    Several Japanese companies sell electrical devices advertised as effective in inactivating viruses and killing bacteria by releasing special materials, e.g., Plasmacluster ions, Nanoe particle and minus ions, into the air. These companies claim that their devices killed bacteria on plates in their own experiments. We tested device effectiveness using the same experiments from the Plasmacluster ioniser SHARP Co., Japan, the Nanoe generator Panasonic Co., Japan, and the Vion KING JIM Co., Japan, to test their advertising claims. Bactericidal ability on agar plate was tested, using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, and Enterococcus faecalis as follows: the medium containing a certain amount of each bacterium was put onto an agar plate and smeared. Plates were kept in a closed chamber (inner volume 14.4 m3) or a glove box (inner volume 0.2 m), with one of the devices run for 2 hours. Plates not exposed to any device were used as controls. Each plate was retrieved and put in an incubator to count the number of bacterial colonies formed on the plate. There was no significant difference in the number of colonies on plates exposed to devices compared to control, in the number for all devices, or in all bacteria tested in experiments in the 14.4 m3 chamber. These results strongly suggest that these devices have almost no bactericidal effect, at least in space exceeding this volume. Colony formation was suppressed in the glove box in all devices and in all bacteria tested except P. aeruginosa, although the degree of suppression differed among experiments. The colony formation suppression mechanism was analyzed, and indicated that:colony formation did not change even after the removal of Plasmacluster ions, Nanoe particles, or negative ions from the air, while colony formation was decreased drastically by the removal of ozone from space, which was revealed to be generated inevitably during device operation. These results strongly suggest that the

  20. [Activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters].

    PubMed

    Bizoń, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is constantly exposed to xenobiotics. This will include exogenous substances from environmental pollution such as heavy metals and lifestyle such as smoking, which may lead to impaired functioning of many organs. The liver and kidney are the critical organs in the case of a long-term occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke. In diagnostics of liver and kidney damage useful are the methods which determine the activity of enzymes such as alanine aminopeptidase (AAP). AAP is a marker for early detection of acute kidney damage, and presence of AAP derive mainly from proximal tubular brush-border. Activity of AAP in urine allows to assess the damage resulting from the nephrotoxic exposure to heavy metals. In the serum AAP is mainly from hepatic. Activity of AAP may be useful to identify liver cancer. The investigation was shown, that AAP activity in the blood is used to detect hepatic cholestasis and congestive jaundice. The aim of present study was to assess the influence of occupational exposure of copper-foundry workers to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead) on activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and urine. The investigations were performed in blood and urine of 166 subjects: 101 male copper smelters and 65 non-exposed male subjects. The study protocol was approved by Local Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (KB No: 469/2008). The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material collected from the control group and smelters was divided into subgroups of nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined in whole blood, whilst the level of arsenic and cadmium were determined in urine using FAAS method (Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) in the acetylate flame on the SOLAAR M6. The activity of AA was determined in blood and in urine. The results showed a 9-fold

  1. Active Path Selection of Fluid Microcapsules in Artificial Blood Vessel by Acoustic Radiation Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kohji; Muramatsu, Yusuke; Ueda, Sawami; Nakamoto, Ryusuke; Nakayashiki, Yusuke; Ishihara, Ken

    2009-07-01

    Micrometer-sized microcapsules collapse upon exposure to ultrasound. Use of this phenomenon for a drug delivery system (DDS), not only for local delivery of medication but also for gene therapy, should be possible. However, enhancing the efficiency of medication is limited because capsules in suspension diffuse in the human body after injection, since the motion of capsules in blood flow cannot be controlled. To control the behavior of microcapsules, acoustic radiation force was introduced. We detected local changes in microcapsule density by producing acoustic radiation force in an artificial blood vessel. Furthermore, we theoretically estimated the conditions required for active path selection of capsules at a bifurcation point in the artificial blood vessel. We observed the difference in capsule density at both in the bifurcation point and in alternative paths downstream of the bifurcation point for different acoustic radiation forces. Comparing the experimental results with those obtained theoretically, the conditions for active path selection were calculated from the acoustic radiation force and fluid resistance of the capsules. The possibility of controlling capsule flow towards a specific point in a blood vessel was demonstrated.

  2. Disruption of vascular Ca2+-activated chloride currents lowers blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Christoph; Seniuk, Anika; Sokolov, Maxim V.; Huebner, Antje K.; Klementowicz, Agnieszka E.; Szijártó, István A.; Schleifenbaum, Johanna; Vitzthum, Helga; Gollasch, Maik; Ehmke, Heimo; Schroeder, Björn C.; Hübner, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    High blood pressure is the leading risk factor for death worldwide. One of the hallmarks is a rise of peripheral vascular resistance, which largely depends on arteriole tone. Ca2+-activated chloride currents (CaCCs) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are candidates for increasing vascular contractility. We analyzed the vascular tree and identified substantial CaCCs in VSMCs of the aorta and carotid arteries. CaCCs were small or absent in VSMCs of medium-sized vessels such as mesenteric arteries and larger retinal arterioles. In small vessels of the retina, brain, and skeletal muscle, where contractile intermediate cells or pericytes gradually replace VSMCs, CaCCs were particularly large. Targeted disruption of the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A, also known as ANO1, in VSMCs, intermediate cells, and pericytes eliminated CaCCs in all vessels studied. Mice lacking vascular TMEM16A had lower systemic blood pressure and a decreased hypertensive response following vasoconstrictor treatment. There was no difference in contractility of medium-sized mesenteric arteries; however, responsiveness of the aorta and small retinal arterioles to the vasoconstriction-inducing drug U46619 was reduced. TMEM16A also was required for peripheral blood vessel contractility, as the response to U46619 was attenuated in isolated perfused hind limbs from mutant mice. Out data suggest that TMEM16A plays a general role in arteriolar and capillary blood flow and is a promising target for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:24401273

  3. Transthyretin-binding activity of contaminants in blood from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) cubs.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; Simon, Eszter; Leonards, Pim E G; Lamoree, Marja; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Oystein; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Hamers, Timo

    2013-05-01

    We determined the transthyretin (TTR)-binding activity of blood-accumulating contaminants in blood plasma samples of approximately 4-months-old polar bear (Ursus maritimus) cubs from Svalbard sampled in 1998 and 2008. The TTR-binding activity was measured as thyroxine (T4)-like equivalents (T4-EQMeas). Our findings show that the TTR-binding activity related to contaminant levels was significantly lower (45%) in 2008 than in 1998 (mean ± standard error of mean: 1998, 2265 ± 231 nM; 2008, 1258 ± 170 nM). Although we cannot exclude a potential influence of between-year differences in capture location and cub body mass, our findings most likely reflect reductions of TTR-binding contaminants or their precursors in the arctic environment (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). The measured TTR-binding activity correlated positively with the cubs' plasma levels of hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs). No such association was found between TTR-binding activity and the plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The OH-PCBs explained 60 ± 7% and 54 ± 4% of the TTR-binding activity in 1998 and 2008, respectively, and PFASs explained ≤1.2% both years. Still, almost half the TTR-binding activity could not be explained by the contaminants we examined. The considerable levels of TTR-binding contaminants warrant further effect directed analysis (EDA) to identify the contaminants responsible for the unexplained part of the observed TTR-binding activity. PMID:23551254

  4. t-PA activity in peripheral blood obtained from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ishii, A; Yamada, S; Yamada, R; Hamada, H

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were measured in blood obtained from pregnant women to elucidate the fluctuations in the fibrinolytic system which occur during the course of pregnancy. The t-PA activity was measured with a modified bioimmunoassay using anti-t-PA monoclonal antibody (SP-322) against a single chain of recombinant t-PA. The t-PA antigen was measured by ELISA using the same antibody. PAI activity was determined with a competitive inhibition assay of t-PA activity. In early pregnancy, t-PA activity was found to be close to the standard range seen in nonpregnant women, and gradually decreased during the course of pregnancy, then recovered to rise to the normal range within 48 hours after delivery. The t-PA antigen and PAI activity levels rose slowly during the course of pregnancy, and fell promptly after delivery. t-PA activity and t-PA antigen in levels in umbilical cord blood were higher after vaginal delivery than after cesarean section. These findings suggest that there may be an important physiological balance of the fibrinolytic system between mother and fetus during the course of pregnancy and the puerperium. PMID:7965540

  5. Crocodile blood extract induces the apoptosis of lung cancer cells through PTEN activity.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yuqian; Ho, Wing Shing

    2016-09-01

    Current treatment strategies for lung cancer cause undesirable side‑effects. Integrated medicine with a curative approach has become a common approach to the treatment strategy. Recent studies suggest that American alligator blood is effective in reducing colorectal cancer cell viability in vitro, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to study the anticancer activity of crocodile blood extracts on lung cancer cell line A549 and investigate the possible mechanisms involved. In vitro studies were utilized to investigate the effects on the cancer cells after incubation with the blood extracts. The active fraction that showed more efficacy in inhibiting cell growth was characterized in the supernatant (S2) from whole blood extracts. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that S2 contained more polar moiety from whole blood. S2 induced DNA fragmentation. Cell cycle arrest in the G1/M phase was demonstrated and mitochondrial membrane permeability was disrupted. An increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased activities of caspase-3 and caspase-7 were detected. Furthermore, release of cytochrome c, upregulation of expression of Bax, p53, p21, Bid, cleaved forms of the caspase family and PARP along with downregulation of Bcl-2, PCNA, MDM2, caspase‑8, wild types of caspase family proteins and PARP were recorded after treatment with S2 fractions. Moreover, the PI3K/AKT survival pathway was downregulated by S2 fractions in the lung cancer cell line. PMID:27431918

  6. Thyroid hormone stimulation in vitro of red blood cell Ca2+-ATPase activity: interspecies variation.

    PubMed

    Davis, F B; Kite, J H; Davis, P J; Blas, S D

    1982-01-01

    In vitro susceptibility to thyroid hormone stimulation of membrane-associated Ca2+-ATPase activity has been examined in red blood cells from rat, rabbit, dog, monkey, and man. Monkey and human red cell Ca2+-ATPase activities responded comparably to 10(-10)M T4 or T3. Basal and thyroid hormone-stimulated Ca2+-ATPase activity in rabbit erythrocytes was four-fold higher than in primate red cells. Rat and dog red cell Ca2+-ATPase did not respond to iodothyronines in vitro. PMID:6459228

  7. Influence of blood and serum on the antistaphylococcal activity of lysostaphin.

    PubMed

    Sygmunt, W A; Browder, H P; Tavormina, P A

    1966-02-01

    Zygmunt, Walter A. (Mead Johnson & Co., Evansville, Ind.), Henry P. Browder, and Peter A. Tavormina. Influence of blood and serum on the antistaphylococcal activity of lysostaphin. J. Bacteriol. 91:725-728. 1966.-Human and animal sera, and in certain instances whole blood, exhibited a minimal antagonizing effect on the antistaphylococcal activity of lysostaphin. The presence of 50% human serum only temporarily inhibited cell lysis of viable suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus by lysostaphin. The results obtained on the recovery of viable cells after exposure of S. aureus to lysostaphin actually suggest an enhancement of the antistaphylococcal activity of the antibiotic in the presence of 50% human serum. The growth-inhibitory activity of the antibiotic against 30 clinical isolates of S. aureus was only slightly depressed by the presence of 25% bovine plasma. The data suggest that some binding may occur between the antibiotic and serum proteins, but it is not of an irreversible type. Lysostaphin does not bind readily to red blood cells nor does it enter these cells to any significant degree. PMID:5883119

  8. The role of carrier number on the procoagulant activity of tissue factor in blood and plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tormoen, G. W.; Rugonyi, S.; Gruber, A.; McCarty, O. J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein cofactor of activated blood coagulation factor VII (FVIIa) that is required for hemostatic thrombin generation at sites of blood vessel injury. Membrane-associated TF detected in circulating blood of healthy subjects, referred to as intravascular or circulating TF has been shown to contribute to experimental thrombus propagation at sites of localized vessel injury. Certain disease states, such as metastatic cancer, are associated with increased levels of intravascular TF and an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism. However, the physiological relevance of circulating TF to hemostasis or thrombosis, as well as cancer metastasis, is ill-defined. This study was designed to assess whether the spatial separation of intravascular TF carriers in blood, demonstrated with TF-inducible human monocytic cell line U937 or TF-coated polymer microspheres, affected procoagulant activity and hence thrombogenic potential. Experiments were performed to characterize the effects of TF-carrier number on the kinetics of clot formation in both open and closed systems. The procoagulant activity of TF carriers was found to correlate with spatial separation in both closed, well-mixed systems and open, flowing systems. TF carriers enhanced the amidolytic activity of FVIIa toward the chromogenic substrate, S-2366, as a function of carrier count. These results suggest that TF-initiated coagulation by circulating TF is kinetically limited by mass transport of TF-dependent coagulation factors to the TF-bearing surface, a constraint that may be unique to circulating TF. Spatial separation of circulating TF carriers is therefore a critical determinant of the procoagulant activity of circulating TF.

  9. Activation of β1 Integrins on Blood Eosinophils by P-Selectin

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Deane F.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of β1 integrins of blood eosinophils, assessed by mAb N29, correlates inversely with FEV1 in two paradigms for studying control of human asthma. We asked whether P-selectin causes eosinophil β1 integrin activation and results in increased adhesivity. By dual-label flow cytometry, eosinophils with high levels of surface-associated P-selectin had higher reactivity with the activation-sensitive anti-β1 mAbs N29, 8E3, and 9EG7 than eosinophils with no or with a low-level of surface-associated P-selectin. Among patients with nonsevere asthma, surface P-selectin correlated with N29, 8E3, and 9EG7 signals. By immunofluorescence microscopy, surface-associated P-selectin was present in patches on eosinophils, some of which stained for the platelet marker thrombospondin-1. Activated β1 and P-selectin partially colocalized on eosinophils. Soluble P-selectin added to whole blood enhanced activation of eosinophil β1, but not β2, integrins. In contrast, IL-5 activated eosinophil β2, but not β1, integrins. Eosinophils that did not attach to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in a static adhesion assay had a lower N29 signal than the original population. Soluble P-selectin added to whole blood enhanced eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1. These findings are compatible with a scenario whereby P-selectin, on eosinophil-associated activated platelets or acquired from plasma or from prior interactions with endothelial cells or platelets, activates eosinophil α4β1 integrin and stimulates eosinophils to adhere to VCAM-1 and move to the airway in asthma. PMID:21441381

  10. Lonomia obliqua caterpillar spicules trigger human blood coagulation via activation of factor X and prothrombin.

    PubMed

    Donato, J L; Moreno, R A; Hyslop, S; Duarte, A; Antunes, E; Le Bonniec, B F; Rendu, F; de Nucci, G

    1998-03-01

    In southern Brazil, envenomation by larvae of the moth Lonomia obliqua (Walker) may result in blood clotting factor depletion, leading to disseminated intravascular coagulation with subsequent haemorrhage and acute renal failure which may prove fatal. We have examined the effect of a crude extract of spicules from these caterpillars on in vitro hemostasis. The extract alone did not aggregate platelets and had no detectable effect on purified fibrinogen, suggesting that extract induces clot formation by triggering activation of the clotting cascade. In agreement with the presence of thrombin-mediated activity, hirudin prevented clot formation. The extract was found to activate both prothrombin and factor X, suggesting that the depletion of blood clotting factors results from the steady activation of factor X and prothrombin. Heating and diisopropylfluorophosphate abolished the procoagulant activity of the extract, indicating that the active component involved is a protein that may belong to the serine protease family of enzymes. The ability of hirudin to inhibit this coagulant activity suggests that this inhibitor could be beneficial in the treatment of patients envenomed by L. obliqua caterpillars. PMID:9531036

  11. Effect of polyclonal activators on cytokine production by blood cells and by malignant breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kunts, T A; Karpukhina, K V; Mikhaylova, E S; Marinkin, I O; Varaksin, N A; Autenshlyus, A I; Lyakhovich, V V

    2016-01-01

    The production of cytokines by peripheral blood cells and biopsy specimens of tumors stimulated by polyclonal activators (PAs) was evaluated in 34 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive correlation between the stimulation index of polyclonal activators (SIPA) for IL-18 production by the tumor and the relative content of poorly differentiated cells was revealed. The latter, in turn, was positively correlated with the numbers of normal and pathologic mitoses and the degree of malignancy. Cancer cells can produce IL-18, which is involved in the process of angiogenesis, stimulates invasion and metastasis. Decrease in SIPA for the production of IL-6 and GCSF by peripheral blood cells could serve as an indicator of malignant progression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma. PMID:27021370

  12. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  13. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups.

    PubMed

    Hrv, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna; Kandi, Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  14. Bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost using calcium lime and ash.

    PubMed

    Hijikata, Nowaki; Tezuka, Rui; Kazama, Shinobu; Otaki, Masahiro; Ushijima, Ken; Ito, Ryusei; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost with calcium lime and ash were investigated. Two indicator microorganisms, Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage, were used as surrogates for enteric pathogens. The alkaline-treated compost with calcium oxide (CaO) or ash resulted primarily in damage to the outer membrane and enzyme activities of E. coli. The alkaline treatment of compost also led to the infectivity loss of the coliphage because of the partial capsid damage and RNA exteriorization due to a raised pH, which is proportional to the amount of alkaline agents added. These results indicate that the alkaline treatment of compost using calcium oxide and ash is effective and can contribute to the safe usage of compost from a mixing type dry toilet. PMID:27562698

  15. Synthesis of nanosilver particles by reverse micelle method and study of their bactericidal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Buu, Ngo Quoc; Viet Quang, Dang; Thi Ha, Huynh; Bang, Le Anh; Hoai Chau, Nguyen; Thi Ly, Nguyen; Trung, Nguyen Vu

    2009-09-01

    Nanosilver particles have been synthesized by the reverse micelle method, where AgNO3 was used as a silver ions source, NaBH4 and quercetin - as reducing agents, CTAB, SDOSS and AOT- as surfactants, while the stabilizer was Vietnamese chitosan. Studying the factors influencing the process of nanosilver particle formation, it was shown that the particle size of the nanosilver products depends on the concentration of the reaction components and their stoichiometric ratio. It was also shown that the reaction system using AOT surfactant is capable of producing nanosilver particles with smallest nanoparticles (phiav ~ 5 nm) and good particle-size distribution. The study on bactericidal activity of the nanosilver products indicated that the disinfecting solution with a nanosilver concentration of 3 ppm was able to inhibit all E.coli and Coliforms, TPC and fungi at 15 ppm, while Vibrio cholerae cells were inactivated completely with 0.5 ppm of nanosilver after 30 minutes exposition.

  16. Surface-Induced Hydrogelation for Fluorescence and Naked-Eye Detections of Enzyme Activity in Blood.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tengyan; Liang, Chunhui; Ji, Shenglu; Ding, Dan; Kong, Deling; Wang, Ling; Yang, Zhimou

    2016-07-19

    Fluorescence probes have been widely applied for the detection of important analytes with high sensitivity and specificity. However, they cannot be directly applied for the detection in samples with autofluorescence such as blood. Herein, we demonstrated a simple but effective method of surface-induced self-assembly/hydrogelation for fluorescence detection of an enzyme in biological fluids including blood and cell lysates. The method utilizes an attracting glass surface to induce self-assembly of an enzyme-generating fluorescent probe. After removing the upper solution, the fluorescence turn-on at the glass surface can therefore be used for the detection of enzyme activity. By judging the thickness and color depth of hydrogels at the surface of the glass plates, we could also estimate the enzyme activity by naked eyes. Our study not only expands the application of molecular self-assembly but also provides a useful method that can be applied for direct detection of enzyme activity in complex biological samples such as blood and cell lysates. PMID:27345959

  17. Lisdexamfetamine prodrug activation by peptidase-mediated hydrolysis in the cytosol of red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Johannah; Pennick, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is approved as a once-daily treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults in some countries. LDX is a prodrug comprising d-amphetamine covalently linked to l-lysine via a peptide bond. Following oral administration, LDX is rapidly taken up from the small intestine by active carrier-mediated transport, probably via peptide transporter 1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the peptide bond to release d-amphetamine has previously been shown to occur in human red blood cells but not in several other tissues. Here, we report that LDX hydrolytic activity resides in human red blood cell lysate and cytosolic extract but not in the membrane fraction. Among several inhibitors tested, a protease inhibitor cocktail, bestatin, and ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid each potently inhibited d-amphetamine production from LDX in cytosolic extract. These results suggest that an aminopeptidase is responsible for hydrolytic cleavage of the LDX peptide bond, although purified recombinant aminopeptidase B was not able to release d-amphetamine from LDX in vitro. The demonstration that aminopeptidase-like activity in red blood cell cytosol is responsible for the hydrolysis of LDX extends our understanding of the smooth and consistent systemic delivery of d-amphetamine by LDX and the long daily duration of efficacy of the drug in relieving the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25489246

  18. Lisdexamfetamine prodrug activation by peptidase-mediated hydrolysis in the cytosol of red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Johannah; Pennick, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is approved as a once-daily treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults in some countries. LDX is a prodrug comprising d-amphetamine covalently linked to l-lysine via a peptide bond. Following oral administration, LDX is rapidly taken up from the small intestine by active carrier-mediated transport, probably via peptide transporter 1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the peptide bond to release d-amphetamine has previously been shown to occur in human red blood cells but not in several other tissues. Here, we report that LDX hydrolytic activity resides in human red blood cell lysate and cytosolic extract but not in the membrane fraction. Among several inhibitors tested, a protease inhibitor cocktail, bestatin, and ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid each potently inhibited d-amphetamine production from LDX in cytosolic extract. These results suggest that an aminopeptidase is responsible for hydrolytic cleavage of the LDX peptide bond, although purified recombinant aminopeptidase B was not able to release d-amphetamine from LDX in vitro. The demonstration that aminopeptidase-like activity in red blood cell cytosol is responsible for the hydrolysis of LDX extends our understanding of the smooth and consistent systemic delivery of d-amphetamine by LDX and the long daily duration of efficacy of the drug in relieving the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25489246

  19. Diminished adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils with CD47 functionalized blood contacting surfaces.

    PubMed

    Finley, Matthew J; Rauova, Lubica; Alferiev, Ivan S; Weisel, John W; Levy, Robert J; Stachelek, Stanley J

    2012-08-01

    CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein that, through signaling mechanisms mediated by signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα1), functions as a biological marker of 'self-recognition'. We showed previously that inflammatory cell attachment to polymeric surfaces is inhibited by the attachment of biotinylated recombinant CD47 (CD47B). We test herein the hypothesis that CD47 modified blood conduits can reduce platelet and neutrophil activation under clinically relevant conditions. We appended a poly-lysine tag to the C-terminus of recombinant CD47 (CD47L) allowing for covalent linkage to the polymer. SIRPα1 expression was confirmed in isolated platelets. We then compared biocompatibility between CD47B and CD47L functionalized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces and unmodified control PVC surfaces. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of blood cell attachment to CD47B and CD47L surfaces, via scanning electron microscopy, showed strikingly fewer platelets attached to CD47 modified surfaces compared to control. Flow cytometry analysis showed that activation markers for neutrophils (CD62L) and platelets (CD62P) exposed to CD47 modified PVC were equivalent to freshly acquired control blood, while significantly elevated in the unmodified PVC tubing. In addition, ethylene oxide gas sterilization did not inhibit the efficacy of the CD47 modification. In conclusion, CD47 modified PVC inhibits both the adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils. PMID:22613135

  20. Potential capacity of aptamers to trigger immune activation in human blood.

    PubMed

    Avci-Adali, Meltem; Steinle, Heidrun; Michel, Tatjana; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans P

    2013-01-01

    Target specific short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules, called aptamers, are auspicious ligands for numerous in vivo applications. However, aptamers are synthetic molecules, which might be recognized by the immune cells in vivo and induce an activation of the innate immune system. Thus, immune activation potential of synthetic ssDNA oligonucleotides (ODNs) was determined using a well established closed-loop circulation model. Fresh human blood was incubated at 37°C for 2 or 4 hours with ssDNA ODNs (SB_ODN) or CpG ODN as positive control. Transcriptional changes were determined by microarray analyses. Blood samples containing SB_ODN demonstrated after 4 hours a significant regulation of 295 transcripts. Amongst others, CCL8, CXCL10, CCL7 and CXCL11 were highest regulated genes. Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathway analyses exhibited that the differentially expressed genes belong to the transcripts that are regulated during an immune and inflammatory response, and were overrepresented in TLR signaling pathway. This study shows for the first time the potential of aptamers to activate immune system after systemic application into the human blood. Thus, we highly recommend performing of these preclinical tests with potential aptamer-based therapeutics. PMID:23935890

  1. Blood-derived proteins in milk at start of lactation: Indicators of active or passive transfer.

    PubMed

    Wall, Samantha K; Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Villez, Kris; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-11-01

    Colostrum has a different composition compared with milk in established lactation. This difference is in part due to the partially open blood-milk barrier, which, when closed, is designed to prevent the interdiffusion of blood and milk components. In the first days of lactation, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), a milk protein, is typically present in blood and several blood-derived proteins are also present in milk, such as IgG1, IgG2, serum albumin (SA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). With the exception of IgG1, which is known to be transferred by active transcellular transport, the other proteins are thought to pass paracellularly through the temporarily open barrier. Along with an exchange of blood and milk components, somatic cell count (SCC) is typically high in colostrum. The decline of these proteins and SCC can be used as indicators to determine transcellular or paracellular transport. Two hypotheses were tested. The first hypothesis was that the decline curve for a protein or SCC would be the same as IgG1, indicating transcellular transport, or the decline curve would be different than IgG1, indicating paracellular transport. The second hypothesis was that the decline curves of SCC and all proteins that are thought to have paracellular transport would be the same. Ten Holstein cows were milked at 4 h after parturition, the next 5 consecutive milkings, and the afternoon milking on d 5, 8, 10, and 14 of lactation for a total of 10 milking time points, and sequential jugular blood samples were also taken. Blood and milk samples were analyzed for the concentrations of LDH, SA, IgG1, IgG2, and α-LA and milk samples were measured for SCC. Protein concentration and SCC curves were generated from all 10 time points and were evaluated using the tau time constant model to determine the rate of decline of the slope of each protein. When examining the first hypothesis, the concentration of IgG1 declined significantly faster in the milk than the proteins IgG2 and LDH, but

  2. The Relationship of Oxidation Sensitivity of Red Blood Cells and Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Stored Human Blood: Effect of Certain Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Şekeroğlu, Mehmet Ramazan; Balahoroğlu, Ragıp; Karakoyun, Tahsin; Çokluk, Erdem

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that many modifications occur with the increase of oxidative stress during storage in erythrocytes. In order to delay these negative changes, we evaluated whether the addition of substances likely to protect antioxidant capacity in stored blood would be useful. Therefore, we investigated the effects of resveratrol, tannic acid, and caffeic acid in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes in stored blood. Donated blood was taken into four CPD containing blood bags. One bag was used as the control, and the others were supplemented with caffeic acid (30 μg/mL), resveratrol (30 μg/mL), and tannic acid (15 μg/mL), respectively. Erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, sensitivity to oxidation, glutathione levels and carbonic anhydrase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28. In the control group, erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels and sensitivity to oxidation were increased whereas glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase levels were decreased (p < 0.05). Resveratrol and caffeic acid prevented malondialdehyde accumulation and preserved glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities in erythrocytes. We demonstrated that resveratrol, caffeic acid, and tannic acid in stored blood could decrease the sensitivity to oxidation of erythrocytes in vitro but did not exhibit such effects on CA activity. PMID:27413740

  3. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O; Baek, Eun J; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-01-01

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine. PMID:26078220

  4. Vertebrate blood cell volume increases with temperature: implications for aerobic activity

    PubMed Central

    Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply at higher temperatures, and thus greater aerobic activity, remain unclear. Here we show that the total volume of red blood cells in the body increases exponentially with temperature across vertebrates, after controlling for effects of body size and taxonomy. These changes are accompanied by increases in relative heart mass, an indicator of aerobic activity. The results point to one way vertebrates may increase oxygen supply to meet the demands of greater activity at higher temperatures. PMID:24765580

  5. Rupture Forces among Human Blood Platelets at different Degrees of Activation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Palankar, Raghavendra; Bui, Van-Chien; Medvedev, Nikolay; Greinacher, Andreas; Delcea, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about mechanics underlying the interaction among platelets during activation and aggregation. Although the strength of a blood thrombus has likely major biological importance, no previous study has measured directly the adhesion forces of single platelet-platelet interaction at different activation states. Here, we filled this void first, by minimizing surface mediated platelet-activation and second, by generating a strong adhesion force between a single platelet and an AFM cantilever, preventing early platelet detachment. We applied our setup to measure rupture forces between two platelets using different platelet activation states, and blockade of platelet receptors. The rupture force was found to increase proportionally to the degree of platelet activation, but reduced with blockade of specific platelet receptors. Quantification of single platelet-platelet interaction provides major perspectives for testing and improving biocompatibility of new materials; quantifying the effect of drugs on platelet function; and assessing the mechanical characteristics of acquired/inherited platelet defects. PMID:27146004

  6. Rupture Forces among Human Blood Platelets at different Degrees of Activation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Palankar, Raghavendra; Bui, Van-Chien; Medvedev, Nikolay; Greinacher, Andreas; Delcea, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about mechanics underlying the interaction among platelets during activation and aggregation. Although the strength of a blood thrombus has likely major biological importance, no previous study has measured directly the adhesion forces of single platelet-platelet interaction at different activation states. Here, we filled this void first, by minimizing surface mediated platelet-activation and second, by generating a strong adhesion force between a single platelet and an AFM cantilever, preventing early platelet detachment. We applied our setup to measure rupture forces between two platelets using different platelet activation states, and blockade of platelet receptors. The rupture force was found to increase proportionally to the degree of platelet activation, but reduced with blockade of specific platelet receptors. Quantification of single platelet-platelet interaction provides major perspectives for testing and improving biocompatibility of new materials; quantifying the effect of drugs on platelet function; and assessing the mechanical characteristics of acquired/inherited platelet defects. PMID:27146004

  7. WANDA B.: Weight and Activity with Blood Pressure Monitoring System for Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Myung-kyung; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Chen, Victor; Hong, Wen-Sao; Macbeth, Jamie; Nahapetian, Ani; Figueras, Florence-Joy; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death in the United States, with around 5 million Americans currently suffering from congestive heart failure. The WANDA B. wireless health technology leverages sensor technology and wireless communication to monitor heart failure patient activity and to provide tailored guidance. Patients who have cardiovascular system disorders can measure their weight, blood pressure, activity levels, and other vital signs in a real-time automated fashion. The system was developed in conjunction with the UCLA Nursing School and the UCLA Wireless Health Institute for use on actual patients. It is currently in use with real patients in a clinical trial. PMID:20083451

  8. Immune complexes that contain HIV antigens activate peripheral blood T cells.

    PubMed

    Korolevskaya, L B; Shmagel, K V; Saidakova, E V; Shmagel, N G; Chereshnev, V A

    2016-07-01

    Uninfected donor T cells were treated in vitro by model immune complexes that contained either HIV or hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens. Unlike HCV antigen-containing complexes, the immune complexes that contained HIV antigens have been shown to activate peripheral blood T cells of uninfected donors under in vitro conditions. Both the antiviral antibodies and HIV antigen were involved in the activation process. The unique properties of the immune complexes formed by HIV antigens and antiviral antibodies are believed to result from the virus-specific antibody properties and molecular conformation of the antigen-antibody complex. PMID:27595830

  9. Fast and Specific Assessment of the Halogenating Peroxidase Activity in Leukocyte-enriched Blood Samples.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Jörg; Schwarz, Pauline; Bäcker, Ingo; Leichsenring, Anna; Lange, Franziska; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a protocol for the quick and standardized enrichment of leukocytes from small whole blood samples is described. This procedure is based on the hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes and can be applied to human samples as well as to blood of non-human origin. The small initial sample volume of about 50 to 100 µl makes this method applicable to recurrent blood sampling from small laboratory animals. Moreover, leukocyte enrichment is achieved within minutes and with low material efforts regarding chemicals and instrumentation, making this method applicable in multiple laboratory environments. Standardized purification of leukocytes is combined with a highly selective staining method to evaluate halogenating peroxidase activity of the heme peroxidases, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), i.e., the formation of hypochlorous and hypobromous acid (HOCl and HOBr). While MPO is strongly expressed in neutrophils, the most abundant immune cell type in human blood as well as in monocytes, the related enzyme EPO is exclusively expressed in eosinophils. The halogenating activity of these enzymes is addressed by using the almost HOCl- and HOBr-specific dye aminophenyl fluorescein (APF) and the primary peroxidase substrate hydrogen peroxide. Upon subsequent flow cytometry analysis all peroxidase-positive cells (neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils) are distinguishable and their halogenating peroxidase activity can be quantified. Since APF staining may be combined with the application of cell surface markers, this protocol can be extended to specifically address leukocyte sub-fractions. The method is applicable to detect HOCl and HOBr production both in human and in rodent leukocytes. Given the widely and diversely discussed immunological role of these enzymatic products in chronic inflammatory diseases, this protocol may contribute to a better understanding of the immunological relevance of leukocyte-derived heme peroxidases. PMID:27501318

  10. Activated p38 MAPK in Peripheral Blood Monocytes of Steroid Resistant Asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-bo; Leung, Donald Y. M.; Goleva, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Steroid resistance is a significant problem in management of chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma. Accessible biomarkers are needed to identify steroid resistant patients to optimize their treatment. This study examined corticosteroid resistance in severe asthma. 24 asthmatics with forced expiratory volume in one second of less then 80% predicted were classified as steroid resistant or steroid sensitive based on changes in their lung function following a week of treatment with oral prednisone. Heparinised blood was collected from patients prior to oral prednisone administration. Phosphorylated mitogen activated kinases (MAPK) (extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and jun kinase (JNK)) were analyzed in whole blood samples using flow cytometry. Activation of phospho-p38 MAPK and phospho-mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1) in asthmatics’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were confirmed by Western blot. Dexamethasone suppression of the LPS-induced IL-8 mRNA production by steroid resistant asthmatics PBMC in the presence of p38 and ERK inhibitors was evaluated by real time PCR. Flow cytometry analysis identified significantly stronger p38 phosphorylation in CD14+ monocytes from steroid resistant than steroid sensitive asthmatics (p = 0.014), whereas no difference was found in phosphorylation of ERK or JNK in CD14+ cells from these two groups of asthmatics. No difference in phosphorylated p38, ERK, JNK was detected in CD4+, CD8+ T cells, B cells and NK cells from steroid resistant vs. steroid sensitive asthmatics. P38 MAPK pathway activation was confirmed by Western blot, as significantly higher phospho-p38 and phospho-MSK1 levels were detected in the PBMC lysates from steroid resistant asthmatics. P38 inhibitor significantly enhanced DEX suppression of LPS-induced IL-8 mRNA by PBMC of steroid resistant asthmatics. This is the first report demonstrating selective p38 MAPK pathway activation in blood monocytes of steroid

  11. Understanding of gas phase deposition of reactive magnetron sputtered TiO2 thin films and its correlation with bactericidal efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, A. B.; Mahapatra, S. K.; Barhai, P. K.; Das, A. K.; Banerjee, I.

    2012-10-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 thin films were deposited using RF reactive magnetron sputtering at different O2 flow rates (20, 30, 50 and 60 sccm) and constant RF power of 200 W. In situ investigation of the nucleation and growth of the films was made by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES). The nano amorphous nature as revealed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the as deposited films and abundance of the Ti3+ surface oxidation states and surface hydroxyl group (OH-) in the films deposited at 50 sccm as determined from X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) was explained on the basis of emission spectra studies. The increase in band gap and decrease in particle size with O2 flow rate was observed from transmission spectra of UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoinduced hydrophilicity has been studied using Optical Contact Angle (OCA) measurement. The post irradiated films showed improved hydrophilicity. The bactericidal efficiency of these films was investigated taking Escherichia coli as model bacteria. The films deposited at 50 sccm shows better bactericidal activity as revealed from the optical density (OD) measurement. The qualitative analysis of the bactericidal efficiency was depicted from Scanning Electron Microscope images. A correlation between bactericidal efficiency and the deposited film has been established and explained on the basis of nucleation growth, band gap and hydrophilicity of the films.

  12. Use of blood-pool imaging in evaluation of diffuse activity patterns in technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Cowley, M J; Mantle, J A; Rogers, W J; Russell, R O; Rackley, C E; Logic, J R

    1979-06-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse Tc-99m pyrophosphate precordial activity may be due to persistent blood-pool activity in routine delayed views during myocardial imaging. To answer this question, we reviewed myocardial scintigrams recorded 60--90 min following the injection of 12--15 mCi of Tc-99m pyrophosphate for the presence of diffuse precordial activity, and compared these with early images of the blood pool in 265 patients. Diffuse activity in the delayed images was identified in 48 patients: in 20 with acute myocardial infarction and in 28 with no evidence of it. Comparison of these routine delayed images with early views of the blood pool revealed two types of patterns. In patients with acute infarction, 95% had delayed images that were distinguishable from blood pool either because the activity was smaller than the early blood pool, or by the presence of localized activity superimposed on diffuse activity identical to blood pool. In those without infarction, 93% had activity distribution in routine delayed views matching that in the early blood-pool images. The usefulness of the diffuse TcPPi precordial activity in myocardial infarction is improved when early blood-pool imaging is used to exclude persistence of blood-pool activity as its cause. Moreover, it does not require additional amounts of radioactivity nor complex computer processing, a feature that may be of value in the community hospital using the technique to "rule out" infarction 24--72 hr after onset of suggestive symptoms. PMID:231644

  13. [Epidemiological study of blood stasis and plasma tissue plasminogen activator and its inhibitor activity in healthy aged].

    PubMed

    Liangmin, L D; Lu, L H; Zhang, X M

    1994-12-01

    According to the blood stasis survey of 77 healthy subjects in presenile geriatric period, in comparison with 35 healthy young people, it was found the 51.79% of healthy subjects had blood stasis. The detectable rate were significantly different among various age groups (P < 0.005), and the rate increase was age-dependent. Chromogenic peptide substrate analytical method was used to detect plasma tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity and ratio of P/t. The result revealed that the activity of plasma t-PA in presenile geriatric period subjects was significantly higher than that of young people (P < 0.01), but the activity of PAI had no difference in various age groups, and the ratio of P/t was markedly decreased. It showed that this was the physiological compensatory reaction of aging organism against hypercoagulability, and it was an effective way to maintain the physiological balance of the aged. PMID:7719105

  14. Bactericidal synergy of lysostaphin in combination with antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Desbois, A P; Coote, P J

    2011-08-01

    Drug-resistant staphylococci constitute a serious problem that urgently requires the discovery of new therapeutic agents. There has been a resurgence in interest in using lysostaphin (a specific anti-staphylococcal enzyme) as a treatment for infections caused by these important pathogens. However, bacterial resistance to lysostaphin is a problem, but the use of a combination treatment may surmount this issue. In this present study, using viable counts from suspension incubations, lysostaphin is shown to be synergistically bactericidal in combination with various conventional antimicrobial peptides, the antimicrobial protein bovine lactoferrin, a lantibiotic (nisin), and certain lipopeptides used clinically (colistin, daptomycin and polymyxin B). Combinations that act in synergy are of clinical importance as these reduce the doses of the compounds needed for effective treatments and decrease the chances of resistance being selected. The use of lysostaphin in combination with a peptide may represent a new avenue in tackling drug-resistant staphylococci. PMID:21311938

  15. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    PubMed

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor. PMID:26047874

  16. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines. PMID:23229279

  17. In vitro detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin type E activity in avian blood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piazza, Timothy M.; Blehert, David S.; Dunning, F. Mark; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Zeytin, Fusun N.; Samuel, Michael D.; Tucker, Ward C.

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E) outbreaks in the Great Lakes region cause large annual avian mortality events, with an estimated 17,000 bird deaths reported in 2007 alone. During an outbreak investigation, blood collected from bird carcasses is tested for the presence of BoNT/E using the mouse lethality assay. While sensitive, this method is labor-intensive and low throughput and can take up to 7 days to complete. We developed a rapid and sensitive in vitro assay, the BoTest Matrix E assay, that combines immunoprecipitation with high-affinity endopeptidase activity detection by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to rapidly quantify BoNT/E activity in avian blood with detection limits comparable to those of the mouse lethality assay. On the basis of the analysis of archived blood samples (n = 87) collected from bird carcasses during avian mortality investigations, BoTest Matrix E detected picomolar quantities of BoNT/E following a 2-h incubation and femtomolar quantities of BoNT/E following extended incubation (24 h) with 100% diagnostic specificity and 91% diagnostic sensitivity.

  18. In vitro detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin type E activity in avian blood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piazza, T.M.; Blehert, D.S.; Dunning, F.M.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Zeytin, F.N.; Samuel, M.D.; Tucker, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E) outbreaks in the Great Lakes region cause large annual avian mortality events, with an estimated 17,000 bird deaths reported in 2007 alone. During an outbreak investigation, blood collected from bird carcasses is tested for the presence of BoNT/E using the mouse lethality assay. While sensitive, this method is labor-intensive and low throughput and can take up to 7 days to complete. We developed a rapid and sensitive in vitro assay, the BoTest Matrix E assay, that combines immunoprecipitation with high-affinity endopeptidase activity detection by F??rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to rapidly quantify BoNT/E activity in avian blood with detection limits comparable to those of the mouse lethality assay. On the basis of the analysis of archived blood samples (n = 87) collected from bird carcasses during avian mortality investigations, BoTest Matrix E detected picomolar quantities of BoNT/E following a 2-h incubation and femtomolar quantities of BoNT/E following extended incubation (24 h) with 100% diagnostic specificity and 91% diagnostic sensitivity. ?? 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Cardiovascular activity in blood-injection-injury phobia during exposure: evidence for diphasic response patterns?

    PubMed

    Ritz, Thomas; Meuret, Alicia E; Simon, Erica

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to feared stimuli in blood-injection-injury (BII)-phobia is thought to elicit a diphasic response pattern, with an initial fight-flight-like cardiovascular activation followed by a marked deactivation and possible fainting (vasovagal syncope). However, studies have remained equivocal on the importance of such patterns. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence and clinical relevance of diphasic responses using criteria that require a true diphasic response to exceed cardiovascular activation of an emotional episode of a negative valence and to exceed deactivation of an emotionally neutral episode. Sixty BII-phobia participants and 20 healthy controls were exposed to surgery, anger and neutral films while measuring heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory pattern, and end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (as indicator of hyperventilation). Diphasic response patterns were observed in up to 20% of BII-phobia participants and 26.6% of healthy controls for individual cardiovascular parameters. BII-phobia participants with diphasic patterns across multiple parameters showed more fear of injections and blood draws, reported the strongest physical symptoms during the surgery film, and showed the strongest tendency to hyperventilate. Thus, although only a minority of individuals with BII phobia shows diphasic responses, their occurrence indicates significant distress. Respiratory training may add to the treatment of BII phobia patients that show diphasic response patterns. PMID:23747585

  20. Increased levels of platelet-activating factor in blood following intestinal ischemia in the dog.

    PubMed

    Filep, J; Hermán, F; Braquet, P; Mózes, T

    1989-01-31

    The possible role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in superior mesenteric artery occlusion induced circulatory collapse was studied in anesthetized dogs. PAF was measured by platelet aggregation assay. Identity of PAF-like product in blood was ascertained by thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography and alkaline treatment. Low amount of PAF was detected in the mesenteric blood under normal conditions, during reperfusion PAF levels were significantly higher. Pretreatment of the animals with BN 52021, a specific PAF receptor antagonist abolished the fall in mean arterial pressure and the rise in hematocrit due to ischemia/reperfusion. These findings suggest that PAF may play an important role in mesenteric ischemia-induced circulatory collapse. PMID:2916986

  1. Abnormalities in the cellular phase of blood fibrinolytic activity in systemic lupus erythematosus and in venous thromboembolism

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, L.A.; MacLean, L.D.; Langleben, D.

    1986-09-15

    Fibrinolytic activities of whole blood and plasma were determined by /sup 125/I-fibrin radiometric assay in 16 normal subjects, and in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 14 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 23 with venous thromboembolic disease, and 20 patients awaiting elective surgery. Mean whole blood and plasma activities for patients with PSS, and for those awaiting elective surgery, were similar to normal values, as was the mean plasma activity in patients with SLE. However, mean whole blood activity in SLE was significantly decreased compared with normals (p less than 0.05), with mean plasma activity accounting for 44% of mean whole blood activity (compared with 17% in normal subjects), representing a 67% decrease in mean calculated cellular phase activity in SLE, when compared with normals. Since the numbers of cells (neutrophils, monocytes) possibly involved in cellular activity were not decreased, the findings suggest a functional defect in fibrinolytic activity of one or more blood cell types in SLE. An additional finding was the participation of the cellular phase as well as the well-known plasma phase of blood in the fibrinolytic response to thromboembolism.

  2. A high-throughput assay of NK cell activity in whole blood and its clinical application

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Saet-byul; Cha, Junhoe; Kim, Im-kyung; Yoon, Joo Chun; Lee, Hyo Joon; Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Sunjung; Youn, Dong-Ye; Lee, Heyja; Lee, Choong Hwan; Lee, Jae Myun; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Jongsun

    2014-03-14

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We demonstrated a simple assay of NK cell activity from whole blood. • The measurement of secreted IFN-γ from NK cell enables high-throughput screening. • The NKA assay was validated by clinical results of colorectal cancer patients. - Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system and have the ability to kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells without prior sensitization. Malignant tumors and viruses have developed, however, strategies to suppress NK cells to escape from their responses. Thus, the evaluation of NK cell activity (NKA) could be invaluable to estimate the status and the outcome of cancers, viral infections, and immune-mediated diseases. Established methods that measure NKA, such as {sup 51}Cr release assay and CD107a degranulation assay, may be used to determine NK cell function, but they are complicated and time-consuming because they require isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or NK cells. In some cases these assays require hazardous material such as radioactive isotopes. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a simple assay that uses whole blood instead of PBMC or isolated NK cells. This novel assay is suitable for high-throughput screening and the monitoring of diseases, because it employs serum of ex vivo stimulated whole blood to detect interferon (IFN)-γ secreted from NK cells as an indicator of NKA. After the stimulation of NK cells, the determination of IFNγ concentration in serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provided a swift, uncomplicated, and high-throughput assay of NKA ex vivo. The NKA results microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer patients was showed significantly lower NKA, 263.6 ± 54.5 pg/mL compared with healthy subjects, 867.5 ± 50.2 pg/mL (p value <0.0001). Therefore, the NKA could be utilized as a supportive diagnostic marker for microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer.

  3. Improving the Blood Pressure Control With the ProActive Attitude of Hypertensive Patients Seeking Follow-up Services

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shangfeng; Bishwajit, Ghose; Ji, Lu; Feng, Da; Fang, Haiqing; Fu, Hang; Shao, Tian; Shao, Piaopiao; Liu, Chunyan; Feng, Zhanchun; Luba, Tegene R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Proactive attitude of hypertensive patients seeking follow-up services (FUS) lies at the core of self-efficacy. However, few evidence have shown the activeness of seeking FUS in the context of blood pressure control among hypertensive patients. Improvements in follow-up visits may not just by services itself cause better control of blood pressure among hypertensive patients, rather due to the patient's pro-active attitude of the patient in seeking FUS. A cross-sectional study was carried out in selected rural regions of China to explore the association between blood pressure control and sociodemographic and economic variables and activeness of hypertensive patients in seeking FUS. The primary clinical outcome for this study was blood pressure control (systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) Out of the total 2321 participants with hypertension aged 35 years or older participated in this survey. Number of proactive FUS seekers were 3.17 times greater than those of passive seekers (odds ratio [OR] = 3.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.56–3.93, P < 0.001). In all subgroups, hypertensive patients who were seeking FUS actively were more likely to control blood pressure better than those seeking FUS passively. Proactive attitude of seeking follow-up services can improve blood pressure control among hypertensive patients. PMID:27057859

  4. Bioluminescent imaging of ABCG2 efflux activity at the blood-placenta barrier.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jeyan S; Wei, Bih-Rong; Madigan, James P; Simpson, R Mark; Hall, Matthew D; Gottesman, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Physiologic barriers such as the blood placenta barrier (BPB) and the blood brain barrier protect the underlying parenchyma from pathogens and toxins. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane proteins found at these barriers, and function to efflux xenobiotics and maintain chemical homeostasis. Despite the plethora of ex vivo and in vitro data showing the function and expression of ABC transporters, no imaging modality exists to study ABC transporter activity in vivo at the BPB. In the present study, we show that in vitro models of the placenta possess ABCG2 activity and can specifically transport D-luciferin, the endogenous substrate of firefly luciferase. To test ABCG2 transport activity at the BPB, we devised a breeding strategy to generate a bioluminescent pregnant mouse model to demonstrate transporter function in vivo. We found that coadministering the ABCG2 inhibitors Ko143 and gefitinib with D-luciferin increased bioluminescent signal from fetuses and placentae, whereas the control P-gp inhibitor DCPQ had no effect. We believe that our bioluminescent pregnant mouse model will facilitate greater understanding of the BPB and ABCG2 activity in health and disease. PMID:26853103

  5. Bioluminescent imaging of ABCG2 efflux activity at the blood-placenta barrier

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jeyan S.; Wei, Bih-Rong; Madigan, James P.; Simpson, R. Mark; Hall, Matthew D.; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Physiologic barriers such as the blood placenta barrier (BPB) and the blood brain barrier protect the underlying parenchyma from pathogens and toxins. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane proteins found at these barriers, and function to efflux xenobiotics and maintain chemical homeostasis. Despite the plethora of ex vivo and in vitro data showing the function and expression of ABC transporters, no imaging modality exists to study ABC transporter activity in vivo at the BPB. In the present study, we show that in vitro models of the placenta possess ABCG2 activity and can specifically transport D-luciferin, the endogenous substrate of firefly luciferase. To test ABCG2 transport activity at the BPB, we devised a breeding strategy to generate a bioluminescent pregnant mouse model to demonstrate transporter function in vivo. We found that coadministering the ABCG2 inhibitors Ko143 and gefitinib with D-luciferin increased bioluminescent signal from fetuses and placentae, whereas the control P-gp inhibitor DCPQ had no effect. We believe that our bioluminescent pregnant mouse model will facilitate greater understanding of the BPB and ABCG2 activity in health and disease. PMID:26853103

  6. Mechanical perturbations trigger endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Shunmugan; Raj, Rajendran Kadarkarai; Saravanakumar, Venkatesan; Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Shathya, Yogarajan; Ali, B Mohammed Jaffar; Sumantran, Venil; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a vascular signaling molecule, is primarily produced by endothelial NO synthase. Recently, a functional endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) was described in red blood cells (RBC). The RBC-eNOS contributes to the intravascular NO pool and regulates physiological functions. However the regulatory mechanisms and clinical implications of RBC-eNOS are unknown. The present study investigated regulation and functions of RBC-eNOS under mechanical stimulation. This study shows that mechanical stimuli perturb RBC membrane, which triggers a signaling cascade to activate the eNOS. Extracellular NO level, estimated by the 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2', 7'-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate probe, was significantly increased under mechanical stimuli. Immunostaining and western blot studies confirmed that the mechanical stimuli phosphorylate the serine 1177 moiety of RBC-eNOS, and activates the enzyme. The NO produced by activation of RBC-eNOS in vortexed RBCs promoted important endothelial functions such as migration and vascular sprouting. We also show that mechanical perturbation facilitates nitrosylation of RBC proteins via eNOS activation. The results of the study confirm that mechanical perturbations sensitize RBC-eNOS to produce NO, which ultimately defines physiological boundaries of RBC structure and functions. Therefore, we propose that mild physical perturbations before, after, or during storage can improve viability of RBCs in blood banks. PMID:27345770

  7. The activation of the sodium pump in pig red blood cells by internal and external cations.

    PubMed

    Brand, S C; Whittam, R

    1985-05-30

    A study has been made with pig red blood cells of the activation of the sodium pump by internal and external cations. Cell Na and K concentrations were altered using a PCMBS cation loading procedure. The procedure was characterised for resultant ionic conditions, maintenance of ATP levels and fragility. The activation of the sodium pump by external K was measured in cells suspended in choline (Na-free) solutions. External Cs was used as a substitute for K and elicited lower rates of pump activity. Both the Vmax and apparent Km for 42K influx and 134Cs influx increased as internal Na concentration was raised (within the non-saturating range). Vmax/apparent Km ratios for cation influx were constant. Raising external Cs concentration exerted a similar influence on pump activation by internal Na: both the maximum pump velocity and the apparent Na-site dissociation constant (K'Na) increased. The results provide evidence for a transmembrane connection between cation binding sites on opposite faces of the membrane and are consistent with a consecutive model for the sodium pump in pig red blood cells. PMID:2581622

  8. Mechanical perturbations trigger endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in human red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Shunmugan; Raj, Rajendran Kadarkarai; Saravanakumar, Venkatesan; Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Shathya, Yogarajan; Ali, B. Mohammed Jaffar; Sumantran, Venil; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a vascular signaling molecule, is primarily produced by endothelial NO synthase. Recently, a functional endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) was described in red blood cells (RBC). The RBC-eNOS contributes to the intravascular NO pool and regulates physiological functions. However the regulatory mechanisms and clinical implications of RBC-eNOS are unknown. The present study investigated regulation and functions of RBC-eNOS under mechanical stimulation. This study shows that mechanical stimuli perturb RBC membrane, which triggers a signaling cascade to activate the eNOS. Extracellular NO level, estimated by the 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2′, 7′-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate probe, was significantly increased under mechanical stimuli. Immunostaining and western blot studies confirmed that the mechanical stimuli phosphorylate the serine 1177 moiety of RBC-eNOS, and activates the enzyme. The NO produced by activation of RBC-eNOS in vortexed RBCs promoted important endothelial functions such as migration and vascular sprouting. We also show that mechanical perturbation facilitates nitrosylation of RBC proteins via eNOS activation. The results of the study confirm that mechanical perturbations sensitize RBC-eNOS to produce NO, which ultimately defines physiological boundaries of RBC structure and functions. Therefore, we propose that mild physical perturbations before, after, or during storage can improve viability of RBCs in blood banks. PMID:27345770

  9. Methods for quantitative detection of antibody-induced complement activation on red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Meulenbroek, Elisabeth M; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies against red blood cells (RBCs) can lead to complement activation resulting in an accelerated clearance via complement receptors in the liver (extravascular hemolysis) or leading to intravascular lysis of RBCs. Alloantibodies (e.g. ABO) or autoantibodies to RBC antigens (as seen in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, AIHA) leading to complement activation are potentially harmful and can be - especially when leading to intravascular lysis - fatal(1). Currently, complement activation due to (auto)-antibodies on RBCs is assessed in vitro by using the Coombs test reflecting complement deposition on RBC or by a nonquantitative hemolytic assay reflecting RBC lysis(1-4). However, to assess the efficacy of complement inhibitors, it is mandatory to have quantitative techniques. Here we describe two such techniques. First, an assay to detect C3 and C4 deposition on red blood cells that is induced by antibodies in patient serum is presented. For this, FACS analysis is used with fluorescently labeled anti-C3 or anti-C4 antibodies. Next, a quantitative hemolytic assay is described. In this assay, complement-mediated hemolysis induced by patient serum is measured making use of spectrophotometric detection of the released hemoglobin. Both of these assays are very reproducible and quantitative, facilitating studies of antibody-induced complement activation. PMID:24514151

  10. Rapid Detection of Thrombin and Other Protease Activity Directly in Whole Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Johnson Chung Sing

    Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a key role in the clotting cascade to promote hemostasis following injury to the endothelium. From a clinical diagnostic perspective, in-vivo thrombin activity is linked to various blood clotting disorders, as well as cardiovascular disease (DVT, arteriosclerosis, etc). Thus, the ability to rapidly measure protease activity directly in whole blood will provide important new diagnostics, and clinical researchers with a powerful tool to further elucidate the relationship between circulating protease levels and disease. The ultimate goal is to design novel point of care (POC) diagnostic devices that are capable of monitoring protease activities directly in whole blood and biological sample. A charge-changing substrate specific to the thrombin enzyme was engineered and its functionality was confirmed by a series of experiments. This led to the preliminary design, construction, and testing of two device platforms deemed fully functional for the electrophoretic separation and focusing of charged peptide fragments. The concept of using the existing charge-changing substrate platform for bacterial protease detection was also investigated. Certain strains of E coli are associated with severe symptoms such as abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. The OmpT protease is expressed on the outer membrane of E coli and plays a role in the cleavage of antimicrobial peptides, the degradation of recombinant heterologous proteins, and the activation of plasminogen in the host. Thus, a synthetic peptide substrate specific to the OmpT protease was designed and modeled for the purpose of detecting E coli in biological sample.

  11. Acetylcholinesterase Activity, Cohabitation with Floricultural Workers, and Blood Pressure in Ecuadorian Children

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David R.; Himes, John H.; Alexander, Bruce H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are commonly used pesticides that can effect hemodynamic changes through increased cholinergic stimulation. Children of agricultural workers are likely to have paraoccupational exposures to pesticides, but the potential physiological impact of such exposures is unclear. Objectives: We investigated whether secondary pesticide exposures were associated with blood pressure and heart rate among children living in agricultural Ecuadorian communities. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 271 children 4–9 years of age [51% cohabited with one or more flower plantation workers (mean duration, 5.2 years)]. Erythrocyte AChE activity was measured using the EQM Test-mate system. Linear regression models were used to estimate associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate with AChE activity, living with flower workers, duration of cohabitation with a flower worker, number of flower workers in the child’s home, and number of practices that might increase children’s exposure to pesticides. Results: Mean (± SD) AChE activity was 3.14 ± 0.49 U/mL. A 1-U/mL decrease in AChE activity was associated with a 2.86-mmHg decrease in SBP (95% CI: –5.20, –0.53) and a 2.89-mmHg decrease in DBP (95% CI: –5.00, –0.78), after adjustment for potential confounders. Children living with flower workers had lower SBP (–1.72 mmHg; 95% CI: –3.53, 0.08) than other children, and practices that might increase exposure also were associated with lower SBP. No significant associations were found between exposures and heart rate. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that subclinical secondary exposures to pesticides may affect vascular reactivity in children. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23359481

  12. Contact activation of blood coagulation on a defined kaolin/collagen surface in a microfluidic assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu; Diamond, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Generation of active Factor XII (FXIIa) triggers blood clotting on artificial surfaces and may also enhance intravascular thrombosis. We developed a patterned kaolin (0 to 0.3 pg/μm2)/type 1 collagen fibril surface for controlled microfluidic clotting assays. Perfusion of whole blood (treated only with a low level of 4 μg/mL of the XIIa inhibitor, corn trypsin inhibitor) drove platelet deposition followed by fibrin formation. At venous wall shear rate (100 s−1), kaolin accelerated onset of fibrin formation by ~100 sec when compared to collagen alone (250 sec vs. 350 sec), with little effect on platelet deposition. Even with kaolin present, arterial wall shear rate (1000 s−1) delayed and suppressed fibrin formation compared to venous wall shear rate. A comparison of surfaces for extrinsic activation (tissue factor TF/collagen) versus contact activation (kaolin/collagen) that each generated equal platelet deposition at 100 s−1 revealed: (1) TF surfaces promoted much faster fibrin onset (at 100 sec) and more endpoint fibrin at 600 sec at either 100 s−1 or 1000 s−1, and (2) kaolin and TF surfaces had a similar sensitivity for reduced fibrin deposition at 1000 s−1 (compared to fibrin formed at 100 s−1) despite differing coagulation triggers. Anti-platelet drugs inhibiting P2Y1, P2Y12, cyclooxygenase-1 or activating IP-receptor or guanylate cyclase reduced platelet and fibrin deposition on kaolin/collagen. Since FXIIa or FXIa inhibition may offer safe antithrombotic therapy, especially for biomaterial thrombosis, these defined collagen/kaolin surfaces may prove useful in drug screening tests or in clinical diagnostic assays of blood under flow conditions. PMID:25303860

  13. The modulation of haemolymph arginine kinase on the extracellular ATP induced bactericidal immune responses in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuai; Jia, Zhihao; Chen, Hao; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2016-07-01

    Arginine kinase is an important phosphagen kinase (PK) which plays an essential role in ATP buffering systems in invertebrates. In the present study, an arginine kinase (designated CgAK) was isolated by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affinity chromatography from the haemolymph of Crassostrea gigas. CgAK could directly bind to LPS in a concentration-dependent manner with the dissociation constant (Kd) of 2.46 × 10(-6) M. The interaction with LPS significantly decreased the ATP hydrolytic activity of CgAK, which in turn lead to the accumulation of ATP in vitro. The extracellular ATP stimulation could induce Ca(2+) influx, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the release of lysosomal enzyme in the cellular immune response. In addition, ATP stimulation provoked the bactericidal activity towards Escherichia coli, and the scavenging ROS with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) abrogated the bactericidal activity, indicating that ATP stimulation could induce ROS-dependent antimicrobial activity in haemocytes. Collectively, the results demonstrated that the haemolymph CgAK could serve as an important purinergic regulator to modulate extracellular ATP, which might further have an important effect on the purinergic signaling-activated innate immune response of oyster. PMID:27033465

  14. Competitive-Protein Adsorption in Contact Activation of Blood Factor XII

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Rui; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2009-01-01

    Contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) is moderated by the protein composition of the fluid phase in which FXII is dissolved. Solution yield of FXIIa arising from FXII contact with hydrophilic activating particles (fully-water-wettable glass) suspended in a protein cocktail is shown to be significantly greater than that obtained under corresponding activation conditions in buffer solutions containing only FXII. By contrast, solution yield of FXIIa arising from FXII contact with hydrophobic particles (silanized glass) suspended in protein cocktail is sharply lower than obtained in buffer. This confirms that contact activation is not specific to anionic hydrophilic surfaces as proposed by the accepted biochemistry of surface activation. Rather, contact activation in the presence of proteins unrelated to the plasma coagulation cascade leads to an apparent specificity for hydrophilic surfaces that is actually due to a relative diminution of activation at hydrophobic surfaces and an enhancement at hydrophilic surfaces. Furthermore, the rate of FXIIa accumulation in whole-plasma and buffer solution is found to decrease with time in the continuous presence of activating surfaces, leading to a steady-state FXIIa yield dependent on the initial FXII solution concentration for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic procoagulant particles suspended in either plasma, protein cocktail, or buffer. These results strongly suggest that activation competes with an autoinhibition reaction in which FXIIa itself inhibits FXII→FXIIa. Experimental results are modeled using a reaction scheme invoking FXII activation and autoinhibition linked to protein adsorption to procoagulant surfaces, where FXII activation is presumed to proceed by either autoactivation ( FXII→surfaceFXIIa) and autohydrolysis ( FXII→FXIIa2FXIIa) in buffer solution or autoactivation and reciprocal activation (kallikrein mediated hydrolysis) in plasma. FXII adsorption competition with other

  15. Effects of single-dose irradiation in tumor blood flow studied by 15O decay after proton activation in situ.

    PubMed

    Emami, B; Ten Haken, R K; Nussbaum, G H; Hughes, W L

    1981-10-01

    A noninvasive technique employing photon activation of tissue oxygen in situ and detection of subsequent 15O positron decay was used to study the effects of single-dose 60Co irradiation on capillary blood flow in transplanted rat rhabdomyosarcomas. Tumor blood flow was measured before irradiation with 16.5, 38.5, or 60.5 Gy and at several intervals afterward (0-72 hr.). Pre-irradiation values of volume-averaged blood flow in the tumor ranged from 7 to 44 ml/min./100 g. Several hours after irradiation, blood flow fell by up to 50% for 60.5 Gy and up to 35% for 16.5 Gy. However, 24 hours after irradiation, tumor blood flow had recovered completely in the 16.5-Gy group and substantially in the others. For smaller doses such as the fractions typically employed in radiotherapy, no changes in tumor blood flow were observed. PMID:7291527

  16. Development and validation of a simple assay for the determination of cholinesterase activity in whole blood of laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Naik, Ramachandra S; Liu, Weiyi; Saxena, Ashima

    2013-04-01

    Current methods for measuring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in whole blood use butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)-selective inhibitors. However, the poor selectivity of these inhibitors results in the inhibition of AChE activity to some degree, leading to errors in reported values. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a simple assay for measuring AChE and BChE activities in whole blood from humans as well as experimental animals. Blood was fractionated into plasma and erythrocytes, and cholinesterase activities were titrated against ethopropazine and (-)-huperzine A to determine the lowest concentration of ethopropazine that inhibited BChE completely without affecting AChE activity and the lowest concentration of (-)-huperzine A that inhibited AChE completely without interfering with BChE activity. Results indicate that 20 µm ethopropazine can be successfully used for the accurate measurement of AChE activity in blood from humans as well as animals. Use of (-)-huperzine A is not required for measuring BChE activity in normal or 'exposed' blood samples. The method was validated for blood from several animal species, including mice, rats, guinea pigs, dogs, minipigs, and African green, cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys. This method is superior to all reported methods, does not require the separation of erythrocyte and plasma fractions, and is suitable for measuring cholinesterase activities in fresh or frozen blood from animals that were exposed to nerve agents or those that were administered high doses of BChE. The method is simple, direct, reproducible, and reliable and can easily be adapted for high-throughput screening of blood samples. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:22407886

  17. Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2015-12-01

    Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008-09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011-12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

  18. Evidence of Active Pro-Fibrotic Response in Blood of Patients with Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Verónica; Rico, Lucia; Ortega, Alicia; Muñoz-Conejero, Eva; García-Pajares, Felix; Bermejo-Martin, Jesus F.

    2015-01-01

    The role of systemic immunity in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis is not fully understood. Analysis of transcriptomic profiles in blood is an easy approach to obtain a wide picture of immune response at the systemic level. We studied gene expression profiles in blood from thirty cirrhotic patients and compared them against those of eight healthy volunteers. Most of our patients were male [n = 21, 70%] in their middle ages [57.4 ± 6.8 yr]. Alcohol abuse was the most frequent cause of cirrhosis (n = 22, 73%). Eleven patients had hepatocellular carcinoma (36.7%). Eight patients suffered from hepatitis C virus infection (26.7%). We found a signature constituted by 3402 genes which were differentially expressed in patients compared to controls (2802 over-expressed and 600 under-expressed). Evaluation of this signature evidenced the existence of an active pro-fibrotic transcriptomic program in the cirrhotic patients, involving the [extra-cellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction] & [TGF-beta signaling] pathways along with the [Cell adhesion molecules] pathway. This program coexists with alterations in pathways participating in [Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism], [Phenylalanine metabolism], [Tyrosine metabolism], [ABC transporters], [Purine metabolism], [Arachidonic acid metabolism]. In consequence, our results evidence the co-existence in blood of a genomic program mediating pro-fibrotic mechanisms and metabolic alterations in advanced cirrhosis. Monitoring expression levels of the genes involved in these programs could be of interest for predicting / monitoring cirrhosis evolution. These genes could constitute therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:26317806

  19. Indolic Uremic Solutes Enhance Procoagulant Activity of Red Blood Cells through Phosphatidylserine Exposure and Microparticle Release

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunyan; Ji, Shuting; Dong, Weijun; Qi, Yushan; Song, Wen; Cui, Debin; Shi, Jialan

    2015-01-01

    Increased accumulation of indolic uremic solutes in the blood of uremic patients contributes to the risk of thrombotic events. Red blood cells (RBCs), the most abundant blood cells in circulation, may be a privileged target of these solutes. However, the effect of uremic solutes indoxyl sulfate (IS) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on procoagulant activity (PCA) of erythrocyte is unclear. Here, RBCs from healthy adults were treated with IS and IAA (mean and maximal concentrations reported in uremic patients). Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure of RBCs and their microparticles (MPs) release were labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-lactadherin and detected by flow cytometer. Cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]) with Fluo 3/AM was analyzed by flow cytometer. PCA was assessed by clotting time and purified coagulation complex assays. We found that PS exposure, MPs generation, and consequent PCA of RBCs at mean concentrations of IS and IAA enhanced and peaked in maximal uremic concentrations. Moreover, 128 nM lactadherin, a PS inhibitor, inhibited over 90% PCA of RBCs and RMPs. Eryptosis or damage, by indolic uremic solutes was due to, at least partially, the increase of cytosolic [Ca2+]. Our results suggest that RBC eryptosis in uremic solutes IS and IAA plays an important role in thrombus formation through releasing RMPs and exposing PS. Lactadherin acts as an efficient anticoagulant in this process. PMID:26516916

  20. Indolic uremic solutes enhance procoagulant activity of red blood cells through phosphatidylserine exposure and microparticle release.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunyan; Ji, Shuting; Dong, Weijun; Qi, Yushan; Song, Wen; Cui, Debin; Shi, Jialan

    2015-11-01

    Increased accumulation of indolic uremic solutes in the blood of uremic patients contributes to the risk of thrombotic events. Red blood cells (RBCs), the most abundant blood cells in circulation, may be a privileged target of these solutes. However, the effect of uremic solutes indoxyl sulfate (IS) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on procoagulant activity (PCA) of erythrocyte is unclear. Here, RBCs from healthy adults were treated with IS and IAA (mean and maximal concentrations reported in uremic patients). Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure of RBCs and their microparticles (MPs) release were labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-lactadherin and detected by flow cytometer. Cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]) with Fluo 3/AM was analyzed by flow cytometer. PCA was assessed by clotting time and purified coagulation complex assays. We found that PS exposure, MPs generation, and consequent PCA of RBCs at mean concentrations of IS and IAA enhanced and peaked in maximal uremic concentrations. Moreover, 128 nM lactadherin, a PS inhibitor, inhibited over 90% PCA of RBCs and RMPs. Eryptosis or damage, by indolic uremic solutes was due to, at least partially, the increase of cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. Our results suggest that RBC eryptosis in uremic solutes IS and IAA plays an important role in thrombus formation through releasing RMPs and exposing PS. Lactadherin acts as an efficient anticoagulant in this process. PMID:26516916

  1. Nanopore-based electrical and label-free sensing of enzyme activity in blood serum.

    PubMed

    Kukwikila, Mikiembo; Howorka, Stefan

    2015-09-15

    A generic strategy to expand the analytical scope of electrical nanopore sensing is presented. We specifically and electrically detect the activity of a diagnostically relevant hydrolytic enzyme and remove the analytically harmful interference from the biochemically complex sample matrix of blood serum. Our strategy is demonstrated at the example of the renin protease which is involved in regulation of blood pressure. The analysis scheme exploits a new approach to reduce sample complexity while generating a specific read-out signal. Within a single spin-column (i), the protease cleaves a resin-tethered peptide substrate (ii) which is affinity-purified using the same multifunctional resin to remove interfering blood serum components, followed by (iii) detecting the peptide via electrical nanopore recordings. Our approach is beneficial in several ways. First, by eliminating serum components, we overcome limitations of nanopore sensing when challenging samples lead to membrane instability and a poor signal-to-noise ratio. Second, the label-free sensing avoids drawbacks of currently used radiolabel-immunoassays for renin. Finally, the strategy of simultaneous generation and purification of a signal peptide within a multifunctional resin can very likely be expanded to other hydrolytic enzymes dissolved in any analyte matrix and exploited for analytical read-out methods other than nanopore sensing. PMID:26305576

  2. Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypernatremia Elevates Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Blood Pressure via the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Sean D; Lang, Susan M; Simmonds, Sarah S; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2015-12-01

    Elevated NaCl concentrations of the cerebrospinal fluid increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in salt-sensitive hypertension. Neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a pivotal role in the regulation of SNA and receive mono- or polysynaptic inputs from several hypothalamic structures responsive to hypernatremia. Therefore, the present study investigated the contribution of RVLM neurons to the SNA and pressor response to cerebrospinal fluid hypernatremia. Lateral ventricle infusion of 0.15 mol/L, 0.6 mol/L, and 1.0 mol/L NaCl (5 µL/10 minutes) produced concentration-dependent increases in lumbar SNA, adrenal SNA, and arterial blood pressure, despite no change in splanchnic SNA and a decrease in renal SNA. Ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine or acute lesion of the lamina terminalis blocked or significantly attenuated these responses, respectively. RVLM microinjection of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) agonist muscimol abolished the sympathoexcitatory response to intracerebroventricular infusion of 1 mol/L NaCl. Furthermore, blockade of ionotropic glutamate, but not angiotensin II type 1, receptors significantly attenuated the increase in lumbar SNA, adrenal SNA, and arterial blood pressure. Finally, single-unit recordings of spinally projecting RVLM neurons revealed 3 distinct populations based on discharge responses to intracerebroventricular infusion of 1 mol/L NaCl: type I excited (46%; 11/24), type II inhibited (37%; 9/24), and type III no change (17%; 4/24). All neurons with slow conduction velocities were type I cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that acute increases in cerebrospinal fluid NaCl concentrations selectively activate a discrete population of RVLM neurons through glutamate receptor activation to increase SNA and arterial blood pressure. PMID:26416846

  3. Variation in blood serum antifreeze activity of Antarctic Trematomus fishes across habitat temperature and depth.

    PubMed

    Fields, Lauren G; DeVries, Arthur L

    2015-07-01

    High latitude waters in the Southern Ocean can be near their freezing point and remain ice-covered throughout the year whereas lower latitude Southern Ocean waters have seasonal ice coverage and comparatively large (6 °C) annual temperature changes. The genus Trematomus (suborder Notothenioidei) is regarded primarily as a high latitude group because of its abundance there, they also inhabit the warmer regions in smaller numbers. Freeze avoidance in the notothenioids is linked to the presence of two antifreeze proteins (AFPs); the antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) and antifreeze potentiating protein (AFPP), both of which adsorb to internal ice crystals inhibiting growth. Both high and low latitude trematomids possess sufficient AFP to lower their blood freezing point below that of seawater (-1.9 °C). We investigated the contributions of AFGPs and AFPP to the blood freezing point depression to determine how they varied with depth, water temperature, and the presence of ice. High latitude trematomids had lower blood freezing points than those inhabiting lower latitude waters indicating differences in their freeze avoidance capacities. Lower freezing points were associated with higher levels of antifreeze activity due to higher levels of both AFGP and AFPP. Populations of Trematomus hansoni and Trematomus bernacchii from shallow depths appear more freeze avoidant than populations inhabiting deep, ice-free water based on their lower freezing points and higher antifreeze activities. Gel electrophoresis of the trichloroacetic acid-soluble AFGPs indicates that only high molecular weight isoforms, which contribute more to AFGP activity, vary across species as well as between individuals of a species. PMID:25770668

  4. Influence of solar activity on fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis. [statistical correlation between solar flare and blood coagulation indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchenko, V. I.

    1974-01-01

    During periods of high solar activity fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis are increased. A direct correlative relationship is established between the indices of fibrinolysis, fibrinogenolysis and solar flares which were recorded two days before the blood was collected for analysis.

  5. Influence of abatement of lead exposure in Croatia on blood lead and ALAD activity.

    PubMed

    Zorana, Kljaković-Gašpić; Alica, Pizent; Jasna, Jurasović

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) abatement measures in Croatia on blood lead (BPb) concentrations, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood, as a sensitive indicator of early Pb effect. Data on BPb and ALAD activity were obtained from 829 Croatian men (19-64 years of age), with no known occupational exposure to metals. Data obtained in 2008-2009, after the ban of leaded gasoline in Croatia in 2006, were compared with similar data collected in 1981 and 1989, when the concentration of Pb in gasoline was 0.6 g/L. Our results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in median BPb from 114.5 (range, 46.0-275.0) μg/L in 1981/1989 to 30.3 (range, 3.2-140.8) μg/L in 2008-2009 and an increase in median ALAD activity from 49.8 (range, 24.9-79.4) EU in 1981/1989 to 60.9 (range, 35.8-84.0) EU in 2008-2009. Individual factors influencing BPb values were, in the order of decreasing importance, Pb in ambient air (APb), alcohol consumption, age, and smoking. Increased ALAD activity was significantly associated with the decrease of APb, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These results show that lead abatement measures had a positive impact on both BPb concentrations (73.5% decrease) and the activity of ALAD (22.1% increase) in general population. Our results contribute to growing evidence that ALAD activity may be used as one of the earliest and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of low-level Pb exposure. PMID:26351197

  6. Localization of calcium stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity in blood vessels of the skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in bone forming cells which decreases in certain bones as a result of hypogravity or non-weight bearing. This enzyme can also hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate. Therefore, an effort was made to localize calcium-stimulated ATPase by cytochemistry to determine whether altered bone cell activity might be related to changing calcium levels which occur during hypogravity. The results indicate that Ca(++)-ATPase is largely found along the endothelium and basal lamina of blood vessels, and not found in bone forming cells. This suggests that calcium regulation in the vicinity of bone formation may be modulated by the vasculature of the area.

  7. Prevalence, disclosure and interpretations of sexual activities in a sample of Canadian college-aged blood donors.

    PubMed

    Mair, M; Barrett, S P; Campbell, T; Ditto, B

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed the prevalence, level of disclosure, and interpretations of sexual activities in a sample of 123 college-aged blood donors in Montreal, Quebec. Within six months of their donation, participants completed an anonymous questionnaire designed to assess sexual definitions, levels of disclosure to sexual partners, as well as prevalence of various blood safety behavioural risks. Responses indicated that (1) there was a lack of consensus regarding what constitutes 'sex', (2) levels of sexual disclosure varied widely, and (3) participants engaged in numerous blood safety behavioural risk activities. These results are discussed with respect to their implications for how people think about sex, particularly in the blood donation context. Suggestions to improve specific blood donor screening questions are also presented. PMID:12816668

  8. Equilibrium physics breakdown reveals the active nature of red blood cell flickering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turlier, H.; Fedosov, D. A.; Audoly, B.; Auth, T.; Gov, N. S.; Sykes, C.; Joanny, J.-F.; Gompper, G.; Betz, T.

    2016-05-01

    Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, are seen to flicker under optical microscopy, a phenomenon initially described as thermal fluctuations of the cell membrane. But recent studies have suggested the involvement of non-equilibrium processes, without definitively ruling out equilibrium interpretations. Using active and passive microrheology to directly compare the membrane response and fluctuations on single erythrocytes, we report here a violation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation, which is a direct demonstration of the non-equilibrium nature of flickering. With an analytical model of the composite erythrocyte membrane and realistic stochastic simulations, we show that several molecular mechanisms may explain the active fluctuations, and we predict their kinetics. We demonstrate that tangential metabolic activity in the network formed by spectrin, a cytoskeletal protein, can generate curvature-mediated active membrane motions. We also show that other active membrane processes represented by direct normal force dipoles may explain the observed membrane activity. Our findings provide solid experimental and theoretical frameworks for future investigations of the origin and function of active motion in cells.

  9. The effect of amphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow during cognitive activation in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, D.G.; Weinberger, D.R.; Jones, D.W.; Zigun, J.R.; Coppola, R.; Handel, S.; Bigelow, L.B.; Goldberg, T.E.; Berman, K.F.; Kleinman, J.E. )

    1991-07-01

    To explore the role of monoamines on cerebral function during specific prefrontal cognitive activation, we conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of 0.25 mg/kg oral dextroamphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as determined by 133Xe dynamic single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and a sensorimotor control task. Ten patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been stabilized for at least 6 weeks on 0.4 mg/kg haloperidol participated. Amphetamine produced a modest, nonsignificant, task-independent, global reduction in rCBF. However, the effect of amphetamine on task-dependent activation of rCBF (i.e., WCST minus control task) was striking. Whereas on placebo no significant activation of rCBF was seen during the WCST compared with the control task, on amphetamine significant activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) occurred (p = 0.0006). Both the mean number of correct responses and the mean conceptual level increased (p less than 0.05) with amphetamine relative to placebo. In addition, with amphetamine, but not with placebo, a significant correlation (p = -0.71; p less than 0.05) emerged between activation of DLPFC rCBF and performance of the WCST task. These findings are consistent with animal models in which mesocortical catecholaminergic activity modulates and enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of evoked cortical activity.

  10. Effect of platelet activating factor (PAF) on the formation of blood vessels in subcutaneous implants in mice.

    PubMed

    Andrade, S P; Vieira, L B; Bakhle, Y S; Piper, P J

    1994-03-01

    Angiogenesis accompanies inflammatory processes and many other pathological conditions. We have studied the effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) a well-known inflammatory mediator, as a promoter of angiogenesis in the sponge implant model in mice. Development of blood vessels and blood flow were monitored by use of a 133Xe washout technique. The results showed PAF to have angiogenic activity, which was inhibited by WEB 2086, and the PAF-induced vasculature to have normal pharmacological reactivity. PMID:7516807

  11. Relationship of spikes, synaptic activity, and local changes of cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, M

    2001-12-01

    The coupling of electrical activity in the brain to changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) is of interest because hemodynamic changes are used to track brain function. Recent studies, especially those investigating the cerebellar cortex, have shown that the spike rate in the principal target cell of a brain region (i.e. the efferent cell) does not affect vascular response amplitude. Subthreshold integrative synaptic processes trigger changes in the local microcirculation and local glucose consumption. The spatial specificity of the vascular response on the brain surface is limited because of the functional anatomy of the pial vessels. Within the cortex there is a characteristic laminar flow distribution, the largest changes of which are observed at the depth of maximal synaptic activity (i.e. layer IV) for an afferent input system. Under most conditions, increases in CBF are explained by activity in postsynaptic neurons, but presynaptic elements can contribute. Neurotransmitters do not mediate increases in CBF that are triggered by the concerted action of several second messenger molecules. It is important to distinguish between effective synaptic inhibition and deactivation that increase and decrease CBF and glucose consumption, respectively. In summary, hemodynamic changes evoked by neuronal activity depend on the afferent input function (i.e. all aspects of presynaptic and postsynaptic processing), but are totally independent of the efferent function (i.e., the spike rate of the same region). Thus, it is not possible to conclude whether the output level of activity of a region is increased based on brain maps that use blood-flow changes as markers. PMID:11740198

  12. Activity-induced tissue oxygenation changes in rat cerebellar cortex: interplay of postsynaptic activation and blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Offenhauser, Nikolas; Thomsen, Kirsten; Caesar, Kirsten; Lauritzen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging relies on the robust coupling between neuronal activity, metabolism and cerebral blood flow (CBF), but the physiological basis of the neuroimaging signals is still poorly understood. We examined the mechanisms of activity-dependent changes in tissue oxygenation in relation to variations in CBF responses and postsynaptic activity in rat cerebellar cortex. To increase synaptic activity we stimulated the monosynaptic, glutamatergic climbing fibres that excite Purkinje cells via AMPA receptors. We used local field potentials to indicate synaptic activity, and recorded tissue oxygen partial pressure (Ptiss,O2) by polarographic microelectrodes, and CBF using laser-Doppler flowmetry. The disappearance rate of oxygen in the tissue increased linearly with synaptic activity. This indicated that, without a threshold, oxygen consumption increased as a linear function of synaptic activity. The reduction in Ptiss,O2 preceded the rise in CBF. The time integral (area) of the negative Ptiss,O2 response increased non-linearly showing saturation at high levels of synaptic activity, concomitant with a steep rise in CBF. This was accompanied by a positive change in Ptiss,O2. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition enhanced the initial negative Ptiss,O2 response (‘dip’), while attenuating the evoked CBF increase and positive Ptiss,O2 response equally. This indicates that increases in CBF counteract activity-induced reductions in Ptiss,O2, and suggests the presence of a tissue oxygen reserve. The changes in Ptiss,O2 and CBF were strongly attenuated by AMPA receptor blockade. Our findings suggest an inverse relationship between negative Ptiss,O2 and CBF responses, and provide direct in vivo evidence for a tight coupling between activity in postsynaptic AMPA receptors and cerebellar oxygen consumption. PMID:15774524

  13. Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Channel Geometry on Platelet Activation and Blood Damage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingshu; Yun, B. Min; Fallon, Anna M.; Hanson, Stephen R.; Aidun, Cyrus K.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2011-01-01

    Thromboembolic complications in Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are believed to be due to the combination of high shear stresses and large recirculation regions. Relating blood damage to design geometry is therefore essential to ultimately optimize the design of BMHVs. The aim of this research is to quantitatively study the effect of 3D channel geometry on shear-induced platelet activation and aggregation, and to choose an appropriate blood damage index (BDI) model for future numerical simulations. The simulations in this study use a recently developed lattice-Boltzmann with external boundary force (LBM-EBF) method [Wu, J., and C. K. Aidun. Int. J. Numer. Method Fluids 62(7):765–783, 2010; Wu, J., and C. K. Aidun. Int. J. Multiphase flow 36:202–209, 2010]. The channel geometries and flow conditions are re-constructed from recent experiments by Fallon [The Development of a Novel in vitro Flow System to Evaluate Platelet Activation and Procoagulant Potential Induced by Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Leakage Jets in School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Atlanta: Georgia Institute of Technology] and Fallon et al. [Ann. Biomed. Eng. 36(1):1]. The fluid flow is computed on a fixed regular ‘lattice’ using the LBM, and each platelet is mapped onto a Lagrangian frame moving continuously throughout the fluid domain. The two-way fluid–solid interactions are determined by the EBF method by enforcing a no-slip condition on the platelet surface. The motion and orientation of the platelet are obtained from Newtonian dynamics equations. The numerical results show that sharp corners or sudden shape transitions will increase blood damage. Fallon’s experimental results were used as a basis for choosing the appropriate BDI model for use in future computational simulations of flow through BMHVs. PMID:20976558

  14. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko D

    2014-01-01

    Possible appliance of effective and safe alkalizing agent in the treatment of metabolic acidosis could be of particular interest to humans experiencing an increase in plasma acidity, such as exercise-induced acidosis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the daily oral intake of 2L of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) for 14 days would increase arterial blood alkalinity at baseline and post-exercise as compared with the placebo. This study was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 52 presumably healthy physically active male volunteers. Twenty-six participants received HRW and 26 a placebo (tap water) for 14 days. Arterial blood pH, partial pressure for carbon dioxide (pCO2), and bicarbonates were measured at baseline and postexercise at the start (day 0) and at the end of the intervention period (day 14). Intake of HRW significantly increased fasting arterial blood pH by 0.04 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.08; p < 0.001), and postexercise pH by 0.07 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.10; p = 0.03) after 14 days of intervention. Fasting bicarbonates were significantly higher in the HRW trial after the administration regimen as compared with the preadministration (30.5 ± 1.9 mEq/L vs. 28.3 ± 2.3 mEq/L; p < 0.0001). No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study, and no participant reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. These results support the hypothesis that HRW administration is safe and may have an alkalizing effect in young physically active men. PMID:24392771

  15. Activity of lysosomal enzymes of blood in open-angle glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir A.; Stroev, Evgeney A.; Cherkunov, Boris P.; Mironenko, Larisa V.

    1997-05-01

    Recently more attention has been given to the role of the lysosomal enzymes in the development of various pathological conditions. There were indications on the participation of lysosomal ferments in the development of various eye diseases such as glaucoma. Studies on the (beta) - galactosidase and cathepsins B and D activity in the blood's serum of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were conducted. The activity of enzymes was determined by the spectrophotometry method. Cardiovascular and chronic lungs diseases accompanied ones in the main group. Patients included in the control group were of the same age and with the similar somatic patholegym. Statistically authentic galactosidase activity in the serum of patients with glaucoma as compared with control group was statistically unauthentic. Cathepsin B activity in the serum of patients with glaucoma was authentically increased at all stages of disease. In the contrary, cathepsin D activity increased at stages 2 and 3 in comparison with the control. On the basis of these studies we come to conclusion that primary glaucoma is accompanied by the increase of activity of cathepsins B and D in the serum.

  16. Associations among environmental supports, physical activity, and blood pressure in African-American adults in the PATH trial.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Egan, Brent M

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African-American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability would be positively associated with physical activity, and that physical activity would mediate their relation with blood pressure. Baseline data were collected with 434 African-American adults in underserved communities (low income, high crime) participating in the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability were measured with validated surveys. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, min/day) and with a 4-week recall of walking. Three blood pressure assessments were taken by trained staff using standard protocols, with values from the second and third assessments averaged. The sample was predominantly female (63%), overweight (mean body mass index = 30.9, SD = 8.4), and had slightly elevated blood pressures with a mean systolic blood pressure of 132.4 (SD = 17.9) and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.4 (SD = 11.0). Results demonstrated that peer social support for physical activity (B = 2.43, p = .02) and neighborhood walkability (B = 2.40, p = .046) were significantly related to average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was also significantly associated with self-reported average daily walking (B = 8.86, p = .02). Physical activity did not mediate their relation with blood pressure and no significant direct effects of these variables on blood pressure were found. The positive influence of

  17. Novel Endoperoxide-Based Transmission-Blocking Antimalarials with Liver- and Blood-Schizontocidal Activities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In a search for effective compounds against both the blood- and liver-stages of infection by malaria parasites with the ability to block the transmission of the disease to mosquito vectors, a series of hybrid compounds combining either a 1,2,4-trioxane or 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane and 8-aminoquinoline moieties were synthesized and screened for their antimalarial activity. These hybrid compounds showed high potency against both exoerythrocytic and erythrocytic forms of malaria parasites, comparable to representative trioxane-based counterparts. Furthermore, they efficiently blocked the development of the sporogonic cycle in the mosquito vector. The tetraoxane-based hybrid 5, containing an amide linker between the two moieties, effectively cleared a patent blood-stage P. berghei infection in mice after i.p. administration. Overall, these results indicate that peroxide-8-aminoquinoline hybrids are excellent starting points to develop an agent that conveys all the desired antimalarial multistage activities in a single chemical entity and, as such, with the potential to be used in malaria elimination campaigns. PMID:24900781

  18. Novel endoperoxide-based transmission-blocking antimalarials with liver- and blood-schizontocidal activities.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Daniela; Capela, Rita; Albuquerque, Inês S; Meireles, Patrícia; Paiva, Isa; Nogueira, Fátima; Amewu, Richard; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J; Oliveira, Rudi; Mota, Maria M; Moreira, Rui; Marti, Francesc; Prudêncio, Miguel; O'Neill, Paul M; Lopes, Francisca

    2014-02-13

    In a search for effective compounds against both the blood- and liver-stages of infection by malaria parasites with the ability to block the transmission of the disease to mosquito vectors, a series of hybrid compounds combining either a 1,2,4-trioxane or 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane and 8-aminoquinoline moieties were synthesized and screened for their antimalarial activity. These hybrid compounds showed high potency against both exoerythrocytic and erythrocytic forms of malaria parasites, comparable to representative trioxane-based counterparts. Furthermore, they efficiently blocked the development of the sporogonic cycle in the mosquito vector. The tetraoxane-based hybrid 5, containing an amide linker between the two moieties, effectively cleared a patent blood-stage P. berghei infection in mice after i.p. administration. Overall, these results indicate that peroxide-8-aminoquinoline hybrids are excellent starting points to develop an agent that conveys all the desired antimalarial multistage activities in a single chemical entity and, as such, with the potential to be used in malaria elimination campaigns. PMID:24900781

  19. A coculture model of the lung–blood barrier: the role of activated phagocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Luyts, Katrien; Napierska, Dorota; Dinsdale, David; Klein, Sebastian G; Serchi, Tommaso; Hoet, Peter H M

    2015-02-01

    We developed a coculture model of the lung–blood barrier using human bronchial epithelial cells(16HBE14o-), monocytes (THP-1) and human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) in which several parameters can be assessed simultaneously. The epithelial and endothelial cells were grown on opposite sides of a microporous membrane. Electron and confocal microscopic pictures show the presence of the cells in their appropriate compartment and both cell types do not show evidence of growing through the pores. Out of three endothelial cell types (EAhy.926, HUVEC and HLMVEC), the last was chosen as the most appropriate cell type, best resembling the pulmonary endothelium and allowing the expression of functional tight junctions in the 16HBE14o- monolayer with sufficiently high transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values. Finally, monocytes were added to the apical compartment. PMA-activated macrophages significantly affected barrier integrity (73% TEER reduction compared to control after 24 h) and disrupted the epithelial tight junctions as shown by redistribution of ZO-1 labeling. Alternatively, monocytes could be activated using lipopolysaccharide, at a sub-toxic level int he apical compartment and only induced a small, though significant, reduction in TEER.This coculture system is a representative model of the lung–blood barrier with barrier integrity as the main toxicity endpoint. PMID:25448809

  20. The impact of microglial activation on blood-brain barrier in brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Anna Carolina Carvalho; Matias, Diana; Garcia, Celina; Amaral, Rackele; Geraldo, Luiz Henrique; Freitas, Catarina; Lima, Flavia Regina Souza

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), constituted by an extensive network of endothelial cells (ECs) together with neurons and glial cells, including microglia, forms the neurovascular unit (NVU). The crosstalk between these cells guarantees a proper environment for brain function. In this context, changes in the endothelium-microglia interactions are associated with a variety of inflammation-related diseases in brain, where BBB permeability is compromised. Increasing evidences indicate that activated microglia modulate expression of tight junctions, which are essential for BBB integrity and function. On the other hand, the endothelium can regulate the state of microglial activation. Here, we review recent advances that provide insights into interactions between the microglia and the vascular system in brain diseases such as infectious/inflammatory diseases, epilepsy, ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25404894

  1. Arginase Activity in the Blood of Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weldegebreal, Teklu; Hailu, Asrat; Hailu, Workagegnehu; Hurissa, Zewdu; Ali, Jemal; Diro, Ermiyas; Sisay, Yifru; Cloke, Tom; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Müller, Ingrid; Kropf, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease associated with high mortality. The most important foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia are in the Northwest and are predominantly associated with high rates of HIV co-infection. Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis patients with HIV results in higher mortality, treatment failure and relapse. We have previously shown that arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, was increased in patients with visceral leishmaniasis and in HIV seropositive patients; further our results showed that high arginase activity is a marker of disease severity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increased arginase activities associated with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infections synergize in patients co-infected with both pathogens. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infection from Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, and recorded and compared their clinical data. Further, we measured the levels of arginase activity in the blood of these patients and identified the phenotype of arginase-expressing cells. Our results show that CD4+ T cell counts were significantly lower and the parasite load in the spleen was significantly higher in co-infected patients. Moreover, our results demonstrate that arginase activity was significantly higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma of co-infected patients. Finally, we identified the cells-expressing arginase in the PBMCs as low-density granulocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that increased arginase might contribute to the poor disease outcome characteristic of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection. PMID:23349999

  2. Incomplete activation of peripheral blood dendritic cells during healthy human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Della Bella, S; Giannelli, S; Cozzi, V; Signorelli, V; Cappelletti, M; Cetin, I; Villa, M L

    2011-05-01

    Successful pregnancy relies on the adaptation of immune responses that allow the fetus to grow and develop in the uterus despite being recognized by maternal immune cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) are central to the control of immune tolerance, and their state of activation at the maternal-decidual interface is critical to the feto-maternal immunological equilibrium. So far, the involvement of circulating DCs has been investigated poorly. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether, during healthy human pregnancy, peripheral blood DCs (PBDCs) undergo changes that may be relevant to the adaptation of maternal immune responses that allow fetal tolerance. In a cross-sectional study, we analysed PBDCs by six-colour flow cytometry on whole blood samples from 47 women during healthy pregnancy progression and 24 non-pregnant controls. We demonstrated that both myeloid and plasmacytoid PBDCs undergo a state of incomplete activation, more evident in the third trimester, characterized by increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokine production but lacking human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR up-regulation. To investigate the contribution of soluble circulating factors to this phenomenon, we also performed culture experiments showing that sera from pregnant women added to control DCs conditioned a similar incomplete activation that was associated with reduced DC allostimulatory capacity, supporting the in vivo relevance of our findings. We also obtained evidence that the glycoprotein hormone activin-A may contribute to DC incomplete activation. We suggest that the changes of PBDCs occurring during late pregnancy may aid the comprehension of the immune mechanisms operated by the maternal immune system to maintain fetal tolerance. PMID:21352205

  3. Bactericidal effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aun, Carlos E.; Barberini, Alexandre F.; Camargo, Selma C. C.; Silva Kfouri, Luciana; Lorenzetti Simionato, Maria R.

    1999-05-01

    The success of endodontic therapy is based on the elimination of bacterial colonization from the endodontic system and periapical tissues. Recent studies have been showing the bactericidal effect of laser in root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canals from upper central incisor. For the experiment 12 teeth were selected, respect at the apical third, sterilized, and 10 μm Streptococcus sanguis liquid culture were inoculated in the root canals. The laser test groups were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser at standard setting of 15Hz, 100mj and 1,5 W for 10, 20 and 30 seconds each in slow helicoidal movements from the apex to the top using a 300 micrometers fiber. After the procedure the specimens were placed in Tryptic Soy Agar, the number of colony forming units was evaluated. The experiment showed a significant reduction on viability of Streptococcus sanguis at the respective time of 20 and 30 seconds.

  4. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats

    PubMed Central

    Kelm, Detlev H.; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C.; Ristow, Michael

    2011-01-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l−1 blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators. PMID:21490011

  5. Impairment of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier properties by retrovirus-activated T lymphocytes: reduction in cerebrospinal fluid-to-blood efflux of prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Khuth, Seng Thuon; Strazielle, Nathalie; Giraudon, Pascale; Belin, Marie-Françoise; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-François

    2005-09-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium forms the interface between the blood and the CSF. In conjunction with the tight junctions restricting the paracellular pathway, polarized specific transport systems in the choroidal epithelium allow a fine regulation of CSF-borne biologically active mediators. The highly vascularized stroma delimited by the choroidal epithelium can be a reservoir for retrovirus-infected or activated immune cells. In this work, new insight in the implication of the blood-CSF barrier in neuroinfectious and inflammatory diseases is provided by using a differentiated cellular model of the choroidal epithelium, exposed to infected T lymphocytes. We demonstrate that T cells activated by a retroviral infection, but not non-infected cells, reduce the transporter-mediated CSF-to-blood efflux of organic anions, in particular that of the potent pro-inflammatory prostaglandin PGE2, via the release of soluble factors. A moderate alteration of the paracellular permeability also occurs. We identified the viral protein Tax, oxygenated free radicals, matrix-metalloproteinases and pro-inflammatory cytokines as active molecules released during the exposure of the epithelium to infected T cells. Among them, tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1 are directly involved in the mechanism underlying the decrease in some choroidal organic anion efflux. Given the strong involvement of CSF-borne PGE2 in sickness behaviour syndrome, these data suggest that the blood-CSF barrier plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neuroinflammation and neuroinfection, via changes in the transport processes controlling the CSF biodisposition of PGE2. PMID:16026393

  6. Mitogen-activated Tasmanian devil blood mononuclear cells kill devil facial tumour disease cells.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gabriella K; Tovar, Cesar; Cooray, Anne A; Kreiss, Alexandre; Darby, Jocelyn; Murphy, James M; Corcoran, Lynn M; Bettiol, Silvana S; Lyons, A Bruce; Woods, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a transmissible cancer that has brought the host species, the Tasmanian devil, to the brink of extinction. The cancer cells avoid allogeneic immune recognition by downregulating cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I expression. This should prevent CD8(+) T cell, but not natural killer (NK) cell, cytotoxicity. The reason why NK cells, normally reactive to MHC-negative cells, are not activated to kill DFTD cells has not been determined. The immune response of wild devils to DFTD, if it occurs, is uncharacterised. To investigate this, we tested 12 wild devils with DFTD, and found suggestive evidence of low levels of antibodies against DFTD cells in one devil. Eight of these devils were also analysed for cytotoxicity, however, none showed evidence for cytotoxicity against cultured DFTD cells. To establish whether mimicking activation of antitumour responses could induce cytotoxic activity against DFTD, Tasmanian devil peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with either the mitogen Concanavalin A, the Toll-like receptor agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or recombinant Tasmanian devil IL-2. All induced the PBMC cells to kill cultured DFTD cells, suggesting that activation does not occur after encounter with DFTD cells in vivo, but can be induced. The identification of agents that activate cytotoxicity against DFTD target cells is critical for developing strategies to protect against DFTD. Such agents could function as adjuvants to induce functional immune responses capable of targeting DFTD cells and tumours in vivo. PMID:27089941

  7. Proteome signatures of inflammatory activated primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Haudek-Prinz, Verena J.; Klepeisz, Philip; Slany, Astrid; Griss, Johannes; Meshcheryakova, Anastasia; Paulitschke, Verena; Mitulovic, Goran; Stöckl, Johannes; Gerner, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Proteome profiling is the method of choice to identify marker proteins whose expression may be characteristic for certain diseases. The formation of such marker proteins results from disease-related pathophysiologic processes. In healthy individuals, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) circulate in a quiescent cell state monitoring potential immune-relevant events, but have the competence to respond quickly and efficiently in an inflammatory manner to any invasion of potential pathogens. Activation of these cells is most plausibly accompanied by characteristic proteome alterations. Therefore we investigated untreated and inflammatory activated primary human PBMCs by proteome profiling using a ‘top down’ 2D-PAGE approach in addition to a ‘bottom up’ LC–MS/MS-based shotgun approach. Furthermore, we purified primary human T-cells and monocytes and activated them separately. Comparative analysis allowed us to characterize a robust proteome signature including NAMPT and PAI2 which indicates the activation of PBMCs. The T-cell specific inflammation signature included IRF-4, GBP1and the previously uncharacterized translation product of GBP5; the corresponding monocyte signature included PDCD5, IL1RN and IL1B. The involvement of inflammatory activated PBMCs in certain diseases as well as the responsiveness of these cells to anti-inflammatory drugs may be evaluated by quantification of these marker proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics. PMID:22813876

  8. Mechanistic Study of Silver Nanoparticle's Synthesis by Dragon's Blood Resin Ethanol Extract and Antiradiation Activity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Murtaza; Iqbal, Javed; Awan, Umer; Saeed, Yasmeen; Ranran, Yuan; Liang, Yanli; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2015-02-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is best way to avoid exposure of hazardous materials as compared to chemical manufacturing process which is a severe threat not only to biodiversity but also to environment. In present study, we reported a novel method of finding antiradiation compounds by bioreducing mechanism of silver nanoparticles formation using 50% ethanol extract of Dragons blood, a famous Chinese herbal plant. Color change during silver nanoparticles synthesis was observed and it was confirmed by ultra violet (UV) visible spectroscopy at wave length at 430 nm after 30 min of reaction at 60 °C. Well dispersed round shaped silver nanoparticles with approximate size (4 nm to 50 nm) were measured by TEM and particle size analyser. Capping of biomolecules on Ag nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectra. HPLC analysis was carried out to find active compounds in the extract. Furthermore, antiradiation activity of this extract was tested by MTT assay in vitro after incubating the SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h at 37 °C. The results indicate that presence of active compounds in plant extract not only involves in bioreduction process but also shows response against radiation. The dual role of plant extract as green synthesis of nanoparticles and exhibit activity against radiation which gives a new way of fishing out active compounds from complex herbal plants. PMID:26353649

  9. Assessment of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in blood plasma of agriculture workers

    PubMed Central

    Dhananjayan, V.; Ravichandran, B.; Anitha, N.; Rajmohan, H. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cholinesterase determination indicates whether the person has been under pesticide exposure is not. It is recommended that the worker′s cholinesterase level should be assessed for workers at a pesticide applied region. Hence, cholinesterase activities in blood samples of agricultural workers exposed to vegetables and grape cultivation with age matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to pesticides, were estimated. Methods: The detailed occupational history and lifestyle characters were obtained by questionnaire. Cholinesterase activity was determined by the method of Ellman as modified by Chambers and Chambers. Results: AChE was ranging from 1.65 to 3.54μmoles/min/ml in exposed subjects where as it was ranged from 2.22 to 3.51μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. BChE activity was ranging from 0.16 to 5.2μmoles/min/ml among exposed subjects, where as it was ranged from 2.19 to 5.06μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. The results showed statistically significant reduction in enzyme activities (AChE 14%; BChE 56%) among exposed subjects. Conclusion: It was concluded that the reduction in cholinesterase activity may lead to varieties of effects. Hence it is compulsory to use protective gadgets during pesticide spray. Further a continuous biomonitoring study is recommended to assess pesticide exposure. PMID:23776322

  10. Glial cell regulation of neuronal activity and blood flow in the retina by release of gliotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes in the brain release transmitters that actively modulate neuronal excitability and synaptic efficacy. Astrocytes also release vasoactive agents that contribute to neurovascular coupling. As reviewed in this article, Müller cells, the principal retinal glial cells, modulate neuronal activity and blood flow in the retina. Stimulated Müller cells release ATP which, following its conversion to adenosine by ectoenzymes, hyperpolarizes retinal ganglion cells by activation of A1 adenosine receptors. This results in the opening of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels and small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels. Tonic release of ATP also contributes to the generation of tone in the retinal vasculature by activation of P2X receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells. Vascular tone is lost when glial cells are poisoned with the gliotoxin fluorocitrate. The glial release of vasoactive metabolites of arachidonic acid, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), contributes to neurovascular coupling in the retina. Neurovascular coupling is reduced when neuronal stimulation of glial cells is interrupted and when the synthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites is blocked. Neurovascular coupling is compromised in diabetic retinopathy owing to the loss of glial-mediated vasodilation. This loss can be reversed by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase. It is likely that future research will reveal additional important functions of the release of transmitters from glial cells. PMID:26009774

  11. Fungi and bacteria. [fungicide and bactericide measures for spacecraft in tropical regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Spacecraft equipment is usually protected from fungi and bacteria by incorporating a fungicide-bactericide in the material, by a fungicide-bactericide spray, or by reducing the relative humidity to a degree where growth will not take place. A unique method to protect delicate, expensive bearings in equipment was to maintain a pressure (with dry air or nitrogen) slightly above the outside atmosphere (few millibars) within the working parts of the equipment, thus preventing fungi from entering equipment.

  12. Two approaches to form antibacterial surface: Doping with bactericidal element and drug loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhorukova, I. V.; Sheveyko, A. N.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph. V.; Anisimova, N. Y.; Gloushankova, N. A.; Zhitnyak, I. Y.; Benesova, J.; Amler, E.; Shtansky, D. V.

    2015-03-01

    Two approaches (surface doping with bactericidal element and loading of antibiotic into specially formed surface microcontainers) to the fabrication of antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces are described. A network structure with square-shaped blind pores of 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10-3 mm3 for drug loading was obtained by selective laser sintering (SLS). The SLS-fabricated samples were loaded with 0.03, 0.3, 2.4, and 4 mg/cm2 of co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). Ag-doped TiCaPCON films with 0.4, 1.2, and 4.0 at.% of Ag were obtained by co-sputtering of composite TiC0.5-Ca3(PO4)2 and metallic Ag targets. The surface structure of SLS-prepared samples and cross-sectional morphology of TiCaPCON-Ag films were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The through-thickness of Ag distribution in the TiCaPCON-Ag films was obtained by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The kinetics of Ag ion release in normal saline solution was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bacterial activity of the samples was evaluated against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and K. pneum. ozaenae using the agar diffusion test and photometric method by controlling the variation of optical density of the bacterial suspension over time. Cytocompatibility of the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films was observed in vitro using chondrocytic and MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. The viability and proliferation of chondrocytic cells were determined using the MTS assay and PicoGreen assay tests, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the SLS-fabricated samples loaded with co-amoxiclav was also studied. The obtained results showed that the moderate bacteriostatic effect of the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films is mainly manifested in the change of bacterial colony morphology and optical densities of bacteria suspensions. In contrast, the SLS-prepared samples showed a very rapid initial drug release resulting in strong bactericidal effect just from the start of the

  13. N-methylation of a bactericidal compound as a resistance mechanism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Thulasi; Kapilashrami, Kanishk; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Little, David; Murphy, Kenan C.; Nandakumar, Madhumitha; Park, Suna; Gold, Ben; Mi, Jianjie; Zhang, Tuo; Meiler, Eugenia; Rees, Mike; Somersan-Karakaya, Selin; Porras-De Francisco, Esther; Martinez-Hoyos, Maria; Burns-Huang, Kristin; Roberts, Julia; Ling, Yan; Rhee, Kyu Y.; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso; Luo, Minkui; Nathan, Carl F.

    2016-01-01

    The rising incidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) makes it imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the single leading cause of death from a bacterial pathogen and estimated to be the leading cause of death from AMR. A pyrido-benzimidazole, 14, was reported to have potent bactericidal activity against Mtb. Here, we isolated multiple Mtb clones resistant to 14. Each had mutations in the putative DNA-binding and dimerization domains of rv2887, a gene encoding a transcriptional repressor of the MarR family. The mutations in Rv2887 led to markedly increased expression of rv0560c. We characterized Rv0560c as an S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase that N-methylates 14, abolishing its mycobactericidal activity. An Mtb strain lacking rv0560c became resistant to 14 by mutating decaprenylphosphoryl-β-d-ribose 2-oxidase (DprE1), an essential enzyme in arabinogalactan synthesis; 14 proved to be a nanomolar inhibitor of DprE1, and methylation of 14 by Rv0560c abrogated this activity. Thus, 14 joins a growing list of DprE1 inhibitors that are potently mycobactericidal. Bacterial methylation of an antibacterial agent, 14, catalyzed by Rv0560c of Mtb, is a previously unreported mechanism of AMR. PMID:27432954

  14. N-methylation of a bactericidal compound as a resistance mechanism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Thulasi; Kapilashrami, Kanishk; Argyrou, Argyrides; Ioerger, Thomas R; Little, David; Murphy, Kenan C; Nandakumar, Madhumitha; Park, Suna; Gold, Ben; Mi, Jianjie; Zhang, Tuo; Meiler, Eugenia; Rees, Mike; Somersan-Karakaya, Selin; Porras-De Francisco, Esther; Martinez-Hoyos, Maria; Burns-Huang, Kristin; Roberts, Julia; Ling, Yan; Rhee, Kyu Y; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso; Luo, Minkui; Nathan, Carl F

    2016-08-01

    The rising incidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) makes it imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the single leading cause of death from a bacterial pathogen and estimated to be the leading cause of death from AMR. A pyrido-benzimidazole, 14, was reported to have potent bactericidal activity against Mtb. Here, we isolated multiple Mtb clones resistant to 14. Each had mutations in the putative DNA-binding and dimerization domains of rv2887, a gene encoding a transcriptional repressor of the MarR family. The mutations in Rv2887 led to markedly increased expression of rv0560c. We characterized Rv0560c as an S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase that N-methylates 14, abolishing its mycobactericidal activity. An Mtb strain lacking rv0560c became resistant to 14 by mutating decaprenylphosphoryl-β-d-ribose 2-oxidase (DprE1), an essential enzyme in arabinogalactan synthesis; 14 proved to be a nanomolar inhibitor of DprE1, and methylation of 14 by Rv0560c abrogated this activity. Thus, 14 joins a growing list of DprE1 inhibitors that are potently mycobactericidal. Bacterial methylation of an antibacterial agent, 14, catalyzed by Rv0560c of Mtb, is a previously unreported mechanism of AMR. PMID:27432954

  15. Selenium status, lipid peroxides concentration, and glutathione peroxidase activity in the blood of power station and rubber factory workers

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, B.A.; Wasowicz, W.; Sklodowska, M.; Gromadzinska, J.

    1987-07-01

    Concentration of selenium in whole blood and plasma, lipid peroxides in plasma, and glutathione peroxidase activities in red blood cell hemolysates and plasma were determined in 49 coal power plant workers and in 50 rubber factory workers. The results were compared with those obtained for 58 nonindustrial controls. Whole blood selenium was significantly lower and plasma lipid peroxides were significantly higher in power plant workers when compared to the nonindustrial group. In the rubber factory workers, whole blood selenium and red blood cells and plasma glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly lower than in the control group. Urinary output of selenium was also significantly decreased in rubber factory workers. Slightly elevated lipid peroxides were also observed in that group. It seems reasonable to conclude that the lower blood selenium and decreased urinary output of this element may result from increased loss of selenium with perspiration. No correlation has been observed between selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity and between enzyme activity and lipid peroxides concentration in the industrial group.

  16. Increased oxidative activity in human blood neutrophils and monocytes after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bao, Feng; Bailey, Christopher S; Gurr, Kevin R; Bailey, Stewart I; Rosas-Arellano, M Patricia; Dekaban, Gregory A; Weaver, Lynne C

    2009-02-01

    Traumatic injury can cause a systemic inflammatory response, increasing oxidative activity of circulating leukocytes and potentially exacerbating the original injury, as well as causing damage to initially unaffected organs. Although the importance of intraspinal inflammation after human spinal cord injury is appreciated, the role of the systemic inflammatory response to this injury is not widely recognised. We investigated oxidative activity of blood leukocytes from nine cord-injured subjects and six trauma controls (bone fractures without CNS injury) at 6 h-2 weeks after injury, comparing values to those of ten uninjured subjects. Neutrophil and monocyte free radical production, evaluated by flow cytometry, increased significantly more in cord injury subjects than in trauma controls (6-fold vs 50% increases). In leukocyte homogenates, the concentration of free radicals increased significantly more in cord injury subjects (2-fold) than in the trauma controls (1.6-fold) as did activity of myeloperoxidase (2.3-fold vs. 1.7-fold). Moreover, in homogenates and blood smears, expression of the NADPH oxidase subunit gp91(phox) and of the oxidative enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthetase was 20-25% greater in cord injury subjects than in trauma controls. Expression of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB and of cyclooxygenase-2 increased similarly after both injuries. Finally, aldehyde products of tissue-damaging lipid peroxidation also increased significantly more in the plasma of spinal cord injury subjects than in trauma controls (2.6 fold vs. 1.9-fold). Spinal cord injury causes a particularly intense systemic inflammatory response. Limiting this response briefly after cord injury should protect the spinal cord and tissues/organs outside the CNS from secondary damage. PMID:19056384

  17. HCG-Activated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) Promote Trophoblast Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaqin; Guo, Yue; Zhou, Danni; Xu, Mei; Ding, Jinli; Yang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Successful embryo implantation and placentation depend on appropriate trophoblast invasion into the maternal endometrial stroma. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that abundantly expresses hCG receptors. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of human embryo–secreted hCG on PBMC function and investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of activated PBMC in trophoblast invasion. Blood samples were collected from women undergoing benign gynecological surgery during the mid-secretory phase. PBMC were isolated and stimulated with or without hCG for 0 or 24 h. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expressions in PBMC were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The JAR cell line served as a model for trophoblast cells and was divided into four groups: control, hCG only, PBMC only, and PBMC with hCG. JAR cell invasive and proliferative abilities were detected by trans-well and CCK8 assays and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells were detected by western blotting and real-time PCR analysis. We found that hCG can remarkably promote IL-1β and LIF promotion in PBMC after 24-h culture. PBMC activated by hCG significantly increased the number of invasive JAR cells in an invasion assay without affecting proliferation, and hCG-activated PBMC significantly increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF and decreased TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that hCG stimulates cytokine secretion in human PBMC and could stimulate trophoblast invasion. PMID:26087261

  18. [The blood glucose content in newborn rats depending on level and pattern of spontaneous motor activity].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, S V; Selina, E N; Kuznetsova, N N

    2011-01-01

    Earlier we have shown that administration to newborn rats of the pentose phosphate cycle inhibitor hydroquinone leads to a change in intensity and pattern of spontaneous periodic motor activity (SPMA) characteristic of early stages of development. The most typical was the disappearance of the rest period from the near-minute cycle "activity--rest" and the appearance of uninterrupted motor activity. In several cases, especially after 10 days of development, there was noted an enhancement in the SMPA pattern of the motor activity complexes following in the decasecond rhythm. In this study, on the 3-10-day old rats maintained under conditions of free behavior there was studied the blood glucose content in the animals at various periods of the activity-rest cycle. Apart from the SPMA phase, its composition (pattern) characterizing the maturity level and functional state of spinal motor centers was taken into account. In the 3, 7 and 10-day old rats at the rest period, the glucose concentration was established to differ depending on the motor activity pattern. In the case of the decasecond periodicity, it amounts to 5.7 +/- 0.2, 6.3 +/- +/- 0.3, and 7.7 +/- 0.3 mmol/l, while at the minute one--6.1 +/- 0.4, 7.8 +/- 0.3, and 7.8 +/- 0.1 mmol/l. At the moment of bursts of motor excitation, the glucose concentration falls to 5.2 +/- 0.1, 6.1 +/- 0.4, and 7.1 +/- +/- 0.3 mm at the decasecond and to 5.4 +/- 0.5, 6.7 +/- 0.2, and 7.6 +/- 0.3 mmol/l at the near-minute rhythm (for the 3, 7 and 10-day old animals, respectively). The results obtained on the 5-day rat pups differ qualitatively from those observed in other age groups. Thus, the glucose concentration at the rest period amounts to 6.8 +/- 0.2 at the decasecond and to 6.7 +/- 0.4 mmol/l at the nearminute periodicity. At the period of motor excitation accompanied by the presence of the decasecond activity rhythm, the glucose concentration falls to the level of 6.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l by differing statistically significantly

  19. Importance of Inhibition of Binding of Complement Factor H for Serum Bactericidal Antibody Responses to Meningococcal Factor H-binding Protein Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Konar, Monica; Granoff, Dan M.; Beernink, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Factor H (fH) binding protein (fHbp) is part of vaccines developed for prevention of meningococcal serogroup B disease. More than 610 fHbp amino acid sequence variants have been identified, which can be classified into 2 subfamilies. The extent of cross-protection within a subfamily has been difficult to assess because of strain variation in fHbp expression. Methods. Using isogenic mutant strains, we compared cross-protective serum antibody responses of mice immunized with 7 divergent fHbp variants in subfamily B, including identification numbers (ID) 1 and 55, which were chosen for vaccine development. Results and Conclusions. In the presence of the human complement downregulator fH, the ability of the anti-fHbp antibodies to deposit sufficient complement C3b on the bacterial surface to elicit bactericidal activity required inhibition of binding of fH by the anti-fHbp antibodies. With less bound fH, the bacteria became more susceptible to complement-mediated bactericidal activity. Among the different fHbp sequence variants, those more central in a phylogenic network than ID 1 or 55 elicited anti-fHbp antibodies with broader inhibition of fH binding and broader bactericidal activity. Thus, the more central variants show promise of extending protection to strains with divergent fHbp sequences that are covered poorly by fHbp variants in clinical development. PMID:23715659

  20. Novel aspects of blood coagulation factor XIII. I. Structure, distribution, activation, and function

    SciTech Connect

    Muszbek, L.; Adany, R.; Mikkola, H.

    1996-10-01

    Blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) is a protransglutaminase that becomes activated by the concerted action of thrombin and Ca{sup 2+} in the final stage of the clotting cascade. In addition to plasma, FXIII also occurs in platelets, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. While the plasma factor is a heterotetramer consisting of paired A and B subunits (A{sub 2}B{sub 2}), its cellular counterpart lacks the B subunits and is a homodimer of potentially active A subunits (A{sub 2}). The gene coding for the A and B subunits has been localized to chromosomes 6p24-25 and 1q31-32.1, respectively. The genomic as well as the primary protein structure of both subunits has been established. Plasma FXIII circulates in association with its substrate precursor, fibrinogen. Fibrin(ogen) has an important regulatory role in the activation of plasma FXIII, for instance the proteolytic removal of activation peptide by thrombin, the dissociation of subunits A and B, and the exposure of the originally buried active site on the free A subunits. The end result of this process is the formation of an active transglutaminase, which crosslinks peptide chains through {epsilon}({gamma}-glutamyl)lysyl isopeptide bonds. The protein substrates of activated FXIII include components of the clotting-fibrinolytic system, adhesive and contractile proteins. The main physiological function of plasma FXIII is to cross-link fibrin and protect it from the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin. The latter effect is achieved mainly by covalently linking {alpha}{sub 2} antiplasmin, the most potent physiological inhibitor of plasmin, to fibrin. Plasma FXIII seems to be involved in wound healing and tissue repair, and it is essential to maintaining pregnancy. Cellular FXIII, if exposed to the surface of the cells, might support or perhaps take over the hemostatic functions of plasma FXIII; however, its intracellular role has remained mostly unexplored. 328 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Physical Activity, Blood Glucose and C-Peptide in Healthy School-Children, a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Aim To further elucidate the relationship between physical activity and several risk factors for development of diabetes (glucose, C-peptide and obesity) over time. Methods A prospective longitudinal study where physical activity was measured on 199 children from Kalmar and Linköping at age 8, and the same 107 children from Linköping again at age 12. Anthropometric data was collected and blood was analyzed for C-peptide and f-glucose. The children in the study were representative for the general Swedish child population, and on an average lean. Results High physical activity was related to lower C-peptide at age 8 and 12. This correlation was especially pronounced in boys, who also were more physically active than girls at both time points. The association seen at 8 years of age was similar at age 12 in most children. Children with higher BMI Z-Score had a higher fasting C-peptide (age 12) but linear regression showed that children with more steps per day were less likely to have a higher fasting C-peptide irrespective of BMI. Longitudinal follow-up showed that a decrease in physical activity increased insulin resistance and β-cell load. Conclusions Already in young children, physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and decreases the need of C-peptide over time. This seems to become even more pronounced with increasing age when children are followed longitudinally. Low physical activity increases the load on insulin producing β-cells, might increase the risk for both type 1- and 2 diabetes. PMID:27270732

  2. Depression in pregnancy is associated with decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in fetal cord blood.

    PubMed

    Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Fındıklı, Ebru; Bakacak, Murat; Karaaslan, Mehmet Fatih; Tolun, Fatma İnanç; Tuman, Taha Can

    2016-08-01

    The investigation of fetal cord blood (FCB) during child delivery has created a novel topic in the field of psychiatric research. The umbilical vein receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother's circulation and transports them to the fetal circulation. Investigating fetal cord blood during delivery is beneficial for understanding the fetal environment. Depression in pregnancy is associated with medical and emotional burdens. In this study, we aimed to investigate glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the FCB of depressed mothers and healthy controls. Our study included 45 depressed mothers and 59 healthy controls. The FCB samples were collected from the umbilical vein during delivery. We found that Gpx levels were significantly decreased in the FCB of depressed mothers than healthy controls, medians were 0.14 U/ml and 0.16 U/ml respectively, Z: -3.567 and p < 0.001. MPO levels were similar in both groups, medians were 1.0 U/L and 1.2 U/L respectively, Z: -1.837 and p:0.066. Depression in pregnancy may be associated with decreased antioxidant levels, and this condition may cause an oxidative load, which may lead to improper brain development. Future studies should be performed in larger samples to clarify our preliminary results. PMID:27174401

  3. Activated polymorphonuclear cells increase sickle red blood cell retention in lung: role of phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Johnson; Obiako, Boniface

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the role of the activated polymorphonuclear cell (APMN) products on sickle red blood cell (SRBC) retention/adherence in the pulmonary circulation. Isolated rat lungs were perfused with (51)Cr-labeled normal RBCs (NRBC) or SRBCs (10% hematocrit) suspensions +/- PMNs. Specific activities of lung and perfusate were measured and retention (the number of SRBC/g lung) was calculated. SRBC retention was 3.5 times greater than NRBC retention. PMN activation was required to increase SRBC retention. Supernatants from APMN increased SRBC retention, which suggested soluble products such as oxidants, PAF, and/or leukotriene (LTB(4)) are involved. Heat inactivation of PMN NADPH oxidase had no effect on retention. Whereas neither platelet-activating factor (PAF) nor LTB(4) (secreted by APMN) increased SRBC retention, PAF+LTB(4) did. The PAF antagonist, WEB-2170, attenuated SRBC retention mediated by PAF+LTB(4) and APMNs. Similarly, zileuton (5-lipoxygenase inhibitor) attenuated APMN-mediated SRBC retention. We conclude the concomitant release of PAF and LTB(4) from APMN is involved in the initiation of microvascular occlusion by SRBCs in the perfused rat lung. PMID:11748055

  4. Correlation between astrocyte activity and recovery from blood-brain barrier breakdown caused by brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ikeshima-Kataoka, Hiroko; Yasui, Masato

    2016-08-17

    Glial activation is associated with cell proliferation and upregulation of astrocyte marker expression following traumatic injury in the brain. However, the biological significance of these processes remains unclear. In the present study, astrocyte activation was investigated in a murine brain injury model. Brain injury induces blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and immunoglobulin G (IgG) leak into the brain parenchyma. The recovery of BBB breakdown was evaluated by analyzing immunofluorescent staining with mouse IgG antibody. IgG leakage was greatest at 1 day after stab wound injury and decreased thereafter, and almost diminished after 7 days. Bromodeoxy uridine incorporation was used, and astrocyte proliferation rates were examined by coimmunostaining with anti-bromodeoxy uridine and anti-glial fibrillary acid protein antibodies. Consistent with IgG leakage assays, astrocyte activation was the highest at day 3 and decreased after 7 days. Moreover, in reverse transcriptase-quantitative-PCR experiments, genes associated with BBB integrity were downregulated immediately after BBB breakdown and recovered to basal expression levels within 7 days. These data indicated that astrocyte activation correlated with BBB recovery from breakdown following brain injury. PMID:27362437

  5. Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Activation of the Primary Visual Cortex Predicts Size Adaptation Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Arrighi, Roberto; Biagi, Laura; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2016-01-01

    In natural scenes, objects rarely occur in isolation but appear within a spatiotemporal context. Here, we show that the perceived size of a stimulus is significantly affected by the context of the scene: brief previous presentation of larger or smaller adapting stimuli at the same region of space changes the perceived size of a test stimulus, with larger adapting stimuli causing the test to appear smaller than veridical and vice versa. In a human fMRI study, we measured the blood oxygen level-dependent activation (BOLD) responses of the primary visual cortex (V1) to the contours of large-diameter stimuli and found that activation closely matched the perceptual rather than the retinal stimulus size: the activated area of V1 increased or decreased, depending on the size of the preceding stimulus. A model based on local inhibitory V1 mechanisms simulated the inward or outward shifts of the stimulus contours and hence the perceptual effects. Our findings suggest that area V1 is actively involved in reshaping our perception to match the short-term statistics of the visual scene. PMID:24089504

  6. Mechanisms of Sympathetic Activation and Blood Pressure Elevation by Intermittent Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R.; Kumar, Ganesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing with recurrent apneas is one of the most frequently encountered breathing disorder in adult humans and preterm infants. Recurrent apnea patients exhibit several co-morbidities including hypertension and persistent sympathetic activation. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) resulting from apneas appears to be the primary stimulus for evoking autonomic changes. The purpose of this article is to briefly review the effects of IH on chemo-and baro-reflexes and circulating vasoactive hormones and their contribution to sympathetic activation and blood pressures. Sleep apnea patients and IH-treated rodents exhibit exaggerated arterial chemo-reflex. Studies on rodent models demonstrated that IH leads to hyperactive carotid body response to hypoxia. On the other hand, baro-reflex function is attenuated in patients with sleep apnea and in IH-treated rodents. Circulating vasoactive hormone levels are elevated in sleep apnea patients and in rodent models of IH. Thus, persistent sympathetic activation and hypertension associated with sleep apneas seems to be due to a combination of altered chemo-and baro-reflexes resulting in sympathetic activation and action of elevated circulating levels of vasoactive hormones on vasculature. PMID:20804865

  7. Bactericidal Immunity to Salmonella in Africans and Mechanisms Causing Its Failure in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Yun Shan; Necchi, Francesca; O’Shaughnessy, Colette M.; Micoli, Francesca; Gavini, Massimiliano; Young, Stephen P.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Mandala, Wilson L.; Gordon, Melita A.; Saul, Allan J.; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (p<0.0001 for both). IgG anti-LPS antibodies, from sera of HIV-infected individuals that inhibit killing at high concentration, induced killing when diluted. Conversely, IgG, from sera of HIV-uninfected adults that induce killing, inhibited killing when concentrated. IgM anti-LPS antibodies from all subjects also induced Salmonella killing. Finally, the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of anti-LPS antibodies is seen with IgM as well as IgG and IgA. No correlation was found between affinity or avidity, or complement deposition or consumption, and inhibition of killing. Conclusion/Significance IgG and IgM classes of anti-S. Typhimurium LPS antibodies from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals are bactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials

  8. Brazilian Propolis: A Natural Product That Improved the Fungicidal Activity by Blood Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Possamai, Muryllo Mendes; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina; Reinaque, Ana Paula Barcelos; França, Eduardo Luzia; Souto, Paula Cristina de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Natural product incorporation into microcarriers increases the bioavailability of these compounds, consequently improving their therapeutic properties. Natural products, particularly those from bees such as propolis, are widely used in popular medicine. Propolis is a powerful treatment for several diseases. In this context, the present study evaluated the effect of propolis Scaptotrigona sp. and its fractions, alone or adsorbed to polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres, on the activity of human phagocytes against Candida albicans. The results show that propolis exerts a stimulatory effect on these cells to assist in combating the fungus, especially as the crude extract is compared with the fractions. However, when incorporated into microspheres, these properties were significantly potentiated. These results suggest that propolis adsorbed onto PEG microspheres has immunostimulatory effects on phagocytes in human blood. Therefore, propolis may potentially be an additional natural product that can be used for a variety of therapies. PMID:23509737

  9. Visual detection of blood glucose based on peroxidase-like activity of WS2 nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tianran; Zhong, Liangshuang; Song, Zhiping; Guo, Liangqia; Wu, Hanyin; Guo, Qingquan; Chen, Ying; Fu, FengFu; Chen, Guonan

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets were discovered to possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and catalyze the peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to produce a color reaction in the presence of H2O2. Based on this finding, a